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Sample records for bahrain

  1. Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Bahrain's population characteristics, geographical features, history, form of government, and political and economic situation were briefly described. Bahrain has a population of about 400,000. 66% of the inhabitants are indigenous to the Arabian Peninsula and Persia, and the remainder of the population is made up of a variety of minority groups. Islam is the predominant religion, and Arabic is the official language. School attendence is 100% at the primary level, relatively high at the secondary level, and the literacy rate is 74%. Bahrain is an island in the Persian Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia. It was an ancient trading center, and since the 18th century, it has been governed by the Khalifa family. At times, the family's influence extended to other areas of the Arabian Peninsula. In 1905, Bahrain signed a treaty of protection with Great Britain. In 1971, it became an independent country with a traditional emirate form of government. In 1973, the present amir, Sheikh Isa bin Sulman Al-Khalifa, enacted a new constitution mandating an elected National Assembly; however, the amir disbanded the assembly in 1975. The amir believed that subversive activity within the elected body posed a threat to the security of the country. To date, constitutional rule has not been restored. Bahrain's economy is based primarily on the exploitation of its oil and gas deposits. At current production rates, the oil reserves will be depleted in 20-25 years, and the gas reserves in about 50 years. In preparation for the country's post oil economy, efforts are being made to develop Bahrain as a regional banking and commercial center, and revenues from petroleum production are being used to develop an infrastructure for industrial diversification. Oil reserves, which account for 34% of the country's budget, are also being used to upgrade health and education services, housing, the transportation system, and the water supply. The economy was further strengthened by the Gulf

  2. Development of intelligent buildings in Bahrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARCH; Paul; 姚润明; CLEMENTS-CROOME; Derek

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing demand for high building performance,providing better energy efficiency as well as high standard living and workplace. Intelligent Buildings (IBs) will meet the needs of sustainable development in built environment. The Kingdom of Bahrain’s construction industry has grown significantly in past years to support economic growth,other business sectors,and the aim to be one of the world’s major financial centres. This paper aims at investigating current issues regarding intelligent buildings in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Case studies of three buildings,which are Bahrain Financial Harbour (BFH),Bahrain World Trade Centre (BWTC) Project and the Bahrain City Centre (BCC) Shopping Mall,have been carried out via structured observation,interview and questionnaire survey in Bahrain in 2007. Through this study,we conclude that the pace of construction in Bahrain and the Middle East is such that there are lots of scopes for IBs to develop further,both from the perspective of the number of IBs being built and also the sophistication of their specifications.

  3. Cystinuria in children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystinuria is a rare autosomal recessive trait with a defect in transportof cystine and other dibasic amino acids in the kidney and intestine. Renalstone formation is the only clinical presentation of Cystinuria. We presentherewith three cases with Cystinuria. We present herewith three cases withcystinuria. Case 1 is a 13-year-old boy known to have Bernard Souliersyndrome who presented at the age of six years with staghorn stone of theleft kidney. He was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)with little benefit, followed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Hestill gets recurrent renal stones and is being treated with high fluidintake, low sodium diet, captopril, K-citrate and D-pencillamine. Case 2 is a10-year-old boy, brother of the first patient, who was diagnosed ascystinuria on family screening. He presented with bilateral tiny renalstones. Case 3 is a four-year-old girl who was presented at the age of 1.5years with urinary tract infection (UTI). Renal ultrasound showed lefthydronephrosis and intravenous pyelography (IVP) showed bilateral ureteralstones. She underwent cystoscopy and lithiotripsy twice; currently she is oncaptopril, K-citrate, high fluid intake and low sodium diet. We believe thisis the first report of cystinuria in children from Bahrain. (author)

  4. Natural Burkholderia mallei Infection in Dromedary, Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Ulrich; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Marina; Al-Salloom, Fajer; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Jose, Sherry; Tappendorf, Britta; Hornstra, Heidie

    2011-01-01

    We confirm a natural infection of dromedaries with glanders. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain revealed close genetic proximity to strain Dubai 7, which caused an outbreak of glanders in horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004. PMID:21762586

  5. Natural Burkholderia mallei Infection in Dromedary, Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Wernery, Ulrich; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Marina; Al-Salloom, Fajer; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Jose, Sherry; Tappendorf, Britta; Hornstra, Heidie; Scholz, Holger C.

    2011-01-01

    We confirm a natural infection of dromedaries with glanders. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain revealed close genetic proximity to strain Dubai 7, which caused an outbreak of glanders in horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004.

  6. Dilmun revisited: excavations at Saar, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Crawford

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available About 2000 BC the island of Bahrain was at the centre of a prosperous trading community - the Early Dilmun civilization - that stretched from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley. Excavations at the site of Saar have, since 1989, recovered much new information about the layout of the settlement and its local economy and social system.

  7. Dilmun revisited: excavations at Saar, Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Crawford

    1997-01-01

    About 2000 BC the island of Bahrain was at the centre of a prosperous trading community - the Early Dilmun civilization - that stretched from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley. Excavations at the site of Saar have, since 1989, recovered much new information about the layout of the settlement and its local economy and social system.

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrain consists of limestone, sandstone and marl of Cretaceous and Tertiary ages. The potential for discoveries of uranium is very limited and thus the Speculative potential is placed in the category of less than 1000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  9. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  10. New empirical models for global solar radiation over Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New empirical models have been developed in this study to facilitate the estimation of global solar radiation for Bahrain from commonly measured meteorological parameters. The objective is to minimize the errors and the number of parameters incorporated in the models over the existing ones. The results obtained are very encouraging. When the estimated values were compared with the measured ones, the models provided very high correlation factors of over 0.99 and absolute maximum errors of only 1.9-7.9%. The best models have been established when the monthly mean daily data were treated at intervals, namely January-June and July-December. These models are dependent on one to three measured inputs, such as temperature, bright sunshine duration, relative humidity and extraterrestrial solar radiation. The present models can, thus, be recommended for the State of Bahrain. (author)

  11. The economic and financial performance of Bahrain's Fisheries Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is based on an extensive socio-economic survey conducted at all Bahrain landing sites in the period July-November, 2002. Based on boat size and the type of fishing gear used, eight fisheries sectors were determined, these included small boats using wire traps, shrimp trawls, gillnets, hooks and lines and barrier traps. It also included large boats using wire traps, shrimp trawls and gillnets. The economic and financial performances of these sectors were evaluated. The ratio of net catch flow to total earnings was used to measure the economic performance, while the return over investment was used to measure the financial performance. Higher economic returns (except for gillnet and shrimp trawl fisheries) were found in the case of small boats where smaller investments are found. This indicated that an over-fishing condition exists in Bahrain's fisheries, which is clearly found in the case of the shrimp trawl fishery. (author)

  12. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Bahrain, 2002–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ebtisam K Al Alawi; Mohamed Shaker Al Omran; Al Bahrana, Ebtihal H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Bahrain. Designs and Methods: premature infants (gestation age ≤32 weeks, birth weight ≤1500 g) admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Salmaniya Medical Complex were examined based on a predetermined screening protocol. The first examination was performed at 4-6 weeks of age, from January 1, 2002 to December 3, 2011. Data were collected on the type and incidence of each of ROP, birth weight...

  13. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Bahrain Trade Unions. The submission alleges the Government of Bahrain has violated Article 15.1.1 of the... States Free Trade Agreement. 71 FR 76691 (2006). The same Federal Register notice informed the public...

  14. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor, disadvantaged…

  15. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Al-Roomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are considered the main factors associated with several diet-related diseases in the Arab Gulf countries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe the dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst male and female secondary school students selected using the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. A sample size of 735 subjects (339 males and 396 females, aged 15–18 years, was selected from government schools from all the governorates of Bahrain. Skipping breakfast was significantly greater in females (62.8% compared to males (37.2%, (P<0.01. About 88% of adolescents snacked during school break, 70.7% procuring food from the school canteen. Fruit was not consumed by about 27.7% of respondents (33.5% males, 66.5% females and the gender difference was statistically significant (P<0.01. Fish and lentils were less preferred, while chicken was more popular. There was no significant difference between gender and frequency of eating fast food. About 8.4% of respondents reported not eating burgers, with 68.8% preferring regular size burgers. Furthermore, 24.4% preferred large portions of potato chips (53.1% male, 46.9% female. About 29.8% watched TV for more than 5 hours a day (51.2% females, 48.8% males. About 69% of males practiced sports everyday as against 30.8% of females (P<0.01 and 81.6% of those who participated in sport activity outside school were males compared to 18.4% of females. It seems that the adolescents in Bahrain are moving toward unhealthy dietary habits and lifestyles, which in turn will affect their health status in the future. Promoting healthy lifestyle and eating habits should be given a priority in school health programs.

  16. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Yousuf Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses

  17. Clinical Audit of Diabetes Care in the Bahrain Defence Forces Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Baharna, Marwa M.; Whitford, David L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Primary care audits in Bahrain have consistently revealed a failure to meet recognised standards of delivery of process and outcome measures to patients with diabetes. This study aimed to establish for the first time the quality of diabetes care in a Bahraini hospital setting. Methods: A retrospective clinical audit was conducted of a random sample of patients attending the Diabetes and Endocrine Center at the Bahrain Defence Forces Hospital over a 15-month period which ended in J...

  18. Feasibility and psychometric analysis of graduate satisfaction survey of medical students graduating from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Kathryn; Ansari, Ahmed Al

    2016-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction levels of graduates of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain). The graduate survey was administered to four groups of graduates of the RCSI Bahrain who graduated between the years 2010 and 2014. The graduate survey assessed five major domains and comprised 41 items. The RCSI Bahrain opened its doors in 2004, with the first class graduating in 2010. The graduate cohorts used in this study were working in various countries at the time of survey completion. Out of 599 graduates, 153 responded to the graduate survey. The total mean response rate of the graduate survey was 26 %, including 102 females, 44 males, and 7 students who did not indicate their gender. 49 students graduated in 2012, and 53 students graduated in 2013. Of these graduates, 83 were working in Bahrain at the time of survey administration, 11 in the USA, 4 in Malta, and 3 in the UK; the total number of countries where graduates were working was 14. Reliability analysis found high internal consistency for the instrument (with a Cronbach's α of 0.97). The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.853; Bartlett test significant, p career development, skills development, graduate as collaborator, and communication skills. The survey results found that graduates of the RCSI Bahrain program who responded to this questionnaire are generally satisfied with their experience at the university, feel well prepared to join the field and feel ready to compete with graduates of competing universities. Furthermore, the graduate survey was found to be a reliable instrument and we provided some evidence to support the construct validity of the instrument. PMID:27066343

  19. The changing profile of consanguinity rates in Bahrain, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arrayed, Shaikha; Hamamy, Hanan

    2012-05-01

    Consanguineous marriage is traditional and respected in most communities of North Africa, the Middle East and West Asia, including Bahrain, with intra-familial unions accounting for 20-50+% of all marriages. Significant secular changes in consanguinity rates have been reported in recent decades in different populations. Among parents of 14,237 newborns in Bahrain in 2008-2009, the total consanguinity and first cousin marriage rates over a period of four months in 2008 were 10.9% and 6.9% respectively, while during all of 2009 the rates were 11.4% and 6.8% respectively. The study confirms that over a ten-year period first cousin marriage rates in Bahrain have declined from 24% to nearly 7%. Although advice against cousin marriages was not attempted at any stage in the comprehensive community genetics programmes in Bahrain, increasing the literacy of the public and of the health care providers on prevention strategies for genetic diseases could have contributed to this decline in consanguinity rate in Bahrain. PMID:22123433

  20. Wind availability and its power utility for electricity production in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term wind speed and direction available at Bahrain (1978-1998) has been analysed and studied. The average annual wind speed was found to be equal to 4.7 ms-1 which indicates the suitability of using only small size wind parks (blade diameter of not more than 2 m) to produce electricity to fulfill the deficient electrical power at night during summer season in Bahrain. The wind direction was found very varient which makes it useful to use wind parks for limited spaces - this meets the requirement for Bahrain (area of 700 km2). These wind parks can be installed near the sea shores or off-shores. The extractable power was found to vary from 36 Wm-2 to 160 Wm-2. (Author)

  1. Arab Spring and the escalation of the sectarian divide in Bahrain: An assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses why the Bahraini "Day of Rage" has inflamed sectarian fear and prompted open hostility between Sunni and Shi'a inhabitants of the kingdom. The analysis approaches the subject from a psychological perspective. Using Vamik Volkan's theory, the article presents a detailed overview of the social conflict in which religious identities play a central role. Influence of large-group psychology on the unfolding events enables a more in-depth understanding of the tense situation in Bahrain. The social division engulfing Bahrain is representative of the power struggle and confessional tensions in the Gulf region.

  2. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2 data were used for comparison. Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cutoff values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES 2), arm muscularity was substantially lower. Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention program is emphasized. (author)

  3. Challenges Facing School Leadership in Promoting ICT Integration in Instruction in the Public Schools of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razzak, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The future of Bahrain's economy and the prosperity of its citizens are, like elsewhere in the world, strongly correlated with ICT integration in almost every life aspect (Anderson 2010). ICT integration depends heavily on digital literacy, which is the ability to make use of ICT in learning and work activities (Erstad in "Education and…

  4. The Role of Genre in Language Syllabus Design: The Case of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the role of genre in English language syllabus design, with reference to a project in Bahrain secondary schools. It attempts to show how, through a carefully devised and conducted qualitative study in ethnographic mode, a syllabus was developed which placed genre at its centre. It also attempts to illuminate how issues…

  5. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... provisions in free trade agreements, including the Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement. 71 FR 76691... at http://www.dol.gov/ilab/programs/otla/proceduralguidelines.htm . According to the...

  6. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an Outbreak of Glanders in Bahrain Suggests Multiple Introduction Events

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Holger C.; Pearson, Talima; Hornstra, Heidie; Projahn, Michaela; Terzioglu, Rahime; Wernery, Renate; Georgi, Enrico; Riehm, Julia M; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.; Joseph, Marina; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Hepp, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying hi...

  7. Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Primary Care in Bahrain: Self-reported Practices of Doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaeel, Abdulrahman Y.; Khaja, Khalid A.J. Al; Damanhori, Awatif H.H.; Reginald P Sequeira; Botta, Giuseppe A.

    2007-01-01

    This nationwide study was conducted to assess the extent of adherence of primary-care physicians to the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended guidelines on the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antimicrobials, and prescribing of other drugs used in treating symptoms of acute diarrhoea in Bahrain. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was carried out in primary-care health centres. During a six-week survey period (15 August–30 September 2003), 328 (25.2%) completed questionn...

  8. Performance Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Alseddiqi, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This study is directed at improving quality of graduates coming out from the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain.The aim of TVE system is to equip the students with the skills, knowledge and work ethic required for various industries, such as electrical, electronic, telecommunications, building services, mechanical engineering and computer technology. The TVE system is a two-tier system of education comprising SBL (containing specialised technical modules delivered in t...

  9. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among health-care physicians in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Borgan, Saif M; Jassim, Ghufran; Marhoon, Zaid A; Almuqamam, Mohamed A; Ebrahim, Mohamed A; Soliman, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a clear shift in smoking habits among the Middle Eastern population with a recent and alarming increase in the prevalence of waterpipe (shisha) smoking. This phenomenon has not yet been studied sufficiently across the physician population. Therefore, we set out to establish the smoking status of primary healthcare physicians in the kingdom of Bahrain. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 175 out of the total 320 primary care physi...

  10. Lessons for American companies in adapting to local cultures: a case study of EDS in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Jassim

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on American companies operating in Bahrain, employing Bahrainis whose national culture governs their daily routine. Making EDS a case study, this research explores the conflicts that arise at the work place when organisational culture encounters national culture and customs. Even with extensive globalization, particularly in the Middle East, there is a lack of research exploring the influence of national culture on the local employees, the impact of national culture of h...

  11. Dilemmas in forward basing: understanding the impact of the American military presence in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    LaRow, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. military operates and maintains a vast forward basing infrastructure in countries throughout the world. Periodically, these bases become the central focus of either protest or violence from the citizens of the host nation. Questions have recently surfaced as to whether NAVCENT headquarters in Bahrain is in danger of experiencing protest or violence following the Arab Spring. This thesis seeks to understand the causes of protes...

  12. Customer driven marketing strategy of LIC international in Bahrain: a product specific study

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan; Rao, M. S.; Thampy, Jaik; Peter, Jerrin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Marketing of service product requires a slightly different strategy owing to the idiosyncratic nature of service items. The present study explores the customer oriented marketing strategy of LIC International in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The approach of the study was exploratory and personal interview was conducted to contribute major input source to the research. The company has been following a different marketing strategy in the study area different from the conventional approach in...

  13. Persian Gulf-based SWFs and Financial Hubs in Bahrain, Dubai and Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Ali; Shatha Al-Aswad

    2012-01-01

    Competitive branding between Bahrain, Qatar and UAE has occurred on different levels of investment through the medium of the Gulf State Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs). This has happened across a number of sectors: oil and gas, finance, real estate, automotive and entertainment, but Vision 2030 for the three states gives a sense of duplicating strategies. As they aim to diversify their economies and create jobs, they have also duplicated efforts, perhaps leading to a misallocation of resources....

  14. Screening for diabetic retinopathy: The first telemedicine approach in a primary care setting in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Ebtisam Al Alawi; Ahmed Abdulla Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an integrated diabetic retinopathy screening program that uses telemedicine. Materials and Methods: In this evaluation of diagnostic technology, six telemedical screening units were established to cover all regions of Bahrain. The units were equipped with a digital fundus camera at the primary health care clinic. Fundus photographs were transmitted via the Internet to a centralized reading center. A retinal specialist at the reading center assessed the images. Result...

  15. Young Generation Attitudes and Awareness Towards the Implementation of Smart Card in Bahrain: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I. Al-Alawi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SmartCards are one of the latest additions to the continuing list of advancements and innovations in the world of information and communication technology. A SmartCard resembles in size and shape to a normal credit card or bank ATM card, with a microprocessor chip implanted into the plastic card. These cards are used not just as identity cards, like the earliest versions of such cards, but hold a relatively huge amount of editable information including the card holder's bank data, e-purse, finger print, health record, blood type, traffic and license details and other such vital information. The purpose of this study was to present a general overview of SmartCards, a brief history, features and applications of SmartCards and the introduction of SmartCards in the Kingdom of Bahrain. This study collects some information about the features and related issues regarding the SmartCards which are to be issued to the public. A total of 513 questionnaires were distributed to students of the University of Bahrain. The questions asked included questions to check the acceptance of the people to replace their current cards with a SmartCards and their awareness of the new National SmartCard in Bahrain. It also evaluates the efforts taken by the government to create awareness among the public about the usage and features of the SmartCards.

  16. Toward measles elimination in Bahrain--a Middle East country experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Jaleela S; Al-Sayyad, Adel S; Sataih, Fathiya; Naouri, Boubker; Alexander, James P

    2011-07-01

    Measles was a leading cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality in Bahrain before the introduction of measles vaccine in 1974. With the establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1981 and the introduction of a second dose of measles vaccine in 1985, coverage for first and second doses of measles vaccine increased to 94% by 1997 and has been sustained >97% since 2001. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunization campaigns targeting 12-year-old students were conducted annually during 1998-2006 and achieved coverage of >95%. As a result, the incidence of measles in Bahrain has declined markedly over the past 4 decades, to 2.7 cases per million persons in 2009. Recent confirmed measles cases have occurred sporadically, in undervaccinated children or in infants too young or adults too old to receive measles vaccine. Bahrain has made significant progress toward measles elimination by sustaining high immunization coverage and strengthening case-based measles surveillance activities. Further success will depend on improved identification and immunization of undervaccinated expatriate workers and their families. PMID:21666177

  17. Predicting the Evolution of CO2 Emissions in Bahrain with Automated Forecasting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Tudor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2012 Doha meeting established the continuation of the Kyoto protocol, the legally-binding global agreement under which signatory countries had agreed to reduce their carbon emissions. Contrary to this assumed obligation, all G20 countries with the exception of France and the UK saw significant increases in their CO2 emissions over the last 25 years, surpassing 300% in the case of China. This paper attempts to forecast the evolution of carbon dioxide emissions in Bahrain over the 2012–2021 decade by employing seven Automated Forecasting Methods, including the exponential smoothing state space model (ETS, the Holt–Winters Model, the BATS/TBATS model, ARIMA, the structural time series model (STS, the naive model, and the neural network time series forecasting method (NNAR. Results indicate a reversal of the current decreasing trend of pollution in the country, with a point estimate of 2309 metric tons per capita at the end of 2020 and 2317 at the end of 2021, as compared to the 1934 level achieved in 2010. The country’s baseline level corresponding to year 1990 (as specified by the Doha amendment of the Kyoto protocol is approximately 25.54 metric tons per capita, which implies a maximum level of 20.96 metric tons per capita for the year 2020 (corresponding to a decrease of 18% relative to the baseline level in order for Bahrain to comply with the protocol. Our results therefore suggest that Bahrain cannot meet its assumed target.

  18. Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an Outbreak of Glanders in Bahrain Suggests Multiple Introduction Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Heidie; Projahn, Michaela; Terzioglu, Rahime; Wernery, Renate; Georgi, Enrico; Riehm, Julia M.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.; Joseph, Marina; Johnson, Bobby; Kinne, Joerg; Jose, Shanti; Hepp, Crystal M.; Witte, Angela; Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA) and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources. Conclusion/Significance High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections. PMID:25255232

  19. High prevalence ofblaCTX-M inEnterobacteriaceae isolates from the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid M Bindayna; Mariam Murtadha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) by testing a cohort of clinicalESBL-producing bacterial isolates that were isolated in the Kingdom of Bahrain.Methods:ESBLproducingEnterobacteriaceae isolates (based on phenotypic tests) were collected from Microbiology Laboratory of the Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain between January-June2006. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics was performed andblaCTX-M genes were detected by multiplexPCR.Results: A total of230 isolates (Escherichia coli,n=180;Klebsiella pneumoniae,n=50) were studied,98% were CTX-M type. ForEscherichia coli isolates,65 (36.1%)harboredCTXM+TEMcombination and68(37.8%) had CTX-M alone. In contrast, forKlebsiella pneumoniae isolates only 5 (10.0%) harbored the CTX-M combination, and none had CTX-M only. The blaCTX-Mgene was found predominantly in urine isolates (n=145/230; 63.0%). Sensitivity to imipenem and nitrofurantoin was100% and 60%, respectively.CTX-M carriage was associated with the resistance to fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides.Conclusions: Our study documentes high prevalence ofCTX-M ESBL type amongEscherichia coliandKlebsiella from the Kingdom of Bahrain. The apparent dissemination of CTX-Mproducers could represent a substantial barrier in the treatment of community-acquired infections. The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides is compromised, leaving carbapenems as the therapeutic option for severe infections caused byESBL producers.

  20. Bahrain's Formula-1 racing circuit: energy and environmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnaser, W.E.; El-Masri, S. [University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038, Isa Town (Bahrain); Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, School of Engineering (United Kingdom); Al-Khalifa, S.E. [Bahrain International Circuit (Bahrain); Flanagan, R.; Alnaser, N.W. [University of Reading, School of Construction Management (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-01

    The Bahrain International Circuit (BIC) and complex, at latitude 26.00N and longitude 51.54E, was built in 483 days and cost 150 million US$. The circuit consists of six different individual tracks with a 3.66 km outer track (involving 10 turns) and a 2.55 km inner track (having six turns).The complex has been designed to host a variety of other sporting activities. Fifty thousand spectators, including 10,500 in the main grandstand, can be accommodated simultaneously. State-of-the art on-site media and broadcast facilities are available. The noise level emitted from vehicles on the circuit during the Formula-1 event, on April 4th 2004, was acceptable and caused no physical disturbance to the fans in the VIP lounges or to scholars studying at the University of Bahrain's Shakeir Campus, which is only 1.5 km away from the circuit. The sound-intensity level (SIL) recorded on the balcony of the VIP lounge was 128 dB(A) and was 80 dB(A) inside the lounge. The calculated SIL immediately outside the lecture halls of the University of Bahrain was 70 dB(A) and 65 dB(A) within them. Thus racing at BIC can proceed without significantly disturbing the academic-learning process. The purchased electricity demand by the BIC complex peaked (at 4.5 MW) during the first Formula-1 event on April 4th 2004. The reverse-osmosis (RO) plant at the BIC provides 1000 m{sup 3} of desalinated water per day for landscape irrigation. Renewable-energy inputs, (i.e., via solar and wind power), at the BIC could be harnessed to generate electricity for water desalination, air conditioning, lighting as well as for irrigation. If the covering of the BIC complex was covered by adhesively fixed modern photovoltaic cells, then {approx}1.2 MW of solar electricity could be generated. If two horizontal-axis, at 150 m height above the ground, three 75m bladed, wind turbines were to be installed at the BIC, then the output could reach 4 MW. Furthermore, if 10,000 Jojoba trees (a species renowned for

  1. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years in the Kingdom of Bahrain: hospital-based surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Musawi M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Muna Al Musawi,1 Hassan Zainaldeen,2 Fakrudeen Shafi,3 Sameh Anis,4 Rodrigo DeAntonio51Public Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Manama, the Kingdom of Bahrain; 2Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, the Kingdom of Bahrain, Manama; 3GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Bangalore, India; 4GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Middle East and North Africa; 5GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, BelgiumPurpose: Rotavirus (RV is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age worldwide. This study assessed the role of RV as a cause of gastroenteritis (GE-associated hospitalization in children, generating baseline information to evaluate the potential impact of the RV vaccine in reducing RVGE disease burden in the Kingdom of Bahrain.Methods: This single, pediatric hospital-based surveillance study was conducted over a period of 12 months beginning April 1, 2006. A total of 314 children aged under 5 years and hospitalized due to GE were enrolled in the study, following collection of written informed consent from parents/guardians. Stool samples were tested for the presence of RV using enzyme immunoassay, and a random subset of RV-positive samples was further genotyped using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization assay.Results: Of 314 enrolled children, 239 were included in the final analysis. RV was detected in 107 children (44.8%, mostly in the 6–23 months age group (82/107; 76.6%. RVGE occurred throughout the year, with the highest proportion occurring during April (26/42; 61.9%. G1P[8] was the most commonly detected RV strain (10/17; 58.8% in the limited number of samples analyzed. Vomiting and severe RVGE were more commonly observed in RV-positive than RV-negative children before hospitalization (P = 0.0008 and 0.0204, respectively.Conclusion: In our study, RV accounted for over 40% of GE-associated hospitalizations and particularly affected children under 2 years of age. These

  2. Non-Destructive investigation of a scalenohedral hematite pendant from Bahrain, c. 1800 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Parisatto, Matteo; Højlund, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    A scalenohedral hematite pendant (presumably a pseudomorph after a calcite crystal), excavated on Bahrain (ancient Dilmun) in the Persian Gulf from layers dated to c.1800 bc, was investigated using X-ray computed microtomography. The internal porosity was studied in 3D, showing a preferential...... concentration of small pores in the central part, where carbonate remnants might still be present, and larger, flattened, elongated voids in the subsurface portion. Part of the scalenohedron can be described as an intergrowth of platy hematite crystals. Microtomography also yielded data on pore...

  3. THE TIMELINESS OF ANNUAL REPORTS IN BAHRAIN AND THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: AN EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Ali Khasharmeh; Khaled Aljifri

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine empirically the determinants of audit delay in two developing countries, the UAE and Bahrain. This study utilizes a sample of 83 firms using the accounting and market data available for 2004. The sample firms are all listed in either the UAE or Bahraini Stock Markets. Cross-sectional regression analysis is employed to test the hypotheses of the study. The results of this study show that four variables (profitability, debt ratio, sector type, and di...

  4. The Relationship between Ownership Structure Dimensions and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Khamis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the relation between ownership structure and corporate performance; the sample of the study included 42 out of 48 companies of all sectors in Bahrain Bourse in five years from 2007-2011. Several dimensions of ownership concentration were studied in addition to managerial and institutional ownership. Two different measurements of performance were used (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study investigated this relation using several control variables and 2SLS statistical method to overcome the problem of endogeneity that may exist between the study variables. It was found that ownership concentration have a negative effect with statistical significance on company performance. Institutional ownership was found to have a positive effect on company performance. Managerial ownership was not found to have a significant effect on company performance, however it was found that managerial ownership has a positive effect on performance only in the case of declining ownership concentration. Other results were revealed by the study regarding company age, size, growth, board size and liquidity. The study is considered to have theoretical and practical implications. It contributes to the debate about agency theory and managerial entrenchment. It also may help officials in Bahrain in making laws and legislations concerning corporate governance improvement in Bahraini market. This

  5. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer among Bahraini Women; Data from the Bahrain Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randah R. Hamadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of breast cancer among the Bahraini female population in the years 2000‒2010 and examine its health policy implications. Methods: All breast cancer cases in the Bahrain Cancer Registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010 were included. Results: There were 1,005 cases, 12.7% of which were detected by screening. The overall mean age at diagnosis was 50.9 years (95% confidence interval 50.1–51.6. The age-standardised incidence rate declined from 58.2 per 100,000 in 2000 to 44.4 per 100,000 in 2010. The majority of cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma (76.9%. Of the registered cases, 44.1% and 48.1% had an unknown grade and stage, respectively. The five-year survival rate was 63 ± 2%. Conclusion: The low percentage of cases detected by screening merits further evaluation of Bahrain’s screening programme. More effort should be made to reduce the proportion of unknown stage and grade breast cancers. Future research has to be directed towards understanding the reasons for Bahrain having the highest incidence rate of breast cancer in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

  6. Human papillomavirus infection among women attending health facilities in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the associated risk factors in Bahrain's female population. This study was carried out between March to December 2004, which includes cervical scrapings for Pap smear and HPV-DNA testing using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, obtained from 100 women attending the Gynecology Clinic at Salmaniya Medical Center and Sheikh Sabah Health Center in the Kingdom of Bahrain. We distributed questionnaires that include the sociodemographic data as well as information on risk factors such as smoking, parity, and the contraceptive used. Eleven women (11%) with normal cytology were HPV-positive. The RFLP analysis detected HPV-types 16, 18, 45, 62 and 53. Positive women were significantly older (43.3+-10.1 years) than negatives (36.5+-9.9 years; p=0.04), however, there was no difference in age of first sexual contact (positive: 18.1+-5.7 years versus negative: 20.6 +- 4.4 years). Polygamy, smoking and hormonal contraception was not identified as risk factors, but positive women showed higher parity. In this study on HPV infection in Behrain, the 11% positivity with high risk HPV types, in the presence of normal cytology suggests that in addition to the cervical cancer screening program, offer of HPV testing deserves consideration. (author)

  7. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalaf, Abeer J

    2010-01-01

    CAM use is widespread, especially among patients with diabetes. The Gulf States have a high prevalence of diabetes, alongside a long tradition of CAM use. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of CAM use among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bahrain and to examine the characteristics of the CAM users.

  8. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  9. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  10. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  11. Community Perception of the Security and Acceptance of Mobile Banking Services in Bahrain: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Mashhour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bahraini banks and financial organizations have applied remote enabled service using the internet and a mobile device to increase efficiency, reduce costs and improve quality of services. There is need for these organizations to identify factors that persuade customers and raise their attitudes towards adoption and usage of these services. This study identifies the most important factors affecting customer attitudes towards mobile banking acceptance in Bahrain. The model formulated in this research presents and empirically examined the factors influencing mobile banking adoption behavior on customers. The model was tested with a survey sample of 300 banking customers. The findings of the study indicate that wireless connection quality, mobile banking awareness, the social influence, mobile self-efficacy, trust, and resistance to change have significant impact on the attitudes towards the likelihood of adopting mobile banking. Model developed is an extension to the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Data analysis is based on the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS.

  12. Benthic Foraminifera along a depth transect in western Bahrain: seasonal variations and environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Arslan; Kaminski, Michael; Tawabini, Bassam; Ramadan, Khalid Al; Babalola, Lamidi; Frontalini, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    We surveyed living benthic foraminifera in a depth transect off western Bahrain (Arabian Gulf) with the aim of understanding the seasonal population dynamics and environmental parameters. In winter, the population was found to be highest due to the large number of rotaliids, followed by miliolids. In each season, the population was found to increase along the depth transect due to the higher number of juveniles. A strong correlation is observed between foraminiferal population and sediment grain size - the juveniles are most abundant on coarser-sandy substrate. The population decreases in the spring and is lowest in the summer. Finally, the living population recovered again in the autumn with increasing juveniles/adult ratios along the depth transect. Results of species consistency and relative abundance showed that Ammonia was consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids started appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Elphidium and Peneroplis also increased along the depth transect. Another seasonal effect is that juveniles of Ammonia tepida are found during each season reflecting its reproduction throughout the year, whereas Brizalina pacifica was only found during spring and autumn. The study of environmental parameters reveals that the site is subjected to eutrophication i.e. nitrates and sulfates, however, pollution by heavy metals and hydrocarbons is not significant. An assessment of 63 heavy metals in sediment samples showed that none of the metals had concentrations higher than the internationally accepted norms, which is further confirmed by values of the Foraminiferal Deformities Index of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbons were detected in the water or sediment samples. Therefore, it is concluded that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones

  13. Overweight and Obesity among Children (10-13 years) in Bahrain:A comparison between Two International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    O. Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Marzog, Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity has become one of the main public health problems worldwide. Childhood obesity rate is growing very fast in both developed and developing countries. This paper aimed to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children aged 10-13 years in Bahrain, and to find out the difference in this prevalence when using two international standards. Methods: A multistage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 2146 students (1068 males, 1078 females) from pu...

  14. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco2), embodied energy (Eco2) and operational energy (OPco2). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs during the

  15. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS AFFECTING BURNOUT AMONG SECONDARY CARE DOCTORS IN BAHRAIN- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Isa Hasan, Yusuf Nooh, Adel Salman Alsayyad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout isa type of prolonged response to chronic job-related stress appears as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Objectives: The present study investigated level of burnout, compare burnout levels in view of demographic factors and to identify the potential risk factors that lead to high level of burnout among secondary care doctors in Ministry of Health in Bahrain kingdom. Methods: The study was carried out in 230 doctors. A questionnaire survey was administered: The level of “burnout” was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory; socio-demographic variables were collected as well. Results: the mean response rate was 87.8%. The prevalence of the three dimensions of burn out was 43.1% with high emotional exhaustion, 26.7% with high depersonalization and 51.5% reported low personal accomplishment. In general, the profiles of an individual with high burn out were between 30-40 years old Bahraini married physician with no children. Conclusion: a high level burnout was found among the studied population. The study results underline significant relations that were found to link burn out with various socio-demographic variables.

  16. Exploring the interplay between Framing and Securitization theory: the case of the Arab Spring protests in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Carvalho Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article advances the theoretical integration between securitization theory and the framing approach, resulting in a set of criteria hereby called security framing. It seeks to make a twofold contribution: to sharpen the study of the ideational elements that underlie the construction of threats, and to advance towards a greater assessment of the audience's preferences. The case study under examination is the 2011 military intervention of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council in Bahrain. The security framing of this case will help illuminate the dynamics at play in one of the most important recent events in Gulf politics.

  17. Leading and following: an exploration of the factors that facilitate or inhibit effective leadership in critical care settings in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Isa, Shawqi

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this case study research is to explore the factors that facilitate or inhibit effective leadership in Critical Care Settings (CCSs) in a government hospital in Bahrain. The study focuses on Head Nurses (HNs) working in the CCSs, since those positions play a pivotal role in creating and maintaining a Healthy Working Environment (HWE) for nursing practice. In this research the abbreviation ‘Head Nurse (HN)’ will be used and it stands for Charge Nurse/ Ward Sister/ Nurse Supervi...

  18. The Dammam aquifer in Bahrain - Hydrochemical characterization and alternatives for management of groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubari, Waleed K.

    Over-ion of the Dammam aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, by the agricultural and domestic sectors, has led to its salinization by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies. A hydrochemical study identified the locations of the sources of aquifer salinization and delineated their areas of influence. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. Four types of salinization of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. Four alternatives for the management of groundwater quality that are available to the water authorities in Bahrain are discussed and their priority areas are proposed, based on the type and extent of each salinization source, in addition to groundwater use in that area. The effectiveness of the proposed management options in controlling the degradation of water quality in the Dammam aquifer should be evaluated using simulation modeling. Résumé La surexploitation de l'aquifère de Damman, principal aquifère de Bahreïn, du fait des besoins agricoles et domestiques, a conduit à sa salinisation à partir d'eaux voisines saumâtres et salées. Une étude hydrochimique a identifié les origines de la salinisation de l'aquifère et a délimité leurs zones d'influence. Les recherches montrent que la qualité de l'eau souterraine est modifiée de façon significative pour les écoulements souterrains dirigés vers les secteurs sud et sud-est et provenant de la région nord-ouest de Bahreïn, là où l'aquifère est alimenté latéralement à partir de l'Arabie Saoudite

  19. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain: feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ansari A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Al Ansari,1–3 Khalid Al Khalifa,1 Mohamed Al Azzawi,1 Rashed Al Amer,1 Dana Al Sharqi,4 Anwar Al-Mansoor,5 Fadi M Munshi6 1Department of General Surgery, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, 2Surgical Department, Arabian Gulf University, 3Medical Education Department, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain, 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Riffa, Kingdom of Bahrain; 6College of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain.Method: The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments.Results: A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98. The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78.Conclusion: Based on our

  20. The Role of Real Estate in Sustainable Development in Developing Countries: The Case of the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Mouzughi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of real estate has the potential to advance sustainability in terms of meeting economic and social criteria—the Business Case and the Societal Case. This is a crucial aspect in the stated visions and plans in many developing countries. Hence, it is important to understand how real estate can best contribute. Semi-structured interviews with a number of decision-makers involved in the real estate sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain were undertaken to explore perceptions of how the sector could best contribute to sustainable development. The decision-makers came from government bodies, investment banks, real estate developers, investors, constructors, project consultants and auditors. The interviews highlight the importance of having a stated vision and strategy which is highly visible and shared by all stakeholders. In the case of Bahrain this is Vision 2030 and the National Economic Strategy. It is important to ensure that any plans that are put in place to achieve the vision/strategy are adaptable to reflect changes in the external environment. The decision-makers identified three areas of focus in terms of the content of policy in order to meet the economic and social-related sustainability criteria as set out in Vision 2030 and the National Economic Strategy. These are: infrastructure, affordable housing and tourism/leisure. Within these three areas, that of infrastructure is also the key enabler for developments in the other two areas to be realized. In terms of a method of governance, the use of public-private-partnerships (PPPs was identified as being highly appropriate. Such partnerships are not only useful to leverage private sector investment into specific development projects but also to ensure that such development harnesses innovative and efficient methods.

  1. The difficult development of parliamentary politics in the Gulf: parliaments and the process of managed reform in Kuwait, Bahrain and Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Parliaments have a poor record in the Middle East, often providing a vehicle to enhance the ruling authorities’ control rather than democratic representation. However, since 2011 the demands for political voice in post-revolutionary states have tended to focus on the creation of mass political parties and an effective, and democratic, parliament. This paper examines the development of the parliamentary institutions in three Gulf states: Kuwait, Bahrain and Oman. In each of these countries the...

  2. The Influence of Social Networks on Firm’s Success, Survival and Growth: A Social Network Analysis investigation of SMEs in the Bahrain Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pryke, S. D.; Almadhoob, H.; Badi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The success, survival and growth of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in a fragmented construction sector is partly related to the business owner’s ability to secure critical resources through personal networks which provide information, advice, funding and brokerage (Pryke et al., 2011). The Bahrain construction industry is particularly characterised by a culture of collectivism where business activities are inextricably intertwined with social relationships. Social network analysis ...

  3. The New School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module: A Practical Implementation in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) System in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Alseddiqi, Mohamed; Mishra, Rakesh; Pislaru, Crinela

    2012-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the implementation of a new engineering course entitled „school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module‟ in the Bahrain Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) learning environment. The module was designed to incorporate an innovative education and training approach with a variety of learning activities that are included in various learning case studies. Each case study was based on with learning objectives coupled with desired learning outcom...

  4. Cross-cultural challenges in assessing medical professionalism among emergency physicians in a Middle Eastern Country (Bahrain): feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Al Meer, Ahmed; Althawadi, Mooza; Henari, Deyari; Al Khalifa, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Background Multisource feedback (MSF) is an evaluation tool whereby surveys assessing physicians are administered among medical peers and colleagues. Such evaluations provide physicians with non-biased valuations of both their strengths and their weaknesses, offering an opportunity for improvement in their work. Studies have shown that MSF is particularly effective for emergency care physicians. Methods The study was undertaken in a military teaching hospital in Bahrain. A total of 30 emergen...

  5. Sensitive and specific markers for insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study from Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ayadhi MA; Golbahar J; Gumaa K; Das NM

    2012-01-01

    Jamal Golbahar,1,2,* Maha Al-Ayadhi,2,* Negalla Mohan Das,2 Khalid Gumaa,2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Al-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, AGU, Manama, Bahrain *These authors contributed equally to this articleBackground: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), despite a high prevalence of insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and disturbances in the secretion of gonadotrophin, the...

  6. Can envelope codes reduce electricity and CO2 emissions in different types of buildings in the hot climate of Bahrain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletion of non-renewable resources and the environmental impact of energy consumption, particularly energy use in buildings, have awakened considerable interest in energy efficiency. Building energy codes have recently become effective techniques to achieve efficiency targets. The Electricity and Water Authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of building electricity consumption and CO2 emissions to be achieved by using envelope thermal insulation codes. This paper investigates the ability of the current codes to achieve such a benchmark and evaluates their impact on building energy consumption. The results of a simulation study are employed to investigate the impact of the Bahraini codes on the energy and environmental performance of buildings. The study focuses on air-conditioned commercial buildings and concludes that envelope codes, at best, are likely to reduce the energy use of the commercial sector by 25% if the building envelope is well-insulated and efficient glazing is used. Bahraini net CO2 emissions could drop to around 7.1%. The simulation results show that the current energy codes alone are not sufficient to achieve a 40% reduction benchmark, and therefore, more effort should be spent on moving towards a more comprehensive approach

  7. E-Governance: An Endless ES to the Same End a Field Survey in the University Community in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail AHK Awamleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve understanding and effective application of e-government. The study provides concise review of the conceptual background of e-government and its practical experience in selected Arab countries. A field survey on e-government applications has been conducted in a sample of respondents in Bahrain university community. Major findings of this study are: (1 Vast majority of respondents (88% use internet at both home and workplace. (2 Most respondents (54% have learned to use internet by personal practice and experience while (34% of them have gotten IT education or training. (3 Most respondents (96% use internet for Email and other personal purposes. (4 Respondents mostly use Google, Yahoo, and MSN search engines in order. (5 Respondents gave significant importance for seven barriers to internet usage including networking, technical, time, financial, personal, control and security problems in order. (6 Respondents suggested some measures to improve internet usage including faster and reliable internet services, better technical solutions, cost reduction, training and education, improved internet security and less government control. The study recommended more research, conferences and exchange of practical experiences at all international, regional and local levels. It also recommends step-wise applications of e-government, top leadership commitment, sufficient funding, improved IT education and citizenry involvement.

  8. Agreement between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 September 2007. It was signed in Vienna on 19 September 2007. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 10 May 2009, the date on which the Agency received from the Kingdom of Bahrain written notification that Bahrain's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  9. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  10. An Empirical Study of Attitudes and Opinions of Computer Crimes: A Comparative Study between U.K. and the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I. Al-Alawi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this digital age we are constantly becoming more reliant on technology and information systems in all walks of life. There is no doubt that Computer systems play a fundamental role in the basic operation of almost all organizations today. The emergence of the Internet has played a major role in exploiting new opportunities and markets for many businesses today and has also revolutionized the way information is shared globally. With the increased use of computer networks as a means of sharing data, the need to protect and preserve the integrity of data arises due to the increase in unauthorized access of organizational computer systems. It has become a major challenge for organizations to identify and counter these threats. Computer crime has emerged as one of the major forms of sabotage causing millions of dollars worth of damage annually. These attacks usually come in the form of viruses, worms, denial of service attacks and hacking this study will attempt to compare the opinions on computer crimes of the online society in the Kingdom of Bahrain with that of a study conducted in Great Britain. Similarly this study will also try to measure the perceived level of safety the online public enjoys and use these results to determine weather there is a relationship between the perceived level of online safety and the willingness to conduct online transactions. The issue of "software piracy" will also be discussed with respect to copyright laws in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

  11. Labor, nationalism, and imperialism in eastern Arabia: Britain, the Shaikhs, and the Gulf oil workers in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar, 1932-1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the lack of a noticeable indigenous labor movement in the contemporary Gulf Arab countries of Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar; it focuses on the emergence, after the discovery of oil, of an industrial Gulf labor force, and on the evolution of the British policy towards oil and Gulf oil workers. The period examined begins with the discovery of oil in Bahrain in 1932 (the first such discovery on the Arab side of the Gulf), and ends with the Suez Crisis of 1956. The latter is a watershed event in Gulf history. It is argued that the Suez Crisis was in large part responsible for the long-term defeat of the indigenous labor movement in the Gulf. Attention is given to the parts played by the British Government of India, the Foreign Office, the local Shaikhs, the Gulf nationalists, and by the workers themselves. Policies towards workers passed through two different periods. In the first, 1932-1945, the Government of India had no direct interest in the Gulf labor situation; in the second, 1946-1956, the Foreign Office took increased interest in the welfare of local oil workers, primarily because of the importance of oil to reconstruction of the British economy after the war. However, the Suez Crisis in 1956 convinced the British to withdraw their support for the workers

  12. Kingdom of Bahrain: Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics, Banking Supervision, Insurance Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Bahrain’s Financial System Stability Assessment highlights banking supervision, insurance supervision, securities regulation, and antimoney laundering and combating the financing of terrorism. The banking sector is well capitalized. Asset quality has been improving and provisioning is high. Profitability surged in 2004–05, but historically, return on equity has been moderate for many institutions. Favorable liquidity conditions have caused regional equity and real estate ma...

  13. Public knowledge, risk perception, attitudes and practices in relation to the swine flu pandemic: A cross sectional questionnaire-based survey in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Janahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objectives: On 10 August 2010 World Health Organization announced that H1N1 influenza virus had moved into the post-pandemic period and hence it is time for countries to evaluate their response to the pandemic. Many studies have been done about the public perception and behaviours toward H1N1 influenza in the western world; however none has been done so far in the Gulf countries. Therefore, this paper investigates the general public knowledge, risk perception, preventive behaviours and practices during the H1N1 pandemic in Kingdom of Bahrain, as a model for the Gulf countries.Methods: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional questionnaire based survey on 771 Bahraini individuals.Results: Despite that the public showed strong adherence to the personal protective hygiene measures, most of them underestimated the threat of H1N1 pandemic as evident in their knowledge of previous pandemics or in their susceptibility perception. Furthermore, misconceptions and wrong beliefs were common, which indicates a gap in the knowledge and practice of the public. For example, most of the public were against taking H1N1 Influenza vaccine and their negative intension was based on the alleged side effects of the vaccine.Conclusion: This study provides a baseline for an ongoing surveillance programme to help the local authorities in improving their pandemic preparatory plans, especially the governmental educational and media campaign.

  14. Assessment of vitamin D levels in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes mellitus comparing two methods of measurement: a facility's experience in the Middle Eastern country of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatima Ahmed Al-Haddad,1 Mansoor H Rajab,2 S Mahmood Al-Qallaf,3 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,4 Kathryn H Hart5 1Dietetic Unit for Hospitals, 2Pediatric Endocrine and Diabetes Team, Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, 3Pharmacy Program, College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain, Manama, 4Nutrition and Health Studies Unit Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Sakheer, Kingdom of Bahrain; 5School of Biosciences and Medicine, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Background: The number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is on the rise and has more than doubled in the past 10 years in Bahrain. Some studies have linked low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of diabetes. There are concerns regarding the variations in circulating 25(OHD levels measured by different laboratories and by using different analytical techniques. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of newly diagnosed children with T1DM using the “gold standard method” with high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods compared to the chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoassay (CMIA used in a hospital laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen children, aged 6–12 years, who received a confirmed diagnosis of T1DM in 2014 were chosen as subjects. Methods: Serum vitamin D levels were assessed in a hospital, while an extra aliquot of blood collected during routine blood collection after acquiring informed written consents from the subjects, and sent to Princess Al-Jawhara Center for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders to be analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Results: The mean age of the study group was 9±2 years. The mean total of 25(OHD levels (D3 and D2 assessed by UPLC-MS/MS was 49.7±18.8, whereas the mean total of 25(OHD levels obtained from the CMIA assay was 44.60±13

  15. The New School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module: A Practical Implementation in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) System in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper diagnoses the implementation of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Bahrain Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) learning environment. The module was designed to incorporate an innovative education and training approach with a variety of learning activities that are included in various learning case studies. Each case study was based on with learning objectives coupled with desired learning outcomes. The TVE students should meet the desired outcomes after the completion of the learning activities and assessments. To help with the implementation phase of the new module, the authors developed guidelines for each case study. The guidelines incorporated learning activities to be delivered in an integrated learning environment. The skills to be transferred were related to cognitive, affective, and technical proficiencies. The guidelines included structured instructions to help students during the learning process. In addition, technology was introduced to improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. The guidelines include learning indicators for each learning activity and were based on their interrelation with competencies to be achieved with respect to modern industrial requirements. Each learning indicator was then correlated against the type of learning environment, teaching and learning styles, examples of mode of delivery, and assessment strategy. Also, the learning activities were supported by technological features such as discussion forums for social perception and engagement and immediate feedback exercises for self-motivation. Through the developed module, TVE teachers can effectively manage the teaching and learning process as well as the assessment strategy to satisfy students' individual requirements and enable them to meet workplace requirements.

  16. A Neuro-fuzzy-stochastic frontier analysis approach for long-term natural gas consumption forecasting and behavior analysis: The cases of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → This paper presents a unique approach for long-term natural gas consumption estimation. → It is applied to selected Arab countries to show its superiority and applicability. → It may be used for other real cases for optimum gas consumption estimation. → It is compared with current studies to show its advantages. → It is capable of dealing with complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, and randomness. -- Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system-stochastic frontier analysis (ANFIS-SFA) approach for long-term natural gas (NG) consumption prediction and analysis of the behavior of NG consumption. The proposed models consist of input variables of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population (POP). Six distinct models based on different inputs are defined. All of trained ANFIS are then compared with respect to mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). To meet the best performance of the intelligent based approaches, data are pre-processed (scaled) and finally the outputs are post-processed (returned to its original scale). To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated ANFIS-SFA approach, gas consumption in four Middle Eastern countries i.e. Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates is forecasted and analyzed based on the data of the time period 1980-2007. With the aid of autoregressive model, GDP and population are projected for the period 2008-2015. These projected data are used as the input of ANFIS model to predict the gas consumption in the selected countries for 2008-2015. SFA is then used to examine the behavior of gas consumption in the past and also to make insights for the forthcoming years. The ANFIS-SFA approach is capable of dealing with complexity, uncertainty, and randomness as well as several other unique features discussed in this paper.

  17. Extent of use of immediate-release formulations of calcium channel blockers as antihypertensive monotherapy by primary care physicians: multicentric study from Bahrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sequeira R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of cardiovascular safety of calcium channel blockers (CCBs has been widely debated in view of reflex increase in sympathetic activity induced by immediate release (IR / short acting formulations. It is generally agreed that such CCBs should not be used alone in the management of hypertension. AIMS: We have determined the extent to which primary care physicians prescribe CCBs as monotherapy, especially the immediate release formulations, in the management of uncomplicated hypertension and diabetic hypertension - with an emphasis upon the age of the patients. SETTING, DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective prescription-based study was carried out in seven out of 18 Health Centres in Bahrain. The study involved a registered population of 229,300 representing 46% of registered individuals, and 35 physicians representing 43% of all primary care physicians. The data was collected between November 1998 and January 1999 using chronic dispensing cards. RESULTS: In all categories CCBs were the third commonly prescribed antihypertensive as monotherapy, with a prescription rate of 11.1% in uncomplicated hypertension, 18% in diabetic hypertension and 20.1% in elderly patients above 65 years of age. Nifedipine formulations were the most extensively prescribed CCBs. Almost half of the CCB-treated patients were on IR-nifedipine, whereas IR-diltiazem and IR-verapamil, and amlodipine were infrequently prescribed. CONCLUSION: Prescription of IR-formulations of CCBs as monotherapy by primary care physicians does not conform with recommended guidelines. In view of concerns about the safety of such practice, measures to change the prescribing pattern are required.

  18. Sensitive and specific markers for insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ayadhi MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Golbahar,1,2,* Maha Al-Ayadhi,2,* Negalla Mohan Das,2 Khalid Gumaa,2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Al-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, AGU, Manama, Bahrain *These authors contributed equally to this articleBackground: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, despite a high prevalence of insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and disturbances in the secretion of gonadotrophin, the principal causes of biochemical abnormalities and the best endocrine markers for PCOS have not been fully identified.Subjects and methods: Serum levels of insulin, glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, total testosterone, estrogen, sex hormone-binding capacity (SHBG, and other related indices such as homeostasis model assessment, insulin glucose ratios, LH/FSH ratios, and the free androgen index (FAI were determined and compared in women with PCOS (n = 50 and women without PCOS (n = 50.Results: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, among all insulin resistance indices, only hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–5.2; P = 0.008 was significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for body mass index (BMI, hyperandrogenemia, and LH/FSH ratios. The LH/FSH ratio (OR = 5.4; CI: 1.2–23.0, P = 0.03 was the only marker among those indices for inappropriate gonadotrophin secretion that significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. Among those indices for hyperandrogenemia, FAI (OR = 1.1; CI: 1.0–2.7; P = 0.02 and SHBG (OR = 1.2; CI: 1.2–3.4; P = 0.03 were significantly and independently associated with PCOS when adjusted for BMI and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best predictive markers for PCOS were insulin (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.944; CI: 0.887–0

  19. HUMAN TRAFFICKING: THE BAHRAIN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Al JABAL

    2010-01-01

    Drug smuggling may top the list of the world’s most profitable and headline-grabbing illegal activities, but second to that —in a close tie with the illegal arms trade — is human trafficking, the recruitment or coercion of people who are held captive as laborers in everything from the sex industry to domestic servitude. More than 12 million people worldwide are currently victims, according to the United Nations' International Labor Organization. The $9 billion industry is the 21st century’s f...

  20. A Study on the use of Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter (Web2.0) among selected academic libraries from 6 Gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to explore and study the current usage trends of Web2.0 namely Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter among selected higher education institutions’ libraries in 6 gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait. Websites of the selected libraries would be compared on the extent of the usage of these tools, the participation level and their purpose. The author would also share his opinion and suggestions on improving the current trends pertaining to the area of Web2.0 and libraries. The impact and importance of Web2.0 on libraries cannot be disputed. Since gaining popularity in mid-2000, libraries around the globe have jumped onto the Web2.0 bandwagon. Among the common examples of Web2.0 used by libraries today are namely: social networking sites, blogs, wikis, folksonomies and video sharing sites. Libraries are using Web2.0 to (among others): • market their services / resources to their community, • announce latest library news, • provide their online guides / notes for their resources among others. Though such tools have been implemented by most libraries around the world, some of the challenges faced by libraries are: •participation level – casting the net to a wider audience •selection of web2.0 tools •effectiveness of present web2.0 tools used by the libraries

  1. Assessment of vitamin D levels in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes mellitus comparing two methods of measurement: a facility’s experience in the Middle Eastern country of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Fatima Ahmed; Rajab, Mansoor H; Al-Qallaf, S Mahmood; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hart, Kathryn H

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is on the rise and has more than doubled in the past 10 years in Bahrain. Some studies have linked low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of diabetes. There are concerns regarding the variations in circulating 25(OH)D levels measured by different laboratories and by using different analytical techniques. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of newly diagnosed children with T1DM using the “gold standard method” with high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods compared to the chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoassay (CMIA) used in a hospital laboratory. Subjects Eighteen children, aged 6–12 years, who received a confirmed diagnosis of T1DM in 2014 were chosen as subjects. Methods Serum vitamin D levels were assessed in a hospital, while an extra aliquot of blood collected during routine blood collection after acquiring informed written consents from the subjects, and sent to Princess Al-Jawhara Center for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders to be analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Results The mean age of the study group was 9±2 years. The mean total of 25(OH)D levels (D3 and D2) assessed by UPLC-MS/MS was 49.7±18.8, whereas the mean total of 25(OH)D levels obtained from the CMIA assay was 44.60±13.20. The difference in classification between the two methods was found to be statistically significant (P=0.004). A Bland–Altman plot showed a poor level of agreement between the two assay methods. The CMIA overestimated insufficient values and underestimated deficiency, when compared to UPLC-MS/MS. Conclusion There was a statistically significant difference between the two assay methods with CMIA overestimating vitamin D insufficiency. Clinicians should be prudent in their assessment of a single vitamin D reading, when the gold standard method is

  2. E-Learning Capability Maturity Level in Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammary, Jaflah; Mohammed, Zainab; Omran, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of using e-learning, educational institutions are still facing many challenges with the e-learning infrastructure and technical aspects, practices and capabilities, and improvement in learning outcome. Hence, a need for framework to benchmark the e-learning capability maturity level and measure the extent to what it is…

  3. The Global Business Crisis and Consumer Behavior: Kingdom of Bahrain as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Durra Mansoor; Akram Jalal

    2010-01-01

    The consumer is the most elemental basis for any business organization; hence, their core behaviour is also ofgreat importance and significance for a successful marketing experience and financial affluence. However,consumer purchasing behaviour can vary severely and has a very intricate trend. Consumer buying behaviour hasbeen attracting the studies and interest of a large amount of commercial and academic faction for a long time.The level of intricacy of the process where the consumer buying...

  4. Causality Relationship between Macroeconomic Variables and Stock Market Development: Evidence from Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham Handal Abdelbaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between macroeconomic variables and Bahraini stock market development by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model. The development of a financial market is closely related to the overall development in the national economy. Well functioning financial system achieves efficiencies that provide good and easily accessible information, lower transaction costs and efficient resource allocation then boost economic growth. Many macroeconomic variables ha...

  5. Mesopotamian ceramics from the burial mounds of Bahrain, c.2250–1750 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    in Mesopotamia’s interaction with the populations of the ‘Lower Sea’. The first import horizon is comprised of a vessel type found exclusively in the scattered mounds of Early Type which pre-date the rise of the Dilmun ‘state’ proper. The distribution of these vessels outside their areas of production...... demonstrates how they circulated widely in a network elsewhere considered to reflect the orbit of Mesopotamia’s late third-millennium ‘Magan trade’. Here it is consequently concluded that this particular type represents an important fossile directeur of the ‘Magan trade’ and pre-Dilmun florescence. The vessels...

  6. Sleep-patterns, sleep hygiene behaviors and parental monitoring among Bahrain-based Indian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    John, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep plays an important role in adolescent's health and undergoes substantial changes with puberty and physical maturation with a preference for later bed times. Evidence shows that many adolescents are not obtaining the required amounts of sleep which is 9.25 h, due to inadequate sleep practices, academic and societal demands. This study aims at describing the (1) sleep patterns of adolescents on school days and weekends, (2) sleep hygiene practices and the extent of parental ...

  7. An Improved Employability Skills Model and its Compliance Through Vocational Educational System in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Rakesh; Alseddiqi, Mohamed; Pislaru, Crinela

    2009-01-01

    The globalisation along with the interdependence of various economies has resulted in creating extra dimension to the employability skills requirements. Various socio-economic indicators have increased the pressure on vocational education sector and changed it from supply driven to demand driven by the labour market requirements to minimise the existing employability skills gap. The paper presents a study that has been conducted to identify the existing skills gap between School B...

  8. Black and White,VILLA MODA in Bahrain%黑白映画巴林VILLAMODA店

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcel Wanders Studio

    2009-01-01

    @@ 著名设计品牌Moooi的创始人MarceWanders具有多重身份,如当年因为DroogDesign创作绳结椅(Knotted Chair)而名声大噪的天才家具设计师,如大学设计学院的教授,如新生活主义的倡导者,而今他又多了一重身份--中东的奢侈品品牌Villa Moda巴林Moda Mall店的设计者.

  9. Corporate Governance: The Role and Effectiveness of the Audit Committee in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla A. R. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade or so, the focus on information disclosed in financial statements, corporate governance andthe role of the audit committee to monitor and oversee financial reporting has increased. This is largelyattributed to the global business scandals caused mainly by fraudulent financial reporting. In response, the roleof audit committee was questioned in an attempt to maintain user’s confidence in corporate financial reportingand improve the effectiveness of an adequate internal con...

  10. TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF ARAB WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN BAHRAIN AND OMAN

    OpenAIRE

    KATHLEEN DECHANT; ASYA AL LAMKY

    2005-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has become a defining business trend in many countries throughout the world. The ranks of entrepreneurs contain a sizable contingent of women. As a result, research into the pathways of entrepreneurship as a general phenomenon as well as a career option for women has flourished in recent years. However, very little of this research has focused on women entrepreneurs in Arab countries, particularly those around the Gulf of Arabia, where private enterprise is viewed as a way fo...

  11. Aspects on respiratory physiology of cultured Sea bream, Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Zainal

    2016-06-01

    The fish regulatory ability to withstand declining oxygen concentration in the water was limited. A typical steep straight line relationship was found between oxygen consumption rate and oxygen concentration indicating a non regulatory ability and extreme in-tolerance to hypoxia. Therefore, the fish is considered as oxy-conformer, i.e., unable to continue metabolism at anaerobic condition. Correlation between minimum (basic oxygen consumption rate and body weight was of non-linear form. The present study provides comparative data to base on for further prospective related studies on juvenile Sea bream and other fish species.

  12. Sources of stress, coping strategies and counselling needs, among university students in Kingdom of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sheerawi, Amani A

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The aim of this study was: (1) to identify the main sources of stress that affect students' level of stress, students' coping strategies and their counselling needs. (2) To identify the relationship between sources of stress and coping strategies. (3) The effect of gender and Locality on sources of stress, level of stress, coping strategies and counselling needs. This study utilised both quan...

  13. The Global Business Crisis and Consumer Behavior: Kingdom of Bahrain as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durra Mansoor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is the most elemental basis for any business organization; hence, their core behaviour is also ofgreat importance and significance for a successful marketing experience and financial affluence. However,consumer purchasing behaviour can vary severely and has a very intricate trend. Consumer buying behaviour hasbeen attracting the studies and interest of a large amount of commercial and academic faction for a long time.The level of intricacy of the process where the consumer buying can relate to has made the trend greatly difficultto be predicted and managed. This research aims to study the impact of the Global Business Crisis on Bahrainiconsumers, investigate their perception of this problem and whether their consumption behaviour has changed asa result.As known, the current financial downturn had a huge influence on the economic and social aspects of consumersaround the globe. Different behaviour has been shifted through different level of economies, one of which, theBahraini culture purchasing pattern. For this reason, this research is aimed to focus on the changing trends inconsumer buying behaviour in the present global business crisis.

  14. A critique of Stephen Downes' article, "Learning Objects" -- A perspective from Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muain H. Jamlan

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of technology, hardware, and software, learning objects become fundamental to the learning process and change the way in which learning materials are designed. The vast development of technology forces both teacher and learner to modify their roles. Teachers become facilitators, while learners became active and responsible for selecting modes and styles of learning. Assuming this attitude of implementing technology in the learning process and seeking new methods of facilitating learning, universities and colleges have to adopt new techniques. One of these new techniques is the use of learning objects. Although learning objects are considered products of technology developed in the USA, Japan, and European countries, universities in the Middle East have been influenced by this development. While there are differences in the quantity and quality of these technologies available in many Middle East countries, computer applications, especially those that deploy the Internet, have now become available. Educational authorities in Middle East countries are now turning to the availability of learning objects. Let me clarify some of the issues Downes discusses in his article on learning objects, Vol. 2, No. 1 of the International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.

  15. Investigating Patterns Of Distributed Leadership In Three Primary School Contexts In The Kingdom Of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, Um Albaneen Yousif

    2012-01-01

    Distributed leadership has stimulated a proliferation of theories and research studies in the last decades. The current paper explores the nature of distributed leadership as it relates to perspectives of formal leadership teams and other members of staff regarding areas of leadership and management and school culture. The research design of multiple case studies of three primary schools was selected for the purpose of the current study. The mixed method used cross-case analysis to investigat...

  16. Exploring the interplay between Framing and Securitization theory: the case of the Arab Spring protests in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Vânia Carvalho Pinto

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the theoretical integration between securitization theory and the framing approach, resulting in a set of criteria hereby called security framing. It seeks to make a twofold contribution: to sharpen the study of the ideational elements that underlie the construction of threats, and to advance towards a greater assessment of the audience's preferences. The case study under examination is the 2011 military intervention of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council in Ba...

  17. Investigating the success of E-learning in secondary schools: The case of the Kingdom of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Madina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University As a result of the advances in information and communication technology, E-Learning has been integrated as an essential element in educational settings. Despite its successful implementation, a significant number of E-Learning projects fail to achieve their goals. This has motivated researchers and practitioners to study the reasons for failure and success and the factors that impact E-Learnin...

  18. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  19. An Empirical Study of Attitudes and Opinions of Computer Crimes: A Comparative Study between U.K. and the Kingdom of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Adel I. Al-Alawi; Mohamed F. Abdelgadir

    2006-01-01

    In this digital age we are constantly becoming more reliant on technology and information systems in all walks of life. There is no doubt that Computer systems play a fundamental role in the basic operation of almost all organizations today. The emergence of the Internet has played a major role in exploiting new opportunities and markets for many businesses today and has also revolutionized the way information is shared globally. With the increased use of computer networks as a means of shari...

  20. Potential risk factors for surgical site infection after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in a Bahrain Cardiac Centre: A retrospective, case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulaziz Abuzaid

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Patients with comorbidities of impaired renal function and/or impaired left ventricular systolic function are at high risk of developing SSI. There appears to be a relationship between SSIs in CABG patients and impaired renal or LV function (low ejection fraction. CABG with BIMA grafting could be performed safely even in diabetics. Future studies should consider further scrutiny of these and other factors in relation to SSIs in a larger surgical population.

  1. The human resource based view of the firm : the development of a model and its empirical evaluation in the commercial banking industry of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Dirbas, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to explore the distinctive attributes of firms' resources and their relationship with sustained competitive advantage (SCA). The emphasis is on the Human Resource-Based View (HRBV) of the firm and the strategic and managerial conditions under which human resources are a potential source of SCA. The objectives can be stated more specifically as follow: o To develop a resource-based view model of the firm that adequately describes the role of human resources, their...

  2. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Musiager,Abdulrahman

    2011-01-01

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical acti...

  3. The banker customer confidential relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Alqayem, Ameera

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Conscious of the limitations of the petroleum-based economy in Bahrain, the Bahraini government aims to improve other industries, such as finance. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to study the current status of banking confidentiality in Bahrain, and to discover the possibilities for improvement in the banking sector in Bahrain, so that the country can succeed in being the financ...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger AO; Al-Hazzaa HM

    2012-01-01

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs) ...

  5. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi..., Lesotho, Liberia, Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria,...

  6. Engaging Pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibiger, Thomas Brandt

    Med afsæt i et etnografisk begreb om historicitet undersøger denne afhandling, hvordan folk i Bahrain bruger og involverer fortiden i forståelsen af nutiden og skabelsen af fremtiden. Bahrain er et heterogent øsamfund, hvor sunni- og shia-muslimer, arabere og persere, religiøse og sekulære samt n...

  7. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  8. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with vildagliptin versus other oral drugs for type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting in the Middle East: results from the EDGE study

    OpenAIRE

    Saab C; Al-Saber FA; Haddad J; Jallo MK; Steitieh H; Bader G; Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Charles Saab,1 Feryal A Al-Saber,2 Jihad Haddad,3 Mahir Khalil Jallo,4 Habib Steitieh,5 Giovanni Bader,6 Mohamed Ibrahim,7 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sacre Coeur University Hospital, Baabda, Lebanon; 2Endocrine Department, Bahrain Defence Force Hospital, Rifaa, Bahrain; 3Division of Endocrinology Department of Internal Medicine, Prince Hamaza Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; 5New Mowasat Hospital...

  9. 简讯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    His Excellency, Karim Ebrahim Al-Shakar, Ambassador of the Kingdom ofBahrain to the People's Republic of China,recently presented a checkto Gu Xiulian,ACWF Vice-president,on behalf of H.H.Shaikha SabeekaBint Ibrahim Al-Khalifa, Wife of H.M.King of the Bahrain.The presentation tookplace at a dinner reception at the ambassador's residence

  10. The Influence of Knowledge Management System (KMS) on Enhancing Decision Making Process (DMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Wafa Mohammed; Akram Jalal

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Knowledge Management System acquires high attention in all sectors, since it is a valuable instrumentin improving performance. In this study, an explanatory research on evaluating knowledge management systemswill be conducted for the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB) based on a survey of decision makers working in theCentral Bank of Bahrain (CBB).It is our intention to evaluate the impact of implementing the knowledge management system on decisionmaking by evaluating the impact of the k...

  11. THE DAY OF THE WEEK EFFECT OF STOCK RETURNS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM FIVE SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sedeaq Nassar

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the presence of one of the prominent anomalies which is the day of the week effect anomaly in five of Arab stock exchanges which are (Qatar, Amman, Palestine, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchanges) cover the period from May 2010 to April 2014. By using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis and Post Hoc Tests, the study indicates that there is no existence of the day of the week effect in each of (Qatar, Amman, Egypt, and Bahrain stock exchange) while it is prese...

  12. Right Diet: a television series to combat obesity among adolescents in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haifi AR; Al-Fayez MA; Al-Nashi B; Al-Athari BI; Bawadi H; Musaiger AO

    2012-01-01

    Ahmad R Al-Haifi,1 Mohammad A Al-Fayez,1 Bader Al-Nashi,1 Buthaina I Al-Athari,1 Hiba Bawadi,2 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,31Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, Showaikh, Kuwait; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, University of Bahrain and Arab Center for Nutrition, Kingdom of BahrainBackground: Adolescent obesity is a growing public health problem in Kuwait. Reducing o...

  13. 19 CFR 10.803 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.803 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for BFTA preferential...

  14. 19 CFR 10.821 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.821 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who claims preferential tariff... tariff treatment that sets forth all pertinent information concerning the production of the...

  15. 19 CFR 10.820 - Certificate of eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.820 Certificate of eligibility. Upon request, an importer claiming preferential tariff treatment on a non-originating cotton or man-made fiber good specified in § 10.819 of...

  16. 19 CFR 10.822 - Transshipment of non-originating fabric or apparel goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.822 Transshipment of non-originating fabric or apparel goods. (a) General. To qualify for preferential tariff treatment under an applicable.... (b) Documentary evidence. An importer making a claim for preferential tariff treatment under...

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  18. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia..., Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Pacific...

  19. 15 CFR 2013.1 - Designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designations. 2013.1 Section 2013.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... Bahrain Barbados Belize Botswana Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador...

  20. 75 FR 14323 - Requirements for Implementing Sections 1512, 1605, and 1606 of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Relations.. --State Historical Society.. --Department of Health and Social Services.. --Insurance... FR 68907, Dec. 29, 2009). Third, it adds Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) as a Party to the WTO Government... Kingdom; (2) A Free Trade Agreement (FTA) country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa...

  1. Problem-Based Learning in the Educational Psychology Classroom: Bahraini Teacher Candidates' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Nina Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There was a concern from faculty at Bahrain Teachers' College that undergraduate Bahraini students lack the necessary competencies needed for success in educational contexts that are conducive to active, student-centered learning. It was decided that the students be introduced to a problem-based learning (PBL) strategy in one of their educational…

  2. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  3. On the (Im)Possibility of Democratic Citizenship Education in the Arab and Muslim World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…

  4. A Multilevel Analysis of the Role of School Quality and Family Background on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareshki, Hossein; Hajinezhad, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is investigating the correlation between school quality and family socioeconomic background and students' mathematics achievement in the Middle East. The countries in comparison are UAE, Syria, Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Lebanon, Jordan, and Bahrain. The study utilized data from IEA's Trends in International…

  5. The Future of Workforce Development--A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigger, Anthony J.

    Recent research has identified trends in the training systems of 13 countries in Africa (Egypt, Mauritius, South Africa); the Arab States (Bahrain, Jordan); Asia (Australia, Fiji, Malaysia); Eastern Europe (Albania, Slovenia); Western Europe (Ireland, Portugal); and the Mediterranean region (Malta). The trends identified are legislation;…

  6. 77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... same as for the Bahrain FTA, Dominican Republic-Central American FTA, Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and... Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding the words ``Chile, Colombia, Costa... (b) by removing from the table heading ``CAFTA-DR, Chile'' and adding ``CAFTA- DR, Colombia...

  7. Capabilities, Opportunities and Participation : Gender Equality and Development in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwanath, Tara; Nguyen, Nga; Do, Quy-Toan; Walker, Thomas; Comboni, Gabriela Inchauste; Krishnan, Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are undergoing a profound transformation. From Bahrain to Yemen, from Tunisia to Egypt, popular movements are calling for political change and a more inclusive development path that will provide ordinary citizens with greater voice, social and economic freedom, and government accountability. Young men and women have been visi...

  8. A Framework for a WAP-Based Course Registration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Bastaki, Yousif; Al-Ajeeli, Abid

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a WAP-based course registration system designed and implemented to facilitating the process of students' registration at Bahrain University. The framework will support many opportunities for applying WAP based technology to many services such as wireless commerce, cashless payment... and location-based services. The paper…

  9. 48 CFR 25.401 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) and each FTA, there is a U.S. schedule that lists services that... services are excluded from coverage by the U.S. schedule of the WTO GPA or an FTA as indicated in this... Manual are indicated in parentheses for some services.) WTO GPA Bahrain FTA, CAFTA-DR, Chile FTA,...

  10. Sea level rise within the west of Arabian Gulf using tide gauge and continuous GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, M. E.; Alothman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and located in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. To investigate sea level variations within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed individually the monthly means at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Vertical land motions are included into the relative sea level measurements at the tide gauges. Therefore sea level rates at the stations are corrected for vertical land motions using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model then we found the average sea level rise rate of 2.27 mm/yr. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS) GPS station, which is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain, is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are downloaded from http://www-gps.mit.edu/~tah/. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and one break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.48 ± 0.11 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate at each of the other tide gauge stations studied here in the region, we computed average sea level rise rate of 2.44 ± 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf.

  11. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassab SE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Ahmad I Al-Shafei,2 Abdel Halim Salem,3 Sameer Otoom4 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 4Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain, Busaiteen, Bahrain Purpose: This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students' course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum.Methods: Perceptions of medical students (n=171 from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain, on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ, with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ. Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Results: Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale "quality of teaching" directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students' peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students' examination scores (17% of the variance explained

  12. Ellers er det jo bare en stol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2013-01-01

    Brands. Kan man sælge Georg Jensen-smykker fra Bahrain? Eller Arne Jacobsens myrestole fra Polen? Der er masser af brands, der har fået halen på komedie ved at overse, hvorfor de selv har opnået så stærk en position i første omgang.......Brands. Kan man sælge Georg Jensen-smykker fra Bahrain? Eller Arne Jacobsens myrestole fra Polen? Der er masser af brands, der har fået halen på komedie ved at overse, hvorfor de selv har opnået så stærk en position i første omgang....

  13. Effects Of CO2 Emissions On Economic Growth, Urbanization And Welfare: Application To Mena Countries

    OpenAIRE

    FAKHRI, ISSAOUI; HASSEN, TOUMI; WASSIM, TOUILI

    2015-01-01

    This paper has investigated the impact of CO2 emissions on per capita growth, energy consumption, life expectancy and urbanization in MENA countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Emirates Arabs, Jordan, Saudi Arabs, Morocco, Qatar, Tunisia and Yemen) from 1990 to 2010. The empirical results have covered two time horizons: the short and long term. Indeed, in the short term we noticed for all countries of our sample, that the CO2 emission is explained by energy consumption and economic growth per c...

  14. UNDP and World Bank project: Energy planning for European and Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) initiated a technical assistance project in energy planning. It was designed to stimulate the exchange and flow of knowledge and experience among countries of Europe and Arab States (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Tunisia, Cyprus, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and Yugoslavia). The World Bank is the executing agency. The project's broad objective is to strengthen national energy planning capabilities within the participating countries

  15. Somebody better find some rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah.

  16. Social media: new spaces for contention in authoritarian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Belknap, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What role has social media played in Bahraini political movements since 2011? Does it facilitate and encourage a space for free expressions of ideas, or do the dominant groups utilize social media to promote their agendas and shape social unrest outcomes? This thesis examines how the use of social media altered the course of protests in Bahrain on the heels of the regional Arab Spring movement. Historical protest activities incorporate...

  17. the run for arming and conflicts in Middle-East menace the safety of petroleum supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in the Middle-East is always a run to get arming equipment. Conflicts between Bahrain and Qatar, between Qatar and Saudi Arabia or between this last one and Yemen are a danger for the stability in this area; without forgetting Iran power rising. This situation is an obstacle to economic development, stability of policy and it goes against local populations interests, against industrialized countries interests and against petroleum industry interest itself

  18. Innovation and Entrepreneurship for the growth and diversification of the GCC Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Miniaoui, Hela; Schilirò, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The region of Gulf Arab states has vast reserves of petroleum that make it a vital source of the global economy. The reduction in oil prices and, in general, their high volatility pose strong challenges to the GCC economies. In the present contribution we argue that innovation and entrepreneurship can be the main drivers to diversify and develop the GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE). In fact, in the long-run, diversified economies perform better than mono-sector ...

  19. COULD GCC COUNTRIES ACHIEVE AN OPTIMAL CURRENCY AREA?

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED BENBOUZIANE; ABDELHAK BENAMAR

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test for the possibility of an optimal currency area (OCA) in the six Gulf countries (namely: Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, and United Arab Emirates (UAE)). To constitute such an OCA, however, they must satisfy certain preconditions; i.e., they must have similar economic structures with exposure to symmetric shocks, they must be open, well-diversified economies, and they must also ensure a high degree of factor mobility. The objective of th...

  20. Sport and emerging capital markets: market reaction to the 2022 World Cup announcement

    OpenAIRE

    Bana Abuzayed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the announcement of the mega sport event of the 2022 FIFA World Cup affected the stock market return and volatility for the hosting country (Qatar) and other economically related countries (United Arab of Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Oman). Design/methodology/approach – The paper includes empirical analysis in which data from the Qatar Stock Market as well as a sample of economically connected markets are collected for the p...

  1. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  2. The effective implementation of total quality management and leadership in Saudi universities: A review and framework to enhancing HE strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaweesh, M; Al-Karaghouli, W; Gallear, D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the best relevant leadership practice in order to improve quality and ranking of Saudi Arabian universities. Many universities and colleges around the world have applied TQM as a tool to enhance the quality of higher education. Due to the increase of recent competition in higher education industry (HE) (e.g., expansion of new universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain...

  3. A critical analysis of the legal role and functions of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaiyaf, Khalid Nasser Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is an international organisation established in 1981 between six Gulf countries, Bahrain,1 the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). According to the GCC Supreme Council, it was established to foster and manage cooperation between these countries and to serve their common interests.2 This thesis explores another factor, that it was established in response to specific security concerns in the context of the ene...

  4. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  5. From the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to inform you that in the 8th year of TOJDE are appeared on your screen now as Volume 8, Number: 2. In this issue we published one notes for Editor, 14 articles, two reviews, news and announcements for our readers. 27 authors from ten different countries are placed in this issue. These published articles are from Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh; Canada Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Turkey, UK and USA.

  6. THE TRANSFER OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE TO THE THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES AND ITS IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF FIVE ARAB GULF OIL-PRODUCING STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Melikian, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    Psychological knowledge transmitted by universities in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates is presented and some historical-cultural roots identified. Required courses for a B.A. are similar to those in the United States. Almost all courses are taught in Arabic and offered in the Faculties of Education. Four types of psychology books are identified. Laboratories are well equipped and libraries well stocked with Arabic and English books and periodicals. Research i...

  7. The kitchen furniture market in the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Volpe; Mauro Spinelli

    2013-01-01

    The Report 'The kitchen furniture market in Middle East and North Africa (MENA)' analyses supply structure, distribution system (channels), market demand, import-export flows, competitive system, providing statistical data and trends of kitchen furniture production and consumption, as well as import and export data. 2015 forecasts on number of kitchen sold is given for each country considered (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tu...

  8. The Effects of Money Laundering (ML) on Growth: Application to the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    ISSAOUI, Fakhri; WASSIM, TOUILI; HASSEN, TOUMI

    2016-01-01

    the strategic goal of this paper is to study the effects of the prevention policies against money laundering on growth in the gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE and Oman) from 1980 to 2014. Thus, the logistic regression (logit model) had given three fundamental results. The first had shown that the main policies in matter of fight against money laundering (anti money laundering law AMLL, suspicious transaction reporting STR, the criminalizing of terrorist financing CTF)...

  9. Political economy and social movement theory perspectives on the Tunisian and Egyptian uprisings of 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Beinin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Workers’ movements contributed substantially to the 2011 popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco and Bahrain. Comparing the role of workers before, during and after the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt demonstrates that the relatively successful installation of a procedural democracy in Tunisia owes a great deal to the movements of workers and the unemployed in the uprisings and to their organisational structure and political horizon. Tunisian workers could compel the Tunisian General F...

  10. L'autorité comme base normative de l'organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, James R.

    2012-01-01

    International audience From authority to authorization The authority of established governments has recently been challenged to an extent that is exceptional: the "arab spring," for example, leading to the overthrow or challenge to régimes that have exercised power for decades, in tunisia, libya, egypt, Bahrain, Syria; in europe the populist response to official efforts to buttress the Euro; in America, the "Occupy Wall Street" movement and its numerous look-alikes. in my talk i will explo...

  11. The Neolithic origins of seafaring in the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carter

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of the Arabian Gulf were among the world’s earliest maritime traders. Their ships sailed regularly between the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia, Bahrain and the Indus Valley, and they reached China by sea in the eighth century AD, thus bypassing the long and perilous overland Silk Road route across Central Asia. Now excavations at a coastal site in Kuwait by a team from the Institute have revealed even earlier evidence of maritime activity in the Gulf.

  12. Abréviations utilisées

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ADFAED = Abu Dhabi Fund for Arab Economic Development = FADDEA ADMA = Abu Dhabi Marine Areas ADNOC = Abu Dhabi National Oil Company ADPC = Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company ALBA = Aluminium of Bahrain AMINOIL = American Independant Oil Company AMPTC = Arab Marine Petroleum Transport Company AOC = Arabian Oil Company APOC = Anglo-Persian Oil Company ARAMCO = Arabian American Oil Company ASRY = Arab Shipping and Repair Yard Company ATUC = Aden Trade Union Congress BAD = Banque africaine de développem...

  13. Oil and Politics in Saudi Arabia : A Critical Discussion of the Rentier State Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The Saudi academic Mamoun Fandy (1999:252-53) observes that rentier analysis dominates contemporary Arab Gulf studies. According to Fandy, this discourse has now become a hegemonic discourse that is no longer deterred by alternative hypotheses or alternative data. It is a self-contained discourse that reaffirms its validity and reliability via a detour of narrative. Fandy's observation is in particular true for Saudi Arabia and the other GCC monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the Un...

  14. Somebody better find some rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah

  15. A Study on Integration of Computer Assisted Instruction with a Traditional Teaching Learning Process in the Area of Mechanical Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hamad, Salah Madhi Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a CAL package included in the teaching and learning methodology of CAD-CAM-CNC modules at Sheikh Khalefa Institute in Bahrain. The CAL package contains CAD tutorial, CAM tutorial and Power Point slides for CNC operations. The study has been carried in response to internal departmental audit which highlighted some issues which need to be dealt within the subject area of Mechanical engineering. Three groups of students with s...

  16. Strategie vybrané firmy při vstupu na zahraniční trhy

    OpenAIRE

    Schee, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The thesis disserts about foreign market entrance of corporation Moser. The theoretical part is dedicated to the various types of forms and strategies of foreign market entrance as well as the risks that have to be taken into consideration. Marketing mix is also inscribed in detail. The second part deals with the company itself, its characterization, history and activities. The rest of the thesis focuses on detailed PEST analysis of the selected countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and United Ar...

  17. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results ...

  18. What factors affect the destination choice of Jordanian tourists?A panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dudokh, Dana

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates what factors affect the destination choice for Jordanian to 8 countries (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt, Lebanon and Bahrain) using panel data analysis. Number of outbound tourists is represented as dependent variable, which is regressed over five explanatory variables using fixed effect model. The finding of this paper is that tourists from Jordan have weak demand for outbound tourism; Jordanian decision of traveling abroad is determined by the cost ...

  19. A Water Sector Assessment Report on the Countries of the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the Water Sector Review in the member countries the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) is to (1) conduct a diagnosis of the current situation of the water sector, identify issues in the GCC region, evaluate the GCC governments' current water policies, and propose recommendations for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Phase I of the study; (2) present key findings and recommendations at the GCC Water Conference in Bahrain, Septe...

  20. Immigrant workers and language formation: Gulf Pidgin Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the oil boom of the 1970s, Saudi Arabia and the countries on the western coast of the Arab Gulf, i.e. Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar, have been witnessing both a significant increase in their non-national labour force and considerable urbanization. Most of the immigrant workers come from South and South-East Asia, with smaller number of expatriates from other regions. The overwhelming majority of these foreign workers live and work i...

  1. The Modern Retail Habitats in the Gulf Region: The Experience of the Bahraini Shopper

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar Ahmed Mohamed Al-Mahy

    2013-01-01

    This research paper explores the motives people go shopping in the Gulf region. The venue for the study is theKingdom of Bahrain. The study sets out to test a major hypothesis that given the novelty of the modern retailingformats in the region; shoppers are more likely to stress the hedonic and social aspects of shopping than theutilitarian facets of it. Data was collected from a sample of Bahraini shoppers who answered specific questionspertaining to their shopping experience. The results ob...

  2. 76 FR 76808 - Procurement Thresholds for Implementation of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Chile FTA), Chapter 9 of the Dominican Republic... of the U.S.-Bahrain FTA, Chapter 9 of the U.S.-Chile FTA, Chapter 9 of DR-CAFTA, Chapter 9 of the U.S...,671. IV. U.S.-Chile FTA, Chapter 9 A. Central Government Entities Listed in the U.S. Schedule to...

  3. Master Franchising as Foreign Entry Mode: Evidences from the Spanish Franchise System

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Baena

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how a number of market conditions may constrain entry mode choice into Middle East nations. Specifically, this paper focuses on master franchising and analyzes the determining factors in this entry mode decision. A quantitative approach was applied to a sample of Spanish franchisors operating through 96 franchisee outlets across 6 Middle East countries in January 2010. They are Bahrain, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Findings show th...

  4. “Lahesõjad” 3. eelkristlikul aastatuhandel. Sumeri ja Akkadi kuningate sõjaretked Pärsia lahe kanti 2700–2150 eKr

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Sazonov

    2014-01-01

    War has always constituted an important part of politics in the Middle East. Evidences of wars in southern Mesopotamia (Sumer and Akkad) and in the region of the Persian Gulf can be found in written sources that date back to the Early Dynastic Period (in Sumer), approximately since 2700 or 2600 BCE. This region around the Persian Gulf (modern southern Iraq, south-western Iran, Oman, Bahrain, etc.) has always been a very important territory, both strategically and geopolitically, and a crossin...

  5. Green Fodder Production and Water Use Efficiency of Some Forage Crops under Hydroponic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Karaki, Ghazi N.; M. Al-Hashimi

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate five forage crops (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)) for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. The experiment has been conducted under temperature-controlled conditions (24 ± 1°C) and natural window illumination at growth room of Soilless Culture Laboratory, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. The r...

  6. Causal Relationships Between Financial and Economic Development in Gulf Countries = Körfez Ülkelerinde Finansal ve Ekonomik Gelişme Arasındaki Nedensel İlişki

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan AL-AALİ; Gürsoy, Cudi Tuncer

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationships between financial and economic aggregates in three Gulf countries, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, over the 64?quarterly period from 1973 to 1988.Patrick's causality patterns at different stages of economic development were also investigated by dividing the entire analysis period into the sub-periods of 1973?81, and 1982?88. Financial variables used were M1, M2 and the total bank credits. Exports in all the three countries plus government expend...

  7. The Effect of Exports and Imports on Economic Growth in the Arab Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    HAMDAN, Bader S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The study focused on the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study used panel data approach by E views program. The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic g...

  8. In-service Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Technology Integration in the Bahraini Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Abdul Razzak

    2014-01-01

    In order for Bahrain to realize its 2030 Economic Vision, digital literacy is required on the part of its citizens. Digital literacy is the ability to make use of Information and Computer Technology (ICT) in learning and work activities, and can be understood clearly by understanding the role of ICT in schools. Such a role is successfully implemented mainly when certain conditions are met, among them the adoption of a positive attitude towards the utilization and integration of ICT in instruc...

  9. Bahrain’s tertiary education reform : a step towards sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Karolak

    2012-01-01

    Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher edu...

  10. Teachers’ Attitude towards Integration of Computer Assisted Instructions in Teaching and Learning Process in CAD/CAM/CNC Module

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi; Mishra, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of teachers’ attitudes, effectiveness of various teaching methods employed as well as teachers’ perceptions of the teaching experience on effectiveness of teaching-learning processes in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and computer numerical control (CAD/CAM/CNC) module used in vocational education department in Bahrain. Previous studies suggested that a part of the problem in CAD/CAM/CNC subject area is the use of inap...

  11. Improving Teaching and Learning Effectiveness in Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Alseddiqi, Mohamed; Mishra, Rakesh; Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study undertaken to improve the teaching and learning effectiveness in engineering education courses, specifically for Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. A teaching and learning assessment tool was developed for participants (existing TVE teachers in electrical and electronic engineering and a pilot group of TVE students). The purpose was to examine the existing approaches of teaching and learning practised in TVE educational env...

  12. The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathout Leith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators. This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the “Arab Spring,” specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of “dual loyalty” dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients – a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict.

  13. MENA. New Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MENA region summary: UAE - Ground broken on reactor site; Turkey - Contracts for NPP signed, legal and regulatory infrastructure well-developed; Jordan - Committed plans, NPP procurement process initiated, legal and regulatory infrastructure developing; Egypt - Well-developed plans and legal & regulatory infrastructure, but commitment pending; Saudi Arabia – Commitment made; Algeria, Tunisia - Developing Plans; Kuwait, Oman, Qatar , Bahrain, Morocco - Considered civil nuclear power as an option but no immediate prospects for development. MENA region continues to express strong willingness to diversify its power mix with nuclear and renewables. Gulf States, GCC countries are participating in the collaborative study of a potential nuclear energy programme in the region since 2006. Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Oman are studying the option, however given their small populations and the limited size of their electricity grids, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman have less capacity to support domestic nuclear power programs. The Fukushima accident has played a role in one country’s decision to abandon nuclear energy for power generation: Kuwaiti government— largely influenced by the events in Japan—decided to reverse its policy on nuclear energy. Valued at US$200 billion, the Middle East’s new nuclear build market holds immense opportunities for expertise, component suppliers and service providers

  14. Causal Relationships Between Financial and Economic Development in Gulf Countries = Körfez Ülkelerinde Finansal ve Ekonomik Gelişme Arasındaki Nedensel İlişki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan AL-AALİ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationships between financial and economic aggregates in three Gulf countries, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, over the 64?quarterly period from 1973 to 1988.Patrick's causality patterns at different stages of economic development were also investigated by dividing the entire analysis period into the sub-periods of 1973?81, and 1982?88. Financial variables used were M1, M2 and the total bank credits. Exports in all the three countries plus government expenditures in Kuwait were employed as proxies to GDP.Sims' causality model which is based on Granger's definition was utilized and the following general patterns were detected: For the entire analysis period causality ran from financial to economic variables in Kuwait, but from economic to financial variables in Bahrain. While no generalization was possible for Saudi Arabia for the first sub-period (l973?81, a supply-leading phenomenon was dominant in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. In Kuwait the results were mixed. In the second sub-period (1982?88, the dominant relationship was demand following in all the three countries. These results were seen in conformity with the economic trends in these countries over the study period.

  15. Dtection of Sea Level Rise within the Arabian Gulf Using Space Based GNSS Measurements and Insitu Tide Gauge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Ayhan, Mehmet

    In the 21st century, sea level rise is expected to be about 30 cm or even more (up to 60 cm). Saudi Arabia has very long coasts of about 3400 km and hundreds of islands. Therefore, sea level monitoring may be important in particular along coastal low lands on Red Sea and Arabian Gulf coasts. Arabian Gulf is connected to Indian Ocean and lying along a parallel course in the south-west of the Zagros Trust Belt. We expect vertical land motion within the area due to both tectonic structures of the Arabian Peninsula and oil production activities. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Continues observations were used to estimate the vertical crustal motion. Bahrain International GPS Service (IGS-GPS) station is the only continuous GPS station accessible in the region, and it is close to the Mina Sulman tide gauge station in Bahrain. The weekly GPS time series of vertical component at Bahrain IGS-GPS station referring to the ITRF97 from 1999.2 to 2008.6 are used in the computation. We fitted a linear trend with an annual signal and a break to the GPS vertical time series and found a vertical land motion rate of 0.46 0.11 mm/yr. To investigate sea level variation within the west of Arabian Gulf, monthly means of sea level at 13 tide gauges along the coast of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, available in the database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), are studied. We analyzed separately the monthly mean sea level measurements at each station, and estimated secular sea level rate by a robust linear trend fitting. We computed the average relative sea level rise rate of 1.96 0.21 mm/yr within the west of Arabian Gulf based on 4 stations spanning longer than 19 years. Sea level rates at the stations are first corrected for vertical land motion contamination using the ICE-5G v1.2 VM4 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, and the average sea level rate is found 2.27 0.21 mm/yr. Assuming the vertical rate at Bahrain IGS-GPS station represents the vertical rate

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated with nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus

  17. Liquidity and firm performance: Evidence from the MENA region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Bouaich, Fatima Zahra

    2012-01-01

    relationship between liquidity and firm performance. We argue that higher level of information asymmetries in the MENA region exposes stock market participants to excessive risk, and therefore any mechanism that can provide them with opportunity to lower this risk (by exiting the stock) is valuable. Our......How can individual investors infer value relevant information from publicly available data in information scarce emerging markets? Using a large dataset from the MENA region (Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain), we document a significantly positive...

  18. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  19. Middle East: major opportunities for gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses the increase in demand for natural gas in the face of the threat of global warming, and the opportunities that this presents for Middle East gas producers. The use of natural gas to reduce the consumption of petroleum, market opportunities in the European Community as demand outstrips supply, worldwide demand for LNG, and the need for foreign investment are discussed. A brief overview is given of the situations in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudia Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi and Yemen. (UK)

  20. World review: Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  1. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    From around 2100 BC a glyptic tradition emerges in the Arabian Gulf, which is dependant on the well-established schools of the Indus Valley seal cutters. These circular hybrids of classic Harappan seals rapidly became popular amongst the merchants of Dilmun, centered on Bahrain Island. At first...... these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later...

  2. The construct and criterion validity of the multi-source feedback process to assess physician performance: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ansari A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Al Ansari,1 Tyrone Donnon,2 Khalid Al Khalifa,1 Abdulla Darwish,3 Claudio Violato4 1Department of General Surgery, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Riffa, Kingdom of Bahrain; 2Medical Education and Research Unit, Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Department of Pathology, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Riffa, Kingdom of Bahrain; 4Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy Background: The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the construct and criterion validity of multi-source feedback (MSF to assess physicians and surgeons in practice. Methods: In this study, we followed the guidelines for the reporting of observational studies included in a meta-analysis. In addition to PubMed and MEDLINE databases, the CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 1975 to November 2012. All articles listed in the references of the MSF studies were reviewed to ensure that all relevant publications were identified. All 35 articles were independently coded by two authors (AA, TD, and any discrepancies (eg, effect size calculations were reviewed by the other authors (KA, AD, CV. Results: Physician/surgeon performance measures from 35 studies were identified. A random-effects model of weighted mean effect size differences (d resulted in: construct validity coefficients for the MSF system on physician/surgeon performance across different levels in practice ranged from d=0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–0.69 to d=1.78 (95% CI 1.20–2.30; construct validity coefficients for the MSF on physician/surgeon performance on two different occasions ranged from d=0.23 (95% CI 0.13–0.33 to d=0.90 (95% CI 0.74–1.10; concurrent validity coefficients for the MSF based on differences in assessor group ratings ranged from d=0.50 (95% CI 0.47–0.52 to d=0.57 (95% CI 0.55–0.60; and predictive validity coefficients

  3. Grounds for refusal of enforcement of foreign commercial arbital awards in GCC states law

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Enazi, Mohamed Saud

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis posed the question whether foreign arbitral awards are enforced in accordance with the demands of the New York Convention in the UAE and Bahrain and moreover whether the conditions for enforcement compel the conclusion that these two nations are enforcement-friendly in the same manner as leading arbitral nations such as the UK, France, Hong-Kong and NYC. On the basis of l...

  4. Four state companies are markedly different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Journal continues its profiles of state owned oil companies with a return to the Persian Gulf, South America, and a first time look at the state oil company of Romania, one of Eastern Europe's most active and oldest producers. The government of Kazakhstan's activities are also covered in this report. These profiles detail the organization of the companies, with emphasis on upstream and downstream operations. Support functions, though essential to a company, are not covered in detail. Company projects and capabilities are only described in this report when necessary to put the company in perspective. Following are the profiles of state companies for Bahrain, Kuwait, Romania, and Venezuela

  5. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-01-01

    Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 4 of TOJDE! In this issue, one book review and 26 articles of 49 authors from 15 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Bahrain, Brazil, Greece, India, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe. First all, you should know that if a submission picks up from three TOJDE editors between 4.5 and 9 over all 9 credits, it ...

  6. Salmonella pneumonia complicated with encysted empyema in an immunocompromised youth: Case report and literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nermin Kamal

    2016-01-01

    In this case report we described a Bahraini male patient of twenty years of age, a smoker and diagnosed with stage IV B Hodgkin lymphoma. He presented with fever, nonproductive cough, upper back pain and shortness of breath due to right upper lobe pneumonia with right encysted pleural effusion. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the sputum. He was successfully treated with 2 weeks of ceftriaxone followed by 2 weeks of oral cefixime. This was the first case of encysted empyema caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis reported in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The different aspects of pulmonary Salmonella infections were discussed and the literature was reviewed. PMID:27131011

  7. Dividend policies of shariah-compliant and non-shariah-compliant firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Tbeur, Oumkeltoum

    2013-01-01

    Do shariah-compliant firms pay higher dividends than other firms? Using data from the MENA (Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain) region, this paper shows that shariah-compliant firms not only have higher payout ratios but also have higher likelihood to...... pay dividends than non-shariah-compliant firms during the period between 2005 and 2009. We argue that financial characteristics of shariah-compliant firms (i.e. low leverage, low account receivables, and low cash) are such that they pay higher dividends than their non-shariah-compliant counterparts...

  8. Purchasing Power Parity: Further Evidence and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanain K.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory using a panel of ten Arab countries. It also measures the speed of convergence for the panel and for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), including Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates which follow a hard dollar peg. The test is conducted using nine base currencies. The main findings are first on the validity of PPP. (1) The null of unit root is rejected using each of the nine currencies as a num...

  9. Education in the Gulf Monarchies: Retrospect and Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    1999-03-01

    For the last several decades there has been tremendous expansion in the educational facilities in all the six Gulf monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). The quality of education, however, does not correspond to the needs of Gulf societies. This study examines three of the apparent deficiencies in the educational system in the region: the mismatch between traditional and modern learning, the imbalance between indigenous and expatriate labor forces, and the gap between men and women. The paper concludes that a fundamental change in the quality of education needs to be made in order to overcome these imbalances.

  10. Aneurysm in a Large Sporadic Renal Angiomyolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Omran, Bedoor; Ansari, Naseem

    2016-05-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are the most common mesenchymal renal neoplasms and are classified as neoplasms of perivascular epithelioid cells (PEComa). AML is usually a benign neoplasm arising most often in the kidney although it has been described in a wide variety of sites. Most patients are adults, and one-third suffer from tuberous sclerosis. We describe a case of renal AML in a 54-year-old Bahraini woman who presented to the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital with right flank pain and hematuria, and who was known to have rheumatoid arthritis but had no cutaneous or other stigmata of tuberous sclerosis. It is the largest AML reported in Bahrain and is also striking for the fact that it contained an intratumoral aneurysm that ruptured causing symptoms leading to the radiological diagnosis of renal mass. Furthermore, the occurrence of an aneurysm in sporadic AML, as in our case, is rare since the large majority tend to be seen in association with tuberous sclerosis. PMID:27162594

  11. “Lahesõjad” 3. eelkristlikul aastatuhandel. Sumeri ja Akkadi kuningate sõjaretked Pärsia lahe kanti 2700–2150 eKr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sazonov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available War has always constituted an important part of politics in the Middle East. Evidences of wars in southern Mesopotamia (Sumer and Akkad and in the region of the Persian Gulf can be found in written sources that date back to the Early Dynastic Period (in Sumer, approximately since 2700 or 2600 BCE. This region around the Persian Gulf (modern southern Iraq, south-western Iran, Oman, Bahrain, etc. has always been a very important territory, both strategically and geopolitically, and a crossing point of different cultures, religions and ethnic groups since very early times. This region of the Middle East (Persian Gulf has always been rich in different resources. In ancient times it was an economically important region because of its frankincense, woods, stones (diorite, and metals (especially copper; today it is known for oil and gas. The Persian Gulf is the territory where the first wars for economic reasons took place already 5000–4500 years ago. Many Sumerian and Akkadian rulers tried to conquer this region, since Magan (modern Oman and Dilmun (modern Bahrain had deposits of copper, diorite, etc. Elam, which was located in south-western Iran, was a very important area quite rich in resources, and kings of Elam were often rivals of Sumerian and Akkadian kings in their ambitions to control the region of the Persian Gulf and the Zagros Mountains. This was the reason why in this region many military conflicts and wars between the Elamites, Sumerians and Akkadians took place.

  12. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance. PMID:17143460

  13. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (pbody weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (pmedia on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets. PMID:23756571

  14. Bahrain’s tertiary education reform : a step towards sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karolak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahrain has been experiencing along with other Gulf Council Cooperation countries a rapid development of its tertiary sector of education. The 2000's were marked by a boom in education with the opening of twelve private universities in this country of roughly 1 million inhabitants. Some institutions were locally based, while others worked in affiliation with foreign based universities. It is in sharp contrast with the 1990's, when only three public universities served as centers of higher education. The reasons behind this large-scale expansion of higher education include the growth of local and expatriate population, the planned transition from oil industry to a knowledge-based economy as well as the growing role of women in the workforce. All of these factors need to be addressed in order to assure a stable social and economic development, and education is the backbone of both. This paper examines the recent initiatives undertaken in Bahrain to monitor and ensure the quality of education of cross-border educational institutions as well as that of local education providers.

  15. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baba KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Khalid A El Baba1, Sami T Azar21Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Bahrain Specialist Hospital, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.Keywords: TSH, HCG, TBG

  16. The Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences: a successful model of a multinational medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually

  17. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  18. Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Redha Qader

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs. Electricity consumption and the related CO2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.

  19. SESAME in Jordan

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Gaetano; Attal, Maher; Makahleh, Firas; Shehab, Maher M; Varnasseri, Seadat

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees...

  20. Corporate governance and stock price performance of firms during the crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Chetioui, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on stock price performance of firms in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, during the recent financial crisis. Using dividend policy, choice of auditors, and...... transactional complexity as proxies for corporate governance, we document better stock price performance for firms with superior governance mechanisms. Our results show that firms with one of the big-four auditors, firms paying dividends, and firms with lower transactional complexity are associated with...... superior stock price performance. We argue that lower agency problems that accompany firms with better corporate governance mechanisms make it hard for controlling shareholders to expropriate, thereby improving stock price performance. Our results are important in a way that they highlight the power that...

  1. Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgey, André

    2013-01-01

    Premier émirat arabe du Golfe à obtenir son indépendance en 1961, Kuwait, petit triangle désertique de 17 820 km2 encastré entre l’Arabie Saoudite et l’Irak, est sans doute l’émirat le plus représentatif pour étudier les transformations apportées par le pétrole. Certes, à Kuwait, le pétrole a été découvert puis exploité plus tardivement qu’à Bahrain, mais dans ce pays les ressources en hydrocarbures sont toujours restées très modestes. Au contraire, à Kuwait, en raison de l’importance des gis...

  2. Revolts in the Arab world: is it bad news for Islamic terrorists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Lilli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Everything started when a young man set himself on fire in the provincial town of Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia. Mohamed Bouazizi, this was his name, was selling fruit and vegetables on the street without a license. After a policewoman stopped him and confiscated his cart and produce, he felt so angry and desperate that he took that drastic decision. It was December 17th,2010. Since then a long series of demonstrations, riots and revolts have quickly and unabatedly spread from Tunisia throughout the Arab world. Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, Oman and Bahrain, among others, were all affected in one way or another by these events. Tunisia’s President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was ousted and Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak experienced the same fate.

  3. A Study of Email Spam and How to Effectively Combat It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Al-A'ali

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of researching the issues pertaining to email spam on Bahrain's email society and how to combat it. We have surveyed the status of spam amongst the Bahraini community through a carefully prepared questionnaire and studied the effects of spam on the social and economical welfare of Bahrainis. The research results stress the need to regulate spam spread through the introduction of a spam law. The overwhelming majority of the Bahraini email community expresses concern with receiving spam but some would still prefer to continue to receive some sort of controlled spam especially commercial advertising spam. The paper addresses the different concerns expressed by the email community and measures the levels of these concerns in terms of age, gender, work productivity. This paper is aimed at setting the pace for regulating and raising the level of awareness of email spam in the Arab countries.

  4. Localized hyper saline waters in Arabian Gulf from desalination activity--an example from South Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Khabbaz, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Desalination is the only means of reliable water supply in most of the Arabian Gulf States including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Huge desalination capacities are installed on the western margin of the Arabian Gulf contributing to increased salinity off the coast. This paper presents long term salinity observation made near outfall of Az Zour Power and Desalination Plant in South Kuwait. The salinity values peak at around 50 ppt at observation station located in open gulf around 5 km from the outfall of the power and desalination plant. The observation highlights the stress on the local marine environment continued incremental salinity can impair the marine biodiversity in the area. The study suggests that a stringent post construction and operational offshore water quality assessment can help in early detection of potentially complex environmental issues. PMID:21213041

  5. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre- and the...... post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  6. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories of...... North Atlantic rim. This anthology seeks to begin that task. It does so by suggesting that the kind of secularity described by Taylor is only one amongst others. By attending to the shifting relationship between proper religion and ‘bad faiths’; between politically valorised and embarrassing spiritual...... phenomena; between the new visibilities and silences of magic, ancestors, and religion in democratic politics, this book seeks to outline the particular formations of secularism that have become possible in Asia from China to Indonesia and from Bahrain to Timor-Leste....

  7. Updating the CS Curriculum: Traditional vs. Market-Driven Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedzad Mehic

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of updating a curriculum of a typical computer science department. The suggested approach promotes the role of a university as an academic environment, targeting excellence in teaching degree programs, as well as a qualified partner in partnership with businesses, especially with industry, in sharing knowledge and skills, supporting the concept of a quality process and quality products. Cooperation with industry firms, through real problem solving approaches and using emerging technologies that might drive the best demand in future markets, will prepare students to take advantage of opportunities, gain experience, and make an impact immediately. As a case study, the paper describes how this approach is applied to Computer Science Department at University of Bahrain.

  8. Residential High-Rise Clusters as a Contemporary Planning Challenge in Manama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the different roots of current residential high-rise clusters emerging in new city districts along the coast of Bahrain’s capital city Manama, and the resulting urban planning and design challenges. Since the local real-estate markets were liberalized in Bahrain in 2003, the population grew rapidly to more than one million inhabitants. Consequently, the housing demand increased rapidly due to extensive immigration. Many residential developments were however constructed for the upper spectrum of the real-estate market, due to speculative tendencies causing a raise in land value. The emerging high-rise clusters are developed along the various waterfronts of Manama on newly reclaimed land. This paper explores the spatial consequences of the recent boom in construction boom and the various challenges for architects and urban planners to enhance urban qualities.

  9. Understanding the Dynamics of Violent Political Revolutions in an Agent-Based Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an agent-based computational model of violent political revolutions in which a subjugated population of citizens and an armed revolutionary organisation attempt to overthrow a central authority and its loyal forces. The model replicates several patterns of rebellion consistent with major historical revolutions, and provides an explanation for the multiplicity of outcomes that can arise from an uprising. The relevance of the heterogeneity of scenarios predicted by the model can be understood by considering the recent experience of the Arab Spring involving several rebellions that arose in an apparently similar way, but resulted in completely different political outcomes: the successful revolution in Tunisia, the failed protests in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, and civil war in Syria and Libya. PMID:27104855

  10. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  11. In-service Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Technology Integration in the Bahraini Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Abdul Razzak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for Bahrain to realize its 2030 Economic Vision, digital literacy is required on the part of its citizens. Digital literacy is the ability to make use of Information and Computer Technology (ICT in learning and work activities, and can be understood clearly by understanding the role of ICT in schools. Such a role is successfully implemented mainly when certain conditions are met, among them the adoption of a positive attitude towards the utilization and integration of ICT in instruction on the part of the teachers. This study examines to what extent teachers in the Bahraini public school system adopt such an attitude, while at the same time (1 focusing on the amount of support they receive in terms of ICT training and resources and (2 identifying shortcomings that need to be addressed for successful ICT integration in teaching and learning.

  12. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  13. Right Diet: a television series to combat obesity among adolescents in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haifi AR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad R Al-Haifi,1 Mohammad A Al-Fayez,1 Bader Al-Nashi,1 Buthaina I Al-Athari,1 Hiba Bawadi,2 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,31Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, Showaikh, Kuwait; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, University of Bahrain and Arab Center for Nutrition, Kingdom of BahrainBackground: Adolescent obesity is a growing public health problem in Kuwait. Reducing obesity can lower the risk of several chronic diseases. Fourteen obese adolescent boys volunteered to participate in a 6-month multidimensional television series on weight loss.Methods: The adolescent boys were recruited through advertisements in schools. The program included counseling sessions, nutritional education, exercise, family support, peer group involvement, and incentives designed to motivate participants.Results: The mean age of the boys was 15.6 ± 0.8 years. On average, subjects lost 10.6 ± 8.9 kg in weight and gained 3.3 ± 1.6 cm in height during the study period. The difference in mean body mass index at baseline and at 6 months following intervention was significant (P < 0.001 at 36.8 ± 4.6 and 32.0 ± 5.4, kg/m2 respectively. Participants ranked counseling as the most important component of the program, followed by family support and type of program.Conclusion: This type of television series could be used as a model for future public health programs to prevent and control obesity among adolescents.Keywords: diet, television, obesity, adolescents

  14. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  15. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coastal, soil, and air were addressed in this review as well as sources of pollutants and their effect on biological systems, marine organisms, and human health. Emphasis is placed on marine pollution, particularly toxic metal, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminations. Major parts of this review discuss the consequences of the 1991 Gulf War on the environment, and the substantial changes associated with the marine habitats. The effects of oil field fires in Kuwait following the 1991 Gulf War were evaluated through studies that investigated hydrocarbons concentration and trace metals in samples of near shore sediments, bivalves, and fish collected from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were discussed in biota (fish and various bivalves and coastal sediments from six countries in the Gulf. The review has revealed different concentrations of pollutants, low, moderately, and chronically contaminated areas from oil and metals. It has also outlined effective sustainable management measures and goals as a first step in the evaluation of coastal, marine, soil, and air environment in the Arabian Gulf area.

  16. Seasonal Variations in the Number of the Summer Shamal Days in the Southern Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Almehrezi, Ali Saif Ali; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study into seasonal variations in the number of Summer Shamal days in the southern Arabian Gulf. The Shamal wind is a north-westerly wind, which has acquired the local name of Shamal. It is the primary ambient wind in the Arabian Gulf and persists most of the year over the area, but with varying characteristics ( Godvina et al, 2001). The study is focused on the parameters of the wind cycles. The wind data are collected over a thirty year period (1981 to 2010) from Bahrain airport data set (Al Aali, 2011) as it is less affected by surrounding topography and the meteorological charts were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis -II data set (NCEP, 2013). The wind data is analyzed to show variations in the number of summer Shamal days over the southern Arabian Gulf. The synoptic conditions which help to understand the wind cycles are analyzed using NCEP Charts. A Shamal Day is defined when the prevailing wind over the Arabian Gulf is from the North-West sector and the strength of the daily mean Shamal wind is 11 knots and more. The condition for the existence of Summer Shamal days is the deepening of the thermal Monsoon Low or the ridging from the Mediterranean High or both (Govinda et al, 2003). A key finding is that the Summer Shamal days start in May and end in October of each year and the number of the Summer Shamal days is decreasing over the study period. During the months of May, June and July the number of Shamal days is the highest. Out of these three months, June has the highest number of Shamal day's. The analysis shows that the reduction in the number of Summer Shamal days over the thirty year period is potentially related to the variations in the parameters of the summer monsoon and the longitudinal location of the Azores High. Furthermore, in the summer there are two global systems: (i) El Nino, which effects the Summer Monsoon (Nazemosadat et al, 2003) and (ii) the Azores High, which have an indirect

  17. Effectiveness and tolerability of second-line treatment with vildagliptin versus other oral drugs for type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting in the Middle East: results from the EDGE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saab C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charles Saab,1 Feryal A Al-Saber,2 Jihad Haddad,3 Mahir Khalil Jallo,4 Habib Steitieh,5 Giovanni Bader,6 Mohamed Ibrahim,7 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sacre Coeur University Hospital, Baabda, Lebanon; 2Endocrine Department, Bahrain Defence Force Hospital, Rifaa, Bahrain; 3Division of Endocrinology Department of Internal Medicine, Prince Hamaza Hospital, Amman, Jordan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; 5New Mowasat Hospital, Safat, Kuwait; 6Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 7Novartis Pharma Services AG, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic progressive disease that requires treatment intensification with antihyperglycemic agents due to progressive deterioration of β-cell function. A large observational study of 45,868 patients with T2DM across 27 countries (EDGE assessed the effectiveness and safety of vildagliptin as add-on to other oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs versus other comparator OAD combinations. Here, we present results from the Middle East countries (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, and the United Arab Emirates. Methods: Patients inadequately controlled with OAD monotherapy were eligible after the add-on treatment was chosen by the physician based on clinical judgment and patient need. Patients were assigned to either vildagliptin or comparator OADs (sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, or metformin, except incretin-based therapies based on the add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c reduction of >0.3% without peripheral edema, hypoglycemia, discontinuation due to a gastrointestinal event, or weight gain ≥5%. One of the secondary endpoints was the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% without hypoglycemia or weight gain. Change in HbA1c from baseline to study endpoint and safety were also

  18. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  19. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  20. MENA Renewables Status Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The MENA Renewables Status Report is an outcome of ADIREC, the Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference. The report provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends in the region, drawing on the most recent data available. It is produced in cooperation with over 50 contributors and researchers in the region and reveals massive growth in the renewable energy markets of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Regional investment topped US$2.9 billion in 2012, up 40% from 2011 and 650% from 2004. With over 100 projects under development, the region could see a 450% increase in non-hydro renewable energy generating capacity in the next few years. For the report, the 21 MENA countries were clustered into two sub-groups: Net Oil-Exporting Countries (NOEC) -- Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; and Net Oil-Importing Countries (NOIC) -- Djibouti, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, and Tunisia.

  1. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  2. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  3. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference ∼125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSTITUTIONS, BANKING REGULATION AND BANKING DEVELOPMENT IN THE MENA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samouel BEJI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to check, on the one hand, the nature of the relationship existing between institutional development (measured by the corruption level, quality of bureaucracy, rule and law, law enforcement…, banking regulation and banking development. On the other hand, we test the relationship that exists between banking development and economic growth. We used the GMM (General Method of Moments system on dynamic panel data for 19 countries of the MENA region, in the 2 estimations (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. The main results are: (i the existence of a positive and statistically significant effect of the economic development on the banking development, (ii banking regulation affects positively and in a significant manner, the banking development, (iii the non existence of a significant statistically relationship between institutional quality and banking development, (iv and finally, our findings also suggest that economic growth is enhanced by banking development. The absence of a significant relationship between institutional environment quality and banking development can be explained by the nature of the institutional indicators, which vary very slowly through time. That’s why, may be, banking development level reached by MENA region countries, cannot be explained by institutional development. We have chosen to assimilate the financial development to just banking development, given the relative importance of the banking sector, in comparison to the size and importance of the financial markets in these countries.

  5. The Potential Role of Social Media Platforms in Community Awareness of Antibiotic Use in the Gulf Cooperation Council States: Luxury or Necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zowawi, Hosam Mamoon; Abedalthagafi, Malak; Mar, Florie A; Almalki, Turki; Kutbi, Abdullah H; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Harbarth, Stephan; Balkhy, Hanan H; Paterson, David L; Hasanain, Rihab Abdalazez

    2015-01-01

    The increasing emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health issue. Increasing the awareness of the general public about appropriate antibiotic use is a key factor for combating this issue. Several public media campaigns worldwide have been launched; however, such campaigns can be costly and the outcomes are variable and difficult to assess. Social media platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, are now frequently utilized to address health-related issues. In many geographical locations, such as the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain), these platforms are becoming increasingly popular. The socioeconomic status of the GCC states and their reliable communication and networking infrastructure has allowed the penetration and scalability of these platforms in the region. This might explain why the Saudi Ministry of Health is using social media platforms alongside various other media platforms in a large-scale public awareness campaign to educate at-risk communities about the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper discusses the potential for using social media tools as cost-efficient and mass education platforms to raise awareness of appropriate antibiotic use in the general public and in the medical communities of the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:26471079

  6. CO2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO2 in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)

  7. Making Ground, Losing Space: Land Reclamation and Urban Public Space in Island Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article foregrounds urban public space by considering land reclamation in island cities. Land reclamation is nearly ubiquitous in the urban development of coastal cities, and island cities in particular are subject to exceptionally dense urbanisation and thus exceptionally strong conflict over urban space. Drawing upon theories at the intersection of the land and the sea (liquid, archipelago, and aquapelago spatiality, we analyse socially problematic aspects of the creation of new urban space through land reclamation. Land reclamation occurs in island cities such as Bahrain, Copenhagen, Dubai, Hong Kong, Macau, New York City, and Xiamen in order to construct space for urban industrial, residential, and leisure functions while avoiding the social conflict that often accompanies urban renewal efforts. However, whether in the case of publically accessible leisure parks or secessionary island enclaves for the ultra-rich, land reclamation processes serve powerful societal forces and represent the capture of urban space for elite interests. This reduces the prospects for urban public space and limits the horizons for the development of more socially just future cities. The transformation of unclaimed fluid space into solid private space is a relative form of accumulation by dispossession, even if the public has never been aware of what it possessed.

  8. Kuwait. Oil and Gas sector report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, C.; Thasing, T. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Kuwait, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-04-15

    Kuwait is stepping up its efforts to position itself as one of the main transport and logistics hubs in the Gulf. Looking at the logistics performance index Kuwait is placed behind UAE and Bahrain but (far) ahead of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Iraq and Iran. Besides, Kuwait is gaining ground, investing heavily in new infrastructure which is intended not only to meet the country's own needs but also the needs of the wider region.Kuwait has nearly 500 kilometres of coastline along the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and is strategically positioned at the mouth of the waterways to Iraq and Iran. This could give Kuwait the advantage to serve as one of the most important regional hubs for shipping and transportation in the Gulf region. This becomes especially true when a planned railway line connecting Kuwait with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and especially Turkey becomes in service. Information is presented on: government plans, existing port infrastructure in Kuwait, developments and opportunities in the existing ports, the oil ports and terminals, investment and business opportunities.

  9. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  10. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  11. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  12. Analysis of an innovative solar water desalination system using gravity induced vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the theoretical analysis, design and appropriate models of a new desalination system using gravity induced vacuum. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures with less energy than conventional techniques. This technique is developed to overcome water storage, in the areas where good solar radiation (or waste heat sources) and sea water (or waste water sources). The developed system consists of an evaporator connected to condenser by means of a vacuum tank. The vapour produced in the evaporator is driven to condenser through the vacuum tank, where it condenses and collected as a product. Vacuum equivalent to 7 kPa (abs) or less can be created depending on ambient temperature of Bahrain climatic conditions. The effect of various operating conditions, namely water levels in condensation and evaporating columns on the system performance were studied. The theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results show that the performance of this system depends on the condensation temperature

  13. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program. PMID:27108312

  14. Kuwait. Oil and Gas sector report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwait is stepping up its efforts to position itself as one of the main transport and logistics hubs in the Gulf. Looking at the logistics performance index Kuwait is placed behind UAE and Bahrain but (far) ahead of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Iraq and Iran. Besides, Kuwait is gaining ground, investing heavily in new infrastructure which is intended not only to meet the country's own needs but also the needs of the wider region.Kuwait has nearly 500 kilometres of coastline along the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and is strategically positioned at the mouth of the waterways to Iraq and Iran. This could give Kuwait the advantage to serve as one of the most important regional hubs for shipping and transportation in the Gulf region. This becomes especially true when a planned railway line connecting Kuwait with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and especially Turkey becomes in service. Information is presented on: government plans, existing port infrastructure in Kuwait, developments and opportunities in the existing ports, the oil ports and terminals, investment and business opportunities.

  15. An epornitic of avian pox in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, J H; Kaaden, O R; Wernery, U; Bailey, T A

    1996-07-01

    An epornitic of avian pox occurred in a flock of 123 houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) received at the Sulman Falcon Hospital in the State of Bahrain in February 1993. Birds displayed conjunctivitis, excessive lacrimation and papilloma-like growths forming amorphous clusters on the third eyelid and on the conjunctiva. Examination of eyelid samples under transmission electron microscopy revealed pox virus particles displaying the classical morphology of vaccinia-avipox virions. Typical pox lesions were also detected 5 days post infection (p.i.) on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The virus titre on CAM was 10(7) focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. In tissue culture, only a slight cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was detected 5 days p.i. the virus titre on cell cultures was 10(4.5)FFU/ml. The virus infection in cell culture appeared to be abortive and no CPE was seen after three passages in secondary chicken embryo fibroblasts. No neutralization of the cell-grown virus was detected on serological studies using antisera directed against fowl, pigeon, canary and sparrowpox viruses. The discussion is framed around the different cultural properties of the houbara bustard pox virus isolate and its relationship to other known viral strains. PMID:8779810

  16. Imported Expertise in World-class Knowledge Infrastructures: The Problematic Development of Knowledge Cities in the Gulf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosior, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the oil business, settlements in the Gulf Region developed into prosperous cities. But in the near future, oil is off. The plans of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC states bank on diversified and knowledge-intensive economies. Are those development plans realistic? What is the state of the art of knowledge institutions in the GCC countries? Applying the theoretical frameworks of Knowledge City and Science Indicators research, we empirically and theoretically studied the emerging Gulf cities Kuwait City (Kuwait, Manama (Bahrain, Doha (Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah (all UAE, and Muscat (Oman. Our methodological framework includes grounded theory, ethnographic field study, ServQual-like quantitative questionnaires and semi-standardized qualitative interviews conducted on-site with informed people, informetrics, and, finally, the use of official statistics. In particular, we describe and analyze the cities' knowledge infrastructures, their academics, and expenditure on R&D as input indicators; and publications as well as graduates as output indicators. A further crucial aspect of a knowledge society is the transition of graduates into knowledge-intensive public services and private companies.

  17. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC. (author)

  18. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel, E-mail: dr09@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  19. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  20. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC. (author)

  1. Contamination of the Gulf marine environment following the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Gulf war, controversy and speculation have surrounded the extent to which the massive spillage of petroleum and the burning of oil wells in Kuwait have damaged marine ecosystems in the region. We report here the results of a rapid assessment survey of hydrocarbon contamination undertaken in the coastal marine environment from Kuwait to Oman during mid-1991. Our results show that severe oil pollution was restricted primarily to the Saudi Arabian coastline within ∼ 400km from the spillages, and that during the four months following the conflict and preceding our survey, the spilled oil had extensively degraded. Surprisingly, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and bivalve molluscs from Bahrain in June 1991 were lower than those recorded from our pre-war (1983-86) surveys at the same site, probably as a result of decreased tanker traffic and associated deballasting during and after the conflict. As for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during burning of the oil wells, we found that concentrations in sediments from even the most heavily contaminated sites were relatively low, and comparable to levels reported for the Baltic Sea, coastal locations of the northeastern United States and United Kingdom estuaries. (author)

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nickel and vanadium in air dust from Bahrein (Persian Gulf): Measurements and Puff model calculations for this area during the burning of the oil wells in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Kuwait's oil wells were at fire in 1991, air particulate matter (inhalable fraction) was sampled in Bahrain (soot clouds were over that region at that time) and analysed for PAHs, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V). Also in that period Puff-model calculations were carried out to forecast the dispersion of the combustion products and the impact on the environment in the Persian Gulf region. Based on the outcome of the model calculations and the analytical findings the major conclusions are that: (a) the PAH contamination level of the air particulate matter is equal or below that found for rural areas in the Netherlands and on average one order of magnitude below the findings of the model calculations; (b) there is no link between the air particulate matter content and the PAH contamination measured. The benzo(a)pyrene fraction of the PAH contamination is 10-14% which is surprisingly constant; (c) the strongly significant correlation between the Ni- and V-content both mutually and with respect to the air particulate matter content strongly suggests a common origin i.e. the burning oil wells in Kuwait; (d) the air particulate matter content measured is one up to two orders of magnitudes over the findings of the model calculations; (e) the emission factors applied in the Puff-model calculations, most probably, insufficiently match the combustion conditions of oil wells at fire. 6 figs., 3 tabs.,

  3. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  4. Long Memory Properties in Return and Volatility: An Application of the Impact of Arab Spring in Turkey Financial Market

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    Pinar Cevik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring which began on 17 December 2010 with the civil rebellions, revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in the Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and Syria. The Arab Spring not only created a domino effect between Arabic countries but also it reflected a significant influence on the financial markets all over the world. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the Arab Spring in Turkey Financial Market in consideration of long memory. Long memory can be defined as the persistence of the unexpected shocks on the underlying has long lasting effects. Modeling long memory in stock returns and volatility has also attracted great deal of attention from finance literature recently. Existence of long memory is determined both for the returns and volatility of the time series by using different methods. Existence of long memory can be tested by Rescaled Range Statistics (R/S, Geweke and Porter-Hudak (GPH Model and Gaussian Semi Parametric (GSP Method. In consequence of these tests, if the stock returns have long memory affect then respectively Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Moving Average Model (ARFIMA and the Fractionally Integrated Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (FIGARCH model are used to detect the long memory in respectively return and volatility. In this study, the impact of the Arab Spring is investigated by modeled the long memory in Istanbul Stock Exchange using ISE 30 index prices in between December 17, 2010 and April 02, 2012.

  5. An assessment of Qatar's coral communities in a regional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John A; Smith, Edward G; Warren, Christopher; Dupont, Jennifer

    2016-04-30

    Qatar's once extensive coral communities have undergone considerable change in recent decades. We quantitatively surveyed three coral assemblages in Qatar to assess current status, and compared these against 14 sites in Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to evaluate Qatar in a larger biogeographic context. Umm Al-Arshan had the highest species richness of 17 sites examined in the southern Arabian Gulf, as well as the highest coral cover and the only Acropora observed on sites in Qatar. Coral cover and richness were more modest at Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat, reflecting greater impacts from earlier stress events. Two distinct communities were identified across the southern Gulf, with Umm Al-Arshan clustering with high-cover, mixed merulinid/poritid assemblages that were less impacted by earlier bleaching and long-term stress, while Fuwayrit and Al-Ashat grouped with a lower-cover, stress-tolerant community characteristic of more extreme environments in the southern Gulf. We recommend implementation of a nation-wide baseline assessment of coral communities to guide development of an MPA network and long-term coral monitoring program for Qatar. PMID:26410180

  6. Heritage and Tourism. Global Society and Shifting Values in the United Arab Emirates

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    Marxiano Melotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage has always been an important tool in the political and identity formation of the nation-states. In the Western countries the gradual overcoming of nineteenth-century nationalism has paved the way for a post-modern use of their heritage, where tourism, market, culture, leisure and entertainment appear to be deeply interwoven. Museums, monuments and archaeological sites are important elements in the cultural and historical theming of consumption and in the promotion of the areas and requalification of their image. In the last decade the richest states in the Middle East, starting from the United Arab Emirates, have adopted both of these Western uses of heritage: local culture and monuments are used both as means of building or reinventing identity in a religious and national key and as instruments to promote the areas in recreational and tourist function. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are two significant cases. Their intangible heritage, which is enhanced and crystallized in a tourist way, concurs to construct a local historical identity. On the other hand, the major Western national museums, which in Europe have almost exhausted their political and identity function, are called to open branches there to attract international tourism, according to its post-modern model, and to assert the new metropolitan and international identity of these capitals. In such a context of renewed interest in the cultural heritage, we can recall the significant decision of Bahrain of hosting a centre devoted to Arab heritage under the auspices of UNESCO.

  7. Diabetes-related tuberculosis in the Middle East: an urgent need for regional research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkabab, Yosra M.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Heysell, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease, complicates TB treatment, and increases the risk of a poor TB outcome. As DM prevalence is increasing across the Middle East, this review was performed to identify regional gaps in knowledge and research priorities for DM/TB. Methods Online databases were searched for studies published from Middle East countries on DM and TB and the studies summarized based on topic and major findings. Studies included had a principle hypothesis related to both diseases, or described TB patients with individual data on DM. Results Fifty-nine studies from 10 countries met search criteria. No published studies were found from Lebanon, Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Cyprus, or the United Arab Emirates. DM prevalence among TB patients was high, but varied considerably across studies. The vast majority of studies were not specifically designed to compare DM/TB and non-DM/TB patients, but many suggested worse treatment outcomes for DM/TB, in accordance with reports from other regions. Conclusions Opportunity exists for the regional study of bidirectional screening, management strategies for both DM and TB diseases, and whether such efforts could take place through the integration of services. PMID:26409203

  8. La revolución llega a Bahréin

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    María Luisa Peñalva Vélez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bahréin, pequeno país situado en un lugar estratégico en el Golfo pérsico por su proximidad con Irán y con Arabia Saudita; es protagonista; desde el 14 de febrero de 2011; de una revuelta parecida a las vividas por otros países como Egipto o Túnez. Sus particularidades geográficas; históricas (país bajo tutela británica hasta su efectiva independencia en 1971; políticas (desequilibrio en el reparto de poderes ; geoestratégicas (base de la quinta flota americana; sociodemográficas (mestizaje cultural debido al importante porcentage de población extranjera entre expertos; trabajadores cualificados y/o mano de obra de Europa; América y Asia; económicas (diversificación económica; religiosas (diversidad de cultos, etc. deben ser tenidas en cuenta a la hora de evaluar las causas; los objetivos y las posibles consecuencias de la revuelta de una mayoría chiíta gobernada por una minoría sunita. Este artículo pretende analizar los diferentes aspectos de esta crisis política, que es bien anterior a los acontecimientos del mes de febrero; y que sería reduccionista reducir a un puro enfrentamiento entre sunitas y chiítas. Al albor de los ultimos acontecimientos; y en especial debido al aumento gradual de la violencia ; cabe prever la existencia de una fractura social creada por estas divisiones promulgadas por líderes políticos y medios de comunicación y que probablemente ralentizará la instauración de reformas democráticas. Palabras clave: Bahrein, revoluciones del mundo árabe, petróleo, sunita, chiíta.___________________________Abstract:Bahrain, a small country considered as strategically located in the Persian Gulf due to its proximity to both Iran and Saudi Arabia, has been witnessing a revolt since 14 February 2011, similar to those which took place in Tunisia and Egypt. Bahrain’s particularities are numerous: geographical, historical (the country was under British protectorate until its independence in 1971

  9. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  10. Jacob Chandy: pioneering neurosurgeon of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jacob; Mathai, K V; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Narayan, Raj K

    2010-09-01

    Jacob Chandy, who passed away in 2007 at the age of 97, was born into a deeply religious Christian family in Kerala, South India. After obtaining his medical education at the Madras Medical College, Madras, he serendipitously came to work with Dr Paul Harrison, a renowned medical missionary, in the Gulf state of Bahrain. Harrison urged Chandy to pursue training in the fledgling specialty of neurosurgery in North America. Chandy received his neurosurgical training at the Montreal Neurological Institute with Wilder Penfield and in Chicago with Theodore Rasmussen. At Harrison's urging, Chandy decided to return to India after completing his training to work at the Christian Medical College in Vellore. Thus, it was in 1949 that Chandy established the first neurosurgery department in south Asia in Vellore. He initiated the first neurosurgical training program in India at the Christian Medical College in 1957, with a distinct North American neurosurgical tradition. He went on to train nearly 20 neurosurgeons, many of whom set up new departments of neurosurgery in their home states. Chandy also had several other remarkable achievements to his credit. Despite the pressures of clinical practice, he insisted on fostering both basic and clinical neurosciences within his department, an arrangement that persists to this day in the Department of Neurological Sciences at the Christian Medical College, Vellore. As the Principal (Dean) of the Christian Medical College, Chandy displayed his skills as a medical educator and administrator. In this role, he was instrumental in starting specialty training programs in several other medical and surgical disciplines. His greatest legacies survive in the form of the department that he founded and his trainees and their students who have helped to establish neurosurgery all over the country. PMID:20647965

  11. Population policies vary in Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1993-04-01

    The Middle East's fast-growing population not only puts constraints on the environment and natural resources but also on governments by increasing the demand for education, housing, health care, and jobs. Cairo has 9 million inhabitants, Tehran, 7 million, and Istanbul, 7 million. These countries have 253 million people, and the number is expected to grow to 400 million by 2010. Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, yemen, Oman, Jordan, and the West Bank and Gaza have an annual rate of growth of 3%. Iran has 60 million people, Iraq, 18 million, Saudi Arabia, 16 million, and Yemen, 10 million, totalling 126 million people. Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates comprise 123 million people growing at a rate of 2-3% per year. Only Israel with 5 million and Cyprus with less than 1 million people have a rate of natural increase of 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The total fertility rate (TFR) for the region is close to 5 children. In 1991/1992, women in rural Yemen averaged more than 8 children; in contrast, Cyprus has a TFR of 2.4, and Jewish women in Israel have a TFR of 2.7. About half of the people of the region are under 20. Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Turkey have policies to lower fertility and subsidize family planning services. Yemen recently adopted a national population policy to reduce the TFR to 4.0 by 2018. Iraq, Kuwait, Israel, and Cyprus want to raise fertility by providing incentives to families, such as child allowances, greater access to housing, and tax breaks. Kuwait provides cash child allowances, maternity benefits, and subsidies to families of government workers. Israel has social welfare policies to increase the size of the Jewish population, although it provides contraceptive information. Saudi Arabia restrict access to contraceptives by banning their advertising. PMID:12318175

  12. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  13. A combination of sorafenib and nilotinib reduces the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archibald M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monica Archibald,1 Tara Pritchard,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Rhonda J Rosengren,1 Khaled Greish,1,2 Sebastien Taurin1 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Aljawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC remains incurable due to the lack of effective therapies. Several tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and growth of CRPC, as such targeting these kinases may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy. We established the combination of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, sorafenib and nilotinib, as the most cytotoxic. In addtion, to improve their bioavailability and reduce their metabolism, we encapsulated sorafenib and nilotinib into styrene-co-maleic acid micelles. The micelles’ charge, size, and release rate were characterized. We assessed the effect of the combination on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis, protein expression, tumor spheroid integrity, migration, and invasion. The micelles exhibited a mean diameter of 100 nm, a neutral charge, and appeared highly stable. The micellar TKIs promoted greater cytotoxicity, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis relative to the free TKIs. In addition, the combination reduced the expression and activity of several tyrosine kinases and reduced tumor spheroid integrity and metastatic potential of CRPC cell lines more efficiently than the single treatments. The combination increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevance of a targeted combination therapy for the treatment of CRPC. In addition, the efficacy of the encapsulated drugs provides the basis for an in vivo preclinical testing. Keywords: sorafenib, nilotinib, castrate-resistant prostate cancer, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nanomedicine

  14. Potential for the International Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Association with Mass Gatherings in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Sears, Jennifer; Hu, Vivian Wei; Brownstein, John S; Hay, Simon; Kossowsky, David; Eckhardt, Rose; Chim, Tina; Berry, Isha; Bogoch, Isaac; Cetron, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: A novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causing severe, life-threatening respiratory disease has emerged in the Middle East at a time when two international mass gatherings in Saudi Arabia are imminent. While MERS-CoV has already spread to and within other countries, these mass gatherings could further amplify and/or accelerate its international dissemination, especially since the origins and geographic source of the virus remain poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 2012 worldwide flight itinerary data and historic Hajj pilgrim data to predict population movements out of Saudi Arabia and the broader Middle East to help cities and countries assess their potential for MERS-CoV importation. We compared the magnitude of travel to countries with their World Bank economic status and per capita healthcare expenditures as surrogate markers of their capacity for timely detection of imported MERS-CoV and their ability to mount an effective public health response. Results: 16.8 million travelers flew on commercial flights out of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates between June and November 2012, of which 51.6% were destined for India (16.3%), Egypt (10.4%), Pakistan (7.8%), the United Kingdom (4.3%), Kuwait (3.6%), Bangladesh (3.1%), Iran (3.1%) and Bahrain (2.9%). Among the 1.74 million foreign pilgrims who performed the Hajj last year, an estimated 65.1% originated from low and lower-middle income countries. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is an emerging pathogen with pandemic potential with its apparent epicenter in Saudi Arabia, where millions of pilgrims will imminently congregate for two international mass gatherings. Understanding global population movements out of the Middle East through the end of this year's Hajj could help direct anticipatory MERS-CoV surveillance and public health preparedness to mitigate its potential global health and economic impacts. PMID:23884087

  15. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A. J.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship. PMID:27226912

  16. Enhancing Employees Performance via Empowerment: A Field Survey

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    Nail AHK Awamleh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to show the importance of empowerment in improving employee’s performance in many ways. Major objectives of the study are: (1 Give concise review on empowerment from different aspects, (2 Show practical experience with empowerment practices through a field survey of these practices in a sample of respondents working in business and government organizations in Bahrain, (3 Draw some conclusions on "empowerment" of importance for researchers and practitioners in management and organizations, (4 Provide some recommendations in the light of the conclusions of the study. Empowerment is the process of enabling employees in many forms and ways including delegating, training and development, job rotation and fair promotion opportunities. A concise review of literature on empowerment, its types and forms, obstacles and ways of improving empowerment have been given in this study. The study employs descriptive-analytic approach in achieving its goals. It utilizes ready and primary sources of information and data. The study relies on related literature review along with primary data collected by means of questionnaire especially designed for this study. Major findings of the study include wide differences among researchers and practitioners regarding the meaning, nature, tools and applications of empowerment. Findings also shows that empowerment faces serious practical obstacles such as insufficient top management support, lack of awareness, absence of clear regulations on ways and tools of empowerment and insufficient funds. The study recommended carrying out more academic and practical activities regarding empowerment, updating laws and regulations to reinforcing empowerment practices and restructuring organizational culture and structure to create empowerment friendly environment.

  17. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from Gulf Corporation Council countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mahmoud

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is substantial and is likely to grow. Many factors play a role in the emergence of resistance. These resistance mechanisms may be encoded on transferable genes, which facilitate the spread of resistance between bacterial strains of the same and/or different species. Other resistance mechanisms may be due to alterations in the chromosomal DNA which enables the bacteria to withstand the environment and multiply. Many, if not most, of the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC countries do not have clear guidelines for antimicrobial use, and lack policies for restricting and auditing antimicrobial prescriptions. Objective The aim of this study is to review the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in GCC countries and explore the reasons for antibiotic resistance in the region. Methodology The PubMed database was searched using the following key words: antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic stewardship, prevalence, epidemiology, mechanism of resistance, and GCC country (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. Results From January1990 through April 2011, there were 45 articles published reviewing antibiotic resistance in the GCC countries. Among all the GCC countries, 37,295 bacterial isolates were studied for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent microorganism was Escherichia coli (10,073/44%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (4,709/20%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4,287/18.7%, MRSA (1,216/5.4%, Acinetobacter (1,061/5%, with C. difficile and Enterococcus representing less than 1%. Conclusion In the last 2 decades, E. coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent reported microorganisms by GCC countries with resistance data.

  18. Pain control with morphine: Evaluation of prescriptions for oral morphine for outpatients at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessle, S; Gray, A; Lambert, G; Boyar, A; Ba-Hatheq, A; Adloni, S; Al Khayyal, M

    1996-07-01

    With the rapid improvement in living standards and health care delivery in Saudi Arabia, people are expected to live longer, patterns of illness will change, and the chronic illnesses which now dominate medical care in the West will develop here. Among these is cancer, which is already the third most common cause of death in Bahrain and Kuwait. Many cancer patients experience considerable distress, particularly pain. Management of symptoms in advanced cancer is now a medical and nursing specialty called palliative care. The most common and most feared symptom in advanced cancer is pain, which can only be effectively relieved with morphine in 60% of such patients. Prescribing narcotics such as morphine for cancer pain in Saudi Arabia has been severely restricted legally because of the fear of addiction, but there is no evidence that the medicinal use of morphine for treating cancer pain causes addiction. This paper describes a review carried out at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, one of the few centers in the Kingdom that can prescribe morphine to outpatients, to review the appropriateness and effectiveness of morphine usage, and to monitor any misuse. The review confirms that morphine usage was appropriate and effective, but that procurement of adequate narcotic supplies from year to year causes severe problems due to the stringency of both national and international regulations. Also, better monitoring of patients on morphine and recording of their level of pain control is required. In general, this survey shows that morphine usage in this hospital is appropriate and that limitations on supplies could be improved by changes to the Ministry of Health regulations. PMID:17372444

  19. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area. PMID:25905019

  20. The impact of dietary habits and metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular and diabetes mortality in countries of the Middle East and North Africa in 2010: a comparative risk assessment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Shi, Peilin; Powles, John; Singh, Gitanjali; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Abdollahi, Morteza; Al-Hooti, Suad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Houshiar-rad, Anahita; Hwalla, Nahla; Koksal, Eda; Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Pekcan, Gulden; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Zaghloul, Sahar; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objective/design We conducted a comparative risk assessment analysis to estimate the cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality attributable to 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors in 20 countries of the Middle East by age, sex and time. The national exposure distributions were obtained from a systematic search of multiple databases. Missing exposure data were estimated using a multilevel Bayesian hierarchical model. The aetiological effect of each risk factor on disease-specific mortality was obtained from clinical trials and observational studies. The number of disease-specific deaths was obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease mortality database. Mortality due to each risk factor was determined using the population attributable fraction and total number of disease-specific deaths. Setting/population Adult population in the Middle East by age, sex, country and time. Results Suboptimal diet was the leading risk factor for CMD mortality in 11 countries accounting for 48% (in Morocco) to 72% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal systolic blood pressure was the leading risk factor for CMD deaths in eight countries causing 45% (in Bahrain) to 68% (in Libya) of CMD deaths. Non-optimal body mass index and fasting plasma glucose were the third and fourth leading risk factors for CMD mortality in most countries. Among individual dietary factors, low intake of fruits accounted for 8% (in Jordan) to 21% (in Palestine) of CMD deaths and low intake of whole grains was responsible for 7% (in Palestine) to 22% (in the United Arab Emirates) of CMD deaths. Between 1990 and 2010, the CMD mortality attributable to most risk factors had decreased except for body mass index and trans-fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings highlight key similarities and differences in the impact of the dietary and metabolic risk factors on CMD mortality in the countries of the Middle East and inform priorities for policy measures to prevent CMD. PMID:25995236

  1. Scientific program of SESAME project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron radiations emitted by a charged particle in motion while accelerated or decelerated is a very useful tool in field of research related to various important areas of physical and biological sciences. The board energy spectrum and flux provided by a synchrotron source can be used for various applications. Some of the applications include lithography, food preservation, study of environment, archaeology, and mineral mining using XRF. Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in Middle East SESAME is a project, which is established under auspices of UNESCO as intergovernmental organization with following members: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. SESAME is a third generation light source with beam energy of 2.5 GeV, beam current of 400 mA, emittance 26nm.rad and circumference of 133.2 m. It is under construction close to Amman - Jordan and will become operational end of 2012 or beginning of 2013. SESAME contains 16 straight sections out of which 13 straight sections are available for placing insertion devices such as undulator and wigglers. An extensive scientific programme has been established with the help of Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) and the Beamline Advisory Committee (BAC). From the beginning 7 beamlines are planned for Phase - I covering diverse areas of scientific interest such as: SAXS/WAXS, PX, IR, Soft X-ray, Powder Diffraction, XRF/XAFS and Atomic, Molecular spectroscopy (AMO) beamline. SESAME once operational will be a very competitive machine in the category of third generation light sources. (author)

  2. Medical Students’ Perceptions of Peer Assessment in a Problem-based Learning Curriculum

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    Yasin I. Tayem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peer assessment (PA is believed to support learning and help students develop both professionally and personally. The aim of this study was to examine medical students’ perceptions of intragroup PA in a problem-based learning (PBL setting. Methods: This study was carried out between September and November 2014 and involved six random groups of fourth-year undergraduate medical students (n = 60 enrolled at the Arabian Gulf University in Manama, Bahrain. While working on set tasks within a curriculum unit, each student evaluated a randomly selected peer using an English language adapted assessment tool to measure responsibility and respect, information processing, critical analysis, interaction and collaborative skills. At the end of the unit, students’ perceptions of PA were identified using a specifically-designed voluntary and anonymous selfadministered questionnaire in English. Results: A total of 55 students participated in the study (response rate: 92%. The majority of students reported that their learning (60%, attendance (67%, respect towards group members (70% and participation in group discussions (71% improved as a result of PA. Regarding problem analysis skills, most participants believed that PA improved their ability to analyse problems (65%, identify learning needs (64%, fulfil tasks related to the analysis of learning needs (72% and share knowledge within their group (74%. Lastly, a large proportion of students reported that this form of assessment helped them develop their communication (71% and self-assessment skills (73%, as well as collaborative abilities (75%. Conclusion: PA was well accepted by the students in this cohort and led to self-reported improvements in learning, skills, attitudes, engagement and other indicators of personal and professional development. PA was also perceived to have a positive impact on intragroup attitudes.

  3. Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

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    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research exists on researchers' knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE in the eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. This multi-country study explores researchers' views and experiences regarding the role of health systems and policy research evidence in health policymaking in the EMR, including the factors that influence health policymaking, barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence, and the factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE. Methods Researchers who published health systems and policy relevant research in 12 countries in the EMR (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive analysis and Linear Mixed Regression Models were performed for quantitative sections and the simple thematic analysis approach was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 238 researchers were asked to complete the survey (response rate 56%. Researchers indicated transferring results to other researchers (67.2% and policymakers in the government (40.5%. Less than one-quarter stated that they produced policy briefs (14.5%, disseminated messages that specified possible actions (24.4%, interacted with policymakers and stakeholders in priority-setting (16%, and involved them in their research (19.8%. Insufficient policy dialogue opportunities and collaboration between researchers and policymakers and stakeholders (67.9%, practical constraints to implementation (66%, non-receptive policy environment (61.3%, and politically sensitive findings (57.7% hindered the use of evidence. Factors that increase researchers' engagement in KTE activities in the region were associated with involving policymakers and stakeholders at various stages such as priority-setting exercises and provision of technical assistance. Conclusions Researchers in the EMR recognize the importance of using health systems evidence in health policymaking. Potential strategies to

  4. Distribution and clinal trends of the ABO and Rh genes in select Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Afshan, K; Malik, S

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the ABO and Rh blood group systems is important for blood transfusions and is also pertinent due to their potential association with certain morbidities and susceptibilities to infections. To investigate the diversity and differentiation of the ABO and Rh loci in Middle Eastern populations, data from twelve representative Middle Eastern populations were analyzed. Six populations were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the ABO locus. The pooled heterozygosity at both loci was calculated to be highest in the sample from Jordan and lowest in Bahrain. Heterogeneity was pronounced in the Northern compared to the Southern Middle Eastern populations. Overall, the absolute gene diversity was 0.0046 and gene differentiation was calculated to be 0.0100. Genetic diversity of the studied loci across all populations (HT) was estimated to be 0.4594, while the diversity within the populations (HS) was 0.4548. Nei's genetic distance analyses revealed highest affinities between the populations of Kuwait and Qatar, Oman and Yemen, and between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. These results were displayed through a UGPMA dendrogram and principal component analyses, which established clustering of certain populations. Clinal trends of the allelic systems were observed by generating contour maps that allow a detailed appreciation of the distributions of alleles across the geography of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. Taken together, these analyses are helpful in understanding the differentiation of blood group loci and for designing prospective studies for establishing the associations of these loci with health variables in the populations studied. PMID:26400302

  5. Biomedical Publications Profile and Trends in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

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    Almundher Al-Maawali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There is a dearth of studies examining the relationship between research output and other socio-demographic indicators in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The three interrelated aims of this study were, first, to ascertain the number of biomedical publications in the GCC from 1970 to 2010; second, to establish the rate of publication according population size during the same period and, third, to gauge the relationship between the number of publications and specific socio-economic parameters. Methods: The Medline database was searched in October 2010 by affiliation, year and publication type from 1970 to 2010. Data obtained were normalised to the number of publications per million of the population, gross domestic product, and the number of physicians in each country. Results: The number of articles from the GCC region published over this 40 year period was 25,561. Saudi Arabia had the highest number followed by Kuwait, UAE, and then Oman. Kuwait had the highest profile of publication when normalised to population size, followed by Qatar. Oman is the lowest in this ranking. Overall, the six countries showed a rising trend in publication numbers with Oman having a significant increase from 1990 to 2005. There was a significant relationship between the number of physicians and the number of publications. Conclusion: The research productivity from GGC has experienced complex and fluctuating growth in the past 40 years. Future prospects for increasing research productivity are discussed with particular reference to the situation in Oman.

  6. Mental illness research in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice

  7. Prescription Writing in Small Groups as a Clinical Pharmacology Educational Intervention: Perceptions of Preclerkship Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Tayem, Yasin I Y; Al Khaja, K A J; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-08-01

    Medical students do not perform well in writing prescriptions, and the 3 variables-learner, teacher, and instructional method-are held responsible to various degrees. The objective of this clinical pharmacology educational intervention was to improve medical students' perceptions, motivation, and participation in prescription-writing sessions. The study participants were second-year medical students of the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences of the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Two prescription-writing sessions were conducted using clinical case scenarios based on problems the students had studied as part of the problem-based learning curriculum. At the end of the respiratory system subunit, the training was conducted in small groups, each facilitated by a tutor. At the end of the cardiovascular system subunit, the training was conducted in a traditional large-group classroom setting. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire at the end of each session and a focus group discussion. A majority of the students (95.3% ± 2.4%) perceived the small-group method better for teaching and learning of all aspects of prescription writing: analyzing the clinical case scenario, applying clinical pharmacology knowledge for therapeutic reasoning, using a formulary for searching relevant prescribing information, and in writing a complete prescription. Students also endorsed the small-group method for better interaction among themselves and with the tutor and for the ease of asking questions and clarifying doubts. In view of the principles of adult learning, where motivation and interaction are important, teaching and learning prescription writing in small groups deserve a serious consideration in medical curricula. PMID:26677798

  8. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  9. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  10. ‘One Health’ in Action Series: Nos 1-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This series of short articles was published in 2007 and distributed to the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath ‘One Health’ email distribution list. The articles are further examples of historical achievements obtained across numerous scientific disciplines, including human and veterinary medicine. Each article was written and developed with assistance from the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath ‘One Health’ team.The expanding ‘One Health’ email distribution list now totals approximately 590 individuals in 38 countries including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, France, Germany, Grenada, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malta, The Netherlands, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay.The list of supporters currently totals 417. If these lists are still being actively maintained by the publication date of this ‘One Medicine -One Health’ monograph, any allied health scientist, physician, osteopath or veterinarian may be added to one and/or both lists by contacting us at bkapdvm@verizon.net. Please include your curriculum vitae or brief biography, title, degree(s, affiliation and address consistent with those currently acknowledged as ‘One Health - One Medicine’ supporters. There are no obligations attached to joining this group and you may have your name removed at any time upon request.Those who have prepared this message and the two lists act independently of any other entity or organisation. However, where feasible, we attempt to augment and support those organisations' efforts to recognise, promote and implement this initiative, such as the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Croatian Society for Infectious Diseases, American Society of Tropical

  11. Campylobacter jejuni induces diverse kinetics and profiles of cytokine genes in INT-407 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to examine the kinetic ability of embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells to express messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for various cytokines and chemokines in response to Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) stimulation. In an experimental single-blind study, cultured embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells were treated with different concentrations of viable C. jejuni, its sonicated and filtered supernatant. A modified non-radioactive in situ hybridization using probe cocktails was used to measure mRNA levels for the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and IL-8 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10. The study was carried out from September 2005 to March 2007 at the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Viable C. jejuni sonicated bacteria and filtered supernatant induced high mRNA expression for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gama, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and IL-8 which peaked at the 12 hours post stimulation. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 and IL-10 mNRA expression were induced maximally at 3 hours post stimulation mainly by sonicated bacteria and filtrated supernatant, however, not with living bacteria and filtrated supernatant, however, not with living bacteria. Untreated embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells expressed low amount of mNRA for the various cytokines and chemokines at all time points. For each cytokine, 4 samples were used per time hour. This study demonstrated that embryonic human epithelial INT-407 cells in response to viable C. jejuni or its cytotxins can alter cytokine and chemokine mNRA expression patterns and kinetics suggesting a potential role for these mediators in the immunopathogenesis of the infection caused by this pathogen, which might be relevant for future immunotherapeutic

  12. TAXPAYERS AND TAX AUTHORITIES INTERACTING WITHIN THE MENA REGION: THE NEXUS BETWEEN TRUST, POWER AND COMPLIANCE

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    Batrancea Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any type of interaction climate, be it synergistic or antagonistic, is delineated by a tandem of dimensions: trust in authorities and power of authorities. Advocates for this assumption are the manifold of empirical studies testing the “slippery slope framework” which subsumes the two dimensions. A major proffer advanced by the framework is that tax authorities’ approach towards citizens poses great influence on compliance, either fuelling or hindering it. Irrespective of whether tax burden level is high (e.g., Scandinavian, Continental welfare states, medium (e.g., East European, Anglo-Saxon welfare states, minimum or completely lacking (e.g., tax havens, tax authorities and taxpayers establish a connection in which the former’s actions are mirrored in the latter’s perceptions about leadership’s benevolence in public good provisions (i.e., trust and efficiency in deterring tax evasion (i.e., power. The tandem trust-power and the specific features of such connections within some countries of the Middle East and Northern Africa tax climate (i.e., Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates are the thrust of the present study. The methodology spans a multidisciplinary approach, from explaining trust and power via governance indicators proposed by the World Bank, investigating economic development with chain base indexes and examining tax compliance process on country-level. The MENA region is source for novel and relevant insights on the nexus between trust, power and compliance, as it hosts countries which vary greatly in terms of economic development (transition to developed, fiscal policy (low to no taxes or economy drivers (oil exporters, oil importers and where tax compliance gains importance amid diminishing hydrocarbon resources. Nowadays economic realities constrain MENA authorities to refocus their governing strategies and perceive taxation as a viable future solution for

  13. Abu Dhabi-Great Britain and the crisis over jurisdiction 1959-1960

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    Federico Velez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las demandas presentadas por el Jeque Shakhbout en 1959 para obtener la plena soberanía jurídica sobre el emirato de Abu Dhabi generaron una crisis diplomática plasmada en la correspondencia interna del gobierno Británico. Con sus demandas, el Jeque Shakhbout forzaba a la burocracia a cargo de los Estados de la Tregua – La Oficina de Asuntos Extranjeros en Londres, el representante del gobierno Británico en Bahreín, y los agente administrativos y políticos en Dubai y Abu Dhabi a reexaminar las bases legales de la presencia Británica en la zona y los límites éticos del sistema judicial impuesto sobre sus habitantes. La crisis va mas allá de una discusión sobre los poderes jurisdiccionales. La crisis nos ofrece una ventana a las contradicciones inherentes a la  presencia Británica en la zona, en el marco del movimiento nacionalista árabe y del desarrollo de la industria petrolera y la futura redefinición de la relación entre Abu Dhabi  y la Gran Bretaña.Palabras clave: Abu Dhabi, Gran Bretaña, colonialismo___________________________Abstract:Demands to the British government for supreme jurisdiction over his territory presented by the ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1959 created a diplomatic crisis captured in the internal correspondence of the British government. Sheikh Shakhbout forced the entire bureaucracy that was dealing with the Trucial States – the Foreign Office in London, the British Resident in Bahrain, and the Political and Administrative Agents in Abu Dhabi and Dubai – to reexamine the legality of their presence in the region and the ethical limits of the judicial system imposed on this land.The crisis went beyond the mere discussion over jurisdictional powers. It is also a window into the contradictions linked to the British presence in the region, within the framework of the nascent Arab Nationalist movement and the development of the oil industry . All of which will soon change the nature of the relationship between

  14. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  15. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  16. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  17. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC. The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates

  18. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ∼133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  19. Non-supervised Classification of Ground-based Radiometer Retrievals in Order to Assess the Natural Distribution of Aerosol Volume Size Distributions and Refractive Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, L.; Frouin, R.; Pietras, C.; Knobelspiesse, K.; Fargion, G.

    2002-05-01

    Ocean color algorithms generally use aerosol mixture models to firstly evaluate the atmospheric contribution to the signal (atmospheric correction) and secondly derive the oceanic content, indexed by chlorophyll a concentration. Indeed the accuracy of ocean color retrievals from SeaWiFS, POLDER, OCTS, MODIS, GLI, MERIS, etc., relies on assumptions of the optical properties associated with each aerosol type. Gordon and Wang (1994) used nine reference aerosol models, namely the Shettle and Fenn 1979) maritime and tropospheric models with a humidity variation of the aerosol optical properties and a coastal aerosol model, actually a mixture of the maritime and tropospheric models. These models may or may not be realistic. Shettle and Fenn (1979) developed their models using aerosol samples for which they derived the optical characteristics. In atmospheric correction, however, we are more interested in the optical behavior of the aerosols through the entire atmosphere. Comparisons of SeaWiFS-derived and measured aerosol optical thickness (Ainsworth et al., 2001), on the other hand, have revealed a systematic underestimation of the Angstrom coefficient. This might be evidence that the reference models are not representative of actual conditions, although it is not excluded that the discrepancy might be due to the procedure to select the models or to errors in the radiometric calibration. To provide answers to the above questions (i.e., representation of the models, origin of atmospheric correction errors), and ultimately improve atmospheric correction, one needs to analyze atmospheric optics data under varied aerosol conditions, i.e., encountered over the world oceans. Since 1997 the SIMBIOS Project has augmented the AERONET network with 12 additional island and coastal sites, including the Hawaiian Islands (Lanai and Oahu), Ascension Island, Bahrain, Tahiti, Wallops Island (US East Coast), South Korea, Turkey, Argentina, Azores, and Australia and more recently Morocco

  20. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  1. 赤峰市2007~2014年人间布鲁菌病疫情态势分析%Analysis of human brucellosis epidemic situation in Chifeng City in 2007-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琪; 王培玉; 张学英; 刘爱萍

    2015-01-01

    continued until 2011. In 2012 it began to reduce, but by 2014 the cases were bumped up to his-torical peak (2184 cases). The highest onset seasons began from March to May, April were the most. The 12 banners, counties or districts were all the epidemic areas with pathogenesis of brucellosis, Linxi County and Bahrain Right Ban-ner had the highest morbidity, Hexigten Banner and Bahrain Left Banner had the second morbidity, Punavuori District, Yuanbaoshan District and Ningcheng County had the lowest. Onset age was given priority to 40-<55 years old group, male incidence was higher than female (χ²=356.12, P< 0.05); professional distribution to farmers (79.54%) and herds-men (11.65%) were in the majority. Conclusion The epidemic situation of human brucellosis of Chifeng City has im-proved in 2011, but reach to history's highest peak in 2014. The comprehensive prevention and control measures should be further carried out to strengthen the management and control the brucellosis infection. Professional knowl-edge of annimal brucellosis prevention propaganda and education and control the outbreak of human brucellosis in Chifeng City are required.

  2. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfadhel M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1,2 Fuad Al Mutairi,1,2 Nawal Makhseed,3 Fatma Al Jasmi,4 Khalid Al-Thihli,5 Emtithal Al-Jishi,6 Moeenaldeen AlSayed,7 Zuhair N Al-Hassnan,7,8 Fathiya Al-Murshedi,5 Johannes Häberle,9 Tawfeg Ben-Omran10 Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group (MHUSG 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pediatrics, Jahra Hospital, Ministry of Health, Jahra City, Kuwait; 4Department of Pediatric, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 5Genetic and Developmental Medicine Clinic, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 6Salmaniya Medical Complex, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 7Department of Medical Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, 8The National Newborn Screening Program, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 9Department of Pediatrics, Division of Metabolism and Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 10Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain.Objective: There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is

  3. Uterine fibroid embolization: Is there a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) in Salmanya Medical Complex, Bahrain as a primary theraputic option for a selected case symptomatic fibroid uterus.Within 6 weeks of UFE, this patient developed life threatening infection due to sloughing of the fibroid through the cervix but she conceived within 11-months of the procedure and delivered normally at term. As this patient developed life threatening infection, the author is left with the predicament whether to try it again or not in the next selected case. Our patient was a 20-year-old, nulliparous girl who had fibroid uterus extending 2 fingers above the umbilicus. Ultrasound and computed tomography confirmed a large intramural posterior wall fibroid uterus measuring 17 x 15 cms Uterine fibroid embolization was carried out by single puncture using 700 polyvinyl alcohol particles lodged permanently inside both the uterine arteries to block or damp the flow of the blood through these vessels. On 6th week, she had vaginal myomectomy for sloughing of submucous fibroid through the cervix. (Figure 1) Postoperatively, she showed immediate improvement. She conceived after 11-months of treatment and pregnancy till normal delivery was uneventful. Patients who have had fibroid embolization have become pregnant as in our patient, after 11-months of embolization. Bradley et al4 described a woman who conceived immediately after the procedure. Ravina et al1 also reported a successful twin pregnancy in his patients. There have been no studies that define the incidence of pregnancy after the procedure and further studies are necessary to delineate the impact of UFE on fertility. Many gynecologists consider UFE as safe, exciting, promising, minimally invasive and highly effective non surgical primary treatment for symptomatic fibroid uterus. In spite of this, patient should me made aware of the limitations of the treatment and she should recognize that complications of the procedure may lead to hysterectomy. As

  4. Use of the Seasons and Biomes Project in Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Morris, K.; . Jaroensutasinee, M.; Jaroensutasinee, K.; Yule, S.; Boger, R.; Gordon, L. S.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kopplin, M. R.; Verbyla, D. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Seasons and Biomes Project is an inquiry- and project- based initiative that monitors seasons, specifically their interannual variability, with the goal of increasing primary and secondary students' understanding of the earth system, and engaging them in research as a way of learning science, understanding climate change, contributing to climate change studies and participating in the fourth International Polar Year. International professional development workshops have been conducted in the United States, S. Africa, Germany and most recently in Thailand. Primary and secondary teachers and teacher trainers as well as scientists from Argentina, Bahrain, Cameroon, Canada, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Greenland, India, Peru, Paraguay, Mongolia, Norway, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States have participated in the training workshops and are working with students. Available to the Seasons and Biomes participants are the rich array of scientific protocols for investigations on atmosphere/weather, hydrology, soils, land cover biology, and phenology as well as learning activities which have been developed by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment program (GLOBE) program (www.globe.gov). GLOBE is an international (109 countries involved) earth/environmental science and education program that brings together scientists, teachers, students and parents in inquiry-based studies and in monitoring the Earth, increasing awareness of and care of the environment, and increasing student achievement across the curriculum. Students conduct their studies at or close to their schools and submit the data they have collected to the Data Archive on the GLOBE website. Seasons and Biomes has developed additional learning activities and measurement protocols such as freshwater ice phenology protocols (freeze-up and break-up) and a frost tube (depth of freezing in soils) protocol that are being used in schools. A mosquito

  5. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2013-07-01

    in developing specialized online video sharing platform for open education. The paper also reports a comparison study on four most credible open source video management systems (VMS and titled as “OPEN SOURCE VIDEO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (VMS FOR OPEN EDUCATION: A Comparision Study”, which is written by Ahmad Zamzuri MOHAMAD ALI, Faculty of Art, Computing and Creative Indusrty, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia. The 3rd article from Turkey which is written on “EXAMINING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE ABSORPTION LEVELS REGARDING TO WEB AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LOCUS OF CONTROL”, written by Cem CUHADAR, from Trakya University, Faculty of Education, Department of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies, Edirne, Turkey. This current study investigated university students’ cognitive absorption levels according to several variables, and presented the relationship between cognitive absorption and locus of control. Study resorted to a descriptive model. Participants were 374 undergraduate students. The Cognitive Absorption Scale and Locus of Control Scale were used to collect the data. Independent samples t-test, one-way between-groups ANOVA, correlation and regression analyses were used to analyze data. Findings suggested that university students had above average cognitive absorption.Moreover, the higher the general internal control/personal control was, the lesser the cognitive absorption level. It was plausible to infer that information and communication technologies served as sources of pleasure and curiosity for university students. However, for students with a higher internal locus of control, levels of pleasure and curiosity dropped. The fourth article written on “STEPP: A Grounded Model to Assure the Quality of Instructional Activities in e-Learning Environments” by Hamdy AHMED ABDELAZIZ who is Associate Professor of e-Learning and Training Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain & College of Education, Tanta

  6. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 4 of TOJDE! In this issue, one book review and 26 articles of 49 authors from 15 different countries around the world have been published. These published articles are from, Bahrain, Brazil, Greece, India, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe. First all, you should know that if a submission picks up from three TOJDE editors between 4.5 and 9 over all 9 credits, it means that this submission can be published in TOJDE in the coming issue. However, since the publishing priority of the accepted papers belongs to the highest scored ones, submissions which receive a score between 4.5 and 5 or 6 may wait and be archived for publishing later on. TOJDE administration respected this publishing rule up to now. Therefore, some accepted submissions which obtained over 4.5 have not been published up to now. These submissions were waiting for publishing in TOJDE in the future. In this issue, we decided to give them a chance to be published. For this reason, the current issue includes more papers than the previous issues. The 1st article arrived from Turkey and written by Serkan ÇELIK, Hasan ATAK and Ahmet BAŞAL, on “Predictive Role of Personality Traits on Internet Addiction". Their study was set and tested on tertiary level students receiving education within two learning modes: face to face and distance education. The 2nd article is titled as “Web-Based Adaptive Testing System (Wats For Classifying Students Academic Ability” which is written by Jaemu LEE, Kwangho KIM from Busan National University of Education, South Korea and Sanghoon PARK, from Northwestern State University of Louisiana, U.S.A. This study explores; theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed. 3rd article is from Malaysia titled “Development of

  7. Timing of Early Aptian demise of northern Tethyan carbonate platforms - chemostratigraphic versus biostratigraphic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Stefan; Immenhauser, Adrian; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Rameil, Niels

    2010-05-01

    platform related to the unfolding oceanic anoxic event 1a (« Selli event »). Revue de Paléobiologie, 27, 461-468. Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Smith, A.G., Bleeker, W. and Lourens, L.J. (2004) A new Geologic Time Scale, with special reference to Precambrian and Neogene. Episodes, 27, 83-100. Huck, S., Rameil, N., Korbar, T., Heimhofer, U., Wieczorek, T.D. and Immenhauser, A. (2010) Latitudinally different responses of Tethyan shoal-water carbonate systems to the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE 1a). Sedimentology (pending acceptance of revised version). Moreno-Bedmar, J.A., Company, M., Bover-Arnal, T., Salas, R., Delanoy, G., Martinez, R. and Grauges, A. (2009) Biostratigraphic characterization by means of ammonoids of the lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 1a) in the eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, eastern Spain). Cretaceous Research, 30, 864-872. Rameil, N., Immenhauser, A., Warrlich, G.M.D., Vahrenkamp, V.C., Hillgärtner, H., Droste, H.J., Al-Mahruqi, I., Buhl, D., Schulte, U. and Kunkel, C. (2009) Chemostratigraphy-based correlation of Lower Shu'aiba Formation platform sections (Early Aptian, Sultanate of Oman). In: Aptian Stratigraphy and Petroleum Habitat of the Eastern Arabian Plate (Eds F.S.P. van Buchem, M.I. Al-Husseini, F. Maurer and H.J. Droste), 4. GeoArabia Special Publication (in press), Gulf PetroLink, Bahrain. Weissert, H., Lini, A., Föllmi, K.B. and Kuhn, O. (1998) Correlation of Early Cretaceous carbon isotope stratigraphy and platform drowning events: a possible link? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 137, 189-203.

  8. Comparative analysis on the ability of offense and defense between Chinese Man's Basketball Team and its opponents in the 27th Asian Men's Basketball Championship%第27届男篮亚锦赛中国队与对手攻防能力对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦泽方

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法、RSR 综合分析法等方法,对第27届亚洲男子篮球锦标赛的15支参赛球队的整体攻防实力进行 RSR 综合评价,对中国队与9支赛队及其中3强队(击败中国队的伊朗队、韩国队、中华台北队)的攻防能力进行比较分析。结果表明:伊朗队、韩国队、中国队攻防隶属 A 级水平球队;菲律宾队、中华台北队、卡塔尔队、约旦队属 B 级球队;哈萨克斯坦队、巴林队、日本队属于 C 级球队;印度队、沙特队、泰国队属 D级球队;中国香港队和马来西亚队攻防实力最弱,属 E 级球队;中国队攻防较为平衡,但攻略强于防。除罚球命中率外,中国队其它进攻指标均高于9支赛队,且两分球命中率与赛队存在显著性差异;中国队的投篮命中率低于3强队,且总投篮命中率、3分球命中率与3强队存在显著性差异;抢断、盖帽均低于对手,但犯规高于3强队。因此,中国队应提高高速度、强力量对抗中进攻的质量,注重外线队员远投训练,强化拼抢篮板球的意识和技术。%By means of literature materials,video observation,mathematical statistics and RSR analysis,comprehen-sive RSR evaluation is made in terms of the overall offensive and defensive capabilities of the 15 teams participating in the 27th Asian Men's Basketball Championship.Contrastive analysis is made between Chinese Team and competi-tors among which 3 are rather strong teams(beating Chinese Team including Iranian,Korean and Chinese Taipei Teams).The results show that:the offensive and defensive RSR values of Iranian,Korean and Chinese Teams be-long to Grade A,Philippine,Chinese Taipei,Qatar and Jordan Teams belong to Grade B;Kazakhstan,Bahrain and Japanese belong to Grade C;Indian,Kingdom of saud and Thai Teams belong to Grade D,with weakest offensive and defensive capabilities,Chinese Hong Kong and Malaysia

  9. Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    ,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel. PMID:12177972

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…etc. Because of the growingimportance and the popularity of the KM either as a research topic or specialized coursesubject, a crucial need for understanding, conceptualization and implementation of KM asa system has emerged since the mid 1990’s. In this sense, the book contributes criticallyto fill the gap between theory and implementation as a teaching material.This edited book is published by Idea Group Publishing. The book has twenty chaptersdivided into seven sections. In addition to a section of authors’ biography contributing thebook and an index, there is a preface that the basic terms and key concepts underliningthe cases discussed following chapters, which is explained in a schematized way.Besides the editor, total of 47 authors have contributed to the book. These authors arefrom different countries, academic backgrounds, and institutions. Although approximatelyone third of the authors are from USA, the rest of the authors are from Canada, England,Austria, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Bahrain and China. The authorsrepresent a variety of universities, private companies, and military institutions. Most ofthem have strong professional backgrounds, which help them address the issues bothfrom theoretical and practical perspectives. Contributions of authors having differentbackgrounds and institutions enable the book to have very comprehensive spectrum andthis makes the book attractive practically for those working different sectors

  11. The Study of Environmental Crisis and Local Distribution of Green Space in Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. zayyari

    2012-01-01

    .- Necessity to review and codify land preservation regulation to protect trees with usage as green are and operating such area as one of the top priority for saving green life of the city. This must be implemented through a comprehensive urban plan with executive guarantees. Support from legislative bodies for preservation of the green area in the city. Keywords: environmental crisis, green space per capita, green space local distribution, Tehran, urban parks. ReferencesEbrahimzadeh, E, and Ebadi Joe Kndan, I, (2008, an analysis of distribution space - a place for green space in the three cities of Zahedan, Journal of Geography and Development, No 11, Tehran, P1. Bahrain, H, (1990, used in meteorological studies of air pollution in urban design (specific examples of Tehran, Journal of Environmental Studies, No 18, Tehran, P1. Behbahani, (1994, to determine the pattern of Tehran's parks, green space, education Journal, No 8, P1. Bijan Zad, M.R, (1990, of green space in Tehran, published by the Cultural Office of the Jihad, Tehran, P1. Pour Mohammadi, M.R, (2003, land use, urban planning, published by Samt, Tehran, P4. Tvahn, A., (2004, Editor's Note Journal of municipalities, No 17, Tehran, P1. Harimi, A., (1999, organizing neighborhood parks and green space, Evin, Supervisor Pourahmad, Ahmad, Tehran University, Department of Geography and Urban Planning. Hekmati, J, (1992, designed gardens and parks, published by Farhang Jame, Tehran, P1. Dabiri, F., and Maleki, M, (2009, review the legal capacity to destroy and change associated with green spaces, publications, research and planning in Tehran, Tehran, P3.Rohani, Gh, (1986, garden design and construction of green space, part publisher, Tehran, P3.Statistical Yearbook of Tehran, (2006,Tehran. P1. Statistics Organization of Iran (1996 and 2006, General Census of Population and Housing Tehran. Saeed Nia, A., (1368, place in Tehran, Iranian Journal of Environmental Studies, No. 15, Tehran, P1. Sharifi, M, (1992, Introduction to

  12. Politiques de non-intégration dans les monarchies du Golfe Non-integration policies in the Gulf monarchies. The reasons behind their longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Beaugrand

    2010-12-01

    immigrants? Are we currently witnessing a situation where different situations converge to minimise the peculiarity of Gulf countries’ non-integration models and make them pioneers in the de-territorialisation field? An analysis of the description of migration and globalisation in GCC speeches and policies indicates this is not the case. In the 1970s and 1980s, the GCC put in place several measures preventing the integration of foreigners. This included the non-naturalisation of foreigners despite laws to the contrary, strict policies controlling foreign admission to the country, and accepting foreign workers from selected countries only. The non-integration principle underlies the authorities’ official position denying immigration, but also the compartmentalised and hierarchical structure of societies in the region. The hegemonic discourse on globalisation has had an illusory effect on the justifications and rationalisations for a model resulting from what are mostly short-term policies. Its long term viability and possible evolutions are examined by taking the example of Bahrain, one of the GCC’s poor relations, which has begun to timidly revise some of its strict provisions on nationality and sponsorship.