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Sample records for bahrain

  1. Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Bahrain's population characteristics, geographical features, history, form of government, and political and economic situation were briefly described. Bahrain has a population of about 400,000. 66% of the inhabitants are indigenous to the Arabian Peninsula and Persia, and the remainder of the population is made up of a variety of minority groups. Islam is the predominant religion, and Arabic is the official language. School attendence is 100% at the primary level, relatively high at the secondary level, and the literacy rate is 74%. Bahrain is an island in the Persian Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia. It was an ancient trading center, and since the 18th century, it has been governed by the Khalifa family. At times, the family's influence extended to other areas of the Arabian Peninsula. In 1905, Bahrain signed a treaty of protection with Great Britain. In 1971, it became an independent country with a traditional emirate form of government. In 1973, the present amir, Sheikh Isa bin Sulman Al-Khalifa, enacted a new constitution mandating an elected National Assembly; however, the amir disbanded the assembly in 1975. The amir believed that subversive activity within the elected body posed a threat to the security of the country. To date, constitutional rule has not been restored. Bahrain's economy is based primarily on the exploitation of its oil and gas deposits. At current production rates, the oil reserves will be depleted in 20-25 years, and the gas reserves in about 50 years. In preparation for the country's post oil economy, efforts are being made to develop Bahrain as a regional banking and commercial center, and revenues from petroleum production are being used to develop an infrastructure for industrial diversification. Oil reserves, which account for 34% of the country's budget, are also being used to upgrade health and education services, housing, the transportation system, and the water supply. The economy was further strengthened by the Gulf

  2. Occupational injuries in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Arrayed, A; Hamza, A

    1995-10-01

    A study was conducted to show the problem of occupational injuries in Bahrain and try to highlight some solutions that may help to prevent or reduce workplace hazards. The data for occupational injuries between 1988 to 1991 from the social insurance records were reviewed and analysed. The data were summarized, grouped and tabulated according to age, sex, nationality, work place, type of injuries, cause and site of injury. Data were analysed statistically, frequencies were computed and results represented graphically. The study shows that there was a decline in the number of injuries in 1990 and 1991 due to a slow-down of economic activities in general in the Arabian Gulf region during the Gulf War. It also shows that Asian workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries.

  3. Bahrain: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Harken Energy Corp., which holds a production sharing contract on most of Bahrain's offshore area with Bahrain National Oil co. (Banoco), which plans to spud its first Permian Khuff wildcat this October on Fasht Al Jarim reef off the northwestern tip of the island Sheikdom. The location, in very shallow water, will be on an artificial island which will support a land rig. Bass Enterprise Production Co. of Ft. Worth, Texas, has farmed into the Harken project. Bass will finance seismic work and the three wells Harken is committed to drill under its contract

  4. The Transrapid link Qatar - Bahrain; Die Transrapidverbindung Katar - Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Boris van [Ingenieurbuero Dipl.-Ing. H. Voessing GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With their rich reserves of oil and gas, attention has increasingly focused on the Gulf states of Qatar and Bahrain in recent years. Mammoth projects such as the artificial 'Pearl Island' or the 'Financial Harbour' in Bahrain typify the breakneck pace of development in the Persian Gulf states, rapid economic growth of over 10% per year poses a major challenge to the transport infrastructure in the two states. The approximately 40 km long 'Friendship Bridge' linking the two states will for the first time offer a suitable foundation for an inter-regional high-speed line. In this connection, the use of modern maglev technology would hold out numerous advantages and economic synergies relative to the use of a conventional wheel/rail system. No project decision has been taken to date. (orig.)

  5. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...... that immediately gave rise to puzzling new questions that will direct the future explorations of the project. Of particular interest is a distinctive new type of elite monuments situated to the south of the so-called Royal Mounds in the centre of the island. The newly discovered type of mounds apparently reflect...

  6. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-24

    control number. 1. REPORT DATE 24 MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bahrain: Reform...agreement ( FTA ); legislation implementing it was signed January 11, 2006 (P.L. 109-169). The unrest has further strained, although not crippled...Bahrain implement the U.S.-Bahrain FTA . In May 2006 Bahrain revoked the visa for the resident program director of the National Democratic Institute

  7. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    preliminary agreement for Bahrain to buy 1.2 billion cubic feet per day (for 25 years) of Iranian gas via a planned undersea pipeline and for Bahrain...corroborated Bahrain leadership assertions that Iran is providing material support to violent opposition factions in Bahrain and that Iran is expanding its...bullets and tear gas killed four demonstrators. All 18 Wifaq deputies in the COR resigned. Following very large demonstrations in late February, the

  8. Cystinuria in children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hermi, B.; Al-Kameli, A.; Aal, Abbas A.

    2002-01-01

    Cystinuria is a rare autosomal recessive trait with a defect in transportof cystine and other dibasic amino acids in the kidney and intestine. Renalstone formation is the only clinical presentation of Cystinuria. We presentherewith three cases with Cystinuria. We present herewith three cases withcystinuria. Case 1 is a 13-year-old boy known to have Bernard Souliersyndrome who presented at the age of six years with staghorn stone of theleft kidney. He was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)with little benefit, followed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Hestill gets recurrent renal stones and is being treated with high fluidintake, low sodium diet, captopril, K-citrate and D-pencillamine. Case 2 is a10-year-old boy, brother of the first patient, who was diagnosed ascystinuria on family screening. He presented with bilateral tiny renalstones. Case 3 is a four-year-old girl who was presented at the age of 1.5years with urinary tract infection (UTI). Renal ultrasound showed lefthydronephrosis and intravenous pyelography (IVP) showed bilateral ureteralstones. She underwent cystoscopy and lithiotripsy twice; currently she is oncaptopril, K-citrate, high fluid intake and low sodium diet. We believe thisis the first report of cystinuria in children from Bahrain. (author)

  9. Bahrain oil and development 1929-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes the economic, political, and social elements of relations between international oil companies and Bahrain. It also provides insights into Middle East regional oil and gas development, oil pricing and production evolution, and relations between Persian Gulf states and such western powers as Great Britain and the U.S

  10. Dilmun revisited: excavations at Saar, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Crawford

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available About 2000 BC the island of Bahrain was at the centre of a prosperous trading community - the Early Dilmun civilization - that stretched from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley. Excavations at the site of Saar have, since 1989, recovered much new information about the layout of the settlement and its local economy and social system.

  11. Bahrain workovers boost output, reduce operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R A

    1968-08-01

    An intensive workover program in Bahrain field is avoiding forced premature abandonment of wells due to casing failure. Moreover, daily oil production has been increased from 55,000-70,000 bpd by the workovers. When the current workover schedule is complete, most changes of producing zone will be accomplished by wire line work alone. The 5 zones which constitute Bahrain field's second-pay series account for 60,000 bpd (86%) of production. Many second-pay wells contain unperforated pay zones, although the majority are dual completions. With the new recompletion methods, it is possible to commingle production down-hole and make triple and quadruple completions. Moreover, gas from the gas cap is being used for continuous internal gas lift of lower zones. This technique is simply the controlled injection of free gas into production tubing via a flow-choke assembly in order to lighten the oil column and stimulate producing rates. The workover program is described.

  12. Diabetes mellitus in Bahrain: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O

    1992-07-01

    Bahrain has faced a rapid transition in its socio-economic status, which resulted in great changes both in life-style and in patterns of health and disease. There has been a marked decline in infectious diseases and an increase in chronic diseases. Diabetes mellitus has become one of the most common public health problems in the country. In 1988 it was estimated that 3.4% of total deaths in Bahrain were due to diabetes. A community-based study among mothers aged 18 to 48 years showed that 8.5% of them had diabetes. The percentage was found to be higher among elderly Bahrainis (12.9%). Obesity, lack of physical activity, alteration in food habits, and change in social conditions have all played a vital role in the changing prevalence of diabetes in this country. The current programmes to manage and control diabetes are limited and ineffective. Thus measures to treat diabetes should be given a high priority in the national health policy. Training of physicians in the management of diabetes, public education, epidemiological surveys, and nutritional evaluation of local foods are among the most important measures needed to control diabetes in Bahrain.

  13. Moessbauer study of El-Bahrain meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, A.A.; Ahmed, M.A.; Ramadan, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A stone of brick-like shape, measuring roughly 25 x 12.5 x 10.5 cm 3 and weighing 14 kg was found in 1983, in the western desert of Egypt. The meteorite was named El-Bahrain meteorite and classified as L-chondrite. Principal constituents of El-Bahrain meteorite have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The chemical composition as obtained by the conventional wet analyses of L-chondritic meteorites showed that the meteorite contains 23,38% Fe and 1.23% Ni. While the analysis of the atomic absorption showed the presence of 27.03% as a total iron. The Moessbauer analysis of El-Bahrain meteorite showed that the iron constituent minerals were determined to be olivine, metallic iron-nickel alloys (kamacite, taenite and tetrataenite), ferrous sulfide (troilite) and weathering products such as maghemite and nanocrystalline hematite. The structure of meteoritic iron obtained by the Moessbauer analysis has been discussed on the basis of these constituents. (author)

  14. Water Collection from Air Humidity in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahman. Nidal A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Bahrain falls geographically in one of the driest regions in the world. Conventional fresh surface water bodies, such as rivers and lakes, are nonexistent and for water consumption, Bahrain prominently relies on the desalination of sea water. This paper presents an ongoing project that is being pursued by a group of student and their advising professors to investigate the viability of extracting water from air humidity. Dehumidifiers have been utilized as water extraction devices. Those devices have been distributed on six areas that were selected based on a rigorous geospatial modeling of historical meteorological data. The areas fall in residential and industrial neighborhoods that are located in the main island and the island of Muharraq. Water samples have been collected three times every week since May of 2016 and the collection process will continue until May of 2017. The collected water samples have been analyzed against numerous variables individually and in combinations including: amount of water collected per hour versus geographical location, amount of water collected per hour versus meteorological factors, suitability of collected water for potable human consumption, detection of air pollution in the areas of collection and the economy of this method of water collection in comparison to other nonconventional methods. An overview of the completed analysis results is presented in this paper.

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Bahrain consists of limestone, sandstone and marl of Cretaceous and Tertiary ages. The potential for discoveries of uranium is very limited and thus the Speculative potential is placed in the category of less than 1000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  16. The continuing decline of coral reefs in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa; Khalaf, Ebtesam; Alshuwaikh, Bassem; Abdulwahab, Ahmed

    2013-07-30

    Historically coral reefs of Bahrain were among the most extensive in the southern basin of the Arabian Gulf. However, Bahrain's reefs have undergone significant decline in the last four decades as a result of large-scale coastal development and elevated sea surface temperature events. Here we quantitatively surveyed six sites including most major coral reef habitats around Bahrain and a reef located 72 km offshore. Fleshy and turf algae now dominate Bahrain's reefs (mean: 72% cover), and live coral cover is low (mean: 5.1%). Formerly dominant Acropora were not observed at any site. The offshore Bulthama reef had the highest coral cover (16.3%) and species richness (22 of the 23 species observed, 13 of which were exclusive to this site). All reefs for which recent and historical data are available show continued degradation, and it is unlikely that they will recover under continuing coastal development and projected climate change impacts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bahrain: Key Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    After years of instability during the 1990s, Bahrain has entered an era of political reform and development, but there are still simmering tensions between ruling Sunni Muslims and the Shiite majority...

  18. The oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Sector report: Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Oil has played a crucial role in the development of Bahrain. In 1992 revenues from oil and related products accounted for 63% of total Government revenues (ie BD 314 million out of BD 498 million). The income is therefore of critical importance to public spending in Bahrain. This report attempts to outline the structure of the industry and to provide some pointers towards future developments which offer potential opportunities for British exporters. (author)

  19. Neonatal hemochromatosis. Case series from Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M; Mohamed, Afaf M

    2013-12-01

    To review clinical presentations, diagnosis, response to treatment, and outcome of infants with neonatal hemochromatosis (NH). This is a retrospective review of all cases admitted to the Pediatric Department at Salmaniya Medical Center, Manama, Bahrain between March 2008 and May 2011. The diagnosis was based on serum iron and ferritin, alpha-fetoprotein levels (AFP), liver and buccal biopsies, and abdominal MRI scan. Ten patients (8 males and 2 females) were diagnosed with NH. Two patients were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 6 were preterm. The median birth weight was 1.700 grams. The median age at presentation was 16 days, and at diagnosis was 23 days. Two patients had positive consanguinity. Clinical presentations of the infants were hepatosplenomegaly (n=5), ascites (n=3), and hypoglycemia (n=6). All patients had raised ferritin levels, prolonged prothrombin time, and 9 patients had high serum iron and serum AFP. Abdominal MRI showed iron overload in the liver (n=8). Liver biopsies showed evidence of hemochromatosis (n=3). Buccal biopsies stained positive for iron (n=1). Eight patients received antioxidant therapy and survived. Two patients passed away. Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare liver disease of newborns with a spectrum of clinical severity. Elevated serum ferritin and AFP support the diagnosis after excluding other causes of neonatal liver failure. The use of antioxidant therapy helps to improve the outcome.

  20. The state in oil rentier economies: the case of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The word 'rentier' is defined (a rentier economy is one which depends largely on rents that accrue from abroad). The paper concentrates on the activities and economics of rentier economies in general and Bahrain in particular. In a rentier economy, the state is the main recipient of income from abroad, so the state plays a critical role in the spending of the money, thus governing the fabric of society. Bahrain was in a particularly advantageous position since its income per capita was high: statistical data are given to support this. But, recent trends in Bahrain have seen a fall in income from petroleum, and in future it is possible that the private sector will play an increasing role in the economy

  1. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  2. Impact of oil spill on intertidal organisms in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out after a major oil spill hit the coasts of Bahrain in 1988. A total of fifteen stations around the Island of Bahrain were monitored for a period of six months in order to measure the impact of the spill on marine organisms and in particular those living in the intertidal zone. Large quantities of heavy hydrocarbons accumulated on the shores and caused death or serious damage to many organisms, including birds and fishes. The spill first hit the northwest shores. The oil spill was also reported to be the main factor in damaging the traditional fishing traps in the coastal waters, which caused serious effects on the fish catch for seven months

  3. The economic and financial performance of Bahrain's Fisheries Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulqader, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    This work is based on an extensive socio-economic survey conducted at all Bahrain landing sites in the period July-November, 2002. Based on boat size and the type of fishing gear used, eight fisheries sectors were determined, these included small boats using wire traps, shrimp trawls, gillnets, hooks and lines and barrier traps. It also included large boats using wire traps, shrimp trawls and gillnets. The economic and financial performances of these sectors were evaluated. The ratio of net catch flow to total earnings was used to measure the economic performance, while the return over investment was used to measure the financial performance. Higher economic returns (except for gillnet and shrimp trawl fisheries) were found in the case of small boats where smaller investments are found. This indicated that an over-fishing condition exists in Bahrain's fisheries, which is clearly found in the case of the shrimp trawl fishery. (author)

  4. HIV antibodies among intravenous drug users in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Haddad, M K; Khashaba, A S; Baig, B Z; Khalfan, S

    1994-09-01

    A 12-month study was conducted to identify risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among intravenous drug users (IDU) attending drug rehabilitation clinic of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. Patients provided demographic and behavioural information based on a questionnaire. Two hundred and forty male IDUs participated in the study on voluntary basis. The seroprevalence of HIV was 21.1 per cent. The presence of HIV antibody was associated with educational status, frequency of injecting drugs and needle sharing.

  5. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    maritime patrol and surveillance equipment, and has reduced Bahrain’s Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance. Bahrain’s opposition asserts that...32 “Bahrain King ‘Bans Mixing Religion and Politics.” http://www.alaraby.co.uk. June 12, 2016. 33 Much of this section is derived...Labor Market Regulatory Authority (LMRA), which is separate from and considered more forward-looking than the Ministry of Labor and Social

  6. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    short-range ballistic missiles fired from a multiple rocket launcher ), valued at about $70 million, included an agreement for joint U.S.-Bahraini... Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action,” JCPOA) that most of the other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman...forces to protect key sites. On March 14, 2011, a GCC force (from its joint Peninsula Shield force) of 1,200 Saudi armored forces and 600 UAE police

  7. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of...) of the Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The submission was received on April 21... of Inquiry and the proposal of the Government of Bahrain to the Governing Body of the International...

  8. 75 FR 11559 - Certain Combed Cotton Yarns: Effect of Modification of U.S.-Bahrain FTA Rules of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. Bahrain-FTA-103-025] Certain Combed Cotton Yarns: Effect of Modification of U.S.- Bahrain FTA Rules of Origin AGENCY: United States International Trade... to section 104 of the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Implementation Act (19 U.S.C...

  9. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor,…

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in young camels in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abubakr

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in young camels in Bahrain is reported for the first time. Six genera of parasites were found. The nematodes observed were Haemonchus contortus (36.47%, Nematodirus spathiger (30.59% and Trichuris sp. (10.6%; the only cestode recorded was Moniezia expansa (2.4%. The incidence of Eimeria dromedarii was 20%. Single, double, triple and quadruple parasitic infestation occurred in 41.2, 33.5, 19.4 and 5.9% of the infected animals, respectively. Balantidium coli, a protozoan parasite, was occasionally seen in young camels suffering from diarrhea at the time of sampling.

  11. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  12. Violence toward health workers in Bahrain Defense Force Royal Medical Services’ emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafeea F

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Faisal Rafeea,1 Ahmed Al Ansari,2–4 Ehab M Abbas,1 Khalifa Elmusharaf,5 Mohamed S Abu Zeid1 1Emergency Department, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Riffa, Bahrain; 2Training and Education Department, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Riffa, Bahrain; 3Department of General Surgery, College of Medicine and Medical Science, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 4Medical Education Department, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Medical University of Bahrain, Busaiteen, Bahrain; 5Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Ireland Background: Employees working in emergency departments (EDs in hospital settings are disproportionately affected by workplace violence as compared to those working in other departments. Such violence results in minor or major injury to these workers. In other cases, it leads to physical disability, reduced job performance, and eventually a nonconducive working environment for these workers. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional exploratory questionnaire was used to collect data used for the examination of the incidents of violence in the workplace. This study was carried out at the ED of the Bahrain Defense Force (BDF Hospital. Participants for the study were drawn from nurses, support staff, and emergency physicians. Both male and female workers were surveyed.Results: The study included responses from 100 staff in the ED of the BDF Hospital in Bahrain (doctors, nurses, and support personnel. The most experienced type of violence in the workers in the past 12 months in this study was verbal abuse, which was experienced by 78% of the participants, which was followed by physical abuse (11% and then sexual abuse (3%. Many cases of violence against ED workers occurred during night shifts (53%, while physical abuse was reported to occur during all the shifts; 40% of the staff in the ED of the hospital were not aware of the policies against workplace violence, and 26% of the staff considered leaving their jobs

  13. Quit tobacco clinics in Bahrain: smoking cessation rates and patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randah Ribhi Hamadeh

    2017-01-01

    A high tobacco-quit rate among smokers seeking treatment at QTC is encouraging and indicates that the clinics contributed to tobacco cessation in Bahrain. Counselling sessions and more frequent visits to QTC helped participants to successfully quit tobacco.

  14. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, L.F.; Ebrahim, S.A.; Al-Thukair, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

  15. Assessment of Students’ Familiarity, Adoption, and Use of Social Media in Bahrain.

    OpenAIRE

    Paliktzoglou, V.; Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos; Marinakou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Social media is used in many higher education institutions for educational purposes in numerous new and innovative ways. However, in Bahrain the number of higher education students who are aware of and use social media is not clear. It was therefore necessary to conduct an empirical study that would investigate the students’ use of social media in higher education in Bahrain. Moreover, the actual adoption of social media in everyday learning situations still remain underexplored, especially i...

  16. Validation of the Arabic Version of the Group Personality Projective Test among university students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musawi, Nu'man M

    2003-04-01

    Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques on data generated from 200 students enrolled at the University of Bahrain, we obtained some construct validity and reliability data for the Arabic Version of the 1961 Group Personality Projective Test by Cassel and Khan. In contrast to the 5-factor model proposed for the Group Personality Projective Test, a 6-factor solution appeared justified for the Arabic Version of this test, suggesting some variance between the cultural groups in the United States and in Bahrain.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Bahrain, 2000 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janahi, Essam M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B infection is one of the world's major infectious diseases with about 350 million chronic carriers. Because no data is published on the prevalence and risk factors of this important disease in Bahrain, this article evaluates the available data from 2000 to 2010 to estimate the prevalence of the infection and to evaluate the risk factors. Epidemiologic data on HBV cases were collected from the major hospitals and health centers in Bahrain and statistically analyzed. Over this indicated decade, 877,892 individuals were screened for HBV infection and 5055 positive cases were reported in Bahrain. The prevalence of HBV infection during that period was 0.58%. Although there was no significant difference in the prevalence over the period of 10 years, the actual number of positive cases has almost doubled in the later years especially in 2007 and 2008. The prevalence was significantly higher among males (62.3%; Pcountries which are highly endemic for HBV, namely India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, Indonesia and Ethiopia. Dental procedures and surgical operations were the main risk factors of infection as 37.2% and 35.6% of the patients were probably infected through this route. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Bahrain indicates that Bahrain had low HBV endemicity for the last 10 years (2000–2010). Our study verifies the significant role played by expatriates/immigrants in the present epidemiology of hepatitis B in Bahrain. Increasing HBV vaccination of high risk groups, active educational and media campaign, screening HBV infection during pregnancy, and surveillance of hepatitis B infected individuals will further decrease the prevalence of the disease in Bahrain. PMID:24498341

  18. Lead levels in deciduous teeth of children in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Mahroos, F; al-Saleh, F S

    1997-06-01

    To determine lead exposure among children in Bahrain, a total of 280 shed deciduous whole teeth were collected from 269 children. Teeth were analyzed for lead concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomization. Children were between 5 and 15 years old. The study period extended from July 1993 to April 1994. The study showed that the overall mean tooth-lead level was 4.3 micrograms/g dry weight with a range of 0.1-60.8 micrograms/g dry weight. The cumulative frequency distribution revealed that 35% of the teeth had a lead concentration of more than 4 micrograms/g dry weight. The tooth-lead concentrations differed according to the tooth type age. The child's sex, nationality, area of residence and socio-economic status had no impact on tooth-lead level. In conclusion, lead is present in toxic concentrations in 35% of the teeth of the children studied. Urgent measures are needed to eliminate lead from gasoline, paint and other sources in the environment.

  19. 75 FR 68153 - To Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and... Adjust the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, Implement Modifications to the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and for Other Purposes By the President of the United...

  20. Shariah Governance Practices at Islamic Banks in Bahrain From Islamic Bankers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan Emir Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the Islamic banks' commitment towards Sharia Governance in Bahrain. This study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey results reveal that Islamic banks in Bahrain practice 7 out of 9 questions in the questionnaire, which are related to Sharia governance aspects as per the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI's governance standards. The interview results also reveal that the Islamic banks are practicing most aspects of Sharia governance. The results of this paper can be an input for the regulator and the banks' management to make decisions to improve Sharia governance practice among Islamic banks in Bahrain.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v10i1.5991

  1. Analyzing Long-run Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the relation between energy consumption and economic growth is important to design effective energy policies that will promote economic growth, this study investigates the short run dynamics and causality among energy consumption, co2 emissions, oil prices and economic growth in Kingdom of Bahrain. To do so, annual data that covers the period from 1960 till 2015. Empirical work tests for unit root, co-integration relationship using Johansen (1988 approach and then estimate both long and short run dynamics using the vector error correction model (VECM. Results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between the suggested variables. Since economic growth has a predictive power to estimate the energy demand of Kingdom of Bahrain, it is recommended that the government of Bahrain and policy designers shed the light on energy efficiency strategies and carbon emissions reduction policy in the long run without impeding economic growth in order to move towards sustainability.

  2. Dietary habits and sedentary behaviors among health science university students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Awadhalla, Muyssar S; Al-Mannai, Mariam; AlSawad, Muneera; Asokan, G V

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns and sedentary behaviors among university students in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out with students of the College of Health Sciences in Bahrain using a self-reported questionnaire. All the students enrolled in this college were included in this study (642 students; 90 males and 552 females). The mean age of the sample was 20.1±2.0 years. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the students' breakfast intake, snacking, food frequency intake, and sedentary habits. More than 50% of the students did not consume breakfast on a daily basis. A statistically significant difference (psleep; however, the only significant difference found was for Internet use (psleep for less time (students in Bahrain had unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary behaviors. Thus, an intervention program to promote healthy dietary patterns and lifestyle habits among university students is highly recommended.

  3. Analyzing Long-run Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Hanan

    2017-11-01

    Since the relation between energy consumption and economic growth is important to design effective energy policies that will promote economic growth, this study investigates the short run dynamics and causality among energy consumption, co2 emissions, oil prices and economic growth in Kingdom of Bahrain. To do so, annual data that covers the period from 1960 till 2015. Empirical work tests for unit root, co-integration relationship using Johansen (1988) approach and then estimate both long and short run dynamics using the vector error correction model (VECM). Results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between the suggested variables. Since economic growth has a predictive power to estimate the energy demand of Kingdom of Bahrain, it is recommended that the government of Bahrain and policy designers shed the light on energy efficiency strategies and carbon emissions reduction policy in the long run without impeding economic growth in order to move towards sustainability.

  4. Arab Spring and the escalation of the sectarian divide in Bahrain: An assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses why the Bahraini "Day of Rage" has inflamed sectarian fear and prompted open hostility between Sunni and Shi'a inhabitants of the kingdom. The analysis approaches the subject from a psychological perspective. Using Vamik Volkan's theory, the article presents a detailed overview of the social conflict in which religious identities play a central role. Influence of large-group psychology on the unfolding events enables a more in-depth understanding of the tense situation in Bahrain. The social division engulfing Bahrain is representative of the power struggle and confessional tensions in the Gulf region.

  5. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

  6. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, Nadia M; Rasheed, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2 data were used for comparison. Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cutoff values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES 2), arm muscularity was substantially lower. Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention program is emphasized. (author)

  7. Petrographic al and mineralogical study of the sands of Al-Areen wildlife Sanctuary in the state of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hussain, A. A

    1998-01-01

    Eileen sand covers about (8%) of Bahrain Island, and is concentrated in the western and southwestern regions of the Island as a thin s rip between the western coast and the cap rock, forming a distinguished ge morphologic feature on the Island. In the last few years, the area have suffered from sand from sand drifts which affected some of the important places in Bahrain as Al-Reen Wildlife sanctuary, alerting the spread of dentifrice's processes in new parts of the Island. The results showed that Al-Areen sand is composed mainly of quarts (68%) with lesser amounts of carbonates (15%) gypsum (12%), and heavy minerals. The compassion of Al-Areen sand with the surface sediments and rock exposure sin Bahrain, revealed that these sands have been drifting throughout the Quatenary period from the northwestern part of the Arabian peninsula peninsula by the northern wind (Shamal), prevailing at that time, transporting the quartzitic sand southeasted toward Bahrain. The influx of quartzitic sand to Bahrain was eliminated about 7000 year B.P. due to the ecstatic change of sea level in the Arabian Gulf which formed a natural water counter between Bahrain and the Arabian peninsula. Accordingly the sand drifts in Al-Areen Widife sanctuary is a result of diffraction's affecting the Island of Bahrain, this requires further studies to combat it. . (author). 25 refs., 5 figs. 2 tab

  8. Humanistic Qualities of the Teacher as Perceived by Undergraduate Students in Bahrain and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musawi, Nu'man; Karam, Ebraheem M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the main qualities of the teacher as a person as perceived by university students in Bahrain and Kuwait. A 25-item questionnaire, which reflected the basic humanistic qualities of the teacher as related to effective teaching, was designed and then administered to a random sample of 520 students enrolled…

  9. Quality Assurance and Continuous Improvement: A Case Study of the University of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Yaser; Al-Kaabi, Dheya; Rashdan, Suad; Al-Khaleefa, Lobna

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Bahrain has taken serious actions to diversify its sources of income and solve major national problems such as unemployment. Through this process it discovered that one of the main factors for its economic problems was the quality of higher education on offer. This led to the creation of a national Quality Assurance Authority that…

  10. Digital Workflow for the Conservation of Bahrain Built Heritage: the Sheik Isa Bin ALI House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, L.; Mezzino, D.; Santana Quintero, M.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, the commercial market offers several tools for digital documentation of historic sites and buildings. Photogrammetry and laser scanning play a fundamental role in the acquisition of metric information, which is then processed to generate reliable records particularly useful also in the built heritage conservation field. Although potentially very fast and accurate, such techniques require expert operators to produce reliable results, especially in the case of complex and large sites. The aim of this paper is to present the digital workflow developed for data acquisition and processing of the Shaikh Isa Bin Ali house in Muharraq, Bahrain. This historic structure is an outstanding example of Bahrain architecture as well as tangible memory of the country history, with strong connotations in the Bahrain cultural identity. The building has been documented employing several digital techniques, including: aerial (drone) and terrestrial photogrammetry, rectifying photography, total station and laser scanning. The documentation project has been developed for the Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA) by a multidisciplinary team of experts from Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS, Carleton University, Canada) and Gicarus Lab (Politecnico di Milano, Italy).

  11. Proving the Relation between Stock and Interbank Markets: The Bahrain Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev, Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with further analysis of the relationship between the interbank loan rateon the one hand and the volume of investment and the amount of stocks tradable on the stock exchange on the other hand, as corroborated by calculations performed on Bahrain Stock Exchange data.

  12. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Comparison between Medical Practitioners and Medical Students in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Madani, Khawla M.; Landman, Jacqueline; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bahrain. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 1998. Highly statistically significant differences (p less than 0.0001) were observed between practitioners and students in relation to knowledge concerning recommended daily allowance. The results…

  13. Assessing the Emotional Intelligence of Gifted and Talented Adolescent Students in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Najat Sulaiman; Al-Jasim, Fatima Ahmed; Abdulla, Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the differences in the emotional intelligence of gifted adolescent students and talented adolescent students in Bahrain. The sample consisted of 80 gifted adolescent students and 80 talented adolescent students in Grades 9 through 12. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicates that there were significant differences…

  14. The handsearching of 2 medical journals of Bahrain for reports of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajeri, Amani A; Fedorowicz, Zbigniew; Amin, Fawzi A; Eisinga, Anne

    2006-04-01

    To identify reports of randomized trials by handsearching 2 Bahrain medical journals, which are indexed in the biomedical database EMBASE and to determine any added value of the handsearching by comparing the reports found by handsearching with what would have been found by searching EMBASE to examine (i) the precision and sensitivity of the EMBASE index term Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and (ii) The Cochrane Collaboration's systematic electronic search of EMBASE (which uses 4 index terms and 9 free-text terms). All issues of the Bahrain Medical Bulletin (BMB) (1979-2004) and the Journal of the Bahrain Medical Society (JBMS) (1989-2004) were handsearched in February 2005 for reports of RCTs or Controlled Clinical Trials (CCTs), according to Cochrane eligibility criteria. Out of 395 articles in BMB we found reports of 12 RCTs and 4 CCTs. Distribution by country of corresponding author: Jordan (4 RCTs, one CCT), Bahrain (one RCT, one CCT), India (3 RCTs, one CCT), Kuwait (one CCT), Saudi Arabia (2 RCTs), USA/Bahrain (one RCT), and Oman (one RCT); and by specialty: Anesthesia (8), Surgery (1) Pediatrics (1), Radiotherapy (1), Community Medicine (1), Sports Medicine (1), Obstetrics/Gynecology (3). The Journal of the Bahrain Medical Society included reports of 14 RCTs and 3 CCTs, out of 97 articles. Distribution by country of corresponding author: Jordan (9 RCTs, 2 CCTs), Bahrain (3 RCTs), Egypt (one RCT), Kuwait (one RCT), and Saudi Arabia (one RCT); and by specialty: Anesthesia (7), General Surgery (3), Obstetrics/Gynecology (1), Radiotherapy (1), Pediatrics (1), Orthopaedic Surgery (1), Education (1) Ear Nose and Throat (1) Ophthalmology (1). Overall, of the 33 reports of trials found by handsearching both journals, only 23 were included in EMBASE of which only 6 had been indexed with the term RCT. Of the 23 reports of trials included in EMBASE, 16 had been identified in the Collaboration s systematic search of EMBASE. Two reports of trials could have been

  15. The Feasibility of Utilizing Wind Energy in Commercial Buildings With Special Reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim Saeed, Saeed

    2017-11-01

    This article shall investigate the feasibility of utilizing wind energy for commercial buildings with special reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Bahrain World Trade Center which was built in 2008, is located in the city of Manama. The fifty-story complex contains identical twin towers that rise over 240 meters in height. The towers are connected by three bridges which hold three turbines each 29 meters long. The three turbines were originally design to provide electric energy required for lighting. The Bahrain World Trade Center was selected as a case study to investigate the feasibility of utilizing wind energy technologies in skyscrapers with special reference to the Kingdom of Bahrain. It is hoped that the findings and conclusion of the study shall be of some value for future utilization of wind energy in the GCC countries and the world at large.

  16. An investigation of how design managers in organisations in Bahrain manage and evaluate visual communication design for strategic advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Lilian Issa Anton

    2015-01-01

    The role of visual communication design continues to increase in importance around the world. In Bahrain, organisations are increasingly considering visual communication design as a means of accomplishing organisational goals. The research aims to understand the process by which design managers in organisations in Bahrain manage and evaluate visual communication designs to gain strategic advantage. Even though the management of visual communication design has not yet been recognised as a ...

  17. Epidemiology of autistic disorder in Bahrain: prevalence and obstetric and familial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, A M; Ahmed, M M

    2013-09-01

    European and North American studies show that the prevalence of autistic disorder is inccreasing. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of autistic disorder in Bahrain, and determine some of the demographic and family characteristics. Using a case-control design, 100 children who received a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR during the period 2000-2010 were selected. An equal numberofcontrols who had received a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis and no psychopathology were selected, matched for sex and age group. The prevalence of autistic disorder was estimated as 4.3 per 10,000 population, with a male:female sex ratio of 4:1. Significantly more cases than controls were delivered by caesarean section and had mothers who suffered prenatal complications. The prevalence estimate in Bahrain is comparable to previous reports using similar methods. Obstetric complications and caesarean section delivery may be associated with autistic disorder.

  18. The association between physical symptoms and depression among medical students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ammar M Y; Alotaibi, Khalid T; Alhurayyis, Jarah H; Alqahtani, Turky A; Alghamlas, Aamer M; Algahtani, Haifa M; Jahrami, Haitham A

    2017-12-15

    To examine the association between depression and physical symptoms among medical students in Bahrain.   The present study employed a cross-sectional design.  A total of 160 students were recruited, 41.3% were male and 58.8% female, using a convenience sampling approach. Participants completed the validated Patients Health Questionnaires (PHQs) in which they provided information about demographics, physical symptoms, and depression. Results were considered significant if p medical students in Bahrain.  Medical educators should take such symptoms seriously among medical students as it may have serious consequences on the mental health of medical students. In practice, adequate awareness initiatives should be organized and provided for medical students to help them overcome their challenges they face. Additionally, incorporating screening self-screening strategies in the medical curriculum can be beneficial for early detections of mental health problems. The Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  19. M-learning in Higher Education in Bahrain: the educators’ view

    OpenAIRE

    Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos; Marinakou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Universities in the oil-rich Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) have shown particular interest in\\ud m-learning which currently is treated as fashion, but at the same time is considered by corporations and educational institutions to be very promising. This papers investigates the adoption of m-learning at universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain, and explores the educators’ views and perceptions of m-learning, as well as its future potential in higher education. A survey questionnaire was distri...

  20. Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Territorial Sea Water of the Kingdom of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juma, H.A.; Al-Madany, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first investigation for the analysis of heavy metal covering the territorial water of Kingdom of Bahrain. For the purpose of establishing baseline, as well as the assessment of marine contamination due to heavy metals, sea water were collected from 23 different sites known as fishing areas of the territorial water of the Kingdom of Bahrain in the year 2007. The heavy metals analyzed were Arsenic, Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Vanadium (V), Zinc (Zn) and Mercury (Hg), using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Hg were in the range of 0.85-2.75, 0.06-5.20, 4.53-119.00, 1.03-28.62, 0.06-1.24, 0.71-20.1, 1.13-2.01, 1.13-9.93, 4.06-118.0 and 0.13-0.38 ug/1, respectively representing the baseline trace metal concentrations of sea water in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The results suggest that the Kingdom of Bahrain's marine waters seem to be of good quality as the concentrations of the metals reported the studied areas are far below the United Kingdom Water quality standards and United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended water quality criteria, with the exception of copper in all sites, and Mercury (Hg) in Msoor site. In general concentrations of the trace elements in sea water were similar to those of other areas worldwide, and were deemed not to be of any toxicological significance. (author)

  1. Customer driven marketing strategy of LIC international in Bahrain: a product specific study

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan; Rao, M S; Thampy, Jaik; Peter, Jerrin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Marketing of service product requires a slightly different strategy owing to the idiosyncratic nature of service items. The present study explores the customer oriented marketing strategy of LIC International in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The approach of the study was exploratory and personal interview was conducted to contribute major input source to the research. The company has been following a different marketing strategy in the study area different from the conventional approach in...

  2. Explaining Sectarian Violence in the Middle East: A Comparative Study of Bahrain and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf, ed. Lawrence G. Potter (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 144. 9 Khaled Fattah, “Yemen: Sectarianism...and the Politics of Regime Survival,” in Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf, ed. Lawrence G. Potter (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 209...figures capable of instrumentalization (President Ali Abdullah Saleh in Yemen and King Hamad al-Khalifa in Bahrain). Both nations have had, and

  3. Community Perception of the Security and Acceptance of Mobile Banking Services in Bahrain: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad S. Mashhour; Zakarya Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Bahraini banks and financial organizations have applied remote enabled service using the internet and a mobile device to increase efficiency, reduce costs and improve quality of services. There is need for these organizations to identify factors that persuade customers and raise their attitudes towards adoption and usage of these services. This study identifies the most important factors affecting customer attitudes towards mobile banking acceptance in Bahrain. The model formulated in this re...

  4. Violence toward health workers in Bahrain Defense Force Royal Medical Services’ emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeea, Faisal; Al Ansari, Ahmed; Abbas, Ehab M; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Abu Zeid, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Background Employees working in emergency departments (EDs) in hospital settings are disproportionately affected by workplace violence as compared to those working in other departments. Such violence results in minor or major injury to these workers. In other cases, it leads to physical disability, reduced job performance, and eventually a nonconducive working environment for these workers. Materials and methods A cross-sectional exploratory questionnaire was used to collect data used for the examination of the incidents of violence in the workplace. This study was carried out at the ED of the Bahrain Defense Force (BDF) Hospital. Participants for the study were drawn from nurses, support staff, and emergency physicians. Both male and female workers were surveyed. Results The study included responses from 100 staff in the ED of the BDF Hospital in Bahrain (doctors, nurses, and support personnel). The most experienced type of violence in the workers in the past 12 months in this study was verbal abuse, which was experienced by 78% of the participants, which was followed by physical abuse (11%) and then sexual abuse (3%). Many cases of violence against ED workers occurred during night shifts (53%), while physical abuse was reported to occur during all the shifts; 40% of the staff in the ED of the hospital were not aware of the policies against workplace violence, and 26% of the staff considered leaving their jobs at the hospital. Conclusion This study reported multiple findings on the number of workplace violence incidents, as well as the characteristics and factors associated with violence exposure in ED staff in Bahrain. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of addressing the issue of workplace violence in EDs in Bahrain and can be used to demonstrate the strong need for interventions. PMID:29184452

  5. Family life clinics for Gulf state: Bahrain FPA helps bring a family planning breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain.

  6. Predicting the Evolution of CO2 Emissions in Bahrain with Automated Forecasting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Tudor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2012 Doha meeting established the continuation of the Kyoto protocol, the legally-binding global agreement under which signatory countries had agreed to reduce their carbon emissions. Contrary to this assumed obligation, all G20 countries with the exception of France and the UK saw significant increases in their CO2 emissions over the last 25 years, surpassing 300% in the case of China. This paper attempts to forecast the evolution of carbon dioxide emissions in Bahrain over the 2012–2021 decade by employing seven Automated Forecasting Methods, including the exponential smoothing state space model (ETS, the Holt–Winters Model, the BATS/TBATS model, ARIMA, the structural time series model (STS, the naive model, and the neural network time series forecasting method (NNAR. Results indicate a reversal of the current decreasing trend of pollution in the country, with a point estimate of 2309 metric tons per capita at the end of 2020 and 2317 at the end of 2021, as compared to the 1934 level achieved in 2010. The country’s baseline level corresponding to year 1990 (as specified by the Doha amendment of the Kyoto protocol is approximately 25.54 metric tons per capita, which implies a maximum level of 20.96 metric tons per capita for the year 2020 (corresponding to a decrease of 18% relative to the baseline level in order for Bahrain to comply with the protocol. Our results therefore suggest that Bahrain cannot meet its assumed target.

  7. Digital Tools for Documenting and Conserving Bahrain's Built Heritage for Posterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzino, D.; Barazzetti, L.; Santana Quintero, M.; El-Habashi, A.

    2017-08-01

    Documenting the physical characteristics of historic structures is the first step for any preventive maintenance, monitoring, conservation, planning and promotion action. Metric documentation supports informative decision-making process for property owners, site managers, public officials, and conservators. This information serves also a broader purpose, over time, it becomes the primary means by which scholars, heritage professionals, and the general public understand a site that radically changed or disappeared. Further, documentation supports monitoring as well as the character-defining elements analysis, relevant to define the values of the building for the local and international community. The awareness of these concepts oriented the digital documentation and training activities, developed between 2016 and 2017, for the Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA) in Bahrain. The developed activities had two main aims: a) support the local staff in using specific recording techniques to efficiently document and consequently preserve built heritage sites with appropriate accuracy and in a relatively short period; b) develop a pilot project in collaboration with BACA to validate the capacity of the team to accurately document and produce measured records for the conservation and management of Bahrain built heritage. The documentation project has been developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts from BACA, Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS), Carleton University, Canada and a contracted researcher from the Gicarus Lab, Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) in Italy. In the training activities, the participants have been exposed to a wide range of recording techniques, illustrating them the selection criteria for the most suitable one, according to requirements, site specifications, categories of values identified for the various built elements, and budget. The pilot project has been tested on three historical structures, both with strong connotations in

  8. Nurses' perceptions of and participation in continuing nursing education: results from a study of psychiatric hospital nurses in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majid, Sadeeka; Al-Majed, Hashmiya; Rakovski, Cyril S; Otten, Rebecca A

    2012-05-01

    Although many psychiatric hospital nurses in Bahrain attend at least one continuing nursing education (CNE) activity per year, many others do not. This study explored these nurses' perceptions of CNE and factors that promote or hinder participation in CNE activities. A descriptive design was used to gather data from a convenience sample of 200 nurses working at the psychiatric hospital in Bahrain. Nurses believed that CNE improved the quality of patient care and patient outcomes, increased nurses' knowledge and skills, and kept them current with advances in nursing. Participation in CNE was hindered by unavailability of CNE activities related to psychiatric nursing. The majority of nurses had positive perceptions of CNE. Their participation was hindered by unavailability of CNE activities related to psychiatric nursing. Those responsible for planning continuing education in Bahrain should consider these findings when planning future CNE activities. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an outbreak of glanders in Bahrain suggests multiple introduction events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C Scholz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology.We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources.High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections.

  10. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  11. Risk factors of major noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain. The need for a surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R

    2004-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. The review examines the prevalence of risk factors of major NCDs from the available literature and determines the impact of the rapid socio economic changes on their burden. It further recommends ways of improving their reporting and monitoring. Smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical activity and nutrition are considered. The review points out that data on some of the factors is available but deficient for others. The call for the establishment of an integrated surveillance system using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach is stressed.

  12. Bahrain's Formula-1 racing circuit: energy and environmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnaser, W.E.; El-Masri, S. [University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038, Isa Town (Bahrain); Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, School of Engineering (United Kingdom); Al-Khalifa, S.E. [Bahrain International Circuit (Bahrain); Flanagan, R.; Alnaser, N.W. [University of Reading, School of Construction Management (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-01

    The Bahrain International Circuit (BIC) and complex, at latitude 26.00N and longitude 51.54E, was built in 483 days and cost 150 million US$. The circuit consists of six different individual tracks with a 3.66 km outer track (involving 10 turns) and a 2.55 km inner track (having six turns).The complex has been designed to host a variety of other sporting activities. Fifty thousand spectators, including 10,500 in the main grandstand, can be accommodated simultaneously. State-of-the art on-site media and broadcast facilities are available. The noise level emitted from vehicles on the circuit during the Formula-1 event, on April 4th 2004, was acceptable and caused no physical disturbance to the fans in the VIP lounges or to scholars studying at the University of Bahrain's Shakeir Campus, which is only 1.5 km away from the circuit. The sound-intensity level (SIL) recorded on the balcony of the VIP lounge was 128 dB(A) and was 80 dB(A) inside the lounge. The calculated SIL immediately outside the lecture halls of the University of Bahrain was 70 dB(A) and 65 dB(A) within them. Thus racing at BIC can proceed without significantly disturbing the academic-learning process. The purchased electricity demand by the BIC complex peaked (at 4.5 MW) during the first Formula-1 event on April 4th 2004. The reverse-osmosis (RO) plant at the BIC provides 1000 m{sup 3} of desalinated water per day for landscape irrigation. Renewable-energy inputs, (i.e., via solar and wind power), at the BIC could be harnessed to generate electricity for water desalination, air conditioning, lighting as well as for irrigation. If the covering of the BIC complex was covered by adhesively fixed modern photovoltaic cells, then {approx}1.2 MW of solar electricity could be generated. If two horizontal-axis, at 150 m height above the ground, three 75m bladed, wind turbines were to be installed at the BIC, then the output could reach 4 MW. Furthermore, if 10,000 Jojoba trees (a species renowned for

  13. Human papillomavirus infection among women attending health facilities in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaj, Aida A.; Senok, Abiola C.; Al-Mahmeed, Ali E.; Botta, Giuseppe A.; Issa, Abdulla A.; Arzes, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the associated risk factors in Bahrain's female population. This study was carried out between March to December 2004, which includes cervical scrapings for Pap smear and HPV-DNA testing using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, obtained from 100 women attending the Gynecology Clinic at Salmaniya Medical Center and Sheikh Sabah Health Center in the Kingdom of Bahrain. We distributed questionnaires that include the sociodemographic data as well as information on risk factors such as smoking, parity, and the contraceptive used. Eleven women (11%) with normal cytology were HPV-positive. The RFLP analysis detected HPV-types 16, 18, 45, 62 and 53. Positive women were significantly older (43.3+-10.1 years) than negatives (36.5+-9.9 years; p=0.04), however, there was no difference in age of first sexual contact (positive: 18.1+-5.7 years versus negative: 20.6 +- 4.4 years). Polygamy, smoking and hormonal contraception was not identified as risk factors, but positive women showed higher parity. In this study on HPV infection in Behrain, the 11% positivity with high risk HPV types, in the presence of normal cytology suggests that in addition to the cervical cancer screening program, offer of HPV testing deserves consideration. (author)

  14. The Important Selection Criteria in Choosing Islamic Banks: A Survey in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hamzah Al-Hadrami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection criteria of banks in general and Islamic banks in particular have been given high attention by the marketing researchers nowadays. But this kind of research is still insufficient in numbers especially in the developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to identify the important selection criteria that are considered by customers in selecting Islamic banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A 5-Likert scale survey questionnaire and ANOVA were used as the research method. The results indicate that the religious factors were ranked as the most important selection criteria for selecting Islamic banks. The study also found service quality factors as the second important selection criteria. This study is expected to provide Islamic banks in Bahrain with some inputs in setting up their marketing strategies in order to attract new customers and retain their existing customers. This study is also expected to add value to the literature by providing the updated empirical study in the area. DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4635

  15. The Relationship between Ownership Structure Dimensions and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Khamis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the relation between ownership structure and corporate performance; the sample of the study included 42 out of 48 companies of all sectors in Bahrain Bourse in five years from 2007-2011. Several dimensions of ownership concentration were studied in addition to managerial and institutional ownership. Two different measurements of performance were used (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study investigated this relation using several control variables and 2SLS statistical method to overcome the problem of endogeneity that may exist between the study variables. It was found that ownership concentration have a negative effect with statistical significance on company performance. Institutional ownership was found to have a positive effect on company performance. Managerial ownership was not found to have a significant effect on company performance, however it was found that managerial ownership has a positive effect on performance only in the case of declining ownership concentration. Other results were revealed by the study regarding company age, size, growth, board size and liquidity. The study is considered to have theoretical and practical implications. It contributes to the debate about agency theory and managerial entrenchment. It also may help officials in Bahrain in making laws and legislations concerning corporate governance improvement in Bahraini market. This

  16. Impact of Kuwait`s oil-fire smoke cloud on the sky of Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnaser, W.E. [Univ. of Bahrain (Bahrain)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of the Kuwaiti oil well fires of 1991 on the atmospheric parameters of Bahrain (approximately 600 km southeast of Kuwait) were observed. Solar radiation, optical thickness, ultraviolet radiation, horizontal visibility, temperature, and solar spectral distribution were measured for 1991 and compared to the long-term values of 1985-1990. The relative monthly solar radiation in Bahrain was reduced by 8% (February) when 50 oil wells were burning and reduced further to 20% when 470 oil wells were on fire (April-July). In November 1991, when there were 12 oil wells burning, the recorded solar radiation became nearly equal to the long-term average. The monthly average daily optical thickness, {tau}, for the direct or beam solar radiation was calculated. The values of {tau} were found to be larger in 1991 than the average for the years 1985-1990 by nearly 58% during June and returned to normal in October (after nearly all the oil well fires were extinguished). The clear and smoked sky solar spectra distribution were detected before and during the burning of the Kuwait oil wells. Large absorption of the solar radiation was noticed on the 2nd and 3rd of March, 1991. The daily average infrared radiation during 1990 was found to be 6700.4 Whm{sup -2} and shifted to 9182.1 Whm{sup -2} in 1991. Comparison was also made between 1990 and 1991 data of the global solar radiation and the temperature. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Infection in long term care facility in the kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela Al Salman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Infections in long term care facilities (LTCF are common and are considered a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Endemic infections and outbreaks are observed in LTCF. Of particular concern is the growth of multi-drug resistant organisms. A study was conducted in the Kingdom of Bahrain concerning infections among the residents in a LTCF. The aim was to define the rate, type and outcomes of institutional infections. The different treatment modalities and antimicrobials used were evaluated. Our facility cares for the elderly and a heterogeneous group of patients from different populations (e.g., mentally retarded, bedbound due to various disabilities and other forms of consciousness impairment such as post stroke disability, cerebral palsy and anoxic brain damage. The initial span of six months was changed to seven months to increase the sample size and improve the data analysis. This was a prospective study conducted in Muharaq Geriatric Hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study was conducted over seven months from January 2013 to July 2013 on 104 patients. During that period, patients with new positive cultures from different sites were included. The clinical features, microbiological features and outcomes of the bacteremic episodes were included. The information was collected by a questionnaire created by the research team. From a total of 104 patients staying in the LTFC, 19 had positive cultures from different sites at different times. The study showed that infections are common, especially urinary tract infections. Keywords: Infection, Antimicrobials, Geriatric, Vaccination, Isolation

  18. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer among Bahraini Women; Data from the Bahrain Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randah R. Hamadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of breast cancer among the Bahraini female population in the years 2000‒2010 and examine its health policy implications. Methods: All breast cancer cases in the Bahrain Cancer Registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010 were included. Results: There were 1,005 cases, 12.7% of which were detected by screening. The overall mean age at diagnosis was 50.9 years (95% confidence interval 50.1–51.6. The age-standardised incidence rate declined from 58.2 per 100,000 in 2000 to 44.4 per 100,000 in 2010. The majority of cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma (76.9%. Of the registered cases, 44.1% and 48.1% had an unknown grade and stage, respectively. The five-year survival rate was 63 ± 2%. Conclusion: The low percentage of cases detected by screening merits further evaluation of Bahrain’s screening programme. More effort should be made to reduce the proportion of unknown stage and grade breast cancers. Future research has to be directed towards understanding the reasons for Bahrain having the highest incidence rate of breast cancer in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

  19. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  20. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  1. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalaf, Abeer J

    2010-01-01

    CAM use is widespread, especially among patients with diabetes. The Gulf States have a high prevalence of diabetes, alongside a long tradition of CAM use. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of CAM use among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain and to examine the characteristics of the CAM users.

  2. THE DYNAMICS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION AMONG WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA AND BAHRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer M. Al-Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the underlying dynamics of motivation for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, using t-test and ANOVA analyses. Various distinct motivational factors were found in both countries. Self-achievement was the most prominent factor motivating Saudi women to start their own businesses. However, for Bahraini women, the profit motive was the most prominent motivational factor.

  3. Tacit Rejection of Policy and Teacher Ambivalence: Insights into English Language Teaching in Bahrain through Actors' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    This article develops Phillips and Ochs's (2003) framework for policy borrowing, particularly their theorisations about indigenisation of international programmes. It uses the example of communicative language teaching (CLT) in Bahrain, exploring teacher perspectives regarding the effects of CLT on the preexisting arrangements in the national…

  4. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  5. His Excellency Mr Yusuf Abdulkarim Bucheeri Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2018-01-01

    Visit of His Excellency Mr Yusuf Abdulkarim Bucheeri Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  6. The epidemiology of trauma in an intensive care unit in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehsen, M M; Abdul-Wahab, A W

    1989-01-01

    Injuries resulting from trauma are over-represented in Bahrain's intensive care unit beds. Using data from 1984 and 1985, this study examines the most severe etiologic agents and high-risk population groups among ICU trauma patients. Road traffic accidents were the principal cause of admission, accounting for 57% of all injury admissions. Most occurred in pedestrians suffering from severe head injury. Poisonings were the second largest category, followed by falls. In comparison with medical cases admitted to the ICU during the same 2-year period, the trauma cases included a disproportionate number of children and males in their most productive years of life, further adding to the economic burden which injuries have inflicted on this small country. The authors call for a new approach, namely passive prevention such as environmental modifications and legislation and tertiary prevention such as improvement of the country's underutilized ambulance service.

  7. Demand and supply of doctors and dentists in Bahrain, 1998-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A A; Fateha, B; Benjamin, S

    2000-01-01

    We examined the supply and demand of medical doctors and dentists in Bahrain. Demand for physicians and dentists was based on the objective of having a physician-to-population ratio of 1:650, and a dentist-to-population ratio of 1:5000. Analysis of the current workforce and projected graduates in the period 1998-2005 indicated that the supply of Bahraini medical doctors and dentists until the year 2005 will not be sufficient to meet the projected demand in these categories. By the year 2005, Bahraini doctors and dentists will provide 82.5% and 75.9% of medical and dental demands respectively. The remaining 17.2% of physicians and 24.1% of dentists will have to be recruited from abroad. Thus, the prospect of oversupply of Bahrainis among these categories until the year 2005 is highly unlikely.

  8. SEX DIFFERENCES ON THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN-III IN BAHRAIN AND THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah; Lynn, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) are reported for children in Bahrain and the United States. The results for the two samples were consistent in showing no significant differences in Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQs, higher average scores by boys on the Block design and Mazes subtests of spatial ability, and higher average scores by girls on Coding. There was also greater variability in boys than in girls.

  9. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  10. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO 2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco 2 ), embodied energy (Eco 2 ) and operational energy (OPco 2 ). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO 2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO 2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco 2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO 2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO 2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO 2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO 2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs

  11. Impacts of climate change on the municipal water management system in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Vulnerability assessment and adaptation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed K. Al-Zubari

    Full Text Available An assessment of the vulnerability of the municipal water management system to the impacts of climate change in the Kingdom of Bahrain, manifested by the increase in demands due to increase in temperatures, is conducted using a dynamic mathematical model representing the water sector in the kingdom. The model is developed using WEAP software and was calibrated and validated by historical matching utilizing data for the period 2000–2012. The model is used in the evaluation of the municipal water sector performance in terms of municipal water demands and their associated cost without and with climate change impacts scenarios for the period 2012–2030. The impact of climate change on the municipal water system is quantified as the difference between the two scenarios in three selected cost indicators: financial (production, conveyance and distribution costs, economic (natural gas asset consumption by desalination plants, and environmental (CO2 emissions by desalination plants. The vulnerability assessment indicated that the current municipal water management system in Bahrain is generally inefficient and associated with relatively high costs, which are expected to increase with time under the current policies and management approach focusing on supply-side management. The increase in temperature will increase these already high costs, and would exacerbate the water management challenges in Bahrain. However, these mounting challenges also present an opportune moment for Bahrain to review its current water resources management approaches and practices and to integrate climate change adaptation measures into its water planning and policies. In order to build an adaptive management capacity of the municipal water management system in Bahrain, a number of management interventions are proposed and evaluated, individually and combined, for their effectiveness in enhancing the efficiency of the management system using the developed dynamic model. These

  12. Breastfeeding and weaning practices in Bahrain: the role of mothers' education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O; Abdulkhalek, N

    2000-01-01

    This rapid assessment survey was undertaken to find out the current practices of infant feeding in Bahrain and the impact of educational level of the mothers on these practices. A total sample of 200 Bahraini mothers of children less than 2 years were interviewed in the health centers. The age of mothers ranged from 18 to 47 years. About one third of mothers (39.8%) initiated breastfeeding at the first hour of delivery, and there was no significant association between education of mothers and initiating of breastfeeding. Most infants were placed in the same bed as their mothers (71%), however the proportion was lower among infants with high education (61.8%) compared to low (73.7%) and middle (72.5%) education mothers. The introduction of foods during the first 3 days of the infant's life as well as the practising of breastfeeding on schedule increased with the increased of educational level of mothers. Highly educated mothers tended to introduce rice, wheat, infant formula and fruit at an earlier age of the infant's life than other education groups. The study demonstrates an improvement in infant feeding practices during the last decade. However, the practice of sound infant feeding was less among highly educated mothers when compared to low and middle education mothers. This is mainly due to socio-economic factors rather than lack of awareness.

  13. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS AFFECTING BURNOUT AMONG SECONDARY CARE DOCTORS IN BAHRAIN- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Isa Hasan, Yusuf Nooh, Adel Salman Alsayyad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout isa type of prolonged response to chronic job-related stress appears as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Objectives: The present study investigated level of burnout, compare burnout levels in view of demographic factors and to identify the potential risk factors that lead to high level of burnout among secondary care doctors in Ministry of Health in Bahrain kingdom. Methods: The study was carried out in 230 doctors. A questionnaire survey was administered: The level of “burnout” was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory; socio-demographic variables were collected as well. Results: the mean response rate was 87.8%. The prevalence of the three dimensions of burn out was 43.1% with high emotional exhaustion, 26.7% with high depersonalization and 51.5% reported low personal accomplishment. In general, the profiles of an individual with high burn out were between 30-40 years old Bahraini married physician with no children. Conclusion: a high level burnout was found among the studied population. The study results underline significant relations that were found to link burn out with various socio-demographic variables.

  14. Islamic vs. Conventional Banking Role in Non-Oil Growth: A Causal Analysis in the Case of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Belhadia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the type of relationship between Islamic vs. Conventional banking and non-Oil economic growth in the case of Bahrain by using annual data 1990-2012 retrieved from Islamic banks and financial institutions information (Ibis-Online of the Islamic Bank of Development (IDB, World Bank development indicators (WB, and the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB annual reports.This study employs the Johansen and Juselius Cointegration test and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM as well as Vector Autoregressive model (VAR to reveal the long run and short-run causality between the dual banking development and non-Oil GDP growth. The VECM results of the conventional banking show that there is long-run bidirectional causality between all the conventional banking selected indicators and the non-Oil GDP. For the Islamic banking VAR model, there is a unidirectional causality from Islamic banking indicators to the non-oil GDP. There is no evidence on the role of non-oil GDP on the Islamic banking development. Impulse response functions in the two models shows that through one standards deviation positive shock in Islamic vs. Conventional Credit provided to private sector, the non-Oil GDP will be much higher in the next five years if we stimulate the Islamic credit provided to private sector than the conventional banks.Moreover, the Islamic credit provided to the private sector appears to be more procyclical than the credit provided by the conventional banks. However, the fluctuations in the conventional credit are sharper than the Islamic banks’ private credit. This study provides the policy makers in Bahrain with the appropriate evidences to design their policies in fostering the non-Oil sector.

  15. Exploring the interplay between Framing and Securitization theory: the case of the Arab Spring protests in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Carvalho Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article advances the theoretical integration between securitization theory and the framing approach, resulting in a set of criteria hereby called security framing. It seeks to make a twofold contribution: to sharpen the study of the ideational elements that underlie the construction of threats, and to advance towards a greater assessment of the audience's preferences. The case study under examination is the 2011 military intervention of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council in Bahrain. The security framing of this case will help illuminate the dynamics at play in one of the most important recent events in Gulf politics.

  16. Item Analysis of Multiple Choice Questions at the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Kheyami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study aimed to carry out a post-validation item analysis of multiple choice questions (MCQs in medical examinations in order to evaluate correlations between item difficulty, item discrimination and distraction effectiveness so as to determine whether questions should be included, modified or discarded. In addition, the optimal number of options per MCQ was analysed. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. A total of 800 MCQs and 4,000 distractors were analysed between November 2013 and June 2016. Results: The mean difficulty index ranged from 36.70–73.14%. The mean discrimination index ranged from 0.20–0.34. The mean distractor efficiency ranged from 66.50–90.00%. Of the items, 48.4%, 35.3%, 11.4%, 3.9% and 1.1% had zero, one, two, three and four nonfunctional distractors (NFDs, respectively. Using three or four rather than five options in each MCQ resulted in 95% or 83.6% of items having zero NFDs, respectively. The distractor efficiency was 91.87%, 85.83% and 64.13% for difficult, acceptable and easy items, respectively (P <0.005. Distractor efficiency was 83.33%, 83.24% and 77.56% for items with excellent, acceptable and poor discrimination, respectively (P <0.005. The average Kuder-Richardson formula 20 reliability coefficient was 0.76. Conclusion: A considerable number of the MCQ items were within acceptable ranges. However, some items needed to be discarded or revised. Using three or four rather than five options in MCQs is recommended to reduce the number of NFDs and improve the overall quality of the examination.

  17. Nurses' care practices at the end of life in intensive care units in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Catherine S; Yaqoob, Maryam; Faraj, Sumaya; O'Neill, Carla L

    2017-12-01

    The process of dying in intensive care units is complex as the technological environment shapes clinical decisions. Decisions at the end of life require the involvement of patient, families and healthcare professionals. The degree of involvement can vary depending on the professional and social culture of the unit. Nurses have an important role to play in caring for dying patients and their families; however, their knowledge is not always sought. This study explored nurses' care practices at the end of life, with the objective of describing and identifying end of life care practices that nurses contribute to, with an emphasis on culture, religious experiences and professional identity. Research Design and context: Grounded theory was used. In all, 10 nurses from intensive care unit in two large hospitals in Bahrain were participated. Ethical Considerations: Approval to carry out the research was given by the Research Ethics Committee of the host institution, and the two hospitals. A core category, Death Avoidance Talk, was emerged. This was supported by two major categories: (1) order-oriented care and (2) signalling death and care shifting. Death talk was avoided by the nurses, doctors and family members. When a decision was made by the medical team that a patient was not to be resuscitated, the nurses took this as a sign that death was imminent. This led to a process of signalling death to family and of shifting care to family members. Despite the avoidance of death talk and nurses' lack of professional autonomy, they created awareness that death was imminent to family members and ensured that end of life care was given in a culturally sensitive manner and aligned to Islamic values.

  18. Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Among Medical Students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroon, Zaid A; Borgan, Saif M; Kamel, Charlotte; Maddison, Wendy; Royston, Maeve; Donnellan, Claire

    2018-02-01

    Medical training can be a stressful experience and may negatively impact mental health for some students. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among medical students in one international medical university in the Kingdom of Bahrain and to determine associations between these symptoms, the students' characteristics, and their satisfaction with life. This is a cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire, distributed to 350 enrolled medical students. We used Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was used to measure global cognitive judgments of one's life satisfaction. Sociodemographic details including social background and academic information were also documented. Forty percent (n = 124) of the participants had depressive symptoms, of which 18.9% (n = 58) met the criteria for mild, 13% (n = 40) for moderate, and 8.5% (n = 26) for severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with Arab ethnicity (χ 2  = 5.66, p = .017), female gender (χ 2  = 3.97, p = .046), relationship with peers (p Anxiety symptoms were present in 51% (n = 158) of students. Anxiety symptoms were associated with female gender (χ 2  = 11.35, p anxiety symptoms among medical students was high. Medical universities in the Middle East may need to allocate more resources into monitoring and early detection of medical student distress. Medical education providers are encouraged to provide adequate pastoral and psychological support for medical students, including culturally appropriate self-care programs within the curriculum.

  19. The Dammam aquifer in Bahrain - Hydrochemical characterization and alternatives for management of groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubari, Waleed K.

    Over-ion of the Dammam aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, by the agricultural and domestic sectors, has led to its salinization by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies. A hydrochemical study identified the locations of the sources of aquifer salinization and delineated their areas of influence. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. Four types of salinization of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. Four alternatives for the management of groundwater quality that are available to the water authorities in Bahrain are discussed and their priority areas are proposed, based on the type and extent of each salinization source, in addition to groundwater use in that area. The effectiveness of the proposed management options in controlling the degradation of water quality in the Dammam aquifer should be evaluated using simulation modeling. Résumé La surexploitation de l'aquifère de Damman, principal aquifère de Bahreïn, du fait des besoins agricoles et domestiques, a conduit à sa salinisation à partir d'eaux voisines saumâtres et salées. Une étude hydrochimique a identifié les origines de la salinisation de l'aquifère et a délimité leurs zones d'influence. Les recherches montrent que la qualité de l'eau souterraine est modifiée de façon significative pour les écoulements souterrains dirigés vers les secteurs sud et sud-est et provenant de la région nord-ouest de Bahreïn, là où l'aquifère est alimenté latéralement à partir de l'Arabie Saoudite

  20. Feed-in tariff structure development for photovoltaic electricity and the associated benefits for the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Shaker; Durazi, Amal; Al-Alawi, Yaser

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme was considered to facilitate an effective introduction of renewable energy in the Kingdom of Bahrain. An economic model was developed for the estimation of feasible FIT rates for photovoltaic (PV) electricity on a residential scale. The calculations of FIT rates were based mainly on the local solar radiation, the cost of a grid-connected PV system, the operation and maintenance cost, and the provided financial support. The net present value and internal rate of return methods were selected for model evaluation with the guide of simple payback period to determine the cost of energy and feasible FIT rates under several scenarios involving different capital rebate percentages, loan down payment percentages, and PV system costs. Moreover, to capitalise on the FIT benefits, its impact on the stakeholders beyond the households was investigated in terms of natural gas savings, emissions cutback, job creation, and PV-electricity contribution towards the energy demand growth. The study recommended the introduction of the FIT scheme in the Kingdom of Bahrain due to its considerable benefits through a setup where each household would purchase the PV system through a loan, with the government and the electricity customers sharing the FIT cost.

  1. A proposal to Raise the Level of Competitive Advantage of Scientific Research from the Teaching Staff’s Perspective in Higher Education Institutions - the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Noshy Anis ELsherbiny Elbaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide a proposal to raise the level of competitive advantage in scientific research from the teaching staff’s perspective in higher education institutions - in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To achieve this objective, the study used a descriptive method, and a questionnaire as a tool for the field study. In order to determine the mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage in scientific research at the institutions of higher education in the Kingdom of Bahrain, the tool was administered to a sample of (137 faculty members  from some higher education institutions (public and private in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The field study revealed a number of results, inter alia, the study sample agreed with all the proposed mechanisms to achieve competitive advantage in scientific research at institutions of higher education in the Kingdom of Bahrain at a high degree. Their agreement to the themes was in this order: academic support for scientific research, financial support for scientific research, community support for scientific research, and information technology support for scientific research. The study results also showed no statistically significant differences between the responses of the study sample about the proposed mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage in scientific research due to the variables of the academic degree  and the institution. Keywords: Competitive advantage, Research, Higher education institutions.

  2. A Geospatial Database for Wind and Solar Energy Applications: The Kingdom of Bahrain Study Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Joburi, Khalil; Dahman, Nidal

    2017-11-01

    This research is aimed at designing, implementing, and testing a geospatial database for wind and solar energy applications in the Kingdom of Bahrain. All decision making needed to determine economic feasibility and establish site location for wind turbines or solar panels depends primarily on geospatial feature theme information and non-spatial (attribute) data for wind, solar, rainfall, temperature and weather characteristics of a particular region. Spatial data includes, but is not limited to, digital elevation, slopes, land use, zonings, parks, population density, road utility maps, and other related information. Digital elevations for over 450,000 spot at 50 m spatial horizontal resolution plus field surveying and GPS (at selected locations) was obtained from the Surveying and Land Registration Bureau (SLRB). Road, utilities, and population density are obtained from the Central Information Organization (CIO). Land use zoning, recreational parks, and other data are obtained from the Ministry of Municipalities and Agricultural Affairs. Wind, solar, humidity, rainfall, and temperature data are obtained from the Ministry of Transportation, Civil Aviation Section. LandSat Satellite and others images are obtained from NASA and online sources respectively. The collected geospatial data was geo-referenced to Ain el-Abd UTM Zone 39 North. 3D Digital Elevation Model (DEM)-50 m spatial resolutions was created using SLRB spot elevations. Slope and aspect maps were generate based on the DEM. Supervised image classification to identify open spaces was performed utilizing satellite images. Other geospatial data was converted to raster format with the same cell resolution. Non-spatial data are entered as an attribute to spatial features. To eliminate ambiguous solution, multi-criteria GIS model is developed based on, vector (discrete point, line, and polygon representations) as well as raster model (continuous representation). The model was tested at the Al-Areen proposed

  3. A Geospatial Database for Wind and Solar Energy Applications: The Kingdom of Bahrain Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Joburi Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at designing, implementing, and testing a geospatial database for wind and solar energy applications in the Kingdom of Bahrain. All decision making needed to determine economic feasibility and establish site location for wind turbines or solar panels depends primarily on geospatial feature theme information and non-spatial (attribute data for wind, solar, rainfall, temperature and weather characteristics of a particular region. Spatial data includes, but is not limited to, digital elevation, slopes, land use, zonings, parks, population density, road utility maps, and other related information. Digital elevations for over 450,000 spot at 50 m spatial horizontal resolution plus field surveying and GPS (at selected locations was obtained from the Surveying and Land Registration Bureau (SLRB. Road, utilities, and population density are obtained from the Central Information Organization (CIO. Land use zoning, recreational parks, and other data are obtained from the Ministry of Municipalities and Agricultural Affairs. Wind, solar, humidity, rainfall, and temperature data are obtained from the Ministry of Transportation, Civil Aviation Section. LandSat Satellite and others images are obtained from NASA and online sources respectively. The collected geospatial data was geo-referenced to Ain el-Abd UTM Zone 39 North. 3D Digital Elevation Model (DEM-50 m spatial resolutions was created using SLRB spot elevations. Slope and aspect maps were generate based on the DEM. Supervised image classification to identify open spaces was performed utilizing satellite images. Other geospatial data was converted to raster format with the same cell resolution. Non-spatial data are entered as an attribute to spatial features. To eliminate ambiguous solution, multi-criteria GIS model is developed based on, vector (discrete point, line, and polygon representations as well as raster model (continuous representation. The model was tested at the Al

  4. Hormonal and echocardiographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle-cell anemia in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garadah TS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taysir S Garadah,1,2 Ahmed A Jaradat,3 Mohammed E Alalawi,1 Adla B Hassan2 1Cardiac Unit, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain Background: Adrenal, thyroid, and parathyroid gland hormonal changes are recognized in children with homozygous (HbSS sickle-cell anemia (SCA, but are not clear in adult patients with SCA. Aim: To assess the metabolic and endocrine abnormalities in adult patients with SCA and evaluate left ventricular (LV systolic and diastolic functions compared with patients with no SCA and further study the relationship between serum levels of cortisol, free thyroxine (T4, and testosterone with serum ferritin. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 82 patients with adult HbSS SCA compared with a sex- and age-matched control group. The serum levels of cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and free T4 were compared. Blood levels of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, vitamin D3, and ferritin were also compared. Pulsed Doppler echo was performed to evaluate the LV mass, wall thickness, and cavity dimensions with diastolic filling velocities of early (E and atria (A waves. Biometric data were analyzed as mean ± standard deviation between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed between serum levels of ferritin as independent variable and testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Results: A total of 82 adult patients with HbSS SCA were enrolled who had a mean age of 21±5.7 years, with 51 males (62%. Patients with SCA compared with the control group had significantly lower hemoglobin, body mass index, cortisol, vitamin D3, testosterone, and T4. Furthermore, there were significantly high levels of

  5. The Role of Real Estate in Sustainable Development in Developing Countries: The Case of the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Mouzughi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of real estate has the potential to advance sustainability in terms of meeting economic and social criteria—the Business Case and the Societal Case. This is a crucial aspect in the stated visions and plans in many developing countries. Hence, it is important to understand how real estate can best contribute. Semi-structured interviews with a number of decision-makers involved in the real estate sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain were undertaken to explore perceptions of how the sector could best contribute to sustainable development. The decision-makers came from government bodies, investment banks, real estate developers, investors, constructors, project consultants and auditors. The interviews highlight the importance of having a stated vision and strategy which is highly visible and shared by all stakeholders. In the case of Bahrain this is Vision 2030 and the National Economic Strategy. It is important to ensure that any plans that are put in place to achieve the vision/strategy are adaptable to reflect changes in the external environment. The decision-makers identified three areas of focus in terms of the content of policy in order to meet the economic and social-related sustainability criteria as set out in Vision 2030 and the National Economic Strategy. These are: infrastructure, affordable housing and tourism/leisure. Within these three areas, that of infrastructure is also the key enabler for developments in the other two areas to be realized. In terms of a method of governance, the use of public-private-partnerships (PPPs was identified as being highly appropriate. Such partnerships are not only useful to leverage private sector investment into specific development projects but also to ensure that such development harnesses innovative and efficient methods.

  6. Predictors of Vascular Cognitive Impairment Poststroke in a Middle Eastern (Bahrain) Cohort: A Proposed Case-Control Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Claire; Al Banna, Mona; Redha, Noor; Al Jishi, Adel; Al Sharoqi, Isa; Taha, Safa; Bakhiet, Moiz; Abdulla, Fatema; Walsh, Patrick

    2016-11-28

    Poststroke dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with poor long-term outcomes after stroke. The contribution of genetic factors such as the presence of apolipoprotein (ApoE) ɛ4 allele and its association with cognitive impairment poststroke remains inconclusive, particularly in Middle Eastern regions. The aim of this study is to examine all correlates and potential predictors of cognitive impairment including self-awareness and regulation deficits in stroke patients and compare these functions with healthy older adults from a Middle Eastern population. A prospective stroke sample of 200 patients (case group) and 100 healthy aging individuals (control group) will be recruited from the largest medical complex in Bahrain. A neuropsychological battery of cognitive assessments (global, executive, and metacognition) will be conducted on all participants. Participants will be categorized into 4 subgroups (nonvascular cognitive impairment, vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementia) using standardized cognitive assessment scores and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, dementia criteria. Biomarkers will include ApoE genotype, soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products, neprilysin, beta-secretase 1, biochemistry, and hematology measurements. The primary study outcome is to determine early risk factors for cognitive impairment after stroke in a Bahraini cohort. The study has received full ethical approval from the Bahrain Ministry of Health and from the affiliated university. With increasing stroke incidence rates in the Middle East, this research study will provide useful biological and epidemiological data for future development and planning of health policies and guidelines for stroke care within the Gulf region. ©Claire Donnellan, Mona Al Banna, Noor Redha, Adel Al Jishi, Isa Al Sharoqi, Safa Taha, Moiz Bakhiet, Fatema Abdulla, Patrick Walsh. Originally

  7. The cumulative impacts of reclamation and dredging on the marine ecology and land-use in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Khadija; Al-Madany, Ismail; Al-Sayed, Hashim; Khamis, Abdelqader; Al Shuhaby, Suhad; Al Hisaby, Ali; Elhoussiny, Wisam; Khalaf, Ebtisam

    2012-07-01

    This article assesses the ecological and economic impacts of land reclamation and dredging through consulting recent environmental impact assessment reports. Geographic features of Bahrain during 1963-2008 are produced using Geographical Information System. Extensive but inexpensive shallow coastal areas and tidal flats have been reclaimed particularly from 1997 to 2007 at a high rate of 21 km(2)/year. Formal records show the increase in the original land mass by the year 2008 to be 91 km(2). An estimated total cumulative loss of major habitats resulting from 10 reclamation projects was around 153.58 km(2). Also much larger scale impacts should be considered resulting from the borrow areas used for the extraction of sand or infill materials. A number of key habitats and species are affected in the vicinity of these projects. The study attempts to assign a monetary value to the marine ecosystem functions. There is a need for efficient coastal zone management to regulate a sustainable use of the marine resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trend of bacterial meningitis in Bahrain from 1990 to 2013 and effect of introduction of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, N; AlAnsari, H; AlKhawaja, S; Jawad, J S; Nasser, K; AlYousef, E

    2016-06-15

    Meningitis is among the 10 commonest infectious causes of death worldwide. This retrospective analysis of reported cases of meningitis in Bahrain aimed to assess the trend in the incidence of bacterial meningitis from 1990 to 2013, before and after the introduction of new vaccines. Of 1455 reported cases of meningitis during the study period 73.1% were viral and 26.9% were bacterial etiology (tuberculous meningitis 8.3%; Streptococcus pneumoniae 4.9%, Haemophilus influenzae 3.6% and Neisseria meningitidis 1.7%). There was a peak of meningitis cases in 1995-1996. The incidence of meningitis due to H. influenzae and N. meningitidis showed a marked reduction after the introduction of the corresponding vaccines in 1998 and 2001 respectively, and S. pneumoniae became the predominant organism after Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The changing trend in the etiology of bacterial meningitis points to the need to study vaccination programme modifications, such as pneumococcal vaccine for the adult population, especially high-risk groups.

  9. Structure and Composition of Mangrove Associations in Tubli Bay of Bahrain as Affected by Municipal Wastewater Discharge and Anthropogenic Sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Abou Seedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of municipal wastewater discharge and anthropogenic sedimentation on the structure and composition of gray mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. communities along Tubli Bay coastlines in Bahrain were investigated. Growth and regeneration of mangrove were measured, and its community was characterized. Sediment profile was analyzed for texture, pH, and salinity. Mangrove area covered by sand depositions was measured using Google Earth Pro. ANOVA and regression tests were employed in the analysis of the data. Results indicated that mangrove overwhelmingly dominated plant community in the study area, which was zoned by a community of other salt-tolerant species. Three main habitats exist in the study area with high similarity in their floristic composition. Species richness and the number of habitats were low due to the aridity and high sediment salinity. The dilution effect of the secondary treated wastewater had a favorable effect on height and diameters of mangrove trees. However, no differences were observed in leaf area index, basal area, and density of mangrove. The long-term accumulation of anthropogenic sedimentation had a detrimental effect on the mangrove community, expressed in swath death of mangrove trees due to root burials and formation of high topography within the community boundaries.

  10. Can envelope codes reduce electricity and CO2 emissions in different types of buildings in the hot climate of Bahrain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, H.

    2009-01-01

    The depletion of non-renewable resources and the environmental impact of energy consumption, particularly energy use in buildings, have awakened considerable interest in energy efficiency. Building energy codes have recently become effective techniques to achieve efficiency targets. The Electricity and Water Authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of building electricity consumption and CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using envelope thermal insulation codes. This paper investigates the ability of the current codes to achieve such a benchmark and evaluates their impact on building energy consumption. The results of a simulation study are employed to investigate the impact of the Bahraini codes on the energy and environmental performance of buildings. The study focuses on air-conditioned commercial buildings and concludes that envelope codes, at best, are likely to reduce the energy use of the commercial sector by 25% if the building envelope is well-insulated and efficient glazing is used. Bahraini net CO 2 emissions could drop to around 7.1%. The simulation results show that the current energy codes alone are not sufficient to achieve a 40% reduction benchmark, and therefore, more effort should be spent on moving towards a more comprehensive approach

  11. Agreement between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 September 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 19 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 10 May 2009, the date on which the Agency received from the Kingdom of Bahrain written notification that Bahrain's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  12. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain): feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Azzawi, Mohamed; Al Amer, Rashed; Al Sharqi, Dana; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Munshi, Fadi M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year) were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments. A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females) were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78. Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that the MSF tool we used on the interns rotating in their clerkship year within our Middle Eastern culture provides an effective method of evaluation because it offers a reliable, valid, and feasible process.

  13. Labor, nationalism, and imperialism in eastern Arabia: Britain, the Shaikhs, and the Gulf oil workers in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar, 1932-1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the lack of a noticeable indigenous labor movement in the contemporary Gulf Arab countries of Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar; it focuses on the emergence, after the discovery of oil, of an industrial Gulf labor force, and on the evolution of the British policy towards oil and Gulf oil workers. The period examined begins with the discovery of oil in Bahrain in 1932 (the first such discovery on the Arab side of the Gulf), and ends with the Suez Crisis of 1956. The latter is a watershed event in Gulf history. It is argued that the Suez Crisis was in large part responsible for the long-term defeat of the indigenous labor movement in the Gulf. Attention is given to the parts played by the British Government of India, the Foreign Office, the local Shaikhs, the Gulf nationalists, and by the workers themselves. Policies towards workers passed through two different periods. In the first, 1932-1945, the Government of India had no direct interest in the Gulf labor situation; in the second, 1946-1956, the Foreign Office took increased interest in the welfare of local oil workers, primarily because of the importance of oil to reconstruction of the British economy after the war. However, the Suez Crisis in 1956 convinced the British to withdraw their support for the workers

  14. Nutrition education in the medical school curriculum: a review of the course content at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, K R; Cunningham, F O

    2016-11-01

    Only 14 % of American physicians report that they feel adequately trained to provide nutritional counselling. The average number of nutrition teaching hours in American medical schools is falling below recommendations by the National Academy of Sciences and nutritional education in the medical school curriculum is currently an important discussion topic. This study aimed to review the teaching hours delivered during a 6-year medical programme at The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain (RCSI-B) and define the importance of nutritional education for medical students. Lecture time regarding the topic of nutrition was quantified by studying the contents of the 6-year course materials on the Moodle ® platform virtual learning environment used by RCSI-B. Students are exposed to approximately 15 h of education in nutrition during their medical studies at RCSI-B. The 15 h spent educating RCSI-B medical students on nutrition is inadequate according to international recommendations. However, RCSI-B is one of many medical schools that do not reach the minimum required hours (25-44) as set by the National Academy of Sciences and the American Society for Nutrition. We recommend that more teaching hours on nutrition be introduced into the curriculum. These extra teaching hours may greatly benefit RCSI-B students, patients and public health in Bahrain.

  15. Assessing dietary and lifestyle risk factors and their associations with disease comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia: A case-control study from Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrami, Haitham Ali; Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam Ezzat; Saif, Zahraa Qassim; Hammad, Laila Habib

    2017-08-01

    Acquired dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors of patients with schizophrenia may affect their life expectancy, disease complications and prognosis. The objectives of the current study were to assess the dietary habits and other lifestyle behaviors for Bahraini patients with schizophrenia, and to determine their associations with different medical comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted during the period of March to December 2016. A sample of 120 cases were recruited from the Psychiatric Hospital, Bahrain and age-sex-matched with 120 controls. Controls were recruited from primary health centres, and were free from serious mental illness. Dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors including smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were assessed using a questionnaire. All medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify dietary and lifestyle risk factors that are associated with one or more disease comorbidities. Cases had higher prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake, excessive dietary intake, and decreased physical activity (all Prisk for developing chronic medical conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cases were three times more likely to have up to three or more medical comorbidities compared with controls. Excessive dietary intake and decreased physical activity were identified as the main risk factors. Excessive caloric intake and decreased physical activity represent the main dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia in Bahrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of comorbid depression, anxiety, and stress disorders with Type 2 diabetes in Bahrain, a country with a very high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almawi, W; Tamim, H; Al-Sayed, N; Arekat, M R; Al-Khateeb, G M; Baqer, A; Tutanji, H; Kamel, C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined the association of depression, anxiety, and stress with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Bahrain, an island-country with a very high prevalence of T2DM. This was a cross-sectional study involving administering Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)-21 structured depression, anxiety, and stress scale to 143 T2DM patients and 132 healthy controls. Higher proportion of T2DM patients were found in the mild-moderate and severe- extremely severe depression (p=0.002), anxiety (pstress (pstress were associated with T2DM after adjusting for all variables, while age was the only significant variable associated with stress. These results suggest a positive contribution of T2DM to increased depressive and/or anxiety and/or stress disorders among the patients examined, thereby recommending counseling for T2DM patients.

  17. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joao Pinelo

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of street orientation towards the development of a comfortable microclimate for pedestrians in Bahrain. Increasing walkability is a global agenda to address issues such as a) transportation, b) energy consumption, c) health, and d) air pollution, all of which are topics of the sustainability agenda. Thermal comfort is one of the pre-requisites for walkability. In warm climates, this is a challenging goal. Street design is paramount for pedestrian comfort in warm climates. The roles of street orientation and aspect ratio are of particular importance as they determine the intake of solar radiation into the urban canyon. We investigate the state of affairs in Bahrain, by measuring the frequency with which the street orientations E-W, N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE, currently occur. Research suggests that the street orientation E-W presents the lesser performance for mitigating the effects of heat gain. The ideal grid orientation would, therefore, be N-S, and NE-SW - NW-SE, avoiding street segments with E-W orientation. A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%), the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  18. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saber, Feryal; Aldosari, Waleed; Alselaiti, Mariam; Khalfan, Hesham; Kaladari, Ahmed; Khan, Ghulam; Harb, George; Rehani, Riyadh; Kudo, Sizuka; Koda, Aya; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients (n = 53) from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01), Dr. Hesham (Site #02), and Dr. Waleed (Site #03) (n = 35, 5-ALA-SFC; n = 18, placebo). There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141. PMID:27738640

  19. Assessment of vitamin D levels in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes mellitus comparing two methods of measurement: a facility's experience in the Middle Eastern country of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatima Ahmed Al-Haddad,1 Mansoor H Rajab,2 S Mahmood Al-Qallaf,3 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,4 Kathryn H Hart5 1Dietetic Unit for Hospitals, 2Pediatric Endocrine and Diabetes Team, Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, 3Pharmacy Program, College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain, Manama, 4Nutrition and Health Studies Unit Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Sakheer, Kingdom of Bahrain; 5School of Biosciences and Medicine, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Background: The number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is on the rise and has more than doubled in the past 10 years in Bahrain. Some studies have linked low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of diabetes. There are concerns regarding the variations in circulating 25(OHD levels measured by different laboratories and by using different analytical techniques. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of newly diagnosed children with T1DM using the “gold standard method” with high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods compared to the chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoassay (CMIA used in a hospital laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen children, aged 6–12 years, who received a confirmed diagnosis of T1DM in 2014 were chosen as subjects. Methods: Serum vitamin D levels were assessed in a hospital, while an extra aliquot of blood collected during routine blood collection after acquiring informed written consents from the subjects, and sent to Princess Al-Jawhara Center for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders to be analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Results: The mean age of the study group was 9±2 years. The mean total of 25(OHD levels (D3 and D2 assessed by UPLC-MS/MS was 49.7±18.8, whereas the mean total of 25(OHD levels obtained from the CMIA assay was 44.60±13

  20. The New School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module: A Practical Implementation in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) System in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper diagnoses the implementation of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Bahrain Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) learning environment. The module was designed to incorporate an innovative education and training approach with a variety of learning activities that are included in various learning case studies. Each case study was based on with learning objectives coupled with desired learning outcomes. The TVE students should meet the desired outcomes after the completion of the learning activities and assessments. To help with the implementation phase of the new module, the authors developed guidelines for each case study. The guidelines incorporated learning activities to be delivered in an integrated learning environment. The skills to be transferred were related to cognitive, affective, and technical proficiencies. The guidelines included structured instructions to help students during the learning process. In addition, technology was introduced to improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. The guidelines include learning indicators for each learning activity and were based on their interrelation with competencies to be achieved with respect to modern industrial requirements. Each learning indicator was then correlated against the type of learning environment, teaching and learning styles, examples of mode of delivery, and assessment strategy. Also, the learning activities were supported by technological features such as discussion forums for social perception and engagement and immediate feedback exercises for self-motivation. Through the developed module, TVE teachers can effectively manage the teaching and learning process as well as the assessment strategy to satisfy students' individual requirements and enable them to meet workplace requirements.

  1. Systematic thematic review of e-health research in the Gulf Cooperation Council (Arabian Gulf): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alan S; Turjoman, Rebal; Shaheen, Yanal; Al Sayyed, Farah; Hwang, Mu Ji; Malick, Faryal

    2017-05-01

    Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC or 'Arabian Gulf'), comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, is a political organization sharing a common history and culture. All GCC nations have made substantial investments in telecommunications and electronic health infrastructure since 2000. Methods We conducted a literature search in English and Arabic on peer-reviewed e-health research up to December 2014 originating in the GCC. The objective was to retrieve all research on e-health in the GCC and to categorize and analyse it qualitatively to reveal the current state of e-health research and development in the region. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, conference papers and graduate theses written on e-health in the GCC. Blogs, health websites and non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded. Results Three hundred and six articles were retrieved, categorized and analysed qualitatively to reveal the state of e-health research in the GCC. Both country-specific and GCC-wide major themes were identified using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software and summarized. The most common type of study was an overview (35.0%), with common study designs of case studies (26.8%) and descriptive articles (46.4%). Significant themes were: prospective national benefits from e-health, implementation and satisfaction with electronic health records, online technologies in medical education, innovative systems (case studies), and information security and personal health information. Discussion This is the first comprehensive analytical literature review of e-health in the GCC. Important research gaps were identified: few cost-benefit analyses, controlled interventional studies, or research targeting gender and religious issues were retrieved.

  2. A Neuro-fuzzy-stochastic frontier analysis approach for long-term natural gas consumption forecasting and behavior analysis: The cases of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Asadzadeh, S.M.; Saberi, M.; Nadimi, V.; Tajvidi, A.; Sheikalishahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper presents a unique approach for long-term natural gas consumption estimation. → It is applied to selected Arab countries to show its superiority and applicability. → It may be used for other real cases for optimum gas consumption estimation. → It is compared with current studies to show its advantages. → It is capable of dealing with complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, and randomness. -- Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system-stochastic frontier analysis (ANFIS-SFA) approach for long-term natural gas (NG) consumption prediction and analysis of the behavior of NG consumption. The proposed models consist of input variables of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population (POP). Six distinct models based on different inputs are defined. All of trained ANFIS are then compared with respect to mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). To meet the best performance of the intelligent based approaches, data are pre-processed (scaled) and finally the outputs are post-processed (returned to its original scale). To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated ANFIS-SFA approach, gas consumption in four Middle Eastern countries i.e. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates is forecasted and analyzed based on the data of the time period 1980-2007. With the aid of autoregressive model, GDP and population are projected for the period 2008-2015. These projected data are used as the input of ANFIS model to predict the gas consumption in the selected countries for 2008-2015. SFA is then used to examine the behavior of gas consumption in the past and also to make insights for the forthcoming years. The ANFIS-SFA approach is capable of dealing with complexity, uncertainty, and randomness as well as several other unique features discussed in this paper.

  3. Sensitive and specific markers for insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ayadhi MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Golbahar,1,2,* Maha Al-Ayadhi,2,* Negalla Mohan Das,2 Khalid Gumaa,2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Al-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, AGU, Manama, Bahrain *These authors contributed equally to this articleBackground: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, despite a high prevalence of insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and disturbances in the secretion of gonadotrophin, the principal causes of biochemical abnormalities and the best endocrine markers for PCOS have not been fully identified.Subjects and methods: Serum levels of insulin, glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, total testosterone, estrogen, sex hormone-binding capacity (SHBG, and other related indices such as homeostasis model assessment, insulin glucose ratios, LH/FSH ratios, and the free androgen index (FAI were determined and compared in women with PCOS (n = 50 and women without PCOS (n = 50.Results: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, among all insulin resistance indices, only hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–5.2; P = 0.008 was significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for body mass index (BMI, hyperandrogenemia, and LH/FSH ratios. The LH/FSH ratio (OR = 5.4; CI: 1.2–23.0, P = 0.03 was the only marker among those indices for inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion that significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. Among those indices for hyperandrogenemia, FAI (OR = 1.1; CI: 1.0–2.7; P = 0.02 and SHBG (OR = 1.2; CI: 1.2–3.4; P = 0.03 were significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best predictive markers for PCOS were insulin (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.944; CI: 0.887–0

  4. A Study on the use of Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter (Web2.0) among selected academic libraries from 6 Gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to explore and study the current usage trends of Web2.0 namely Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter among selected higher education institutions’ libraries in 6 gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait. Websites of the selected libraries would be compared on the extent of the usage of these tools, the participation level and their purpose. The author would also share his opinion and suggestions on improving the current trends pertaining to the area of Web2.0 and libraries. The impact and importance of Web2.0 on libraries cannot be disputed. Since gaining popularity in mid-2000, libraries around the globe have jumped onto the Web2.0 bandwagon. Among the common examples of Web2.0 used by libraries today are namely: social networking sites, blogs, wikis, folksonomies and video sharing sites. Libraries are using Web2.0 to (among others): • market their services / resources to their community, • announce latest library news, • provide their online guides / notes for their resources among others. Though such tools have been implemented by most libraries around the world, some of the challenges faced by libraries are: •participation level – casting the net to a wider audience •selection of web2.0 tools •effectiveness of present web2.0 tools used by the libraries

  5. Bahrain-Iran Relations in Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    www.ismaili.net/ histoire / history03/history336.html (accessed 15 Jan. 2012) 52 only legitimate successor...Ismaili Online. “ Ismaili History 336- Ali Bin Abu Talib,” 2006. http://www.ismaili.net/ histoire /history03/history336.html. Issawi, C. Economic

  6. Obesity among secondary school students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, A O; Matter, A M; Alekri, S A; Mahdi, A R

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of obesity and factors associated with it in Bahraini secondary school students. A cross-sectional study involving a sample of 825 students (417 boys and 408 girls) aged 15 to 21 years was obtained from secondary schools. Obesity was determined using body mass index (BMI = Wt/Ht2). The findings revealed that 15.6% of boys and 17.4% of girls were either overweight or obese (BMI > or = 25). Family size, parents education, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with obesity among boys, while family history was the only socio-economic factors statistically associated with obesity among girls. Meal patterns such as eating between meals, number of meals per day, and method of eating were not associated with obesity in students. Boys who ate alone were 3 times more likely to be obese than those who ate with family members (odd ratio = 3.4). Measures to prevent and control obesity among children are suggested.

  7. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    by the Ministry of Interior. Bahrain’s opposition asserts that the United States is downplaying regime abuses in order to protect the security... woman , who was unopposed in her district, was elected out of 18 female candidates. The king subsequently named a new Shura Council with 20 Shiites, 19...previous COR). The same woman who had won in 2006 was elected. Municipal elections were conducted concurrently. The king reappointed 30 of the 40 serving

  8. Osteoarthritis among women in bahrain: a public health audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Gv; Hussain, Muna S Hussain Abdullah; Ali, Eman Jm; Awate, Rajendra V; Khadem, Zahra Ka; Al-Safwan, Zainab Am

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to train students on public health survey; correlate risk factors of osteoarthritis and to identify modifiable risk factors. Osteoarthritis survey was carried out among 420 Bahraini women, above 40 years of age, diagnosed of osteoarthritis, attending ministry of health facilities. Most cases in the study were from the age group of 50-59 years with a mean age of 57. Osteoarthritis: of major joints alone was 74%; of generalized was 21% and of small joints of hands and feet alone was 5%. Within major osteoarthritis: 48% were knees alone; 51% were knee and hip and 2% were hip alone. Combinations of co-morbidities were found among 43%. History of diagnosed: diabetes in 10%, hypertension among 13% and hypercholesterolemia in 5% of cases. Half of the cases in the study were obese and 30% were overweight. Osteoarthritis of the Knee and the combination of the osteoarthritis of knee and hip was highest among obese followed by overweight cases. Menopause was found among 68%of patients. Patients on medication accounted for 85% and 75% were on Physiotherapy. Half of the sample had family history of osteoarthritis. While over 90% were less educated with odds ratio for being housewives at 3.085. The multivariate analysis of ordinal regression returned pseudo R(2) of 30% for the model with the following significant variables: age, BMI, menopause status, exercise, chronic morbidities and family history of osteoarthritis. Overall, the proportion of major osteoarthritis of the weight bearing joints is very high. The modifiable risk factors identified from this study are sedentary lifestyle, obesity and overweight, as well as chronic morbidities.

  9. E-Learning Capability Maturity Level in Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammary, Jaflah; Mohammed, Zainab; Omran, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of using e-learning, educational institutions are still facing many challenges with the e-learning infrastructure and technical aspects, practices and capabilities, and improvement in learning outcome. Hence, a need for framework to benchmark the e-learning capability maturity level and measure the extent to what it is…

  10. The Role of the Ulama in Shiite Social Movements: Bahrain, Lebanon, and Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard, Brian P

    2005-01-01

    .... The ulama were particularly well suited to lead a successful social movement. Shiite tradition and symbology, once released from the bonds of quietism, were perfectly suited to motivate a struggle for justice...

  11.  Osteoarthritis Among Women in Bahrain: A Public Health Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab AM Al-Safwan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: This study aims to train students on public health survey; correlate risk factors of osteoarthritis and to identify modifiable risk factors. Methods: Osteoarthritis survey was carried out among 420 Bahraini women, above 40 years of age, diagnosed of osteoarthritis, attending ministry of health facilities. Results: Most cases in the study were from the age group of 50-59 years with a mean age of 57. Osteoarthritis: of major joints alone was 74�20of generalized was 21�0and of small joints of hands and feet alone was 5�20Within major osteoarthritis: 48�0were knees alone; 51�0were knee and hip and 2�0were hip alone. Combinations of co-morbidities were found among 43�20History of diagnosed: diabetes in 10�20hypertension among 13�0and hypercholesterolemia in 5�0of cases. Half of the cases in the study were obese and 30�0were overweight. Osteoarthritis of the Knee and the combination of the osteoarthritis of knee and hip was highest among obese followed by overweight cases. Menopause was found among 68� patients. Patients on medication accounted for 85�0and 75�0were on Physiotherapy. Half of the sample had family history of osteoarthritis. While over 90�0were less educated with odds ratio for being housewives at 3.085. The multivariate analysis of ordinal regression returned pseudo R2 of 30�0for the model with the following significant variables: age, BMI, menopause status, exercise, chronic morbidities and family history of osteoarthritis. Conclusion: Overall, the proportion of major osteoarthritis of the weight bearing joints is very high. The modifiable risk factors identified from this study are sedentary lifestyle, obesity and overweight, as well as chronic morbidities.

  12. Bahrain and the global balance of power after the Arab spring

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars Erslev

    2012-01-01

    The global balance of power is changing, and the role of the US as the only superpower is being challenged by emerging new powers and a still more powerful China. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the Persian Gulf. Two wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and continually rising debt have meant that the position of the US has declined. At the same time, Asian states are increasing their economic expansion in the Persian Gulf. Increasing political influence, including a bigger role in hard security...

  13. A critique of Stephen Downes' article, "Learning Objects" -- A perspective from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muain H. Jamlan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of technology, hardware, and software, learning objects become fundamental to the learning process and change the way in which learning materials are designed. The vast development of technology forces both teacher and learner to modify their roles. Teachers become facilitators, while learners became active and responsible for selecting modes and styles of learning. Assuming this attitude of implementing technology in the learning process and seeking new methods of facilitating learning, universities and colleges have to adopt new techniques. One of these new techniques is the use of learning objects. Although learning objects are considered products of technology developed in the USA, Japan, and European countries, universities in the Middle East have been influenced by this development. While there are differences in the quantity and quality of these technologies available in many Middle East countries, computer applications, especially those that deploy the Internet, have now become available. Educational authorities in Middle East countries are now turning to the availability of learning objects. Let me clarify some of the issues Downes discusses in his article on learning objects, Vol. 2, No. 1 of the International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.

  14. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaliche, Nessreen; Ayhan, Teoman; Fathallah, Raouf

    2017-11-01

    Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH) is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical simulation approach based on energy equations was performed. Considering the entire water amount and the total area of the cone, the amount of water (facing the sun per unit absorbing area in the two symmetrical parts of the system) is found to increase, which is expected to reach a maximum water temperature at a high performance. Our experimental findings show that the daily performance is around 32% and the highest water temperature of about 45°C is obtained in the system at 4 pm, according to seasons and weather conditions. An efficient and simple mathematical simulation approach for the new conical solar water heater is described then validates using experimental data.

  15. A quality approach for conducting training needs assessments in the Ministry of Health, State of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S; al-Darazi, F

    2000-01-01

    In health care organizations around the world, Training Needs Assessments (TNAs) have generally followed a professions-based approach. For example, the training needs of doctors, nurses, each allied health profession, and distinct support staff have been analyzed separately--individualized TNAs conducted for each speciality and functional area. Although a professions-based TNA model can provide useful information to human resource development (HRD) professionals, there are two major drawbacks: (1) it is possible that important training needs might be overlooked because of lack of information sharing among professions and (2) such an approach does not encourage an interdisciplinary, team orientation to service provision. This paper proposes an improved method of conceptualizing TNAs, using an approach that builds on the quality management literature (TQM, CQI, etc.) which stresses the importance of customer- and service-orientations to organizing and measuring organizational and individual performance.

  16. Young Generation Attitudes and Awareness Towards the Implementation of Smart Card in Bahrain: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adel I. Al-Alawi; Mohammed A. Al-Amer

    2006-01-01

    SmartCards are one of the latest additions to the continuing list of advancements and innovations in the world of information and communication technology. A SmartCard resembles in size and shape to a normal credit card or bank ATM card, with a microprocessor chip implanted into the plastic card. These cards are used not just as identity cards, like the earliest versions of such cards, but hold a relatively huge amount of editable information including the card holder's bank data, e-purse, fi...

  17. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaaliche Nessreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical simulation approach based on energy equations was performed. Considering the entire water amount and the total area of the cone, the amount of water (facing the sun per unit absorbing area in the two symmetrical parts of the system is found to increase, which is expected to reach a maximum water temperature at a high performance. Our experimental findings show that the daily performance is around 32% and the highest water temperature of about 45°C is obtained in the system at 4 pm, according to seasons and weather conditions. An efficient and simple mathematical simulation approach for the new conical solar water heater is described then validates using experimental data.

  18. Dilemmas in Forward Basing: Understanding the Impact of the American Military Presence in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Brazil , or Peru.49 Of the 3218 settlers sent to Colonia Okinawa, from the 1950s to early 1960s only 806 remained by the year 2000. Those who remained...protest rally at a local high school that drew 10,000 people to the streets. A torch lit procession found its way to the hotel where Sato was...overnight rather than return to his off base hotel . This act of seeking refuge with the Americans did little to gain him favor with the left. Despite the

  19. Iranian Religious and Political Influence in Persian Gulf Countries (Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Игоревна Ильина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focuses on evolution of Iranian political influence in Persian Gulf countries. It examines theological and political aspects of such influence and its consequences for the region. The author analyses origins of the transnational Shia movements such as “Harakat ar-Risala” and “ad-Dawa” linked with traditional Shia institutions at Najaf and Kerbela, and its ambiguous relationships with post-revolution Iranian elite. In the same way, not all of Shias of Persian Gulf was “fascinated” by “Islamic revolution” in Iran and became admirers of R. Khomeini’s conception of “vilayat-e-faqih”. In addition, the author traces history of local political Shia movements, that are, in fact, more influential on domestic politics of Gulf countries that mythical “Iran’s hand”.

  20. Mesopotamian ceramics from the burial mounds of Bahrain, c.2250–1750 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    in Mesopotamia’s interaction with the populations of the ‘Lower Sea’. The first import horizon is comprised of a vessel type found exclusively in the scattered mounds of Early Type which pre-date the rise of the Dilmun ‘state’ proper. The distribution of these vessels outside their areas of production...... demonstrates how they circulated widely in a network elsewhere considered to reflect the orbit of Mesopotamia’s late third-millennium ‘Magan trade’. Here it is consequently concluded that this particular type represents an important fossile directeur of the ‘Magan trade’ and pre-Dilmun florescence. The vessels...

  1. The village and the city: a diagnostic study of the spatial embedding patterns in villages absorbed by cities in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Ghatam, W.

    2009-01-01

    During the growth of cities villages are frequently absorbed into the fabric of that conurbation. But what are the consequences of this? To what extent and how well do these villages become part of the overall fabric of the city? What is the effect on the village and the wider city? How do these villages interact with the configuration of the city to create a rich spatial urban structure? This study focuses on the spatial distribution of the internal and edge commercial activity w...

  2. Improving Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Sigonella, Italy: Detachment Bahrain’s Ship Maintenance Contracts in Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    attention to managing our relationship with our customers . The lone success story in our relationships with our ship support repair activities is that...contracts • Limit competition • Poor quality of quotes/bids Process Improvements ) l h1 Customer  re ations ip  management ‐ Insist that sufficient time...Bulk funding/lack of proper controls/efficiency Process Improvements ) l h1 Customer  re ations ip  management ‐ Insist that sufficient time allocated to

  3. In Search of a Programme Review Framework for a Polytechnic in Bahrain: The Experience of a Bahraini Quality Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Jameel

    2015-01-01

    Across the Middle East and North Africa region the quality of education has been highlighted as an issue of concern by the World Bank, in particular the less than positive impact on economic development. Also, it has been found that improvement initiatives often fail if they are transferred from the Western world without the consideration of local…

  4. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  5. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... failing to fulfill its obligations and commitments under the International Labour Organization Declaration... were inconsistent with its commitments under the Labor Chapter. The objectives of the review of the... commitments or obligations arising under a labor chapter * * *.'' The Procedural Guidelines specify that OTLA...

  6. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joao Pinelo

    2017-01-01

    A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%, the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  7. The Internalization of Externalities from Electrical Power Plants as a Tool for Progressing Towards Sustainability in Small Island Developing States: The Case of Bahrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Al-Hesabi (Ali)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPower is the engine of growth of any economy. Consumption of electrical energy is a universally accepted indicator of progress in the productive sectors, and of the well being of the people of any country. No major economic activity can be sustained without an adequate and reliable

  8. A Study on the use of Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter (Web2.0) among selected academic libraries from 6 Gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and study the current usage trends of Web2.0 namely Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter among selected higher education institutions’ libraries in 6 gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar

  9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2012-01-01

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) ...

  10. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical acti...

  11. Roles and Effects of Media in the Middle East and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mady, Ahmed M

    2005-01-01

    .... The countries included in the survey are Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain...

  12. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...: Free trade agreements are established to reduce and eliminate barriers, strengthen and develop economic... information collection: Chile, Singapore, Australia, Morocco, Bahrain, Jordan, Oman, and Peru. These...

  13. All projects related to Egypt | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... POLITICAL REFORM, ECONOMIC REFORM, WOMEN, EMPOWERMENT, Gender ... IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is ... Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait.

  14. 19 CFR 4.22 - Exemptions from special tonnage taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada Chile Colombia... Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay People's Republic of China Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar...

  15. Center for Strategic Leadership, Issue Paper. December 2003, Volume 13-03. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Disaster Response and Environmental Security Executive Committee (EXCOM) Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Mardis

    2003-01-01

    .... Participants included approximately 40 delegates from the Gulf Corporation Channel (GCC) Secretariat General, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar the United Arab Emirates and the United States...

  16. 77 FR 70527 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  17. 78 FR 73583 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, and Singapore; the Dominican... Paper on Pro-Competitive Regulatory Principles; the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing... CAFTA-DR; (4) Whether Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, Oman, Panama, Peru, or...

  18. Analysis of the differences in the management of a conventional and a takaful insurance company

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Melbourne

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation is based on the comaprison of takaful insurance company and a conventional insurance company in Bahrain. The dissertation takes a closer look at the performance of the insurance industry in Bahrain and the growth and development of the takaful insurance companies in the G.C.C region.

  19. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  20. A Cost Analysis of Forward Positioning Material in the Fifth Fleet Area of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    CTF combined task force CY calendar year DDC defense distribution center DDNB Defense Depot Navy Detachment, Bahrain DHL DHL Airways DLA...items from Bahrain to the requesting unit.  Defense Distribution Center ( DDC )– DDC is concerned with getting the requested national item

  1. The effect of depth variation on size and catch rate of green tiger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moslem

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Analysis of catch. Data analyses were done by Statistical Package for the Social .... important factor affecting spatial distri-bution of juvenile. Jinga shrimp ... resources of Kuwait, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar and the.

  2. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sex, and social status with the subjects served as control. Voluntary counseling ... to HIV antibody. Conclusions: Blood transfusion is still a risk factor for HIV transmission .... 1.6% documented by Al-Mahroos and Ebrahim[15] in Bahrain. Island.

  3. Development of a Civil Engineer Corps Community Portal Prototype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rader, Neil

    2002-01-01

    The Civil Engineer Corps (CEC) is a relatively small Navy community consisting of approximately 1300 officers, Billet locations for the CEC range from Bahrain, Saudi Arabia to Keflavik, Iceland, CEC officers have a broad range...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 10 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be found in letters of credit from Bahrain. Although more commonly appearing in letters of credit... relates to existing economic boycotts. Thus, the term is neither prohibited nor reportable under the...

  5. central Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    Reduction of hepatitis B infection is a national public health priority. Despite international ..... further to report that the presence of a STI further increases the risk for ... a prevalence survey carried out in Bahrain where prevalence of hepatitis B ...

  6. African Journals Online: Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ... Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize ... reviews, case reports, research methods papers, short communications, along ... research work, interesting case reports, etc. among medical professionals.

  7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.19

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    remarkable increase, both in developing and in developed countries (Arguder et al. .... Patients report that they use herbal medicine and foods for reducing dyspnoea, mucus secretion, and deep ..... mellitus in Bahrain: A cross-sectional study.

  8. 19 CFR 10.817 - Imported directly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement... bills, packing lists, commercial invoices, receiving and inventory records, and customs entry and exit...

  9. The Arab Spring and civil-military relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    power interplay between the civil elites and the military elites using the term 'civil- military relations' ..... the American military, whose 5th Fleet is headquartered in Bahrain. The advice was that the ..... Embassy Madrid. 23 Danopoulos, C (ed).

  10. The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ... (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates). The Gulf states, which are all led by Sunni Muslim regimes, fear that Shiite Iran is unchecked now that Iraq is strategically weak...

  11. Hydro-Crisis in the Middle East: Water Schemes for a Thirsty Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    exploitation of the Eastern Province’s aquifer reduces water available to Bahrain and Qatar . Disputes have occurred between Saudi Arabia and Jordan...46 D. QATAR ... Qatar ............................................................................. 48 Figure 25. United Arab Emirates

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 801 - 850 of 1060 ... Composition of elasmobranch landings in Bahrain, Abstract ... Further refutation of the primary-secondary settlement hypothesis for the brown mussel ... formulated feeds supplemented with fresh wild seaweed, Abstract.

  13. All projects related to Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... POLICY MAKING, MIDDLE EAST, Civil society, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

  14. Search Results | Page 10 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 91 - 100 of 220 ... Through the African Parliamentary Network against Corruption (APNAC) a ... world (Algeria, Bahrain, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Yemen) : final report ... This research project examined the state of social sciences in Iraqi ...

  15. Reasons for doctor migration from South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zealand, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, United Kingdom, Canada, Yemen and Australia. ..... media. Of the 13.8% of the doctors with children who were either studying ... become a significant social and economic burden to the country.

  16. 76 FR 26334 - Request for Comments on Possible Negotiations in the World Trade Organization To Expand the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... (Director for Tariff Affairs), Office of Small Business, Market Access, and Industrial Competitiveness...; Australia; Bahrain; Canada; China; Chinese Taipei; Costa Rica; Croatia; Dominican Republic; Egypt; El...; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Korea; Kuwait; Kyrgyz Republic; Macao; Malaysia...

  17. The Association between Accounting Conservatism and Cash Dividends: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gehan A. Mousa

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the association between accounting conservatism and cash dividends of listed firms in the Kingdom of Bahrain. It has addressed two questions. First, does accounting conservatism actually work? Second, can accounting conservatism influence cash dividends of firms in the Kingdom of Bahrain? The findings of this study support the hypothesis that accounting conservatism plays an important role in reducing cash dividends and managing agency conflicts. It documents a signific...

  18. Policing Iranian Sanctions: Trade, Identity, and Smuggling Networks in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Kegan Paul International, 1994), 9–10. 22 A.W. Stiffe, “Ancient Trading Centres of the Persian Gulf: VII Bahrain,” The Geographical Journal 18, no... Kegan Paul International, 1994. Al Naboodah, H.M. “The Commercial Activity of Bahrain and Oman in the Early Middle Ages.” Proceedings of the...Byman, Daniel and Jerrold Green . Political Violence and Stability in the States of the Northern Persian Gulf. California: RAND, 1999. Castles

  19. Knowledge of and attitudes towards tobacco control among smoking and non-smoking physicians in 2 Gulf Arab states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, Nasser N; Hamadeh, Randah R; Macklai, Nejma S

    2004-05-01

    The global health professional survey is a project organized by the World Health Organization, to determine the smoking habits, knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control of health professionals in several countries around the world. This paper presents data from Kuwait and Bahrain. The survey period was between May 2000 and March 2001. A questionnaire was distributed to all physicians in Bahrain and to a random sample from Kuwait. The responses to knowledge and attitude questions were on a scale of 1-5, (1 strongly agree, 2 agree, 3 unsure, 4 disagree and 5 strongly disagree). Four hundred and seventy physicians from Bahrain and 1095 from Kuwait completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in Kuwait was: current smokers 18.4%, previous smokers 15.8%, Bahrain 14.6% and 14.3%. The prevalence of shisha smoking was 12% and 6.4% for Kuwait and Bahrain, (p=0.004). The mean scores of agreement with the association between passive smoking and lung diseases, lower respiratory tract infections in children were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8, 1.9 for non smoking physicians and smoking physicians (Pnon-smoking physicians (pattitude towards tobacco control compared to non-smokers. There was no difference in the prevalence of cigarette smoking between Kuwait and Bahrain, but the prevalence of shisha smoking was higher in Kuwait.

  20. Gardens on the Arid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Saputra, Weldy

    2017-12-01

    Bahrain is located in the climate of the arid zone which rainfall is low and irregular. This paper discusses the approaches which response to the local context that has been implemented by the government of Bahrain to sustain the quality of the public garden in the arid climate, turning to green. Generally, the approach is an improvement in the central treatment of waste water system plant that used to irrigate the landscaping, agriculture as well as for industry use. These approaches are not the only technologically, but also involves the participation of community to achieve sustainable garden in this country.

  1. Medical education research in GCC countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-02-01

    Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996-2013. In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996-2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with GCC Countries including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters. In ISI-Web of Science, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research papers, Kuwait 1666, United Arab Emirates 3045, Qatar 4265, Bahrain 1666 and Oman 4848 research papers. However, in Medical Education only Saudi Arabia contributed 323 (0.79%) research papers, Kuwait 52 (0.03%), United Arab Emirates 41(0.01%), Qatar 37(0.008%), Bahrain 28 (0.06%) and Oman 22 (0.45%) research papers in in ISI indexed journals. In medical education the Hirsch index (h-index) of Saudi Arabia is 14, United Arab Emirates 14, Kuwait 11, Qatar 8, Bahrain 8 and Oman 5. GCC countries produced very little research in medical education during the period 1996-2013. They must improve their research outcomes in medical education to produce better physicians to enhance the standards in medical practice in the region.

  2. Dividend policies of shariah-compliant and non-shariah-compliant firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Tbeur, Oumkeltoum

    2013-01-01

    Do shariah-compliant firms pay higher dividends than other firms? Using data from the MENA (Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain) region, this paper shows that shariah-compliant firms not only have higher payout ratios but also have higher likelihood...

  3. Population, Labour and Education Dilemmas Facing GCC States at the Turn of the Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiszewski, Andrzej

    This study describes and analyzes certain population, labor, and education issues in oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf. The countries profiled are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (also known as the GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council] countries). Since the discovery of oil, these countries transformed themselves…

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  5. 77 FR 413 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States and for Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... national economic interest of the United States. I have determined that the modifications to the HTS... States obligations under the Convention and do not run counter to the national economic interest of the... Proclamation 8039 of July 27, 2006, implemented the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (USBFTA) with...

  6. Coordinated Economic Development and the Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, D. K.

    This is a discussion of some of the problems that the Advisory Organization for Gulf Industries (AOGI) will face when it undertakes (1) to organize both an information center (node) that will serve the information needs of the Gulf States of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman; and (2) to compile an…

  7. Urbanization in contemporary Arab Gulf states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, I Y

    1983-01-01

    Urbanization in the Arab Gulf states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates is analyzed. Topics discussed include the historical background to urbanization; current demographic trends in the region; urban characteristics and growth; socioeconomic factors influencing urbanization, with an emphasis on labor force structure; future urban strategy; and the need for urban research.

  8. Labor immigration in the Arab Gulf states: patterns, trends and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A

    1986-09-01

    This is an overview of recent labor immigration in Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Attention is given to factors contributing to the dependence of these countries on migrant labor, the impact of the decline in oil revenues, and future trends in the size and skill composition of the foreign labor supply.

  9. Greece Financial Crises and Sukuk Markets: Experience From Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Herwany

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out to investigate the impact of recent European financial crises on the performance of financial instruments in other regions. Nevertheless, there have been insufficient studies explaining such impact on Islamic financial instrument. In particular, whether Greece Financial crises have affected performance of Sukuk traded in Gulf Markets needs to be answered. This study is aimed at empirically investigating the causality of credit and liquidity risk on Sukuk Markets in Gulf economies in the period of Greece Financial Crises. We analyzed the Sukuk data by employing Granger casuality test, with all the associated vector autoregression model procedures. Our findings show that Bahrain sukuk market is cointegrated with those of Qatar and UAE in the full period observation. Meanwhile, during the crisis, Qatar Sukuk market is cointegrated with those of UAE Bahrain. We also find that Bahrain Sukuk triggers market shock in both Qatar and UAE Sukuk markets. Bahrain consistently causes changes in price and spread of UAE Sukuk, both in the context of the full period and the during-crisis period.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.3733

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [ru

  11. Educational Reform and Educational Research: New Challenges in Linking Research, Information and Decision Making. Final Report of the International Meeting (Tokyo, Japan, September 4-14, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This document summarizes proceedings of a meeting held in September 1995. The purpose of the meeting was to gather educators and policymakers in order to establish criteria concerning links between educational research and decision making. Twenty participants from the following countries attended: Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Botswana, Brazil,…

  12. African Journals Online: Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... ... Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados .... and other researchers in all countries who wish to make known the results of their research. It publishes original articles; case reports; editorials; seminar and congress reports in relation to human health.

  13. 78 FR 79620 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... GPA 204,000 7,864,000 FTAs: Australia FTA 79,507 7,864,000 Bahrain FTA 204,000 10,335,931 CAFTA-DR (Costa Rica, 79,507 7,864,000 Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua...

  14. All projects related to | Page 349 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 370,000.00. Arab Democracy Barometer. Project. The joint Arab Democracy Barometer constitutes ...

  15. All projects related to | Page 348 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 370,000.00. Arab Democracy Barometer. Project. The joint Arab Democracy Barometer constitutes ...

  16. Drivers of Long-Term Insecurity and Instability in Pakistan: Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and Remittances,” Prospects, undated. The data record 4,678,730 total Pakistanis overseas, of whom 1,984,647 live in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar ...was a short-lived protest movement, led by a cleric of dual Canadian-Paki- stani citizenship , that has never elected even a single member.1 The fact

  17. Analyzing the Psychometric Properties of the Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire in Patients with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amer, Rashed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Alajlan, Safeyah Ali; Al Ansari, Ahmed

    2018-03-14

    The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for the measurement of quality of life in patients with obesity. To become a widely used tool, the questionnaire must be validated in many different contexts. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the SF-36 questionnaire among patients with obesity in Bahrain. The 36-item questionnaire was administered to a study cohort scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital in Bahrain. Demographic data were extracted. Principal component analysis was used to extract component factors. Factor analysis was used to determine construct validity and fit. The Cronbach's alpha value of the extracted factors was used to determine the internal consistency reliability. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0 and IBM AMOS version 22.0. Most of the participants were female with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.24 kg/m 2 . A six-factor solution explaining 52.31% of variance was generated. The global fit parameter estimates indicated that the suggested model exhibited an acceptable-to-good fit. Overall, the internal consistency reliability estimate of the SF-36 questionnaire was greater than 0.70. The identified six-factor model of the SF-36 questionnaire is a valuable tool for the measurement of quality of life among patients with obesity in Bahrain.

  18. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria, 95. Australia, 5. Bahrain, 2. Belgium, 6. Benin, 1. Brazil, 10. Bulgaria, 2. Canada, 3. Chile, 3. China, 16. Côte d'Ivoire, 1. Croatia, 2. Egypt, Arab Rep. 5. Ethiopia, 2. Finland, 2. France, 7. Germany, 11. Ghana, 5. Hong Kong SAR, China, 3. India, 68. Indonesia, 2. Iran, Islamic Rep. 79. Iraq, 6. Israel, 1. Italy, 8. Jordan, 1.

  19. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria, 97. Australia, 11. Azerbaijan, 5. Bahrain, 2. Belgium, 1. Benin, 4. Bolivia, 1. Brazil, 19. Canada, 15. Chile, 1. China, 22. Côte d'Ivoire, 1. Croatia, 3. Czech Republic, 5. Ecuador, 3. Egypt, Arab Rep. 8. Estonia, 1. France, 9. Germany, 4. Ghana, 4. Greece, 1. Guinea, 1. Hong Kong SAR, China, 1. Hungary, 1. India, 77.

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea (Republic of), Latvia, Liechtenstein... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico..., Chapter 98, Subchapter II, Articles Exported and Returned, Advanced or Improved Abroad, U.S. Note 7(b). (4...

  1. : tous les projets | Page 308 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 22 novembre 2012. Sujet: HUMAN RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY, DEMOCRATIZATION, CULTURAL RELATIONS. Région: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Yemen, Bahrain, Palestine, Kuwait. Programme: Gouvernance et justice.

  2. Peace Operations in Mali: Theory into Practice Then Measuring Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    back – Saudi Arabia propped up the tottering regime in Bahrain, the Egyptian military overthrew the Islamist government of Morsi,” and Syria plunged...relatively high for this election, the architecture of the unitary Malian state did not translate into political power for northern representatives. For

  3. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [fr

  5. Short Communication Composition of elasmobranch landings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first detailed elasmobranch fisheries data for the Kingdom of Bahrain are presented, based on surveys of fish markets in April 2012. At least 25 species were recorded, including undescribed taxa. The milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus was the most frequently recorded species; together with the Arabian smoothhound ...

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  7. The Eleventh Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Greece Malaysia Turkmenistan Algeria Haiti Montenegro Uganda Azerbaijan Indonesia Oman United Arab Emirates Bahrain Iran Pakistan Uzbekistan Burundi Iraq...of their lives can also suffer, with the demands of providing constant care often crowding out parental duties, school, friends, and leisure

  8. Effect of plant growth regulators on regeneration of the endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol of Calligonum comosum is important and that has achieved to protect the endangered multipurpose medicinally important desert plant in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Nodal segments were used as explants source and the effect of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) ...

  9. Ashlawn House Nursing Home, Limerick Road, Nenagh, Tipperary.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalaf, Abeer J

    2010-01-01

    CAM use is widespread, especially among patients with diabetes. The Gulf States have a high prevalence of diabetes, alongside a long tradition of CAM use. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of CAM use among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain and to examine the characteristics of the CAM users.

  10. Private Security Contractors: A Way of Combating Piracy in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    civil war. The capital city of Mogadishu is seeing dramatic results with its rebuilding efforts. The building of hotels , shopping areas, and the re...nations include Australia, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia , the

  11. School-Based Human Rights Education: Young Bahrainis' Knowledge and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Fatima H.

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in Human Rights Education (HRE) is linked in this paper to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, 1989). The linkage between citizenship education and HRE is also highlighted, along with the necessary critiques of human rights pronouncements regarding the situation of HRE in Bahrain while the challenges ahead in…

  12. Planning for Development in the Arab Gulf States: A content Analysis of Current Development Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyses current development plans published by the GCC states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in order to explore the region’s future growth trajectory: what barriers to growth are foreseen and how can they be anticipated; what...

  13. Science Self-Beliefs and Science Achievement of Adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of science self-beliefs on science achievement for 24,680 13-year-old students from Gulf Cooperation Council member countries--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The…

  14. Political and Socio-Economic Change: Revolutions and Their Implications for the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    computer-savvy youth will always find ways to get around attempts at censorship . In Bahrain, the situation has taken on an added complication...negotiating their membership in the group: Australia, Malaysia , Peru, the United States and Vietnam. Other countries, including Mexico, Colombia, Canada, and

  15. Rethinking Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Cooperation Council (GCC), a regional economic and security alliance between Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar , and the United Arab Emirates. (1...west bank of the Jordan River provides 25 percent of the water to the aquife ±r from which Israel draws its water. (1:-) 4. Authoritarian Nature of

  16. The Sources of Conflict in the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and Its Strategic Consequences in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    lateral agreement signed between Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar , Saudi Arabia, and the UAE has existed in the basin since 1978...transpiration and another 69 billion cubic meters of precipitated water feed the underground water aquifers . Another 28 billion cubic meters of the aquifers

  17. Problems and Prospects of Turkey in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    water for personal consumption, irrigation and power generation. With the depletion of underground aquifers and the growing salinity and pollution of...100,000 Dammam 200,000 Homs 100,000 Al Khobar 200,000 Damascus 600,000 Hufuf 200,000 1,100,055 806,60s Bahrain Manama 200,000 Jordan Qatar Amman 600,008

  18. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-27

    Libya, into consideration, and if we consider that the aquifer for the artificial river project erected in Libya passes through the territories of...Revolution". Asked why Bahrain and Qatar were under a threat from Iran, he said: We do not want to export the Revolution to any country. These States

  19. Military Geography for Professionals and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    33 6. Water Tables, Aquifers , and Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7. Sea Water Stratification...may be shallow or deep (figure 6). Some water continues to trickle down through cracks and crannies until contained by aquifers encased in nearly...Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia, all in the Horn of Africa; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, and

  20. Regional Fears of Western Primacy and the Future of U.S. Middle Eastern Basing Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    8, 2006, internet. 166. “ Green Energy Gambit,” The Pearl (Magazine of the State of Qatar), March 2005, p. 4. 167. Michael R. Gordon and Lieutenant...The Middle East, October 2005, pp. 16-17. 259. Hamad Bin Isa al Khalifa, First Light: Modern Bahrain and Its Heritage, London and New York: Kegan

  1. Egypt : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... l'érosion du tissu social et sapent son développement économique potentiel. ... Région: Middle East, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain ... le pouvoir judiciaire, les institutions religieuses étatiques et les médias publics, ...

  2. Égypte : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... l'érosion du tissu social et sapent son développement économique potentiel. ... Région: Middle East, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain ... le pouvoir judiciaire, les institutions religieuses étatiques et les médias publics, ...

  3. 19 CFR 10.844 - Value-content requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preference program. The producer ships to the United States four shipments during the initial applicable one... this subpart. (5) Inclusion of the cost of fabrics or yarns not available in commercial quantities in..., Singapore, Chile, Australia, Morocco, Bahrain, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Dominican...

  4. International Physical Education Recreation and Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This feature, consisting of 14 articles, looks at physical education from an international perspective. Programs in Nigeria, the USSR, Papua New Guinea, China, Denmark, West Germany, and Bahrain are explored. Exchange programs, culture shock, and barriers to understanding are discussed. The impact of the Olympic Games on Korea is analyzed. (MT)

  5. Electricity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKie, Alan

    1999-06-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Market Private; Power politics: the role of the private sector; Resource base and power options; Finance: Putting together the deal; Regional integration private; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey Private North Africa; Algeria; Egypt Private; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia GCC and Yemen; Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Emirates; Yemen Private. (Author)

  6. All projects related to | Page 640 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bahrain, Middle East, Algeria, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Yemen, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Turkey. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 455,953.00. Faith, Social Activism and Politics : Role of Faith Based Organizations in Influencing Public Policy ...

  7. Building Knowledge and Advocacy Agendas for Change in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As Arab countries continue to experience change, this research project will ... Middle East, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, France ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  8. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for Σ DDTs and Σ PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing Σ PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas Σ DDTs levels have little changed during that period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating E-Learning Systems: An Empirical Investigation on Students' Perception in Higher Education Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Abbad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of better, traditional learning universities have expanded their ways to deliver knowledge and integrate cost effective e-learning systems. Universities' use of information and communication technologies has grown tremendously over the last decade. To ensure efficient use of the e-learning system, the Arab Open University (AOU in Bahrain was the first to use e-learning system there, aimed to evaluate the good and bad practices, detect errors and determine areas for further improvements in usage. This study critically evaluated the students' perception of the elearning system in Bahrain and recommended changes to improve students' e-learning usage. Results of the study indicated that, in general, students have favourable perceptions toward using the e-learning system. This study has shown that technology acceptance is the most variable, factor that contributes to students' perception and satisfaction of the e-learning system.

  10. Corporate governance and stock price performance of firms during the crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Chetioui, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on stock price performance of firms in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, during the recent financial crisis. Using dividend policy, choice of auditors, and transa......This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on stock price performance of firms in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, during the recent financial crisis. Using dividend policy, choice of auditors......, and transactional complexity as proxies for corporate governance, we document better stock price performance for firms with superior governance mechanisms. Our results show that firms with one of the big-four auditors, firms paying dividends, and firms with lower transactional complexity are associated...

  11. Bahrain’s Uprising: Regional Dimensions and International Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Coates Ulrichsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Bahrain that began on 14 February 2011 has been contained but not resolved. While the immediate period of danger to the position of the ruling Al-Khalifa family has passed, positions on all sides have hardened, and there is little prospect of a political settlement to Bahrain's deep-rooted social and economic inequalities. As the Bahraini government has failed to offer meaningful concessions to political reform, it has splintered and radicalised an opposition unsure what to do next, but also undermined its own constituency of support among the island's Sunni communities. These trajectories have set in motion a radical reconfiguring of the island's political landscape in ways that do not augur well for longer-term prospects for reconciliation and recovery.

  12. Operation Inherent Resolve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    a revised certification with Jordan’s Water Author- ity to inform funding decisions, in particular, for a new plant in Tafilah Governorate worth...Germany Moldova Slovakia Bahrain Greece Montenegro Slovenia Belgium Hungary Morocco Somalia Bosnia and Herzegovina Iceland The Netherlands...treatment plant in Tafilah Governorate worth about $18 million. Certification is required by Section 611(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as

  13. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  14. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  15. Bahrain’s tertiary education reform : a step towards sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Karolak, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher edu...

  16. Colour terms in the interior design process

    OpenAIRE

    Attiah, DY; Cheung, TLV; Westland, S; Bromilow, D

    2015-01-01

    Colour is a very important topic that interior designers need to consider. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of colour application in interior design; in this study we are concerned with colour terms in interior design, mainly the terms designers use and know about. Fifteen interior designers with varied professional backgrounds, but based in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon, Egypt, and Turkey), were interviewed. Previously we reported that fourteen ou...

  17. Conflict in the Middle East: Egyptian Policy and Strategy to Create an Egyptian Proposal to Achieve Stability in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-14

    Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Arab Gulf Sheikhdo.s like ( atar , Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait) - Aden and the Ducal trucial states, Yemen...ndin fro-..- the north, %Jest anC southwest. The. Ira, MuaiSauai Arab ’ia 7Mingro:.-, Da.rain, (’ atar , Uniteu,- Arab-’rcs andOran SultinatCe; Iran lies...suuzort. The continued uncertainty, many observers felt, helpecd the Soviets, if so, only in the psychological sense of threatening the future

  18. Data collection, transfer and the development of national standards – critical components necessary for the success of a GIS in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2006-04-20

    Full Text Available Switzerland Thailand United Kingdom United States of America Slide 21 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za 30 Observing members of ISO/TC 211 Argentina Bahrain Brunei Darussalam Colombia Croatia Cuba Estonia France Greece Hong Kong..., International Association of Oil and Gas Producers Slide 23 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za External liaisons to ISO/TC 211 (2) • PAIGH, Pan-American Institute of Geography and History • PCGIAP, The Permanent Committee on GIS...

  19. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Kassab, Salah; Hassan,Nahla; Abu-Hijleh,Marwan; P Sequeira,Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. ...

  20. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  1. Determinants of Environmental Degradation under the Perspective of Globalization: A Panel Analysis of Selected MENA Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    This paper has examined the determinants of environmental degradation under the perspective of globalization in the case of selected MENA nations (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Qatar, Lebanon, Egypt, Bahrain, Iran, Morocco, Israel, Kuwait, Oman and Tunisia) over the period of 1980 to 2013. ADF - Fisher Chi-square, Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat, Levin, Lin & Chu t*, and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests are used for analyzing the stationarity of the variables. This stud...

  2. Factors affecting employment in the Arabian Gulf region, 1975-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, R E

    1991-01-01

    "This paper attempts to shed light on factors contributing to the identification of the main employment patterns in the countries of the Arab Gulf region. It also seeks to answer the question of how determinants of employment vary between national and foreign workforces and whether these determinants have changed over time." The countries concerned are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. excerpt

  3. the run for arming and conflicts in Middle-East menace the safety of petroleum supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The situation in the Middle-East is always a run to get arming equipment. Conflicts between Bahrain and Qatar, between Qatar and Saudi Arabia or between this last one and Yemen are a danger for the stability in this area; without forgetting Iran power rising. This situation is an obstacle to economic development, stability of policy and it goes against local populations interests, against industrialized countries interests and against petroleum industry interest itself

  4. Social effects of the educational revolution in Qatar: a gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Qatar has experienced a rapid economic development throughout the last decades. Similar economic development as in Qatar has been seen in all the states that belong to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), including Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.Oil and gas incomes are the major drivers in this development Furthermore, over the last decades, we have observed increased efforts in the field of education in Qatar. Different institutional reforms have been int...

  5. Constructing the “Arab Spring”: News Discourses in Turkish Newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Dağtaş

    2013-01-01

    Originating in Tunisia and spreading rapidly to Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, and Libya, the recent wave of popular movements that the Western media have dubbed the “Arab Spring” has been closely monitored by the whole world including in Turkey. This country is geographically close to the region and the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has been active in developing foreign policies in relation to the key countries involved. This paper analyzes the news discourses in the reports published b...

  6. “Lahesõjad” 3. eelkristlikul aastatuhandel. Sumeri ja Akkadi kuningate sõjaretked Pärsia lahe kanti 2700–2150 eKr

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Sazonov

    2014-01-01

    War has always constituted an important part of politics in the Middle East. Evidences of wars in southern Mesopotamia (Sumer and Akkad) and in the region of the Persian Gulf can be found in written sources that date back to the Early Dynastic Period (in Sumer), approximately since 2700 or 2600 BCE. This region around the Persian Gulf (modern southern Iraq, south-western Iran, Oman, Bahrain, etc.) has always been a very important territory, both strategically and geopolitically, and a crossin...

  7. 75 FR 32637 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... exceeding) exceeding) WTO GPA $203,000 $7,804,000 FTAs: Australia FTA 70,079 7,804,000 Bahrain FTA 203,000 9,110,318 CAFTA-DR (Costa Rica, Dominican 70,079 7,804,000 Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) Chile FTA 70,079 7,804,000 Morocco FTA 203,000 7,804,000 NAFTA: --Canada 25,000 9,110...

  8. 77 FR 4629 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...: Australia FTA 77,494 7,777,000 Bahrain FTA 202,000 10,074,262 CAFTA-DR (Costa Rica, Dominican 77,494 7,777... 202,000 7,777,000 NAFTA: --Canada 25,000 10,074,262 --Mexico 77,494 10,074,262 Peru FTA 202,000 7,777... acquisitions of commercial items or components, when the estimated value equals or exceeds $25,000, but is less...

  9. An exploratory study of the complexity and consensus dimensions of stereotypes among Qatari and Bahraini University students

    OpenAIRE

    Melikian, Levon H.; El-Dreny, Hussein

    1983-01-01

    The complexity and consensus dimensions of stereotypes held by 132 male and female university students from Qatar and Bahrain towards themselves and 11 other nationality groups were studied by using a modified Katz and Braly paradigm. The stereotypes held by mliln were in general less complex than those held by women. Highest consensus appeared for women and the lowest between men. Results are explained in terms of the cultural context and in the case of the men in terms of sectarian differen...

  10. Master Franchising as Foreign Entry Mode: Evidences from the Spanish Franchise System

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Baena

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how a number of market conditions may constrain entry mode choice into Middle East nations. Specifically, this paper focuses on master franchising and analyzes the determining factors in this entry mode decision. A quantitative approach was applied to a sample of Spanish franchisors operating through 96 franchisee outlets across 6 Middle East countries in January 2010. They are Bahrain, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Findings show th...

  11. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coas...

  12. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-20

    permitted to go through. Bofors then entered into a new contract with the Unicorn firm in Singapore, which in turn sold the missiles to Bahrain. In...companies have proven not to be correct. While the Norwegian firm Saga Petroleum began drilling a few weeks ago, the American firm Mobil and the French... firm Total together with the Norwegian firm Norsk Hydro and the Norwegian state-owned Statoil are getting ready to drill in the Barents Sea and the

  13. Measurement of Impairment among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Part of Evaluating Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the impairment and treatment outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic, using multiple sources, including the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Methods: A total of 20 children, aged 4 to 16 years, were recruited serially in 2010 from the Child Psychiatric Unit of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. The children received a diagnosis of ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of M...

  14. Market conditions driving international franchising in emerging countries

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how a number of market conditions may constrain entry mode choice into Middle East nations. Specifically, this paper focuses on master franchising and analyzes the determining factors in this entry mode decision. A quantitative approach was applied to a sample of Spanish franchisors operating through 96 franchisee outlets across 6 Middle East countries in January 2010. They are Bahrain, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Findings show th...

  15. An Arab NATO in the Making Middle Eastern Military Cooperation Since 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    more pressing every day.”43 King Hamad of Bahrain shortly thereafter backed this call, whereas Tunisia’s foreign minister called it “neither...ava- lon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/arabjoin.asp. 6. Helene von Bismarck, British Policy in the Persian Gulf, 1961-1968: Conceptions of Informal...military cooperation deal,” BBC Monitoring, September 25, 2014; Ammun News website, “ King Abdullah attends joint Jordanian-Emirati military drill

  16. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Seroconversion in U.S. Navy Personnel Following Visits to Foreign Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-25

    500 - 999 visits 47. Inchon, South Korea 78. Frederiksted, Virgin Is. 9. Bahrain 48. Palermo , Italy 79. Valencia, Spain 10. Augusta Bay, Italy 49...Muscat, Oman 80. Tunis, Tunisia 11. Hong Kong 81. Glasgow, Scotland 12. Palma, Spain 75 - 99 visits 82. Cartagena, Colombia 13. Singapore 50. Cannes...Holy Loch, Scotland 264 81. Glasgow, Scotland 57 32. Esquimalt, Canada 245 82. Cartagena, Colombia 55 33. Cartagena, Spain 206 83. Numazu, Japan 55 34

  17. Structure and Discourse: Mapping the Networked Public Sphere in the Arab Region

    OpenAIRE

    Faris, Robert M; Kelly, John; Noman, Helmi; Othman, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we employ social network mapping techniques to analyze the shape and structure of the networked public sphere in the Arab region. The analysis is based on four distinct views of digitally connected communities: a regional map of the blogosphere and maps of Twitter networks in three countries: Egypt, Tunisia, and Bahrain. This media ecology mapping across these different platforms and regions offers a detailed view of social, cultural, religious, and political expression through...

  18. The impact of social media on cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia; Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos; Paliktzoglou, V.

    2014-01-01

    Social networks have become very popular recently in the tourism sector. This chapter presents the use of social media and more specifically Trip Advisor in reference to reviews of cultural attractions and their potential influence on the development of cultural tourism in Bahrain. The findings propose that people use Trip Advisor to collect information about a destination and share experiences with other community members. They also suggest that cultural tourism has a potential to grow in th...

  19. The glass ceiling and women in management in the Middle East: Myth or reality

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Although globalization and equal employment have created opportunities for female managers, they are still underrepresented in the corporate ladder. Gender and gender role stereotypes are persistent in organizations that operate in the Middle East, challenging women’s employment and showing evidence of the glass ceiling in management. This paper explores the position of women in management in the Kingdom of Bahrain, as well as the barriers they face in climbing the career ladder. The findings...

  20. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-30

    Croatia Bahrain Poland Cyprus Belgium Portugal Estonia Brazil Qatar Ireland Brunei Romania Latvia Bulgaria Russia Macedonia (FYR) Canada Saudi Arabia Malta...remainder dependent on traditional irrigation methods, some of these based on run-offs from or use of aquifers that are being degraded by deep water...Egypt Portugal Observers Estonia Qatar Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Finland Romania Relief France (co-chair) Russia Economic Cooperation

  1. Dispersed, Decentralized and Renewable Energy Sources: Alternatives to National Vulnerability and War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    U.S. imports a major portion from the Middle East, including Iraq, Saudi Arabia. the Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar . Oman, Bahrain, Turkey and Yemen... aquifers , or fully depleted oil and gas wells. The average capacity of underground storage pools is about nineteen billion cubic feet. In 1978, there...heating demands. 4 3 Aquifers are being considered for thermal energy storage. The ground water stored in aquifers is subject to geothermal radiation

  2. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast. Economie petroliere et gaziere dans les pays arabes, en Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopie et Cote d'Ivoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-16

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given.

  3. Green Fodder Production and Water Use Efficiency of Some Forage Crops under Hydroponic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi N. Al-Karaki; M. Al-Hashimi

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate five forage crops (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)) for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. The experiment has been conducted under temperature-controlled conditions (24 ± 1°C) and natural window illumination at growth room of Soilless Culture Laboratory, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. The r...

  4. Cutting Off the Head of the Snake: Applying and Assessing Leadership Attack in Military Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    10 Leah Farrall writes, “Al Qaeda today is not a traditional hierarchical terrorist organization, with a pyramid - style organizational structure, and...by Egypt after that country had made peace with Israel through the 167 39 Ibid., 188-189. 40 Ibid., 190-191. 41 Woods et. al., Saddam’s Generals, 118...Arab leaders and united them against Iraq. One by one, the Arab states—including Syria, Egypt , Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the

  5. From the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to inform you that in the 8th year of TOJDE are appeared on your screen now as Volume 8, Number: 2. In this issue we published one notes for Editor, 14 articles, two reviews, news and announcements for our readers. 27 authors from ten different countries are placed in this issue. These published articles are from Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh; Canada Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Turkey, UK and USA.

  6. The Foreign Disclosure and Technical Information System (FORDTIS) User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    INDIA 10 BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY IP CLIPPERTON ISLAND IQ UNITED STATES MISCELLANEOUS PACIFIC ISLANDS (obsolete) IR , IRAN IS ISRAEL IT...CARTIER ISLANDS AU AUSTRIA AV ANGUILLA AY ANTARCTICA BA BAHRAIN BB BARBADOS ’ - ’ BC BOTSWANA BD BERMUDA BE BELGIUM BP...BAHAMAS, THE BG BANGLADESH BH BELIZE BL BOLIVIA BM BURMA BN BENIN (formerly DM) BP SOLOMON ISLANDS BQ NAVASSA ISLAND BR BRAZIL BS BASSAS DA INDIA

  7. A case study of career related challenges of expatriate Indian professionals in the GCC countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    The success of an overseas employment contract is significantly influenced by career related challenges. This paper presents the findings of a primary research conducted in the three GCC countries (Bahrain, Oman and the UAE) to comprehend the key career related challenges faced by professional Indian expatriates. This paper also explores the influence of demographic factors on career related challenges and concludes with the analysis of overall findings.

  8. A case study of career related challenges of expatriate Indian professionals in the GCC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    The success of an overseas employment contract is significantly influenced by career related challenges. This paper presents the findings of a primary research conducted in the three GCC countries (Bahrain, Oman and the UAE) to comprehendthe key career related challenges faced by professional Indian expatriates. This paper also explores the influence of demographic factors on career related challenges and concludes with the analysis of overall findings.

  9. Causal Relationships Between Financial and Economic Development in Gulf Countries = Körfez Ülkelerinde Finansal ve Ekonomik Gelişme Arasındaki Nedensel İlişki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan AL-AALİ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationships between financial and economic aggregates in three Gulf countries, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, over the 64?quarterly period from 1973 to 1988.Patrick's causality patterns at different stages of economic development were also investigated by dividing the entire analysis period into the sub-periods of 1973?81, and 1982?88. Financial variables used were M1, M2 and the total bank credits. Exports in all the three countries plus government expenditures in Kuwait were employed as proxies to GDP.Sims' causality model which is based on Granger's definition was utilized and the following general patterns were detected: For the entire analysis period causality ran from financial to economic variables in Kuwait, but from economic to financial variables in Bahrain. While no generalization was possible for Saudi Arabia for the first sub-period (l973?81, a supply-leading phenomenon was dominant in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. In Kuwait the results were mixed. In the second sub-period (1982?88, the dominant relationship was demand following in all the three countries. These results were seen in conformity with the economic trends in these countries over the study period.

  10. MENA. New Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovachev, Milko

    2012-01-01

    MENA region summary: UAE - Ground broken on reactor site; Turkey - Contracts for NPP signed, legal and regulatory infrastructure well-developed; Jordan - Committed plans, NPP procurement process initiated, legal and regulatory infrastructure developing; Egypt - Well-developed plans and legal & regulatory infrastructure, but commitment pending; Saudi Arabia – Commitment made; Algeria, Tunisia - Developing Plans; Kuwait, Oman, Qatar , Bahrain, Morocco - Considered civil nuclear power as an option but no immediate prospects for development. MENA region continues to express strong willingness to diversify its power mix with nuclear and renewables. Gulf States, GCC countries are participating in the collaborative study of a potential nuclear energy programme in the region since 2006. Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Oman are studying the option, however given their small populations and the limited size of their electricity grids, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman have less capacity to support domestic nuclear power programs. The Fukushima accident has played a role in one country’s decision to abandon nuclear energy for power generation: Kuwaiti government— largely influenced by the events in Japan—decided to reverse its policy on nuclear energy. Valued at US$200 billion, the Middle East’s new nuclear build market holds immense opportunities for expertise, component suppliers and service providers

  11. The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathout Leith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators. This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the “Arab Spring,” specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of “dual loyalty” dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients – a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict.

  12. DIGITAL TOOLS FOR DOCUMENTING AND CONSERVING BAHRAIN’S BUILT HERITAGE FOR POSTERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mezzino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the physical characteristics of historic structures is the first step for any preventive maintenance, monitoring, conservation, planning and promotion action. Metric documentation supports informative decision-making process for property owners, site managers, public officials, and conservators. This information serves also a broader purpose, over time, it becomes the primary means by which scholars, heritage professionals, and the general public understand a site that radically changed or disappeared. Further, documentation supports monitoring as well as the character-defining elements analysis, relevant to define the values of the building for the local and international community. The awareness of these concepts oriented the digital documentation and training activities, developed between 2016 and 2017, for the Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA in Bahrain. The developed activities had two main aims: a support the local staff in using specific recording techniques to efficiently document and consequently preserve built heritage sites with appropriate accuracy and in a relatively short period; b develop a pilot project in collaboration with BACA to validate the capacity of the team to accurately document and produce measured records for the conservation and management of Bahrain built heritage. The documentation project has been developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts from BACA, Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS, Carleton University, Canada and a contracted researcher from the Gicarus Lab, Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI in Italy. In the training activities, the participants have been exposed to a wide range of recording techniques, illustrating them the selection criteria for the most suitable one, according to requirements, site specifications, categories of values identified for the various built elements, and budget. The pilot project has been tested on three historical structures, both with strong

  13. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  14. Social, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity among Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon; Bader, Zahra

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore some of the social, dietary and lifestyle factors that could be related to the risk of obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. A multistage stratified method was used to select secondary school students (15-18years old) from governmental schools in Bahrain. The total sample selected was 735 (339 males and 396 females). A pre-validated self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographics, food and the lifestyle habits of adolescents. Weight and height were taken and percentiles of Body Mass Index for age and gender were used to classify the adolescents as non-obese and obese (overweight and obese), using NHANES-1 growth standard. In general, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.5% and 36.8% among males and females, respectively. The risk of obesity was not consistent among male and female adolescents. Mothers' education was found to be a risk factor for obesity among both males and females (p=0.0167 and p=0.007, respectively). Bringing food from home to school (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.81) was protective factor for obesity among females but not among males. Fathers' education (p=0.0167), rank among siblings (p=0.009), place where breakfast is eaten (p=0.0398), eating between lunch and dinner (p=0.0152), fruit intake (p=0.042), sweet intake (p=0.0192), size of burger (p=0.002) and hours of watching television per day (p=0.004) were significantly associated with the risk of obesity among males, but not among females. Various social, dietary and lifestyle factors were found to contribute to obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. These factors should be considered in school health policy in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  16. The Roots of Regional Ambitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Mercury News, 17 December 1991, p. 16A. The Arab countries that reversed their votes on this topic are: Egypt, Kuwait, Morocco, Tunisia , Oman and Bahrain...developed an increasingly outspoken interest in restoring Jerusalem to Islam.1" ŕ Ahmed Shawky, "Crisis of 73," al- Petrol 17 January 1992, p. 11. For...exchange for Iraqi petrol to rebuild the country. A report from Baghdad by a 2"U2N. : Iraq must Comply," The Herald, 4 June 1992, p. 2A. Those six

  17. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children. A favorable response to dietary modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G; Mohamed, Afaf M

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification.

  18. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children. A favorable response to dietary modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. Isa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification.

  19. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  20. Managing health care organizations in an age of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S; al-Alaiwat, S

    1998-03-01

    Health care managers find their work increasingly difficult, due in part to rapid environmental change that plagues organizational life. Management practices and attitudes that may have been appropriate in previous eras are ineffective today. A study was conducted among managers in the Ministry of Health, State of Bahrain, seeking information about current trends in the macro or external environment that affect the Ministry of Health, as well as internal environmental pressures that may be similar or different. This article provides a clear picture of the context in which managers perform their work and offers recommendations for coping with change in dynamic, complex organizations.

  1. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W.; Ali, Malik H.; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-01-01

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km2 large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area range...

  2. Blue blood or true blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Fenja Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    directly but assumed to be embedded in the monarchical regime type, and the results show that alternative covariates are unable to fully explain the monarchical peace. Moreover, the study finds that horizontal discrimination increases the risk of intrastate conflict in authoritarian republics...... but that discrimination has no effect in monarchies. Future conflict studies should therefore consider legitimacy connected to authoritarian regime types.......In the aftermath of the Arab uprisings, the difference between monarchies and republics appears more profound than ever. Aside from Bahrain, all the Middle Eastern monarchies avoided major anti-governmental protests, and no armed conflict has occurred in any of them since 1979. Inspired by Middle...

  3. 77 FR 12933 - Federal Acquisition Regulation: Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... $202,000 $202,000 $7,777,000 FTAs: Australia FTA 77,494 77,494 7,777,000 Bahrain FTA 202,000 202,000 10...: --Canada 25,000 77,494 10,074,262 --Mexico 77,494 77,494 10,074,262 Oman FTA 202,000 202,000 10,074,262...,000'' and adding ``$202,000'' in its place. PART 25--FOREIGN ACQUISITION 25.202 [Amended] 0 3. Amend...

  4. 78 FR 80379 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... $204,000 $7,864,000 FTAs: Australia FTA 79,507 79,507 7,864,000 Bahrain FTA 204,000 204,000 10,335,931...,000 7,864,000 Morocco FTA 204,000 204,000 7,864,000 NAFTA: --Canada 25,000 79,507 10,335,931 --Mexico... adding ``$204,000'' in its place. PART 25--FOREIGN ACQUISITION 25.202 [Amended] 0 5. Amend section 25.202...

  5. 77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... exceeding) WTO GPA $202,000 $202,000 $7,777,000 FTAs: Australia FTA 77,494 77,494 7,777,000 Bahrain FTA 202...,000 Korea FTA 100,000 100,000 7,777,000 Morocco FTA 202,000 202,000 7,777,000 NAFTA: --Canada 25,000... ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 25 and 52 [FAC 2005-59; FAR Case 2012-012; Item II; Docket 2012-0012, Sequence 1] RIN...

  6. Grounds for refusal of enforcement of foreign commercial arbital awards in GCC states law

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Enazi, Mohamed Saud

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis posed the question whether foreign arbitral awards are enforced in accordance with the demands of the New York Convention in the UAE and Bahrain and moreover whether the conditions for enforcement compel the conclusion that these two nations are enforcement-friendly in the same manner as leading arbitral nations such as the UK, France, Hong-Kong and NYC. On the basis of l...

  7. A Review on the Use of Web 2.0 Tools Among Selected Gulf Libraries Websites

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of Web 2.0 tools by university libraries in the Gulf region namely the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait. The author used the observational method of visiting each of the selected academic libraries in the gulf region. A total of 56 academic library websites was viewed to see whether any Web 2.0 tools have been implemented. Each of the university libraries was randomly selected.

  8. World review: Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  9. Dataset for petroleum based stock markets and GAUSS codes for SAMEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.A. Khalifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a unique data set of a balanced daily (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday for oil and natural gas volatility and the oil rich economies’ stock markets for Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Bahrain and Oman, using daily data over the period spanning Oct. 18, 2006–July 30, 2015. Additionally, we have included unique GAUSS codes for estimating the spillover asymmetric multiplicative error model (SAMEM with application to Petroleum-Based Stock Market. The data, the model and the codes have many applications in business and social science.

  10. Four state companies are markedly different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalund, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Journal continues its profiles of state owned oil companies with a return to the Persian Gulf, South America, and a first time look at the state oil company of Romania, one of Eastern Europe's most active and oldest producers. The government of Kazakhstan's activities are also covered in this report. These profiles detail the organization of the companies, with emphasis on upstream and downstream operations. Support functions, though essential to a company, are not covered in detail. Company projects and capabilities are only described in this report when necessary to put the company in perspective. Following are the profiles of state companies for Bahrain, Kuwait, Romania, and Venezuela

  11. Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman). In March 2011, Kuwait joined a GCC military intervention to...before the start of [2013]”—a statement that furthered Iraq’s argument that the U.N. Security Council should remove any remaining “Chapter 7” (of the...with alternative mechanisms, as discussed below. On December 15, 2010, the U.N. Security Council passed three resolutions—1956, 1957, and 1958—that

  12. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-01-01

    Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 4 of TOJDE! In this issue, one book review and 26 articles of 49 authors from 15 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Bahrain, Brazil, Greece, India, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe. First all, you should know that if a submission picks up from three TOJDE editors between 4.5 and 9 over all 9 credits, it ...

  13. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the North Atlantic rim. This anthology seeks to begin that task. It does so by suggesting that the kind of secularity described by Taylor is only one amongst others. By attending to the shifting relationship between proper religion and ‘bad faiths’; between politically valorised and embarrassing spiritual...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  14. Dataset for petroleum based stock markets and GAUSS codes for SAMEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ahmed A A; Bertuccelli, Pietro; Otranto, Edoardo

    2017-02-01

    This article includes a unique data set of a balanced daily (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday) for oil and natural gas volatility and the oil rich economies' stock markets for Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Bahrain and Oman, using daily data over the period spanning Oct. 18, 2006-July 30, 2015. Additionally, we have included unique GAUSS codes for estimating the spillover asymmetric multiplicative error model (SAMEM) with application to Petroleum-Based Stock Market. The data, the model and the codes have many applications in business and social science.

  15. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  16. Navy Force Structure: A Bigger Fleet Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-09

    Littoral Combat Ships 52 n/a 52 to 82 59 56 +4 Amphibious ships 34 41f n/a 31 to 41 39 38 +4 Mine warfare ships 0 26 n/a 0 to 26 0 0 — Combat...Group (ARG), and mine warfare ships in Japan, and additional Navy ships are forward homeported elsewhere in the Pacific theater, at Bahrain in the...homeporting a carrier group in Greece , at the port of Piraeus, near Athens. Following a military coup in Greece , the United States canceled the plan to

  17. First beam for the SESAME light source in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, M.

    2017-01-01

    On January 2017, 12. the third generation synchrotron SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) located at Allan in Jordan was commissioned. At first SESAME will operate with 2 beam lines: one producing infra-red light and the other X-rays. SESAME was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO. The CERN brought its know-how in the domain of accelerator technology and supplied the magnet system of the SESAME main ring. Today, SESAME members are Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and Turkey. SESAME welcomes a community of about 300 users from the region. (A.C.)

  18. Performance prediction of a multi-basin solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, N.Al.

    1992-01-01

    A transient analysis for the prediction of the performance of a multi-basin solar still is presented. The energy-balance equations for the glass covers, the water masses and the absorber plate are manipulated to obtain a set of ordinary differential equations which are solved numerically. The analysis is applied to investigate the effect of the number of basins on the daily productivity of the still. Meteorological data corresponding to a June day in Bahrain have been used for the computation. The results indicate that the daily distillate output is increased by increasing the number of basins in the still. (author)

  19. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  20. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baba KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Khalid A El Baba1, Sami T Azar21Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Bahrain Specialist Hospital, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.Keywords: TSH, HCG, TBG

  1. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students' course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale "quality of teaching" directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students' peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students' examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools.

  2. Bahrain’s tertiary education reform : a step towards sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher education. The reasons behind this large-scale expansion of higher education include the growth of local and expatriate population, the planned transition from oil industry to a knowledge-based economy as well as the growing role of women in the workforce. All of these factors need to be addressed in order to assure a stable social and economic development, and education is the backbone of both. This paper examines the recent initiatives undertaken in Bahrain to monitor and ensure the quality of education of cross-border educational institutions as well as that of local education providers.

  3. Strategy to combat obesity and to promote physical activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al Hazzaa2, Aayed Al-Qahtani3, Jalila Elati4, Jasem Ramadan5, Nebal A AboulElla6, Najat Mokhtar7, Hashem A Kilani81Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2,3King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, 4National Institute of Nutrition, Tunisia; 5University of Kuwait, Kuwait; 6National Nutrition Institute, Egypt; 7Ibn Tofail University, Morocco; 8Sultan Qaboos University, OmanAbstract: Obesity has become a major public health problem in the Arab countries, creating a health and economic burden on these countries’ government services. There is an urgent need to develop a strategy for prevention and control of obesity. The third Arab Conference on Obesity and Physical Activity was held in Bahrain in January 2010, and proposed the Strategy to Combat Obesity and Promote Physical Activity in Arab Countries. This strategy provides useful guidelines for each Arab country to prepare its own strategy or plan of action to prevent and control obesity. The strategy focused on expected outcomes, objectives, indicators to measure the objectives, and action needs for 9 target areas: child-care centers for preschool children, schools, primary health care, secondary care, food companies, food preparation institutes, media, public benefit organizations, and the workplace. Follow-up and future developments of this strategy were also included.Keywords: obesity, physical activity, strategy, Arab countries

  4. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-01-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance. PMID:17143460

  5. The dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: Design and study methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Pisoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS is an international prospective cohort study of the relationships between hemodialysis (HD care practices and HD patient outcomes. The DOPPS began in 1996, in the United States, and has since expanded to 21 countries, collecting detailed data from >75,000 HD patients, with >200 scientific publications, focused on describing HD practices associated with improved HD patient outcomes. The goal of DOPPS is to help HD patients "live better and live longer." Starting in 2012, the DOPPS was able to expand to all six of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The DOPPS study design consists of selecting HD facilities for study participation in each country to represent the different types of HD facilities and geographic regions within each GCC country. Within each study site, HD patients were randomly selected for detailed data collection to represent the HD practices within each participating HD facility. Altogether, 41 HD facilities have participated in the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study including 20 facilities from Saudi Arabia, nine from the United Arab Emirates, four each from Kuwait and Oman, two from Qatar, and one from Bahrain. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the study design and methods, data collection, study management, scientific investigator oversight and guidance, and study governance and support for the GCCDOPPS Phase 5 study.

  6. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (pbody weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (pmedia on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets.

  7. Prevention and treatment of biofilms by hybrid- and nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimanickam RK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ramanathan K Kasimanickam,1 Ashish Ranjan,2 GV Asokan,3 Vanmathy R Kasimanickam,1 John P Kastelic41Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA; 2Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA; 3College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain; 4Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAll authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Bacteria growing as adherent biofilms are difficult to treat and frequently develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. To counter biofilms, various approaches, including prevention of bacterial surface adherence, application of device applicators, and assimilation of antimicrobials in targeted drug delivery machinery, have been utilized. These methods are also combined to achieve synergistic bacterial killing. This review discusses various multimodal technologies, presents general concepts, and describes therapies relying on the principles of electrical energy, ultrasound, photodynamics, and targeted drug delivery for prevention and treatment of biofilms.Keywords: biofilm, antimicrobial, drug carrier, hybrid technology, nanotechnology

  8. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  9. The Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences: a successful model of a multinational medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually

  10. Pilot Study: Mother's Attitude and Practices toward Antenatal Care, Micronutrient Supplementation and Breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Good nutrition in the first 1000 days provides a stable long term foundation for society, as it ensures a child's growth to his/her potential (1). Pregnant women who suffer from multiple micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including Low Birth weight-LBW (4). Iron deficiency anemia is linked to an increased risk of infections (4), and is still a health problem in the kingdom of Bahrain with the prevalence of 22.7% to 54% (5). The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nation Children's fund (UNICEF) and American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations are to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour of life and to and sustain exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (6). Several studies have shown a downward trend of breastfeeding in developing countries such as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (7,8). Studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kingdom of Bahrain have shown partial breastfeeding at early months<6month age (8,9) Aim: To provide a preliminary evaluation of the mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC), Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A sample of 62 Bahraini mothers - inpatients and outpatients- within the age group of 20 years to 35 years old at SMC were asked by dietitians and diet technicians to answer 7 closed ended questions about importance of antenatal care, compliance to nutritional recommendations during pregnancy and breastfeeding practices. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used in analyzing data collected. Fisher Exact test and Chi-Square test were used to correlate the determinants (age and education level) with mother's attitude/practices. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05 Results: Scores showed no significant correlation between education level mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding. As for age, we found more mothers above 25

  11. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillopharyngitis: efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Alawi S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Samah Al Alawi,1 Somaya Abdulkarim,1 Hazem Elhennawy,1 Anwar Al-Mansoor,2 Ahmed Al Ansari3,4,5 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, 3Training and Education Department, Bahrain Defence Force Hospital, Riffa, 4Arabian Gulf University, Manama, 5Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, Busaiteen, Kingdom of Bahrain Background: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT is the administration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy to patients in an outpatient setting. It may be used for patients who have infections that require parenteral treatment but who are otherwise stable enough to not require admission as inpatients. Objective: We aimed to review the treatment of patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis at the OPAT health care clinic in the Bahrain Defense Force Royal Medical Services (BDF-RMS, with regard to efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety. Methods: A retrospective case notes review was conducted for all patients admitted to the OPAT clinic in the BDF-RMS with acute tonsillopharyngitis treated with ceftriaxone, between March 2012 and March 2014. Results: In the period between March 2012 and March 2014, 97 patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis were treated with ceftriaxone for a minimum of 3 days at the OPAT clinic. In total, 94.8% of patients completed the prescribed course of ceftriaxone. Total cure was achieved in 89.7% of patients. Usage of the OPAT clinic led to cost savings of 10,693 BD, while total bed days saved were 301 over the 2-year period examined by this study. Participants in the program expressed high satisfaction rates, and the average (± standard deviation score on a patient satisfaction survey was 4.41 (± 0.31 out of a total of 5. This study highlights the efficacy, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and safety of the OPAT clinic service for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis with ceftriaxone. We found a 45.5% drop in admission rate for acute

  12. Cancer Research in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R.; Borgan, Saif M.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2017-01-01

    This review aimed to examine trends in cancer research in the Arab world and identify existing research gaps. A search of the MEDLINE® database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was undertaken for all cancer-related publications published between January 2000 and December 2013 from seven countries, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Sudan. A total of 1,773 articles were identified, with a significant increase in yearly publications over time (P social and structural determinants of health (27.1%), followed by behavioural risk factors (14.1%), particularly tobacco use. Overall, more cancer research is needed in the Arab world, particularly analytical studies with high-quality evidence and those focusing on older age groups and associations with physical activity and diet. PMID:28690885

  13. Rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    Physicists have used nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the destructive effects of the crystallization of salt. Salt-weathering is one of the main causes of rock disintegration in nature, particularly in deserts, polar regions and along coastlines. However, it is also a very widespread cause of damage to man-made constructions. Bridges, for example, are attacked by de-icing salts, and cities such as Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Adelaide are affected by rising damp from high ground-water levels. Indeed, many examples of cultural heritage, including the Islamic sites of Bokhara and Petra in Jordan and the Sphinx in Egypt, may ultimately be destroyed due to the effects of salt-weathering. Now Lourens Rijniers and colleagues at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands have developed a way to observe the solubility of various salts inside porous materials directly (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 075503). (U.K.)

  14. Export and Economic Growth Nexus in the GCC Countries: A panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hatem Hatef abdulkadhim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The export and economic growth nexus, which is called Balassa’s Export-Led Growth Hypothesis (ELGH  in the literature, is still an unstill issue in both the theoretical and empirical literature. In the present study, the effect of export on economic growth in  oil exporting developing countries, namely, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar,  Kuwait, UAE, and Oman in the 1990–2014 period was tested based on three models, pooled ordinary least squares (POLS, fixed effects model (FEM, and random effects model (REM  via panel data analysis . The findings revealed strong support for the “export-led growth” hypothesis. In addition, our results show that apart from growth in the labor force, investments in capital formation are necessary for economic growth. According to the obtained results, the ability to adopt technological changes in order to increase efficiency, and sustain economic development is also important.

  15. Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Redha Qader

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs. Electricity consumption and the related CO2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.

  16. Recent and future advances in anticancer drug delivery: an interview with Khaled Greish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greish, Khaled

    2018-05-01

    Khaled Greish speaks to Hannah Makin, Commissioning Editor: Khaled Greish is Associate Professor of Molecular Medicine, and head of the Nano-research unit, at Princes Al-Jawhara Center, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain. His previous appointments included Senior lecturer of Pharmacology at the University of Otago, New Zealand, and Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at University of Utah (UT, USA). He has published >70 peer reviewed papers, and ten book chapters in the field of targeted anticancer drug delivery. Controlled Release Society (CRS) awarded him the CRS Postdoctoral Achievement Award in 2008 and in 2010; he was elected as member of the CRS College of Fellows. In recognition of his research, University of Otago awarded him "Early Career Awards for Distinction in Research" in 2014. His research focuses on nanomedicine, tumor vascular biology and anticancer drug discovery/development.

  17. Rebuilding the Arab Economies: New Regional and Global Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura - Ramona BENCHEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab countries are facing one of their most difficult periods of the modern history. The popular uprisings which broke out at the beginning of 2011 in Tunisia and then spread to Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Jordan, Bahrain and Syria, reflect profound economic and social hardships, but also major uncertainties regarding the political perspectives of these countries. The political transition carried out by several Arab countries could represent an incentive for profound economic reorganization and structural change all over the region. The aim of this paper is to assess the structural economic challenges the Arab countries had been confronted with over many decades and to identify possible regional and global strategies for economic development.

  18. Is Tourism Development a Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy in the Long Run? Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K. Alhowaish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between tourism development and economic growth in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries in a multivariate model, using panel data for the period 1995–2012. The study adopts a panel Granger causality analysis approach to assess the contribution of tourism to economic growth in GCC countries as a whole, and in each individual country. In the case of GCC countries as a whole, the results show a one-way Granger causality, from economic growth to tourism growth. Furthermore, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates follow the path of economy-driven tourism growth, as hypothesized. The reverse hypothesis (i.e., tourism-led growth hypothesis holds true for Bahrain, while there is no causal relationship between tourism and economic growth in the case of Oman.

  19. In-service Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Technology Integration in the Bahraini Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Abdul Razzak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for Bahrain to realize its 2030 Economic Vision, digital literacy is required on the part of its citizens. Digital literacy is the ability to make use of Information and Computer Technology (ICT in learning and work activities, and can be understood clearly by understanding the role of ICT in schools. Such a role is successfully implemented mainly when certain conditions are met, among them the adoption of a positive attitude towards the utilization and integration of ICT in instruction on the part of the teachers. This study examines to what extent teachers in the Bahraini public school system adopt such an attitude, while at the same time (1 focusing on the amount of support they receive in terms of ICT training and resources and (2 identifying shortcomings that need to be addressed for successful ICT integration in teaching and learning.

  20. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  1. Strategy to combat obesity and to promote physical activity in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Qahtani, Aayed; Elati, Jalila; Ramadan, Jasem; Aboulella, Nebal A; Mokhtar, Najat; Kilani, Hashem A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem in the Arab countries, creating a health and economic burden on these countries' government services. There is an urgent need to develop a strategy for prevention and control of obesity. The third Arab Conference on Obesity and Physical Activity was held in Bahrain in January 2010, and proposed the Strategy to Combat Obesity and Promote Physical Activity in Arab Countries. This strategy provides useful guidelines for each Arab country to prepare its own strategy or plan of action to prevent and control obesity. The strategy focused on expected outcomes, objectives, indicators to measure the objectives, and action needs for 9 target areas: child-care centers for preschool children, schools, primary health care, secondary care, food companies, food preparation institutes, media, public benefit organizations, and the workplace. Follow-up and future developments of this strategy were also included.

  2. Does the Profit and Loss Sharing Financing increase the Performance of Islamic Banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BENDOB

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The profit and loss sharing financing may be effect on the performance indicators of Islamic banks. This paper aims to tests the relationship between PLSF and profitability, liquidity and risk indicators and analyzes why the Islamic banks neglect the long term financing, based on empirical case of thirteen bank at level of thirteen Islamic countries namely: Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Dubai, Indonesia, Iran Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Sudan, during 1997 to 2013. We use the regression analysis model with unbalanced panel data. The relationship between PLSF and performance indicators (Profitability, liquidity, risk is significant, and the dual fixed effects model is accepted which shows the difference in the relationship between the variables differs depending on the characteristics of the bank and the country as well as period. We propose to re-test this problematic with distinction between Mudharaba, Musharaka and PLSF, and the use of other econometrics method.

  3. Investor herds and oil prices evidence in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ulussever

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the effect of crude oil prices on herd behavior among investors in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC stock markets. Using firm level data from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Dubai and Abu Dhabi stock exchanges, we examine equity return dispersions within industry portfolios and test whether investor herds exist in these markets. We then assess whether crude oil price movements have any effect on the investment behavior of traders in the aforementioned markets. Our findings reveal significant evidence supporting herd behavior in all GCC equity markets with the exception of Oman and Qatar, more consistently during periods of market losses. Furthermore, we find significant oil price effects on herd behavior in these markets, particularly during periods of extreme positive changes in the price of oil. Our findings suggest that investors’ tendency to act as a herd in the said markets is significantly affected by the developments in the oil market.

  4. The SESAME project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.; Abu Ghannam, S.; Hoorani, H.R.; Qazi, Z.; Saleh, I.; Gournay, J.F.; Matias, E.; Wright, G.; Heron, M.; Betinelli-Deck, P.; Nadolski, L.S.; Kalantari, B.

    2012-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is a third-generation synchrotron light source under construction near Amman (Jordan), which is expected to become operational in 2015. SESAME will foster scientific and technological excellence in the Middle East and the Mediterranean region, build scientific bridges between neighbouring countries, and foster mutual understanding through international co-operation. The current members of SESAME are Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, the Palestinian Authority and Turkey. An overview about the progress of the facility and the general plan will be given in this paper. We will then focus on the control system by explaining how this aspect is managed: the technical choices, the principal deadlines, the local staff, the international virtual control team, and the first results. (authors)

  5. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  6. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates

  7. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  8. Islamic Banking Existence and Domestic Credit: Study at Seven Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Yuafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the determinants of domestic credit across a wide range of 7 countries; these are United Kingdom, Malaysia, Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Indonesia. We use dynamic panel estimation to examine effects of exchange rate, inflation, lending interest rate, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking on domestic credit. We obtain several notable empirical results. First, the lending interest rate, banking crisis negatively and insignificantly contribute to domestic credit. The existence of Islamic bank has positive and insignificant contribution to domestic credit, while exchange rate positively and significantly contributes to domestic credit.  Inflation negatively and significantly contributes to domestic credit. Second, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking show insignificant effect on domestic credit. Third, we find that today’s domestic credit is depended on domestic credit in the previous year.DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4906

  9. RELIGION AND BANKING SYSTEM: THE FUTURE OF SYARIAH BANKING PRACTICES Historical and Contemporary Fiqh Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hamka Siregar

    2014-01-01

    The momentum of the development of Sharia banking has been noticed since the 1970s, which generally had two patterns: first, establishing the Islamic bank side by side with conventional one (dual-banking system) as practiced in Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Bangladesh; and second, restructuring the banking system as a whole in accordance with Islamic Sharia (full-fledged Islamic financial system) as applied in Sudan, Iran and Pakistan. The development of the Shar...

  10. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  11. Updating the CS Curriculum: Traditional vs. Market-Driven Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedzad Mehic

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of updating a curriculum of a typical computer science department. The suggested approach promotes the role of a university as an academic environment, targeting excellence in teaching degree programs, as well as a qualified partner in partnership with businesses, especially with industry, in sharing knowledge and skills, supporting the concept of a quality process and quality products. Cooperation with industry firms, through real problem solving approaches and using emerging technologies that might drive the best demand in future markets, will prepare students to take advantage of opportunities, gain experience, and make an impact immediately. As a case study, the paper describes how this approach is applied to Computer Science Department at University of Bahrain.

  12. SESAME in Jordan

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Gaetano; Attal, Maher; Makahleh, Firas; Shehab, Maher M; Varnasseri, Seadat

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees...

  13.   Ekspeditioner, Mytologier og Historiciteter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Thomas Brandt

    2008-01-01

    Igennem mere end 50 år har Moesgård Museum i Aarhus haft en vigtig forskningsrelation til den Arabiske Golf, grundlagt på videnskabelige ekspeditioner i 1950'erne og 1960'erne. Ekspeditionernes primære fokus har været arkæologiske undersøgelser og hovedsagelig i den lille østat Bahrain. Danske...... selve ekspeditionerne peger artiklen derfor på vigtigheden af at inkludere forskellige historiers nutidige brug og betydning, og artiklen argumenterer for, at sådanne analyser vil kunne øge forståelsen for såvel fortid og nutid i den globalt-politisk centrale Golf-region. Udgivelsesdato: juni 2008...

  14. Electricity consumption and GHG emissions in GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qader, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Electricity consumption and the related CO 2 -equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), Kuwait (KW), Bahrain (BH), Oman (OM), United Arab Emirates (AE) and Qatar (QA); also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC)] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO 2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption. (author)

  15. Electricity consumption and GHG emissions in GCC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qader, M. R. [Applied Studies College, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2009-07-01

    CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Electricity consumption and the related CO{sub 2}-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), Kuwait (KW), Bahrain (BH), Oman (OM), United Arab Emirates (AE) and Qatar (QA); also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC)] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO{sub 2} emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption. (author)

  16. Understanding the Dynamics of Violent Political Revolutions in an Agent-Based Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an agent-based computational model of violent political revolutions in which a subjugated population of citizens and an armed revolutionary organisation attempt to overthrow a central authority and its loyal forces. The model replicates several patterns of rebellion consistent with major historical revolutions, and provides an explanation for the multiplicity of outcomes that can arise from an uprising. The relevance of the heterogeneity of scenarios predicted by the model can be understood by considering the recent experience of the Arab Spring involving several rebellions that arose in an apparently similar way, but resulted in completely different political outcomes: the successful revolution in Tunisia, the failed protests in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, and civil war in Syria and Libya.

  17. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR ENHANCING STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jalal Karim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Management Information Systems (MIS is the key factor to facilitate and attain efficient decision making in an organization. This research explores the extent to which management information systems implemented to make successful decisions at two selected financial organizations. The research examined whether the selected financial institutions of Bahrain vary as to the use of Management Information Systems leadership of decision making for strategic and tactical planning purposes. The research adapted the quantitative research design to examine two research hypotheses. A total of 190 forms were equally distributed to those who are working at different management levels at the selected organizations. The results of the research showed that MIS was primarily used to enhance strategic planning in both financial institutions. The regression analysis revealed that Tactical planning is found to have no effect on Decision Making, while Strategic planning has a clear effect on the Decision Making Effectiveness in both organizations

  18. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  19. Residential High-Rise Clusters as a Contemporary Planning Challenge in Manama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the different roots of current residential high-rise clusters emerging in new city districts along the coast of Bahrain’s capital city Manama, and the resulting urban planning and design challenges. Since the local real-estate markets were liberalized in Bahrain in 2003, the population grew rapidly to more than one million inhabitants. Consequently, the housing demand increased rapidly due to extensive immigration. Many residential developments were however constructed for the upper spectrum of the real-estate market, due to speculative tendencies causing a raise in land value. The emerging high-rise clusters are developed along the various waterfronts of Manama on newly reclaimed land. This paper explores the spatial consequences of the recent boom in construction boom and the various challenges for architects and urban planners to enhance urban qualities.

  20. Right Diet: a television series to combat obesity among adolescents in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haifi AR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad R Al-Haifi,1 Mohammad A Al-Fayez,1 Bader Al-Nashi,1 Buthaina I Al-Athari,1 Hiba Bawadi,2 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,31Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, Showaikh, Kuwait; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, University of Bahrain and Arab Center for Nutrition, Kingdom of BahrainBackground: Adolescent obesity is a growing public health problem in Kuwait. Reducing obesity can lower the risk of several chronic diseases. Fourteen obese adolescent boys volunteered to participate in a 6-month multidimensional television series on weight loss.Methods: The adolescent boys were recruited through advertisements in schools. The program included counseling sessions, nutritional education, exercise, family support, peer group involvement, and incentives designed to motivate participants.Results: The mean age of the boys was 15.6 ± 0.8 years. On average, subjects lost 10.6 ± 8.9 kg in weight and gained 3.3 ± 1.6 cm in height during the study period. The difference in mean body mass index at baseline and at 6 months following intervention was significant (P < 0.001 at 36.8 ± 4.6 and 32.0 ± 5.4, kg/m2 respectively. Participants ranked counseling as the most important component of the program, followed by family support and type of program.Conclusion: This type of television series could be used as a model for future public health programs to prevent and control obesity among adolescents.Keywords: diet, television, obesity, adolescents

  1. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassab SE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. Methods: This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69 who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent. The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Results: Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000. Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Conclusion: Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives. Keywords: PBL, tutor, tutoring skills, lecturing skills

  2. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alseddiqi, M; Mishra, R; Pislaru, C

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  3. Prepared to practice? Perception of career preparation and guidance of recent medical graduates at two campuses of a transnational medical school: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Sameer S; McGowan, Yvonne; McGee, Hannah; Whitford, David L

    2016-02-09

    Graduating medical students enter the workforce with substantial medical knowledge and experience, yet little is known about how well they are prepared for the transition to medical practice in diverse settings. We set out to compare perceptions of medical school graduates' career guidance with their perceptions of preparedness to practice as interns. We also set out to compare perceptions of preparedness for hospital practice between graduates from two transnational medical schools. This was a cross-sectional study. A Preparedness for Hospital Practice (PHPQ) survey and career guidance questionnaire was sent to recent medical graduates, incorporating additional free text responses on career preparation. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and tests of association including Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Forty three percent (240/555) of graduates responded to the survey: 39 % of respondents were domestic (Dublin, Ireland or Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain) and interning locally; 15 % were overseas students interning locally; 42 % were overseas students interning internationally and 4 % had not started internship. Two variables explained 13 % of the variation in preparedness for hospital practice score: having planned postgraduate education prior to entering medical school and having helpful career guidance in medical school. Overseas graduates interning internationally were more likely to have planned their postgraduate career path prior to entering medical school. Dublin graduates found their career guidance more helpful than Bahrain counterparts. The most cited shortcomings were lack of structured career advice and lack of advice on the Irish and Bahraini postgraduate systems. This study has demonstrated that early consideration of postgraduate career preparation and helpful medical school career guidance has a strong association with perceptions of preparedness of medical graduates for hospital practice. In an era of increasing

  4. Vaccinations against respiratory infections in Arabian Gulf countries: Barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Bondagji, Daniah M; Alshehari, Abdullah A; Basyouni, Mada H; Alhawassi, Tariq M; BinDhim, Nasser F; Rashid, Harunor

    2017-06-16

    To study the uptake, barriers and motivators of influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis vaccines among members of public in Arabian Gulf countries. A cross-sectional survey among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries' residents. Data collected electronically through a smartphone app. The survey variables aimed to investigate the respondents' awareness about vaccines against influenza, pneumococcal, meningococcal and pertussis infections. Collected data concerning the respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, their perception toward vaccine uptake and the factors that motivate or demotivate them from taking influenza vaccine. The data were analysed statistically using the SPSS v.23.0. Differences in the characteristics of users from different countries were quantified through bivariate analysis. Other important variables and controlling factors were studied using logistic regression. A total of 1812 respondents participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years, 82% were male and 24% had ≥ 1 chronic diseases. The overall uptake of influenza vaccine was 17% (21% among "at risk" people) and ranged from 15% in Saudi Arabia to 24% in Qatar. Doctor's advice (23%) and a perception of having low body immunity (21%) were the main cited reasons for being vaccinated, whereas unawareness about the vaccine (43%) was the main barrier. The overall uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in the preceding three years was 22% (25% among "at risk" individuals) and ranged from 0% in Bahrain to 79% in Kuwait. The overall uptake of pertussis vaccine was 16% (31% among "vulnerable" people), and ranged from 7% in Saudi Arabia to 75% in Oman. The overall uptake of meningococcal vaccine was 20% (29% among the "at risk" people) and ranged from 3% in Oman to 50% in Bahrain. The vaccination uptake across GCC countries is suboptimal and varies widely across the countries. Further research is needed to unearth the reasons and formulate action plan.

  5. Analysis of psychometric properties of the modified SETQ tool in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Strachan, Kathryn; Hashim, Sumaya; Otoom, Sameer

    2017-03-16

    Effective clinical teaching is crucially important for the future of patient care. Robust clinical training therefore is essential to produce physicians capable of delivering high quality health care. Tools used to evaluate medical faculty teaching qualities should be reliable and valid. This study investigates the psychometric properties of modification of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) instrument in the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in four teaching hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Two-hundred ninety-eight medical students were invited to evaluate 105 clinical teachers using the SETQ instrument between January 2015 and March 2015. Questionnaire feasibility was analyzed using average time required to complete the form and the number of raters required to produce reliable results. Instrument reliability (stability) was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total scale and for each sub-scale (factor). To provide evidence of construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify which items on the survey belonged together, which were then grouped as factors. One-hundred twenty-five medical students completed 1161 evaluations of 105 clinical teachers. The response rates were 42% for student evaluations and 57% for clinical teacher self-evaluations. The factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was composed of six factors, explaining 76.7% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 or higher for the six factors in the student survey; for the clinical teacher survey, Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. In both instruments, the item-total correlation was above 0.40 for all items within their respective scales. Our modified SETQ questionnaire was found to be both reliable and valid, and was implemented successfully across various departments and specialties in different hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

  6. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with vildagliptin versus other oral drugs for type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting in the Middle East: results from the EDGE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saab C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charles Saab,1 Feryal A Al-Saber,2 Jihad Haddad,3 Mahir Khalil Jallo,4 Habib Steitieh,5 Giovanni Bader,6 Mohamed Ibrahim,7 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sacre Coeur University Hospital, Baabda, Lebanon; 2Endocrine Department, Bahrain Defence Force Hospital, Rifaa, Bahrain; 3Division of Endocrinology Department of Internal Medicine, Prince Hamaza Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; 5New Mowasat Hospital, Safat, Kuwait; 6Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma Services AG, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic progressive disease that requires treatment intensification with antihyperglycemic agents due to progressive deterioration of β-cell function. A large observational study of 45,868 patients with T2DM across 27 countries (EDGE assessed the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin as add-on to other oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs versus other comparator OAD combinations. Here, we present results from the Middle East countries (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Methods: Patients inadequately controlled with OAD monotherapy were eligible after the add-on treatment was chosen by the physician based on clinical judgment and patient need. Patients were assigned to either vildagliptin or comparator OADs (sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, or metformin, except incretin-based therapies based on the add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c reduction of >0.3% without peripheral edema, hypoglycemia, discontinuation due to a gastrointestinal event, or weight gain ≥5%. One of the secondary endpoints was the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% without hypoglycemia or weight gain. Change in HbA1c from baseline to study endpoint and safety were also

  7. Middle East assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, M

    1984-06-01

    All governments of the Arab world are aware of the population issue, and there has been increasing interest in policies designed to bring about a lower rate of natural increase and older population age structure. Overpopulation is believed to be a major obstacle to economic development. The population activities of the Arab countries can be divided into 3 categories: national policy to reduce population growth; nongovernmental efforts to reduce population growth; and countries with pronatalist policies. The countries with a national policy to reduce population growth include Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco. All suffer severe problems of high density, young age structure, and lack of balance between the population and the economy. In these countries an active national family planning program operates alongside many active nongovernmental family planning associations. Reduction of the growth rate is regarded as urgent, and emigration is encouraged. In egypt contraceptives are readily available through commerical outlets, and village level social and economic activities are promoted in conjunction with family planning services. Tunisia is the only country to offer voluntary sterilization and 1st trimester abortion on request. Morocco includes family planning in its health and welfare services and there is an active voluntary family planning association. Countries in the group who have made nongovernmental efforts to reduce population growth include Algeria, Bahrain, Iarq, Jordan, Lebanon, Sudan, Syria, and Democratic Yemen. all have major population problems and generally support reduced growth rated but as yet have no national family planning. In this group the highest rate of population increase is in Syria, 3.8% a year; the highest total fertility rate is in Bahrain with almost 8 children per women. Saudi Arabia, Kewait, Qwatar, Libya, and Oman have pronatalist policies. Methods of contraception are available in the private sector. The outstanding feature of these oil

  8. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  9. Status of blood transfusion in World Health Organization-Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO-EMR): Successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Arezoo; Mashati, Pargol; Yami, Amir; Gharehbaghian, Arshia; Namini, Mehdi Tabrizi; Gharehbaghian, Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    Blood products are used for patient treatment and survival in the cases of major surgery, hematological disorders or cancer therapy. Presently the main blood components are not yet replaceable by artificial products and all activities related to blood transfusion is highly dependent on the healthcare development of each country. The World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO-EMR) comprises of 21 member states with variable socio-economic status effective on blood transfusion activities. The fundamental motivation behind this research was to accumulate some data of blood practices in this region and to have an appropriate image of the WHO-EMR region. The data were collected through the published papers or data, blood transfusion services websites, and the other health official websites like WHO. Among WHO-EMR countries there are some with a nationally organized blood transfusion establishment such as Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, and Syria. In a few, blood transfusion administrations are hospital-based like Saudi Arabia. The others are run by Red Crescent such as Bahrain, Tunisia and UEA or by Red Cross like Lebanon. Only Iran and UAE succeed to have 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donors; however, most of them are still under the weight of family/replacement blood donation such as Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Sudan or even paid donors like Pakistan and Yemen. The haemovigilance and training programs have been implemented in some countries including Bahrain, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and UAE. Unfortunately, there are rare and inaccessible information about some EMR states like Djibouti, Palestine and Somalia so that little data can be independently discovered. In these countries different measures ought to be additionally designated to ensure blood products adequacy and safety such as the development of well-coordinated national blood transfusion centers with

  10. Student-selected component in the medical curriculum: investigations and psychiatric referral for paracetamol overdose in an accident and emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowman JG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James G Cowman, Manuel Bakheet Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland – Medical University of Bahrain, Manama, Bahrain Background: A student-selected component (SSC of the medical curriculum requires the student to be self-directed in locating and undertaking a placement in a clinical specialty of their choosing and completing a project. The clinical area for experience was an accident and emergency department, and our topic was a focused audit on the investigations and referral for paracetamol overdose. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to reflect on the education value to medical students of an SSC in a medical curriculum, and to highlight learning and understanding through completion of an audit.Materials and methods: An audit approach was applied. The aim of the project study was to investigate the level of compliance with best-practice guidelines for investigations and psychiatric referral in paracetamol overdose.Results: A total of 40 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly selected. The sample had a mean age of 27 years, of whom 70.5% were female, and the ingested dose of paracetamol ranged from 0.864 to 80 g. Paracetamol abuse may present as intentional and unintentional overdose. In our study, 85% of cases were identified as intentional overdose and 76% had a history of psychiatric illness. Generally, medical management was compliant with guidelines, with some minor irregularities. The international normalized ratio was the most underperformed test.Conclusion: Our choice of topic, paracetamol overdose, contributed to our understanding of the breadth of factors to be considered in the emergency medical management of a patient. In this regard, we had the benefit of understanding how the diagnostic and therapeutic factors, when applied in accordance with best-practice guidelines, work very effectively. The SSC impacted positively on our cognitive, personal, and professional development. In facilitating the student with

  11. Bending the urban flow: a construction-migration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1980-01-01

    The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate

  12. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  13. František Nábělek's Iter Turcico-Persicum 1909-1910 - database and digitized herbarium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Matúš; Edmondson, John; Lack, Hans Walter; Smatanová, Janka; Marhold, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The Czech botanist František Nábělek (1884-1965) explored the Middle East in 1909-1910, visiting what are now Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Bahrain, Iran and Turkey. He described four new genera, 78 species, 69 varieties and 38 forms of vascular plants, most of these in his work Iter Turcico-Persicum (1923-1929). The main herbarium collection of Iter Turcico-Persicum comprises 4163 collection numbers (some with duplicates), altogether 6465 specimens. It is currently deposited in the herbarium SAV. In addition, some fragments and duplicates are found in B, E, W and WU. The whole collection at SAV was recently digitized and both images and metadata are available via web portal www.nabelek.sav.sk, and through JSTOR Global Plants and the Biological Collection Access Service. Most localities were georeferenced and the web portal provides a mapping facility. Annotation of specimens is available via the AnnoSys facility. For each specimen a CETAF stable identifier is provided enabling the correct reference to the image and metadata.

  14. Population Health Management and the Second Golden Age of Arab Medicine: Promoting Health, Localizing Knowledge Industries, and Diversifying Economies in the GCC Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Hunter, Lauren E; Magnuson, Madeline; Arifkhanova, Aziza

    2015-07-15

    Over the past half-century, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates-have experienced rapid economic growth and, with it, dramatic lifestyle changes. Low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets have led to an increase in the prevalence of chronic disease, most prominently diabetes. After having successfully controlled communicable diseases and made advanced acute care accessible locally, the GCC countries now face the challenge of orienting their health care systems toward prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In this study, Dr. Mattke and his colleagues argue that this challenge presents GCC countries with a historic opportunity to reestablish the thought leadership role that Arab medicine had in the Islamic Golden Age. They propose that GCC countries could apply their considerable wealth to design and implement innovative health care systems based on population health management principles and sophisticated health information technology. Taking this path would not only improve prevention and management of chronic disease in the GCC countries but also contribute to the diversification of their economies and localization of knowledge industries.

  15. The Policy Trade-off Between Energy Security and Climate Change in the GCC States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbek, Shaikha Ali

    Developing policies for energy security and climate change simultaneously can be very challenging as there is a trade-off. This research project strives to analyze the policies regarding the same that should be developed in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) States which are; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Oman. Energy security is important in these countries because it is the prominent sector of their economies. Yet, the environment is being negatively impacted because of the energy production. There has been lot of international pressure on the GCC to divert its production and move towards clean energy production. It needs more research and development, as well as better economic diversification to maintain and improve the economic growth. Along with the literature review that has been used to study the cases and impacts of the GCC states, six in-depth interviews were conducted with professors, scholars and specialists in the environment and natural science fields to discuss about the GCC's situation. It has been alluded that the GCC states cannot be held solely responsible about the climate change because they are not the only energy producing nations in the world. Based on OPEC, there are 14 countries including the United States and China that also have prominent energy sectors. They should also be held accountable for the causes of environmental and climate change. This research provides recommendations for the GCC states to follow and apply in order to move forward with clean energy production, economic diversification and develop better policies.

  16. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69) who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring) using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent). The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000). Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives.

  17. Social Learning and the Mitigation of Transport CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Al Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social learning, a key factor in fostering behavioural change and improving decision making, is considered necessary for achieving substantial CO2 emission reductions. However, no empirical evidence exists on how it contributes to mitigation of transport CO2 emissions, or the extent of its influence on decision making. This paper presents evidence addressing these knowledge gaps. Social learning-oriented workshops were conducted to gather the views and preferences of participants from the general public in Bahrain on selected transport CO2 mitigation measures. Social preferences were inputted into a deliberative decision-making model and then compared to a previously prepared participative model. An analysis of the results revealed that social learning could contribute to changes in views, preferences and acceptance regarding mitigation measures, and these changes were statistically significant at an alpha level of 0.1. Thus, while social learning evidently plays an important role in the decision-making process, the impacts of using other participatory techniques should also be explored.

  18. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  19. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC. (author)

  20. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel, E-mail: dr09@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  1. Impact of Ambient Conditions of Arab Gulf Countries on the Performance of Gas Turbines Using Energy and Exergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh S. Baakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, energy and exergy analysis of typical gas turbines is performed using average hourly temperature and relative humidity for selected Gulf cities located in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain and Qatar. A typical gas turbine unit of 42 MW is considered in this study. The electricity production, thermal efficiency, fuel consumption differences between the ISO conditions and actual conditions are determined for each city. The exergy efficiency and exergy destruction rates for the gas turbine unit and its components are also evaluated taking ISO conditions as reference conditions. The results indicate that the electricity production losses occur in all cities during the year, except in Dammam and Kuwait for the period between November and March. During a typical day, the variation of the power production can reach 4 MW. The rate of exergy destruction under the combined effect of temperature and humidity is significant in hot months reaching a maximum of 12 MW in July. The presented results show also that adding inlet cooling systems to the existing gas turbine units could be justified in hot periods. Other aspects, such as the economic and environmental ones, should also be investigated.

  2. Policies and practices related to information system adoption in hospitals owned by Ministries of Health in the Arab Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabali, H M

    1992-07-01

    This is a discussion paper based on the findings from a study of the factors affecting the adoption of computer-based hospital information systems (CBHIS) in the Arabian Gulf. The study involved on-site visits to hospitals in Bahrain, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates as well as visits to ministries of health in these countries. The focus of this paper is on the adoption of CBHIS by ministry of health (MOH) hospitals, in specific, because of the main role that ministries of health play as providers of health care in the Region. Prior to describing CBHIS adoption practices, an overview of the Region in terms of its economic development and its health care delivery systems is presented. Next, the research setting along with the major findings are briefly described followed by a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of centralized CBHIS adoptions. Finally, management guidelines related to the adoption of CBHIS by multi-hospital institutions are proposed.

  3. [Imbalance of distribution of physicians in the Arab world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Matri, A

    1990-01-01

    The Arab world, as a whole, now has 8.5 medical doctors per 10,000 population. This average covers a great diversity of national situations; for example 0.6 doctors per 10,000 population in Somalia, and 17.5 doctors per 10,000 population in Qatar. From the viewpoint of medical staffing, the Arab countries can be grouped into four categories: (i) Countries with low medical density: their national staff is scarce, they do not have a long academic tradition, and they have to rely on foreign physicians (Yemen, Djibouti, Somalia, Mauritania). (ii) Countries with acceptable medical density: they have strengthened their medical training system during the last decades, their production of medical graduates is now fairly high, and there is seemingly a threat of oversupply (Algeria, Tunisia, Syria, Iraq). (iii) Countries with relatively high medical density: their medical staffing is below that of developed countries, but their economic possibilities are reduced, which leads to an oversupply; these countries are exporters of medical manpower (Egypt, Jordan). (iv) Countries that import medical manpower although their own medical density is quite high: their medical training is recent or non-existent and their health system relies to a great extent on foreign doctors (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Libya, Kuwait). They are all oil producers. In brief, a shortage and an oversupply of medical doctors coexist in the Arab world, and concerted action is required.

  4. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  5. Planning and design of the Gulf States interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Alawi, J.; Sud, S.; McGillis, D.

    1994-01-01

    On May 25, 1981, the six Arab state of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) formally ratified the charter of the organization named Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. This has become more popularly known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). In the mid 1980s, the integration of the electric systems study in the GCC was initiated, and several possible interconnection schemes to provide for reserve sharing and generally more economic and flexible operation of the networks were proposed. The GCC subsequently asked for an update of this study and a recommended interconnection scheme. this update study was completed in 1990, and a definite scheme was proposed, which met with the approval of all GCC members. This presentation describes the proposed interconnection, the studies that led to its selection, and the associated management structure required for its implementation. the population of the GCC states, and their load, generating capacity, and the transmission systems are shown

  6. Biomedical publications profile and trends in gulf cooperation council countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Al Busadi, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2012-02-01

    There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman.

  7. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  8. Socio-economic Dimensions, Causes and Curbing Measures of Corruption in Developing Economies with A Special Reference to Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khalil Elian Abdelrahim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The research problem is that very little is known about the socio-economic dimensions, causes, and anti-curbing measures of corruption in developing economies particularly Jordan. The study aims at discussing the features of corruption in developing economies including Jordan. The study concludes that Jordan comes at a high level of corruption worldwide with a rank 59 among 180 countries at Corruption Perception Index (CPI which ranges between zero (most corrupted and  100  (least corrupted, but among Arab countries, Jordan comes at rank 4  preceded by Qatar, Arab Emirates and Bahrain . Lack of legal, public and economic reform besides political instability, lack of transparency, monopoly, high taxes, long procedures and barrier to trade often go hand in hand with corruption besides the  bribes provided by some companies in developed countries. Corruption is there in the private and public sectors. National anti-corruption agencies often fail to curb corruption due to lack of the power to persecute and lack of proper training of staff to be good investigators. Corruption breeds poverty, high prices and lack of foreign investment. Addressing corruption requires paying attention to its causes, role of incentives and institutional reform. Curbing corruption begins with designing better legal and administrative systems, reducing monopolies, inflicting severe penalties for both givers and takers of bribes, besides a free press and transparent privatization of public enterprise

  9. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  10. An Audit on the Appropriateness of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Referrals in a Tertiary Cardiac Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderazi, Ahmed Ali; Lynch, Mary

    2017-01-01

    In response to growing concerns regarding the overuse of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the clinical setting, multiple societies, including the American College of Cardiology Foundation, have jointly published revised criteria regarding the appropriate use of this imaging modality. However, previous research indicates significant discrepancies in the rate of adherence to these guidelines. To assess the appropriateness of CCTA referrals in a tertiary cardiac center in Bahrain. This retrospective clinical audit examined the records of patients referred to CCTA between the April 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 in Mohammed bin Khalifa Cardiac Center. Using information from medical records, each case was meticulously audited against guidelines to categorize it as appropriate, inappropriate, or uncertain. Of the 234 records examined, 176 (75.2%) were appropriate, 47 (20.1%) were uncertain, and 11 (4.7%) were inappropriate. About 74.4% of all referrals were to investigate coronary artery disease (CAD). The most common indication that was deemed appropriate was the detection of CAD in the setting of suspected ischemic equivalent in patients with an intermediate pretest probability of CAD (65.9%). Most referrals deemed inappropriate were requested to detect CAD in asymptomatic patients at low or intermediate risk of CAD (63.6%). This audit demonstrates a relatively low rate of inappropriate CCTA referrals, indicating the appropriate and efficient use of this resource in the Mohammed bin Khalifa Cardiac Center. Agreement on and reclassification of "uncertain" cases by guideline authorities would facilitate a deeper understanding of referral appropriateness.

  11. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among hemodialysis patients in the Middle-East: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Salehi-Marzijarani, Mohammad

    2017-01-07

    To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence in each country of the Middle-East and the overall prevalence of the region. In this systematic review, we gathered all documents related to HCV infection prevalence among hemodialysis patients in 17 middle-east countries from April 2006 to March 2016. We selected only cross-sectional studies that had proper sampling and measurement methods as well as a valid statistical analysis. After screening of 7311 documents, 56 studies were selected reporting the prevalence of HCV infection among hemodialysis patients from 10 countries of the region. Seven countries including United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Israel, and Cyprus did not have any relevant document; thus, their latest reports were just mentioned. We performed the meta-analysis and determined the prevalence rates for each country as well as the whole region. The overall HCV infection prevalence among hemodialysis patients in the region was reported to be 25.3%; Egypt and Syria had the highest reported rates while Iran and Lebanon had the lowest. Further investigations are still needed to provide more reliable databases, find main risk factors, and to improve diagnosis and treatment plans, particularly in higher prevalent countries. Controlling the prevalence and improving the management methods of HCV infection among hemodialysis patients are of a great concern in the Middle-East region.

  13. Recent spread of a new strain (A-Iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Nazem Shirazi, M H; Wadsworth, J; Swabey, K G; Stirling, J M; Statham, R J; Li, Y; Hutchings, G H; Ferris, N P; Parlak, U; Ozyörük, F; Sumption, K J; King, D P; Paton, D J

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the characterization of a new genotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A responsible for recent FMD outbreaks in the Middle East. Initially identified in samples collected in 2003 from Iran, during 2005 and 2006 this FMDV lineage (proposed to be named A-Iran-05) spread into Saudi Arabia and Jordan and then further west into Turkey reaching European Thrace in January 2007. Most recently A-Iran-05 has been found in Bahrain. To the east of Iran, it has been recognized in Afghanistan (2004-07) and Pakistan (2006-07). Throughout the region, this lineage is now the predominant genotype of FMDV serotype A sampled, and has appeared to have replaced the A-Iran-96 and A-Iran-99 strains which were previously encountered. In August 2007, a new A-Iran-05 sub-lineage (which we have called A-Iran-05(ARD-07)) was identified in Ardahan, Turkey, close to the border with Georgia. This new sub-lineage appeared to predominate in Turkey in 2008, but has, so far, not been identified in any other country. Vaccine matching tests revealed that the A-Iran-05 viruses are antigenically different to A-Iran-96 and more like A(22). These findings emphasize the importance of undertaking continued surveillance in the Middle East and Central Asia in order to detect and monitor the emergence and spread of new FMDV strains.

  14. Trends in Middle East climate extreme indices from 1950 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebin; Aguilar, Enric; Sensoy, Serhat; Melkonyan, Hamlet; Tagiyeva, Umayra; Ahmed, Nader; Kutaladze, Nato; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Afsaneh; Hantosh, T. H.; Albert, Pinhas; Semawi, Mohammed; Karam Ali, Mohammad; Said Al-Shabibi, Mansoor Halal; Al-Oulan, Zaid; Zatari, Taha; Al Dean Khelet, Imad; Hamoud, Saleh; Sagir, Ramazan; Demircan, Mesut; Eken, Mehmet; Adiguzel, Mustafa; Alexander, Lisa; Peterson, Thomas C.; Wallis, Trevor

    2005-11-01

    A climate change workshop for the Middle East brought together scientists and data for the region to produce the first area-wide analysis of climate extremes for the region. This paper reports trends in extreme precipitation and temperature indices that were computed during the workshop and additional indices data that became available after the workshop. Trends in these indices were examined for 1950-2003 at 52 stations covering 15 countries, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Turkey. Results indicate that there have been statistically significant, spatially coherent trends in temperature indices that are related to temperature increases in the region. Significant, increasing trends have been found in the annual maximum of daily maximum and minimum temperature, the annual minimum of daily maximum and minimum temperature, the number of summer nights, and the number of days where daily temperature has exceeded its 90th percentile. Significant negative trends have been found in the number of days when daily temperature is below its 10th percentile and daily temperature range. Trends in precipitation indices, including the number of days with precipitation, the average precipitation intensity, and maximum daily precipitation events, are weak in general and do not show spatial coherence. The workshop attendees have generously made the indices data available for the international research community.

  15. Clinicopathological study of pilomatricoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, Abdullah H.; Al-Jalahema, Ebtisam K.; Dhiman, Aneesh K.; Al-Khalifa, Khalid A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective was to study the clinical and histopathologic spectrum of pilomatricoma, the benign tumor of hair matrix. Retrospective review of 27 cases of pilomatricoma (Calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe) reported at Bahrain Defence Force Hospital from 1993 - 1999. Most of the cases were confused clinically with sebaceous cysts. Seventy eight per cent of the cases occurred below the age of 30 years. Female to male ratio was 5:4. Head, neck and upper limb were the most common sites for pilomatricoma. The size of the tumors ranged from between 4-35 mm in diameter. Tumors were encapsulated and solid composed of shadow and basophilic cells, and stroma containing varying amounts of calcification, ossification and inflammatory cells. Pilomatricomas have a wide variety of clinical characteristics and are often misdiagnosed with other skin conditions. They should be considered along with other benign and malignant conditions in the clinical differential diagnosis of solitary firm skin nodules especially those, which occur in the head, neck and upper limb. (author)

  16. Policy-Relevant Context of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among University Students in Six Countries Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Hamadeh, Randah; Thomas, Justin; Mostafa, Aya; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Macauda, Mark M; Theis, Ryan P; Kadi, Lama El; Johnson, Evan J; Darawad, Muhammad W; Nakkash, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean region are some of the highest worldwide, especially among young people. This study aimed to improve our knowledge of the policy-relevant context of waterpipe smoking among six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Participants were young adult university students (18-29 years) from both genders who had ever smoked the waterpipe, recruited from universities participating in this study. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: A total of 53 in-depth interviews were conducted in Arabic in 2016. Findings were organized around 5 themes: waterpipe product characteristics; patterns of waterpipe smoking; the waterpipe café setting; perceived health consequences; and health warning labels. Waterpipe smoking was commonly perceived as a safe alternative to cigarettes. Waterpipe tobacco was reported to be widely accessible and affordable to young participants. There is a lack of knowledge among waterpipe smokers about the associated health effects. Warning labels are effective at communicating health risks associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions: Regulatory frameworks for waterpipe tobacco smoking should be developed and enforced, including waterpipe-specific health warning labels that elucidate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. PMID:28952296

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nickel and vanadium in air dust from Bahrein (Persian Gulf): Measurements and Puff model calculations for this area during the burning of the oil wells in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaessen, H.A.M.G.; Wilbers, A.A.M.M.; Jekel, A.A.; Van Pul, W.A.J.; Van der Meulen, A.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Boer, J.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    When Kuwait's oil wells were at fire in 1991, air particulate matter (inhalable fraction) was sampled in Bahrain (soot clouds were over that region at that time) and analysed for PAHs, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V). Also in that period Puff-model calculations were carried out to forecast the dispersion of the combustion products and the impact on the environment in the Persian Gulf region. Based on the outcome of the model calculations and the analytical findings the major conclusions are that: (a) the PAH contamination level of the air particulate matter is equal or below that found for rural areas in the Netherlands and on average one order of magnitude below the findings of the model calculations; (b) there is no link between the air particulate matter content and the PAH contamination measured. The benzo(a)pyrene fraction of the PAH contamination is 10-14% which is surprisingly constant; (c) the strongly significant correlation between the Ni- and V-content both mutually and with respect to the air particulate matter content strongly suggests a common origin i.e. the burning oil wells in Kuwait; (d) the air particulate matter content measured is one up to two orders of magnitudes over the findings of the model calculations; (e) the emission factors applied in the Puff-model calculations, most probably, insufficiently match the combustion conditions of oil wells at fire. 6 figs., 3 tabs.,

  18. A Weighted Goal Programming model for planning sustainable development applied to Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, Raja; Colapinto, Cinzia; La Torre, Davide; Malik, Tufail

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of multi-criteria optimization model for sustainable development. • GHG emissions targets cannot be attainable due to reliance on hydrocarbon sources. • Provides quantitative evidence for future investments in green energy. • Application to Gulf Cooperation Countries. - Abstract: The United Nations agenda for sustainable development by the year 2030 proposes 17 sustainable development goals which include access to affordable, reliable and clean energy, sustained economic growth with full productive employment and, urgent action to mitigate environmental degradation. Planning for sustainable development requires integrating conflicting criteria on economy, energy, environment and social aspects. In this paper, we introduce a Weighted Goal Programming model involving criteria on the economic development (GDP), the electricity consumption, the greenhouse gas emissions, and the total number of employees to determine optimal labor allocation across various economic sectors. The proposed model is validated with data from the six members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). The results of the model aim to provide empirical evidence and insights to decision makers and policy analysts in developing optimal strategies able to simultaneously satisfy energy demand, economic growth, labor development and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to achieve sustainability targets by the year 2030.

  19. Learner Involvement at Arabian Gulf University Self-Access Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Malcolm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabian Gulf University (AGU College of Medicine and Medical Sciences was established around 25 years ago to train students in the Arab Gulf states, including Bahrain, where it is located, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to become doctors of medicine (MDs using the problem-based learning approach (PBL. As is the case in most regional higher education institutions, entering students are expected to be proficient in English, the language through which course content is delivered. In reality, many students do not achieve the desired standard in English, thus must take one or more semesters of English language training before beginning their academic studies. IAGU has an annual intake of around 150 students of widely varying English proficiency levels, but has only recently begun to accept some students to a foundation English programme. Before that, our small English unit had to find ways of helping the least proficient improve their English skills, while providing a basis in English for medical purposes for all students, within the same course framework. Our self-access centre (SAC, though small and definitely not state of the art, has had an important role to play in accommodating the different students’ needs and interests, supplementing their course material and providing opportunities for increased language exposure.

  20. Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services offered for palliative care patients in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; Mohamad, Alaa Adil; AlYafei, Sumaya AlSaadi

    2014-09-01

    Palliative care is an emerging concept in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a political and economic union of Arab states bordering the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Clinical pharmacy services have not yet been evaluated in this region. The objectives of this study were to create a baseline inventory of clinical pharmacy interventions in palliative care and to assess the perceived importance of interventions made. This was a prospective, single-center characterization study. Interventions were documented from September 30 to December 1, 2013. They were characterized into predetermined categories and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Physician acceptance rate and intervention rate per patient were calculated. Classification categories were sent to 10 practicing pharmacists in each of Qatar and Canada, who ranked the categories on the basis of perceived importance. A total of 96 interventions were documented, giving 3 interventions per patient and an acceptance rate of 81%. Discontinuing therapy (29%), initiating therapy (25%), and provision of education/counseling (13.5%) were most common. No differences were found between rankings from pharmacists in Qatar or Canada. Clinical pharmacy interventions are frequent, and those relating to alterations in drug therapy are most common. Interventions align with the perceived importance from pharmacists in both Qatar and Canada.

  1. The National Commitment Towards Conserving the Heritage (documentation of Historical and Cultural Sites in Gcc Countries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSulaiti, F.

    2013-07-01

    The five Arab Gulf countries of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman possess many shared characteristics and historical ties across their common peninsula. The prime factor uniting them is the historical nature of their entwined involvement with peoples and nations beyond the region. That the Gulf has been an important water passageway since ancient times suggests that the inhabitants of its shores met early on with other civilizations. The knowledge of one's roots, history, and traditional arts supports awareness of inherited culture and can help contextualize and illuminate community reflection and identification. The intricacy of the recording and understanding processes of documentation requires skilled professionals, with knowledge and awareness for the associated tasks. Responsible of cultural heritage should provide the adequate documentations, recording and updating of the records. Collaboration of different individuals such as specialist heritage, archaeologists, surveyors, conservators, researchers, architectural historians, and many other expert personnel is the golden key of successful documentation. The purpose of this document is to show the authorities of Gulf Arab countries and their planning measures, management and sharing effect of recording the cultural heritage. This essay identifies key points in the approach to contextualizing and developing cultural identity in a way that respects organic qualities. Through highlighting a number of archeological ruins and outlining management plans, the essay explores frameworks that can be applied to promote and preserve integral identity of important sites and their greater surrounding communities.

  2. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies,...... the lack of both integration and citizenship is a defining principle. Using these two perspectives, this article examines the relationship between citizenship rights and migration in the Gulf region, drawing on data from the UAE along with Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar.......In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies......, whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard...

  3. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.

  4. All guns blazing: management and survival of massive valproic acid overdose – case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Jawder S

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shaikha Al Jawder,1 Eiman AlJishi,2 Shaikhah Al-Otaibi,2 Mohammed S Al-Shahrani3 1King Hamad University Hospital, Busaiteen, Bahrain; 2Emergency Medicine Department, 3Emergency and Critical Care Department, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Abstract: A 51-year-old woman, who intentionally ingested a massive dose of ~60 g of valproic acid which she was using as a mood stabilizer for bipolar affective disorder, presented within 30 minutes of ingestion to the emergency department. The patient was asymptomatic and was immediately started on decontamination therapy with activated charcoal (AC. Drug serum levels, liver functions, and ammonia levels were tested and followed up during treatment. Due to the massive ingestion and continuous rise in serum drug levels, the patient received regular multiple doses of AC, as well as l-carnitine for liver protection. The patient was started on extracorporeal therapy in the form of renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU, followed by intermittent hemodialysis. Drug serum levels dropped significantly. Ammonia levels showed improvement with treatment. The patient was discharged from the ICU after 14 days of treatment. She was stable and in good condition with no residual hepatic or central nervous system (CNS manifestations. Keywords: valproic acid, multiple dose activated charcoal, l-carnitine, hemodialysis

  5. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study

  6. Measurement of Impairment among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Part of Evaluating Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed M

    2013-05-01

    This study assesses the impairment and treatment outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic, using multiple sources, including the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). A total of 20 children, aged 4 to 16 years, were recruited serially in 2010 from the Child Psychiatric Unit of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. The children received a diagnosis of ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The children were assessed with the C-GAS by a blinded investigator, initially at the beginning of the treatment and then one year later. The parents of the patients reported improvement in all cases; the improvement in impairment after one year, assessed using the C-GAS, was significant for all of the cases (P = 0.001) and low for those with comorbidity (P = 0.07). Measurement of improvement using the C-GAS was a suitable method of collecting data, and hence should be included in routine clinical practice for both ADHD diagnosis and outcome measurement.

  7. PLURALITY AND DIVERSITY IN ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the essence of the journal as a truly international platform that covers issues of interest and concern to the global academic and professional community, this issue of Archnet-IJAR, volume 11, issue # 2, July 2017 includes various topics that manifest plurality and diversity as inherent qualities of architectural and urban research published in the journal.  Topics include architectural education and design studio teaching, urban and rural slums, heritage and historic environments in various contexts, participatory planning and the charrette process, assessment of public spaces and plazas, and human perception of the built environment. These topics are debated and analytically discussed within cities, settlements, and urban environments in Bahrain, Bangladesh, California-USA, Libya, Scotland, and Spain. The issue also includes three papers selected from the Fifth Architectural Jordanian International Conference – 1-3 November 2016, which uniquely speak to the context of Jordan and the wider Middle East. The edition ends with a book review that highlights emerging issues related to border landscapes and social ecologies.

  8. Analysis of an innovative solar water desalination system using gravity induced vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayhan, T.; Al-Madani, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical analysis, design and appropriate models of a new desalination system using gravity induced vacuum. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures with less energy than conventional techniques. This technique is developed to overcome water storage, in the areas where good solar radiation (or waste heat sources) and sea water (or waste water sources). The developed system consists of an evaporator connected to condenser by means of a vacuum tank. The vapour produced in the evaporator is driven to condenser through the vacuum tank, where it condenses and collected as a product. Vacuum equivalent to 7 kPa (abs) or less can be created depending on ambient temperature of Bahrain climatic conditions. The effect of various operating conditions, namely water levels in condensation and evaporating columns on the system performance were studied. The theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results show that the performance of this system depends on the condensation temperature

  9. The independence of the Shari’a supervisory board in the Islamic financial institutions of the GCC countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Nathan Garas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs are governed by two boards: the Board of Directors (BoD and the Shari’a Supervisory Board (SSB. The SSB is a panel of Shari’a scholars who act independently from other governance organs. This paper discriminates between dependent SSBs and independent SSBs by using twenty one variables, which are classified into three groups: the implementation of governance best practices, the recruitment of SSB members, and the relationship between the SSB members and other governance organs. This study is one of the first studies that provide empirical results about the SSB independence. Nevertheless, the research focuses exclusively on the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries and excludes the other countries where Shari’a supervision might have different forms. The study has developed a hypothesis, which was tested by a questionnaire. Data was collected from 76 Shari’a Supervisory Boards, 73 Boards of Directors, and 59 shareholders of IFIs in the GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and UAE during 2009. The discriminant analysis has been used in identifying both dependent and independent SSBs. The paper finds five variables relevant in discriminating the two groups. These variables are the incentives provided to the SSB; the average remuneration to the SSB members; the existence of the policy of penalties for violating the code of conduct; the relation between the SSB members and the BoD; and the role of executive management in recruiting SSB members.

  10. Research on psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Jamal M; Al-Khateeb, Anas J

    2014-02-01

    This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies. © 2013.

  11. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO 2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)

  12. Public response to MERS-CoV in the Middle East: iPhone survey in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Rashid, Harunor; Basyouni, Mada H; Alhawassi, Tariq M; BinDhim, Nasser F

    Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries bear the heaviest brunt of MERS-CoV. This study aims to compare public awareness and practice around MERS-CoV across GCC countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Gulf Indicators (GI) smartphone app among people in the six GCC countries, namely Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman. A total of 1812 participants recruited. All were aware of MERS-CoV, yet the perception and practice around MERS-CoV varied widely between countries. Over two thirds were either "not concerned" or "slightly concerned" about contracting MERS-CoV; believing that they were under Allah's (God's) protection (40%) was the most cited reason. While 79% were aware that the disease can transmit through droplet from infected person, only 12% stated that MERS-CoV transmits via camels; people in Saudi Arabia were better aware of the transmission. Nevertheless, only 22% of respondents believed that camels are the zoonotic reservoir of MERS-CoV. Those who were concerned about contracting MERS-CoV (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1, pAuthors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Willowglen Systems Inc. : 8 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The various supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems designed by Willowglen Systems Inc. were described. The company provides custom SCADA technology products, automation systems, and technical services for various applications. Their remote terminal units (RTUs) were designed to have a very low power consumption rate, and can be operated from any power source. The company has also designed integrated metering and communications solutions for remote locations. The following 8 case studies of Willowglen System solutions were highlighted: (1) a SCADA system designed for the Northwest Territories Power Corporation, (2) a system of RTUs installed at the Shell Canada Ltd. Caroline Gas Complex, (3) a SCADA system designed to monitor a natural gas pipeline, (4) a SCADA system designed to monitor a transmission pipeline and distribution system in Singapore, (5) RTUs designed to monitor gas dehydration units in Bahrain, (6) a SCADA system designed for a refined petroleum products pipeline, (7) a SCADA system installed at an electric power utility in New Brunswick, and (8) a tank gauging system designed for a large oil refinery in Alberta. 7 figs.

  14. Consensus recommendation for India and Bangladesh for the use of pneumococcal vaccine in mass gatherings with special reference to Hajj pilgrims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Mathai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are prevalent among Hajj pilgrims with pneumonia being a leading cause of hospitalization. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen isolated from patients with pneumonia and respiratory tract infections during Hajj. There is a significant burden of pneumococcal disease in India, which can be prevented. Guidelines for preventive measures and adult immunization have been published in India, but the implementation of the guidelines is low. Data from Bangladesh are available about significant mortality due to respiratory infections; however, literature regarding guidelines for adult immunization is limited. There is a need for extensive awareness programs across India and Bangladesh. Hence, there was a general consensus about the necessity for a rapid and urgent implementation of measures to prevent respiratory infections in pilgrims traveling to Hajj. About ten countries have developed recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination in Hajj pilgrims: France, the USA, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the UAE (Dubai Health Authority, Singapore, Malaysia, Egypt, and Indonesia. At any given point whether it is Hajj or Umrah, more than a million people are present in the holy places of Mecca and Madina. Therefore, the preventive measures taken for Hajj apply for Umrah as well. This document puts forward the consensus recommendations by a group of twenty doctors following a closed-door discussion based on the scientific evidence available for India and Bangladesh regarding the prevention of respiratory tract infections in Hajj pilgrims.

  15. A scientometric study of general internal medicine domain among muslim countries of middle East (1991 - 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodhodinezhad, Niloofar; Zahedi, Razieh; Ashrafi-rizzi, Hassan; Shams, Asadollah

    2013-03-01

    The position of General Internal Medicine in the Islamic countries in the Middle East has been investigated in the present study. The scientific productions of the countries in the area on Web of science database during 1990-2011 constitute were examined. The result of the survey showed that the share of these countries in world scientific productions is very low. Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iran are the first to third ones in this domain in order. In view of annual growth rate, Kuwait having high growth rate, is the first one. Libya and Syria are the next ones. The scientific poverty line of Islamic countries in the area was surveyed. The result showed that in view of the scientific poverty line, the highest is Kuwait with the population of 0.04 percent of the world. Next to it, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain are the second and third ones. The results of this research showed that the share of Islamic countries in the Middle East in scientific production of this medicine domain is very low. It needs to be paid more attention by the countries in the area.

  16. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program.

  17. Drug information, misinformation, and disinformation on social media: a content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khaja, Khalid A J; AlKhaja, Alwaleed K; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2018-05-24

    Dissemination of misleading drug information through social media can be detrimental to the health of the public. This study, carried out in Bahrain, evaluated the truthfulness of 22 social media claims about drugs (72.7%), dietary supplements (22.7%), and toxic bisphenol-A (4.5%). They circulated on WhatsApp platform, as case studies. We categorized claims as objectively true, false, or potentially misleading. The content analysis revealed that "potentially misleading" claims were the most frequent messages (59.1%). They tend to exaggerate the efficacy or safety without sufficient evidence to substantiate claims. False claims (27.3%) were likely due to unfair competition or deception. Overall, 13.6% of the messages were objectively true claims that could withstand regulatory scrutiny. Majority of the drug-related messages on social media were potentially misleading or false claims that lacked credible evidence to support them. In the public interest, regulatory authorities should monitor such information disseminated via social media platforms.

  18. Contamination of the Gulf marine environment following the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readman, J.W.; Fowler, S.W.; Villeneuve, J.-P.; Cattini, C.; Oregioni, B.; Mee, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Following the Gulf war, controversy and speculation have surrounded the extent to which the massive spillage of petroleum and the burning of oil wells in Kuwait have damaged marine ecosystems in the region. We report here the results of a rapid assessment survey of hydrocarbon contamination undertaken in the coastal marine environment from Kuwait to Oman during mid-1991. Our results show that severe oil pollution was restricted primarily to the Saudi Arabian coastline within ∼ 400km from the spillages, and that during the four months following the conflict and preceding our survey, the spilled oil had extensively degraded. Surprisingly, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and bivalve molluscs from Bahrain in June 1991 were lower than those recorded from our pre-war (1983-86) surveys at the same site, probably as a result of decreased tanker traffic and associated deballasting during and after the conflict. As for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during burning of the oil wells, we found that concentrations in sediments from even the most heavily contaminated sites were relatively low, and comparable to levels reported for the Baltic Sea, coastal locations of the northeastern United States and United Kingdom estuaries. (author)

  19. Kuwait. Oil and Gas sector report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, C.; Thasing, T. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Kuwait, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-04-15

    Kuwait is stepping up its efforts to position itself as one of the main transport and logistics hubs in the Gulf. Looking at the logistics performance index Kuwait is placed behind UAE and Bahrain but (far) ahead of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Iraq and Iran. Besides, Kuwait is gaining ground, investing heavily in new infrastructure which is intended not only to meet the country's own needs but also the needs of the wider region.Kuwait has nearly 500 kilometres of coastline along the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and is strategically positioned at the mouth of the waterways to Iraq and Iran. This could give Kuwait the advantage to serve as one of the most important regional hubs for shipping and transportation in the Gulf region. This becomes especially true when a planned railway line connecting Kuwait with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and especially Turkey becomes in service. Information is presented on: government plans, existing port infrastructure in Kuwait, developments and opportunities in the existing ports, the oil ports and terminals, investment and business opportunities.

  20. Imported Expertise in World-class Knowledge Infrastructures: The Problematic Development of Knowledge Cities in the Gulf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosior, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the oil business, settlements in the Gulf Region developed into prosperous cities. But in the near future, oil is off. The plans of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC states bank on diversified and knowledge-intensive economies. Are those development plans realistic? What is the state of the art of knowledge institutions in the GCC countries? Applying the theoretical frameworks of Knowledge City and Science Indicators research, we empirically and theoretically studied the emerging Gulf cities Kuwait City (Kuwait, Manama (Bahrain, Doha (Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah (all UAE, and Muscat (Oman. Our methodological framework includes grounded theory, ethnographic field study, ServQual-like quantitative questionnaires and semi-standardized qualitative interviews conducted on-site with informed people, informetrics, and, finally, the use of official statistics. In particular, we describe and analyze the cities' knowledge infrastructures, their academics, and expenditure on R&D as input indicators; and publications as well as graduates as output indicators. A further crucial aspect of a knowledge society is the transition of graduates into knowledge-intensive public services and private companies.

  1. Determinants of Audit fees by Brazilian Companies Publicly Traded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Placeres Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the determinants of audit fees in Brazil became possible with the mandatory disclosure of audit expenses in 2009. Thus, the objective of this research was to identify the determinants of the fees paid by Brazilian publicly traded companies to independent auditors in 2010 to 2014. The analysis took place through regression with data arranged in panel. Size, performance, complexity, audit firm size, adoption of corporate governance practices, audit rotation, industry and litigation risks have all been found to have an impact on the fees. Therefore, the aspects that can be used by companies for the purpose of information management or that require more auditing timefor signaling points of greater risks are highlighted. In addition, understanding the determinants allows companies to plan future expenditures with audit fees and assists regulators and inspectors in defining and comparing key determinants of firms for identifying abnormal payments. These results complement the research in Brazil, Australia, Bangladesh, Norway, Bahrain, England, Jordan, Kuwait, USA, Malaysia, Nigeria, Abu Dhabi, Italy and Indonesia.

  2. Islamic accounting reporting and economic development: Nigerian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Alkali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Islamic financial reporting system as practiced in many Islamic states for economic development. The issue of Islamic accounting among scholars provided evidence of economic benefits among the countries that have Islamic financial institutions (IFIs. The IFIs have been reported to be the fastest-growing sector in the world with a greater contribution of the global total bank assets. Although the Muslim population in Nigeria is large, the contribution or participation of Muslim towards IFIs is low compared to other countries like Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Syria. Furthermore, the accounting reporting in Nigeria is based on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS for all listed firms in Nigeria, which includes IFIs, even though, IFIs apply dual reporting. Therefore, the need for the mandatory adoption of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI standards is significant in Nigerian for IFIs to function better. Several countries have made it mandatory for IFIs to adopt AAOIFI instead of IFRS. The need for IFIs firms to report on their accounting system as an alternative to the conventional, will not only enhance transparency, improve reporting disclosures, greater Muslim investors, but will also improve Nigerian stock market. Policy makers, governments, and the regulator should make it mandatory for all IFIs to adopt AAOIFI for financial reporting.

  3. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  4. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  5. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  6. Constructing the “Arab Spring”: News Discourses in Turkish Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Dağtaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Originating in Tunisia and spreading rapidly to Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, and Libya, the recent wave of popular movements that the Western media have dubbed the “Arab Spring” has been closely monitored by the whole world including in Turkey. This country is geographically close to the region and the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP has been active in developing foreign policies in relation to the key countries involved. This paper analyzes the news discourses in the reports published between January 25th and February 25th, 2011, in six Turkish national newspapers. This is the period when upheaval reached its peak in Tahrir Square in Cairo, the most potent symbol of “Arab Spring”. The newspapers sampled fall into two categories, those supporting the AKP government (Star, Zaman, and Sabah and those not supporting the AKP government (Cumhuriyet, Hürriyet, and Taraf. To map the discursive fields employed in the news reports, this paper draws on methods from critical discourse analysis and examines news actors and their quotation patterns, lexicalization, overlexicalization and syntactic preferences.

  7. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  8. Concorde Re-visited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Peter; Moore, Peter

    This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the introduction of Concorde into commercial airline service. The first commercial flights were on 21 January 1976 - British Airways from Heathrow to Bahrain and Air France from Paris to Rio via Dakar. Later in that year commercial flights to Washington/Dulles began on 24 May. Services to New York were delayed until 22 November 1977. The first flight of Concorde was some seven years earlier. The prototype took off out of Toulouse on 2 March 1969 and this was followed by 002 from Filton to Fairford on 9 April. At the time it was anticipated that this was the beginning of an era when supersonic flight would be the normal way to travel long distances. Now, in 1996, Concorde is still the world's only supersonic commercial passenger airliner in airline service. This is an extraordinary achievement. The Boeing SST proved to be too ambitious and the programme was halted in 1971 after the United States Government withdrew support, while the Russian TU 144 was beset with problems. One TU 144 crashed at the Paris Air Show in 1973. The aircraft entered internal airline service in December 1975, flying supersonically between Moscow and Alma-Ata, capital of Kazakhstan, carrying mail and freight, but it did not have the range to operate viable intercontinental passenger serives. Certainly by 1985, if not many years before, the TU 144 was out of service.

  9. Physicians attitudes toward living non-related renal transplantation (LNRRT). The Living non-Related Renal Transplant Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Renal transplantation is considered now the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Unfortunately, the worldwide shortage of kidneys remains the most important obstacle to transplantation. In developing countries, including those of the Middle East, the shortage is even more dramatic. Despite great efforts to establish and maintain successful transplant centers, the number of kidneys that have been transplanted in the last few years has actually declined. The lack of a dependable kidney source played well into the hands of unscrupulous entrepreneurs who started brokerage of organs for profit. In this practice, patients with ESRD travel to India and other countries to purchase kidneys from living genetically non-related poor donors. Patient care was therefore relegated to the laws of the marketplace and both patients and donors were exploited to maximize profit. Additionally, reported results of this type of transplantation were inferior to those of other types of transplantation. Not unexpectedly, these issues have created intense controversy among transplant physicians and the general public in which moral, ethical and medical issues were debated. To investigate these issues, we conducted a large multicenter study in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Egypt. In the first phase of this study, we surveyed 50 institutions regarding their attitude toward LNRRT, of which 22 responded. The results of our survey clearly show that patients with ESRD take the initiative in seeking LNRRT despite physician discouragement and significant financial burden.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Kuwait. Oil and Gas sector report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, C.; Thasing, T.

    2011-04-01

    Kuwait is stepping up its efforts to position itself as one of the main transport and logistics hubs in the Gulf. Looking at the logistics performance index Kuwait is placed behind UAE and Bahrain but (far) ahead of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Iraq and Iran. Besides, Kuwait is gaining ground, investing heavily in new infrastructure which is intended not only to meet the country's own needs but also the needs of the wider region.Kuwait has nearly 500 kilometres of coastline along the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and is strategically positioned at the mouth of the waterways to Iraq and Iran. This could give Kuwait the advantage to serve as one of the most important regional hubs for shipping and transportation in the Gulf region. This becomes especially true when a planned railway line connecting Kuwait with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and especially Turkey becomes in service. Information is presented on: government plans, existing port infrastructure in Kuwait, developments and opportunities in the existing ports, the oil ports and terminals, investment and business opportunities.

  11. THE NATIONAL COMMITMENT TOWARDS CONSERVING THE HERITAGE (DOCUMENTATION OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL SITES IN GCC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. AlSulaiti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The five Arab Gulf countries of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman possess many shared characteristics and historical ties across their common peninsula. The prime factor uniting them is the historical nature of their entwined involvement with peoples and nations beyond the region. That the Gulf has been an important water passageway since ancient times suggests that the inhabitants of its shores met early on with other civilizations. The knowledge of one’s roots, history, and traditional arts supports awareness of inherited culture and can help contextualize and illuminate community reflection and identification. The intricacy of the recording and understanding processes of documentation requires skilled professionals, with knowledge and awareness for the associated tasks. Responsible of cultural heritage should provide the adequate documentations, recording and updating of the records. Collaboration of different individuals such as specialist heritage, archaeologists, surveyors, conservators, researchers, architectural historians, and many other expert personnel is the golden key of successful documentation. The purpose of this document is to show the authorities of Gulf Arab countries and their planning measures, management and sharing effect of recording the cultural heritage. This essay identifies key points in the approach to contextualizing and developing cultural identity in a way that respects organic qualities. Through highlighting a number of archeological ruins and outlining management plans, the essay explores frameworks that can be applied to promote and preserve integral identity of important sites and their greater surrounding communities.

  12. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Danyel

    2010-01-01

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  13. Heritage and Tourism. Global Society and Shifting Values in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marxiano Melotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage has always been an important tool in the political and identity formation of the nation-states. In the Western countries the gradual overcoming of nineteenth-century nationalism has paved the way for a post-modern use of their heritage, where tourism, market, culture, leisure and entertainment appear to be deeply interwoven. Museums, monuments and archaeological sites are important elements in the cultural and historical theming of consumption and in the promotion of the areas and requalification of their image. In the last decade the richest states in the Middle East, starting from the United Arab Emirates, have adopted both of these Western uses of heritage: local culture and monuments are used both as means of building or reinventing identity in a religious and national key and as instruments to promote the areas in recreational and tourist function. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are two significant cases. Their intangible heritage, which is enhanced and crystallized in a tourist way, concurs to construct a local historical identity. On the other hand, the major Western national museums, which in Europe have almost exhausted their political and identity function, are called to open branches there to attract international tourism, according to its post-modern model, and to assert the new metropolitan and international identity of these capitals. In such a context of renewed interest in the cultural heritage, we can recall the significant decision of Bahrain of hosting a centre devoted to Arab heritage under the auspices of UNESCO.

  14. MENA Renewables Status Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The MENA Renewables Status Report is an outcome of ADIREC, the Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference. The report provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends in the region, drawing on the most recent data available. It is produced in cooperation with over 50 contributors and researchers in the region and reveals massive growth in the renewable energy markets of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Regional investment topped US$2.9 billion in 2012, up 40% from 2011 and 650% from 2004. With over 100 projects under development, the region could see a 450% increase in non-hydro renewable energy generating capacity in the next few years. For the report, the 21 MENA countries were clustered into two sub-groups: Net Oil-Exporting Countries (NOEC) -- Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; and Net Oil-Importing Countries (NOIC) -- Djibouti, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, and Tunisia.

  15. The Potential Role of Social Media Platforms in Community Awareness of Antibiotic Use in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Luxury or Necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zowawi, Hosam Mamoon; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Mar, Florie A; Almalki, Turki; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Harbarth, Stephan; Balkhy, Hanan H; Paterson, David L; Hasanain, Rihab Abdalazez

    2015-10-15

    The increasing emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health issue. Increasing the awareness of the general public about appropriate antibiotic use is a key factor for combating this issue. Several public media campaigns worldwide have been launched; however, such campaigns can be costly and the outcomes are variable and difficult to assess. Social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, are now frequently utilized to address health-related issues. In many geographical locations, such as the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain), these platforms are becoming increasingly popular. The socioeconomic status of the GCC states and their reliable communication and networking infrastructure has allowed the penetration and scalability of these platforms in the region. This might explain why the Saudi Ministry of Health is using social media platforms alongside various other media platforms in a large-scale public awareness campaign to educate at-risk communities about the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper discusses the potential for using social media tools as cost-efficient and mass education platforms to raise awareness of appropriate antibiotic use in the general public and in the medical communities of the Arabian Peninsula.

  16. Effectiveness of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system on healthcare workers' compliance to guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salman, J M; Hani, S; de Marcellis-Warin, N; Isa, Sister Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is a growing concern among populations and is a crucial element in ensuring patient safety in a healthcare environment. Numerous management efforts have been conducted in that regard, including education, awareness and observations. To better evaluate the possible impact of technology on a healthcare setting, we observed the impact of a particular niche technology developed as an answer to the growing hand hygiene concerns. A study was conducted at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC) in Bahrain on a total of 16 Coronary Care Unit (CCU) beds where the system was installed, and the hand hygiene activity of healthcare workers (HCWs) in this area was monitored for a total period of 28 days. Comments, remarks and suggestions were noted, and improvements were made to the technology during the course of the trial. While resistance to change was significant, overall results were satisfactory. Compliance with hand hygiene techniques went from 38-42% to 60% at the beginning of the trial and then increased to an average of 75% at the end of the 28-day trial. In some cases, compliance peaked at 85% or even at 100%. Our case study demonstrates that technology can be used effectively in promoting and improving hand hygiene compliance in hospitals, which is one way to prevent cross-infections, especially in critical care areas. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mineral bone disorder and its management among hemodialysis patients in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Initial findings from the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (2012-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, Issa; AlRukhaimi, Mona; AlSahow, Ali; Shaheen, Faisal A M; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M G; AlAli, Fadwa; AlGhareeb, Sumaya; Al Maimani, Yacoub; AlGhonaim, Mohammed; Bieber, Brian; Tentori, Francesca; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-11-01

    The prospective cohort Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) initiated data collection in national samples of hemodialysis (HD) units (total of 41 study sites) in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in late 2012. Here, we report initial results regarding mineral bone disorders (MBDs) and its management in the GCC countries. Forty-one randomly selected HD facilities, treating >23 HD patients each, were sampled and represent care for >95% of GCC HD patients. Descriptive results for the GCC countries based on a random sample of 20-30 HD patients in each study facility. Initial results for the GCC are from 931 HD patients treated at 41 dialysis units (ranging from 1 unit in Bahrain to 21 in Saudi Arabia). Results are presented as weighted estimates, accounting for the sampling fraction in each unit. Baseline descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, or percentage), weighted by facility sampling fraction were calculated for the study sample. For analyses examining the percent of facility patients having (a) serum phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL or (b) parathyroid hormone (PTH) >600 pg/mL, analyses were restricted to facilities having at least 10 HD patients with a reported serum phosphorus or PTH measurement, respectively. Logistic regression analyses of the indicated binary outcomes were based on the use of generalized estimating equations and were adjusted for GCC country, patient age category (65 years old), sex, and whether the patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Logistic models accounted for clustering of patients within facilities, assuming an exchangeable working correlation matrix. Mean age of HD patients in the GCC countries was 53 years vs. 61-64 years in the three other DOPPS regions. MBD markers showed slightly lower mean serum Calcium in the GCC countries, similar mean serum phosphorus, and intermediate median PTH levels compared with the three other

  18. Mineral bone disorder and its management among hemodialysis patients in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Initial findings from the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Al Salmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective cohort Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS initiated data collection in national samples of hemodialysis (HD units (total of 41 study sites in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates in late 2012. Here, we report initial results regarding mineral bone disorders (MBDs and its management in the GCC countries. Forty-one randomly selected HD facilities, treating >23 HD patients each, were sampled and represent care for >95% of GCC HD patients. Descriptive results for the GCC countries based on a random sample of 20-30 HD patients in each study facility. Initial results for the GCC are from 931 HD patients treated at 41 dialysis units (ranging from 1 unit in Bahrain to 21 in Saudi Arabia. Results are presented as weighted estimates, accounting for the sampling fraction in each unit. Baseline descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, or percentage, weighted by facility sampling fraction were calculated for the study sample. For analyses examining the percent of facility patients having (a serum phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL or (b parathyroid hormone (PTH >600 pg/mL, analyses were restricted to facilities having at least 10 HD patients with a reported serum phosphorus or PTH measurement, respectively. Logistic regression analyses of the indicated binary outcomes were based on the use of generalized estimating equations and were adjusted for GCC country, patient age category (65 years old, sex, and whether the patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Logistic models accounted for clustering of patients within facilities, assuming an exchangeable working correlation matrix. Mean age of HD patients in the GCC countries was 53 years vs. 61-64 years in the three other DOPPS regions. MBD markers showed slightly lower mean serum Calcium in the GCC countries, similar mean serum phosphorus, and intermediate median PTH levels compared with the three

  19. La revolución llega a Bahréin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Peñalva Vélez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bahréin, pequeno país situado en un lugar estratégico en el Golfo pérsico por su proximidad con Irán y con Arabia Saudita; es protagonista; desde el 14 de febrero de 2011; de una revuelta parecida a las vividas por otros países como Egipto o Túnez. Sus particularidades geográficas; históricas (país bajo tutela británica hasta su efectiva independencia en 1971; políticas (desequilibrio en el reparto de poderes ; geoestratégicas (base de la quinta flota americana; sociodemográficas (mestizaje cultural debido al importante porcentage de población extranjera entre expertos; trabajadores cualificados y/o mano de obra de Europa; América y Asia; económicas (diversificación económica; religiosas (diversidad de cultos, etc. deben ser tenidas en cuenta a la hora de evaluar las causas; los objetivos y las posibles consecuencias de la revuelta de una mayoría chiíta gobernada por una minoría sunita. Este artículo pretende analizar los diferentes aspectos de esta crisis política, que es bien anterior a los acontecimientos del mes de febrero; y que sería reduccionista reducir a un puro enfrentamiento entre sunitas y chiítas. Al albor de los ultimos acontecimientos; y en especial debido al aumento gradual de la violencia ; cabe prever la existencia de una fractura social creada por estas divisiones promulgadas por líderes políticos y medios de comunicación y que probablemente ralentizará la instauración de reformas democráticas. Palabras clave: Bahrein, revoluciones del mundo árabe, petróleo, sunita, chiíta.___________________________Abstract:Bahrain, a small country considered as strategically located in the Persian Gulf due to its proximity to both Iran and Saudi Arabia, has been witnessing a revolt since 14 February 2011, similar to those which took place in Tunisia and Egypt. Bahrain’s particularities are numerous: geographical, historical (the country was under British protectorate until its independence in 1971

  20. On the Methodology of Research of Sunni-Shiite Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Chikrizova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological aspects of analysis of confrontation between two biggest trends in Islam - Sunnism and Shiism. It’s extremely important to study Sunni-Shiite relations on the modern stage because they reflect geopolitical and geostrategic rivalry in the region and change of interstate alliances’ configuration. After “the Arab spring” in the Middle East some conflicts have flared up (Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and one of the reasons of all the conflicts is a confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites. Moreover, some more hot spots are brewing, in which the representatives of two major trends in Islam will face (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain. In order to find ways to settle these conflicts we need to learn profoundly the origins, nature and characteristics of Sunni-Shiite relations, and it also determines the relevance of this article’s topic. Using comparative method, historicism, problem-chronological method and quantitative methods of analysis, the author indicates six periods of Sunni-Shiite antagonism, during which the contradictions between two trends had gradually shifted from domestic to international level, and then to global level. Comparing foreign policy practice of Sunni and Shiite states at the present stage, the author proves that nowadays the struggle between Sunnis and Shiites for the implementation of models of the Islamic world’s development takes place. These models are global, they are aimed at the unification of the Islamic world. However they are based on completely different visions of this world’s configuration, particularly in the region of the Middle East.

  1. A Comparison Study of Communication Skills between General Surgery and General Practice Residents on First-time Patient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Ansari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is little published research about differences in doctor-patient communication of different specialties. Accordingly, we compared doctor-patient communication skills in two different specialties, general surgery (GS and general practice (GP. Methods: Twenty residents training at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital (10 men and 10 women; mean age 28 years; 10 GS and 10 GP participated in 200 patient first visit consultations. The consultations were video-recorded and analysed by four trained observers using the MAAS Global scale. Results: 1 Internal consistency reliability of the MAAS Global (> 0.91 and Ep2 = 0.84 for raters was high, 2 GP residents spent more time (12 minutes than GS residents (7 minutes, in the visits, 3 There were several differences on the MAAS Global items between GP and GS residents (GS > GP, p GS, p < 0.05 on information giving, and 4 The present participants performed well compared to normative samples as well as to criterion-referenced cut-off scores. The general level of communication skills in both specialties, however, was ‘unsatisfactory’ and ‘doubtful’, as it is for normative samples. Conclusion: Excellent doctor-patient communication is essential but does not appear to receive the amount of attention that it deserves in practice settings. There are some differences between specialties as well as unsatisfactory communication skills for both specialties, since residents from both programs spent less time than recommended on each consultation. Our findings emphasize the need to improve the communication skills of physicians in general and for surgeons in particular.

  2. Mental illness research in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a scoping review.

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    Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather

    2016-08-04

    Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice

  3. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  4. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Al Wardy, N; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, K

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait, and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education, particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  5. Factors Associated with Discussion of Disasters by Final Year High School Students: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

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    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better

  6. Potential for the international spread of middle East respiratory syndrome in association with mass gatherings in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

    2013-07-17

    A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts.

  7. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Wardy, N Al; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'Malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, J

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates, two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities, and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  8. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  9. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  10. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Hanane; Ogilvie, Isla; El Khoury, Antoine C; Duan, Yinghui; Goetghebeur, Mireille M

    2011-01-07

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen), North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) and Turkey. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%). G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%). G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  11. Socioeconomic indicators are strong predictors of hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Demiray, Tayfur; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Altindis, Mustafa

    The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between age-specific hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rates and various socioeconomic indicators within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We conducted a systematic review of all recently published studies on HAV conducted in the MENA region and identified the highest quality studies for inclusion in our analysis. We calculated the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) for each study and estimated seroprevalence rates at the ages of 5, 10, and 15 years. Next, we identified the correlations between these metrics and several socioeconomic variables. HAV data collected in or after 2000 were available for 14 of the 19 countries in the MENA region. Four of the 14 included countries had intermediate HAV endemicity (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and UAE), five had high endemicity (Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia), and five had very high endemicity (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen). Water and sanitation were not significant predictors of AMPI or seroprevalence, most likely because most countries in this region have high rates of access to these utilities. However, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI), and the human development index (HDI) were all highly associated with AMPI and prevalence. The observed correlations suggest that of the MENA countries without recent HAV data, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar most likely have low endemicity, Oman likely has intermediate endemicity, and Libya likely has high endemicity. While it is unlikely that a single correlation model would be suitable for use in all world regions, the approach utilized in this analysis might provide a simple but accurate method for using economic data to impute the endemicity profiles of countries without recent data in regions where at least several neighboring countries have conducted recent serostudies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Qatari Women’s Progress Through Reactions to Online Behavior

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    Mohanalakshmi Rajakumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The close kinship structure of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries of Oman, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE means that appeasing one’s family often supersedes personal aspirations. The family occupies a central space in the life of the individual, one that mimics the state’s involvement in the everyday lives of its citizens. Within such a context we need a new framework to understand how women’s private choices have sociopolitical implications. Qatari women are ensconced within the political and economic stability of the Arabian Gulf. The Western feminist tropes of activism and advocacy, as have been studied in Egypt and other Arab countries affected by the Arab uprisings of 2011, cannot characterize Qatari women’s behavior on social media. Yet the degree to which women present themselves online, using their real names, is a form of agency important to their context. Qatari women also use social media in order to educate themselves about the personalities and activities of potential spouses. Similarly, male Qataris consider certain behaviors as disqualifiers for potential brides. We discuss these trends within the larger context of Qatari society and the dichotomy between modernization and traditional culture in the Arabian context. This article arose out of a larger study about contemporary marriage practices and attitudes toward partner selection in Qatar today. The ways in which both males and females analyze the social media usage of potential partners is an interesting ancillary discussion against the backdrop of larger trends in Qatari society.

  13. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

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    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  14. Emerging and Reemerging Diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region-Progress, Challenges, and WHO Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buliva, Evans; Elhakim, Mohamed; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen; Elkholy, Amgad; Mala, Peter; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Malik, Sk Md Mamunur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human-animal interaction. In EMR, several infectious disease outbreaks were detected, investigated, and rapidly contained over the past 5 years including: yellow fever in Sudan, Middle East respiratory syndrome in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, cholera in Iraq, avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in Egypt, and dengue fever in Yemen, Sudan, and Pakistan. Dengue fever remains an important public health concern, with at least eight countries in the region being endemic for the disease. The emergence of MERS-CoV in the region in 2012 and its continued transmission currently poses one of the greatest threats. In response to the growing frequency, duration, and scale of disease outbreaks, WHO has worked closely with member states in the areas of improving public health preparedness, surveillance systems, outbreak response, and addressing critical knowledge gaps. A Regional network for experts and technical institutions has been established to facilitate support for international outbreak response. Major challenges are faced as a result of protracted humanitarian crises in the region. Funding gaps, lack of integrated approaches, weak surveillance systems, and absence of comprehensive response plans are other areas of concern. Accelerated efforts are needed by Regional countries, with the continuous support of WHO, to

  15. The NURSING-Positive Recruitment Arabic Model (NURS-P.R.A.M.): A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawash, Eman; Cowman, Seamus

    2018-06-12

    To identify factors influencing high school students' choice of nursing and explore strategic interventions to promote nursing as a career in the Arab region. This study forms part of a PhD thesis, conducted in Bahrain, in a healthcare environment with a high dependence on expatriate nurses to maintain nursing services. However, in attracting local candidates to study nursing, the public image of nursing in the Middle East must be improved by implementing strategies that are sensitive to the Arabic culture. A mixed methods approach incorporating quantitative and qualitative dimensions. Data were collected between 2012-2015 using self-administered questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and written narratives. The study sample included high school students, parents, career guidance counsellors and nursing students. A one-group pre-test post-test design was used to introduce a nursing recruitment intervention to high school students. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data. Colaizzi's (1978) and Krueger's (1994) frameworks were applied to analyse the qualitative data. It is proposed that the public perceptions of Arab people about nursing may be grounded in strong cultural influences and any efforts to improve the enrolment and retention of local nurses should consider enhancing the social values of the nursing profession. The NURSING-Positive Recruitment Arabic Model incorporates essential elements which will guide nursing recruitment in the Arabic cultures. The study findings reflect certain issues similar to the core international literature on nursing recruitment, however there are fundamental issues particular to the Arab region, which must be included in the development of a nursing recruitment strategy for Arabic nursing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Tackling cancer burden in the Middle East: Qatar as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert; Kerr, Karen; Haoudi, Abdelali; Darzi, Ara

    2012-11-01

    Cancer prevalence is increasing in the Middle East, partly because of increased life expectancy and adoption of western lifestyle habits. Suboptimum delivery of health care also contributes to late diagnosis and poor survival of people with cancer. Public awareness of cancer risk is frequently low and misconceptions high, thereby preventing patients from seeking treatment early and constituting a substantial barrier to improvement of cancer outcomes. Screening programmes might have low uptake in Arab populations because of social and health beliefs about cancer. This review outlines the opportunities available to Middle Eastern countries and their emerging economies to learn from global experiences in cancer care, service provision, and research partnerships. The Middle East has begun to develop several health-care transformation programmes. Qatar, in particular, has published a National Health Strategy, in which cancer is one of the main commitments; this Strategy provides the focus of this review. The development of effective health-care strategies and evidence-based medicine directly linked to innovative cancer research is needed to improve cancer care. Although the full extent of the proposed solutions are not necessarily implementable in all Middle Eastern countries, wealthy states can lead derivation of population-specific approaches that could have effects throughout the region. Key challenges are outlined-namely, human capacity and training, subspecialisation of services, building on international cancer research initiatives, and the need for earlier diagnosis and awareness in the population. Countries in the Gulf Region (ie, countries bordering the Persian Gulf, including Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, and Oman) need to address these challenges to be at the forefront of integrated cancer care and research and ensure that the latest innovations and best possible care are delivered to their populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Desalinated drinking water in the GCC countries - The need to address consumer perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomar, Basem; Hawari, Jalal

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries depend mainly on seawater desalination to meet their water needs. Although great emphasis is given to characterize desalinated water for its physicochemical and microbial properties, e.g. presence of metals, other organic contaminants and for bacteria, sensorial characteristics including smell, taste and color have not received the same attention. This is possibly attributed to the fact that inhabitants of GCC States do not use desalinated tap water for drinking consumption, rather they depend on locally produced or imported bottled water where color, taste and odor are not problematic. To address the consumer needs and perceptions of drinking desalinated water in GCC countries, water quality standards and guidelines, should respond to the public concern about other sensorial characteristics (organoleptic properties) including taste, odor, and trigeminal sensations. Often the root causes of color and smell in water are attributed to the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants and to bacterial growth which is frequently accompanied by the production of metabolites and byproducts that are obnoxious. The unpleasant sensorial problems associated with desalinated drinking tap water may constitute the driving force for most people in GCC countries to depend on bottled water. To encourage people in the GCC countries to consume desalinated tap water, it is essential that water testing include measurements of physicochemical properties, biofilm presence and organoleptic parameters to improve overall water quality. This review highlights the contribution of organoleptics for consumers of desalinated tap water. It extends water quality research to be addressed by standards for organoleptic parameters in desalinated drinking water. Accordingly, consumer awareness and outreach campaigns should be implemented to encourage people

  18. Modelling residential electricity demand in the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, Tarek N.; Hunt, Lester C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding the drivers of residential electricity demand in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries by applying the structural time series model. In addition to the economic variables of GDP and real electricity prices, the model accounts for population, weather, and a stochastic underlying energy demand trend as a proxy for efficiency and human behaviour. The resulting income and price elasticities are informative for policy makers given the paucity of previous estimates for a region with particular political structures and economies subject to large shocks. In particular, the estimates allow for a sound assessment of the impact of energy-related policies suggesting that if policy makers in the region wish to curtail future residential electricity consumption they would need to improve the efficiency of appliances and increase energy using awareness of consumers, possibly by education and marketing campaigns. Moreover, even if prices were raised the impact on curbing residential electricity growth in the region is likely to be very small given the low estimated price elasticities—unless, that is, prices were raised so high that expenditure on electricity becomes such a large proportion of income that the price elasticities increase (in absolute terms). - Highlights: • Residential electricity demand for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Saudi Arabia • Estimated residential electricity demand relationships using STSM/UEDT approach • LR income and price elasticities from 0.43 to 0.71 and − 0.16 to zero respectively • Impact CDD elasticities from 0.2 to 0.7 • Estimated UEDTs suggest exogenous electricity using behaviour.

  19. RELIGION AND BANKING SYSTEM: THE FUTURE OF SYARIAH BANKING PRACTICES Historical and Contemporary Fiqh Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamka Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum of the development of Sharia banking has been noticed since the 1970s, which generally had two patterns: first, establishing the Islamic bank side by side with conventional one (dual-banking system as practiced in Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Bangladesh; and second, restructuring the banking system as a whole in accordance with Islamic Sharia (full-fledged Islamic financial system as applied in Sudan, Iran and Pakistan. The development of the Sharia-based banks which have been established across the world since the 1970s, became the motivation of the Indonesian ulemas to draft law on Sharia banking, so that Sharia banking could also be developed. As a result, these last few years, the banking world in Indonesia has witnessed the establishment of the public Sharia banks and Sharia business units, like Bank Muamalat and Bank Syariah Mandiri to mention a few. Using historical and contemporary jurisprudence perspective, this paper provides discussion on the future of Sharia banking.

  20. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study are to: (1 profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2 identify gaps; and (3 assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Methods Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. Results A total of 1,487 articles (11.94% fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%, and Implementation Strategies (24.4%. Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%, and some articles focused on Health Financing (12% and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%. Conclusions Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum

  1. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Jaafar, Maha; Raouf, Saned; Matta, Claudia; Michael, Saja; Smith, Colette

    2011-10-07

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR): Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2) identify gaps; and (3) assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. A total of 1,487 articles (11.94%) fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%), and Implementation Strategies (24.4%). Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%), and some articles focused on Health Financing (12%) and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%). Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum, in addition to being useful for countries that host or are

  2. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette C C Wabnitz

    Full Text Available Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE. While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  3. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L. Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W. L.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change–reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions–is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a ‘business-as-usual’ climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region’s diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region. PMID:29718919

  4. The Impact of the SESAME Project on Science and Society in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman

    2008-04-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is a UNESCO-sponsored project that is constructing an international research laboratory, closely modeled on CERN, in Jordan (www.sesame.org.jo). Ten Members of the governing Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, and Turkey) have responsibility for the project, led by Herwig Schopper, Council President since 1999. In late 2008 Chris Llewellyn-Smith will become Council President. SESAME was initiated by a gift from Germany of the decommissioned BESSY I facility. The BESSY I 0.8 GeV injector is now being installed in the recently completed building, funded by Jordan, as components are procured for a new 133 m circumference, 2.5 GeV third-generation storage ring with 12 locations for insertion devices. Beam line equipment has been provided by laboratories in France, UK, and US. Support also comes from EU, IAEA, ICTP, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the US Department of Energy and State Department, and laboratories around the world. The broad scientific program includes biomedical, environmental, and archaeological programs particularly relevant to the Middle East. Five scientific workshops and six annual Users' meetings have brought together several hundred scientists from the region, along with researchers from around the world. Training programs have enabled about 100 scientists from the region to work at synchrotron radiation laboratories. These activities have already had significant impact on science and society in the Middle East, for example leading to collaborations between scientists from countries that are not particularly friendly with each other, and to national planning emphasizing synchrotron radiation research. When research starts in 2011 this impact will grow as graduate students are trained in the region in many scientific disciplines, and scientists working abroad are attracted to return.

  5. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  6. Biomedical Publications Profile and Trends in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almundher Al-Maawali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Methods: The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. Results: The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. Conclusion: The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman.

  7. Styrene maleic acid-encapsulated RL71 micelles suppress tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martey O

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orleans Martey,1 Mhairi Nimick,1 Sebastien Taurin,1 Vignesh Sundararajan,1 Khaled Greish,2 Rhonda J Rosengren1 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Patients with triple negative breast cancer have a poor prognosis due in part to the lack of targeted therapies. In the search for novel drugs, our laboratory has developed a second-generation curcumin derivative, 3,5-bis(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene-1-methylpiperidine-4-one (RL71, that exhibits potent in vitro cytotoxicity. To improve the clinical potential of this drug, we have encapsulated it in styrene maleic acid (SMA micelles. SMA-RL71 showed improved biodistribution, and drug accumulation in the tumor increased 16-fold compared to control. SMA-RL71 (10 mg/kg, intravenously, two times a week for 2 weeks also significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to control in a xenograft model of triple negative breast cancer. Free RL71 was unable to alter tumor growth. Tumors from SMA-RL71-treated mice showed a decrease in angiogenesis and an increase in apoptosis. The drug treatment also modulated various cell signaling proteins including the epidermal growth factor receptor, with the mechanisms for tumor suppression consistent with previous work with RL71 in vitro. The nanoformulation was also nontoxic as shown by normal levels of plasma markers for liver and kidney injury following weekly administration of SMA-RL71 (10 mg/kg for 90 days. Thus, we report clinical potential following encapsulation of a novel curcumin derivative, RL71, in SMA micelles. Keywords: curcumin derivatives, nanomedicine, EGFR, biodistribution

  8. A combination of sorafenib and nilotinib reduces the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archibald M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monica Archibald,1 Tara Pritchard,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Rhonda J Rosengren,1 Khaled Greish,1,2 Sebastien Taurin1 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Aljawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC remains incurable due to the lack of effective therapies. Several tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and growth of CRPC, as such targeting these kinases may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy. We established the combination of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, sorafenib and nilotinib, as the most cytotoxic. In addtion, to improve their bioavailability and reduce their metabolism, we encapsulated sorafenib and nilotinib into styrene-co-maleic acid micelles. The micelles’ charge, size, and release rate were characterized. We assessed the effect of the combination on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis, protein expression, tumor spheroid integrity, migration, and invasion. The micelles exhibited a mean diameter of 100 nm, a neutral charge, and appeared highly stable. The micellar TKIs promoted greater cytotoxicity, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis relative to the free TKIs. In addition, the combination reduced the expression and activity of several tyrosine kinases and reduced tumor spheroid integrity and metastatic potential of CRPC cell lines more efficiently than the single treatments. The combination increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevance of a targeted combination therapy for the treatment of CRPC. In addition, the efficacy of the encapsulated drugs provides the basis for an in vivo preclinical testing. Keywords: sorafenib, nilotinib, castrate-resistant prostate cancer, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nanomedicine

  9. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  10. The effects of different methods of cooking on proximate, mineral and heavy metal composition of fish and shrimps consumed in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma

    2008-03-01

    This study analyzed eight cooked species of fish and one species of shrimps (grilled, curried, fried and cooked in rice) commonly consumed in Bahrain for their proximate, mineral and heavy metal content. The results reveled that the protein content was in the range of 22.8-29.2 g/100 g, while the fat content was between 2.9-11.9 g/100 g. The energy content was the highest in the fried Scomberomorus commerson being 894.2 KJ/100 g, followed by Scomberomorus commerson cooked in rice (867.3 KJ/100 g). The samples also had a considerable content of sodium ranging from 120-600 mg/100 g, potassium (310-560 mg/100 g) phosphorous (200-330 mg/100 g), magnesium (26-54 mg/100 g) and zinc (0.4-2.0 mg/100 g), while the other minerals were present to a lower extent. Lead was present to an extent of 0.30 microg/g in the grilled Plectorhinchus sordidus while Lethrinus nebulosus cooked in rice contained 0.35 microg/g of mercury. Cadmium levels were constant at cooking fish and shrimps have an effect on their nutrient composition and heavy metal content hence, it is advisable to avoid excessive frying and use minimal salt. In addition, consuming of a wide variety of species of fish and alternating between the various modes of cooking is the best approach to achieve improved dietary habits, minimizing mercury exposure and increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake.

  11. A brief summary of the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of avian influenza H9N2 virus in birds and mammals in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Mettenleiter, T C; Abdelwhab, E M

    2017-12-01

    H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The virus has been isolated from humans in Egypt and serosurveys indicated widespread infection particularly among poultry workers and pigs in some countries. Some isolates replicated well in experimentally inoculated dogs, mice, hamsters and ferrets. Insufficient protection of immunised poultry was frequently reported most likely due to concurrent viral or bacterial infections and antigenic drift of the field viruses from outdated vaccine strains. Genetic analysis indicated several distinct phylogroups including a panzootic genotype in the Asian and African parts of the ME, which may be useful for the development of vaccines. The extensive circulation of H9N2 for about 20 years in this region where the H5N1 virus is also endemic in some countries, poses a serious public health threat. Regional surveillance and control strategy are highly recommended.

  12. Energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaidi, Adel; AlFaris, Fadi; Montoya, Francisco G.; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Building sector consumes a significant amount of energy worldwide (up to 40% of the total global energy); moreover, by the year 2030 the consumption is expected to increase by 50%. One of the reasons is that the performance of buildings and its components degrade over the years. In recent years, energy benchmarking for government office buildings, large scale public buildings and large commercial buildings is one of the key energy saving projects for promoting the development of building energy efficiency and sustainable energy savings in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO_2 emissions and conventional air pollution. This paper focuses on energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region. In addition, this paper will analyze a sample of shopping centers data in Gulf Coast Region (Dubai, Ajman, Sharjah, Oman and Bahrain). It aims to develop a benchmark for these shopping centers by highlighting the status of energy consumption performance. This research will support the sustainability movement in Gulf area through classifying the shopping centers into: Poor, Usual and Best Practices in terms of energy efficiency. According to the benchmarking analysis in this paper, the shopping centers best energy management practices in the Gulf Coast Region are the buildings that consume less than 810 kW h/m"2/yr, whereas the poor building practices are the centers that consume greater than 1439 kW h/m"2/yr. The conclusions of this work can be used as a reference for shopping centres benchmarking with similar climate. - Highlights: •The energy consumption data of shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region were gathered. •A benchmarking of energy consumption for the public areas for the shopping centers in the Gulf Coast Region was developed. •The shopping centers have the usual practice in the region between 810 kW h/m"2/yr and 1439 kW h/m"2/yr.

  13. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-09-09

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied.

  14. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  15. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  16. Coronary artery disease prevalence and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: an observational report from seven Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Amar M; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Aljaraallah, Mohammed; Al Faleh, Husam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Panduranga, Prasanth; Singh, Rajvir; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) in seven Middle Eastern countries and compare them to non-CAD patients. Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute HF during February-November 2012 in 7 Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of CAD among Acute Heart Failure (AHF) patients was 60.2% and varied significantly among the 7 countries (Qatar 65.7%, UAE 66.6%, Kuwait 68.0%, Oman 65.9%, Saudi Arabia 62.5%, Bahrain 52.7% and Yemen 49.1%) with lower values in the lower income countries. CAD patients were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CAD patients were more likely to have history of cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease when compared to non-CAD patients. In-hospital mortality rates were comparable although CAD patients had more frequent re-hospitalization and worse long-term outcome. However, CAD was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. The prevalence of CAD amongst patients with HF in the Middle East is variable and may be related to healthcare sources. Regional and national studies are needed for assessing further the impact of various etiologies of HF and for developing appropriate strategies to combat this global concern.

  17. Emerging and Reemerging Diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region—Progress, Challenges, and WHO Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Buliva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR of the World Health Organization (WHO continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human–animal interaction. In EMR, several infectious disease outbreaks were detected, investigated, and rapidly contained over the past 5 years including: yellow fever in Sudan, Middle East respiratory syndrome in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, cholera in Iraq, avian influenza A (H5N1 infection in Egypt, and dengue fever in Yemen, Sudan, and Pakistan. Dengue fever remains an important public health concern, with at least eight countries in the region being endemic for the disease. The emergence of MERS-CoV in the region in 2012 and its continued transmission currently poses one of the greatest threats. In response to the growing frequency, duration, and scale of disease outbreaks, WHO has worked closely with member states in the areas of improving public health preparedness, surveillance systems, outbreak response, and addressing critical knowledge gaps. A Regional network for experts and technical institutions has been established to facilitate support for international outbreak response. Major challenges are faced as a result of protracted humanitarian crises in the region. Funding gaps, lack of integrated approaches, weak surveillance systems, and absence of comprehensive response plans are other areas of concern. Accelerated efforts are needed by Regional countries, with the continuous

  18. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area.

  19. Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N

    2010-05-01

    To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.

  20. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students' Poor Performance in Prescription Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Tayem, Yasin I; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  1. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14-19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.

  2. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%. The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%, treatment duration (69.4%, drug quantity (69.4% and drug formulation (68.2%. Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%. During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%, lack of interest (50.3%, reliance on peers for information (48.4% and optional attendance policies (47.1%. Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  3. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, Colette C C; Lam, Vicky W Y; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Teh, Lydia C L; Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Khalfallah, Myriam; Pauly, Daniel; Palomares, Maria L Deng; Zeller, Dirk; Cheung, William W L

    2018-01-01

    Climate change-reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions-is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region's diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

  4. Styrene maleic acid-encapsulated paclitaxel micelles: antitumor activity and toxicity studies following oral administration in a murine orthotopic colon cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parayath NN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neha N Parayath,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Samuel E Norton,2 Andrew J Highton,2 Sebastien Taurin,1,3 Roslyn A Kemp,2 Khaled Greish1,4 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Oral administration of paclitaxel (PTX, a broad spectrum anticancer agent, is challenged by its low uptake due to its poor bioavailability, efflux through P-glycoprotein, and gastrointestinal toxicity. We synthesized PTX nanomicelles using poly(styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA. Oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles doubled the maximum tolerated dose (60 mg/kg vs 30 mg/kg compared to the commercially available PTX formulation (PTX [Ebewe]. In a murine orthotopic colon cancer model, oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles at doses 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg reduced tumor weight by 54% and 69%, respectively, as compared to the control group, while no significant reduction in tumor weight was observed with 30 mg/kg of PTX (Ebewe. In addition, toxicity of PTX was largely reduced by its encapsulation into SMA. Furthermore, examination of the tumors demonstrated a decrease in the number of blood vessels. Thus, oral delivery of SMA-PTX micelles may provide a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. Keywords: oral delivery, anticancer nanomedicine, CT-26, enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect, HUVEC, antiangiogenic

  5. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990–2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Rao, Puja C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Butt, Zahid A.; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B.; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Ur Rahman, Sajjad; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi L.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Refaat, Amany H.; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden. PMID:27928080

  6. Abu Dhabi-Great Britain and the crisis over jurisdiction 1959-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Velez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las demandas presentadas por el Jeque Shakhbout en 1959 para obtener la plena soberanía jurídica sobre el emirato de Abu Dhabi generaron una crisis diplomática plasmada en la correspondencia interna del gobierno Británico. Con sus demandas, el Jeque Shakhbout forzaba a la burocracia a cargo de los Estados de la Tregua – La Oficina de Asuntos Extranjeros en Londres, el representante del gobierno Británico en Bahreín, y los agente administrativos y políticos en Dubai y Abu Dhabi a reexaminar las bases legales de la presencia Británica en la zona y los límites éticos del sistema judicial impuesto sobre sus habitantes. La crisis va mas allá de una discusión sobre los poderes jurisdiccionales. La crisis nos ofrece una ventana a las contradicciones inherentes a la  presencia Británica en la zona, en el marco del movimiento nacionalista árabe y del desarrollo de la industria petrolera y la futura redefinición de la relación entre Abu Dhabi  y la Gran Bretaña.Palabras clave: Abu Dhabi, Gran Bretaña, colonialismo___________________________Abstract:Demands to the British government for supreme jurisdiction over his territory presented by the ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1959 created a diplomatic crisis captured in the internal correspondence of the British government. Sheikh Shakhbout forced the entire bureaucracy that was dealing with the Trucial States – the Foreign Office in London, the British Resident in Bahrain, and the Political and Administrative Agents in Abu Dhabi and Dubai – to reexamine the legality of their presence in the region and the ethical limits of the judicial system imposed on this land.The crisis went beyond the mere discussion over jurisdictional powers. It is also a window into the contradictions linked to the British presence in the region, within the framework of the nascent Arab Nationalist movement and the development of the oil industry . All of which will soon change the nature of the relationship between

  7. Campylobacter jejuni induces diverse kinetics and profiles of cytokine genes in INT-407 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amri, Ahlam I.; Bakhiet, Moiz O.; Botta, Giuseppe A.; Tabbara, Khaled S.; Ismaeel, Abdelrahman Y.; Al-Mahmeed, Ali E.; Bin Danya, Khalid M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to examine the kinetic ability of embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells to express messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for various cytokines and chemokines in response to Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) stimulation. In an experimental single-blind study, cultured embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells were treated with different concentrations of viable C. jejuni, its sonicated and filtered supernatant. A modified non-radioactive in situ hybridization using probe cocktails was used to measure mRNA levels for the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and IL-8 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. The study was carried out from September 2005 to March 2007 at the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Viable C. jejuni sonicated bacteria and filtered supernatant induced high mRNA expression for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gama, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and IL-8 which peaked at the 12 hours post stimulation. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 and IL-10 mNRA expression were induced maximally at 3 hours post stimulation mainly by sonicated bacteria and filtrated supernatant, however, not with living bacteria and filtrated supernatant, however, not with living bacteria. Untreated embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells expressed low amount of mNRA for the various cytokines and chemokines at all time points. For each cytokine, 4 samples were used per time hour. This study demonstrated that embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells in response to viable C. jejuni or its cytotxins can alter cytokine and chemokine mNRA expression patterns and kinetics suggesting a potential role for these mediators in the immunopathogenesis of the infection caused by this pathogen, which might be relevant for future immunotherapeutic

  8. Quality of life of Bahraini women with breast cancer: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer can impact survivors in many aspects of their life. Scarce information is currently available on the quality of life of cancer survivors in Bahrain. The objective of this study is to describe the quality of life of Bahraini women with breast cancer and its association with their sociodemographic and clinical data. Methods This is a cross sectional study in which the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Cancer Specific version translated into Arabic was administered to a random sample of 337 Bahraini women with breast cancer. Relevant descriptive statistics were computed for all items. The equality of means across the categories of each categorical independent variable was tested using parametric tests (ANOVA and independent t-test) or non-parametric tests (Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests) of association where appropriate. Results Of the total sample, 239 consented to participation. The mean and median age of participants were 50.2 (SD ± 11.1) and 48.0 respectively. Participants had a mean score for global health of 63.9 (95% CI 61.21-66.66). Among functional scales, social functioning scored the highest (Mean 77.5 [95% CI 73.65-81.38]) whereas emotional functioning scored the lowest (63.4 [95% CI 59.12-67.71]). The most distressing symptom on the symptom scales was fatigability (Mean 35.2 [95% CI 31.38-39.18]). Using the disease specific tool it was found that sexual functioning scored the lowest (Mean 25.9 [95% CI 70.23-77.90]). On the symptom scale, upset due to hair loss scored the highest (Mean 46.3 [95% CI 37.82-54.84]). Significant mean differences were noted for many functional and symptom scales. Conclusion Bahraini breast cancer survivors reported favorable overall global quality of life. Factors associated with a major reduction in all domains of quality of life included the presence of metastases, having had a mastectomy as opposed to a lumpectomy and a shorter time elapsed since

  9. A diversity of cancer incidence and mortality in West Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Boreiri, Majid; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Western Asia comprises a large proportion of the world population with different ethnicities and religions inhabiting areas of diverse geographic features. The countries of this region have experienced rapid economic growth over the latter half of the 20th century, which continues to this day, resulting in major changes in lifestyle of the population. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and mortality of cancer in West Asia using the estimates reported by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Globocan-2012. Countries with high-quality data or national data (based on the definition of the Globocan-2012) were included in the analysis. These included Bahrain, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. We also found high-quality cancer data from regional cancer registries in 3 Iranian and 3 Turkish provinces. Data on cancer incidence and mortality were collected and described in tables and graphs. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess the correlation between geographic coordinates and the incidence age-standardized rate (ASR; per 100,000 person-years) of cancers. Nine countries and 6 regional registries were included. Cancers of the lung (ASR, 33.3), prostate (24.9), bladder (19.1), stomach (16.5), and colorectal (15.9) were the most common malignancies in men. The most common cancers in women were those of the breast (35.4), colorectal (12.1), thyroid (10.3), stomach (9.2), and lung (6.7). The incidence rates of upper gastrointestinal and lung cancers were considerably higher in the northern part of this region, including Turkey and northern Iran compared with southern countries. High incidences of breast, colorectal, prostate, and bladder cancers were found in countries located in the northwest including Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey. The most common cancers differed by country. Consequently, cancer control programs must be tailored to the most common types of cancers in each country. Lack of high

  10. Occurrence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) across the Gulf Corporation Council countries: Four years update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mahmoud; Elrobh, Mohamed; Alzayer, Maha; Aljuhani, Sameera; Balkhy, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections has become a global issue of dire concerns. MERS-CoV infections have been identified in many countries all over the world whereas high level occurrences have been documented in the Middle East and Korea. MERS-CoV is mainly spreading across the geographical region of the Middle East, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, while some imported sporadic cases were reported from the Europe, North America, Africa, and lately Asia. The prevalence of MERS-CoV infections across the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC) countries still remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to report the prevalence of MERS-CoV in the GCC countries and to also elucidate on its demographics in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported 1,797 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection since June 2012, involving 687 deaths in 27 different countries worldwide. Within a time span of 4 years from June 2012 to July 2016, we collect samples form MERS-CoV infected individuals from National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, and Ministry of health Saudi Arabia and other GCC countries. Our data comprise a total of 1550 cases (67.1% male and 32.9% female). The age-specific prevalence and distribution of MERS-CoV was as follow: countries was as follows: Saudi Arabia (1441 cases: 93%), Kuwait (4 cases: 0.3%), Bahrain (1 case: 0.1%), Oman (8 cases: 0.5%), Qatar (16 cases: 1.0%), and United Arab Emirates (80 cases: 5.2%). Thus, MERS-CoV was found to be more prevalent in Saudi Arabia especially in Riyadh, where 756 cases (52.4%) were the worst hit area of the country identified, followed by the western region Makkah where 298 cases (20.6%) were recorded. This prevalence update indicates that the Arabian Peninsula, particularly Saudi Arabia, is the hardest hit region regarding the emerging MERS-CoV infections worldwide. GCC countries including Saudi Arabia now have the

  11. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana

    2012-01-11

    Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen) were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%). Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2%) and policymakers in the government (40.5%). Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%), disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%), interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%), and involved them in their research (19.8%). Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%), practical constraints to implementation (66%), non-receptive policy environment (61.3%), and politically sensitive findings (57.7%) hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to improve the use of research evidence emphasize two

  12. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with vildagliptin versus other oral drugs for type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting in the Middle East: results from the EDGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Charles; Al-Saber, Feryal A; Haddad, Jihad; Jallo, Mahir Khalil; Steitieh, Habib; Bader, Giovanni; Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease that requires treatment intensification with antihyperglycemic agents due to progressive deterioration of β-cell function. A large observational study of 45,868 patients with T2DM across 27 countries (EDGE) assessed the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin as add-on to other oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) versus other comparator OAD combinations. Here, we present results from the Middle East countries (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates). Patients inadequately controlled with OAD monotherapy were eligible after the add-on treatment was chosen by the physician based on clinical judgment and patient need. Patients were assigned to either vildagliptin or comparator OADs (sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, or metformin, except incretin-based therapies) based on the add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction of >0.3% without peripheral edema, hypoglycemia, discontinuation due to a gastrointestinal event, or weight gain≥5%. One of the secondary endpoints was the proportion of patients achieving HbA1cvildagliptin and 2,267 received other OADs. Overall, the mean (±standard deviation) age at baseline was 52.1±10.2 years, mean HbA1c was 8.5%±1.3%, and mean T2DM duration was 4.2±4.0 years. The proportion of patients achieving the primary (76.1% versus 61.6%, Pvildagliptin than with the comparator OADs. The unadjusted odds ratios for the primary and secondary endpoints were 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.75-2.25) and 2.8 (95% confidence interval 2.5-3.2), respectively, in favor of vildagliptin. Vildagliptin achieved a numerically greater reduction in HbA1c (1.7%) from baseline versus comparator OADs (1.4%). The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between studied cohorts. In real life, treatment with vildagliptin was associated with

  13. 'One health' in action series: nos 1-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Laura H; Kaplan, Bruce; Monath, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    This series of short articles was published in 2007 and distributed to the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath 'One Health' email distribution list. The articles are further examples of historical achievements obtained across numerous scientific disciplines, including human and veterinary medicine. Each article was written and developed with assistance from the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath 'One Health' team. The expanding 'One Health' email distribution list now totals approximately 590 individuals in 38 countries including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, France, Germany, Grenada, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malta, The Netherlands, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay. The list of supporters currently totals 417. If these lists are still being actively maintained by the publication date of this 'One Medicine - One Health' monograph, any allied health scientist, physician, osteopath or veterinarian may be added to one and/or both lists by contacting us at bkapdvm@verizon.net. Please include your curriculum vitae or brief biography, title, degree(s), affiliation and address consistent with those currently acknowledged as 'One Health - One Medicine' supporters. There are no obligations attached to joining this group and you may have your name removed at any time upon request. Those who have prepared this message and the two lists act independently of any other entity or organisation. However, where feasible, we attempt to augment and support those organisations' efforts to recognise, promote and implement this initiative, such as the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Croatian Society for Infectious Diseases, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, World

  14. ‘One Health’ in Action Series: Nos 1-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This series of short articles was published in 2007 and distributed to the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath ‘One Health’ email distribution list. The articles are further examples of historical achievements obtained across numerous scientific disciplines, including human and veterinary medicine. Each article was written and developed with assistance from the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath ‘One Health’ team.The expanding ‘One Health’ email distribution list now totals approximately 590 individuals in 38 countries including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, France, Germany, Grenada, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malta, The Netherlands, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay.The list of supporters currently totals 417. If these lists are still being actively maintained by the publication date of this ‘One Medicine -One Health’ monograph, any allied health scientist, physician, osteopath or veterinarian may be added to one and/or both lists by contacting us at bkapdvm@verizon.net. Please include your curriculum vitae or brief biography, title, degree(s, affiliation and address consistent with those currently acknowledged as ‘One Health - One Medicine’ supporters. There are no obligations attached to joining this group and you may have your name removed at any time upon request.Those who have prepared this message and the two lists act independently of any other entity or organisation. However, where feasible, we attempt to augment and support those organisations' efforts to recognise, promote and implement this initiative, such as the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Croatian Society for Infectious Diseases, American Society of Tropical

  15. Seismic characterization of overburden distortions-implications for reservoir description and 4D analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaghi, Ali

    2009-07-15

    Unlike a monograph thesis, this thesis is organized into an introductory part and four more or less independent papers and a laboratory research note. The first two papers are directly related to the effect of overburden distortion on seismic signals with some examples from the Oseberg field in the North Sea. The third and fourth papers are on rock physics and compare different rock physics models to find the best model which gives the best fit with carbonate and sandstone core samples. In forth paper we tried to introduce a hybrid model to satisfy the conditions with complex pore systems. The last part of the thesis which is not completed yet, and that's why I have called it a research note, investigates how the shear stress, as an external parameter, may also affect the characteristics of the seismic waves. The titles of above mentioned papers and the status of publications have been listed below: Paper I: is entitled 'Overburden complexity and repeatability of seismic data - impacts of positioning errors at the Oseberg Field, North Sea'. This paper has been presented at the 66th EAGE meeting and published in Geophysical Prospecting on May 2007. Paper 2: is entitled 'Mapping chalk fault using 3D-3C VSP data- an overburden correction test on the Oseberg Filed, North Sea'. This paper has been presented at the 67th EAGE meeting and is under process of submission. Paper 3 is entitled 'A comparison of rock physics models for fluid substitution in carbonate rocks'. This paper has been presented at the GEO 2008, 8th Middle East Geosciences Conference and Exhibition; Bahrain and is under process of submission Paper 4 is entitled as 'Using hybrid rock physics model (HRM) within hydraulic units in complex porous media - a laboratory test to estimate the permeability'. This paper has been presented at the SEG - Beijing 2009 Conference and Exhibition and is under process of submission. Paper 5, or 'a laboratory research note

  16. Multinational comparative cross-sectional survey of views of medical students about acceptable terminology and subgroups in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Shanaya; Irfan, Muhammad; Bhargava, Rachna; Pinninti, Narsimha; Scott, Joseph; Mohammad Algahtani, Haifa; Guo, Zhihua; Gupta, Rishab; Nadkarni, Pallavi; Naeem, Farooq; Howells, Fleur; Sorsdahi, Katherine; Thorne, Kerensa; Osman-Hicks, Victoria; Pallikadavath, Sasee; Phiri, Peter; Carr, Hannah; Graves, Lizi; Kingdon, David

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to inform thinking around the terminology for 'schizophrenia' in different countries. The objective of this study was to investigate: (1) whether medical students view alternative terminology (psychosis subgroups), derived from vulnerability-stress models of schizophrenia, as acceptable and less stigmatising than the term schizophrenia; (2) if there are differences in attitudes to the different terminology across countries with different cultures and (3) whether clinical training has an impact in reducing stigma. This is a cross-sectional survey that examined the attitudes of medical students towards schizophrenia and the alternative subgroups. The study was conducted across eight sites: (1) University of Southampton, UK; (2) All India Institute of Medical Science, India; (3) Rowan University, USA; (4) Peshawar Medical College, Pakistan; (5) Capital Medical University, China; (6) College of Medicine and Medical sciences, Bahrain; (7) Queens University, Kingston, Canada and (8) University of Cape Town, South Africa. This study extended an initial pilot conducted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists on the term schizophrenia and psychosis subgroups to assess whether the subgroup terminology might have an effect on the attitudes of a convenience sample of medical students from eight different countries and potentially play a role in reducing stigmatisation. 1873 medical students completed a questionnaire recording their attitudes to schizophrenia and the psychosis subgroups. A reduction in negative perceptions were found for the psychosis subgroups, especially for the stress sensitivity psychosis and anxiety psychosis subgroups. Negative perceptions were found for drug-related psychosis. Participants who had undergone clinical training had overall positive attitudes. Differences across different countries were found. The attitudes towards psychosis subgroups used in this study have shown mixed results and variation across countries. Further

  17. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  18. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  19. TAXPAYERS AND TAX AUTHORITIES INTERACTING WITHIN THE MENA REGION: THE NEXUS BETWEEN TRUST, POWER AND COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any type of interaction climate, be it synergistic or antagonistic, is delineated by a tandem of dimensions: trust in authorities and power of authorities. Advocates for this assumption are the manifold of empirical studies testing the “slippery slope framework” which subsumes the two dimensions. A major proffer advanced by the framework is that tax authorities’ approach towards citizens poses great influence on compliance, either fuelling or hindering it. Irrespective of whether tax burden level is high (e.g., Scandinavian, Continental welfare states, medium (e.g., East European, Anglo-Saxon welfare states, minimum or completely lacking (e.g., tax havens, tax authorities and taxpayers establish a connection in which the former’s actions are mirrored in the latter’s perceptions about leadership’s benevolence in public good provisions (i.e., trust and efficiency in deterring tax evasion (i.e., power. The tandem trust-power and the specific features of such connections within some countries of the Middle East and Northern Africa tax climate (i.e., Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates are the thrust of the present study. The methodology spans a multidisciplinary approach, from explaining trust and power via governance indicators proposed by the World Bank, investigating economic development with chain base indexes and examining tax compliance process on country-level. The MENA region is source for novel and relevant insights on the nexus between trust, power and compliance, as it hosts countries which vary greatly in terms of economic development (transition to developed, fiscal policy (low to no taxes or economy drivers (oil exporters, oil importers and where tax compliance gains importance amid diminishing hydrocarbon resources. Nowadays economic realities constrain MENA authorities to refocus their governing strategies and perceive taxation as a viable future solution for

  20. Nutritional status and outcomes in hemodialysis patients from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries enrolled in the dialysis outcome and practice patterns study phase 5 (2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa S Al-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important factor in maintaining good health of hemodialysis (HD patients, affecting their morbidity and mortality. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS is an international observational study assessing differences in dialysis practices and outcomes across >20 countries. Here, we present the results for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries regarding nutrition data and its relationship with outcomes as a part of the DOPPS Phase 5 study (2012-2015. Data were from Phase 5 of the DOPPS. Main analyses were based on 927 adult chronic HD patients enrolled at the start of the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study from each of the 40 randomly selected GCC HD facilities from Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Within each participating facility, 20-30 patients were randomly selected, depending on facility size. Analysis showed minor differences across GCC countries in age, albumin levels, nutrition supplement use, and being bothered by the lack of appetite. Elderly (>60 years old and diabetic HD patients displayed poorer nutritional parameters than young and nondiabetic patients. A low albumin level (<3.2 g/dL was associated with the highest risk of mortality with a hazard ratio (HR of 2.47 (P <0.0001 followed by diabetes with HR 1.57 (P <0.04 and older age [HR= 1.27/10 years older (P <0.01]. Quality of life measures physical component summary and mental component summary correlated negatively with albumin <3.2 g/dL (−2.18 and −5.5, respectively, P <0.05 for each, and with serum creatinine level <7.5 mg/dL (−2.29 and −2.1 respectively, P <0.05 for each. We are presenting the first study of the nutrition status and outcomes for HD patients in the GCC countries in DOPPS. Our results were mostly comparable to findings in previous trials in other countries. Although the data are observational, our study provides good insight into aspects of nutrition in the GCC countries and can be

  1. Émergence de la « nationalité » et institutionnalisation des clivages sociaux au Koweït et au Bahreïn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Beaugrand

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A travers l’étude des variations de signification du concept de nationalité dans le Golfe au cours du xxe siècle, cet article analyse l’origine et l’institutionnalisation des lignes de clivages sociaux dans les sociétés nationales du Koweït et du Bahreïn. Il distingue entre le concept de « nationalité », considérée par l’empire britannique comme un groupe ethnico-culturel, et l’interprétation moderne qui en fait un lien juridique entre l’individu et l’État. Dans ce contexte, les deux pays étudiés ont opté pour une application hybride de ce concept. Bien que définissant légalement leurs ressortissants conformément aux exigences internationales, leurs lois sur la nationalité ont non seulement établi des hiérarchies entre nationaux, mais surtout favorisé l’absence d’intégration, ce qui a contribué à rendre plus difficile l’émergence d’une identité nationale propre.The Appearance of « Nationality » and the Institutionnalization of Social Hierarchy in Kuweit et au BahreinBy investigating the variations that affected the meaning of ‘nationality’ in the Gulf during the 20th century, this article aims at analysing the origin and the institutionalisation of the cleavages existing within the national Kuwaiti and Bahraini societies. It distinguishes between two kinds of conception: ‘nationality’ as understood by the British Empire in the sense of ethno-cultural groups and ‘nationality’ as the juridical link between an individual and a state as theorised by the international law. Against this background, it shows that Kuwait and Bahrain have both opted for an ambiguous application of the concept: though filing the international system’s requirements, their nationality laws set up hierarchies between nationals, providing no mechanisms of integration between them. This, it is claimed, hampered the national identity building.

  2. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ∼133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  3. Otroctví v Perském zálivu [Slavery in the Gulf region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hanzlíčková

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the long history of slavery in Arab and Muslim lands, little has been written about this human tragedy. To many Arabs, the issue of slavery is a source of discomfort. It is estimated that eleven million Africans have been deported from eastern Africa to serve in Arab households, harems, armies, agriculture and industry. Abolition of slavery in the Arab world was a consequence of internal political and economic forces- pressure from Western powers and the realization (in enlightened Muslim circles that maintaining slavery would forever bar Arab nations from economic progress. Slavery was sanctioned by the Islamic law and was an integral part of the Arab society. Zanzibar was one of the main channels through which slaves from Africa were transferred to supply the markets of eastern Arabia, Iraq, Persia and even parts of India. Some slaves remained in Zanzibar (famous for its clove plantations while others were transferred to Oman. Through Omani ports (Muscat, Batinah, Sur many slaves were kept for domestic use if they were not resold or shipped elsewhere. African slaves assimilated into the Arab Gulf societies as they lived intimately within the tribes. Slaves played a significant role in the pearl diving industry. Owning slaves increased one´s social status. Slaves married each other and bore children who were enslaved by the same families. British policy in the Trucial states was to grant freedom papers (manumission certificates to any slaves who presented themselves at their mission. Except in Bahrain where slavery was abolished in 1937, it continued to exist in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Trucial coast (UAE. Slavery was abolished in Kuwait in 1949, and three years later its legal status was outlawed in Qatar; in Saudi Arabia in 1962. Slavery in the UAE as an institution it was banned in 1963. The coup de grace was administered to slavery in Arabia in 1970 when Qabus ibn Sacíd became ruler of Oman. Thousands of former slaves

  4. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  5. Patient-Centered Care; Physicians’ View of Obstacles against and Ideas for Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Abdullatif Alnasir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To implement proper family medicine practice and to get the best of it, the concept of patient-centered care (PCC has to be put into use. Studies have found that one of the most important advantages of PCC is the increase in the patients' quality of life. PCC has been recognized as a marker of quality in health service delivery with its improvement. However, the physicians’ belief is essential for its implementation. A cross-sectional study was done to find out what family physicians think of PCC and what they believe are the obstacles that block from its use in Bahrain. Twenty-eight family physicians (FPs working in the primary health care centers were arbitrarily culled from a pool of doctors. To all a pre-designed questionnaire was sent that contained three parts; demographic information, type of facilities that they work and whether it is promoting PCC practice and the last was concerned with the physicians’ view about the barrier against its implementation and what they cerebrate that could avail in promoting it. The results showed that the majority of the participants were family physicians working in governmental health centers. More than 85% knew the congruous definition of PCC and 96.4% thought that the most common barrier for not implementing PCC approach is the time constraint while almost 93% thought that the short duration of time of the consultation is another impediment for implementing PCC. Withal, 57.1% and 53.6% of FPs thought that language and the doctor’s communication skills are other barriers respectively. Since the ultimate aim of provision of health care in any country is the optimal health of the population and since PCC practice could fortify and avail in achieving that goal, it is recommended that policy makers and health authorities are required to abstract all obstacles that works against implementing PCC and change the work environment in order to make it facile for the practitioners to apply PCC practice

  6. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  7. A critical consideration of the role of social networks in the Arab spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kragović Branislava B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass media play a role in social changes by influencing the public opinion during phases of preparation, implementation and justification of performed changes. Social changes in the global age, especially those of greater scope, are hardly imaginable without the role of mass media. Mass media as an instrument of influence over public opinion is used in both cases - when a change goes from 'down' or from 'up'. With regards to the changes initiated by the power holders, the means of impact usually used are classic mass media-newspapers, radio, television, and more often, Internet. However, in cases when the initiators of changes are on lower levels of social hierarchy, the first choice is Internet due to its accessibility and decentralized structure. Internet had demonstrated its influence on social changes earlier, but that influence was especially visible during the 'Arab spring'. The 'Arab spring' is a collective name for a wave of protests and changes which sparked in Tunisia in December 2010 and spilled over to other countries of the northern Africa and Near East. Egypt, Syria, Bahrain, Sudan, Libya, Morocco, Yemen, Algeria are some of them. Due to their prominent role in dissemination of information, the Tunisian episode of the 'Arab spring' is called Facebook revolution or Internet revolution, which clearly indicates which media and social networks had played key role in change of government in Tunisia. Mobile phone, being media of interpersonal communication, have also played significant role in case of Tunisia, the same role mass media had in changes of real-socialist systems. Development of new technologies and their application in field of communication means have revolutionized the communication process. Naturally, television has also played its role in the 'Arab spring'. Bearing in mind that national media services are mostly controlled by the governing elite, the news on rebellion in Tunisia were spread through global media

  8. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  9. New Approaches for Responsible Management of Offshore Springs in Semi-arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Amin; de Jong, Carmen; Al-Sulaimani, Zaher

    2017-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean and Gulf Region where water is scarce water demand has been exacerbated and become a major environmental challenge. Presently there is massive pressure to develop new water sources to alleviate existing water stress. In the quest for more freshwater even groundwater discharge into the sea in the form of "off-shore freshwater springs" (or submarine groundwater discharge) has been contemplated as a potential source of unconventional water in coastal zones. Offshore-springs are derived from aquifers with complex geological controls mainly in the form of faults and karst conduits. Representing a border-line discipline, they have been poorly studied with only few submarine groundwater monitoring sites existing worldwide. Recently, innovative techniques have been developed enabling springs to be detected via remote sensing such as airborne surveys or satellite images. "Thermal Anomalies" can be clearly identified as evidence for groundwater discharge into the marine environment. A diversity of groundwater routes along which off-shore springs are fed from land sources can be recognized and near-shore and offshore springs differentiated and classified according to their geometry. This is well pronounced along the coast of Lebanon and offshore of Oman. Offshore springs play an important role in the marine ecosystem as natural sources of mercury, metals, nutrients, dissolved carbon species and in cooling or warming ocean water. However, they are extremely sensitive to variations in qualitative and quantitative water inputs triggered by climate change and anthropogenic impacts especially in their recharge zones. Pollutants such as sewage, detergents, heavy metals or herbicides that negatively affect water quality of offshore springs can transit the groundwater rapidly. Recently these springs have also been severely affected by uncontrolled water abstraction from land aquifers. In Bahrain, overpumping combined with

  10. Assessing the determinants of SIDS' pattern toward sustainability: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Antonio A.; Scandurra, Giuseppe; Carfora, Alfonso; Pansini, Rosaria V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we assess the SIDS' pattern towards energy sustainability. Second, we try to understand the macro factors that drive policy–makers in setting the optimal framework for investments in renewable energy sources. The empirical analysis is performed on a large dataset of 136 countries and 41 variables observed in the time span 2000–2011. Countries analyzed include a sample of 12 SIDS (Bahrain, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji Islands, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Maldives, Mauritius, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Trinidad and Tobago) distributed worldwide. Due to the large number of variables collected and their high degree of collinearity, the first step of the analysis concerns the implementation of a Principal Component Analysis in order to extract factors explaining the majority of variation of the original variables. In the second step, three different scenarios of modeling are designed to examine the key factors promoting RES investments. In a first scenario, we employ a pooled regression model, in the second a Fixed Effect model and, in the third, a Random Effect model is estimated. The main results of empirical analysis could be unexpected at first sight. They show, in fact, that SIDS are not on a energy sustainability path. As in the case of other developing countries, policy–makers prefer to use resources to improve economic aspects of development leaving behind issues related to the environmental protection, the use of RES and sustainability. In order to improve economic and environmental resilience of SIDS a synergy between local governments and international organizations to promote the investments in RES is needed. Moreover, an energy plan that clearly supports the generation of energy from RES is recommended. Finally policy–makers should strength their commitment in raising population's awareness toward a green energy generation. Such synergic interventions will allow SIDS to achieve a more sustainable development

  11. A Call for More Research from the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMarri, Fatemah; Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana; Vaz, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in the Arabian Gulf, with the prevalence of obesity according to the latest report from the World Health Organization (WHO) showing the gulf region to be countries with the highest incidence of obesity in the 30% plus group. This study aims to examine publications on bariatric surgery and compare them with the other countries with a high incidence of obesity in the world. A literature review on bariatric surgery published from the earliest detected year of publication up until March 2016 using SCOPUS, PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar was conducted. Individual papers were assessed for types of surgery, preoperative measures, names of journals, authors, and outcomes. The data was analyzed using Endnote library and SPSS. Key words used in the search included "Bariatric Surgery," "Arabian Gulf," "Kuwait," "Qatar," "Saudi Arabia," "United Arab Emirates," "Oman," "USA," "Australia," "weight loss surgery," "sleeve gastrectomy," "gastric bypass," "gastric band," "mini-gastric bypass," "biliropancreatic diversion," "duodenal switch," and "intragastric balloon." Original papers, systematic reviews and case reports were included. From our review, the gastric sleeve proved to be the most popular published on procedure in the Arabian Gulf, whereas the USA had the highest percentage of gastric bypass surgeries and Australia had equivalent numbers when it came to gastric bypass and band. The numbers of studies from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman were 70, 44, 20, 7, 6, and 0, respectively. The mean impact factor of the published articles was 2.53 +/- 1.76 SD. Most of the publications were published in Obesity Surgery (29%), Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (5%), and Surgical Endoscopy (5%). The Arabian Gulf has both the highest percentage of bariatric procedures performed as well as the highest prevalence of obesity. However, they have the lowest number of publications and research when compared to their western

  12. Occurrence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV across the Gulf Corporation Council countries: Four years update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Aly

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV infections has become a global issue of dire concerns. MERS-CoV infections have been identified in many countries all over the world whereas high level occurrences have been documented in the Middle East and Korea. MERS-CoV is mainly spreading across the geographical region of the Middle East, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, while some imported sporadic cases were reported from the Europe, North America, Africa, and lately Asia. The prevalence of MERS-CoV infections across the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC countries still remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to report the prevalence of MERS-CoV in the GCC countries and to also elucidate on its demographics in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, the World Health Organization (WHO has reported 1,797 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection since June 2012, involving 687 deaths in 27 different countries worldwide. Within a time span of 4 years from June 2012 to July 2016, we collect samples form MERS-CoV infected individuals from National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, and Ministry of health Saudi Arabia and other GCC countries. Our data comprise a total of 1550 cases (67.1% male and 32.9% female. The age-specific prevalence and distribution of MERS-CoV was as follow: <20 yrs (36 cases: 3.28%, 20-39 yrs (331 cases: 30.15%, 40-59 yrs (314 cases: 28.60%, and the highest-risk elderly group aged ≥60 yrs (417 cases: 37.98%. The case distribution among GCC countries was as follows: Saudi Arabia (1441 cases: 93%, Kuwait (4 cases: 0.3%, Bahrain (1 case: 0.1%, Oman (8 cases: 0.5%, Qatar (16 cases: 1.0%, and United Arab Emirates (80 cases: 5.2%. Thus, MERS-CoV was found to be more prevalent in Saudi Arabia especially in Riyadh, where 756 cases (52.4% were the worst hit area of the country identified, followed by the western region Makkah where 298 cases (20.6% were recorded. This prevalence update

  13. Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for 315 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its Neighboring Countries, 1990-2015: Findings from Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Krohn, Kristopher J; Afshin, Ashkan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Karimkhani, Chante; Bazargan-Hejazi, Sharzad; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Ali Reza; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Islami, Farhad; Karimi, Seyed M; Katibeh, Marzieh; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Pishgar, Farhad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Safi, Sare; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shahraz, Saeid; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mokdad, Ali H; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Summary measures of health are essential in making estimates of health status that are comparable across time and place. They can be used for assessing the performance of health systems, informing effective policy making, and monitoring the progress of nations toward achievement of sustainable development goals. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as main summary measures of health. We assessed the trends of health status in Iran and 15 neighboring countries using these summary measures. We used the results of GBD 2015 to present the levels and trends of DALYs, life expectancy (LE), and HALE in Iran and its 15 neighboring countries from 1990 to 2015. For each country, we assessed the ratio of observed levels of DALYs and HALE to those expected based on socio-demographic index (SDI), an indicator composed of measures of total fertility rate, income per capita, and average years of schooling. All-age numbers of DALYs reached over 19 million years in Iran in 2015. The all-age number of DALYs has remained stable during the past two decades in Iran, despite the decreasing trends in all-age and age-standardized rates. The all-cause DALY rates decreased from 47,200 in 1990 to 28,400 per 100,000 in 2015. The share of non-communicable diseases in DALYs increased in Iran (from 42% to 74%) and all of its neighbors between 1990 and 2015; the pattern of change is similar in almost all 16 countries. The DALY rates for NCDs and injuries in Iran were higher than global rates and the average rate in High Middle SDI countries, while those for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders were much lower in Iran. Among men, cardiovascular diseases ranked first in all countries of the region except for Bahrain. Among women, they ranked first in 13 countries. Life expectancy and HALE show a consistent increase in all countries. Still, there are

  14. The state of health in the Arab world, 1990-2010: an analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokdad, Ali H; Jaber, Sara; Aziz, Muna I Abdel; AlBuhairan, Fadia; AlGhaithi, Abduljabbar; AlHamad, Nawal M; Al-Hooti, Suad N; Al-Jasari, Adel; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; AlQasmi, Ahmed Mohamed; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Asad, Majed; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bakfalouni, Talal; Barkia, AbdelAziz; Biryukov, Stan; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Daoud, Farah; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hussein, Seifeddin Saleh; Karam, Nadim; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khoja, Tawfik A M; Lami, Faris; Leach-Kemon, Katherine; Memish, Ziad A; Mokdad, Ali A; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nasher, Jamal; Qasem, M Bassam Hijawi; Shuaib, Mohammad; Al Thani, Al Anoud M; Al Thani, Mohamed H; Zamakhshary, Mohammed; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L

    2014-01-25

    The Arab world has a set of historical, geopolitical, social, cultural, and economic characteristics and has been involved in several wars that have affected the burden of disease. Moreover, financial and human resources vary widely across the region. We aimed to examine the burden of diseases and injuries in the Arab world for 1990, 2005, and 2010 using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010). We divided the 22 countries of the Arab League into three categories according to their gross national income: low-income countries (LICs; Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Yemen, and Somalia), middle-income countries (MICs; Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, occupied Palestinian territory, Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia), and high-income countries (HICs; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). For the whole Arab world, each income group, and each individual country, we estimated causes of death, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), DALY-attributable risk factors, years of life lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and life expectancy by age and sex for 1990, 2005, and 2010. Ischaemic heart disease was the top cause of death in the Arab world in 2010 (contributing to 14·3% of deaths), replacing lower respiratory infections, which were the leading cause of death in 1990 (11·0%). Lower respiratory infections contributed to the highest proportion of DALYs overall (6·0%), and in female indivduals (6·1%), but ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs in male individuals (6·0%). DALYs from non-communicable diseases--especially ischaemic heart disease, mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, musculoskeletal disorders including low back pain and neck pain, diabetes, and cirrhosis--increased since 1990. Major depressive disorder was ranked first as a cause of YLDs in 1990, 2005, and 2010, and lower respiratory

  15. [Manpower migrations in the Arab world: the reverse of the New Economic Order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, F

    1985-01-01

    Population and petroleum, 2 essential factors in the development of the Arab world, are unequally distributed in the 18 Arab countries. The abstract possibility of mutually beneficial cooperation between the countries with large populations and no oil and those with oil but small populations is far from being realized; on the contrary, growing inequality and deterioration of human and productive resources can be observed in the Arab world. The apparent economic progress of the oil producing states is illusory, because it has permitted them to defer development of their own internal resources such as agriculture, industry, professional training and education in favor of greater dependence on the temporary palliative of petroleum revenues. In 1980, over 3 million Arabs had emigrated toward other Arab countries, where they were joined by approximately 1.8 million non-Arabs. 4 types of Arab migration have been important: movement from the countryside to cities within countries, movement of Arab migrants to non-Arab countries, movement from 1 Arab state to another because of political factors and especially to earn high wages in the oil producing states, and immigration of non-Arabs and especially Asians to Arab countries. 6 of the principal manpower importing countries, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar, had total labor forces of about 5.2 million in 1985, of which only 41% were nationals. There have been 4 main consequences for the states importing manpower: 1) petroleum production is very capital intensive and creates few jobs; the jobs filled by migrants are mostly in construction and services funded by oil revenues 2) the expansion is temporary because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource; the manpower transfers will therefore not be permanent 3) the migrants represent a large proportion of the labor force and populations of the Gulf oil-producing states, and 4) the migrants are systematically excluded from the political and

  16. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1,2 Fuad Al Mutairi,1,2 Nawal Makhseed,3 Fatma Al Jasmi,4 Khalid Al-Thihli,5 Emtithal Al-Jishi,6 Moeenaldeen AlSayed,7 Zuhair N Al-Hassnan,7,8 Fathiya Al-Murshedi,5 Johannes Häberle,9 Tawfeg Ben-Omran10 Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group (MHUSG 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pediatrics, Jahra Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jahra City, Kuwait; 4Department of Pediatric, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Genetic and Developmental Medicine Clinic, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 6Salmaniya Medical Complex, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 7Department of Medical Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, 8The National Newborn Screening Program, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 9Department of Pediatrics, Division of Metabolism and Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 10Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain.Objective: There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is

  17. Uterine fibroid embolization: Is there a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Amarjeet K.; Hassan, Wadi Y.

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) in Salmanya Medical Complex, Bahrain as a primary theraputic option for a selected case symptomatic fibroid uterus.Within 6 weeks of UFE, this patient developed life threatening infection due to sloughing of the fibroid through the cervix but she conceived within 11-months of the procedure and delivered normally at term. As this patient developed life threatening infection, the author is left with the predicament whether to try it again or not in the next selected case. Our patient was a 20-year-old, nulliparous girl who had fibroid uterus extending 2 fingers above the umbilicus. Ultrasound and computed tomography confirmed a large intramural posterior wall fibroid uterus measuring 17 x 15 cms Uterine fibroid embolization was carried out by single puncture using 700 polyvinyl alcohol particles lodged permanently inside both the uterine arteries to block or damp the flow of the blood through these vessels. On 6th week, she had vaginal myomectomy for sloughing of submucous fibroid through the cervix. (Figure 1) Postoperatively, she showed immediate improvement. She conceived after 11-months of treatment and pregnancy till normal delivery was uneventful. Patients who have had fibroid embolization have become pregnant as in our patient, after 11-months of embolization. Bradley et al4 described a woman who conceived immediately after the procedure. Ravina et al1 also reported a successful twin pregnancy in his patients. There have been no studies that define the incidence of pregnancy after the procedure and further studies are necessary to delineate the impact of UFE on fertility. Many gynecologists consider UFE as safe, exciting, promising, minimally invasive and highly effective non surgical primary treatment for symptomatic fibroid uterus. In spite of this, patient should me made aware of the limitations of the treatment and she should recognize that complications of the procedure may lead to hysterectomy. As

  18. Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    ,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.

  19. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-09-01

    Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. For this systematic analysis, we estimated country-specific mortality sex ratios for infants, children aged 1-4 years, and children under the age of 5 years (under 5s) for all countries from 1990 (or the earliest year of data collection) to 2012 using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model, accounting for various data quality issues and assessing the uncertainty in sex ratios. We simultaneously estimated the global relation between sex ratios and mortality levels and constructed estimates of expected and excess female mortality rates to identify countries with outlying sex ratios. Global sex ratios in 2012 were 1·13 (90% uncertainty interval 1·12-1·15) for infants, 0·95 (0·93-0·97) for children aged 1-5 years, and 1·08 (1·07-1·09) for under 5s, an increase since 1990 of 0·01 (-0·01 to 0·02) for infants, 0·04 (0·02 to 0·06) for children aged 1-4 years, and 0·02 (0·01 to 0·04) for under 5s. Levels and trends varied across regions and countries. Sex ratios were lowest in southern Asia for 1990 and 2012 for all age groups. Highest sex ratios were seen in developed regions and the Caucasus and central Asia region. Decreasing mortality was associated with increasing sex ratios, except at very low infant mortality, where sex ratios decreased with total mortality. For 2012, we identified 15 countries with outlying under-5 sex ratios, of which ten countries had female mortality higher than expected (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Jordan, Nepal, and Pakistan). Although excess female

  20. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 4 of TOJDE! In this issue, one book review and 26 articles of 49 authors from 15 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Bahrain, Brazil, Greece, India, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe. First all, you should know that if a submission picks up from three TOJDE editors between 4.5 and 9 over all 9 credits, it means that this submission can be published in TOJDE in the coming issue. However, since the publishing priority of the accepted papers belongs to the highest scored ones, submissions which receive a score between 4.5 and 5 or 6 may wait and be archived for publishing later on. TOJDE administration respected this publishing rule up to now. Therefore, some accepted submissions which obtained over 4.5 have not been published up to now. These submissions were waiting for publishing in TOJDE in the future. In this issue, we decided to give them a chance to be published. For this reason, the current issue includes more papers than the previous issues. The 1st article arrived from Turkey and written by Serkan ÇELIK, Hasan ATAK and Ahmet BAŞAL, on “Predictive Role of Personality Traits on Internet Addiction". Their study was set and tested on tertiary level students receiving education within two learning modes: face to face and distance education. The 2nd article is titled as “Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (Wats For Classifying Students Academic Ability” which is written by Jaemu LEE, Kwangho KIM from Busan National University of Education, South Korea and Sanghoon PARK, from Northwestern State University of Louisiana, U.S.A. This study explores; theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed. 3rd article is from Malaysia titled “Development of