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Sample records for bahrain

  1. Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Bahrain's population characteristics, geographical features, history, form of government, and political and economic situation were briefly described. Bahrain has a population of about 400,000. 66% of the inhabitants are indigenous to the Arabian Peninsula and Persia, and the remainder of the population is made up of a variety of minority groups. Islam is the predominant religion, and Arabic is the official language. School attendence is 100% at the primary level, relatively high at the secondary level, and the literacy rate is 74%. Bahrain is an island in the Persian Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia. It was an ancient trading center, and since the 18th century, it has been governed by the Khalifa family. At times, the family's influence extended to other areas of the Arabian Peninsula. In 1905, Bahrain signed a treaty of protection with Great Britain. In 1971, it became an independent country with a traditional emirate form of government. In 1973, the present amir, Sheikh Isa bin Sulman Al-Khalifa, enacted a new constitution mandating an elected National Assembly; however, the amir disbanded the assembly in 1975. The amir believed that subversive activity within the elected body posed a threat to the security of the country. To date, constitutional rule has not been restored. Bahrain's economy is based primarily on the exploitation of its oil and gas deposits. At current production rates, the oil reserves will be depleted in 20-25 years, and the gas reserves in about 50 years. In preparation for the country's post oil economy, efforts are being made to develop Bahrain as a regional banking and commercial center, and revenues from petroleum production are being used to develop an infrastructure for industrial diversification. Oil reserves, which account for 34% of the country's budget, are also being used to upgrade health and education services, housing, the transportation system, and the water supply. The economy was further strengthened by the Gulf

  2. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... focussed on the Bahrain burial mounds. Within the framework of the Burial Mound Project aerial photos from 1959 have been orto-rectified and geo-referenced and so far a GIS-based digital map representing more than 60.000 mounds have been completed. With respect to the thousands of excavated mounds the huge...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...

  3. Growth patterns of adolescents in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mater, A M; Alekri, S A; Mahdi, A R; Musaiger, A O

    1990-10-01

    Weight and height of adolescents in Bahrain (15.5-19.5 years) was measured to evaluate their growth patterns. A cross-sectional survey was done on 825 students that represented 5% of total secondary students. The results showed that median height and weight of Bahraini adolescents were below the 50th percentiles of the Western standard. However, when compared with earlier surveys in Bahrain, the growth pattern has improved. This is because of improvement in health and in the environment.

  4. Development of intelligent buildings in Bahrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARCH; Paul; 姚润明; CLEMENTS-CROOME; Derek

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing demand for high building performance,providing better energy efficiency as well as high standard living and workplace. Intelligent Buildings (IBs) will meet the needs of sustainable development in built environment. The Kingdom of Bahrain’s construction industry has grown significantly in past years to support economic growth,other business sectors,and the aim to be one of the world’s major financial centres. This paper aims at investigating current issues regarding intelligent buildings in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Case studies of three buildings,which are Bahrain Financial Harbour (BFH),Bahrain World Trade Centre (BWTC) Project and the Bahrain City Centre (BCC) Shopping Mall,have been carried out via structured observation,interview and questionnaire survey in Bahrain in 2007. Through this study,we conclude that the pace of construction in Bahrain and the Middle East is such that there are lots of scopes for IBs to develop further,both from the perspective of the number of IBs being built and also the sophistication of their specifications.

  5. Natural Burkholderia mallei infection in Dromedary, Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Ulrich; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Marina; Al-Salloom, Fajer; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Jose, Sherry; Tappendorf, Britta; Hornstra, Heidie; Scholz, Holger C

    2011-07-01

    We confirm a natural infection of dromedaries with glanders. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain revealed close genetic proximity to strain Dubai 7, which caused an outbreak of glanders in horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004.

  6. Dilmun revisited: excavations at Saar, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Crawford

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available About 2000 BC the island of Bahrain was at the centre of a prosperous trading community - the Early Dilmun civilization - that stretched from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley. Excavations at the site of Saar have, since 1989, recovered much new information about the layout of the settlement and its local economy and social system.

  7. Bahrain-Iran Relations in Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    International, 1994), 31. 25 Abdul Hadi Al-Taz, An Unpublished Document about Bahrain (Manama: Al Watheeqa no. 4), 108−112. 26 James Onlay, The...the entire institution of Iranian monarchy to the dustbin of history in one clean sweep. Its charismatic leader, cleric Syed Ruhollah Khomeini had

  8. Antecedents of Training Effectiveness in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Saeed Idrees YAQOOT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on antecedents of the training programmes’ effectiveness at public sector organizations in Bahrain. A Kirkpatrick model is utilized as a partial research framework and tested as the dependent variable training effectiveness in this study. This study further examines the relationship between the independent variables, trainer and social support toward training effectiveness. The survey instrument was developed for data collection and the questionnaires were distributed to the staff working in the public sector in Bahrain. The total usable questionnaires are 128. The study adopts a quantitative approach using SPSS statistic approach. The outcomes also discover that both antecedents have a positive and a significant relationship with the training effectiveness at various Kirkpatrick’s levels.

  9. U.S. Basing in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    1tv E: ~trevt/""’ 1 Date: f Ap-:1 .NJVO Oral Defen~se Co ~ttee Memb~~-l~--’-~-"’~="’e.=~a--"-/Ja-’""’-’,...’---’-’/c_.__ _ Approved:-~’ ~--::t...and exploring a similar arrangement with Iran.26 Due to its small energy reserves and history of mercantile activity, Bahrain has a more diversified

  10. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-24

    independence, but some Arab governments sharply criticized the comments; Morocco broke relations with Iran. At the same time, Bahrain, like the other GCC...300,000 barrels per day produced from the offshore Abu Safa field. The United States buys virtually no oil from Bahrain; the major U.S. import from it

  11. Higher education hospitality programmes in Bahrain: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos; Marinakou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    The hospitality and tourism industry in Bahrain is predicted to grow over the coming years with the development of new five star hotels, which will create new jobs to the Bahraini economy within the next 4-5 years. Currently there is limited provision of hospitality and tourism education, which is offered mainly at vocational level. This paper presents the potential of developing a hospitality and/or tourism programme in higher education in Bahrain. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders w...

  12. Higher education hospitality programmes in Bahrain: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia; Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    The hospitality and tourism industry in Bahrain is predicted to grow over the coming years with the development of new five star hotels, which will create new jobs to the Bahraini economy within the next 4-5 years. Currently there is limited provision of hospitality and tourism education, which is offered mainly at vocational level. This paper presents the potential of developing a hospitality and/or tourism programme in higher education in Bahrain. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders w...

  13. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Department reports, such as the human rights report for 2011 (released May 24, 2012, but covering only the 2011 calendar year), note problems for non...several phases , by 2015. A January 2008 lease agreement between the United States and Bahrain allowed for the expansion by making available the...sent a letter to U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon formally alleging that the pro-Iranian Shiite faction Hezbollah is seeking to destabilize Bahrain

  14. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    28 GCC/Saudi Arabia ...the leaders of neighboring Saudi Arabia , has ruled Bahrain since 1783. That year, the family, a branch of the Bani Utbah tribe, arrived from the...Council) 20 Shiite, 19 Sunni, 1 Christian 19 Shiite, 19 Sunni, 1 Christian, 1 Jew Same as before Number of Women 9 4 same 2011 Uprising

  15. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  16. Newborn Screening Services in Bahrain between 1985 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha Al Arrayed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of genetic blood disease in Bahrain has declined gradually since 1984 when the Ministry of Health (MOH instituted a prevention campaign. The national NBS program for hemoglobinopathies was started in May 2007, financed by the national budget. Setting. Genetics department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, MOH, Bahrain. Methodology. The genetics, nursing, pathology, and pediatric departments were involved in the study. This service was offered to all infants. Cord blood samples were collected at birth and were then sent to the laboratory. Results. During 3.5 years after the program was implemented, we screened 38,940 newborns (NBs, of which 17,375 were screened in 2008, 10,248 in 2009, and 11,317 in 2010. The number of affected NBs was 128 in both 2007 and 2008, 58 in 2009, and 47 in 2010, as the average number of affected NBs in 2010 was 4 per month. The incidence of affected NBs was found to be 0.7% in 2008, 0.6% in 2009, and 0.4% in 2010. Conclusion. NBS is an essential step for the early diagnosis and treatment of affected NBs, future recurrence of the disease in the same family. In Bahrain, the number of affected NBs has declined by 75% during the last 20.

  17. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor,…

  18. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor, disadvantaged…

  19. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Al-Roomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are considered the main factors associated with several diet-related diseases in the Arab Gulf countries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe the dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst male and female secondary school students selected using the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. A sample size of 735 subjects (339 males and 396 females, aged 15–18 years, was selected from government schools from all the governorates of Bahrain. Skipping breakfast was significantly greater in females (62.8% compared to males (37.2%, (P<0.01. About 88% of adolescents snacked during school break, 70.7% procuring food from the school canteen. Fruit was not consumed by about 27.7% of respondents (33.5% males, 66.5% females and the gender difference was statistically significant (P<0.01. Fish and lentils were less preferred, while chicken was more popular. There was no significant difference between gender and frequency of eating fast food. About 8.4% of respondents reported not eating burgers, with 68.8% preferring regular size burgers. Furthermore, 24.4% preferred large portions of potato chips (53.1% male, 46.9% female. About 29.8% watched TV for more than 5 hours a day (51.2% females, 48.8% males. About 69% of males practiced sports everyday as against 30.8% of females (P<0.01 and 81.6% of those who participated in sport activity outside school were males compared to 18.4% of females. It seems that the adolescents in Bahrain are moving toward unhealthy dietary habits and lifestyles, which in turn will affect their health status in the future. Promoting healthy lifestyle and eating habits should be given a priority in school health programs.

  20. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Yousuf Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses

  1. Abundance and bathymetric distribution of Bahrain (Arabian Gulf) reef ichthyofaunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory B.; Saleh, Mostafa A.

    1987-03-01

    Species composition and relative abundance of reef-fish assemblages at 4-7, 7-10, and 13-15 m depths off Bahrain (Arabian Gulf) were surveyed using SCUBA and the species/time, random count technique. A total of 55 species within 22 families was recorded from all reef stations. The most diverse reef-fish families were the Pomacentridae (5 spp.), Carangidae (4 spp.), Haemulidae (4 spp.), Sparidae (4 spp.), and Gobiidae (4 spp.). Species richness increased with depth, ranging from 37 species at the shallowest station to 43 species at the deepest station. Species composition and abundance exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences between the three depth intervals. Ten species were found only at the deepest station; 12 species were found only at the shallower stations. The abundance of many additional species progressively increased or decreased with increasing depth. A total of 10 species received maximum abundance scores. Of these, Pomacentrus trichourus received maximum abundance scores at all three stations. Pomacentrus aquilus and Diplodus sargus received maximum scores at both shallower stations. In addition, Amblygobius albimaculatus, Lutjanus fulviflammus, and Pseudochromis dutoiti received maximum scores at the shallowest station as did Scolopsis ghanam, S. taeniatus, Epinephelus malabaricus, and Neopomacentrus sindensis at the deepest station. Low species richness and equitability characterize the Bahrain reef ichthyofauna and undoubtedly relate to stressful environmental conditions within the Arabian Gulf. Most species are widely distributed through either the Western Indian Ocean Province or Indo-Polynesian Province of the Indo-West Pacific Region; several species, however, exhibit far more restricted distributions and confer a certain distinctiveness upon the Arabian Gulf ichthyofauna.

  2. Arab Spring and the escalation of the sectarian divide in Bahrain: An assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses why the Bahraini "Day of Rage" has inflamed sectarian fear and prompted open hostility between Sunni and Shi'a inhabitants of the kingdom. The analysis approaches the subject from a psychological perspective. Using Vamik Volkan's theory, the article presents a detailed overview of the social conflict in which religious identities play a central role. Influence of large-group psychology on the unfolding events enables a more in-depth understanding of the tense situation in Bahrain. The social division engulfing Bahrain is representative of the power struggle and confessional tensions in the Gulf region.

  3. Humanistic Qualities of the Teacher as Perceived by Undergraduate Students in Bahrain and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musawi, Nu'man; Karam, Ebraheem M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the main qualities of the teacher as a person as perceived by university students in Bahrain and Kuwait. A 25-item questionnaire, which reflected the basic humanistic qualities of the teacher as related to effective teaching, was designed and then administered to a random sample of 520 students enrolled…

  4. Quality Assurance and Continuous Improvement: A Case Study of the University of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Yaser; Al-Kaabi, Dheya; Rashdan, Suad; Al-Khaleefa, Lobna

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Bahrain has taken serious actions to diversify its sources of income and solve major national problems such as unemployment. Through this process it discovered that one of the main factors for its economic problems was the quality of higher education on offer. This led to the creation of a national Quality Assurance Authority that…

  5. Challenges Facing School Leadership in Promoting ICT Integration in Instruction in the Public Schools of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razzak, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The future of Bahrain's economy and the prosperity of its citizens are, like elsewhere in the world, strongly correlated with ICT integration in almost every life aspect (Anderson 2010). ICT integration depends heavily on digital literacy, which is the ability to make use of ICT in learning and work activities (Erstad in "Education and…

  6. Mesopotamian ceramics from the burial mounds of Bahrain, c.2250–1750 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Among the ceramic vessels recovered from the burial mounds of Bahrain, a small percentage represents Mesopotamian imports or local emulations of such. In this paper two overall horizons are distinguished in these Mesopotamian ceramics. These are significant because both coincide with major stages...

  7. The Role of Genre in Language Syllabus Design: The Case of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the role of genre in English language syllabus design, with reference to a project in Bahrain secondary schools. It attempts to show how, through a carefully devised and conducted qualitative study in ethnographic mode, a syllabus was developed which placed genre at its centre. It also attempts to illuminate how issues…

  8. Persian Gulf-based SWFs and Financial Hubs in Bahrain, Dubai and Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Ali; Shatha Al-Aswad

    2012-01-01

    Competitive branding between Bahrain, Qatar and UAE has occurred on different levels of investment through the medium of the Gulf State Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs). This has happened across a number of sectors: oil and gas, finance, real estate, automotive and entertainment, but Vision 2030 for the three states gives a sense of duplicating strategies. As they aim to diversify their economies and create jobs, they have also duplicated efforts, perhaps leading to a misallocation of resources....

  9. Predicting the Evolution of CO2 Emissions in Bahrain with Automated Forecasting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Tudor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2012 Doha meeting established the continuation of the Kyoto protocol, the legally-binding global agreement under which signatory countries had agreed to reduce their carbon emissions. Contrary to this assumed obligation, all G20 countries with the exception of France and the UK saw significant increases in their CO2 emissions over the last 25 years, surpassing 300% in the case of China. This paper attempts to forecast the evolution of carbon dioxide emissions in Bahrain over the 2012–2021 decade by employing seven Automated Forecasting Methods, including the exponential smoothing state space model (ETS, the Holt–Winters Model, the BATS/TBATS model, ARIMA, the structural time series model (STS, the naive model, and the neural network time series forecasting method (NNAR. Results indicate a reversal of the current decreasing trend of pollution in the country, with a point estimate of 2309 metric tons per capita at the end of 2020 and 2317 at the end of 2021, as compared to the 1934 level achieved in 2010. The country’s baseline level corresponding to year 1990 (as specified by the Doha amendment of the Kyoto protocol is approximately 25.54 metric tons per capita, which implies a maximum level of 20.96 metric tons per capita for the year 2020 (corresponding to a decrease of 18% relative to the baseline level in order for Bahrain to comply with the protocol. Our results therefore suggest that Bahrain cannot meet its assumed target.

  10. Young Generation Attitudes and Awareness Towards the Implementation of Smart Card in Bahrain: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I. Al-Alawi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SmartCards are one of the latest additions to the continuing list of advancements and innovations in the world of information and communication technology. A SmartCard resembles in size and shape to a normal credit card or bank ATM card, with a microprocessor chip implanted into the plastic card. These cards are used not just as identity cards, like the earliest versions of such cards, but hold a relatively huge amount of editable information including the card holder's bank data, e-purse, finger print, health record, blood type, traffic and license details and other such vital information. The purpose of this study was to present a general overview of SmartCards, a brief history, features and applications of SmartCards and the introduction of SmartCards in the Kingdom of Bahrain. This study collects some information about the features and related issues regarding the SmartCards which are to be issued to the public. A total of 513 questionnaires were distributed to students of the University of Bahrain. The questions asked included questions to check the acceptance of the people to replace their current cards with a SmartCards and their awareness of the new National SmartCard in Bahrain. It also evaluates the efforts taken by the government to create awareness among the public about the usage and features of the SmartCards.

  11. The Role of Shallow Waters in the Life Cycle of the Bahrain Penaeid Shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulqader, E. A. A.

    1999-08-01

    Tubli Bay and shallow areas south of 'Fasht Al-Adhom' are known for their importance to Bahrain penaeid shrimps. The role of these shallow waters in the Bahrain penaeid shrimp life cycle was studied in Tubli Bay. Plankton, beam and otter trawl samples were collected on a biweekly basis from May 1991 to June 1992. Otter trawl sampling was extended to June 1993. Four penaeid species were found in the area. Ranked by decreasing abundance, these species are Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan 1844, Metapenaeus stebbingi Nobili 1904, M. kutchensisGeorge, George & Rao, 1963, and P. latisulcatus Kishinouye 1896. The presence of two egg types in the plankton collection, and mature females of both M. stebbingi and M. kutchensis indicate that both species spawned in these shallow waters. Tubli Bay is an important nursery ground for both P. semisulcatus and M. stebbingi. However, this bay does not support the entire stock of P. semisulcatus. Post-spawning return migration to shallow waters is noted for P. semisulcatus. Tubli Bay is of minor importance as a nursery ground for both P. latisulcatus and M. kutchensis. Other penaeid species found in Bahrain waters are not dependent on Tubli Bay during their life cycles. These species include, Trachypenaeus curvirostris Stimpson (1860), Metapenaeopsis stridulans Alcock (1905), and M. mogiensis Rathbun (1902).

  12. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an outbreak of glanders in Bahrain suggests multiple introduction events.

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    Holger C Scholz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology.We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources.High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections.

  13. High prevalence ofblaCTX-M inEnterobacteriaceae isolates from the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid M Bindayna; Mariam Murtadha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) by testing a cohort of clinicalESBL-producing bacterial isolates that were isolated in the Kingdom of Bahrain.Methods:ESBLproducingEnterobacteriaceae isolates (based on phenotypic tests) were collected from Microbiology Laboratory of the Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain between January-June2006. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics was performed andblaCTX-M genes were detected by multiplexPCR.Results: A total of230 isolates (Escherichia coli,n=180;Klebsiella pneumoniae,n=50) were studied,98% were CTX-M type. ForEscherichia coli isolates,65 (36.1%)harboredCTXM+TEMcombination and68(37.8%) had CTX-M alone. In contrast, forKlebsiella pneumoniae isolates only 5 (10.0%) harbored the CTX-M combination, and none had CTX-M only. The blaCTX-Mgene was found predominantly in urine isolates (n=145/230; 63.0%). Sensitivity to imipenem and nitrofurantoin was100% and 60%, respectively.CTX-M carriage was associated with the resistance to fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides.Conclusions: Our study documentes high prevalence ofCTX-M ESBL type amongEscherichia coliandKlebsiella from the Kingdom of Bahrain. The apparent dissemination of CTX-Mproducers could represent a substantial barrier in the treatment of community-acquired infections. The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides is compromised, leaving carbapenems as the therapeutic option for severe infections caused byESBL producers.

  14. Bahrain's Formula-1 racing circuit: energy and environmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnaser, W.E.; El-Masri, S. [University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038, Isa Town (Bahrain); Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, School of Engineering (United Kingdom); Al-Khalifa, S.E. [Bahrain International Circuit (Bahrain); Flanagan, R.; Alnaser, N.W. [University of Reading, School of Construction Management (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-01

    The Bahrain International Circuit (BIC) and complex, at latitude 26.00N and longitude 51.54E, was built in 483 days and cost 150 million US$. The circuit consists of six different individual tracks with a 3.66 km outer track (involving 10 turns) and a 2.55 km inner track (having six turns).The complex has been designed to host a variety of other sporting activities. Fifty thousand spectators, including 10,500 in the main grandstand, can be accommodated simultaneously. State-of-the art on-site media and broadcast facilities are available. The noise level emitted from vehicles on the circuit during the Formula-1 event, on April 4th 2004, was acceptable and caused no physical disturbance to the fans in the VIP lounges or to scholars studying at the University of Bahrain's Shakeir Campus, which is only 1.5 km away from the circuit. The sound-intensity level (SIL) recorded on the balcony of the VIP lounge was 128 dB(A) and was 80 dB(A) inside the lounge. The calculated SIL immediately outside the lecture halls of the University of Bahrain was 70 dB(A) and 65 dB(A) within them. Thus racing at BIC can proceed without significantly disturbing the academic-learning process. The purchased electricity demand by the BIC complex peaked (at 4.5 MW) during the first Formula-1 event on April 4th 2004. The reverse-osmosis (RO) plant at the BIC provides 1000 m{sup 3} of desalinated water per day for landscape irrigation. Renewable-energy inputs, (i.e., via solar and wind power), at the BIC could be harnessed to generate electricity for water desalination, air conditioning, lighting as well as for irrigation. If the covering of the BIC complex was covered by adhesively fixed modern photovoltaic cells, then {approx}1.2 MW of solar electricity could be generated. If two horizontal-axis, at 150 m height above the ground, three 75m bladed, wind turbines were to be installed at the BIC, then the output could reach 4 MW. Furthermore, if 10,000 Jojoba trees (a species renowned for

  15. The Relationship between Ownership Structure Dimensions and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Khamis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the relation between ownership structure and corporate performance; the sample of the study included 42 out of 48 companies of all sectors in Bahrain Bourse in five years from 2007-2011. Several dimensions of ownership concentration were studied in addition to managerial and institutional ownership. Two different measurements of performance were used (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study investigated this relation using several control variables and 2SLS statistical method to overcome the problem of endogeneity that may exist between the study variables. It was found that ownership concentration have a negative effect with statistical significance on company performance. Institutional ownership was found to have a positive effect on company performance. Managerial ownership was not found to have a significant effect on company performance, however it was found that managerial ownership has a positive effect on performance only in the case of declining ownership concentration. Other results were revealed by the study regarding company age, size, growth, board size and liquidity. The study is considered to have theoretical and practical implications. It contributes to the debate about agency theory and managerial entrenchment. It also may help officials in Bahrain in making laws and legislations concerning corporate governance improvement in Bahraini market. This

  16. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  17. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalaf, Abeer J

    2010-01-01

    CAM use is widespread, especially among patients with diabetes. The Gulf States have a high prevalence of diabetes, alongside a long tradition of CAM use. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of CAM use among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain and to examine the characteristics of the CAM users.

  18. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... provisions in free trade agreements, including the Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement. 71 FR 76691... Governing Body of the International Labor Organization (ILO) to constitute a tripartite committee to address... of the ILO, and to report to the ILO Director General and to the ILO Governing Body. OTLA...

  19. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  20. THE DYNAMICS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION AMONG WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA AND BAHRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer M. Al-Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the underlying dynamics of motivation for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, using t-test and ANOVA analyses. Various distinct motivational factors were found in both countries. Self-achievement was the most prominent factor motivating Saudi women to start their own businesses. However, for Bahraini women, the profit motive was the most prominent motivational factor.

  1. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  2. Community Perception of the Security and Acceptance of Mobile Banking Services in Bahrain: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Mashhour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahraini banks and financial organizations have applied remote enabled service using the internet and a mobile device to increase efficiency, reduce costs and improve quality of services. There is need for these organizations to identify factors that persuade customers and raise their attitudes towards adoption and usage of these services. This study identifies the most important factors affecting customer attitudes towards mobile banking acceptance in Bahrain. The model formulated in this research presents and empirically examined the factors influencing mobile banking adoption behavior on customers. The model was tested with a survey sample of 300 banking customers. The findings of the study indicate that wireless connection quality, mobile banking awareness, the social influence, mobile self-efficacy, trust, and resistance to change have significant impact on the attitudes towards the likelihood of adopting mobile banking. Model developed is an extension to the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Data analysis is based on the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS.

  3. Maternal mortality in Bahrain 1987-2004: an audit of causes of avoidable death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A K; Mustafa, F E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report was to establish the national maternal mortality rate in Bahrain over the period 1987-2004, to identify preventable factors in maternal deaths and to make recommendations for safe motherhood. There were 60 maternal deaths out of 243 232 deliveries giving an average maternal mortality rate of 24.7 per 100 000 total births. The main causes of death were sickle-cell disease (25.0%), hypertension (18.3%), embolism (13.3%), haemorrhage (13.3%), heart disease (11.7%), infection (8.3%) and other (10.0%). In an audit of care, 17 (28.3%) out of 60 deaths were judged to be avoidable, nearly half of which were due to a shortage of intensive care beds. We recommend that a confidential enquiry of maternal deaths be conducted at the national level every 3 to 5 years.

  4. Factors Influencing the High School Students' Choice of a Nursing Career in Bahrain: Development of a Best Practice Model for Nursing Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tawash, Eman A

    2016-01-01

    Background: In response to the shortage of nurses, the Kingdom of Bahrain continues to have high dependence on expatriate nurses to maintain the health services. Consistent with Bahrainization, the development and expansion of an indigenous nursing profession through increasing the number of Bahrainis working as nurses must be a health service priority. However, in attracting local candidates to study nursing, the public image of nursing in the Middle East continues to be of concern. The stud...

  5. Exploring the interplay between Framing and Securitization theory: the case of the Arab Spring protests in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Carvalho Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article advances the theoretical integration between securitization theory and the framing approach, resulting in a set of criteria hereby called security framing. It seeks to make a twofold contribution: to sharpen the study of the ideational elements that underlie the construction of threats, and to advance towards a greater assessment of the audience's preferences. The case study under examination is the 2011 military intervention of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council in Bahrain. The security framing of this case will help illuminate the dynamics at play in one of the most important recent events in Gulf politics.

  6. The Dammam aquifer in Bahrain - Hydrochemical characterization and alternatives for management of groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubari, Waleed K.

    Over-ion of the Dammam aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, by the agricultural and domestic sectors, has led to its salinization by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies. A hydrochemical study identified the locations of the sources of aquifer salinization and delineated their areas of influence. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. Four types of salinization of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. Four alternatives for the management of groundwater quality that are available to the water authorities in Bahrain are discussed and their priority areas are proposed, based on the type and extent of each salinization source, in addition to groundwater use in that area. The effectiveness of the proposed management options in controlling the degradation of water quality in the Dammam aquifer should be evaluated using simulation modeling. Résumé La surexploitation de l'aquifère de Damman, principal aquifère de Bahreïn, du fait des besoins agricoles et domestiques, a conduit à sa salinisation à partir d'eaux voisines saumâtres et salées. Une étude hydrochimique a identifié les origines de la salinisation de l'aquifère et a délimité leurs zones d'influence. Les recherches montrent que la qualité de l'eau souterraine est modifiée de façon significative pour les écoulements souterrains dirigés vers les secteurs sud et sud-est et provenant de la région nord-ouest de Bahreïn, là où l'aquifère est alimenté latéralement à partir de l'Arabie Saoudite

  7. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain: feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ansari A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Al Ansari,1–3 Khalid Al Khalifa,1 Mohamed Al Azzawi,1 Rashed Al Amer,1 Dana Al Sharqi,4 Anwar Al-Mansoor,5 Fadi M Munshi6 1Department of General Surgery, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, 2Surgical Department, Arabian Gulf University, 3Medical Education Department, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain, 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Riffa, Kingdom of Bahrain; 6College of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain.Method: The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments.Results: A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98. The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78.Conclusion: Based on our

  8. Radiological impact of NORM generated by oil and gas industries in the kingdom of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Husain; Sakhnini, Lama

    2017-02-01

    A study of the external background radiation in areas affected by NORM generated by oil and gas industrial activities has been performed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In this framework, two experimental residential areas, Awali and Riffa Views, were selected due to the presence of extensive oil and gas exploration and transportation. Additionally, two control residential areas, Isa Town and Al-Budaiya Village, were selected as they lack any industrial activities that would disrupt the radiation profile. The radiation dose rates were measured using Colibri Very Low Dose radiation survey meter with a built-in GPS. A total of 317 dose rates with their GPS coordinates were acquired. The lowest dose rate was 0.02 μSv/h acquired in Isa Town while the highest dose rate was 0.37 μSv/h acquired in Awali. Since there were no studies performed in the Kingdom to measure the average background radiation, the average external background radiation calculated from the control areas was used in this study which is 0.75 ± 0.31 mSv/y. The measured mean annual equivalent doses above the background radiation levels in Isa Town, Al-Budaiya, Riffa Views and Awali were -0.05 ± 0.05 mSv/y, 0.04 ± 0.04 mSv/y, 0.62 ± 0.13 mSv/y and 1.32 ± 0.35 mSv/y respectively. In other words, the radiation measurements were notably higher in the experimental areas. This was particularly true in south and southwestern Awali where the annual equivalent dose in some areas reached 2.49 mSv/y above average background levels. The geological constituent of the earth crust could be one source that contribute to overall background radiation. However, presence of NORM generated by extensive oil and gas operations and transportation is stronger justification for the higher radiation readings in the experimental areas than geological characteristic factor. Such high radiation values were found only near oil and gas installations and not in other locations of the same areas.

  9. Effects of organic amendments and irrigation waters on the physical and chemical properties of two calcareous soils in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, E; Grieve, I C; Madany, I M

    1994-04-01

    The present investigation studies the effects of cow and chicken manure and sewage sludge at different rates of addition and with two irrigation waters of different salinities on two major calcareous soils in Bahrain. The aim was to quantify potential improvements in soil quality, the accumulation of trace metals, and quality of leachates.From the pot experiments it was found that soil waterholding capacity did not change significantly after addition of organic amendments, except in the case of sewage sludge. Total organic carbon and total Kjeldhal nitrogen content increased in the 0-5 cm layer. Low salinity water and sewage applications improved aggregate stability. Extractable phosphorus was enhanced by the chicken manure treatment more than others. Addition of different organic amendments did not affect exchangeable cations. pH values did not show appreciable changes and soils were neutral. Trace metals studied were present at non-toxic levels in the 0-5 cm layer. Zinc and copper were the only metal showing a tendency to leach to the lower soil layer. In all cases metal levels in the surface layer were proportional to the quantities added in the amendments and their levels in the leachate were very low.

  10. The cumulative impacts of reclamation and dredging on the marine ecology and land-use in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Khadija; Al-Madany, Ismail; Al-Sayed, Hashim; Khamis, Abdelqader; Al Shuhaby, Suhad; Al Hisaby, Ali; Elhoussiny, Wisam; Khalaf, Ebtisam

    2012-07-01

    This article assesses the ecological and economic impacts of land reclamation and dredging through consulting recent environmental impact assessment reports. Geographic features of Bahrain during 1963-2008 are produced using Geographical Information System. Extensive but inexpensive shallow coastal areas and tidal flats have been reclaimed particularly from 1997 to 2007 at a high rate of 21 km(2)/year. Formal records show the increase in the original land mass by the year 2008 to be 91 km(2). An estimated total cumulative loss of major habitats resulting from 10 reclamation projects was around 153.58 km(2). Also much larger scale impacts should be considered resulting from the borrow areas used for the extraction of sand or infill materials. A number of key habitats and species are affected in the vicinity of these projects. The study attempts to assign a monetary value to the marine ecosystem functions. There is a need for efficient coastal zone management to regulate a sustainable use of the marine resources.

  11. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  12. From Islamic Law to Dual Law——The Changed Process of Bahrain Law System%从伊斯兰法到二元法——巴林法律体系的变迁轨迹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志斌; 温广琴

    2009-01-01

    The law system is an important symbol to weigh civilization. As an important part of nation-state construction system, Bahrain is a geographical, social and cultural entity in the Middle East. Although Bahrain is not a large country, the law system has three features such as long history, complete system and rich content in the Gulf. The law system of Bahrain could be divided into four periods for study: the period of Islamic law led by Jurists, the period of the tribal law managed by the Sheiks, the period of the mixed law controlled by the Britain, and the period of the dual law caused by secularism and Islam. The modernization type of Bahrain law system has shown pluralism of theory form and cultural orientation.%法律体系是衡量文明社会的重要标志.巴林作为中东民族国家建构体系中地缘、社会与文明实体的重要一环,尽管面积不大,人口较少,但其法律体系却在海湾地区具有历史悠久、体系完备以及内容丰富等特点.巴林法律体系历经四个时期:教法学家主导下的伊斯兰法时期、酋长管理下的部族法时期、英国控制下的混合法时期以及世俗和伊斯兰共生下的二元法时期.巴林法律体系的现代化呈现出多元化的理论形态与文化取向.

  13. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal Al-Saber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC. This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients (n=53 from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01, Dr. Hesham (Site #02, and Dr. Waleed (Site #03 (n=35, 5-ALA-SFC; n=18, placebo. There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141.

  14. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saber, Feryal; Aldosari, Waleed; Alselaiti, Mariam; Khalfan, Hesham; Kaladari, Ahmed; Khan, Ghulam; Harb, George; Rehani, Riyadh; Kudo, Sizuka; Koda, Aya; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients (n = 53) from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01), Dr. Hesham (Site #02), and Dr. Waleed (Site #03) (n = 35, 5-ALA-SFC; n = 18, placebo). There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141.

  15. Public knowledge, risk perception, attitudes and practices in relation to the swine flu pandemic: A cross sectional questionnaire-based survey in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Janahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objectives: On 10 August 2010 World Health Organization announced that H1N1 influenza virus had moved into the post-pandemic period and hence it is time for countries to evaluate their response to the pandemic. Many studies have been done about the public perception and behaviours toward H1N1 influenza in the western world; however none has been done so far in the Gulf countries. Therefore, this paper investigates the general public knowledge, risk perception, preventive behaviours and practices during the H1N1 pandemic in Kingdom of Bahrain, as a model for the Gulf countries.Methods: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional questionnaire based survey on 771 Bahraini individuals.Results: Despite that the public showed strong adherence to the personal protective hygiene measures, most of them underestimated the threat of H1N1 pandemic as evident in their knowledge of previous pandemics or in their susceptibility perception. Furthermore, misconceptions and wrong beliefs were common, which indicates a gap in the knowledge and practice of the public. For example, most of the public were against taking H1N1 Influenza vaccine and their negative intension was based on the alleged side effects of the vaccine.Conclusion: This study provides a baseline for an ongoing surveillance programme to help the local authorities in improving their pandemic preparatory plans, especially the governmental educational and media campaign.

  16. Assessment of vitamin D levels in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes mellitus comparing two methods of measurement: a facility's experience in the Middle Eastern country of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatima Ahmed Al-Haddad,1 Mansoor H Rajab,2 S Mahmood Al-Qallaf,3 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,4 Kathryn H Hart5 1Dietetic Unit for Hospitals, 2Pediatric Endocrine and Diabetes Team, Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, 3Pharmacy Program, College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain, Manama, 4Nutrition and Health Studies Unit Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Sakheer, Kingdom of Bahrain; 5School of Biosciences and Medicine, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Background: The number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is on the rise and has more than doubled in the past 10 years in Bahrain. Some studies have linked low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of diabetes. There are concerns regarding the variations in circulating 25(OHD levels measured by different laboratories and by using different analytical techniques. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of newly diagnosed children with T1DM using the “gold standard method” with high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods compared to the chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoassay (CMIA used in a hospital laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen children, aged 6–12 years, who received a confirmed diagnosis of T1DM in 2014 were chosen as subjects. Methods: Serum vitamin D levels were assessed in a hospital, while an extra aliquot of blood collected during routine blood collection after acquiring informed written consents from the subjects, and sent to Princess Al-Jawhara Center for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders to be analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Results: The mean age of the study group was 9±2 years. The mean total of 25(OHD levels (D3 and D2 assessed by UPLC-MS/MS was 49.7±18.8, whereas the mean total of 25(OHD levels obtained from the CMIA assay was 44.60±13

  17. The New School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module: A Practical Implementation in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) System in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper diagnoses the implementation of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Bahrain Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) learning environment. The module was designed to incorporate an innovative education and training approach with a variety of learning activities that are included in various learning case studies. Each case study was based on with learning objectives coupled with desired learning outcomes. The TVE students should meet the desired outcomes after the completion of the learning activities and assessments. To help with the implementation phase of the new module, the authors developed guidelines for each case study. The guidelines incorporated learning activities to be delivered in an integrated learning environment. The skills to be transferred were related to cognitive, affective, and technical proficiencies. The guidelines included structured instructions to help students during the learning process. In addition, technology was introduced to improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. The guidelines include learning indicators for each learning activity and were based on their interrelation with competencies to be achieved with respect to modern industrial requirements. Each learning indicator was then correlated against the type of learning environment, teaching and learning styles, examples of mode of delivery, and assessment strategy. Also, the learning activities were supported by technological features such as discussion forums for social perception and engagement and immediate feedback exercises for self-motivation. Through the developed module, TVE teachers can effectively manage the teaching and learning process as well as the assessment strategy to satisfy students' individual requirements and enable them to meet workplace requirements.

  18. Extent of use of immediate-release formulations of calcium channel blockers as antihypertensive monotherapy by primary care physicians: multicentric study from Bahrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sequeira R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of cardiovascular safety of calcium channel blockers (CCBs has been widely debated in view of reflex increase in sympathetic activity induced by immediate release (IR / short acting formulations. It is generally agreed that such CCBs should not be used alone in the management of hypertension. AIMS: We have determined the extent to which primary care physicians prescribe CCBs as monotherapy, especially the immediate release formulations, in the management of uncomplicated hypertension and diabetic hypertension - with an emphasis upon the age of the patients. SETTING, DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective prescription-based study was carried out in seven out of 18 Health Centres in Bahrain. The study involved a registered population of 229,300 representing 46% of registered individuals, and 35 physicians representing 43% of all primary care physicians. The data was collected between November 1998 and January 1999 using chronic dispensing cards. RESULTS: In all categories CCBs were the third commonly prescribed antihypertensive as monotherapy, with a prescription rate of 11.1% in uncomplicated hypertension, 18% in diabetic hypertension and 20.1% in elderly patients above 65 years of age. Nifedipine formulations were the most extensively prescribed CCBs. Almost half of the CCB-treated patients were on IR-nifedipine, whereas IR-diltiazem and IR-verapamil, and amlodipine were infrequently prescribed. CONCLUSION: Prescription of IR-formulations of CCBs as monotherapy by primary care physicians does not conform with recommended guidelines. In view of concerns about the safety of such practice, measures to change the prescribing pattern are required.

  19. Sensitive and specific markers for insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ayadhi MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Golbahar,1,2,* Maha Al-Ayadhi,2,* Negalla Mohan Das,2 Khalid Gumaa,2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Al-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, AGU, Manama, Bahrain *These authors contributed equally to this articleBackground: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, despite a high prevalence of insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and disturbances in the secretion of gonadotrophin, the principal causes of biochemical abnormalities and the best endocrine markers for PCOS have not been fully identified.Subjects and methods: Serum levels of insulin, glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, total testosterone, estrogen, sex hormone-binding capacity (SHBG, and other related indices such as homeostasis model assessment, insulin glucose ratios, LH/FSH ratios, and the free androgen index (FAI were determined and compared in women with PCOS (n = 50 and women without PCOS (n = 50.Results: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, among all insulin resistance indices, only hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–5.2; P = 0.008 was significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for body mass index (BMI, hyperandrogenemia, and LH/FSH ratios. The LH/FSH ratio (OR = 5.4; CI: 1.2–23.0, P = 0.03 was the only marker among those indices for inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion that significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. Among those indices for hyperandrogenemia, FAI (OR = 1.1; CI: 1.0–2.7; P = 0.02 and SHBG (OR = 1.2; CI: 1.2–3.4; P = 0.03 were significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best predictive markers for PCOS were insulin (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.944; CI: 0.887–0

  20. A Study on the use of Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter (Web2.0) among selected academic libraries from 6 Gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to explore and study the current usage trends of Web2.0 namely Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter among selected higher education institutions’ libraries in 6 gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait. Websites of the selected libraries would be compared on the extent of the usage of these tools, the participation level and their purpose. The author would also share his opinion and suggestions on improving the current trends pertaining to the area of Web2.0 and libraries. The impact and importance of Web2.0 on libraries cannot be disputed. Since gaining popularity in mid-2000, libraries around the globe have jumped onto the Web2.0 bandwagon. Among the common examples of Web2.0 used by libraries today are namely: social networking sites, blogs, wikis, folksonomies and video sharing sites. Libraries are using Web2.0 to (among others): • market their services / resources to their community, • announce latest library news, • provide their online guides / notes for their resources among others. Though such tools have been implemented by most libraries around the world, some of the challenges faced by libraries are: •participation level – casting the net to a wider audience •selection of web2.0 tools •effectiveness of present web2.0 tools used by the libraries

  1. Destructive versus non-destructive methods for geochemical analyses of ceramic artifacts: comparison of portable XRF and ICP-MS data on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremtan, Ciprian; Ashkanani, Hasan; Tykot, Robert H.

    2013-04-01

    The study of bi-phase (i.e. matrix and clasts) geochemical composition of ceramic artifacts is a very powerful tool in fingerprinting the raw materials used by ancient manufacturers (clay sources, tempering materials, coloring agents, etc.), as well as in understanding the physical parameters of the manufacturing techniques. Reliable datasets often require the deployment of destructive techniques that will irremediably damage the artifact. Recent advances in portable X-ray fluorescence instrumentation (pXRF) allow for quick measurements of a range of chemical elements that not too long ago were available only through complicated and often destructive means of analytical chemistry (instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - ICP-MS, direct coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy - DCP-OES etc.). In this contribution we present a comparison of datasets acquired by means of pXRF, DCP-OES, and ICP-MS on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain. The samples chosen for this study are fine grained, with very well sorted mineral components, and lack any visible organic material fragments. The sample preparation for ICP-MS and DCP-OES analyses was carried out on powdered samples, by using LiBO2 flux fusion and Ge (for the DCP-OES) and In (for ICP-MS) were used as internal standards. The measurements were calibrated against certified reference materials ranging from shales to rhyolites (SGR-1, SDo-1, JA-2, and JR-1) and performed at Univerity of South Florida's Center for Geochemical Analyses. The analytical errors for major elements was smaller than 5 %, while for selected trace elements the error was usually smaller than 3 %. The same set of elements was measured on the same samples at University of South Florida's Anthropology Department using a pXRF device equipped with obsidian filter. Each sample was measured three times and the values were averaged. Two certified reference materials (NIST-612

  2. E-Learning Capability Maturity Level in Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammary, Jaflah; Mohammed, Zainab; Omran, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of using e-learning, educational institutions are still facing many challenges with the e-learning infrastructure and technical aspects, practices and capabilities, and improvement in learning outcome. Hence, a need for framework to benchmark the e-learning capability maturity level and measure the extent to what it is…

  3. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-06

    John Yates to teach Bahraini police tactics and techniques that conform to international standards of human rights practices. However, the State...accomplished. After two teenagers and a police officer were killed during protests in September and October 2012, on October 30, 2012, the government

  4. The Role of the Ulama in Shiite Social Movements: Bahrain, Lebanon, and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Publishers, 2003). 56 Sidney Tarrow , Power in Movement, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). 57 Doug McAdam, John D. McCarthy, and...Cambridge University Press, 1996). 58 Doug McAdam, Sidney Tarrow , and Charles Tilly, Dynamics of Contention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996...rejected Khomeini’s doctrine and returned the ulama to their traditional role - 63 Sidney Tarrow , Power in

  5. Black and White,VILLA MODA in Bahrain%黑白映画巴林VILLAMODA店

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcel Wanders Studio

    2009-01-01

    @@ 著名设计品牌Moooi的创始人MarceWanders具有多重身份,如当年因为DroogDesign创作绳结椅(Knotted Chair)而名声大噪的天才家具设计师,如大学设计学院的教授,如新生活主义的倡导者,而今他又多了一重身份--中东的奢侈品品牌Villa Moda巴林Moda Mall店的设计者.

  6. Dilemmas in Forward Basing: Understanding the Impact of the American Military Presence in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    democrats, feminists , extreme leftists, West German peace research institutes, and disaffected youth.99 Once the INF plans went forward, these groups...was immense as even the strongest supporters of the U.S.-Turkish alliance became alienated.156 This action added fuel to the conspiracy theories that

  7.  Osteoarthritis Among Women in Bahrain: A Public Health Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab AM Al-Safwan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: This study aims to train students on public health survey; correlate risk factors of osteoarthritis and to identify modifiable risk factors. Methods: Osteoarthritis survey was carried out among 420 Bahraini women, above 40 years of age, diagnosed of osteoarthritis, attending ministry of health facilities. Results: Most cases in the study were from the age group of 50-59 years with a mean age of 57. Osteoarthritis: of major joints alone was 74�20of generalized was 21�0and of small joints of hands and feet alone was 5�20Within major osteoarthritis: 48�0were knees alone; 51�0were knee and hip and 2�0were hip alone. Combinations of co-morbidities were found among 43�20History of diagnosed: diabetes in 10�20hypertension among 13�0and hypercholesterolemia in 5�0of cases. Half of the cases in the study were obese and 30�0were overweight. Osteoarthritis of the Knee and the combination of the osteoarthritis of knee and hip was highest among obese followed by overweight cases. Menopause was found among 68� patients. Patients on medication accounted for 85�0and 75�0were on Physiotherapy. Half of the sample had family history of osteoarthritis. While over 90�0were less educated with odds ratio for being housewives at 3.085. The multivariate analysis of ordinal regression returned pseudo R2 of 30�0for the model with the following significant variables: age, BMI, menopause status, exercise, chronic morbidities and family history of osteoarthritis. Conclusion: Overall, the proportion of major osteoarthritis of the weight bearing joints is very high. The modifiable risk factors identified from this study are sedentary lifestyle, obesity and overweight, as well as chronic morbidities.

  8. Interrelationship of hepatitis C virus genotypes with patient characteristics in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Maheeba A; Murad, Eman A; Aljenaidi, Hend A; Aljowder, Duha R; Aljeeran, Omar IK; Farid, Eman; Al Qamish, Jehad R

    2017-01-01

    Aim Hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows genotype-based variation in prevalence across geographical regions. This study was conducted to understand the clinical interrelationship of HCV genotypes with patient characteristics. Methods Medical records of 122 patients positive for HCV RNA test collected during 2013 and 2014 were included for analysis. Only adults were included in the study. HCV RNA extraction and genotyping was done as part of the routine diagnostic requirements. The association of continuous and categorical variables with genotypes was analyzed through analysis of variance and chi-square tests, respectively. Results Of the 122 patients selected, 103 were Bahrainis, 18 non-Bahrainis, and 1 was unregistered. Genotype 1 was the predominant (53%) one, followed by types 3 (23%) and 4 (20%). Classical symptoms, clinical signs, liver function test, and ultrasonographic results were recorded. Cirrhosis and ascites showed significant variation across genotypes. Although alanine transaminase, total bilirubin, and albumin levels were increased, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were normal. About 12% of the subjects were alcohol users, 4% were positive for HIV infection and 2.4% were positive for hepatitis B virus infection. The circulating HCV RNA load was at medium-level in the study cohort and showed significant association with the HCV genotypes and subtypes. Patients with genotype 1a had 6 times more load than patients with type 4 (Prelationship of HCV RNA viral load with the severity of liver disease in our cohort.

  9. Aspects on respiratory physiology of cultured Sea bream, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Zainal

    2016-06-01

    The fish regulatory ability to withstand declining oxygen concentration in the water was limited. A typical steep straight line relationship was found between oxygen consumption rate and oxygen concentration indicating a non regulatory ability and extreme in-tolerance to hypoxia. Therefore, the fish is considered as oxy-conformer, i.e., unable to continue metabolism at anaerobic condition. Correlation between minimum (basic oxygen consumption rate and body weight was of non-linear form. The present study provides comparative data to base on for further prospective related studies on juvenile Sea bream and other fish species.

  10. Assessment of the antioxidant properties of the caper fruit (Capparis spinosa L. from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ameer A. Allaith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa, a wild plant of the family Capparidaceae, is said to be native to the Mediterranean basin and found in many parts. This shrub can grow very well on dry heat and under intense sunlight and can tolerate low temperature. Caper berries from different locations of contrasting habitats were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities using several methods, including reduction of ferrictripiridyltriazine [Fe(III-TPTZ] (FRAP assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH assay, and [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging (ABTS assay. Total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids were also examined. The mean mmol Trolox equivalent/kg fresh weight for FRAP was 9.059 ± 1.450, DPPH 6.131 ± 0.607, and ABTS 8.127 ± 2,017. Mean % DPPH scavenging activity was 37.67% ± 7.19 and mean % ABTS scavenging activity was 31.29% ± 7.76. Partitioning studies revealed a higher antioxidant–antiradical capacity in the seed as compared to the flesh, and these capacities were associated more with hydrophobic and not lipophilic constituents. Antioxidant capacities strongly correlated with the total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids. Findings of this study contribute to the recent increase in scientific interest of a wild fruit which should be re-considered for its antioxidant constituencies and characteristics.

  11. Learning the Visualisation of Three-Dimensional Spatial Relationships in Diagrams at Different Ages in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Shubber, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of six instructional programs (each dealing with a different aspect of a spatial task related to diagrams of three-dimensional structures) with Bahraini students (ages 13- to 17-years-old). All brought about a significant degree of learning over all age groups. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.…

  12. Handsearching the EMHJ for reports of randomized controlled trials by U.K. Cochrane Centre (Bahrain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hajeri, A; Al Sayyad, J; Eisinga, A

    2006-01-01

    This study used handsearching to find reports of randomized controlled trials in the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (EMHJ). EMBASE and MEDLINE were also searched electronically to identify if the reports found by the handsearch were already included in either of these databases. Nine reports were identified: 7 randomized controlled trials and 2 controlled clinical trials. The added value of the handsearch over EMBASE was 6 additional reports and over MEDLINE was 4. Reports identified were sent to the UK Cochrane Centre for verification and publication in The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL).

  13. Improving Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Sigonella, Italy: Detachment Bahrain’s Ship Maintenance Contracts in Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    Project Sponsor: CAPT Chris Ray Black/Green Belt: CDR Mike Ryan Business Impact ($) KAIZEN / Rapid Improvement Event The expected impacts of this...Availability Contracts Project Methodology: DMAIC DFSS Kaizen Project Plan—list planned dates for each DMAIC phase Kaizen start and end dates...Initial Plan of Action for Kaizen Week 1) List and quantify elements that make the Big X metrics; 2) Capture the current competition categories into which

  14. Pregnancy outcomes in relation to different types of diabetes mellitus and modes of delivery in macrosomic foetuses in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedoor S. Al Omran, MBBCh

    2017-02-01

    الاستنتاجات: كان المعتاد في السابق الإكثار من عرض العملية القيصرية المجدولة على الحوامل ذوات الأجنة كبار الحجم في حال كن يعانين من داء السكري. غالبية المرضى الخاضعات لمحاولة الولادة الطبيعية أتممن ذلك بالقليل من المضاعفات.

  15. Pregnancy outcomes in relation to different types of diabetes mellitus and modes of delivery in macrosomic foetuses in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Bedoor S. Al Omran, MBBCh; Fatima H. Al Ammari, MBBCh; Nawal M. Dayoub, MD

    2017-01-01

    أهداف البحث: إن أسلوب توليد الحوامل من مرضى السكري مختلَف عليه. صُممت هذه الدراسة بغرض تقييم الأنماط المختلفة لتوليد الأطفال كبار الحجوم بسبب ارتفاع معدل انتشار داء السكري في البحرين. طرق البحث: تم إجراء هذا التحليل الاستعادي على الأمهات اللواتي أنجبن أطفالا ذوي أوزان < ٤.٠ كغم من عام ٢٠٠١م إلى عام ٢٠١١م في مستشفى قوة دفاع البحرين. تم تسجيل البيانات المتعلقة بعمر ووزن وأسلوب التوليد والإصابة بداء السكري من عدمه ومدة الحمل وعدد الولادات السابقة. كان المستخرج الرئيس؛ تأثير داء السكري على قرا...

  16. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... and commitments under the International Labour Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up with regard to the rights of association and non-discrimination against... States Free Trade Agreement. 71 FR 76691 (2006). The same Federal Register notice informed the public...

  17. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  18. Reasons for Referral, Intervention Approaches and Demographic Characteristics of Clients with Intellectual Disability Attending Adult Psychiatric Outpatient Services in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, I.; Al-Saihati, B. A.; Al-Haddad, M.; McClean, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relatively little information is available regarding the use of psychiatric services by individuals with intellectual disability (ID) in Arab countries. The current study aimed to identify (1) the reasons for referral; (2) demographic characteristics of individuals referred; (3) previous contact with child psychiatric services; (4)…

  19. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Teachers' and Reporting Officers' Self-Ratings on Teaching and Leadership Skills across Singapore and Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Wee Pin Goh; Kim, Lee Ong; Salleh, Hairon

    2009-01-01

    Self-rating bias is particularly likely in organizational behavior research as individuals tend to inflate their expertise, skills and character. This study aims to examine how two culturally diverse groups of teachers and their reporting officers respond to self-ratings of their own teaching skills and leadership skills respectively. It is…

  20. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...) * * * ``Designated country'' means-- * * * * * (ii) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of), Mexico... Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El...

  1. Contingency Contracting: A Framework for Reform- 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    Bahrain and Dubai contracting officers did not properly compete nine contracts, valued at $24.3 million. Specifically, the Bahrain and Dubai ...Specifically, the Bahrain and Dubai contracting officers incorrectly eliminated a contractor from competition in six contracts and did not provide for full...contract. (0-201().091) • The con ~racting officials d id not perform periodic review of the contractor invoices or verified that DCt-.t\\A officials

  2. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group; Al-Hazzaa HM

    2011-01-01

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical acti...

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger AO; Al-Hazzaa HM

    2012-01-01

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) ...

  4. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS..., Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi,...

  5. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico..., Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,...

  6. 19 CFR 4.22 - Exemptions from special tonnage taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada Chile Colombia..., Republic of Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungarian People's Republic Iceland India Indonesia Iran...

  7. Analysis of the differences in the management of a conventional and a takaful insurance company

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation is based on the comaprison of takaful insurance company and a conventional insurance company in Bahrain. The dissertation takes a closer look at the performance of the insurance industry in Bahrain and the growth and development of the takaful insurance companies in the G.C.C region.

  8. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France...); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A...

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic... United Kingdom); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or...

  11. 77 FR 31536 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ..., Canada, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of), Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore'' and adding ``Australia, Bahrain, Canada..., Canada, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,...

  12. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreement country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia... Taipei))”, or United Kingdom); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman,...

  13. 简讯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    His Excellency, Karim Ebrahim Al-Shakar, Ambassador of the Kingdom ofBahrain to the People's Republic of China,recently presented a checkto Gu Xiulian,ACWF Vice-president,on behalf of H.H.Shaikha SabeekaBint Ibrahim Al-Khalifa, Wife of H.M.King of the Bahrain.The presentation tookplace at a dinner reception at the ambassador's residence

  14. Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military. Fiscal Year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Navy and Marine Corps commands in Bahrain, ISA Air Base (also in Bahrain), Djibouti, Sigonella (Italy), Naples (Italy), Rota (Spain), Souda Bay...ke V ic tim , w ho m h e fo llo w ed to h er re si de nc e, w he re h e to ok th e op po rtu ni ty to fo nd le h er b re as ts w hi

  15. Internal Controls Over Navy General Fund, Cash and Other Monetary Assets Held Outside of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-26

    Personnel Support Detachment-Sigonella, Italy; • DSSN 7668, Personnel Support Detachment-Naples, Italy; and • DSSN 8814 , Personnel Support Detachment...DSSN 7668: Personnel Support Detachment-Naples, Italy, and 25 - DSSN 8814 : Personnel Support Detachment-Manama, Bahrain. • We also planned a...Bahrain (DSSN 8814 ). • We evaluated internal controls over COMA at each DSSN, as required by the DoD Federal Management Regulation. To determine

  16. Joint Contingency Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Cdr (Head of Contracting Activity - HCA)FISC - Sigonella 5th Fleet AOR NAVSUP FISC Site - Dubai FISC Det-Bahrain Bahrain Seychelles CJOA Afghanistan...Services’ individual approaches for the accession of COs (and contracting specialists) is inconsistent and creates disparities between the breadth...and temperatures ranging from 130 degrees to below freezing. J42 AAdmin Clerk (Navy E-5) J4221 Fuels Ops Officer Navy

  17. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Leads Chinese Goodwill Delegation to Five Gulf Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>An 11-member Chinese Goodwill Delegation headed by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu visited Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman and Saudi Arabia from November 25 to December 8, 2005 at the invitation of the Central Municipal Council of Qatar, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kuwait, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bahrain, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Oman and the Saudi Arabia-China Friendship Association. During the visit, the delegation had substantial meetings on cooperation with relevant organizations of the five countries. The visit has played a positive role in enhancing friendship between the

  18. Corporate governance and stock price performance of firms during the crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Chetioui, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on stock price performance of firms in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, during the recent financial crisis. Using dividend policy, choice of auditors, and transa......This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on stock price performance of firms in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, during the recent financial crisis. Using dividend policy, choice of auditors...

  19. Introduction: The Arab Spring in the Arabian Peninsula and its aftermath

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnefoy, Laurent; Louër, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    In the Arabian Peninsula, mobilizations in 2011 against authoritarian rulers took various shapes and followed different rationales. For that matter, Yemen, Bahrain and Oman, where mass-mobilizations took place, are very different from Qatar and the United Arab Emirates where only a small segment of intellectuals demanded reforms. Contestation also met with varying levels of success. As such, Yemen, where President ‘Alī ‘Abdallāh Ṣāliḥ was forced to resign, is again different from Bahrain wher...

  20. Beneavin House, Beneavin Rd, Glasnevin, Dublin 11.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalaf, Abeer J

    2010-01-01

    CAM use is widespread, especially among patients with diabetes. The Gulf States have a high prevalence of diabetes, alongside a long tradition of CAM use. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of CAM use among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain and to examine the characteristics of the CAM users.

  1. The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    Bahrain; Iran; Iraq; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; the United Arab Emirates; Algeria; Gabon; Libya; and Nigeria . . The Federal Government Debt: Its...for the budget deficit and the interest payment to rise in tandem , which is not surprising since the deficits represents additional debt which

  2. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials, Vol. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    One hundred fifty-four English language annotations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1976, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi…

  3. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials Vol. 2, No. 1, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    A total of 176 English language notations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1977, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,…

  4. Planning for Development in the Arab Gulf States: A content Analysis of Current Development Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyses current development plans published by the GCC states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in order to explore the region’s future growth trajectory: what barriers to growth are foreseen and how can they be anticipated; what...

  5. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.815 Packaging and packing... good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  6. Coordinated Economic Development and the Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, D. K.

    This is a discussion of some of the problems that the Advisory Organization for Gulf Industries (AOGI) will face when it undertakes (1) to organize both an information center (node) that will serve the information needs of the Gulf States of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman; and (2) to compile an…

  7. Labor immigration in the Arab Gulf states: patterns, trends and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A

    1986-09-01

    This is an overview of recent labor immigration in Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Attention is given to factors contributing to the dependence of these countries on migrant labor, the impact of the decline in oil revenues, and future trends in the size and skill composition of the foreign labor supply.

  8.   Ekspeditioner, Mytologier og Historiciteter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Thomas Brandt

    2008-01-01

    arkæologer var de første til at dokumentere, at det nutidige Bahrain var centrum for oldtidscivilisationen Dilmun. Denne artikel søger imidlertid at sætte ekspeditionerne i sammehæng med den samtid, de er blevet en del af, i Danmark såvel som på Bahrain. Ved at bruge etnografiske begreber om 'historicitet......' og 'mytologi' diskuteres, hvordan de danske ekspeditioner har fået betydning for nutidig forståelse af Bahrains historie og samtid. Men på Bahrain i dag konkurrerer mange historiciteter og mytologier om at skabe historisk identitet for en etnisk og sekterisk heterogen befolkning. Udover at diskutere...... selve ekspeditionerne peger artiklen derfor på vigtigheden af at inkludere forskellige historiers nutidige brug og betydning, og artiklen argumenterer for, at sådanne analyser vil kunne øge forståelsen for såvel fortid og nutid i den globalt-politisk centrale Golf-region. Udgivelsesdato: juni 2008...

  9. A Multilevel Analysis of the Role of School Quality and Family Background on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareshki, Hossein; Hajinezhad, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is investigating the correlation between school quality and family socioeconomic background and students' mathematics achievement in the Middle East. The countries in comparison are UAE, Syria, Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Lebanon, Jordan, and Bahrain. The study utilized data from IEA's Trends in International…

  10. 19 CFR 10.31 - Entry; bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for display or demonstration, if brought into the United States by a resident of Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Chile, Morocco, Bahrain, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, or the Dominican Republic... exported to Canada or Mexico (see § 181.53 of this chapter)....

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreement country means Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore. Free Trade Agreement..., or manufacture of Canada; or (2) In the case of an article that consists in whole or in part...

  12. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... goods originating in Panama for which, as in the case of goods originating in Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Chile, Morocco, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bahrain... demonstration, if brought into the United States by a resident of Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Chile, Morocco,...

  13. 76 FR 78858 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Utilization of Domestic Photovoltaic Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ..., Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco... that has been substantially transformed in Canada into a new and different article of commerce with a... Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech...

  14. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... for which, like goods originating in Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Chile, Morocco, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, or Bahrain, no bond or other security will be... the United States by a resident of Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Chile, Morocco, El Salvador,...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreement country means Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore; (8) Free Trade Agreement country end...) Canadian end product means an article that— (i) Is wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of Canada;...

  16. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... English language. (d) Applicability of declaration. The declaration may be applicable to: (1) A single... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement..., and a statement as to the origin and value of, any materials used in the article that are claimed...

  17. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  18. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    The S&P Pan Arab indices include stocks from listed companies in the countries of Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco , Oman, Qatar, Saudi...Hup Group signs $85M water deal Turkey’s UB Holdings signs $500M Basrah steel plant deal Petrofac signs $100M offshore maintenance contract with

  19. United States-Gulf Cooperation Council Security Cooperation in a Multipolar World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bahrain, at its closest point merely some 40 kilometers away.33 Both Iran and the GCC members share the Gulf as a main offshore oil and gas produc- ing...against political protest, a status shared with the two other remaining Arab monarchies, Morocco and Jordan. Geopolitically, the GCC as a region has

  20. Women in Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  1. Problem-Based Learning in the Educational Psychology Classroom: Bahraini Teacher Candidates' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Nina Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There was a concern from faculty at Bahrain Teachers' College that undergraduate Bahraini students lack the necessary competencies needed for success in educational contexts that are conducive to active, student-centered learning. It was decided that the students be introduced to a problem-based learning (PBL) strategy in one of their educational…

  2. A New Tyrosine Hydroxylase Genotype with Orofacial Dyskinaesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahood M. Al-Muslamani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive and often treatable neurometabolic disorder with variable phenotypes. More than 20 pathological mutations have been identified in patients with TH deficiency. We report the case of a 10-month-old male patient who presented with developmental delay, hypotonia and oculogyric crises to the Salmaniya Medical Complex in Manama, Bahrain. At a later stage, he developed orofacial dyskinaesia and tremors with hyper-reflexia and clonus. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed mild atrophy with widened ventricles and genetic testing revealed a novel homozygous mutation (c.938G>T; p.Arg313Leu in exon 9 of the TH gene. The patient showed a remarkable response to treatment using combined levodopa-carbidopa. In this case, the orofacial dyskinaesia may be a specific clinical association unique to this novel mutation, which is the first to be described in Bahrain and the Middle East.

  3. An Analysis of Regime Transition: The Characteristics, Mechanism and Types of Change in Modern Political Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-17

    Cambodia; the Republic of the Sudan; Mexico; Ghana; Cuba ; and, the State of Bahrain. Additionally, an extensive analysis of the mechanism of regime...to Democracy," p. 7. 22 See Schmitter, "Liberation by Golpe : Retrospective Thoughts on the Demise of Authoritarian Rule in Portugal," in Armed Forces...A. UNSTABLE Cambodia (Inclusive) Sudan (Exclusive) B. STABLE Mexico (Inclusive) Ghana (Exclusive) IV. CONSOLIDATED NON-DEMOCRACIES: Cuba (Inclusive

  4. Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenberg, Craig; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Svendsen, Erik R.; Jordt, Sven‐Eric

    2016-01-01

    Deployments of tear gas and pepper spray have rapidly increased worldwide. Large amounts of tear gas have been used in densely populated cities, including Cairo, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Manama (Bahrain), and Hong Kong. In the United States, tear gas was used extensively during recent riots in Ferguson, Missouri. Whereas tear gas deployment systems have rapidly improved—with aerial drone systems tested and requested by law enforcement—epidemiological and mechanistic research have lagged behi...

  5. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  6. From the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to inform you that in the 8th year of TOJDE are appeared on your screen now as Volume 8, Number: 2. In this issue we published one notes for Editor, 14 articles, two reviews, news and announcements for our readers. 27 authors from ten different countries are placed in this issue. These published articles are from Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh; Canada Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Turkey, UK and USA.

  7. Trade agreements and trade flows: Estimating the effect of free trade agreements on trade flows with an application to the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Scott L. Baier; Jeffrey H. Bergstrand

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the proposed EU-GCC FTA, a free trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and the Gulf Cooperation Counil (GCC), which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first takes a fresh look at the methodology generally applied to analysis of potential FTAs, and then uses its own enhanced methodology to analyse the proposed EU-GCC FTA.

  8. Logistics Support of Naval Expeditionary Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    DIEGO, CA NSCT 1 SAN DIEGO, CA EODMU 12 CHAS’N EODMU 10 FT STORY, VA EODMU 4 BAHRAIN EODMU 8 SICILY, IT EODMU 6 CHAS’N EODMU 2 NORFOLK, VA Figure...create a disincentive to accurately depict requirements if those requirements paint a negative image of the logistics process or management. For...the 2020 force. The ones that will directly affect naval expeditionary forces are: Joint Deployment and Rapid Distribution, Information Fusion

  9. The Neolithic origins of seafaring in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carter

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of the Arabian Gulf were among the world’s earliest maritime traders. Their ships sailed regularly between the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia, Bahrain and the Indus Valley, and they reached China by sea in the eighth century AD, thus bypassing the long and perilous overland Silk Road route across Central Asia. Now excavations at a coastal site in Kuwait by a team from the Institute have revealed even earlier evidence of maritime activity in the Gulf.

  10. Comparing Global Influence: China’s and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    negotiation discussions with about two dozen other countries including Australia, South Korea, Pakistan, Peru , Iceland, Switzerland, the Gulf...implementation with Israel, Canada, Mexico, Jordan, Chile, Singapore, Australia, Morocco, Bahrain, Peru , and Oman, plus FTAs with Panama and South Korea...Am er ica Af ric a S. E. A sia N. E. A sia Eu ro pe Re st of W or ld Region 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 $Billion China U.S. Figure 14. U.S. and

  11. A Triangulation study: Bahraini nursing students' perceptions of nursing as a career

    OpenAIRE

    Eman, Tawash; Cowman, Seamus; Edgar, Anunciacion

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a broad international literature examining the perceptions, experiences and values of nursing students with very little investigative work from the Gulf region and no published work on the perceptions of student nurses from Bahrain. The literature shows that students have a wide range of pre-existing perceptions about nursing and that those early perceptions have a profound influence on their decision to continue with their nursing studies. Historically, in a context o...

  12. Immigrant workers and language formation: Gulf Pidgin Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the oil boom of the 1970s, Saudi Arabia and the countries on the western coast of the Arab Gulf, i.e. Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar, have been witnessing both a significant increase in their non-national labour force and considerable urbanization. Most of the immigrant workers come from South and South-East Asia, with smaller number of expatriates from other regions. The overwhelming majority of these foreign workers live and work i...

  13. 77 FR 69723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) Chile FTA 77,494 77,494 7,777,000 Colombia FTA 77,494 77,494 7,777,000 Korea FTA 100,000 100,000 7,777,000 Morocco FTA 202,000 202,000 7,777,000 NAFTA: --Canada 25,000 77,494.... * * * * * Free Trade Agreement country means Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,...

  14. Private Security Contractors: A Way of Combating Piracy in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    pirates are the “very essence of rational profit maximizing entrepreneurs described in neo-classical economics.”6 Additionally, “the supply of pirates...nations include Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia , the...enforcement agents, men and women that are specifically trained in military style tactics and conflict resolution. Numerous security companies work in

  15. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 4. Winter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Morocco , Jordan, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia), realized the grave ne- cessity of coup-proofing. This meant relying on family, tribal, ethnic, and sectarian...policy aimed at China that rests upon economic blockade is “ offshore control.” T. X. Hammes, Offshore Control: A Proposed Strategy for an Unlikely... offshore control blockading concept’s strategic limitations and risks, see Elbridge Colby, “Don’t Sweat AirSea Battle,” National Interest, 31 July 2013

  16. Evaluation of Support Provided to Mobilized Army National Guard and U.S. Army Reserve Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-05

    with family members. CENTCOM and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command have significantly improved access to communications with family as the...contract with Bahrain Maritime and Mercantile International, beginning in August 2002 through December 2003.10 Seven Seas Shiphandlers became the...Switching Network (DSN) • MWR phone banks through the Army and Air Force Exchange System (AAFES) • Internet cafes (provided by the Navy Space and Naval

  17. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-13

    to rank while they remained behind him. His sub ordinates in the elite unit in which he served, first as a lieutenant and "si einander, speak of...attrition, until the position of the commander of the elite unit was vacated; tank regimental commander, commander of reserve units and later of a...accredition to the State of Bahrain. A keen sportsman , Mr Huq takes interest in shooting and painting. He is married. [Text] [Dhaka THE BANGLADESH TIMES m

  18. Outreach and Prevention Staff Focus Guide. Building Bridges: Supporting the Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Needs of Military and Veteran Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Afghanistan, Kuwait, Bahrain and the Horn of Africa . The rest are serving elsewhere in the world. Most Sailors are working in their skill sets to provide...for All Ages Physical Activity Guidelines for All Ages provides guidelines for children, adults, older adults and pregnancy /postpartum women. The...to stop your compulsive overeating, welcome to Overeaters Anonymous. BodyWorks: A Toolkit for Healthy Teens and Strong Families BodyWorks is

  19. The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathout Leith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators. This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the “Arab Spring,” specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of “dual loyalty” dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients – a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict.

  20. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  1. Social, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity among Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon; Bader, Zahra

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore some of the social, dietary and lifestyle factors that could be related to the risk of obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. A multistage stratified method was used to select secondary school students (15-18years old) from governmental schools in Bahrain. The total sample selected was 735 (339 males and 396 females). A pre-validated self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographics, food and the lifestyle habits of adolescents. Weight and height were taken and percentiles of Body Mass Index for age and gender were used to classify the adolescents as non-obese and obese (overweight and obese), using NHANES-1 growth standard. In general, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.5% and 36.8% among males and females, respectively. The risk of obesity was not consistent among male and female adolescents. Mothers' education was found to be a risk factor for obesity among both males and females (p=0.0167 and p=0.007, respectively). Bringing food from home to school (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.81) was protective factor for obesity among females but not among males. Fathers' education (p=0.0167), rank among siblings (p=0.009), place where breakfast is eaten (p=0.0398), eating between lunch and dinner (p=0.0152), fruit intake (p=0.042), sweet intake (p=0.0192), size of burger (p=0.002) and hours of watching television per day (p=0.004) were significantly associated with the risk of obesity among males, but not among females. Various social, dietary and lifestyle factors were found to contribute to obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. These factors should be considered in school health policy in the country.

  2. Forecasting CO2 emissions in the Persian Gulf States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Olabemiwo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Persian Gulf States (Bahrain. Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirate have dominated the oil and gas sector since the discovery of oil in the region. They are the world largest producers of crude oil, producing about 35 and 25 percent of the world natural gas and crude oil respectively. The use of fossil fuels is directly linked to the release of CO2 into the environment. CO2 accounts for 58.8 percent of all greenhouse gases released via human activities, consequently, presenting a malign impact on the environment through climate change, global warming, biodiversity, acid rain and desertification among others. Due to its importance, the data on CO2 emission obtained from US EIA from 1980 – 2010 was regressed using least square techniques and projections were made to the year 2050. Results indicated that each country’s p-value was less than 0.05 which implies that the models can be used for predicting CO2 emissions into the future. The data shows the emission of CO2 by countries from the highest to the lowest in 2016 as: Iran (590.72 Mtonnes; 7.58 tonnes of CO2/person > Saudi Arabia (471.82 Mtonnes; 18 tonnes of CO2/person > UAE (218.58 Mtonnes; 41.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Iraq (114.01 Mtonees; 3.71 tonnes of CO2/person > Kuwait (92.58 Mtonnes; 36.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Qatar (68.26 Mtonnes; 37 tonnes of CO2/person > Bahrain (33.16 Mtonnes; 27.5 tonnes of CO2/person". The sequence from the country with highest emission (Iran to the country with lowest emission (Bahrain will remain the same until 2050. A projection depicting a 7.7 percent yearly increase in CO2 emission in the Persian Gulf States.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  4. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-01-01

    Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 4 of TOJDE! In this issue, one book review and 26 articles of 49 authors from 15 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Bahrain, Brazil, Greece, India, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe. First all, you should know that if a submission picks up from three TOJDE editors between 4.5 and 9 over all 9 credits, it ...

  5. Civil society and democratization in the Arab Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Gengler, Justin; Tessler, Mark; Al-Emadi, Darwish; Diop, Abdoulaye

    2011-01-01

    qatar has been a notable exception to the wave of popular political mobilization that has struck Arab countries since January 2011. This is particularly so given the prominent role of its state-owned television station Al Jazeera in supporting many — though not all — of the uprisings. Why has Qatar been seemingly immune to the protest wave? Its wealth matters, of course, but other wealthy countries like Libya and Bahrain have experienced turmoil. Some new insights into this question can be fo...

  6. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories of...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  7. Dataset for petroleum based stock markets and GAUSS codes for SAMEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ahmed A A; Bertuccelli, Pietro; Otranto, Edoardo

    2017-02-01

    This article includes a unique data set of a balanced daily (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday) for oil and natural gas volatility and the oil rich economies' stock markets for Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Bahrain and Oman, using daily data over the period spanning Oct. 18, 2006-July 30, 2015. Additionally, we have included unique GAUSS codes for estimating the spillover asymmetric multiplicative error model (SAMEM) with application to Petroleum-Based Stock Market. The data, the model and the codes have many applications in business and social science.

  8. Dataset for petroleum based stock markets and GAUSS codes for SAMEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.A. Khalifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a unique data set of a balanced daily (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday for oil and natural gas volatility and the oil rich economies’ stock markets for Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Bahrain and Oman, using daily data over the period spanning Oct. 18, 2006–July 30, 2015. Additionally, we have included unique GAUSS codes for estimating the spillover asymmetric multiplicative error model (SAMEM with application to Petroleum-Based Stock Market. The data, the model and the codes have many applications in business and social science.

  9. “Lahesõjad” 3. eelkristlikul aastatuhandel. Sumeri ja Akkadi kuningate sõjaretked Pärsia lahe kanti 2700–2150 eKr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sazonov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available War has always constituted an important part of politics in the Middle East. Evidences of wars in southern Mesopotamia (Sumer and Akkad and in the region of the Persian Gulf can be found in written sources that date back to the Early Dynastic Period (in Sumer, approximately since 2700 or 2600 BCE. This region around the Persian Gulf (modern southern Iraq, south-western Iran, Oman, Bahrain, etc. has always been a very important territory, both strategically and geopolitically, and a crossing point of different cultures, religions and ethnic groups since very early times. This region of the Middle East (Persian Gulf has always been rich in different resources. In ancient times it was an economically important region because of its frankincense, woods, stones (diorite, and metals (especially copper; today it is known for oil and gas. The Persian Gulf is the territory where the first wars for economic reasons took place already 5000–4500 years ago. Many Sumerian and Akkadian rulers tried to conquer this region, since Magan (modern Oman and Dilmun (modern Bahrain had deposits of copper, diorite, etc. Elam, which was located in south-western Iran, was a very important area quite rich in resources, and kings of Elam were often rivals of Sumerian and Akkadian kings in their ambitions to control the region of the Persian Gulf and the Zagros Mountains. This was the reason why in this region many military conflicts and wars between the Elamites, Sumerians and Akkadians took place.

  10. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (pmagazines with body weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (pbody weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets.

  11. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  12. The dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: Design and study methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Pisoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS is an international prospective cohort study of the relationships between hemodialysis (HD care practices and HD patient outcomes. The DOPPS began in 1996, in the United States, and has since expanded to 21 countries, collecting detailed data from >75,000 HD patients, with >200 scientific publications, focused on describing HD practices associated with improved HD patient outcomes. The goal of DOPPS is to help HD patients "live better and live longer." Starting in 2012, the DOPPS was able to expand to all six of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The DOPPS study design consists of selecting HD facilities for study participation in each country to represent the different types of HD facilities and geographic regions within each GCC country. Within each study site, HD patients were randomly selected for detailed data collection to represent the HD practices within each participating HD facility. Altogether, 41 HD facilities have participated in the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study including 20 facilities from Saudi Arabia, nine from the United Arab Emirates, four each from Kuwait and Oman, two from Qatar, and one from Bahrain. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the study design and methods, data collection, study management, scientific investigator oversight and guidance, and study governance and support for the GCCDOPPS Phase 5 study.

  13. Bahrain’s tertiary education reform : a step towards sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher education. The reasons behind this large-scale expansion of higher education include the growth of local and expatriate population, the planned transition from oil industry to a knowledge-based economy as well as the growing role of women in the workforce. All of these factors need to be addressed in order to assure a stable social and economic development, and education is the backbone of both. This paper examines the recent initiatives undertaken in Bahrain to monitor and ensure the quality of education of cross-border educational institutions as well as that of local education providers.

  14. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  15. Strategy to combat obesity and to promote physical activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al Hazzaa2, Aayed Al-Qahtani3, Jalila Elati4, Jasem Ramadan5, Nebal A AboulElla6, Najat Mokhtar7, Hashem A Kilani81Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2,3King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, 4National Institute of Nutrition, Tunisia; 5University of Kuwait, Kuwait; 6National Nutrition Institute, Egypt; 7Ibn Tofail University, Morocco; 8Sultan Qaboos University, OmanAbstract: Obesity has become a major public health problem in the Arab countries, creating a health and economic burden on these countries’ government services. There is an urgent need to develop a strategy for prevention and control of obesity. The third Arab Conference on Obesity and Physical Activity was held in Bahrain in January 2010, and proposed the Strategy to Combat Obesity and Promote Physical Activity in Arab Countries. This strategy provides useful guidelines for each Arab country to prepare its own strategy or plan of action to prevent and control obesity. The strategy focused on expected outcomes, objectives, indicators to measure the objectives, and action needs for 9 target areas: child-care centers for preschool children, schools, primary health care, secondary care, food companies, food preparation institutes, media, public benefit organizations, and the workplace. Follow-up and future developments of this strategy were also included.Keywords: obesity, physical activity, strategy, Arab countries

  16. SESAME in Jordan

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Gaetano; Attal, Maher; Makahleh, Firas; Shehab, Maher M; Varnasseri, Seadat

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees...

  17. Loss of cabin pressure in a military transport: a mass casualty with decompression illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mickaila J

    2008-04-01

    Presented here is the sudden cabin depressurization of a military C-130 aircraft carrying 66 personnel. They suffered a depressurization from 2134 to 7317 m, resulting in a potential 66-person mass casualty. The aircrew were able to descend to below 3049 m in less than 5 min. They landed in the Kingdom of Bahrain--the nearest hyperbaric recompression facility. Three cases of peripheral neurologic DCS and one case of spinal DCS were identified. Limited manning, unique host nation concerns, and limited available assets led to difficulties in triage, patient transport, and asset allocation. These led to difficult decisions regarding when and for whom to initiate ground level oxygen or hyperbaric recompression therapy.

  18. Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Redha Qader

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs. Electricity consumption and the related CO2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.

  19. MEAN REVERTING BEHAVIOR OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM SELECTED MENA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Bolat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the energy consumption for 15 members of the Middle Eastern & North African (MENA countries is a stationary process over 1971-2010 period. Annual energy consumption data for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Turkey, is analyzed using the Lagrange Multiplier (LM unit root test, in which structural breaks in level and/or trend are endogenously determined. The results of the LM test with two breaks showed that the energy consumption per capita in 8 MENA countries is a stationary process. This study suggests that it is possible to design consistent energy policies based on econometric models and forecasts of energy consumption in those 8 MENA countries.

  20. Aeroallergens, atopy and allergic rhinitis in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goronfolah, L

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the nature and prevalence of indoor and/or outdoor aeroallergens, atopy and symptoms of rhinitis and asthma in the Middle East region (defined here as Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - KSA, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen) was reviewed. Although documentation was poor in all countries other than Iran and the KSA, a wide range of "global" and "local" aeroallergens (grass, weed and tree pollens, fungal spores, insect allergens, dander, and house dust mites) has been observed across the region. The prevalence of current self-reported or parent-reported symptoms of rhinitis ranged from 9% to 38%. Researchers have suggested that the high atopy rates and self-reported rhinitis rates are associated with an on-going shift towards a "western" lifestyle.

  1. Is Tourism Development a Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy in the Long Run? Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K. Alhowaish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between tourism development and economic growth in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries in a multivariate model, using panel data for the period 1995–2012. The study adopts a panel Granger causality analysis approach to assess the contribution of tourism to economic growth in GCC countries as a whole, and in each individual country. In the case of GCC countries as a whole, the results show a one-way Granger causality, from economic growth to tourism growth. Furthermore, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates follow the path of economy-driven tourism growth, as hypothesized. The reverse hypothesis (i.e., tourism-led growth hypothesis holds true for Bahrain, while there is no causal relationship between tourism and economic growth in the case of Oman.

  2. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in the middle east

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Fallahian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is not well defined in the Middle East region. A review of the epidemiology and modes of transmission and spread of HCV infection in regions located in the Middle East, including Iran, Bahrain, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Cyprus, Sudan, Egypt, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Gaza Strip and West Bank, and Yemen, was undertaken. Public health strategies, well-programmed, population-based and certain HCV infection at-risk surveys, and transmission risk factors′ settings detection are insufficient in some countries of this region. Since significant diffe-rences in prevalence and epidemiology of HCV exist among the Middle East countries or even inside the countries, control strategies should take these differences into account.

  3. A review on Cressa cretica Linn.: A halophytic plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Priyashree

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is used by up to 80% of the population in developing countries. Cressa cretica L. is a popular holophytic plant and is used in folklore medicine for ailments including diabetes, ulcers, asthma, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood, and is useful in constipation, leprosy, and urinary discharges. The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions such as its antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, anticancer with some other plants, anti-inflammatory, and improving testicular function in rats. In this article, a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotany, and biological activities are included in view of the recent findings of importance on the plant, C. cretica.

  4. Residential High-Rise Clusters as a Contemporary Planning Challenge in Manama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the different roots of current residential high-rise clusters emerging in new city districts along the coast of Bahrain’s capital city Manama, and the resulting urban planning and design challenges. Since the local real-estate markets were liberalized in Bahrain in 2003, the population grew rapidly to more than one million inhabitants. Consequently, the housing demand increased rapidly due to extensive immigration. Many residential developments were however constructed for the upper spectrum of the real-estate market, due to speculative tendencies causing a raise in land value. The emerging high-rise clusters are developed along the various waterfronts of Manama on newly reclaimed land. This paper explores the spatial consequences of the recent boom in construction boom and the various challenges for architects and urban planners to enhance urban qualities.

  5. Les ennemis d'Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    À l’occasion de la journée mondiale contre la cybercensure, Reporters sans frontières propose dans un second rapport annuel une cartographie globale et actualisée du phénomène, géopolitique particulière distinguant les pays « ennemis de l’Internet » de ceux « mis sous surveillance ». La liste des ennemis s’est allongée : le Bélarus et Bahrain, placés l’an passé sous surveillance, figurent désormais parmi les régimes autoritaires comme l’Arabie Saoudite, la Chine, Cuba et de façon extrême en S...

  6. A Study of Email Spam and How to Effectively Combat It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Al-A'ali

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of researching the issues pertaining to email spam on Bahrain's email society and how to combat it. We have surveyed the status of spam amongst the Bahraini community through a carefully prepared questionnaire and studied the effects of spam on the social and economical welfare of Bahrainis. The research results stress the need to regulate spam spread through the introduction of a spam law. The overwhelming majority of the Bahraini email community expresses concern with receiving spam but some would still prefer to continue to receive some sort of controlled spam especially commercial advertising spam. The paper addresses the different concerns expressed by the email community and measures the levels of these concerns in terms of age, gender, work productivity. This paper is aimed at setting the pace for regulating and raising the level of awareness of email spam in the Arab countries.

  7. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  8. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies...... to migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...... the lack of both integration and citizenship is a defining principle. Using these two perspectives, this article examines the relationship between citizenship rights and migration in the Gulf region, drawing on data from the UAE along with Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar....

  9. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W; Ali, Malik H; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-03-06

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km(2) large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area ranges between 14 and 34°C. The discovery of the unique coral reef oasis in the turbid coastal waters of Iraq will stimulate the interest of governmental agencies, environmental organizations, as well as of the international scientific community working on the fundamental understanding of coral marine ecosystems and global climate today.

  10. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf.

  11. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  12. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.

  13. Right Diet: a television series to combat obesity among adolescents in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haifi AR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad R Al-Haifi,1 Mohammad A Al-Fayez,1 Bader Al-Nashi,1 Buthaina I Al-Athari,1 Hiba Bawadi,2 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,31Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, Showaikh, Kuwait; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, University of Bahrain and Arab Center for Nutrition, Kingdom of BahrainBackground: Adolescent obesity is a growing public health problem in Kuwait. Reducing obesity can lower the risk of several chronic diseases. Fourteen obese adolescent boys volunteered to participate in a 6-month multidimensional television series on weight loss.Methods: The adolescent boys were recruited through advertisements in schools. The program included counseling sessions, nutritional education, exercise, family support, peer group involvement, and incentives designed to motivate participants.Results: The mean age of the boys was 15.6 ± 0.8 years. On average, subjects lost 10.6 ± 8.9 kg in weight and gained 3.3 ± 1.6 cm in height during the study period. The difference in mean body mass index at baseline and at 6 months following intervention was significant (P < 0.001 at 36.8 ± 4.6 and 32.0 ± 5.4, kg/m2 respectively. Participants ranked counseling as the most important component of the program, followed by family support and type of program.Conclusion: This type of television series could be used as a model for future public health programs to prevent and control obesity among adolescents.Keywords: diet, television, obesity, adolescents

  14. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  15. EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alfarraj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its components compared to the neighbouring Gulf country of Bahrain, which was ranked 8th for the same index. While this is still modest in relation to the Saudi government’s expectation concerning its vision for eGovernment implementation for 2010, and the results achieved by the neighbouring Gulf countries such as Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the eGovernment index, the Saudi government has endeavoured to meet the public needs concerning eGovernment and carry out the implementation of eGovernment properly. Governments may heed the importance of actively launching official government websites – the focus of this study – as the main portals for delivering their online services to all the different categories of eGovernment (including G2C, G2B, and G2G. However, certain Saudi ministries have not given due attention to this vital issue. This is evidenced by the fact that some of their websites are not fully developed or do not yet exist, which clearly impedes that particular ministry from appropriately delivering eServices.

  16. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with vildagliptin versus other oral drugs for type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting in the Middle East: results from the EDGE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saab C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charles Saab,1 Feryal A Al-Saber,2 Jihad Haddad,3 Mahir Khalil Jallo,4 Habib Steitieh,5 Giovanni Bader,6 Mohamed Ibrahim,7 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sacre Coeur University Hospital, Baabda, Lebanon; 2Endocrine Department, Bahrain Defence Force Hospital, Rifaa, Bahrain; 3Division of Endocrinology Department of Internal Medicine, Prince Hamaza Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; 5New Mowasat Hospital, Safat, Kuwait; 6Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma Services AG, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic progressive disease that requires treatment intensification with antihyperglycemic agents due to progressive deterioration of β-cell function. A large observational study of 45,868 patients with T2DM across 27 countries (EDGE assessed the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin as add-on to other oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs versus other comparator OAD combinations. Here, we present results from the Middle East countries (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Methods: Patients inadequately controlled with OAD monotherapy were eligible after the add-on treatment was chosen by the physician based on clinical judgment and patient need. Patients were assigned to either vildagliptin or comparator OADs (sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, or metformin, except incretin-based therapies based on the add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c reduction of >0.3% without peripheral edema, hypoglycemia, discontinuation due to a gastrointestinal event, or weight gain ≥5%. One of the secondary endpoints was the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% without hypoglycemia or weight gain. Change in HbA1c from baseline to study endpoint and safety were also

  17. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  18. Bending the urban flow: a construction-migration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1980-01-01

    The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate

  19. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  20. The Potential Role of Social Media Platforms in Community Awareness of Antibiotic Use in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Luxury or Necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zowawi, Hosam Mamoon; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Mar, Florie A; Almalki, Turki; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Harbarth, Stephan; Balkhy, Hanan H; Paterson, David L; Hasanain, Rihab Abdalazez

    2015-10-15

    The increasing emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health issue. Increasing the awareness of the general public about appropriate antibiotic use is a key factor for combating this issue. Several public media campaigns worldwide have been launched; however, such campaigns can be costly and the outcomes are variable and difficult to assess. Social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, are now frequently utilized to address health-related issues. In many geographical locations, such as the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain), these platforms are becoming increasingly popular. The socioeconomic status of the GCC states and their reliable communication and networking infrastructure has allowed the penetration and scalability of these platforms in the region. This might explain why the Saudi Ministry of Health is using social media platforms alongside various other media platforms in a large-scale public awareness campaign to educate at-risk communities about the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper discusses the potential for using social media tools as cost-efficient and mass education platforms to raise awareness of appropriate antibiotic use in the general public and in the medical communities of the Arabian Peninsula.

  1. Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Craig; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Svendsen, Erik R; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-08-01

    Deployments of tear gas and pepper spray have rapidly increased worldwide. Large amounts of tear gas have been used in densely populated cities, including Cairo, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Manama (Bahrain), and Hong Kong. In the United States, tear gas was used extensively during recent riots in Ferguson, Missouri. Whereas tear gas deployment systems have rapidly improved-with aerial drone systems tested and requested by law enforcement-epidemiological and mechanistic research have lagged behind and have received little attention. Case studies and recent epidemiological studies revealed that tear gas agents can cause lung, cutaneous, and ocular injuries, with individuals affected by chronic morbidities at high risk for complications. Mechanistic studies identified the ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 as targets of capsaicin in pepper spray, and of the tear gas agents chloroacetophenone, CS, and CR. TRPV1 and TRPA1 localize to pain-sensing peripheral sensory neurons and have been linked to acute and chronic pain, cough, asthma, lung injury, dermatitis, itch, and neurodegeneration. In animal models, transient receptor potential inhibitors show promising effects as potential countermeasures against tear gas injuries. On the basis of the available data, a reassessment of the health risks of tear gas exposures in the civilian population is advised, and development of new countermeasures is proposed.

  2. Making Ground, Losing Space: Land Reclamation and Urban Public Space in Island Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article foregrounds urban public space by considering land reclamation in island cities. Land reclamation is nearly ubiquitous in the urban development of coastal cities, and island cities in particular are subject to exceptionally dense urbanisation and thus exceptionally strong conflict over urban space. Drawing upon theories at the intersection of the land and the sea (liquid, archipelago, and aquapelago spatiality, we analyse socially problematic aspects of the creation of new urban space through land reclamation. Land reclamation occurs in island cities such as Bahrain, Copenhagen, Dubai, Hong Kong, Macau, New York City, and Xiamen in order to construct space for urban industrial, residential, and leisure functions while avoiding the social conflict that often accompanies urban renewal efforts. However, whether in the case of publically accessible leisure parks or secessionary island enclaves for the ultra-rich, land reclamation processes serve powerful societal forces and represent the capture of urban space for elite interests. This reduces the prospects for urban public space and limits the horizons for the development of more socially just future cities. The transformation of unclaimed fluid space into solid private space is a relative form of accumulation by dispossession, even if the public has never been aware of what it possessed.

  3. Global situation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesy, A

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the actual world FMD situation. In 2000, fifty nine countries officially reported outbreaks of FMD. The disease occurred in Europe (Greece), Asia (Russia, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, in Caucasian region--Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), Africa (Egypt, Kenya, Mauritania, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and in South America (Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela). In 2001, FMD was still spreading throughout the endemic regions and appeared in some of the west European countries--Great Britain, The Netherlands, France and Ireland. In South America, FMD occurred in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Colombia. In Asia the FMD spread in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, Bhutan, Nepal, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. The FMD situation in Africa was unclear, but probably most countries in West, East and South Africa were affected. The most recent data of the OIE from May 2002 confirmed FMD outbreaks in population of pigs in Republic of Korea.

  4. Middle East experience in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinah, Ghaith F Abu; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Hassan, Azza Adel

    2013-02-01

    Palliative Care (PC) is still a relatively new concept in the Middle East (ME). It was first introduced in Saudi Arabia in 1992 and only recently in countries such as Qatar, Bahrain, and the UAE. Although the majority of Middle-Eastern countries, including Palestine, Iraq, Oman and Lebanon are in the capacity building phase, others such as Saudi and Jordan already have localized provision. In the absence of any of the ME countries approaching integration with the mainstream service providers, Saudi Arabia and Jordan are currently setting examples of achievement in the field. There are still countries with little or no known Palliative Care activity (Yemen and Syria). Political issues, scarcity of resources, and lack of education and awareness seem to be the common factors restricting the progress of this field in most countries. In order to improve the suboptimal PC services in the ME, emphasis should be directed toward providing formal education to professionals and raising awareness of the public. It is also necessary to put all differences aside and develop cross-border collaborations, whether through third party organizations such as the Middle East Cancer Consortium (MECC) or otherwise. This review compiles the available literature on the history and progress of the field of PC in most ME countries, while pointing out the major obstacles encountered by the active parties of each country.

  5. Tackling cancer control in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othman, Saleh; Haoudi, Abdelali; Alhomoud, Samar; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Khoja, Tawfik; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in both high income and middle-to-low income countries, and is the second leading cause of death in the world. Although more than a third of cancer could be prevented and another third could be cured if diagnosed early, it remains a huge challenge to health-care systems worldwide. Despite substantial improvements in health services some of the countries in the Gulf region, the burden of non-communicable diseases is a major threat, primarily due to the rapid socioeconomic shifts that have led to unfavourable changes in lifestyle such as increased tobacco use, decreased physical activity, and consumption of unhealthy food. In the Gulf Cooperation Council states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait), advanced breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukaemia, thyroid cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the most common cancers affecting younger populations compared with other countries. By contrast with cancer prevalence in developed countries, prostate, lung, and cervical cancers are not among the most common cancers in the Gulf region. In view of the increased cost of cancer management worldwide, integrated approaches between primary, secondary, and tertiary health-care systems with special focus on prevention and early detection is an essential step in the countries' efforts in the fight against cancer.

  6. František Nábělek’s Iter Turcico-Persicum 1909–1910 – database and digitized herbarium collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Kempa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Czech botanist František Nábělek (1884−1965 explored the Middle East in 1909-1910, visiting what are now Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Bahrain, Iran and Turkey. He described four new genera, 78 species, 69 varieties and 38 forms of vascular plants, most of these in his work Iter Turcico-Persicum (1923−1929. The main herbarium collection of Iter Turcico-Persicum comprises 4163 collection numbers (some with duplicates, altogether 6465 specimens. It is currently deposited in the herbarium SAV. In addition, some fragments and duplicates are found in B, E, W and WU. The whole collection at SAV was recently digitized and both images and metadata are available via web portal www.nabelek.sav.sk, and through JSTOR Global Plants and the Biological Collection Access Service. Most localities were georeferenced and the web portal provides a mapping facility. Annotation of specimens is available via the AnnoSys facility. For each specimen a CETAF stable identifier is provided enabling the correct reference to the image and metadata.

  7. František Nábělek’s Iter Turcico-Persicum 1909–1910 – database and digitized herbarium collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Matúš; Edmondson, John; Lack, Hans Walter; Smatanová, Janka; Marhold, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Czech botanist František Nábělek (1884−1965) explored the Middle East in 1909-1910, visiting what are now Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Bahrain, Iran and Turkey. He described four new genera, 78 species, 69 varieties and 38 forms of vascular plants, most of these in his work Iter Turcico-Persicum (1923−1929). The main herbarium collection of Iter Turcico-Persicum comprises 4163 collection numbers (some with duplicates), altogether 6465 specimens. It is currently deposited in the herbarium SAV. In addition, some fragments and duplicates are found in B, E, W and WU. The whole collection at SAV was recently digitized and both images and metadata are available via web portal www.nabelek.sav.sk, and through JSTOR Global Plants and the Biological Collection Access Service. Most localities were georeferenced and the web portal provides a mapping facility. Annotation of specimens is available via the AnnoSys facility. For each specimen a CETAF stable identifier is provided enabling the correct reference to the image and metadata. PMID:28127245

  8. František Nábělek's Iter Turcico-Persicum 1909-1910 - database and digitized herbarium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Matúš; Edmondson, John; Lack, Hans Walter; Smatanová, Janka; Marhold, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The Czech botanist František Nábělek (1884-1965) explored the Middle East in 1909-1910, visiting what are now Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Bahrain, Iran and Turkey. He described four new genera, 78 species, 69 varieties and 38 forms of vascular plants, most of these in his work Iter Turcico-Persicum (1923-1929). The main herbarium collection of Iter Turcico-Persicum comprises 4163 collection numbers (some with duplicates), altogether 6465 specimens. It is currently deposited in the herbarium SAV. In addition, some fragments and duplicates are found in B, E, W and WU. The whole collection at SAV was recently digitized and both images and metadata are available via web portal www.nabelek.sav.sk, and through JSTOR Global Plants and the Biological Collection Access Service. Most localities were georeferenced and the web portal provides a mapping facility. Annotation of specimens is available via the AnnoSys facility. For each specimen a CETAF stable identifier is provided enabling the correct reference to the image and metadata.

  9. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari M. S. Sillah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the domestic oil consumption data in the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries has reached five important findings. First, contemporaneously, no robust short run relationships are found in the data. Second, the international oil price increases tend to induce increased domestic oil consumptions in all member countries except in Oman. Third, three member countries, Bahrain, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates, are found to be oil conserving as their per capita GDP grow and expand; whereas, the other three countries, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, tend to drive up their domestic oil consumptions as their per capita GDP expand and grow. Fourth, the three oil-conserving countries also have higher income elasticity than the three non-oil conserving countries. Finally, the domestic oil markets are found to be immune to disturbances and shocks to the international oil prices. Therefore, in the face of rising oil prices, per capita oil consumptions are rapidly raising in the GCC countries, while they have taken downward trends in some developed countries such as the United States and Japan.

  10. E-mail use by the faculty members, students and staff of Saudi Arabian and Gulf states Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alturise

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail systems (Email constitute one of the most important communication and business tools that people employ. Email in the workplace can help a business improve its productivity. Many organisations now rely on email to manage internal communications as well as other communication and business processes and procedures. This paper compares email use by university stakeholders (i.e. faculty members, staff and students between Saudi Arabia on one hand, and the Gulf States - Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Bahrain – on the other. A questionnaire that was expertreviewed and pilot-tested, was used to collect data from ten universities in Saudi Arabia and five universities in the Gulf States. Slight differences emerged in the Saudi Arabia and Gulf States universities’ stakeholders’ use of email in terms of having email, frequency of checking email, and skills in using email. The Saudi Arabian universities must improve their IT infrastructure, including the provision of suitable connection networks and formal training of staff in utilising IT resources. This study’s findings aim to advise the Saudi Arabian and Gulf States’ universities on their plans and programmes for e-learning and the consolidation of required resources.

  11. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, Hani T S; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2010-02-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1-9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine prevalence was 2.6-5% in Saudi Arabia and 7.9% in Qatar, while the 1-year migraine prevalence was 10.1% in Oman. The results show a migraine prevalence within that estimated worldwide. However, it is clear that epidemiological data from Arab countries are lacking, and there is disparity in the reported prevalence from Saudi Arabia when compared with its two neighbours, Qatar and Oman. Wider study adopting the same methodology in the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait) is needed to examine variations in headache and migraine prevalence.

  12. The Global Burden of Disease: A critical resource for informed policy making in the Gulf region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Mokdad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf countries have made tremendous improvements in their health systems in a short period of time due to extensive investments. However, during the same time period, rapid changes in lifestyle habits led to a changing burden of disease. In this manuscript, we report the burden of disease and risk factors for the Gulf countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen measured by causes of death, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs, years of life lived with disability (YLDs, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs for the years 1990 to 2013. Our findings showed a decline of infectious diseases and a rising burden of road traffic accidents and non-communicable diseases while Yemen is still facing a large burden from communicable diseases. Our findings call for the development and implementation of programmes to reduce these burdens and engage other sectors such as the Government and the community in these efforts. These programmes need to be developed and adopted locally since many of the programmes found in the literature may not succeed in the region. Moreover, there is an urgent need for a political will and legislations to ensure their success.

  13. Emergence of new virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M; Al-Hammadi, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013. These strains clustered into two genetically distinct genogroups related to year of isolation (G2 and G3). All new Saudi Arabia viruses clustered with the European strains, while the old strains clustered with strains from China and America. Based on amino acids and nucleotide sequences, the Saudi Arabia strains (RHD/1/SA/2012, RHD/2/SA/2012, and RHD/3/SA /2013) had high identity with Mexico89, Ca11-ITA, and 00-13,FRA virus; on the other hand, there was a relatively high identity with Bahrain strain. The evolutionary relationship of Saudi RHDVs strains revealed significant nucleotides and amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region E, suggesting the emergence of new RHDVs circulating in Saudi Arabia rabbitries. These antigenic changes represented by the antigenic index might be a potential cause of vaccination failure and raises the need to review the vaccination strategies against RHD.

  14. An assessment of Qatar's coral communities in a regional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John A; Smith, Edward G; Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer

    2016-04-30

    Qatar's once extensive coral communities have undergone considerable change in recent decades. We quantitatively surveyed three coral assemblages in Qatar to assess current status, and compared these against 14 sites in Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to evaluate Qatar in a larger biogeographic context. Umm Al-Arshan had the highest species richness of 17 sites examined in the southern Arabian Gulf, as well as the highest coral cover and the only Acropora observed on sites in Qatar. Coral cover and richness were more modest at Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat, reflecting greater impacts from earlier stress events. Two distinct communities were identified across the southern Gulf, with Umm Al-Arshan clustering with high-cover, mixed merulinid/poritid assemblages that were less impacted by earlier bleaching and long-term stress, while Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat grouped with a lower-cover, stress-tolerant community characteristic of more extreme environments in the southern Gulf. We recommend implementation of a nation-wide baseline assessment of coral communities to guide development of an MPA network and long-term coral monitoring program for Qatar.

  15. Offshore springs and seeps are focus of working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Bill

    People have been curious about offshore springs and seeps since at least the days of the Romans. In spite of many centuries of both casual and serious observations, there has been relatively little scientific study concerning the magnitude and effects of groundwater flow into the sea. Rather, studies were performed mostly to address water resource issues. Investigations over the past decade or so have now shown that groundwater discharge, at least in some cases, may be important for geochemical budgets and ecological effects.The Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program have recently established a working group of experts to examine questions relating specifically to groundwater discharge in the coastal zone. Direct groundwater flow into the ocean is known to occur as springs and seeps in near-shore areas in many parts of the world. Submarine springs, for example, are well known off both coasts of Florida; Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula; in several areas around the Pacific rim including Chile, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, and Australia; in the Persian Gulf near Bahrain; in the Mediterranean Sea off Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Libya; and in many other locations.

  16. Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Craig; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    Deployments of tear gas and pepper spray have rapidly increased worldwide. Large amounts of tear gas have been used in densely populated cities, including Cairo, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Manama (Bahrain), and Hong Kong. In the United States, tear gas was used extensively during recent riots in Ferguson, Missouri. Whereas tear gas deployment systems have rapidly improved—with aerial drone systems tested and requested by law enforcement—epidemiological and mechanistic research have lagged behind and have received little attention. Case studies and recent epidemiological studies revealed that tear gas agents can cause lung, cutaneous, and ocular injuries, with individuals affected by chronic morbidities at high risk for complications. Mechanistic studies identified the ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 as targets of capsaicin in pepper spray, and of the tear gas agents chloroacetophenone, CS, and CR. TRPV1 and TRPA1 localize to pain‐sensing peripheral sensory neurons and have been linked to acute and chronic pain, cough, asthma, lung injury, dermatitis, itch, and neurodegeneration. In animal models, transient receptor potential inhibitors show promising effects as potential countermeasures against tear gas injuries. On the basis of the available data, a reassessment of the health risks of tear gas exposures in the civilian population is advised, and development of new countermeasures is proposed. PMID:27391380

  17. Development of a live, oral, attenuated vaccine against El Tor cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D N; Killeen, K P; Hack, D C; Kenner, J R; Coster, T S; Beattie, D T; Ezzell, J; Hyman, T; Trofa, A; Sjogren, M H

    1994-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains from Peru, Bangladesh, and Bahrain were attenuated by deletion of a genetic element that encodes virulence factors and RS1. The B subunit of ctx (ctxB) was reintroduced into the recA gene of the deletion mutants, rendering them unable to recombine with exogenous genetic elements and generating Peru-3, Bang-3, and Bah-3. Fifteen volunteers received one dose of various vaccine strains at 4 x 10(6) to 1 x 10(8) cfu. All strains colonized the gut. A > or = 4-fold rise in vibriocidal titer was observed in 14 volunteers, with titers of > or = 1600 in 13. Peru-3 was the least reactogenic, but 2 of 6 volunteers had loose stools. Peru-14, a filamentous motility-deficient mutant of Peru-3, was well tolerated and colonized 18 of 21 volunteers at doses of 2 x 10(6) to 1 x 10(9) cfu. Also, when 8 Peru-3 or Peru-5 vaccinees, 5 Peru-14 vaccinees, and 8 controls were challenged with 2 x 10(6) cfu V. cholerae El Tor Inaba (N16961), 11 vaccinees were protected compared with no controls. Peru-14 shows promise as a safe, effective, single-dose oral vaccine against El Tor cholera.

  18. Consensus recommendation for India and Bangladesh for the use of pneumococcal vaccine in mass gatherings with special reference to Hajj pilgrims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Mathai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are prevalent among Hajj pilgrims with pneumonia being a leading cause of hospitalization. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen isolated from patients with pneumonia and respiratory tract infections during Hajj. There is a significant burden of pneumococcal disease in India, which can be prevented. Guidelines for preventive measures and adult immunization have been published in India, but the implementation of the guidelines is low. Data from Bangladesh are available about significant mortality due to respiratory infections; however, literature regarding guidelines for adult immunization is limited. There is a need for extensive awareness programs across India and Bangladesh. Hence, there was a general consensus about the necessity for a rapid and urgent implementation of measures to prevent respiratory infections in pilgrims traveling to Hajj. About ten countries have developed recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination in Hajj pilgrims: France, the USA, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the UAE (Dubai Health Authority, Singapore, Malaysia, Egypt, and Indonesia. At any given point whether it is Hajj or Umrah, more than a million people are present in the holy places of Mecca and Madina. Therefore, the preventive measures taken for Hajj apply for Umrah as well. This document puts forward the consensus recommendations by a group of twenty doctors following a closed-door discussion based on the scientific evidence available for India and Bangladesh regarding the prevention of respiratory tract infections in Hajj pilgrims.

  19. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.

  20. β-Lactamase production in key gram-negative pathogen isolates from the Arabian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zowawi, Hosam M; Balkhy, Hanan H; Walsh, Timothy R; Paterson, David L

    2013-07-01

    SUMMARY Infections due to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The extent of antibiotic resistance in GNB in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and Bahrain, has not been previously reviewed. These countries share a high prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing GNB, most of which are associated with nosocomial infections. Well-known and widespread β-lactamases genes (such as those for CTX-M-15, OXA-48, and NDM-1) have found their way into isolates from the GCC states. However, less common and unique enzymes have also been identified. These include PER-7, GES-11, and PME-1. Several potential risk factors unique to the GCC states may have contributed to the emergence and spread of β-lactamases, including the unnecessary use of antibiotics and the large population of migrant workers, particularly from the Indian subcontinent. It is clear that active surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in the GCC states is urgently needed to address regional interventions that can contain the antimicrobial resistance issue.

  1. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  2. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacob; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-06-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSTITUTIONS, BANKING REGULATION AND BANKING DEVELOPMENT IN THE MENA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samouel BEJI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to check, on the one hand, the nature of the relationship existing between institutional development (measured by the corruption level, quality of bureaucracy, rule and law, law enforcement…, banking regulation and banking development. On the other hand, we test the relationship that exists between banking development and economic growth. We used the GMM (General Method of Moments system on dynamic panel data for 19 countries of the MENA region, in the 2 estimations (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. The main results are: (i the existence of a positive and statistically significant effect of the economic development on the banking development, (ii banking regulation affects positively and in a significant manner, the banking development, (iii the non existence of a significant statistically relationship between institutional quality and banking development, (iv and finally, our findings also suggest that economic growth is enhanced by banking development. The absence of a significant relationship between institutional environment quality and banking development can be explained by the nature of the institutional indicators, which vary very slowly through time. That’s why, may be, banking development level reached by MENA region countries, cannot be explained by institutional development. We have chosen to assimilate the financial development to just banking development, given the relative importance of the banking sector, in comparison to the size and importance of the financial markets in these countries.

  4. Religious holidays and analysts forecast optimism: Evidence from MENA countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harit Satt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of religious holidays on analyst recommendation on stock markets in MENA countries stock markets (Morocco, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Algeria, Bahrain for the period of 2004 to 2015. The result shows that on pre-holidays, analysts tend to issue pessimistic recommendations, and issue optimistic recommendations on post-holidays[1]. Prior literature on day-of –the week effect is consonant with our results which document an increase in stock prices during the week, and a decrease in stock prices over the weekend. We argue that analysts can benefit from the upward trend in stock prices during Post-Holidays by issuing an optimistic recommendation. Analysts may as well benefit from the downward trend in stock prices by issuing pessimistic recommendations on pre-holidays. We also exhibit that our results are more consistent among less experienced analysts and in firms with greater information uncertainty. [1] Post holidays are the period before Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha and Eid-al Mawlid;  three terms relating to Muslims holy-festival.

  5. Body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries – a preliminary cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Objective. The aim of this study was to explore some body weight concerns among females at university in five Arab countries. Methods. The sample comprised 1,134 females aged 17–32 from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. A pretested questionnaire was used to determine the aspects of body weight concern. Results. Approximately 32% – 39% of females were dissatisfied with their weight, 17% – 31% wanted their body shape to be similar to Western fashion models, and 5% – 16% believed that men preferred plump women. Of the females, 22–37% had dieted to lose weight during the six months prior to the study, and 8–15% performed exercises to improve body shape most of the time. The differences in body weight concerns were statistically significant between countries. Conclusions. Body weight concern is relatively highly prevalent among young Arab women; however the prevalence varied between countries, mainly due to differences in socio-cultural background between countries.

  6. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  7. Computational Analysis to Factor Wind into the Design of an Architectural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wind distribution on the architectural domain of the Bahrain Trade Centre was numerically analysed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Using the numerical data, the power generation potential of the building-integrated wind turbines was determined in response to the prevailing wind direction. The three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations along with the momentum and continuity equations were solved for obtaining the velocity and pressure field. Simulating a reference wind speed of 6 m/s, the findings from the study quantified an estimate power generation of 6.4 kW indicating a capacity factor of 2.9% for the benchmark model. At the windward side of the building, it was observed that the layers of turbulence intensified in inverse proportion to the height of the building with an average value of 0.45 J/kg. The air velocity was found to gradually increase in direct proportion to the elevation with the turbine located at higher altitude receiving maximum exposure to incoming wind. This work highlighted the potential of using advanced computational fluid dynamics in order to factor wind into the design of any architectural environment.

  8. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  9. Learner Involvement at Arabian Gulf University Self-Access Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Malcolm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabian Gulf University (AGU College of Medicine and Medical Sciences was established around 25 years ago to train students in the Arab Gulf states, including Bahrain, where it is located, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to become doctors of medicine (MDs using the problem-based learning approach (PBL. As is the case in most regional higher education institutions, entering students are expected to be proficient in English, the language through which course content is delivered. In reality, many students do not achieve the desired standard in English, thus must take one or more semesters of English language training before beginning their academic studies. IAGU has an annual intake of around 150 students of widely varying English proficiency levels, but has only recently begun to accept some students to a foundation English programme. Before that, our small English unit had to find ways of helping the least proficient improve their English skills, while providing a basis in English for medical purposes for all students, within the same course framework. Our self-access centre (SAC, though small and definitely not state of the art, has had an important role to play in accommodating the different students’ needs and interests, supplementing their course material and providing opportunities for increased language exposure.

  10. Research on psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Jamal M; Al-Khateeb, Anas J

    2014-02-01

    This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies.

  11. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program.

  12. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  13. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  14. Constructing the “Arab Spring”: News Discourses in Turkish Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Dağtaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Originating in Tunisia and spreading rapidly to Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, and Libya, the recent wave of popular movements that the Western media have dubbed the “Arab Spring” has been closely monitored by the whole world including in Turkey. This country is geographically close to the region and the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP has been active in developing foreign policies in relation to the key countries involved. This paper analyzes the news discourses in the reports published between January 25th and February 25th, 2011, in six Turkish national newspapers. This is the period when upheaval reached its peak in Tahrir Square in Cairo, the most potent symbol of “Arab Spring”. The newspapers sampled fall into two categories, those supporting the AKP government (Star, Zaman, and Sabah and those not supporting the AKP government (Cumhuriyet, Hürriyet, and Taraf. To map the discursive fields employed in the news reports, this paper draws on methods from critical discourse analysis and examines news actors and their quotation patterns, lexicalization, overlexicalization and syntactic preferences.

  15. Reforms in triple talaq in the personal laws of Muslim states and the Pakistani legal system: Continuity versus change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the reforms carried out in some of the Muslim states regarding the issue of triple divorce in one session. According to a majority of Sunni jurists, pronouncing the word ‘talaq’ three times in succession, equates with three ‘talaqs’. On the contrary, according to Ibn Taimiyah, Ibn al-Qiyam, and the Shi‘a Imamiyah, three pronouncements of the word talaq in one session equals only one talaq. Most Arab, as well as many Muslim states such as Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Sudan, Morocco, Kuwait, Yemen, Afghanistan, Libya, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, have, while formulating their own laws, followed Ibn Taimiyah’s and Ibn al-Qiyam’s positions on this issue. In this regard, Sri Lanka’s Marriage and Divorce (Muslim Act, 1951, as amended up to 2006, seems to be the most ideal legislation on triple talaq. In Pakistan, the Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961, has abolished triple talaq, as the procedure laid down in section 7 is largely applicable to one or two pronouncements only and excludes three pronouncements. Furthermore, some portions of section 7 are in clear contravention of the dictates of Islamic law, which adds to this precarious section’s peculiarity. The superior courts in Pakistan and Bangladesh have not been consistent in interpreting the law on this important subject, while on the other hand, some Indian High Courts have treated triple talaq as invalid.

  16. Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services offered for palliative care patients in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; Mohamad, Alaa Adil; AlYafei, Sumaya AlSaadi

    2014-09-01

    Palliative care is an emerging concept in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a political and economic union of Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Clinical pharmacy services have not yet been evaluated in this region. The objectives of this study were to create a baseline inventory of clinical pharmacy interventions in palliative care and to assess the perceived importance of interventions made. This was a prospective, single-center characterization study. Interventions were documented from September 30 to December 1, 2013. They were characterized into predetermined categories and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Physician acceptance rate and intervention rate per patient were calculated. Classification categories were sent to 10 practicing pharmacists in each of Qatar and Canada, who ranked the categories on the basis of perceived importance. A total of 96 interventions were documented, giving 3 interventions per patient and an acceptance rate of 81%. Discontinuing therapy (29%), initiating therapy (25%), and provision of education/counseling (13.5%) were most common. No differences were found between rankings from pharmacists in Qatar or Canada. Clinical pharmacy interventions are frequent, and those relating to alterations in drug therapy are most common. Interventions align with the perceived importance from pharmacists in both Qatar and Canada.

  17. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  18. SESAME -- A third generation synchrotron light source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-03-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. Members of the Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority,Turkey) provide the operations budget. Voluntary contributions by several Council Members that could amount to over 20 million over 5 years are now being finalized. This, plus funds from other sources, will enable acquisition of the technical components of the new ring and the upgrading of beamline equipment donated by several European and US labs. All concrete shielding is complete. The 0.8 GeV BESSY I injector system, a gift from Germany, is now being installed. A training program has been underway since 2000. SESAME is on track to start operation with four day-one beam lines in 2015.

  19. SESAME -- A light source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-02-01

    Developed under UNESCO and modelled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. The Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey), provides the annual budget. Concrete shielding is complete, and a staff of 21 is installing the refurbished 0.8 GeV BESS Y I injector system, a gift from Germany. The facility can serve 25 simultaneous experiments. Beamline equipment has been provided by Daresbury (UK), the Helmholtz Assoc. (Germany), the Swiss Light Source, LURE (France), the Univ. of Liverpool, Elettra (Italy) and US labs. Jordan has contributed 3.3M, in addition to a building and land. The EU has contributed 4.8M. Commitments confirmed by Members look set to provide most of 35M needed to complete construction of the ring and 3 beamlines. A training program has been underway since 2000. See www.sesame.org.jo

  20. Imported Expertise in World-class Knowledge Infrastructures: The Problematic Development of Knowledge Cities in the Gulf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosior, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the oil business, settlements in the Gulf Region developed into prosperous cities. But in the near future, oil is off. The plans of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC states bank on diversified and knowledge-intensive economies. Are those development plans realistic? What is the state of the art of knowledge institutions in the GCC countries? Applying the theoretical frameworks of Knowledge City and Science Indicators research, we empirically and theoretically studied the emerging Gulf cities Kuwait City (Kuwait, Manama (Bahrain, Doha (Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah (all UAE, and Muscat (Oman. Our methodological framework includes grounded theory, ethnographic field study, ServQual-like quantitative questionnaires and semi-standardized qualitative interviews conducted on-site with informed people, informetrics, and, finally, the use of official statistics. In particular, we describe and analyze the cities' knowledge infrastructures, their academics, and expenditure on R&D as input indicators; and publications as well as graduates as output indicators. A further crucial aspect of a knowledge society is the transition of graduates into knowledge-intensive public services and private companies.

  1. MENA Renewables Status Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The MENA Renewables Status Report is an outcome of ADIREC, the Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference. The report provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends in the region, drawing on the most recent data available. It is produced in cooperation with over 50 contributors and researchers in the region and reveals massive growth in the renewable energy markets of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Regional investment topped US$2.9 billion in 2012, up 40% from 2011 and 650% from 2004. With over 100 projects under development, the region could see a 450% increase in non-hydro renewable energy generating capacity in the next few years. For the report, the 21 MENA countries were clustered into two sub-groups: Net Oil-Exporting Countries (NOEC) -- Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; and Net Oil-Importing Countries (NOIC) -- Djibouti, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, and Tunisia.

  2. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC. (author)

  3. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel, E-mail: dr09@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  4. La revolución llega a Bahréin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Peñalva Vélez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bahréin, pequeno país situado en un lugar estratégico en el Golfo pérsico por su proximidad con Irán y con Arabia Saudita; es protagonista; desde el 14 de febrero de 2011; de una revuelta parecida a las vividas por otros países como Egipto o Túnez. Sus particularidades geográficas; históricas (país bajo tutela británica hasta su efectiva independencia en 1971; políticas (desequilibrio en el reparto de poderes ; geoestratégicas (base de la quinta flota americana; sociodemográficas (mestizaje cultural debido al importante porcentage de población extranjera entre expertos; trabajadores cualificados y/o mano de obra de Europa; América y Asia; económicas (diversificación económica; religiosas (diversidad de cultos, etc. deben ser tenidas en cuenta a la hora de evaluar las causas; los objetivos y las posibles consecuencias de la revuelta de una mayoría chiíta gobernada por una minoría sunita. Este artículo pretende analizar los diferentes aspectos de esta crisis política, que es bien anterior a los acontecimientos del mes de febrero; y que sería reduccionista reducir a un puro enfrentamiento entre sunitas y chiítas. Al albor de los ultimos acontecimientos; y en especial debido al aumento gradual de la violencia ; cabe prever la existencia de una fractura social creada por estas divisiones promulgadas por líderes políticos y medios de comunicación y que probablemente ralentizará la instauración de reformas democráticas. Palabras clave: Bahrein, revoluciones del mundo árabe, petróleo, sunita, chiíta.___________________________Abstract:Bahrain, a small country considered as strategically located in the Persian Gulf due to its proximity to both Iran and Saudi Arabia, has been witnessing a revolt since 14 February 2011, similar to those which took place in Tunisia and Egypt. Bahrain’s particularities are numerous: geographical, historical (the country was under British protectorate until its independence in 1971

  5. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  6. Performance of advanced methods for treatment of wastewater: UV/TiO{sub 2}, RO and UF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bastaki, N.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain (Bahrain)

    2004-07-01

    Photocatalytic and membrane processes are strong candidates for improving conventional water treatment processes. These advanced treatment methods are capable of removing many pollutant chemicals as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this work was to study the performance of small scale UV/TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic pilot plant process in treating secondary and tertiary treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in Bahrain. The performance was evaluated in terms of the efficiency of removing a chlorine resistant parasite, namely, Strongyloides Stercolaris, in addition to reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The effect of pH and exposure time were considered. The performance of the UV/TiO{sub 2} was compared with small pilot scale ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane processes. Treatment of the samples with each of the UV/TiO{sub 2}, UF and RO processes resulted in a complete removal of the Strongyloides Stercolaris parasites. Moreover, the chemical oxygen demand was reduced by about 50, 64 and 86% with each of UV/TiO{sub 2}, UF and RO. The specific power consumption of the UV/TiO{sub 2} process was estimated to be about 4.0 kWh/m{sup 3} for each of UV/TiO{sub 2} and sea water RO (SWRO) and 1.0 kWh/m{sup 3} and 0.9 kWh/m{sup 3} for each of brakish water RO (BWRO) and cross flow UF, respectively. The UV/TiO{sub 2} process produces no waste stream, whereas the RO and UF processes generate waste streams which are concentrated in the microorganisms and suspended organic matter, which result in a disposal problem. (author)

  7. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  8. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Bcheraoui, Charbel El; Rao, Puja C; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd El; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Butt, Zahid A; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D A; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M; Ranabhat, Chhabi L; Rao, Sowmya R; Refaat, Amany H; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Sykes, Bryan L; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Rabeeah, Abdullah A Al; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-12-07

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.

  9. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990–2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Rao, Puja C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Butt, Zahid A.; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B.; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Ur Rahman, Sajjad; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi L.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Refaat, Amany H.; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden. PMID:27928080

  10. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area.

  11. Rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first gulf acute heart failure registry (gulf care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim J Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of data on heart failure (HF in the Gulf Middle East. The present paper describes the rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE. Materials and Methods: Gulf CARE is a prospective, multicenter, multinational registry of patients >18 year of age admitted with diagnosis of acute HF (AHF. The data collected included demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, precipitating factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with AHF. In addition, data about hospital readmission rates, procedures and mortality at 3 months and 1-year follow-up were recorded. Hospital characteristics and care provider details were collected. Data were entered in a dedicated website using an electronic case record form. Results: A total of 5005 consecutive patients were enrolled from February 14, 2012 to November 13, 2012. Forty-seven hospitals in 7 Gulf States (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, United Gulf Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain participated in the project. The majority of hospitals were community hospitals (46%; 22/47 followed by non-University teaching (32%; 15/47 and University hospitals (17%. Most of the hospitals had intensive or coronary care unit facilities (93%; 44/47 with 59% (28/47 having catheterization laboratory facilities. However, only 29% (14/47 had a dedicated HF clinic facility. Most patients (71% were cared for by a cardiologist. Conclusions: Gulf CARE is the first prospective registry of AHF in the Middle East, intending to provide a unique insight into the demographics, etiology, management and outcomes of AHF in the Middle East. HF management in the Middle East is predominantly provided by cardiologists. The data obtained from this registry will help the local clinicians to identify the deficiencies in HF management as well as provide a platform to implement evidence based preventive and treatment strategies to reduce the burden

  12. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  13. Biomedical Publications Profile and Trends in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almundher Al-Maawali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Methods: The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. Results: The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. Conclusion: The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman.

  14. Medical Students’ Perceptions of Peer Assessment in a Problem-based Learning Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin I. Tayem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peer assessment (PA is believed to support learning and help students develop both professionally and personally. The aim of this study was to examine medical students’ perceptions of intragroup PA in a problem-based learning (PBL setting. Methods: This study was carried out between September and November 2014 and involved six random groups of fourth-year undergraduate medical students (n = 60 enrolled at the Arabian Gulf University in Manama, Bahrain. While working on set tasks within a curriculum unit, each student evaluated a randomly selected peer using an English language adapted assessment tool to measure responsibility and respect, information processing, critical analysis, interaction and collaborative skills. At the end of the unit, students’ perceptions of PA were identified using a specifically-designed voluntary and anonymous selfadministered questionnaire in English. Results: A total of 55 students participated in the study (response rate: 92%. The majority of students reported that their learning (60%, attendance (67%, respect towards group members (70% and participation in group discussions (71% improved as a result of PA. Regarding problem analysis skills, most participants believed that PA improved their ability to analyse problems (65%, identify learning needs (64%, fulfil tasks related to the analysis of learning needs (72% and share knowledge within their group (74%. Lastly, a large proportion of students reported that this form of assessment helped them develop their communication (71% and self-assessment skills (73%, as well as collaborative abilities (75%. Conclusion: PA was well accepted by the students in this cohort and led to self-reported improvements in learning, skills, attitudes, engagement and other indicators of personal and professional development. PA was also perceived to have a positive impact on intragroup attitudes.

  15. Styrene maleic acid-encapsulated paclitaxel micelles: antitumor activity and toxicity studies following oral administration in a murine orthotopic colon cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parayath NN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neha N Parayath,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Samuel E Norton,2 Andrew J Highton,2 Sebastien Taurin,1,3 Roslyn A Kemp,2 Khaled Greish1,4 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Oral administration of paclitaxel (PTX, a broad spectrum anticancer agent, is challenged by its low uptake due to its poor bioavailability, efflux through P-glycoprotein, and gastrointestinal toxicity. We synthesized PTX nanomicelles using poly(styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA. Oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles doubled the maximum tolerated dose (60 mg/kg vs 30 mg/kg compared to the commercially available PTX formulation (PTX [Ebewe]. In a murine orthotopic colon cancer model, oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles at doses 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg reduced tumor weight by 54% and 69%, respectively, as compared to the control group, while no significant reduction in tumor weight was observed with 30 mg/kg of PTX (Ebewe. In addition, toxicity of PTX was largely reduced by its encapsulation into SMA. Furthermore, examination of the tumors demonstrated a decrease in the number of blood vessels. Thus, oral delivery of SMA-PTX micelles may provide a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. Keywords: oral delivery, anticancer nanomedicine, CT-26, enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect, HUVEC, antiangiogenic

  16. RELIGION AND BANKING SYSTEM: THE FUTURE OF SYARIAH BANKING PRACTICES Historical and Contemporary Fiqh Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamka Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum of the development of Sharia banking has been noticed since the 1970s, which generally had two patterns: first, establishing the Islamic bank side by side with conventional one (dual-banking system as practiced in Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Bangladesh; and second, restructuring the banking system as a whole in accordance with Islamic Sharia (full-fledged Islamic financial system as applied in Sudan, Iran and Pakistan. The development of the Sharia-based banks which have been established across the world since the 1970s, became the motivation of the Indonesian ulemas to draft law on Sharia banking, so that Sharia banking could also be developed. As a result, these last few years, the banking world in Indonesia has witnessed the establishment of the public Sharia banks and Sharia business units, like Bank Muamalat and Bank Syariah Mandiri to mention a few. Using historical and contemporary jurisprudence perspective, this paper provides discussion on the future of Sharia banking.

  17. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  18. Use of health systems evidence by policymakers in eastern mediterranean countries: views, practices, and contextual influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems evidence can enhance policymaking and strengthen national health systems. In the Middle East, limited research exists on the use of evidence in the policymaking process. This multi-country study explored policymakers’ views and practices regarding the use of health systems evidence in health policymaking in 10 eastern Mediterranean countries, including factors that influence health policymaking and barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence. Methods This study utilized a survey adapted and customized from a similar tool developed in Canada. Health policymakers from 10 countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive and bi-variate analyses were performed for quantitative questions and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. Results A total of 237 policymakers completed the survey (56.3% response rate. Governing parties, limited funding for the health sector and donor organizations exerted a strong influence on policymaking processes. Most (88.5% policymakers reported requesting evidence and 43.1% reported collaborating with researchers. Overall, 40.1% reported that research evidence is not delivered at the right time. Lack of an explicit budget for evidence-informed health policymaking (55.3%, lack of an administrative structure for supporting evidence-informed health policymaking processes (52.6%, and limited value given to research (35.9% all limited the use of research evidence. Barriers to the use of evidence included lack of research targeting health policy, lack of funding and investments, and political forces. Facilitators included availability of health research and research institutions, qualified researchers, research funding, and easy access to information. Conclusions Health policymakers in several countries recognize the importance of using health systems evidence. Study findings are important in light

  19. Mental illness research in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather

    2016-08-04

    Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice

  20. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from Gulf Corporation Council countries

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    Aly Mahmoud

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is substantial and is likely to grow. Many factors play a role in the emergence of resistance. These resistance mechanisms may be encoded on transferable genes, which facilitate the spread of resistance between bacterial strains of the same and/or different species. Other resistance mechanisms may be due to alterations in the chromosomal DNA which enables the bacteria to withstand the environment and multiply. Many, if not most, of the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC countries do not have clear guidelines for antimicrobial use, and lack policies for restricting and auditing antimicrobial prescriptions. Objective The aim of this study is to review the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in GCC countries and explore the reasons for antibiotic resistance in the region. Methodology The PubMed database was searched using the following key words: antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic stewardship, prevalence, epidemiology, mechanism of resistance, and GCC country (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. Results From January1990 through April 2011, there were 45 articles published reviewing antibiotic resistance in the GCC countries. Among all the GCC countries, 37,295 bacterial isolates were studied for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent microorganism was Escherichia coli (10,073/44%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (4,709/20%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4,287/18.7%, MRSA (1,216/5.4%, Acinetobacter (1,061/5%, with C. difficile and Enterococcus representing less than 1%. Conclusion In the last 2 decades, E. coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent reported microorganisms by GCC countries with resistance data.

  1. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-09-09

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied.

  2. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

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    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  3. Enhancing Employees Performance via Empowerment: A Field Survey

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    Nail AHK Awamleh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to show the importance of empowerment in improving employee’s performance in many ways. Major objectives of the study are: (1 Give concise review on empowerment from different aspects, (2 Show practical experience with empowerment practices through a field survey of these practices in a sample of respondents working in business and government organizations in Bahrain, (3 Draw some conclusions on "empowerment" of importance for researchers and practitioners in management and organizations, (4 Provide some recommendations in the light of the conclusions of the study. Empowerment is the process of enabling employees in many forms and ways including delegating, training and development, job rotation and fair promotion opportunities. A concise review of literature on empowerment, its types and forms, obstacles and ways of improving empowerment have been given in this study. The study employs descriptive-analytic approach in achieving its goals. It utilizes ready and primary sources of information and data. The study relies on related literature review along with primary data collected by means of questionnaire especially designed for this study. Major findings of the study include wide differences among researchers and practitioners regarding the meaning, nature, tools and applications of empowerment. Findings also shows that empowerment faces serious practical obstacles such as insufficient top management support, lack of awareness, absence of clear regulations on ways and tools of empowerment and insufficient funds. The study recommended carrying out more academic and practical activities regarding empowerment, updating laws and regulations to reinforcing empowerment practices and restructuring organizational culture and structure to create empowerment friendly environment.

  4. Nutritional status and outcomes in hemodialysis patients from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries enrolled in the dialysis outcome and practice patterns study phase 5 (2012-2015

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    Fadwa S Al-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important factor in maintaining good health of hemodialysis (HD patients, affecting their morbidity and mortality. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS is an international observational study assessing differences in dialysis practices and outcomes across >20 countries. Here, we present the results for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries regarding nutrition data and its relationship with outcomes as a part of the DOPPS Phase 5 study (2012-2015. Data were from Phase 5 of the DOPPS. Main analyses were based on 927 adult chronic HD patients enrolled at the start of the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study from each of the 40 randomly selected GCC HD facilities from Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Within each participating facility, 20-30 patients were randomly selected, depending on facility size. Analysis showed minor differences across GCC countries in age, albumin levels, nutrition supplement use, and being bothered by the lack of appetite. Elderly (>60 years old and diabetic HD patients displayed poorer nutritional parameters than young and nondiabetic patients. A low albumin level (<3.2 g/dL was associated with the highest risk of mortality with a hazard ratio (HR of 2.47 (P <0.0001 followed by diabetes with HR 1.57 (P <0.04 and older age [HR= 1.27/10 years older (P <0.01]. Quality of life measures physical component summary and mental component summary correlated negatively with albumin <3.2 g/dL (−2.18 and −5.5, respectively, P <0.05 for each, and with serum creatinine level <7.5 mg/dL (−2.29 and −2.1 respectively, P <0.05 for each. We are presenting the first study of the nutrition status and outcomes for HD patients in the GCC countries in DOPPS. Our results were mostly comparable to findings in previous trials in other countries. Although the data are observational, our study provides good insight into aspects of nutrition in the GCC countries and can be

  5. TAXPAYERS AND TAX AUTHORITIES INTERACTING WITHIN THE MENA REGION: THE NEXUS BETWEEN TRUST, POWER AND COMPLIANCE

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    Batrancea Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any type of interaction climate, be it synergistic or antagonistic, is delineated by a tandem of dimensions: trust in authorities and power of authorities. Advocates for this assumption are the manifold of empirical studies testing the “slippery slope framework” which subsumes the two dimensions. A major proffer advanced by the framework is that tax authorities’ approach towards citizens poses great influence on compliance, either fuelling or hindering it. Irrespective of whether tax burden level is high (e.g., Scandinavian, Continental welfare states, medium (e.g., East European, Anglo-Saxon welfare states, minimum or completely lacking (e.g., tax havens, tax authorities and taxpayers establish a connection in which the former’s actions are mirrored in the latter’s perceptions about leadership’s benevolence in public good provisions (i.e., trust and efficiency in deterring tax evasion (i.e., power. The tandem trust-power and the specific features of such connections within some countries of the Middle East and Northern Africa tax climate (i.e., Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates are the thrust of the present study. The methodology spans a multidisciplinary approach, from explaining trust and power via governance indicators proposed by the World Bank, investigating economic development with chain base indexes and examining tax compliance process on country-level. The MENA region is source for novel and relevant insights on the nexus between trust, power and compliance, as it hosts countries which vary greatly in terms of economic development (transition to developed, fiscal policy (low to no taxes or economy drivers (oil exporters, oil importers and where tax compliance gains importance amid diminishing hydrocarbon resources. Nowadays economic realities constrain MENA authorities to refocus their governing strategies and perceive taxation as a viable future solution for

  6. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

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    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  7. Simulation of the Radiative Impact of High Dust Loading during a Dust Storm in March 2012

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    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated a severe dust storm that developed over vast areas of the Middle East on 18-19 March 2012 and affected Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Egypt, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Israel, and Pakistan. The visible aerosol optical depth recorded by the AERONET station on the KAUST campus (22.30o N 39.10o E) during the storm reached 4.5, exceeding the average level by an order of magnitude. To quantify the effects of the dust on atmospheric radiation and dynamics, we analyzed available ground-based and satellite observations and conducted numerical simulations using a fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem). The model was able to reproduce the spatial and temporal patterns of the aerosol optical depths (AOD) observed by airborne and ground-based instruments. The major dust sources included river valleys of lower Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, desert areas in Kuwait, Iran, United Arab Emirates, central Arabia including Rub' al Khali, An Nafud, and Ad Dahna, as well as the Red Sea coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The total amount of dust generated across the entire domain during the period of the simulation reached 93.76 Mt; 73.04 Mt of dust was deposited within the domain; 6.56 Mt of dust sunk in the adjacent sea waters, including 1.20 Mt that sedimented into the Red Sea. The model predicted a well-mixed boundary layer expanding up to 3.5 km in the afternoon. Some dust plumes were seen above the Planetary Boundary layer. In our simulations, mineral dust heated the lower atmosphere with a maximum heating rate of 9 K/day. The dust storm reduced the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface to a maximum daily average value of -134 Wm-2 and the daily averaged long-wave forcing at the surface increased to 43 Wm-2. The combined short-wave cooling and long-wave warming effects of dust aerosols caused significant reduction in the surface air temperature -6.7 K at 1200 UTC on 19 March 2013.

  8. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

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    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  9. Abu Dhabi-Great Britain and the crisis over jurisdiction 1959-1960

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    Federico Velez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las demandas presentadas por el Jeque Shakhbout en 1959 para obtener la plena soberanía jurídica sobre el emirato de Abu Dhabi generaron una crisis diplomática plasmada en la correspondencia interna del gobierno Británico. Con sus demandas, el Jeque Shakhbout forzaba a la burocracia a cargo de los Estados de la Tregua – La Oficina de Asuntos Extranjeros en Londres, el representante del gobierno Británico en Bahreín, y los agente administrativos y políticos en Dubai y Abu Dhabi a reexaminar las bases legales de la presencia Británica en la zona y los límites éticos del sistema judicial impuesto sobre sus habitantes. La crisis va mas allá de una discusión sobre los poderes jurisdiccionales. La crisis nos ofrece una ventana a las contradicciones inherentes a la  presencia Británica en la zona, en el marco del movimiento nacionalista árabe y del desarrollo de la industria petrolera y la futura redefinición de la relación entre Abu Dhabi  y la Gran Bretaña.Palabras clave: Abu Dhabi, Gran Bretaña, colonialismo___________________________Abstract:Demands to the British government for supreme jurisdiction over his territory presented by the ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1959 created a diplomatic crisis captured in the internal correspondence of the British government. Sheikh Shakhbout forced the entire bureaucracy that was dealing with the Trucial States – the Foreign Office in London, the British Resident in Bahrain, and the Political and Administrative Agents in Abu Dhabi and Dubai – to reexamine the legality of their presence in the region and the ethical limits of the judicial system imposed on this land.The crisis went beyond the mere discussion over jurisdictional powers. It is also a window into the contradictions linked to the British presence in the region, within the framework of the nascent Arab Nationalist movement and the development of the oil industry . All of which will soon change the nature of the relationship between

  10. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  11. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  12. 'One health' in action series: nos 1-8.

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    Kahn, Laura H; Kaplan, Bruce; Monath, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    This series of short articles was published in 2007 and distributed to the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath 'One Health' email distribution list. The articles are further examples of historical achievements obtained across numerous scientific disciplines, including human and veterinary medicine. Each article was written and developed with assistance from the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath 'One Health' team. The expanding 'One Health' email distribution list now totals approximately 590 individuals in 38 countries including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, France, Germany, Grenada, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malta, The Netherlands, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay. The list of supporters currently totals 417. If these lists are still being actively maintained by the publication date of this 'One Medicine - One Health' monograph, any allied health scientist, physician, osteopath or veterinarian may be added to one and/or both lists by contacting us at bkapdvm@verizon.net. Please include your curriculum vitae or brief biography, title, degree(s), affiliation and address consistent with those currently acknowledged as 'One Health - One Medicine' supporters. There are no obligations attached to joining this group and you may have your name removed at any time upon request. Those who have prepared this message and the two lists act independently of any other entity or organisation. However, where feasible, we attempt to augment and support those organisations' efforts to recognise, promote and implement this initiative, such as the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Croatian Society for Infectious Diseases, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, World

  13. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with vildagliptin versus other oral drugs for type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting in the Middle East: results from the EDGE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Charles; Al-Saber, Feryal A; Haddad, Jihad; Jallo, Mahir Khalil; Steitieh, Habib; Bader, Giovanni; Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease that requires treatment intensification with antihyperglycemic agents due to progressive deterioration of β-cell function. A large observational study of 45,868 patients with T2DM across 27 countries (EDGE) assessed the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin as add-on to other oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) versus other comparator OAD combinations. Here, we present results from the Middle East countries (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates). Methods Patients inadequately controlled with OAD monotherapy were eligible after the add-on treatment was chosen by the physician based on clinical judgment and patient need. Patients were assigned to either vildagliptin or comparator OADs (sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, or metformin, except incretin-based therapies) based on the add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction of >0.3% without peripheral edema, hypoglycemia, discontinuation due to a gastrointestinal event, or weight gain ≥5%. One of the secondary endpoints was the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% without hypoglycemia or weight gain. Change in HbA1c from baseline to study endpoint and safety were also assessed. Results Of the 4,780 patients enrolled in the Middle East, 2,513 received vildagliptin and 2,267 received other OADs. Overall, the mean (± standard deviation) age at baseline was 52.1±10.2 years, mean HbA1c was 8.5%±1.3%, and mean T2DM duration was 4.2±4.0 years. The proportion of patients achieving the primary (76.1% versus 61.6%, P<0.0001) and secondary (54.8% versus 29.9%, P<0.0001) endpoints was higher with vildagliptin than with the comparator OADs. The unadjusted odds ratios for the primary and secondary endpoints were 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.75–2.25) and 2.8 (95% confidence interval 2.5–3

  14. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  15. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  16. ‘One Health’ in Action Series: Nos 1-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This series of short articles was published in 2007 and distributed to the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath ‘One Health’ email distribution list. The articles are further examples of historical achievements obtained across numerous scientific disciplines, including human and veterinary medicine. Each article was written and developed with assistance from the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath ‘One Health’ team.The expanding ‘One Health’ email distribution list now totals approximately 590 individuals in 38 countries including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, France, Germany, Grenada, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malta, The Netherlands, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay.The list of supporters currently totals 417. If these lists are still being actively maintained by the publication date of this ‘One Medicine -One Health’ monograph, any allied health scientist, physician, osteopath or veterinarian may be added to one and/or both lists by contacting us at bkapdvm@verizon.net. Please include your curriculum vitae or brief biography, title, degree(s, affiliation and address consistent with those currently acknowledged as ‘One Health - One Medicine’ supporters. There are no obligations attached to joining this group and you may have your name removed at any time upon request.Those who have prepared this message and the two lists act independently of any other entity or organisation. However, where feasible, we attempt to augment and support those organisations' efforts to recognise, promote and implement this initiative, such as the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Croatian Society for Infectious Diseases, American Society of Tropical

  17. 赤峰市2007~2014年人间布鲁菌病疫情态势分析%Analysis of human brucellosis epidemic situation in Chifeng City in 2007-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琪; 王培玉; 张学英; 刘爱萍

    2015-01-01

    continued until 2011. In 2012 it began to reduce, but by 2014 the cases were bumped up to his-torical peak (2184 cases). The highest onset seasons began from March to May, April were the most. The 12 banners, counties or districts were all the epidemic areas with pathogenesis of brucellosis, Linxi County and Bahrain Right Ban-ner had the highest morbidity, Hexigten Banner and Bahrain Left Banner had the second morbidity, Punavuori District, Yuanbaoshan District and Ningcheng County had the lowest. Onset age was given priority to 40-<55 years old group, male incidence was higher than female (χ²=356.12, P< 0.05); professional distribution to farmers (79.54%) and herds-men (11.65%) were in the majority. Conclusion The epidemic situation of human brucellosis of Chifeng City has im-proved in 2011, but reach to history's highest peak in 2014. The comprehensive prevention and control measures should be further carried out to strengthen the management and control the brucellosis infection. Professional knowl-edge of annimal brucellosis prevention propaganda and education and control the outbreak of human brucellosis in Chifeng City are required.

  18. Analysis of wax hydrocarbons in petroleum source rocks from the Damintun depression, eastern China, using high temperature gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiping Huang [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Chinese University of Geosciences, Beijing (China). Dept. of Petroleum Geology; Larter, S.R.; Love, G.D. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

    2003-12-01

    environmental conditions, as shown previously [Carlson, R.M.K., Teerman, S.C., Moldowan, J.M., Jacobson, S.R., Chan, E.l., Dorrough, K.S., Sectoo, W.C., Mertani, B., 1993. High temperature gas chromatography of high wax oils. In: Indonesian Petroleum Association, 22nd Annual Convention Proceedings. Jakarta, Indonesian, pp. 483-507. Carlson, R.M.K., Jacobsen, S.R., Moldowan, J.M., Chan E.l., 1994. Potential application of high temperature gas chromatography to Middle Eastern petroleum exploration and production. In: Al-Husseini, M.I. (Ed.), Geo'94, Vol I., Selected Middle East Papers from The Middle East Petroleum Geoscience Conference, 1994; Gulf PetroLink. Manama, Bahrain, pp. 258-2671]. Our study indicates for the first time that Es3 source rocks as well as Es4 facies contain HMVMCS. The distributions of extractable wax hydrocarbons suggest that both Es4 and Es3 members may potentially serve as important parent source rocks for generating waxy petroleum in this region. (author)

  19. Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    ,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.

  20. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1,2 Fuad Al Mutairi,1,2 Nawal Makhseed,3 Fatma Al Jasmi,4 Khalid Al-Thihli,5 Emtithal Al-Jishi,6 Moeenaldeen AlSayed,7 Zuhair N Al-Hassnan,7,8 Fathiya Al-Murshedi,5 Johannes Häberle,9 Tawfeg Ben-Omran10 Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group (MHUSG 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pediatrics, Jahra Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jahra City, Kuwait; 4Department of Pediatric, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Genetic and Developmental Medicine Clinic, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 6Salmaniya Medical Complex, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 7Department of Medical Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, 8The National Newborn Screening Program, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 9Department of Pediatrics, Division of Metabolism and Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 10Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain.Objective: There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is

  1. Use of the Seasons and Biomes Project in Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Morris, K.; . Jaroensutasinee, M.; Jaroensutasinee, K.; Yule, S.; Boger, R.; Gordon, L. S.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kopplin, M. R.; Verbyla, D. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Seasons and Biomes Project is an inquiry- and project- based initiative that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, with the goal of increasing primary and secondary students' understanding of the earth system, and engaging them in research as a way of learning science, understanding climate change, contributing to climate change studies and participating in the fourth International Polar Year. International professional development workshops have been conducted in the United States, S. Africa, Germany and most recently in Thailand. Primary and secondary teachers and teacher trainers as well as scientists from Argentina, Bahrain, Cameroon, Canada, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Greenland, India, Peru, Paraguay, Mongolia, Norway, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States have participated in the training workshops and are working with students. Available to the Seasons and Biomes participants are the rich array of scientific protocols for investigations on atmosphere/weather, hydrology, soils, land cover biology, and phenology as well as learning activities which have been developed by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment program (GLOBE) program (www.globe.gov). GLOBE is an international (109 countries involved) earth/environmental science and education program that brings together scientists, teachers, students and parents in inquiry-based studies and in monitoring the Earth, increasing awareness of and care of the environment, and increasing student achievement across the curriculum. Students conduct their studies at or close to their schools and submit the data they have collected to the Data Archive on the GLOBE website. Seasons and Biomes has developed additional learning activities and measurement protocols such as freshwater ice phenology protocols (freeze-up and break-up) and a frost tube (depth of freezing in soils) protocol that are being used in schools. A mosquito

  2. Pain frequency, severity and QT dispersion in adult patients with sickle cell anemia: correlation with inflammatory markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garadah TS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Taysir S Garadah,1,2 Ahmed A Jaradat,2 Mohammed E AlAlawi,1 Adla B Hassan,1 Reginald P Sequeira2 1Salmanyia Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Background: Inflammatory markers are increased during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, but this is not clear in clinical steady state. Aim: The present study aims to establish the frequency and intensity of bone pain episodes in adult patients with SCA in clinical steady state and to determine the correlation between different inflammatory markers, other variables including QT dispersion (QTd and pain frequency and intensity in SCA. Patients and methods: Patients were classified into two groups: group 1, those with more than three hospital admissions in the last 6 months, and group 2, those with no hospital admission. Pearson correlation between variables such as body mass index (BMI, level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin (Hb, reticulocyte count, white blood cell count (WBC, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, parathormone (PTH, vitamin D3 (25-OH cholecalciferol and bone pain frequency with severity was evaluated. Results: Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 18.47±5.78 years, with 23 patients in each group. Vitamin D3 and Hb were lower (17.04±5.77 vs 37.59±4.83 ng/L, P<0.01 and 7.96±0.3 vs 8.44±0.27 g/dL, P<0.01, respectively; the inflammatory markers showed significantly higher level of TNF-α, IL-1 and CRP (56.52±5.43 pg/ml, 44.17±4.54 pg/ml and 3.20±0.72 mg/L, respectively, P<0.05; WBC, LDH and reticulocyte count were also significantly higher and the QTd was higher (45.0±2.22 vs 41.55±0.8 ms, P<0.05 in group 1 when compared with group 2. Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant positive correlation between serum level of TNF-α and bone pain frequency

  3. [Manpower migrations in the Arab world: the reverse of the New Economic Order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, F

    1985-01-01

    Population and petroleum, 2 essential factors in the development of the Arab world, are unequally distributed in the 18 Arab countries. The abstract possibility of mutually beneficial cooperation between the countries with large populations and no oil and those with oil but small populations is far from being realized; on the contrary, growing inequality and deterioration of human and productive resources can be observed in the Arab world. The apparent economic progress of the oil producing states is illusory, because it has permitted them to defer development of their own internal resources such as agriculture, industry, professional training and education in favor of greater dependence on the temporary palliative of petroleum revenues. In 1980, over 3 million Arabs had emigrated toward other Arab countries, where they were joined by approximately 1.8 million non-Arabs. 4 types of Arab migration have been important: movement from the countryside to cities within countries, movement of Arab migrants to non-Arab countries, movement from 1 Arab state to another because of political factors and especially to earn high wages in the oil producing states, and immigration of non-Arabs and especially Asians to Arab countries. 6 of the principal manpower importing countries, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar, had total labor forces of about 5.2 million in 1985, of which only 41% were nationals. There have been 4 main consequences for the states importing manpower: 1) petroleum production is very capital intensive and creates few jobs; the jobs filled by migrants are mostly in construction and services funded by oil revenues 2) the expansion is temporary because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource; the manpower transfers will therefore not be permanent 3) the migrants represent a large proportion of the labor force and populations of the Gulf oil-producing states, and 4) the migrants are systematically excluded from the political and

  4. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 4 of TOJDE! In this issue, one book review and 26 articles of 49 authors from 15 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Bahrain, Brazil, Greece, India, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe. First all, you should know that if a submission picks up from three TOJDE editors between 4.5 and 9 over all 9 credits, it means that this submission can be published in TOJDE in the coming issue. However, since the publishing priority of the accepted papers belongs to the highest scored ones, submissions which receive a score between 4.5 and 5 or 6 may wait and be archived for publishing later on. TOJDE administration respected this publishing rule up to now. Therefore, some accepted submissions which obtained over 4.5 have not been published up to now. These submissions were waiting for publishing in TOJDE in the future. In this issue, we decided to give them a chance to be published. For this reason, the current issue includes more papers than the previous issues. The 1st article arrived from Turkey and written by Serkan ÇELIK, Hasan ATAK and Ahmet BAŞAL, on “Predictive Role of Personality Traits on Internet Addiction". Their study was set and tested on tertiary level students receiving education within two learning modes: face to face and distance education. The 2nd article is titled as “Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (Wats For Classifying Students Academic Ability” which is written by Jaemu LEE, Kwangho KIM from Busan National University of Education, South Korea and Sanghoon PARK, from Northwestern State University of Louisiana, U.S.A. This study explores; theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed. 3rd article is from Malaysia titled “Development of

  5. Comparative analysis on the ability of offense and defense between Chinese Man's Basketball Team and its opponents in the 27th Asian Men's Basketball Championship%第27届男篮亚锦赛中国队与对手攻防能力对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦泽方

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法、RSR 综合分析法等方法,对第27届亚洲男子篮球锦标赛的15支参赛球队的整体攻防实力进行 RSR 综合评价,对中国队与9支赛队及其中3强队(击败中国队的伊朗队、韩国队、中华台北队)的攻防能力进行比较分析。结果表明:伊朗队、韩国队、中国队攻防隶属 A 级水平球队;菲律宾队、中华台北队、卡塔尔队、约旦队属 B 级球队;哈萨克斯坦队、巴林队、日本队属于 C 级球队;印度队、沙特队、泰国队属 D级球队;中国香港队和马来西亚队攻防实力最弱,属 E 级球队;中国队攻防较为平衡,但攻略强于防。除罚球命中率外,中国队其它进攻指标均高于9支赛队,且两分球命中率与赛队存在显著性差异;中国队的投篮命中率低于3强队,且总投篮命中率、3分球命中率与3强队存在显著性差异;抢断、盖帽均低于对手,但犯规高于3强队。因此,中国队应提高高速度、强力量对抗中进攻的质量,注重外线队员远投训练,强化拼抢篮板球的意识和技术。%By means of literature materials,video observation,mathematical statistics and RSR analysis,comprehen-sive RSR evaluation is made in terms of the overall offensive and defensive capabilities of the 15 teams participating in the 27th Asian Men's Basketball Championship.Contrastive analysis is made between Chinese Team and competi-tors among which 3 are rather strong teams(beating Chinese Team including Iranian,Korean and Chinese Taipei Teams).The results show that:the offensive and defensive RSR values of Iranian,Korean and Chinese Teams be-long to Grade A,Philippine,Chinese Taipei,Qatar and Jordan Teams belong to Grade B;Kazakhstan,Bahrain and Japanese belong to Grade C;Indian,Kingdom of saud and Thai Teams belong to Grade D,with weakest offensive and defensive capabilities,Chinese Hong Kong and Malaysia

  6. Polymorphism Assays of Amino Acid and Establishment of a Two-Temperature PCR for Theileria Annulata Based on Tams1 Gene%基于环形泰勒虫Tams1基因多态性的二温式-PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金; 刘光远; 田占成; 谢俊仁

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] It has been widespread concern for gene polymorphism assays in species classification, pathogen detection and vaccine screening. T. annulata is an important blood protozoa in bovine and causes major hazards. In present study the Tamsl amino acid polymorphism of T. annulata was analyzed and a two-temperature PCR detection method was established for T. annulata. [Method] The specific primers were designed of Tamsl gene of T. annulata. A nucleotide fragment of 846 bp in length was obtained by PCR amplification. The gene amino acid sequence was compared and analyzed with 12 known species in different regions of the isolates in GenBank. And other primers were designed in conserved region of Tamsl gene and the detection method of T. annulata was established by two-temperature PCR. The method was used to detect theileriosis in field. [Result] The fragment encoded 281 amino acids, including 48 basic amino acids, 42 acidic amino acids and 100 hydrophobic amino acids. Identity analysis showed that Gansu strain of T. annulata had closest relationship with Ankara (Z48739.1), Turkey (AF214911), Bahrain (AF214794) and had little relationship with Xinjiang strain (No. accession number) while had closest relationship with Italy (AF214862) and Spain (AF214815) strains. The results can be testified by sequences alignment. The two-temperature PCR detection method can detect in 0.31 fg·μL-1 blood infection. Specificity results showed that only T. annulata genome DNA test was positive, other control parasite genome template were shown to be negative, and no cross reaction with other infected bovine Piroplasmorida. The two-temperature PCR method of T. annulata was used to test 335 field samples, the positive rate was 16.33%, and the microscopic detection results of 2.25% coincidence rate was 100%. Compared with common PCR, the method had no significant difference in sensitivity. But, two-temperature PCR was higher than common PCR in specificity, and the method took a short

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…etc. Because of the growingimportance and the popularity of the KM either as a research topic or specialized coursesubject, a crucial need for understanding, conceptualization and implementation of KM asa system has emerged since the mid 1990’s. In this sense, the book contributes criticallyto fill the gap between theory and implementation as a teaching material.This edited book is published by Idea Group Publishing. The book has twenty chaptersdivided into seven sections. In addition to a section of authors’ biography contributing thebook and an index, there is a preface that the basic terms and key concepts underliningthe cases discussed following chapters, which is explained in a schematized way.Besides the editor, total of 47 authors have contributed to the book. These authors arefrom different countries, academic backgrounds, and institutions. Although approximatelyone third of the authors are from USA, the rest of the authors are from Canada, England,Austria, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Bahrain and China. The authorsrepresent a variety of universities, private companies, and military institutions. Most ofthem have strong professional backgrounds, which help them address the issues bothfrom theoretical and practical perspectives. Contributions of authors having differentbackgrounds and institutions enable the book to have very comprehensive spectrum andthis makes the book attractive practically for those working different sectors

  8. The Study of Environmental Crisis and Local Distribution of Green Space in Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. zayyari

    2012-01-01

    .- Necessity to review and codify land preservation regulation to protect trees with usage as green are and operating such area as one of the top priority for saving green life of the city. This must be implemented through a comprehensive urban plan with executive guarantees. Support from legislative bodies for preservation of the green area in the city. Keywords: environmental crisis, green space per capita, green space local distribution, Tehran, urban parks. ReferencesEbrahimzadeh, E, and Ebadi Joe Kndan, I, (2008, an analysis of distribution space - a place for green space in the three cities of Zahedan, Journal of Geography and Development, No 11, Tehran, P1. Bahrain, H, (1990, used in meteorological studies of air pollution in urban design (specific examples of Tehran, Journal of Environmental Studies, No 18, Tehran, P1. Behbahani, (1994, to determine the pattern of Tehran's parks, green space, education Journal, No 8, P1. Bijan Zad, M.R, (1990, of green space in Tehran, published by the Cultural Office of the Jihad, Tehran, P1. Pour Mohammadi, M.R, (2003, land use, urban planning, published by Samt, Tehran, P4. Tvahn, A., (2004, Editor's Note Journal of municipalities, No 17, Tehran, P1. Harimi, A., (1999, organizing neighborhood parks and green space, Evin, Supervisor Pourahmad, Ahmad, Tehran University, Department of Geography and Urban Planning. Hekmati, J, (1992, designed gardens and parks, published by Farhang Jame, Tehran, P1. Dabiri, F., and Maleki, M, (2009, review the legal capacity to destroy and change associated with green spaces, publications, research and planning in Tehran, Tehran, P3.Rohani, Gh, (1986, garden design and construction of green space, part publisher, Tehran, P3.Statistical Yearbook of Tehran, (2006,Tehran. P1. Statistics Organization of Iran (1996 and 2006, General Census of Population and Housing Tehran. Saeed Nia, A., (1368, place in Tehran, Iranian Journal of Environmental Studies, No. 15, Tehran, P1. Sharifi, M, (1992, Introduction to

  9. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2013-07-01

    in developing specialized online video sharing platform for open education. The paper also reports a comparison study on four most credible open source video management systems (VMS and titled as “OPEN SOURCE VIDEO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (VMS FOR OPEN EDUCATION: A Comparision Study”, which is written by Ahmad Zamzuri MOHAMAD ALI, Faculty of Art, Computing and Creative Indusrty, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia. The 3rd article from Turkey which is written on “EXAMINING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE ABSORPTION LEVELS REGARDING TO WEB AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LOCUS OF CONTROL”, written by Cem CUHADAR, from Trakya University, Faculty of Education, Department of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies, Edirne, Turkey. This current study investigated university students’ cognitive absorption levels according to several variables, and presented the relationship between cognitive absorption and locus of control. Study resorted to a descriptive model. Participants were 374 undergraduate students. The Cognitive Absorption Scale and Locus of Control Scale were used to collect the data. Independent samples t-test, one-way between-groups ANOVA, correlation and regression analyses were used to analyze data. Findings suggested that university students had above average cognitive absorption.Moreover, the higher the general internal control/personal control was, the lesser the cognitive absorption level. It was plausible to infer that information and communication technologies served as sources of pleasure and curiosity for university students. However, for students with a higher internal locus of control, levels of pleasure and curiosity dropped. The fourth article written on “STEPP: A Grounded Model to Assure the Quality of Instructional Activities in e-Learning Environments” by Hamdy AHMED ABDELAZIZ who is Associate Professor of e-Learning and Training Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain & College of Education, Tanta