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Sample records for bahr-el-ghazal state southern

  1. Reliability of the Anthropometric Indicators of Acute Malnutrition in Pastoralist Populations: Secondary Analysis of a Recent Survey in Bahr-El-Ghazal, Chad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesdon, Benjamin; Camara, Facely; Ait Aissa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Full text: A cross-sectional survey conducted by ACF among the Gorane pastoralist population of the north Bahr-El-Ghazal region, Chad, in April 2013, confirmed the existence of a massive difference in the diagnosis of acute malnutrition according to Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) and Weight-for-Height Z-score (WHZ), with WHZ returning much larger estimates of acute malnutrition than MUAC. While both indicators are recommended proxies to identify 6 to 59 months old children suffering from non-oedematous acute malnutrition, a previously formulated hypothesis is that WHZ overestimates the diagnosis of acute malnutrition among pastoralist children because of their assumed slender morphology. An alternative hypothesis is that MUAC underestimates acute malnutrition in the older, male, and non-stunted children. We aimed at testing these hypotheses, as well as evaluating if MUAC could be considered as a suitable stand-alone criterion in this context. Besides anthropometric measurements (including sitting height), statements of the caretaker regarding child’s morbidity, loss of weight and lack of food intake has been collected. We first assessed the association between risk factors such as age, sex, stunting and proportion of legs in total body size, and MUAC- or WHZ-based diagnoses. We then described the cases of moderate or severe acute malnutrition diagnosed by WHZ but not by MUAC in terms of slender morphology (high height-for-age and/or long legs compared to the trunk) and vulnerability (anthropometric deficits and caretaker’s anamnesis). Finally, we defined alternative indicators of acute malnutrition by combining subjective statements of the caretaker and anthropometric deficits (underweight without stunting). We assessed if MUAC diagnosis was, more than WHZ, associated with these indicators, first through sensitivity and specificity calculations, then through logistic regression. Analyses were further stratified by legs proportion. Having a high proportion

  2. Nutrition and mortality assessment--southern Sudan, March 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    During the last 5 years of Sudan's decade-long civil war, increased fighting and food shortages in southern Sudan have led to displacement of large numbers of persons. In late 1992, the United Nations (UN), the government of Sudan, and factions of the Sudanese People's Liberation Army negotiated increased access for delivery of relief aid to civilians in southern Sudan. To assist in the targeting of food and other relief aid, CDC and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance conducted rapid assessments of nutritional status (children aged Akon (Bahr el Ghazal) (Figure 1). This report summarizes findings of the assessments.

  3. Southern states' routing agency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  4. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  5. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  6. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Wright

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supporters of the Confederate battle flag often argue that their support is driven by pride in the South, not negative racial attitudes. Opponents of the Confederate battle flag often argue that the flag represents racism, and that support for the flag is an expression of racism and an attempt to maintain oppression of Blacks in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners. In the aggregate, our latent variable model suggests that White support for the flag is driven by Southern pride, political conservatism, and blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks. Using cluster-analysis we were able to distinguish four distinct sub-groups of White Southerners: Cosmopolitans, New Southerners, Traditionalists, and Supremacists. The greatest support for the Confederate battle flag is seen among Traditionalists and Supremacists; however, Traditionalists do not display blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks, while Supremacists do. Traditionalists make up the majority of Confederate battle flag supporters in our sample, weakening the claim that supporters of the flag are generally being driven by negative racial attitudes toward Blacks.

  7. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  8. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states

  9. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms

  10. What are the risk factors for the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in a war-affected population? a cross-sectional community study in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayazi Touraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exists on the association of war trauma with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-depression in the general population of low-income countries. The present study aimed to evaluate socioeconomic and trauma-related risk factors associated with PTSD, depression, and PTSD-depression comorbidity in the population of Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan. Methods In this cross-sectional community study (n=1200 we applied the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ and MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to investigate the prevalence of PTSD, depression, and PTSD-depression comorbidity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between these disorders, previous trauma exposure, sociodemographic, and socioeconomic factors. Results PTSD only was found in 331 (28% and depression only in 75 (6.4% of the study population. One hundred and twelve (9.5% of the participants had PTSD-depression comorbid diagnosis. Exposure to traumatic events and socioeconomic disadvantage were significantly associated with having PTSD or PTSD-depression comorbidity but not with depression. Participants with a comorbid condition were more likely to be socioeconomic disadvantaged, have experienced more traumatic events, and showed higher level of psychological distress than participants with PTSD or depression alone. Conclusions In individuals exposed to war trauma, attention should be given to those who may fulfill criteria for a diagnosis of both PTSD and depression.

  11. Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

  12. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  13. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary

  14. Lessons learned by southern states in designating alternative routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southem region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations. Under DOT regulations (49 CFR 177.826), carriers of highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (which include spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste) must use preferred routes selected to reduce time in transit. Such preferred routes consist of (1) an interstate system highway with use of an interstate system bypass or beltway around cities when available, and (2) alternate routes selected by a ''state routing agency.''

  15. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments

  16. Southern Voice State of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Southern Voice on post-MDG International Development Goals (Southern ... conceived by the Southern Voice network that will generate and disseminate ... this project will help expand ownership of the SDGs in case study countries and ... think tanks as effective interlocutors between national capitals, regional hubs, ...

  17. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  18. Forest landscape restoration: linkages with stream fishes of the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren

    2012-01-01

    With well over 600 native species, the southern United States supports one of the richest temperate freshwater fish faunas on Earth (Fig. 10.1 ). Unfortunately, an expert review revealed that 27% (188 taxa) of southern fishes are endangered, threatened, or vulnerable (Warren et al. 2000 ) and that 16–18% of native fishes are imperiled in 45 of 51 major southern river...

  19. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized.

  20. Where is the carbon? Carbon sequestration potential from private forestland in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Galik; Brian C. Murray; D. Evan Mercer

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty surrounding the future supply of timber in the southern United States prompted the question, “Where is all the wood?” (Cubbage et al. 1995). We ask a similar question about the potential of southern forests to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sequestering carbon. Because significant carbon sequestration potential occurs on individual nonindustrial...

  1. A New species and records of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Da Conceição Bispo, Pitágoras

    2016-10-17

    Specimens of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil were studied. A new species, Tupiperla sepeensis n. sp. is described. Tupiperla misionera Froehlich 2002 is a new record for Brazil and Gripopteryx reticulata Brauer 1866 and Tupiperla tessellata Brauer 1866 are new records for southern Brazil.

  2. Case Study: Incorporating International Themes into the Business Curriculum at Missouri Southern State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Janet; Block, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is charged with preparing graduates to be successful in an international society. This paper will examine Missouri Southern State University's approach to internationalizing their campus and curriculum.

  3. Private forest-land owners of the Southern United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Southern United States. Landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning are discussed.

  4. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Woodbury; Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each...

  5. Stated Preferences for Forest Conservation in Southern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Emmi; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Pouta, Eija

    % support decreasing forest conservation. An average willingness-to-pay for increased biodiversity conservation was 60-212 € per household per year, depending on the described project and measurement method. In addition to costs per household, the number of conserved biotopes and endangered plant and animal......This study analyses Finnish citizens’ valuations and attitudes towards a forest conservation programme for southern Finland and the Pohjanmaa region. In particular, Finnish households’ willingness to accept expenses through increased taxation to guarantee a certain level of biodiversity...... conservation was investigated. Contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE) methods were applied. According to the CV results, 74% of respondents are prepared to pay for increased conservation and 16% support increased conservation but are not willing to pay for it. A further 5% are indifferent and 5...

  6. Factors associated with local public health agency participation in obesity prevention in southern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Jeffrey J; Fields, Tina T

    2015-05-01

    Obesity rates in the southern US states are higher than in other states. Historically, large-scale community-based interventions in the United States have not proven successful. With local public health agencies (LPHAs) tasked with prevention, their role in obesity prevention is important, yet little research exists regarding what predicts the participation of LPHAs. Cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials profile study and two public health conceptual frameworks were used to assess structural and environmental predictors of LPHA participation in obesity prevention. The predictors were compared between southern and nonsouthern states. Univariate and weighted logistic regressions were performed. Analysis revealed that more LPHAs in southern states were engaged in nearly all of the 10 essential public health functions related to obesity prevention compared with nonsouthern states. Presence of community-based organizations and staffing levels were the only significant variables in two of the six logistic regression models. This study provides insights into the success rates of the obesity prevention efforts of LPHAs in southern and nonsouthern states. Future research is needed to understand why and how certain structural elements and any additional factors influence LPHA participation in obesity prevention.

  7. Survey of stocking policies for tailwater trout fisheries in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the 16 southern states showed that 48 tailwaters in 13 states were stocked with trout in 1980. Of the almost 3.7 million trout released in these waters, 81% were of catchable size and 19% were fingerlings (Salmo gairdneri). A trend away from "put-grow-and-take" fisheries toward "put-and-take" fisheries was noted. Limited creel data confirmed that fishing pressure in southern tailwaters was heavy, and that 25 to 90% of the trout stocked were recovered by anglers

  8. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  9. Neotectonics of coastal Jeffara (southern Tunisia): State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly

    2016-04-01

    Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.

  10. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    within the scope of this paper to go into details, but rather emphasise .... individual herd off-take in the Black States. For exam- ple, a recent finding in two areas of the Ciskei and. Transkei ..... make livestock marketing centres more attractive, by siting them .... cation of the other principles of grazing management. Extension ...

  11. Climate-induced changes in vulnerability to biological threats in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Qinfeng Guo; Songlin Fei; William Otrosina; Kier Klepzig; Douglas Streett

    2014-01-01

    Forest land managers face the challenges of preparing their forests for the impacts of climate change. However, climate change adds a new dimension to the task of developing and testing science-based management options to deal with the effects of stressors on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. The large spatial scale and complex interactions make...

  12. Evaluating potential changes in fire risk from Eucalyptus plantings in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2012-01-01

    Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior...

  13. Climate change and outdoor recreation participation in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Neelam Poudyal; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Lynne Seymour; H. Ken Cordell

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we begin to assess the potential effects of climate change on future outdoor recreation in the South, a region spanning 13 states from Virginia to Texas (Chapter 1). Our goal is to provide some useful insights about future natural resource-based recreation-an important nontimber product derived from southern forests-in the face of climate change. We...

  14. Impact of trucking network flow on preferred biorefinery locations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Lee D. Han; James H. Perdue; Stephanie R. Hargrove; Frank M. Guess; Xia Huang; Chung-Hao Chen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the trucking transportation network flow was modeled for the southern United States. The study addresses a gap in existing research by applying a Bayesian logistic regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) geospatial analysis to predict biorefinery site locations. A one-way trucking cost assuming a 128.8 km (80-mile) haul distance was estimated...

  15. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  16. Water stress and social vulnerability in the southern United States, 2010-2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    cassandra Johnson-Gaither; John Schelhas; Wayne Zipperer; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Neelam Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcities are striking in semiarid, subregions of the Southern United States such as Oklahoma and western Texas (Glennon 2009, Sabo et al. 2010). In Texas, water stress has been a constant concern since the 1950s when the state experienced severe drought conditions (Moore 2005). The nearly 2000-mile Rio Grande River, which forms part of the Texas–Mexico border,...

  17. Flooding in the southern Midwestern United States, April–May 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Holmes, Robert R.; Harris, Thomas E.

    2018-03-09

    Excessive rainfall resulted in flooding on numerous rivers throughout the southern Midwestern United States (southern Midwest) in late April and early May of 2017. The heaviest rainfall, between April 28 and 30, resulted in extensive flooding from eastern Oklahoma to southern Indiana including parts of Missouri, Arkansas, and Illinois.Peak-of-record streamflows were set at 21 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages in the southern Midwest during the resulting April–May 2017 flooding and each of the five States included in the study area had at least one streamgage with a peak of record during the flood. The annual exceedance probability (AEP) estimates for the April–May 2017 peak streamflows indicate that peaks at 5 USGS streamgages had AEPs of 0.2 percent or less (500-year recurrence interval or greater), and peak streamflows at 15 USGS streamgages had AEPs in the range from greater than 0.2 to 1 percent (500- to 100-year recurrence intervals).Examination of the magnitude of the temporal changes in median annual peak streamflows indicated positive increases, in general, throughout the study area for each of the 1930–2017, 1956–2017, 1975–2017, and 1989–2017 analysis periods. The median increase in peak streamflows was greatest in 1975–2017 and 1989–2017 with maximum increases of 8 to 10 percent per year. No stations in the 1975–2017 or 1989–2017 analysis period had median negative changes in peak streamflows.

  18. Identity, reproductive potential, distribution, ecology and management of invasive Pomacea maculata in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Romi L.; Bernatis, Jennifer; Byers, James E.; Carter, Jacoby; Martin, Charles M.; McDowell, William G.; Van Dyke, Jess; Joshi, R. C.; Cowie, R. H.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    Established populations of introduced Pomacea maculata, a highly fecund, large species of apple snail native to South America, now occur throughout southeast Asia, in Spain and extensively across the southern United States. Substantial research on nonnative apple snails takes place in Southeast Asia and has frequently identified apple snails as P. canaliculata. That these Asian populations represent at least two Pomacea species, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, has been confirmed through anatomical and genetic

  19. Record of Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lohmann Arend

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first record of the Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae for Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. One individual was observed on 10 September 2006 in an open area (cattle pasture and shrubby vegetation in the town of Anita Garibaldi (center-south of the state. We suggest that this punctual encounter is a result of the recent expansion of this species’ distribution due to landscape modification in the region.

  20. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  1. Overview of the Camcore (NC State University) and USDA Forest Service cooperative gene conservation program for threatened and endangered tree species native to the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Jetton; W. Andrew Whittier; William S. Dvorak; Gary R. Hodge; Barbara S. Crane; James “Rusty”. Rhea

    2017-01-01

    The southern United States is home to some of the world’s most biologically diverse temperate forests. These forests range from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains to the Southern Appalachian Mountains and are home to more than 140 tree species which provide a number of ecosystem services, including clean air and water, carbon storage, recreational opportunities, wood...

  2. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  3. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369

  4. Diversity of Hepatozoon species in naturally infected dogs in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Li, Yihang; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Little, Susan E

    2008-07-04

    Hepatozoon americanum is a protozoan that causes American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) in the southern United States; Hepatozoon canis, the causative agent of canine hepatozoonosis in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America, has not previously been definitively identified in dogs in the United States. To characterize the diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs from Oklahoma, blood samples collected from dogs residing in an endemic area of the state, clinical cases presented to veterinarians with symptoms of ACH, and dogs housed at a local shelter were evaluated by a nested PCR designed to amplify a variable region of the 18S rRNA gene of blood ampicomplexa, including Hepatozoon spp. Hepatozoon sequences recovered from a dog from an area where ACH is endemic, from clinically ill dogs, and from one shelter dog most closely resembled H. americanum. However, two other shelter dogs had evidence of infection with H. canis or a closely related organism. A subsequent review of real-time PCR results from the Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory at Auburn University revealed that the majority of samples submitted from dogs from across the United States which tested positive for Hepatozoon spp. had H. americanum. However, some submissions were also found which contained DNA sequence of H. canis. Mixed H. americanum and H. canis-like infections also were detected. Our data suggest that H. americanum, H. canis, as well as H. canis-like organisms are present and may cause disease in dogs in the southern U.S.

  5. Beach rocks characterization from the southern coast of Pernambuco state based on petrography and isotopic evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, H.M.B. de

    1990-01-01

    The study is restricted to the occurence of three lines of beachrocks located between the Maracaipe river and Sirinhaem river, southern coast of Pernambuco state. The mineralogy and petrography, made it possible the characterization of three types of cements (micrite envelope, acicular crust and intergranular cryptocrystalline). They correspond to diagenetics microfacies which are set in different diagenetics environment. X-ray analysis, as well as sup(13)C/ sup(12)C e sup(18) O/ sup(16) O isotope analysis, show evidence of a dominantly marine precipitating fluid with a subordinate fresh water influence on a second cement generation. (author)

  6. Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract' Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors of the subgenus Boophilus. In 1906 an eradication effort was started and by 1943 Boophilus ticks had been confined to a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Texas-Mexico border. However, a dramatic increase in tick infestations in areas outside the TEQA over the last decade suggests these tick vectors may be poised to re-invade the southern United States. We investigated historical and potential future distributions of climatic habitats of cattle fever ticks to assess the potential for a range expansion. Methods We built robust spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the vector species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus across the southern United States for three time periods: 1906, present day (2012), and 2050. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to identify persistent tick occurrences and analysis of bias in the climate proximate to these occurrences to identify key environmental parameters associated with the ecology of both species. We then used ecological niche modeling algorithms GARP and Maxent to construct models that related known occurrences of ticks in the TEQA during 2001–2011 with geospatial data layers that summarized important climate parameters at all three time periods. Results We identified persistent tick infestations and specific climate parameters that appear to be drivers of ecological niches of the two tick species. Spatial models projected onto climate data representative of climate in 1906 reproduced historical pre-eradication tick distributions. Present-day predictions, although constrained to areas near the TEQA, extrapolated well onto climate projections for

  7. MIGRATION AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: THE CASES OF SOUTHERN MEXICAN STATES AND THEIR EMIGRANT COMMUNITIES IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Krannich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates institutional approaches of emigrant states toward emigrants abroad, and how these approaches can change over time. These can range from absolute exclusion and non-communication, over fractional collaboration in specific matters, to even permanent institutional inclusion, for instance, through representation of migrants in home parliaments or governments. The approach for institutional incorporation can not only take place on the national, but also on the subnational level. This is the case in Mexico, a federal state in which many member states conduct their own emigrant policy, partially in accord with federal efforts, and partially independently or contrary to the national attempt to address the emigrant community abroad. To highlight these different approaches, I would like to take a look at the Southern Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. Although these states show similar political and social structures, and hold relatively large emigrant populations in the United States of America, the institutional approaches toward their emigrants changed in two different ways: while the institutional opening in Oaxaca goes back to various initiatives by the Oaxacan migrant community in the United States of America, the policy change in Chiapas toward more inclusion of the emigrant community was actively promoted by the government of Chiapas.

  8. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  9. The Course of Law: State Intervention in Southern Lynch Mob Violence 1882–1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Makovi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Collective violence when framed by its perpetrators as "citizen" justice is inherently a challenge to state legitimacy. To properly account for such violence, it is necessary to consider an opportunity structure incorporating the actions of both vigilantes and agents of the state. The motivation and lethality of lynch mobs in the South cannot be understood without considering how the state reacted to the legitimacy challenges posed by lynching. We trace the shifting orientation of state agents to lynching attempts between the end of Reconstruction and the start of the Great Depression. Analyzing an inventory of more than 1,000 averted and completed lynching events in three Southern states, we model geographic and temporal patterns in the determinants of mob formation, state intervention, and intervention success. Opponents of lynching often pled with mobs to "let the law take its course." This article examines the course followed by the law itself, as state actors moved between encouraging, accommodating, and in many instances averting mob violence.

  10. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  11. Forest biomass and energy-wood potential in the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, J.R. [Forestry Sciences Lab., Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Timber resource data were compiled from the most recent USDA Forest Service inventory data for the 12 Southern States from Virginia to Texas. Timber resource inventories traditionally include only trees 5 inches dbh and greater and their volumes to the prevailing merchantable top diameter expressed in cubic feet, board feet, or cords. For this paper, conversion factors were developed to express timber inventories in weight and to expand the inventories to include the crowns of merchantable trees and trees less than 5 inches dbh. By so doing, the total aboveground biomass is estimated for the timberlands in the South. The region contains 185 million acres of timberland. Some 14.6 billion green tons of woody biomass are present on southern timberland -- about 79 tons per acre. When mature stands are harvested, the average acre in the South has 22.2 tons of woody material left in crowns and sapling, and 5.1 tons in cull stems. Thus, an average of 27.3 green tons per acre of potential energy wood are left after conventional harvests. Conversion factors that are presented permit estimates for specific tracts, areas, counties, or states.

  12. Forest resources, government policy, and investment location decisions of the forest products industry in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyou Sun; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of an initial attempt to estimate the effects of state attributes on plant location and investment expenditure were presented for the forest products industry in the southern United States. A conditional logit model was used to analyze new plant births, and a time-series cross-section model to assess the total capital expenditure....

  13. Dogwood anthracnose: how collaboration was used in the Southern United States to effectively deal with a new tree disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Anderson

    1998-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose, caused by the fungus Discula destructiva was found in the Southern United States in 1987. Since that time millions of flowering dogwoods have been killed and disfigured by this disease. As soon as the disease was discovered a group of state and federal personnel formed a working group to develop an action plan for dealing with...

  14. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  15. Evaluating Potential Changes in Fire Risk from Eucalyptus Plantings in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System is that surface fire behavior in young stands differs little from surface fires common to pine plantations in the southern Coastal Plain. By the age of 9, the absence of a shrub layer, along with an increased height to live crown, reduced initiation potential despite increased bark shedding. When a shrub layer was introduced in the model, the initiation potential became equivalent to common Pinus fuelbeds. If a crown is ignited, however, the potentials for transmissivity and spread are very high, and the potential for crown fire behavior is more severe. Our modeling effort suggests that fire behavior at the stand level differs little from current conditions and points to the importance of avoiding the development of a shrub layer. Stands managed on short rotation (less than 10 years will likely be harvested before bark shedding presents a significant spotting problem.

  16. State-building, migration and economic development on the frontiers of northern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bleuer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kunduz River Valley of northern Afghanistan and the Vakhsh River Valley of southern Tajikistan followed what initially appear to be vastly different trajectories. Despite these two adjacent areas having had much in common throughout many periods of history, the present-day region of northern Afghanistan was eventually taken under the control of the Afghan state while the areas north of the Amu Darya and Panj River were to become part of the Soviet Union. However, instead of a divergent course of development and state-building, these two regions were subjected to very similar patterns of agricultural development and migration policies. “Empty” areas were to be populated, by force if necessary, wetlands were to be drained for agriculture, and cotton farming was to become pre-eminent. The end result in both areas was the creation of a socially diverse and economically significant region that was fully integrated into the modern state’s economy and politics. This article analyzes and compares the motives and implementation of the state-building projects in both of these now domestically important regions and finds remarkable similarities despite the obvious differences in the structure of the Afghan and Soviet states.

  17. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  18. An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Hector

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

  19. Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Tian Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Chappelka, Arthur; Xu Xiaofeng; Ren Wei; Hui Dafeng; Liu Mingliang; Lu Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Lockaby, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Using a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, we assessed carbon dynamics of urbanized/developed lands in the Southern United States during 1945–2007. The results indicated that approximately 1.72 (1.69–1.77) Pg (1P = 10 15 ) carbon was stored in urban/developed lands, comparable to the storage of shrubland or cropland in the region. Urbanization resulted in a release of 0.21 Pg carbon to the atmosphere during 1945–2007. Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. After a rapid decline of carbon storage during land conversion, an urban ecosystem gradually accumulates carbon and may compensate for the initial carbon loss in 70–100 years. The carbon sequestration rate of urban ecosystem diminishes with time, nearly disappearing in two centuries after land conversion. This study implied that it is important to take urbanization effect into account for assessing regional carbon balance. - Highlights: ► A series of spatial and temporal urban/developed land maps were generated. ► Urbanization effects on regional carbon dynamics were studied with a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). ► Carbon storage of urban/developed land was comparable to that stored in cropland and shrubland in the Southern United States. ► Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. ► Urbanization resulted in carbon emission, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time. - Urbanization has resulted in carbon release to the atmosphere, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time.

  20. The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

  1. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  2. Experience with the selection method in pine stands in the southern United States, with implications for future application

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    The selection method applied in shade-intolerant pine stands in the southern United States has been shown to be an effective method of uneven-aged silviculture, but it is becoming less frequently practiced for a variety of reasons. Economically, the high value of standing timber puts fully stocked uneven-aged pine stands at risk of liquidation if the timberland is sold...

  3. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  4. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic... the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the... Aquariums to collect, with certain conditions, various species of reef fish and live rock in Federal waters...

  5. Valuing setting-based recreation for selected visitors to national forests in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavita Sardana; John C. Bergstrom; J. M.  Bowker

    2016-01-01

    In this study we estimate selected visitors’ demand and value for recreational trips to settings such as developed vs. undeveloped sites in U.S. national forests in the Southern United States using the travel cost method. The setting-based approach allows for valuation of multi-activity trips to particular settings. The results from an adjusted Poisson lognormal...

  6. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  7. Response of lizards to high-severity wildfires in a southern United States mixed pine/hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam ​Duarte; Donald J. Brown; Michael R. J. Forstner

    2017-01-01

    High-severity forest fires are increasing in large areas of the southern and western United States as the climate becomes warmer and drier. Natural resource managers need a better understanding of the short- and long-term effects of wildfires on lizard populations, but there is a paucity of studies focused on lizard-wildfire relationships. We used a before-after,...

  8. Potential impacts of year-round sampling on monitoring presence- absence of invasive flora in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; W. Keith Moser

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that the southern United States is an area of primary concern with regards to the spread of nonnative invasive plant species. Recent data show that species such as Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Nepalese browntop (Microstegium vimineum) are invading forests and displacing native species throughout the...

  9. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Joyce

    Full Text Available The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species.

  10. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  11. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  12. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods--especially eggs and meat products--were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  13. Steam explosion and fermentation of sugar beets from Southern Florida and the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beets have recently gained interest for cultivation in southern Florida for their economic potential as cattle feed, a feedstock for ethanol production and their use to improve the quality of water via soil nutrient accumulation. Sugar beets grown in southern Florida, Minnesota and Nebraska we...

  14. Local leadership and State governance in southern Ethiopia : from charisma to bureaucracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Vaughan, O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of chiefs, elders and local leaders in southern Ethiopia, this paper analyses the idea of authority, legitimacy and governance among three small-scale societies, the Meén, the Dizi and the Suri. It shows that in southern Ethiopia efforts were made to replace charismatic and

  15. Marketing of meat sheep with intensive finishing in southern state of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio Arturo; García-Martínez, Anastacio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In the absolute marketing margin of the final consumer price per kilogram of carcass meat, the producer obtained US$2.7/kg (47 %) of the utilities, while the intermediaries obtained US$3.1/kg (53 %). Considering the final cooked product in barbacoa (typical dish), the margin was US$6.3/kg (29 %) for the producer and US$15.2/kg (71 %) for the intermediaries. The B/C ratio was 1.0, 1.1, 2, and 1.3 for the producer, stocker, butcher, and barbacoa seller, respectively. It is concluded that the best marketing channel for the producer was the producer-stocker-processor (butcher and barbacoa seller). The highest marketing margin was for the intermediaries followed by the producer. The order of importance of the B/C kilogram ratio of meat was for the butcher first, then barbacoa seller, and lastly stocker and producer.

  16. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  17. Effects of silvicultural activity on ecological processes in floodplain forests of the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockaby, B.G.; Stanturf, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Activities associated with timber harvesting have occurred within floodplain forests in the southern United States for nearly two hundred years. However, it is only in the last ten years that any information has become available about the effects of harvesting on the ecological functions of this valuable resource. Hydrology is the driving influence behind all ecological processes in floodplains and, in most cases, timber harvesting alone has little long-term effect on hydroperiod. However, there may be some instances where logging roads, built in association with harvest sites , can alter hydroperiod to the extent that vegetation productivity is altered positively or negatively. There is no documentation that harvesting followed by natural regeneration represents a threat to ground or surface water quality on floodplain sites, as long as Best Management Practices are followed. Harvested floodplains may increase or have little effect on decomposition rates of surface organic matter. The nature of the effect seems to be controlled by site wetness. Data from recently harvested sites (i.e. within the last ten years) suggest that vegetation productivity is maintained at levels similar to that observed prior to harvests. During the early stages of stand development vegetation species composition is heavily influenced by harvest method. Similarly, amphibian populations (monitored as bioindicators of ecosystem recovery) seem to rebound rapidly following harvests, although species composition may be different. 40 refs, 3 figs

  18. Valuing setting-based recreation for selected visitors to national forests in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kavita; Bergstrom, John C; Bowker, J M

    2016-12-01

    In this study we estimate selected visitors' demand and value for recreational trips to settings such as developed vs. undeveloped sites in U.S. national forests in the Southern United States using the travel cost method. The setting-based approach allows for valuation of multi-activity trips to particular settings. The results from an adjusted Poisson lognormal estimator corrected for truncation and endogenous stratification reveal that economic value per trip estimates are higher for wilderness compared to day-use developed settings, overnight-use developed settings, and general forest areas. Estimates of these economic values are important to resource managers because their management decisions and actions typically control recreational settings. For example, managers control developed campground capacity in a national forest, but typically not the number of campers below the capacity constraint and the number and types of activities visitors engage in during a multi-activity trip to a developed campground (within limits since some activities such as discharging a firearm are not permitted in a developed campground). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, C C Z; Krupek, R A; Peres, C K

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  20. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCZ. Branco

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  2. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa R. Jelinek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  3. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  4. A new population of the endangered Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806) (Primates: Atelidae) in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ingberman, Bianca; Kaminski, Nicholas; Fusco-Costa, Roberto; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio

    2016-01-01

    The endangered southern muriqui or mono [Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806)], is a primate endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. One known extant population is found at the southern limit of its distribution, in the state of Paraná, where it is regionally classified as Critically Endangered. Here, we report on a new population in southern Brazil. Additionally, we express our concern about the conservation status of this species in Paraná, because both populations are in small, is...

  5. CHANGING PATTERNS OF ORANGE JUICE CONSUMPTION IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Leigh Ann; Sterns, James A.; Spreen, Thomas H.; Wysocki, Allen F.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 through 2004, per capita orange juice purchases decreased by 12.3 percent while the popularity and media coverage of low-carbohydrate dieting exploded. Content analysis was used to count selected Southern region newspaper articles topically related to low-carbohydrate dieting, the Atkins diet, and the South Beach diet. This data was included in a Southern region orange juice demand model, where purchase data served as the independent variable and proxy for consumer demand of orange ...

  6. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  7. Inter-Annual Variability Of Rainfall In Some States Of Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study inter-annual variability of rainfall in some states in Southern Nigeria focuses on analyzing the trends and fluctuations in annual rainfall over six states in Southern Nigeria covering a period of 1972 2012. In order to ascertain the variabilitys and to model the annual rainfall for future prediction to enhance policy implementation the quantitative and descriptive analysis techniques was employed. The rainfall series were analyzed for fluctuations using Standardized Anomaly Index SAI whereas the trends were examined using Statistical Package for Social Science Software SPSS 17.0. At 95 percent confidence level observations in the stations may be signals that the wetter period dominates the drier periods in this study. Each of the series contains two distinct periods when the rainfall anomalies negative and positive of a particular type were most significant. The period where the annual rainfall is above one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Wet and the period below one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Dry for each station. The results of the linear trend lines revealed an increase in rainfall supply over the period of study especially of recent. The annual rate of increase in rainfall over the period of investigation 1972 - 2012 were 15.21mmyear for Calabar 2.18mmyear for Port Harcourt 22.23mmyear for Owerri 3.25mmyear for Benin City 5.08mmyear for Enugu and 16.29mmyear for Uyo respectively. The variability in amount of annual rainfall revealed that in 2012 Calabar received the highest amount of rainfall of about 4062.70mm and the least value of 2099.4mm in 1973. In Porthacourt the highest amount of rainfall occurred in 1993 with a value of 3911.70mm and the least value in 1983 with a value of 1816.4mm. Owerri recorded the highest amount of rainfall of about 3064.0mm in 2011 and the least value occurred in 1986 with a value of 1228.4mm. In 1976 Benin received the

  8. Private Practitioners’ Perspectives on Their Involvement With the Tuberculosis Control Programme in a Southern Indian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Salve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Public and private health sectors both play a crucial role in the health systems of low- and middleincome countries (LMICs. The tuberculosis (TB control strategy in India encourages the public sector to actively partner with private practitioners (PPs to improve the quality of front line service delivery. However, ensuring effective and sustainable involvement of PPs constitutes a major challenge. This paper reports the findings from an empirical study focusing on the perspectives and experiences of PPs towards their involvement in TB control programme in India. Methods The study was carried out between November 2010 and December 2011 in a district of a Southern Indian State and utilised qualitative methodologies, combining observations and in-depth interviews with 21 PPs from different medical systems. The collected data was coded and analysed using thematic analysis. Results PPs perceived themselves to be crucial healthcare providers, with different roles within the public-private mix (PPM TB policy. Despite this, PPs felt neglected and undervalued in the actual process of implementation of the PPM-TB policy. The entire process was considered to be government driven and their professional skills and knowledge of different medical systems remained unrecognised at the policy level, and weakened their relationship and bond with the policy and with the programme. PPs had contrasting perceptions about the different components of the TB programme that demonstrated the public sector’s dominance in the overall implementation of the DOTS strategy. Although PPs felt responsible for their TB patients, they found it difficult to perceive themselves as ‘partners with the TB programme.’ Conclusion Public-private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly utilized as a public health strategy to strengthen health systems. These policies will fail if the concerns of the PPs are neglected. To ensure their long-term involvement in the programme the

  9. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2017-09-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  10. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  12. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  13. Diverse Burkholderia Species Isolated from Soils in the Southern United States with No Evidence of B. pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina M Hall

    Full Text Available The global distribution of the soil-dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis, is poorly understood. We used established culturing methods developed for B. pseudomallei to isolate Burkholderia species from soil collected at 18 sampling sites in three states in the southern United States (Arizona (n = 4, Florida (n = 7, and Louisiana (n = 7. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST of seven genes, we identified 35 Burkholderia isolates from these soil samples. All species belonged to the B. cepacia complex (Bcc, including B. cenocepacia, B. cepacia, B. contaminans, B. diffusa, B. metallica, B. seminalis, B. vietnamiensis and two unnamed members of the Bcc. The MLST analysis provided a high level of resolution among and within these species. Despite previous clinical cases within the U.S. involving B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relatives, we did not isolate any of these taxa. The Bcc contains a number of opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Interestingly, we found that B. vietnamiensis was present in soil from all three states, suggesting it may be a common component in southern U.S. soils. Most of the Burkholderia isolates collected in this study were from Florida (30/35; 86%, which may be due to the combination of relatively moist, sandy, and acidic soils found there compared to the other two states. We also investigated one MLST gene, recA, for its ability to identify species within Burkholderia. A 365bp fragment of recA recovered nearly the same species-level identification as MLST, thus demonstrating its cost effective utility when conducting environmental surveys for Burkholderia. Although we did not find B. pseudomallei, our findings document that other diverse Burkholderia species are present in soils in the southern United States.

  14. Diverse Burkholderia Species Isolated from Soils in the Southern United States with No Evidence of B. pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carina M; Busch, Joseph D; Shippy, Kenzie; Allender, Christopher J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W; Schupp, James M; Colman, Rebecca E; Keim, Paul; Currie, Bart J; Wagner, David M

    2015-01-01

    The global distribution of the soil-dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis, is poorly understood. We used established culturing methods developed for B. pseudomallei to isolate Burkholderia species from soil collected at 18 sampling sites in three states in the southern United States (Arizona (n = 4), Florida (n = 7), and Louisiana (n = 7)). Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of seven genes, we identified 35 Burkholderia isolates from these soil samples. All species belonged to the B. cepacia complex (Bcc), including B. cenocepacia, B. cepacia, B. contaminans, B. diffusa, B. metallica, B. seminalis, B. vietnamiensis and two unnamed members of the Bcc. The MLST analysis provided a high level of resolution among and within these species. Despite previous clinical cases within the U.S. involving B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relatives, we did not isolate any of these taxa. The Bcc contains a number of opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Interestingly, we found that B. vietnamiensis was present in soil from all three states, suggesting it may be a common component in southern U.S. soils. Most of the Burkholderia isolates collected in this study were from Florida (30/35; 86%), which may be due to the combination of relatively moist, sandy, and acidic soils found there compared to the other two states. We also investigated one MLST gene, recA, for its ability to identify species within Burkholderia. A 365bp fragment of recA recovered nearly the same species-level identification as MLST, thus demonstrating its cost effective utility when conducting environmental surveys for Burkholderia. Although we did not find B. pseudomallei, our findings document that other diverse Burkholderia species are present in soils in the southern United States.

  15. Isotope evidence of paleo - El Nino - Southern Oscillation cycles in loess-paleosol record in the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Follmer, L.R.; Chao-li, Liu

    2000-01-01

    The ??13C of soil carbonate in rhizoconcretions collected from a loess-paleosol sequence in the central United States indicates that growing-season C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated by 35% on a 900 ?? 200 yr time scale during the late Wisconsinan glaciation. The pattern appears in phase with advance and retreat of the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, suggesting influence by paleo-El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation cycles. The ??13C of soil organic matter indicates that the annual average C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated only by 18%, with a periodicity of 450 ?? 100 yr, and closely matched the cyclic pattern of loess-paleosol layers. It suggests a periodic enhancement of the penetration of the Gulf of Mexico air over the region during this time.

  16. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  17. Resistivity Study of Shallow Aquifers in theParts of Southern Ukanafun Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistivity study by vertical electrical sounding (VES employing the Schlumberger electrode configuration has been used to delineate shallow aquifers in some villages in Southern Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. The information realized from the resistivity data and nearby logged boreholes show that the depths penetrated by currents were all sandy formations with various thicknesses. However, the main aquifers comprise within the maximum current penetration, very coarse – grained (gravelly sand and fine sand with resistivity in the ranges of 4680-30700 Ωm and 207-2530 Ωm and thickness in the ranges of 43-63 m and 18-40 m respectively. The aquifers with minor hydraulic gradient are separated by thin beds of clay according to lithology logs and these beds were masked in the sounding data due to the principle of suppression.

  18. Private Practitioners' Perspectives on Their Involvement With the Tuberculosis Control Programme in a Southern Indian State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Solomon; Sheikh, Kabir; Porter, John Dh

    2016-05-08

    Public and private health sectors both play a crucial role in the health systems of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The tuberculosis (TB) control strategy in India encourages the public sector to actively partner with private practitioners (PPs) to improve the quality of front line service delivery. However, ensuring effective and sustainable involvement of PPs constitutes a major challenge. This paper reports the findings from an empirical study focusing on the perspectives and experiences of PPs towards their involvement in TB control programme in India. The study was carried out between November 2010 and December 2011 in a district of a Southern Indian State and utilised qualitative methodologies, combining observations and in-depth interviews with 21 PPs from different medical systems. The collected data was coded and analysed using thematic analysis. PPs perceived themselves to be crucial healthcare providers, with different roles within the public-private mix (PPM) TB policy. Despite this, PPs felt neglected and undervalued in the actual process of implementation of the PPM-TB policy. The entire process was considered to be government driven and their professional skills and knowledge of different medical systems remained unrecognised at the policy level, and weakened their relationship and bond with the policy and with the programme. PPs had contrasting perceptions about the different components of the TB programme that demonstrated the public sector's dominance in the overall implementation of the DOTS strategy. Although PPs felt responsible for their TB patients, they found it difficult to perceive themselves as 'partners with the TB programme.' Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasingly utilized as a public health strategy to strengthen health systems. These policies will fail if the concerns of the PPs are neglected. To ensure their long-term involvement in the programme the abilities of PPs and the important perspectives from other

  19. Results of Analyses of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil, Its Degradation Products, and Other Selected Pesticides at 22 Surface-Water Sites in Five Southern States, 2003-04

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scribner, Elisabeth A; Orlando, James L; Battaglin, William A; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Meyer, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    ... in the Southern States. Water-quality samples were collected during the peanut-growing season (June-September) in 2OO3. During the peanut growing season in 2004, samples were collected after large storms...

  20. THE PARADOX OF MIGRATION AND THE INTERESTS OF THE ATOMISTIC NATION-STATES: THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phazha Jimmy Ngandwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The "paradox of migration and the interests of the atomistic nation-states" interrogates the phenomenon of migration in general and in the Southern African Development Community in particular. The point of departure of the paper is the African Union and the Southern African Development Community’s legal framework on migration, as read with the national legal instruments of the different member states. Its focal point is the raison d’être of this phenomenon of migration and the corresponding approaches and attitudes of the nation-states within which migration takes place inter se. This includes the psycho-social impact of migration. Internationally as well as regionally, States are concerned with issues of sovereignty, the preservation of the welfare of the citizenry, ensuring social cohesion social, cultural and economic development including job creation, and fighting against transnational organised crime, including terrorism. The theme of the paper is that whereas migration should form the bedrock of regionalism and globalisation, the negative attitudes of the nation-states to migration are more often than not at variance with the objectives of regionalism and globalisation. The central question of the research is how states can discharge their duties and obligations vis-à-vis their nationals without perpetuating the bottlenecks to and the stigma that attaches to migration and thereby upsetting the international as well as regional integration objectives of the free movement of people. This is the issue that the paper is intended to explore. The main areas of concern are that the negative attitudes of the nation-states are manifested in the hostile treatment of migrants at all ports of entry, including illegal or ungazetted points of entry, within the nation-states in general, and in their labour markets in particular. This research therefore explores the paradoxical nature of the duties and responsibilities of states within the

  1. Southern Africa’s climate: Current state and recent historical changes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is a predominantly semi-arid region with high rainfall variability, characterised by frequent droughts and floods. It is also widely recognised as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change because of low levels of adaptive...

  2. Effects of timber management on the hydrology of wetland forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; James P. Shepard; Devendra M. Amatya; Hans Riekerk; Nicholas B. Comerford; Wayne Skaggs; Lloyd Swift

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to review the hydrologic impacts of various common forest management practices that include harvesting, site preparation, and drainage. Field hydrological data collected during the past 5±10 years from ten forested wetland sites across the southern US are synthesized using various methods including hydrologic simulation models and...

  3. Annual Progress Report, 1976. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…

  4. Annual Progress Report, 1975. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Included in this second annual report on the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) 1974-75 plan of work are data re: orientation visits; regional workshops; technical consultants; liaison with regional agencies and organizations; information dissemination; annual evaluation; functional networks in the areas of land use issues, citizen…

  5. Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devall, M.S.; Parresol, B.R. (Forest Service, New Orleans, LA (United States). Inst. for Quantitative Studies)

    1994-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub 2] could have beneficial effects on plants, climate change could cause serious changes to many ecological systems, for example inducing plants to bloom before their pollinators are available, and could precipitate modifications that few scientists have considered. Certainly many ecological systems will be seriously altered by climate change. Large northward shifts in species' ranges are expected, causing communities and ecosystems to change in composition. Loss of or movement of a dominant tree species may influence many other plant and animal species in the southern forest, bringing about large increases in the numbers of threatened and endangered species, as well as extinctions. Predictions about the effects of global climate change to southern forests and suggestions for detecting and preparing for them are included.

  6. White Women and the Fight for Equality in the Southern United States (1920-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Stefani

    2008-09-01

    el llamado « Sólido Sur » resultaba inflexible sobre la necesidad de hacer perenne sus instituciones racistas. Pero fue acogido por una minoría importante de la población sudista como el resultado lógico de un movimiento doloroso de reformas que habían empezado en esta región décadas antes. A diferencia del movimiento para los derechos cívicos de los años 1960, que fue encabezado y popularizado por hombres líderes negros carismáticos, la lucha para los derechos cívicos que precedió fue dirigida esencialmente por reformistas blancos entre quienes las mujeres tuvieron un papel significativamente importante y que no siempre fue reconocido como tal. Estas mujeres blancas, pertenecientes a familias blancas segregacionistas, experimentaron un proceso de cuestionamiento que las hizo arrostrar la supremacía blanca y comprometerse en la lucha por la igualdad racial. La historia de este activismo especial fue caracterizada por un proceso peculiar de radicalización, desde los primeros esfuerzos para establecer una cooperación interracial en el contexto de la segregación en los años 1920 hasta la “fraternidad universal” de los estudiantes en los años 1960. Este artículo muestra que, en el contexto del sur segregado, el activismo de las mujeres blancas fue, en muchos aspectos, más radical que el de sus homólogos de esta misma época.From the late 19th century to the 1960s, racial segregation and patriarchy were the main pillars of society in the southern United States. If the modern Civil Rights Movement that led in a few years to the historic abolition of segregation by the federal government came as a surprise to many Americans at the time, as the so-called Solid South was adamant in its determination to maintain its racist institutions forever, it was indeed welcomed by a significant minority of southerners as the logical outcome of a painful reform movement that had started decades earlier in the region. Unlike the Civil Rights Movement of the

  7. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  8. Determinants of Food Security Status of Maize-Based Farming Households in Southern Guinea Savannah Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwayemisi Abidemi Onasanya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food and high food import bill, which have debilitating effects on the productive capacity of the citizens. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. This study examined the contribution of maize production to household food security status of rural maize-farming households in the southern guinea savannah of Oyo state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 200 farm households and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, recommended daily calorie requirement (RDCR approach, Logit model. Results showed that about three-quarters of the households were food secure and were able to meet the recommended calorie intake of 2260Kcal per capita per day. The shortfall index (P which measures the extent of deviation from the food security line, indicated that the food secure households exceeded the RDCR by 65%, while the food insecure households fell short of the RDCR by 31%. The logit model showed that maize output, gender, primary occupation of the farmer, farm size and farming experience had a positive influence on food security status while age had a negative influence on the food security status of maize-based farming households in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Oyo State, Nigeria. This suggests need for specific support to improve maize production

  9. Evaluation of the APEX Model to Simulate Runoff Quality from Agricultural Fields in the Southern Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, John J; Radcliffe, David E; Osmond, Deanna; Bolster, Carl; Sharpley, Andrew; Ortega-Achury, Sandra L; Forsberg, Adam; Oldham, J Larry

    2017-11-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely applied to assess phosphorus (P) loss in runoff water and has been proposed as a model to support practical decisions regarding agricultural P management, as well as a model to evaluate tools such as the P Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of APEX to simulate P losses from agricultural systems to determine its potential use for refinement or replacement of the P Index in the southern region of the United States. Uncalibrated and calibrated APEX model predictions were compared against measured water quality data from row crop fields in North Carolina and Mississippi and pasture fields in Arkansas and Georgia. Calibrated models satisfactorily predicted event-based surface runoff volumes at all sites (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] > 0.47, |percent bias [PBIAS]| < 34) except Arkansas (NSE < 0.11, |PBIAS| < 50) but did not satisfactory simulate sediment, dissolved P, or total P losses in runoff water. The APEX model tended to underestimate dissolved and total P losses from fields where manure was surface applied. The model also overestimated sediments and total P loads during irrigation events. We conclude that the capability of APEX to predict sediment and P losses is limited, and consequently so is the potential for using APEX to make P management recommendations to improve P Indices in the southern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Polycyclic migmatites from southern of Minas Gerais state and adjacent parts: structural/petrographic characterization and geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artur, A.C.; Wernick, E.; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    The geology of the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais and adjacent parts of the State of Sao Paulo (SE Brazil) is built up by gray gneisses (Barbacena and Amparo Complexes), pink gneisses (Pinhal Complex) and granulites (Guaxupe Complex) areas, the oldest of them of Archaean ages. Structural, petrographic, geochronological and geologic data indicate that in fact each of those complexes is the result of a long evolution including successive phases of deformation, anatexis and intrusions. The extensive migmatization of the Archaean rocks during the Lower and Upper Proterozoic combined with the intrusion of huge granitoid bodies suggest that the considered region has been involved in successively continental approaches by subduction/collision processes. (author)

  11. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - Global El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  12. Chemical characterzation of fine particle emissions from the fireplace combustion of woods grown in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Philip M; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-04-01

    The fireplace combustion of wood is a significant and largely unregulated source of fine particle pollution in the United States. Source apportionment techniques that use particulate organic compounds as tracers have been successful in determining the contribution of wood smoke to ambient fine particle levels in specific areas in California. To apply these techniques to the rest of the United States, the differences in emissions profiles between different wood smoke sources and fuel types should be resolved. To this end, a series of fireplace source tests was conducted on six fuel wood species found in the Southern United States to determine fine particulate emission factors for total mass, ionic and elemental species, elemental and organic carbon, and over 250 individual organic compounds. The wood species tested, chosen for their high abundance and availability in the Southern U.S. region, were yellow poplar, white ash, sweetgum, mockernut hickory, loblolly pine, and slash pine. The differences in the emissions of compounds such as substituted phenols and resin acids help to distinguish between the smoke from hardwood and softwood combustion. Levoglucosan, a cellulose pyrolysis product which may serve as a tracer for wood smoke in general, was quantified in the emissions from all the wood species burned. The furofuran lignan, yangambin, which was emitted in significant quantities from yellow poplar combustion and not detected in any of the other North American wood smokes, is a potential species-specific molecular tracer which may be useful in qualitatively identifying particulate emissions from a specific geographical area where yellow poplar is being burned.

  13. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia

  14. Groundwater Depletion and the Sharp Increase of Seismicity in the Southern States, How GRACE Data Could Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z.; Hasan, E.; Hong, Y.; Xia, B.; Zhong, H.

    2016-12-01

    This study is a contribution to how NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data may be used to track anthropogenic related change in the groundwater in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) as well recently increased seismicity in the southern states. The SGP contains one of the most important groundwater aquifers in the United States, the Ogallala groundwater aquifer, which has been exploited since 1900. Meanwhile, the recent activities of oil and gas extraction from the unconventional shall reservoir systems has led to significantly increased groundwater withdrawal and injection of wastewater. Consequently, numerous induced fracture related earthquakes have been recorded in Oklahoma and Texas between 2002 and 2016 The current paper investigates the utility of GRACE data along with the Land Water Content (LWC) information from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to monitor and track the groundwater changes in three southern states of SGP (Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico). Additionally, the paper investigates links between active seismicity and the injection of the wastewater due to the oil and gas production. Using GRACE data yields unprecedented information about the inter-annual changes in the Total Water Storage (TWS) from 2002 to 2016 over SGP. The LWC data set sums the soil moisture records with the the total canopy water storage to reveal the total land surface water content. The arithmetic difference between the TWS and LWC is the Groundwater Anomaly (GWA) for any particular region. In the current study, the GWA analysis reveals the following: (1) statistically significant drop of the GWA of about - 27 mm from 2002 to 2007 due to natural and anthropogenic causes; (2) the increased precipitation records from 2008 to 2011 over SGP leads to significant recovery in TWS and an increase in the groundwater content of about 40 mm; (3) the period from 2012 to 2015 experienced increased GWA of about - 6 mm for the period. Using the available

  15. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  16. Woody biomass policies and location decisions of the woody bioenergy industry in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhimei; Hodges, Donald G.; Young, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Woody biomass for bioenergy production has been included in relatively few renewable energy policies since the 1970s. Recently, however, several states have implemented a variety of new woody biomass policies to spur the establishment of new bioenergy industry. Establishing new woody biomass-based facilities in a specific state is affected by a number of factors such as the strength of these new policy incentives, resource availability, business tax climate, and the available labor force. This study employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects relative to some of these other state attributes. The CLM results suggest that state government incentives are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. The results have substantial implications regarding woody biomass policies and the creation of a new bioenergy industry. -- Highlights: •This study explores the effects of state attributes on the siting decisions of new woody bioenergy projects. •Results suggest that state woody biomass policies are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. •Other factors related to the siting of woody bioenergy facilities include resource availability, taxes, and wage rate

  17. Forest products industries of the southern Middle-Atlantic states, 1985 - 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Kevin Mullarkey; Kevin Mullarkey

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output of Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. Results are based on a survey of primary processing mills located in these states and of mills in other states that used wood from the region. Contains statistics on industrial timber production and mill receipts and the production and final end use of manufacturing residues. Comparisons are made...

  18. Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia T. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Forestry management practices can shape patterns of health, illness, and disease. A primary goal for owners federal, state, andprivate forests is to crap ecosystem management plans that simultaneously optimize forest health and human health. Fire-a major forest management issue in the United States-complicates these goals. Wildfires are natural phenomena with...

  19. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  20. Bottom sediment transport by radioactive tracer techniques off a stretch of the southern coast from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomtempo, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results obtained with radioactive tracer techniques as applied to study sea-bottom sediments movements off a stretch of the southern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, namely Praia do Una. Three injections of ground glass containing Iridium-192 were made and the behaviour of this material was tracked by special detection techniques, as it was acted upon by hydrodynamic agents, in two distinct periods of the year of 1982 (summer and winter). Measurement of hydrodynamic parameters was conducted simultaneously with tracer experiments. From the experiments with radioactive tracers, combined with other conventional studies, qualitative and quantitative conclusions could be drawn, as follows: waves are the prevailing agents in moving bottom sediments; during summer time, onshore and alongshore transport can be identified; during winter time, offshore and alongshore transport are present; for summer conditions, Massif transport rate was estimated to be 150 kg m -1 day -1 . (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  1. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  2. A survey of plants used for family planning in Bayelsa State, southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Alade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants with both male and female antifertility potential were surveyed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria. A total of 35 medicinal plant species representing 33 genera and 26 families were employed by the traditional birth attendants and elders for contraception, labour induction and abortion among the people of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Among these, only three plant species were mentioned for male contraception purpose. A few animal inclusion was also documented. [J Complement Med Res 2018; 7(1.000: 25-44

  3. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi

  4. 77 FR 58470 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... jointly by APHIS and the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of India as part of the required... standard \\2\\ of the International Plant Protection Convention, of which the United States is a contracting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No...

  5. 77 FR 42621 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... is the most radiation-sensitive, water-soluble vitamin. With regard to this vitamin, the American... fruits and vegetables, particularly through vitamin depletion. One commenter stated that ``many of the... Risks'' (GAO/RCED-00-217): There is also some vitamin loss associated with irradiation-- with certain...

  6. Climate change and wildlife in the southern United States: potential effects and management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Susan C. Loeb; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Eric Winters; E.M. Fucik; M.A. Kwiatkowski; B.R. Parresol; J.D. Austin; G.W. Tanner

    2014-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, climate models project a temperature increase of 2-10°C by 2100 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). Climate change is already evident. Since the 1970s, average temperature has risen by about 1°C, with the greatest seasonal temperature increase during winter. Average precipitation during autumn has increased by 30% since...

  7. MONTHLY PRICE ANALYSIS OF COWPEA (BEANS AND MAIZE IN AKWA IBOM STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the price transmission and market integration of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Average monthly prices (measured in naira per kilogram of Maize and Cowpea in rural and urban markets were used in the analysis. The data was obtained from the quarterly publications of the Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP. The data covered the period; January 2005 to June 2013. The trend analysis showed that, prices of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets had exponential growth rates that were less than unity, which suggested a possible co-movement of these prices in the study area. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient generated for the pair of rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans revealed significant linear symmetric relationships. The result implies the existence of symmetric market information flows between the rural and urban markets for Maize and Beans in the state. The Granger causality test revealed bi-directional relationships between the rural and urban price of Maize and Beans in the study area. The co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans. The coefficients of the price variables in the co-integration equations for Maize and Beans markets converged to unity or law of one price which implied perfect market integration in the long run. The results of the error correction model (ECM also confirm the existence of the short run market integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans in the study area. In addition, it was discovered that, the rural price of Maize adjusted faster to the stable state in the long run than the urban price. Likewise, the urban price of Beans adjusted faster than its corresponding rural price. The index of market connection (IMC supported the high short run market integration for prices of Maize and Beans in rural and urban markets. Based

  8. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  9. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  10. Quantifying Trade-Offs Between Economic and Ecological Objectives in Uneven-Aged Mixed- Species Forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Kenneth E. Skog

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes research on the management of uneven-aged loblolly pine-hardwood stands in the southern United States. This research was composed of three elements: (1) modeling of biological growth of uneven-aged stands of mixed loblolly pine and hardwood trees, (2) optimization to discover sustainable regimes that would best meet economic and ecological...

  11. Integrating Forage, Wildlife, Water, and Fish Projections with Timber Projections at the Regional Level: A Case Study in Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Curtis H. Flather; Patricia A. Flebbe; Thomas W. Hoekstra; Stan J. Ursic

    1990-01-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with...

  12. Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Gustavo Costalunga; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Casarin, Letícia Sopeña; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74%) confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26%) confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32%) were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%), where men (48%) and women (52%) were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%), followed by pastries (25%), cheese (23%), pasta (11%) and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%). The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33%) followed by commercial food establishments (28%). Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain.

  13. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State.

  14. Evidence for a climate-induced ecohydrological state shift in wetland ecosystems of the southern Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Owen; Mushet, David M.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Changing magnitude, frequency, and timing of precipitation can influence aquatic-system hydrological, geochemical, and biological processes, in some cases resulting in system-wide shifts to an alternate state. Since the early 1990s, the southern Prairie Pothole Region has been subjected to an extended period of increased wetness resulting in marked changes to aquatic systems defining this region. We explored numerous lines of evidence to identify: (1) how the recent wet period compared to historical variability, (2) hydrological, geochemical, and biological responses, and (3) how these responses might represent a state shift in the region’s wetland ecosystems. We analyzed long-term climate records and compared how different hydrological variables responded in this wet period compared to decades before the observed shift. Additionally, we used multi-decadal records of waterfowl population and subsurface tile drain records to explore wildlife and human responses to a shifting climate. Since 1993, a novel precipitation regime corresponded with increased pond numbers, ponded-water depths, lake levels, stream flows, groundwater heights, soil-moisture, waterfowl populations, and installation of subsurface tile drains in agricultural fields. These observed changes reflect an alteration in water storage and movement across the landscape that in turn has altered solute sources and concentrations of prairie-pothole wetlands and has increased pond permanence. Combined, these changes represent significant evidence for a state shift in the ecohydrological functioning of the region’s wetland ecosystems, a shift that may require a significant refinement of the previously developed “wetland continuum” concept.

  15. The discovery and character of Pleistocene calcrete uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains of west Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hall, Susan M.

    2017-12-18

    This report describes the discovery and geology of two near-surface uranium deposits within calcareous lacustrine strata of Pleistocene age in west Texas, United States. Calcrete uranium deposits have not been previously reported in the United States. The west Texas uranium deposits share characteristics with some calcrete uranium deposits in Western Australia—uranium-vanadium minerals hosted by nonpedogenic calcretes deposited in saline lacustrine environments.In the mid-1970s, Kerr-McGee Corporation conducted a regional uranium exploration program in the Southern High Plains province of the United States, which led to the discovery of two shallow uranium deposits (that were not publicly reported). With extensive drilling, Kerr-McGee delineated one deposit of about 2.1 million metric tons of ore with an average grade of 0.037 percent U3O8 and another deposit of about 0.93 million metric tons of ore averaging 0.047 percent U3O8.The west-Texas calcrete uranium-vanadium deposits occur in calcareous, fine-grained sediments interpreted to be deposited in saline lakes formed during dry interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The lakes were associated with drainages upstream of a large Pleistocene lake. Age determinations of tephra in strata adjacent to one deposit indicate the host strata is middle Pleistocene in age.Examination of the uranium-vanadium mineralization by scanning-electron microscopy indicated at least two generations of uranium-vanadium deposition in the lacustrine strata identified as carnotite and a strontium-uranium-vanadium mineral. Preliminary uranium-series results indicate a two-component system in the host calcrete, with early lacustrine carbonate that was deposited (or recrystallized) about 190 kilo-annum, followed much later by carnotite-rich crusts and strontium-uranium-vanadium mineralization in the Holocene (about 5 kilo-annum). Differences in initial 234U/238U activity ratios indicate two separate, distinct fluid sources.

  16. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

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    Estrada-Castillón Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality, Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest; the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities, and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses. Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for

  17. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  18. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  19. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  20. Geochronology of sediments in the Cananeia-Iguape estuary and in southern continental shelf of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R.T.; Figueira, R.C.L.; Cunha, I.I.L.; Tessler, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental analysis methods for 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs by gamma-spectrometry in sediments, as well as the sedimentation rates in cores collected from Brazilian coastal region are presented. Sampling locations have covered the Cananeia-Iguape estuary and the continental shelf of southern Sao Paulo State. Values for 210 Pb ranged from 122.5 to 14.3 Bq x kg -1 for estuarine sediments and from 195.5 to 23.6 Bq x kg -1 at the continental shelf. For 226 Ra the values obtained in sediments varied from 15.2 to 2.3 Bq x kg -1 in the estuary and from 30.1 to 16.1 Bq x kg -1 at the continental shelf. Sedimentation rates are variable, ranging from 0.53 to 0.98 cm x y -1 in estuary sediments and from 0.18 to 0.40 cm x y -1 at the continental shelf. (author)

  1. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Last three millennia Earth's Magnetic field strength in Mesoamerica and southern United States: Implications in geomagnetism and archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Ruiz, Rafael García; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Contreras, Juan Julio Morales; Arechalde, Ana María Soler; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Earth's Magnetic Field variation strength may provide crucial information to understand the geodynamo mechanism and elucidate the conditions on the physics of the Earth's deep interiors. Aimed to reveal the fine characteristics of the geomagnetic field during the last three millennia in Mesoamerica, we analyzed the available absolute geomagnetic intensities associated to absolute radiometric dating as well some ages provided by historical documents. This analysis is achieved using thermoremanent magnetization carried by volcanic lava flows and burned archaeological artefacts. A total of 106 selected intensities from Mesoamerica and other 100 from the southern part of the United States represent the main core of the dataset to construct the variation curve using both combined bootstrap method and temporal penalized B-spline methods. The obtained intensity paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica generally disagrees with the values predicted by the global geomagnetic field models. There is rather firm evidence of eastward drift when compared to similar reference curves in Western Europe, Asia and Pacific Ocean. The recent hypothesis about the relationship between the geomagnetic field strength and paleoclimate is also critically analyzed in the light of this new data compilation.

  3. Agent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucatán, Mexico, and reforestation in the Midwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Steven M.; Evans, Tom

    2007-01-01

    We combine mixed-methods research with integrated agent-based modeling to understand land change and economic decision making in the United States and Mexico. This work demonstrates how sustainability science benefits from combining integrated agent-based modeling (which blends methods from the social, ecological, and information sciences) and mixed-methods research (which interleaves multiple approaches ranging from qualitative field research to quantitative laboratory experiments and interpretation of remotely sensed imagery). We test assumptions of utility-maximizing behavior in household-level landscape management in south-central Indiana, linking parcel data, land cover derived from aerial photography, and findings from laboratory experiments. We examine the role of uncertainty and limited information, preferences, differential demographic attributes, and past experience and future time horizons. We also use evolutionary programming to represent bounded rationality in agriculturalist households in the southern Yucatán of Mexico. This approach captures realistic rule of thumb strategies while identifying social and environmental factors in a manner similar to econometric models. These case studies highlight the role of computational models of decision making in land-change contexts and advance our understanding of decision making in general. PMID:18093928

  4. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura, Brachycephalidae) from the coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli Monteiro, Juliane Petry; Condez, Thais Helena; De Anchietta Garcia, Paulo Christiano; Comitti, EstevÃo Jasper; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, CÉlio Fernando Baptista

    2018-04-12

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus from municipality of São Francisco do Sul and municipality of Itapoá, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, southern Atlantic Forest. The new species is known from six localities from near sea level up to 250 meters and represents the first record of a "pumpkin-toadlet" occurring in the lowlands. Morphological traits and phylogenetic analysis of a fragment the 16S mtDNA gene place the new species in the Brachycephalus pernix group. The new species is supported by external morphology, osteology, advertisement call, and mtDNA divergence. It is characterized, among other traits by a dorsal body color dark green with a dark brown vertebral stripe, and an orange background; snout-vent length of 9.2-10.8 mm in males and 11.1-12.4 mm in females; and advertisement call short (0.02-0.03 seconds), composed of one high-frequency note (dominant frequency 6.6-7.3 kHz). We observed synchronized alternation in the emission of vocalizations among neighbor males, indicating that males of the new species are able to hear and use vocalizations to interact with each other. We provide descriptions of clutch, eggs, and juvenile and observations on parental care. The new species has not been recorded within any protected area and can be threatened by human-induced habitat loss and modification.

  5. Spatiotemporal Variability of Humidity Across the Contiguous United States and Southern Canada Using Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Ruben John

    The objective of this dissertation was to show that there is now enough observed humidity data available so that estimates of humidity, along with their necessary assumptions, can be replaced by measured humidity data. The range of applications that depend on humidity data is huge, ranging from water use efficiency of plants and plant stress to human health and agricultural practices. Biases due to the use of estimated humidity can be expected to have short and long impacts, decreasing the accuracy and precision of these, and many other, applications. Data from local, regional, and national observation networks was gathered, and custom quality control routines were written to remove bad data points from over 45000 stations, leaving 12533 usable stations. While still not at the same number of observations as temperature or precipitation, this number is nearly ten times as high as two decades ago. The work I performed consists of three major components, corresponding to the three main chapters of this dissertation. In chapter one, I describe data sources and quality control methods, along with some basic statistics of humidity, describing which geographic variables often used to predict temperature and precipitation can be used to do the same for humidity. Chapter two defines specific diurnal patterns (or "types") of dew point across the United States, including their attributes, causes, and potential influences. Chapter three analyzes biases in evapotranspiration, heat indices, and relative humidity levels that are a direct result of using estimated humidity data. Chapter four discusses contributions this work makes to the scientific community, and potential further research to build on what is presented here. While it may seem that the science of humidity should be well beyond data gathering and bias analysis, the fact remains that humidity is still very commonly estimated through the use of minimum temperature, and diurnal changes in dew point are often ignored

  6. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Retz de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.O número de relatos de ocorrências de florações de cianobactérias em todo o mundo vem aumentando consideravelmente e na maioria desses episódios, as toxinas dominantes são as microcistinas. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de floração na Lagoa do Violão, município de Torres, RS, em janeiro de 2005. As amostras coletadas em 13/01/2005 foram submetidas a estudos taxonômicos, toxicológicos e químicos. O exame microscópico do fitoplancton mostrou a dominância das espécies Microcystis protocystis e Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense; foram observadas, também, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii e Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis. A toxicidade da floração foi confirmada através de ensaio intraperitonial em camundongos e a análise química de extratos obtidos da biomassa liofilizada mostrou que a substância majoritária era a anabaenopeptina F, seguida por anabaenopeptina B, microcistina-LR e microcistina-RR.

  7. Detection of Schistosoma Antibodies and exploration of associated factors among local residents around Inlay Lake, Southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Htin Zaw; Oo, Cho Cho; Myat, Tin Ohn; Maung, Nay Soe

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Its transmission has been reported in 78 countries affecting at least 258 million people world-wide. It was documented that S. japonicum species was prevalent in Shan State, Myanmar, but the serological study was not conducted yet. General objective of the present study was to detect schistosoma antibodies and explore associated factors among local residents living around Inlay Lake, Nyaung Shwe Township, and Southern Shan State, Myanmar. An exploratory and cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among local residents (n = 315) in selected rural health center (RHC) areas from December 2012 through June 2013. The participants were interviewed with pretested semi-structured questionnaires and their blood samples (serum) were tested using Schistosomiasis Serology Microwell ELISA test kits (sensitivity 100% and specificity 85%) which detected IgG antibodies but could not distinguish between a new and past infection. Data collected were analysed by SPSS software 16.0 and associations of variables were determined by Chi-squared test with a significant level set at 0.05. Schistosoma seroprevalence (IgG) in study area was found to be 23.8% (95% CI: 18.8-28.8%). The present study is the first and foremost study producing serological evidence of schistosoma infection-one of the neglected tropical diseases-in local people of Myanmar. The factors significantly associated with seropositivity were being male [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.49), P Myanmar, and this should be further confirmed parasitologically and kept under surveillance. Proper trainings on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be provided to the healthcare providers. ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458 . Registered 28 September 2014, retrospectively registered.

  8. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  9. Characterization of pyrolysis products from fast pyrolysis of live and dead vegetation native to the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Saeed Safdari; Mahmood Rahmati; Elham Amini; Joel E. Howarth; Jansen P. Berryhill; Mark Dietenberger; David R. Weise; Thomas H. Fletcher

    2018-01-01

    Prescribed burning (controlled burning) is used to decrease accumulation of combustible materials and reduce impact of uncontrolled wildland fires. Prescribed fires are often used to burn undergrowth in Southern...

  10. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Vascular species composition of a contact zone between Seasonal and Araucaria forests in Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gnigler, Luciana; Caddah, Mayara

    2015-01-01

    A floristic survey was carried out in a contact area between Araucaria Forest and Seasonal Forest areas, in the municipality of Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. We provide a checklist containing 108 species and 42 plant families for the area. Families with the most encountered number of species were Myrtaceae (eight species), Solanaceae (eight), Euphorbiaceae (seven) and Poaceae (six). Two species are classified as endangered of extinction, following IUCN criteri...

  12. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of population sizes and spatial distributions of zebra mussels along the current southern frontier of their geographic range. Although the future population size trajectory and geographic range are uncertain, increased temperatures and intermittent, extreme droughts likely will affect spatio-temporal dynamics of

  13. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  14. Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

    2012-09-01

    A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espírito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention.

  15. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  16. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  17. Of Policy Entrepreneurship, bandwagoning and free-riding : EU member states and multilateral cooperation frameworks for Europe's southern neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, T.; Bouris, D.; Olszewska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the EU and NATO have displayed considerable agency and thus influence as far as the development of institutionalised collective cooperation and/or foreign policy frameworks towards Europe’s southern neighbourhood is concerned. Against this backdrop, this article puts EU and

  18. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Southern United States and impacts on data analysis and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) utilizes visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes and discusses distributions of three FIA crown condition indicators (crown density, crown dieback, and foliage transparency) for trees in the Southern...

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228 Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228 Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228 Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the

  20. Changes in state of stress on the southern san andreas fault resulting from the california earthquake sequence of april to june 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumé, S C; Sykes, L R

    1992-11-20

    The April to June 1992 Landers earthquake sequence in southern California modified the state of stress along nearby segments of the San Andreas fault, causing a 50-kilometer segment of the fault to move significantly closer to failure where it passes through a compressional bend near San Gorgonio Pass. The decrease in compressive normal stress may also have reduced fluid pressures along that fault segment. As pressures are reequilibrated by diffusion, that fault segment should move closer to failure with time. That fault segment and another to the southeast probably have not ruptured in a great earthquake in about 300 years.

  1. Body size, diet and endoparasites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in an Atlantic Forest area of southern Bahia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Sluys

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet composition, endoparasites and sexual size dimorphism of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba (Microhylidae from a "mussununga" habitat in the municipality of Nova Viçosa, southern Bahia state, Brazil. All the 119 specimens analyzed were collected in a single night of heavy rainfall. Females (mean snout-vent length = 15.7 + 3.0 mm were significantly larger than males (mean snout-vent length = 13.2 + 2.1 mm, and specimens of both sexes were smaller than those of a conspecific population previously reported in Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo state. The diet of C. capixaba was dominated by mites, ants and collembolans. Seventy-nine frogs (66.4% of the total were infected by helminths, all belonging to a single species, Cosmocerca ornata, an intestinal nematode parasite.

  2. The Soviet State Social Policy in the Sphere of Development of the Material Culture of the Southern Russian Peasants in the 1920-ies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna D. Bagdasaryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems of formation of the Soviet state social policy transformations in material culture of the southern Russian peasants in the 1920-ies. The necessity of studying the Soviet state social policy in Russia in the period of 1920-ies the historical aspect is determined by several factors. First, in the study of Russian history of the XX century, one of the main directions of national historiography was and remains the study of social problems at various stages of its development. In this regard, relevant is the consideration of the main challenges for social development at country and regional level. Secondly, in the formation of a new concept of social development of the country increases the need to adequate understanding of the role and importance of the Soviet state in the modernization of Russian society. One of the fundamental principles of state social policy is the principle of state responsibility for creating the conditions necessary for the development of society and the individual. In this regard, special scientific and practical interest becomes the problem of the essence of social policy in different historical periods, especially in the 1920-ies the history of the Soviet state, when it formed the Soviet system. In the analysed time clearly showed different approaches to solving social problems: in the framework of the state ideology and assumptions in Economics elements of private property (1921-1929.

  3. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  4. Structural interventions to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted disease: are they cost-effective for women in the southern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Wu, Shin-Yi; Farley, Thomas A

    2006-07-01

    Structural interventions are theoretically promising for populations with a low prevalence of HIV, because they can reach large numbers of people to influence their social norms and collective risky behaviors for a relatively low cost per person. Because HIV transmission is continuing to increase among women in the southern United States, interventions to stem this epidemic are particularly warranted. This study explores whether structural interventions may be a cost-effective way to prevent HIV in this population. We used the cost-effectiveness estimator, "Maximizing the Benefit" to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of 6 structural HIV prevention interventions. "Maximizing the Benefit" is a spreadsheet tool using mathematical models to estimate the cost per HIV infection prevented taking into account the epidemiologic contexts, behavioral change as a result of an intervention, and the costs of intervention. We applied estimates of HIV prevalence related to blacks in the southern United States. All the structural interventions were cost-effective compared with average lifetime treatment costs of HIV, but mass media, condom availability, and alcohol taxes theoretically prevented the largest numbers of HIV infections. Although the assumptions used in cost-effectiveness estimates have many limitations, they do allow for a relative comparison of different interventions and help to inform policy decisions related to the allocation of HIV prevention resources. Structural interventions hold the greatest promise in reducing HIV transmission among low-prevalence populations.

  5. A Two-Timescale Response of the Southern Ocean to Ozone Depletion: Importance of the Background State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-02-01

    It has been recently suggested that the response of Southern Ocean sea-ice extent to stratospheric ozone depletion is time-dependent; that the ocean surface initially cools due to enhanced northward Ekman drift caused by a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet, and then warms after some time due to upwelling of warm waters from below the mixed layer. It is therefore possible that ozone depletion could act to favor a short-term increase in sea-ice extent. However, many uncertainties remain in understanding this mechanism, with different models showing widely differing time-scales and magnitudes of the response. Here, we analyze an ensemble of coupled model simulations with a step-function ozone perturbation. The two-timescale response is present with an approximately 30 year initial cooling period. The response is further shown to be highly dependent upon the background ocean temperature and salinity stratification, which is influenced by both natural internal variability and the isopycnal eddy mixing parameterization. It is suggested that the majority of inter-model differences in the Southern Ocean response to ozone depletion are caused by differences in stratification.

  6. The W (Sn-Mo)-specialized catinga suite and other granitoids of the Brusque Group, neo proterozoic of the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Neivaldo Araujo de; Crosta, Alvaro Penteado; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp

    1999-01-01

    The petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data on the granitoids intrusive in the Brusque Group, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, are presented in this paper. These are late-to post-tectonic rocks, being the most evolved ones those that constitute the Catinga Suite. The granitoids intrusive in the southern domain of the Brusque Group are grayish rocks, in which biotite (when present) is practically the only mafic mineral. They are rather reduced, slightly alkalic, transitional between meta-and peraluminous. An acid subvolcanic pluton, the Ribeirao da Velha pluton, has similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics, and seems to be genetically related to these granitoids. LREE fractionation relative to HREE is incipient for the Catinga suite, and the REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomaly. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, from the literature for these granitoids are around 0.721 (Sao Joao Batista granitoid) and the only available t DM model age (Valsungana granitoid) points to a genesis from a continental crust of ca. 2020 Ma old. Gneiss-migmatitic rocks such as those that occur in the eastern portion of Brusque Group domain and as enclaves in the Nova Italia granitoid are strong candidates for protoliths of these granitoids. Little available information on the granitoids intrusive in the northern domain of the Brusque Group reports the presence of pink K-feldspar hornblende granitoids (Faxinal pluton) and light pink K-feldspar biotite granitoid (Guabiruba pluton). These granitoids are more enriched in K and more oxidized than those in the southern domain, and the LREE fractionation relative to HREE is strong, with the REE patterns showing incipient negative Eu anomaly. It is suggested that part of the Au concentrations found in the northern domain may be genetically associated with the granitoids, since they present characteristics favorable to promote Au mineralizations than the granitoids in the southern domain. Distinct protoliths and

  7. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) for Fiscal Year 2009... the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended, for... the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended by...

  8. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  9. EFFECT OF SEASON ON SERUM COPPER AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN CROSSBRED GOATS HAVING DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE STATUS UNDER SEMIARID RANGELAND CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Vázquez-Armijo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of season (rainy: RS, and dry: DS and reproductive status on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations in blood serum of crossbred goats (BW= 36.01 ± 1.59 kg were studied under semiarid rangeland conditions in Southern Mexico State. Blood samples from 80 crossbred goats were taken each season (RS and DS. The goats were clustered into 10 different groups considering their reproductive status. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in serum were assayed using atomic absorption. Data were analyzed using a general linear model procedure for a completely randomized design and differences among means were examined using a Tukey test. Blood serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were affected by reproductive status and season (P

  10. The roles of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.

  11. 14C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidotto, Elaine; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Gouveia, Susy Eli M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia; Aravena, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition ( 12 C, 13 C and 14 N, 15 N) and 14 C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The δ 13 C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with δ 13 C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C 3 land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The 14 C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  12. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  13. Locating Spatial Variation in the Association Between Wildland Fire Risk and Social Vulnerability Across Six Southern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Neelam C.; Johnson-Gaither, Cassandra; Goodrick, Scott; Bowker, J. M.; Gan, Jianbang

    2012-03-01

    Wildland fire in the South commands considerable attention, given the expanding wildland urban interface (WUI) across the region. Much of this growth is propelled by higher income retirees and others desiring natural amenity residential settings. However, population growth in the WUI increases the likelihood of wildfire fire ignition caused by people, as humans account for 93% of all wildfires fires in the South. Coexisting with newly arrived, affluent WUI populations are working class, poor or otherwise socially vulnerable populations. The latter groups typically experience greater losses from environmental disasters such as wildfire because lower income residents are less likely to have established mitigation programs in place to help absorb loss. We use geographically weighted regression to examine spatial variation in the association between social vulnerability (SOVUL) and wildfire risk. In doing so, we identify "hot spots" or geographical clusters where SOVUL varies positively with wildfire risk across six Southern states—Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. These clusters may or may not be located in the WUI. These hot spots are most prevalent in South Carolina and Florida. Identification of these population clusters can aid wildfire managers in deciding which communities to prioritize for mitigation programming.

  14. Paleoenvironmental evolution of the coastal plain of Southern Brazil: palynological data from a Holocene core in Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIA A. KUHN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a paleoenvironmental reconstruction from palynological analyses of a sedimentary core of Holocene age, drilled at municipality of Garopaba (Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. A total of 46 samples was collected for palynological analyses in the 450 cm-long core PCSC-3, as also three samples for radiocarbon dating and granulometric analyses. The palynological content includes 84 taxa related to pollen grains of angiosperms (38 and gimnosperm (3, spores of pteridophyta (16 and bryophyta (2, spores of fungi (8, algae (3, acritarchs (3, dinoflagellate cysts (2 and microforaminiferal linings (1. Three specimens of acritarchs are described and illustrated in detail. Three palynological phases were defined based on changes in assemblages: Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. The Phase I is characterized as a lagoonal paleoenvironment with marine influence from the beginning of the sedimentation (5390 cal yr BP, based on occurrences of acritarchs, dinoflagellate cysts and microforaminiferal linings. The Phase II (3032 yr BP until 858 cal yr BP also is characterized by a lagoonal paleoenvironment, however, presented decrease in percentage of marine elements and increase in freshwater algae record, suggesting less marine influence in the lagoonal body. In Phase III (last 856 years, underwater sedimentation prevailed, under swamp-like conditions.

  15. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  16. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Canali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9% had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%. Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  17. Relationship power and HIV risk among young Black men who have sex with men in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, JaNelle M; Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro

    2018-05-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of relationship power on HIV risk behaviour among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southern US. Methods: Data from 425 Black/African American males aged 18-29 years who reported recent anal intercourse with a male partner were analysed. Five selected measures of relationship power were tested for correlation and association with protected receptive anal intercourse using contingency tables and logistic regression analysis. Results: Acts of 100% protected receptive anal intercourse were common (n=277, 65.2%). Men who reported low barriers to condom negotiation were significantly more likely to report protected acts (P<0.001). Men who reported 100% protected acts were less likely to report financial dependence on male sexual partners and serosorting behaviour (12.0% vs 20.7%, P=0.02; 31.5% vs 49.8%, P<0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Future efforts should further examine the role of relationship power in HIV risk among young Black MSM, including the intersection of individual, dyadic and social-structure risks.

  18. The southern Hessen waste management task force - initial situation, objectives, state of development; Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft - Ausgangssituation, Zielsetzung und Entwicklungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.J. [Stadt Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994, the rural districts of Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald and Gross-Gerau in southern Hessen and the town of Darmstadt concluded a cooperation agreement permitting them to meet the future demands of the technical code on municipal waste and the `Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz` (act concerning waste recycling and waste management). In order to formally prepare different forms of cooperation and to accompany corresponding preliminary investigations, the Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) was founded as a municipal task force. SAGA`s task is to debate common affairs in the waste management sector with a view to joint planning and joint facilities. In particular, the requirements of the technical code on municipal waste must be met. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1994 haben die suedhessischen Landkreise Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald, Gross-Gerau sowie die Stadt Darmstadt beschlossen, bezueglich der kuenftigen Anforderung der TA Siedlungsabfall und des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes zu kooperieren. Zur formellen Vorbereitung von verschiedenen dann auszufuehrenden Kooperationsformen und zur Begleitung entsprechender Voruntersuchungen wurde die Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) als Kommunale Arbeitsgemeinschaft gegruendet. Aufgabe der Kommunalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft ist es, gemeinsam beruehrende Angelegenheiten im Abfallbereich unter dem Gesichtspunkt gemeinsamer Planung und gemeinsamer Einrichtungen zu beraten. Hierbei sollen insbesondere die Vorgaben der TA Siedlungsabfall beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  19. The Water Reuse project: Sustainable waste water re-use technologies for irrigated land in NIS and southern European states; project overview and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, E.; Doerr, S.; Ritsema, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    In irrigated areas in the New Independent States (NIS) and southern European States, inefficient use of conventional water resources occurs through incomplete wetting of soils, which causes accelerated runoff and preferential flow, and also through excessive evaporation associated with unhindered capillary rise. Furthermore, a largely unexploited potential exists to save conventional irrigation water by supplementation with organic-rich waste water, which, if used appropriately, can also lead to improvements to soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. This project aims to (a) reduce irrigation water losses by developing, evaluating and promoting techniques that improve the wetting properties of soils, and (b) investigate the use of organic-rich waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation and, in addition, as a tool in improving soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. Key activities include (i) identifying, for the NIS and southern European partner countries, the soil type/land use combinations, for which the above approaches are expected to be most effective and their implementation most feasible, using physical and socio-economic research methods, and (ii) examining the water saving potential, physical, biological and chemical effects on soils of the above approaches, and also their impact on performance. Expected outputs include techniques for sustainable improvements in soil wettability management as a novel approach in water saving, detailed evaluation of the prospects and effects of using supplemental organic-rich waste waters in irrigation, an advanced process-based numerical hydrological model, fully adapted to quantify and upscale resulting water savings and nutrient and potential contaminant fluxes for irrigated areas, and identification of suitable areas in the NIS and Mediterranean (in soil, land use, legislative and socio-economic terms) for implementation.

  20. The Judicialization of Health and the Quest for State Accountability: Evidence from 1,262 Lawsuits for Access to Medicines in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socal, Mariana P.; Amon, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of increasing numbers of lawsuits for access to medicines in Brazil is hotly debated. Government officials and scholars assert that the “judicialization of health” is driven by urban elites and private interests, and is used primarily to access high-cost drugs. Using a systematic sample of 1,262 lawsuits for access to medicines filed against the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, we assess these claims, offering empirical evidence that counters prevailing myths and affirms the heterogeneity of the judicialization phenomenon. Our findings show that the majority of patient-litigants are in fact poor and older individuals who do not live in major metropolitan areas and who depend on the state to provide their legal representation, and that the majority of medicines requested were already on governmental formularies. Our data challenge arguments that judicialization expands inequities and weakens the universal health care system. Our data also suggest that judicialization may serve as a grassroots instrument for the poor to hold the state accountable. Failing to acknowledge regional differences and attempting to fit all data into one singular narrative may be contributing to a biased interpretation of the nature of judicialization, and limiting the understanding of its drivers, consequences, and implications at local levels. PMID:27781011

  1. Divergence of Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is indicated by morphometric and molecular analyses when examined between taxa from the southeastern United States and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, David A; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2013-11-01

    The medically important sand fly Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) was collected at eight different sites: seven within the southeastern United States and one in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A canonical discriminant analysis was conducted on 40 female L. shannoni specimens from each of the eight collection sites (n = 320) using 49 morphological characters. Four L. shannoni specimens from each of the eight collection sites (n = 32) were sent to the Barcode of Life Data systems where a 654-base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genetic marker was sequenced from each sand fly. Phylogeny estimation based on the COI segments, in addition to genetic distance, divergence, and differentiation values were calculated. Results of both the morphometric and molecular analyses indicate that the species has undergone divergence when examined between the taxa of the United States and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Although purely speculative, the arid or semiarid expanse from southern Texas to Mexico City could be an allopatric barrier that has impeded migration and hence gene flow, resulting in different morphology and genetic makeup between the two purported populations. A high degree of intragroup variability was noted in the Quintana Roo sand flies.

  2. Diverse rupture modes for surface-deforming upper plate earthquakes in the southern Puget Lowland of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prehistory of the southern Puget Lowland, in the north-south compressive regime of the migrating Cascadia forearc, reflects diverse earthquake rupture modes with variable recurrence. Stratigraphy and Bayesian analyses of previously reported and new 14C ages in trenches and cores along backthrust scarps in the Seattle fault zone restrict a large earthquake to 1040–910 cal yr B.P. (2σ), an interval that includes the time of the M 7–7.5 Restoration Point earthquake. A newly identified surface-rupturing earthquake along the Waterman Point backthrust dates to 940–380 cal yr B.P., bringing the number of earthquakes in the Seattle fault zone in the past 3500 yr to 4 or 5. Whether scarps record earthquakes of moderate (M 5.5–6.0) or large (M 6.5–7.0) magnitude, backthrusts of the Seattle fault zone may slip during moderate to large earthquakes every few hundred years for periods of 1000–2000 yr, and then not slip for periods of at least several thousands of years. Four new fault scarp trenches in the Tacoma fault zone show evidence of late Holocene folding and faulting about the time of a large earthquake or earthquakes inferred from widespread coseismic subsidence ca. 1000 cal yr B.P.; 12 ages from 8 sites in the Tacoma fault zone limit the earthquakes to 1050–980 cal yr B.P. Evidence is too sparse to determine whether a large earthquake was closely predated or postdated by other earthquakes in the Tacoma basin, but the scarp of the Tacoma fault was formed by multiple earthquakes. In the northeast-striking Saddle Mountain deformation zone, along the western limit of the Seattle and Tacoma fault zones, analysis of previous ages limits earthquakes to 1200–310 cal yr B.P. The prehistory clarifies earthquake clustering in the central Puget Lowland, but cannot resolve potential structural links among the three Holocene fault zones.

  3. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  4. An Interpretive Inquiry of the Case Law of Teacher Evaluation in the Southern Regional Education Board States: Forecasting Pressing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder-Wilkerson, Kathy S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze case law related to teacher evaluation between 1980 and 2008 in the SREB states to determine the problems associated with teacher evaluation and if these problems were documented in the literature. Content analysis of teacher dismissal cases revealed many types of teacher evaluation problems. The two most…

  5. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  6. The single-particle mixing state and cloud scavenging of black carbon: a case study at a high-altitude mountain site in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Duohong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Brechtel, Fred J.; Chen, Jianxin; Yan, Weijun; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI) was used to sample cloud droplet residual (cloud RES) particles, while a parallel PM2.5 inlet was used to sample cloud-free or cloud interstitial (cloud INT) particles. The mixing state of black carbon (BC)-containing particles and the mass concentrations of BC in the cloud-free, RES and INT particles were investigated using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and two aethalometers, respectively, at a mountain site (1690 m a. s. l. ) in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were extensively internally mixed with sulfate and were scavenged into cloud droplets (with number fractions of 0.05-0.45) to a similar (or slightly lower) extent as all the measured particles (0.07-0.6) over the measured size range of 0.1-1.6 µm. The results indicate the preferential activation of larger particles and/or that the production of secondary compositions shifts the BC-containing particles towards larger sizes. BC-containing particles with an abundance of both sulfate and organics were scavenged less than those with sulfate but limited organics, implying the importance of the mixing state on the incorporation of BC-containing particles into cloud droplets. The mass scavenging efficiency of BC with an average of 33 % was similar for different cloud events independent of the air mass. This is the first time that both the mixing state and cloud scavenging of BC in China have been reported. Our results would improve the knowledge on the concentration, mixing state, and cloud scavenging of BC in the free troposphere.

  7. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  8. Sales of Forestry-Related Specialty License Plates in the Southern United States: A County Level Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Tanger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, specialty license plates have become an increasingly popular way to raise awareness and show support for a myriad of issues with which the plate is linked. Several states and various organizations that provide forestry education have developed forestry license plates. Vehicle owners can purchase the plates to show their support towards forestry by buying the forestry license plates, which generates revenue for the provider organization. Using county-level data from five states in the Southeastern United States, a statistical model was developed to examine explanatory factors of forestry-based specialty license plate sales in 2014. Using linear count regression modeling, we observed that the significant predictor variables of plate sales were income per capita, population density, the percentage of acres that are forested in the county, acres of forest in the county that are privately owned, percentage of people who are 65 or older, and presence of the forest industry in the county. Plate sales were positively correlated with the presence of the forest industry in the county.

  9. Characterizing Geosocial-Networking App Use Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Multi-City Cross-Sectional Survey in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Park, Su Hyun; Hambrick, H Rhodes; Dangerfield Ii, Derek T; Goedel, William C; Brewer, Russell; Mgbako, Ofole; Lindsey, Joseph; Regan, Seann D; Hickson, DeMarc A

    2018-06-14

    Understanding where and how young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in the southern United States meet their sexual partners is germane to understanding the underlying factors contributing to the ongoing HIV transmission in this community. Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use geosocial networking apps to meet sexual partners. However, there is a lack of literature exploring geosocial networking app use in this particular population. Our aim was to examine the characteristics, preferences, and behaviors of a geographically diverse sample of geosocial networking app-using YBMSM in the southern United States. Data were collected from a sample of 75 YBMSM across three cities (Gulfport, Mississippi; Jackson, Mississippi; and New Orleans, Louisiana). Multiple aspects of geosocial networking app use were assessed, including overall app use, age of participant at first app use, specific apps used, reasons for app use, photos presented on apps, logon times and duration, number of messages sent and received, and characteristics of and behaviors with partners met on apps. Survey measures of app-met partner and sexual behavior characteristics assessed at midpoint (Day 7) and completion visits (Day 14) were compared using McNemar's test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In addition, we assessed activity spaces derived from GPS devices that participants wore for 2 weeks. Of the 70 participants who responded to the overall app-use item, almost three-quarters (53/70, 76%) had ever used geosocial networking apps. Jack'd was the most commonly used geosocial networking app (37/53, 70%), followed by Adam4Adam (22/53, 42%), and Grindr (19/53, 36%). The mean and median number of apps used were 4.3 (SD 2.7) and 4.0 (range 0-13), respectively. Most app-using participants displayed their face on the profile picture (35/52, 67%), whereas fewer displayed their bare legs (2/52, 4%) or bare buttocks (or ass; 2/52, 4%). The mean age at the initiation of app use was 20.1 years (SD 2

  10. Financial Barriers and Lapses in Treatment and Care of HIV-Infected Adults in a Southern State in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, David A; Kuwahara, Rita K; Javadi, Kamran; Kirby, Christine; Rosen, David L; Napravnik, Sonia; Farel, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence has largely been considered from the perspective of an individual's behavior with less attention given to potential structural causes for lapses in treatment, such as the cost of medications and care. HIV medication expense is typically covered by third party payers. However, private insurance premiums and deductibles may rise, or policies terminated such as with a change in employment. Likewise, a patient's eligibility for publicly funded coverage like state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) or Medicaid can also be lost. We conducted a one-time survey of a sample of 300 patients receiving HIV care at a single large academic center in the south of United States to examine lapses in HIV therapy due to financial reasons. We found that during the prior year, financial issues including medication cost or coverage led to a lapse in ARVs in 10% (n = 31) of participants. However, of the 42% (n = 125) participants who had been enrolled in ADAP at any time during the prior year, 21% (n = 26) reported an ARV lapse due to problems with ADAP or medication cost. Respondents cited ADAP's required semi-annual renewal process and other administrative issues as the cause of ARV lapses. The median duration of missed ARVs was 2 weeks (range of financial burdens to care by respondents. In conclusion, although conducted at a single medical center and one state, this study suggests that a significant minority of HIV-infected patients encounter financial barriers to ARV access, and this is paradoxically more common among those enrolled in the state ADAP. Streamlining, supporting, and simplifying ADAP renewal procedures will likely reduce lapses in ARV adherence and persistence.

  11. GENDER VIOLENCE AND CONTROL BODIES: A CASE ANALYSIS OF MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SOUTHERN STATE OF GUANAJUATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosas-Vargas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives from a research project on gender violence to students in middle and high Guanajuato. Surveys, interviews and workshops were applied were performed. During the course of the latter, the high level of youth reported being raped because you do not meet the image that are supposed to have the body that the media tells them to show. Anxiety over what is apparently not conducive indicates serious trouble and sometimes they have attempted suicide. In this sense, we approach the work from the idea that female bodies which are normalized, and where social norms of womanhood (Harcourt, 2011 will also resist. It is in bodies, socio-culturally constructed, where power games enroll. Butler (2010: 93 states that "we are exposed to others, and while this may be a condition of our desire, it also raises the possibility of subjugation and cruelty This results from the fact that the bodies are closely related to each other. through the material, the feel, language and a number of relationships without which we can not survive. "That is, the need for others, for recognition tell us that to meet our needs, we must be as we are told and if we are not then we will not get the recognition and yes cruelty, but as we can not survive and may reactions are self-destruction and violence. What then are the bodies that represent a problem?

  12. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Bárbara Monique Dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phthiraptera and Gamasida Parasites of Columbina picui (Temminck (Columbiformes: Columbidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    MAA. Coimbra

    Full Text Available Thirty-two specimens of Columbina picui (picui ground-dove were examined, and a collection of arthropods was made by washing the external surface of the body and the nasal cavity. The species in the order Phthiraptera found and their respective prevalences, mean abundance and mean intensity were: Columbicola passerinae (84.4%; 10.3; 12.2, Hohorstiella passerinae (21.9%; 0.7; 3.1 and Physconelloides eurysema (3.1%; 0.1; 2. The gamasid mites found in the birds and their respective prevalences, mean abundance and mean intensity were: Pellonyssus marui (31.3%; 1.2; 3.9, Ornithonyssus bursa (15.6%; 0.2. ;1.2 and Mesonyssus sp. (6.3%; 0.1; 1. Columbicola passerinae, H. passerinae, P. eurysema, O. bursa, P. marui and Mesonyssus sp. were recorded for the first time infecting C. picui in Brazil. Except for O. bursa, the other species are reported for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  14. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Steady-state sulfur critical loads and exceedances for protection of aquatic ecosystems in the U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Todd C; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hessburg, Paul F; Reynolds, Keith M; Povak, Nicholas A; Cosby, Bernard J; Jackson, William; Salter, R Brion

    2014-12-15

    Atmospherically deposited sulfur (S) causes stream water acidification throughout the eastern U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountain (SAM) region. Acidification has been linked with reduced fitness and richness of aquatic species and changes to benthic communities. Maintaining acid-base chemistry that supports native biota depends largely on balancing acidic deposition with the natural resupply of base cations. Stream water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is maintained by base cations that mostly originate from weathering of surrounding lithologies. When ambient atmospheric S deposition exceeds the critical load (CL) an ecosystem can tolerate, stream water chemistry may become lethal to biota. This work links statistical predictions of ANC and base cation weathering for streams and watersheds of the SAM region with a steady-state model to estimate CLs and exceedances. Results showed that 20.1% of the total length of study region streams displayed ANC high elevation, and cool and moist forested conditions, the percentage of stream length in exceedance was highest for mountain wilderness areas and in national parks, and lowest for privately owned valley bottom land. Exceedance results were summarized by 12-digit hydrologic unit code (subwatershed) for use in developing management goals and policy objectives, and for long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. {sup 14}C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidotto, Elaine; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Gouveia, Susy Eli M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: evidotto@cena.usp.br; pessenda@cena.usp.br; susyeli@cena.usp.br; jab@cena.usp.br; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fresia@ige.unicamp.br; Aravena, Ramon [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: roaraven@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca

    2007-07-01

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N, {sup 15}N) and {sup 14}C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The {delta}{sup 13}C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with {delta}{sup 13}C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C{sub 3} land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The {sup 14}C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  17. Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E E; Ohlendorf, H M; Cromartie, E

    1980-12-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  18. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  19. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Crenuchidae endemic to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. S. Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Characidium is described based on specimens obtained from the highland streams of the Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest Biome, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The new species is possibly a member member of the C. lauroi group, which is diagnosed by having the isthmus unscaled, bars poorly marked, and spots on sides of body, and is composed by four additional species: C. japuhybense ; C. lauroi ; C. oiticicai ; and C. schubarti . The new species differs from its congeners with naked isthmus, except C. helmeri , by having 15-18 principal caudal-fin rays; and 10-12 pectoral-fin rays; and from C. helmeri , by having a slender body, tip of pectoral fin not reaching origin of pelvic fin, tip of pelvic fin not reaching beyond anus, supraorbital present and well developed, and by lacking vertically elongated dashes on sides of body. The new species is known from tributaries of the rio Jordão, in the rio Iguaçu Basin, and rio Taquari, a tributary of the rio Ribeira de Iguape coastal drainage.

  20. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  1. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change on soil erosion? An assessment from winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen D. Garbrecht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the need to increase crop production to meet the needs of a growing population, protecting the productivity of our soil resource is essential. However, conservationists are concerned that conservation practices that were effective in the past may no longer be effective in the future under projected climate change. In winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the U.S., increased precipitation intensity and increased aridity associated with warmer temperatures may pose increased risks of soil erosion from vulnerable soils and landscapes. This investigation was undertaken to determine which conservation practices would be necessary and sufficient to hold annual soil erosion by water under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario at or below the present soil erosion levels. Advances in and benefits of agricultural soil and water conservation over the last century in the United States are briefly reviewed, and challenges and climate uncertainties confronting resource conservation in this century are addressed. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP computer model was used to estimate future soil erosion by water from winter wheat cropland in Central Oklahoma and for 10 projected climates and 7 alternative conservation practices. A comparison with soil erosion values under current climate conditions and conventional tillage operations showed that, on average, a switch from conventional to conservation tillage would be sufficient to offset the average increase in soil erosion by water under most projected climates. More effective conservation practices, such as conservation tillage with a summer cover crop would be required to control soil erosion associated with the most severe climate projections. It was concluded that a broad range of conservation tools are available to agriculture to offset projected future increases in soil erosion by water even under assumed worst case climate change scenarios in Central Oklahoma. The problem

  2. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Southern Forest Futures Project: technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2013-01-01

    Please visit the Southern Forest Futures Project website for more information.The Southern Forest Futures Project provides a science-based “futuring” analysis of the forests of the 13 States of the Southeastern United States. With findings...

  4. United States Southern Command * Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    or concerns please email or call us at 305-437-2287. Testing The USAG- Miami Joint Education Testing the Air Force | The Air University | US Air Force Academy Army: Army Continued Education System | Army Marine Corps Institute | US Marine Corps Training and Education Command | US Marine Corps University Navy

  5. Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard's departure from the Medical College of Virginia: incompatible science or incompatible social views in pre-Civil War southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joseph C; Ho, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard was one of the most colorful characters in modern physiology. His scientific methods of self-experimentation and animal vivisection led to many great observations, including the eponymous syndrome of hemisection of the spinal cord. Despite his renown, he stayed but one year in his first major academic post. Details of his sojourn at the Medical College of Virginia (now part of Virginia Commonwealth University) in Richmond were divined from perusal of archival material, letters, and from the available literature. His notoriety in the field of physiology landed him a post at the Medical College of Virginia in 1854 as the chair of physiology. During a brief time here, he was able to publish his landmark monograph of 1855 on the pathways of the spinal cord "Experimental and Clinical Researches on the Physiology and Pathology of the Spinal Cord." He had a near-death experience while experimenting on himself to determine the function of the skin. It was rumored that his English was poor, his lectures unintelligible, and his scientific methods disturbing to the neighbors and that for those reasons he was asked to vacate his post. Personal communications and other accounts indicate a different view: his mixed-blood heritage and his views on slavery were unpopular in the pre-Civil War southern United States. These disparate viewpoints lend an insight into the life and career of this pioneer in modern medicine and experimental design and to the clash of science and social views. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Medication Compliance Behavior in Patients with Depression in Southern United States in 2016 in a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Britney; Sharma, Manoj; Bennett, Russell; Mawson, Anthony R; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Sung, Jung Hye

    2018-03-01

    Introduction: Depression is a major public health issue. One of the concerns in depression research and practice pertains to non-compliance to prescribed medications. The purpose of the study was to predict compliance with medication use for patients with depression using social cognitive theory (SCT). Based on this study it was envisaged that recommendations for interventions to enhance compliance for medication use could be developed for patients with depression. Methods: The study was conducted using cross sectional design (n=148) in southern United States with a convenience sample of clinic-based depression patients with a 37-item valid and reliable questionnaire. Sample size was calculated to be 148 using G*Power (five predictors with a 0.80 power at the 0.05 alpha level and an estimated effect size of 0.10 with an inflation by 10% for missing data). Social cognitive theory constructs of expectations, self-efficacy and self-efficacy in overcoming barriers, self-control, and environment were reified. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Self-control for taking medication for depression (P=0.04), expectations for taking medication for depression (P=0.025), age (P<0.0001) and race (P=0.04) were significantly related to intent for taking medication for depression (Adjusted R 2 = 0.183). In race, Blacks had lower intent to take medication for depression. Conclusion: Social cognitive theory is weakly predictive with low explained variance for taking medication for depression. It needs to be bolstered by newer theories like integrative model or multi-theory model of health behavior change for designing educational interventions aimed at enhancing compliance to medication for depression.

  7. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Medication Compliance Behavior in Patients with Depression in Southern United States in 2016 in a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britney Bennett

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is a major public health issue. One of the concerns in depression research and practice pertains to non-compliance to prescribed medications. The purpose of the study was to predict compliance with medication use for patients with depression using social cognitive theory (SCT. Based on this study it was envisaged that recommendations for interventions to enhance compliance for medication use could be developed for patients with depression. Methods: The study was conducted using cross sectional design (n=148 in southern United States with a convenience sample of clinic-based depression patients with a 37-item valid and reliable questionnaire. Sample size was calculated to be 148 using G*Power (five predictors with a 0.80 power at the 0.05 alpha level and an estimated effect size of 0.10 with an inflation by 10% for missing data. Social cognitive theory constructs of expectations, self-efficacy and self-efficacy in overcoming barriers, self-control, and environment were reified. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Self-control for taking medication for depression (P=0.04, expectations for taking medication for depression (P=0.025, age (P<0.0001 and race (P=0.04 were significantly related to intent for taking medication for depression (Adjusted R2 = 0.183. In race, Blacks had lower intent to take medication for depression. Conclusion: Social cognitive theory is weakly predictive with low explained variance for taking medication for depression. It needs to be bolstered by newer theories like integrative model or multi-theory model of health behavior change for designing educational interventions aimed at enhancing compliance to medication for depression.

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  9. 14C dating of charcoal in the soil for the study of biological remount of soil matter and of the colluvium in the formation of ferralitic soils of Sao Paulo state, southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, S.E.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper complements a scientific investigation, published in a precedent Compte Rendu, that showed that the burial of charcoal in a oxisol of the Minas Gerais State, southern Brazil, is a result of the biological remount of soil matter removed from deeper parts by the fauna. Such transported material would then constitute the soil layer containing charcoal (generally up to 2 m). The new results obtained at two sites in Sao Paulo State confirm, on the one hand, the role of the fauna in the development of these oxisols and, on the other hand, that colluvium can intervene in the burial of charcoal. (authors)

  10. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  11. Soil fertility, humic fractions and natural abundance of "1"3C and "1"5N in soil under different land use in Parana State, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, Arcangelo; Pereia, Marcos Gervasio; Costa, Elias Mendes; Beutler, Sidinei Julio; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia

    2016-01-01

    Humic fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) and measurements of "1"3C and "1"5N isotope can be used to highlight differences between management systems with different intensities of land use. This study characterized soil fertility, quantified carbon levels in the humic fractions and evaluated the natural abundance of "1"3C and "1"5N in systems cultivated under no-tillage system (NTS) and conventional tillage system (CTS) or used with secondary forest or perennial pasture in Marmeleiro, Parana State, Southern Brazil. NTS was more efficient than the conventional tillage system (CTS) in increasing pH (0.0-0.10 m layer), Ca (0.0-0.05 m layer), P (except 0.05-0.10 m layer) and N (0.0-0.10 m) levels, total organic carbon (TOC) stocks (0.0-0.20 and 0.0-0.40 m layers); carbon of the humin fraction (C-HUM) in 0.0-0.40 m; the fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF) and humic acid (C-HAF) in 0.0-0.05 m. The use of grasses, in NTS and pasture, increased TOC stocks compared to the other soil use or management systems evaluated in the 0.0-0.40 m layer. In the topsoil layer, the anthropogenic influence of plowing and harrowing in CTS promoted greater loss of carbon in C-HUM, C-FAF and C-HAF than NTS, forest and pasture. In CTS, growing corn for 42 years after the removal of forest cover did not alter the "1"3C at 0.0-0.40 m. In pasture, the absence of legumes, constant deposition of cattle manure and a more stable organic matter favored high "1"5N levels (except at 0.0-0.05 m in CTS). The decrease in "1"5N values from the 0.0-0.10 to 0.10-0.20 m layer in CTS indicates that soil turnover (by plowing and harrowing) has the potential to disturb the depth-related variation in soil "1"5N, accelerating decomposition and compromising N transformations. Among the variables analyzed, the determination of carbon in humic fractions and "1"5N values were efficient in identifying soil changes produced by land use or management systems

  12. Características produtivas de cultivares de cebola no Sul de Minas Gerais Yield of onion cultivars in the Southern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificou-se cultivares de cebola mais produtivas através de um ensaio da EPAMIG em Lavras, de março a setembro de 1994. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos, constituídos das cultivares Granex 33, Texas Grano 502, Crioula, Pira Ouro, Baia Periforme, Jubileu e Chata Roxa com parcelas de 3,84 m² de área útil. A produtividade de bulbos comerciais variou de 22,58 a 50,21 t/ha, destacando-se as cultivares Granex 33 (50,21 t/ha e Texas Grano 502 (44,36 t/ha que não mostraram diferença significativa entre si. Estas cultivares apresentaram incrementos na produtividade da ordem de 204,3 a 168,8% em relação à média nacional (16,5 t/ha. O mais baixo rendimento foi observado para a cultivar Chata Roxa com 22,58 t/ha. Observaram-se variações de 45,99 a 97,69 g/bulbo para peso médio de bulbo e 5,35 a 7,38 cm para o diâmetro transversal de bulbos.To identify onion cultivars of higher yield for the southern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, a field trial from EPAMIG was conducted in Lavras, Brazil, from March to September 1994.The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and seven treatments: Granex 33, Texas Grano 502, Crioula, Pira Ouro, Baia Periforme, Jubileu and Chata Roxa. The harvesting area of each plot was 3.84 m². The yield of commercial bulbs varied from 22.58 to 50.21 t/ha, and the highest yield was achieved by the cultivars Granex (50.21 t/ha and Texas Grano 502 (44.36 t/ha with no significant difference between them. These cultivars exceeded the national average yield (16.5 t/ha from 204.3 to 168.8%. The lowest yield was shown by the cultivar Chata Roxa (22.58 t/ha. A variation occurred from 45.99 to 97.69 g/bulb and 5.35 to 7.39 cm for the bulb diameter.

  13. WRF model sensitivity to land surface model and cumulus parameterization under short-term climate extremes over the southern Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi Pei; Nathan Moore; Shiyuan Zhong; Lifeng Luo; David W. Hyndman; Warren E. Heilman; Zhiqiu. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather and climate events, especially short-term excessive drought and wet periods over agricultural areas, have received increased attention. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) is one of the largest agricultural regions in North America and features the underlying Ogallala-High Plains Aquifer system worth great economic value in large part due to production...

  14. Effects of Watershed Land Use and Geomorphology on Stream Low Flows During Severe Drought Conditions in the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, Georgia and North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and physiographic variability influence stream low flows, yet their interactions and relative influence remain unresolved. Our objective was to assess the influence of land use and watershed geomorphic characteristics on low-flow variability in the southern Blue Ridge Mo...

  15. Effects of watershed land use and geomorphology on stream low flows during severe drought conditions in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, Georgia and North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Price; C. Jackson; Albert Parker; Trond Reitan; John Dowd; Mike Cyterski

    2011-01-01

    Land use and physiographic variability influence stream low flows, yet their interactions and relative influence remain unresolved. Our objective was to assess the influence of land use and watershed geomorphic characteristics on low-flow variability in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina and Georgia. Ten minute interval discharge data for 35 streams (...

  16. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  17. Empirical Algorithms to Predict pH and Aragonite Saturation State on SOCCOM Biogeochemical Argo Floats in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N. L.; Juranek, L. W.; Feely, R. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Russell, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a major role in the global uptake, transport, and storage of both heat and carbon, yet it remains one of the least-sampled regions of the ocean. The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project aims to fill the observational gaps by deploying over 200 autonomous profiling floats in the Southern Ocean over the next several years. Initial float deployments have greatly expanded our observational capability to include wintertime measurements as well as under-ice measurements, and many of these floats include novel biogeochemical sensors (pH, nitrate, oxygen). Here we present empirical algorithms that can be used to predict pH and ΩAragonite from other float-measured parameters (temperature, salinity, pressure, nitrate, oxygen). These algorithms were trained using bottle measurements from high-quality repeat hydrographic GO-SHIP cruises. We obtained R2 values of 0.98 (pH) and 0.99 (ΩAragonite) and RMS errors of 0.007 (pH) and 0.052 (ΩAragonite) for data between 100-1500 m. These algorithms will allow us to both validate pH data from these sensors, as well as predict ΩAragonite and pH on floats that do not have pH sensors. Here we present estimated pH and ΩAragonite over 20 months of deployment for several SOCCOM floats in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean. The results show seasonal ranges in surface pH and ΩAragonite of 0.05 and 0.1, respectively.

  18. Cordão Formation: loess deposits in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO P. LOPES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa. Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial.

  19. The Southern Forest Futures Project: summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Forest Futures Project provides a science-based “futuring” analysis of the forests of the 13 States of the Southeastern United States. With findings organized in a set of scenarios and using a combination of computer models and science synthesis, the authors of the Southern Forest Futures Project examine a variety of possible futures that could shape...

  20. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  1. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with ageIlliteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India.

  2. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  3. Macroalgas de riachos da Floresta Nacional de Irati, região centro-sul do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil Stream macroalgae of Irati National Forest, mid-southern Paraná State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Cesar Zanini Branco

    2008-06-01

    o Paulo State. There are no extensive studies concerning stream macroalgae in Paraná state. Having in mind the scarcity of works treating these important primary producers in lotic ecosystems, a more comprehensive study was carried out in order to increase our knowledge of stream macroalgal community biodiversity in Paraná state. In this context, the main objective of this study was to do a floristic survey of stream macroalgal communities in Irati National Forest (INF, a protected area of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (Araucaria Forest. Eleven streams were sampled in 2005 (July 19-21 and 2006 (February 2-4. In each stream, a 10-meter cross-transect was established in which a detailed visual examination took place to determine the presence of macroalgae. In addition, the following environmental variables were measured at each sampling date: temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, depth, nutrients, water colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The floristic survey resulted in the identification of 23 taxa and showed the dominance of Chlorophyta over other algal divisions. Only the genus Phormidium Kützing ex Gomont was represented by more than one species. In general, the majority of species found at Irati National Forest have been reported in previous studies; however, a significant portion of the macroalgae was composed of taxa that rarely occur in Brazilian streams or they may be new to science.

  4. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  5. Phytoplankton of the portion of the Paranapanema River to be dammed for construction of the Rosana Hydroelectric Plant, Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil; Fitoplancton do trecho a represar do Rio Paranapanema (Usina Hidreletrica de Rosana), Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicudo, Carlos E. de M.; Bicudo, Denise de C.; Castro, Ana Alice J. de; Picelli-Vicentim, M. Marcina [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    1992-12-31

    The phytoplankton community of the 120 Km long portion of the Paranapanema River located between the Salto Grande Hydroelectric Plant reservoir and the river mouth at the Parana River is surveyed. This part of the river will be dammed for construction of the Rosana hydroelectric System in the State of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. An inventory was completed for 4 collecting stations, and based on the study of 48 samples gathered bimonthly during the period from November 1985 to September 1986. Each collection is represented by a net concentrated and a raw total phytoplankton sample. Except for the Bacillariophyceae, study of which is still in progress, the other classes present were the following in order of their local representation: Chlorophyceae with 23 taxa, Zygnemaphyceae (= Cyanophyceae) with 9, Tribophyceace (= Xanthophyceae) with 2 each one, and Oedogoniophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae with a single taxon each, to a total of 55 taxa identified. (author) 27 refs., 6 figs.

  6. A faith-based community partnership to address HIV/AIDS in the southern United States: implementation, challenges, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Coleman, Jason D; Fairchild, Amanda; Gaddist, Bambi; White, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Though race and region are not by themselves risk factors for HIV infection, regional and racial disparities exist in the burden of HIV/AIDS in the US. Specifically, African Americans in the southern US appear to bear the brunt of this burden due to a complex set of upstream factors like structural and cultural influences that do not facilitate HIV/AIDS awareness, HIV testing, or sexual risk-reduction techniques while perpetuating HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Strategies proposed to mitigate the burden among this population have included establishing partnerships and collaborations with non-traditional entities like African American churches and other faith-based organizations. Though efforts to partner with the African American church are not necessarily novel, most of these efforts do not present a model that focuses on building the capacity of the African American church to address these upstream factors and sustain these interventions. This article will describe Project Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal (F.A.I.T.H), a faith-based model for successfully developing, implementing, and sustaining locally developed HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in African American churches in South Carolina. This was achieved by engaging the faith community and the provision of technical assistance, grant funding and training for project personnel. Elements of success, challenges, and lessons learned during this process will also be discussed.

  7. Sexual maturity, spawning and fecundity of king weakfish Macrodon ancylodon, caught off Rio Grande do Sul State (southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácio Afonso Juras

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the sexual maturity, spawning and fecundity of king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon, off the southern coast of Brazil (lat. 29º to 32ºS were carried out from September, 1976, to August, 1977. The sex ratio varied monthly, with slight predominance of males (51.14% over females (48.86%. The mean size at first maturity was estimated as 27.4 cm TL for females and 21.5 cm TL for males. The macroscopic examination of gonads and analysis of the gonadal index indicated that December and February were the most intensive spawning months. Fish weight proved to be the best predictor data of fecundity: F = 17056.2500 + 425.3712 Wt (r² = 0.6434 , were F is the total number of eggs in both ovaries. The number of eggs of 199 females varied from 59,850 for 33.4 cm TL fish to over 358,450 for 37.2 cm TL; the mean fecundity verified was 165,273 eggs per female. Frequency distributions of egg diameter in the ovaries were polymodal, suggesting fractional spawning during the reproduction season.

  8. Evidence for an Invasive Aphid “Superclone”: Extremely Low Genetic Diversity in Oleander Aphid (Aphis nerii) Populations in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John Scott; Mondor, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander) and Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km) and large (3,700 km) geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii “superclones”. Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG) or “clone”) and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species. Conclusions/Significance Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species. PMID:21408073

  9. Evidence for an invasive aphid "superclone": extremely low genetic diversity in Oleander aphid (Aphis nerii populations in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scott Harrison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of genetic diversity in successful biological invasions is unclear. In animals, but not necessarily plants, increased genetic diversity is generally associated with successful colonization and establishment of novel habitats. The Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, though native to the Mediterranean region, is an invasive pest species throughout much of the world. Feeding primarily on Oleander (Nerium oleander and Milkweed (Asclepias spp. under natural conditions, these plants are unlikely to support aphid populations year round in the southern US. The objective of this study was to describe the genetic variation within and among US populations of A. nerii, during extinction/recolonization events, to better understand the population ecology of this invasive species.We used five microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity over a two year period within and among three aphid populations separated by small (100 km and large (3,700 km geographic distances on two host plant species. Here we provide evidence for A. nerii "superclones". Genotypic variation was absent in all populations (i.e., each population consisted of a single multilocus genotype (MLG or "clone" and the genetic composition of only one population completely changed across years. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or host races on different plant species.Aphis nerii is a well established invasive species despite having extremely low genetic diversity. As this aphid appears to be obligatorily asexual, it may share more similarities with clonally reproducing invasive plants, than with other animals. Patterns of temporal and geographic genetic variation, viewed in the context of its population dynamics, have important implications for the management of invasive pests and the evolutionary biology of asexual species.

  10. The utility of state parks as a conservation tool for isolated and ephemeral wetlands: A case study from the southern Blue Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. H.; Baldwin, R.; Pitt, A. L.; Baldwin, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity management has been historically confined to parks and protected areas and these types of formally-protected areas may help to mitigate the effects of climate change and habitat loss by preventing further fragmentation, degradation and the spread of invasive species. Much research has demonstrated the importance of parks and other such protected areas for their ecological, conservational, and socio-cultural benefits. Protected areas constitute ~ 12% of the earth's land surface and are described as an essential core unit for for in situ conservation. State parks provide a type of a priori conservation, allowing areas which are identified as ecologically important within state park boundaries to be more rapidly prioritized for conservation and management. The development of South Carolina's state parks strongly contributed to cultural, social and ecological improvement across the state and we demonstrate that this network of protected areas can also help scientists to better locate, study and conserve cryptic or unprotected habitats. Our goals for this study were to use the SC state park system to 1) examine the structural and functional differences between wetlands located inside versus outside the state park system, and 2) suggest a conservation framework for small wetlands incorporating both state parks and adjacent areas with variable ownership status. At each wetland, we variables at the within-pond and local (5 m buffer around pool) scales. We visited each study wetland (N = 41, park pool = 19, non-park pools = 22) 5 times during both 2010 and 2011; collected water quality data and recorded the presence and activity of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton and benthic algae. We hypothesized that wetlands within state parks would have better water quality and higher species richness compared to non-park wetlands. Our case study revealed that wetlands outside of state parks exhibited less variable depths and

  11. The Moving Edge: Perspectives on the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Alison W. Bowers; L. Annie Hermansen

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the wildland-urban interface across the 13 Southern States and to identify issues to be covered in the USDA Forest Service report, "Human Influences on Forest Ecosystems: The Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Assessment," 12 focus groups were conducted in 6 of the Southern States in May and June 2000. The groups were guided through a...

  12. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  13. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  14. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  15. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  16. Racial Differences in Awareness of the Affordable Care Act and Application Assistance Among Low-Income Adults in Three Southern States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Garcia Mosqueira MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act (ACA expanded Medicaid eligibility to adults with incomes under 138% of the federal poverty level, leading to substantial reductions in uninsured rates among low-income adults. Despite large gains in coverage, studies suggest that Latinos may be less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to apply and enroll in health insurance, and they remain the group with the highest uninsured rate in the United States. We explore two potential factors related to racial/ethnic differences in ACA enrollment—awareness of the law and receipt of application assistance such as navigator services. Using a survey of nearly 3000 low-income U.S. citizens (aged 19-64 in 3 states in late 2014, we find that Latinos had significantly lower levels of awareness of the ACA relative to other groups, even after adjusting for demographic covariates. Higher education was the strongest positive predictor of ACA awareness. In contrast, Latinos were much more likely to receive assistance from navigators or social workers when applying, relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of ACA outreach efforts to increase awareness among low-income and less educated populations, two groups that are overrepresented in the Latino population, to close existing disparities in coverage.

  17. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  18. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  19. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  20. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  1. Social networks and substance use among at-risk emerging adults living in disadvantaged urban areas in the southern United States: a cross-sectional naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D; Crawford, Scott M; Simpson, Cathy A

    2015-09-01

    Substance use and risk-taking are common during emerging adulthood, a transitional period when peer influences often increase and family influences decrease. Investigating relationships between social network features and substance use can inform community-based prevention programs. This study investigated whether substance use among emerging adults living in disadvantaged urban areas was influenced by peer and family social network messages that variously encouraged and discouraged substance use. Cross-sectional, naturalistic field study. Lower-income neighborhoods in Birmingham, Alabama, USA with 344 participants (110 males, 234 females, ages 15-25 years; mean = 18.86 years), recruited via respondent-driven sampling. During structured interviews conducted in community locations, the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test assessed substance use and related problems. Predictor variables were network characteristics, including presence of substance-using peers, messages from friends and family members about substance use and network sources for health information. Higher substance involvement was associated with friend and family encouragement of use and having close peer network members who used substances (Ps Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the United States. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. The drosophilid fauna (Diptera, Drosophilidae of the transition between the Pampa and Atlantic Forest Biomes in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil: first records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverton J.C. Hochmüller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although studies on drosophilid (Diptera, Drosophilidae assemblages have become relatively abundant in the past decades, many environments remain to be searched. The present study investigates the composition, the species abundances and the richness of the drosophilid assemblages in two localities of the municipality of Cruz Alta, northwestern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, a point of contact between the biomes Atlantic Forest and Pampa: (i an urban area (2007, constituted by a domestic orchard with Citrus trees, and (ii a forested area, in Centro de Educação, Pesquisa e Proteção Ambiental - CEPPA (2008/2009, of Universidade de Cruz Alta, located in a fragment of riparian forest. Collections were conducted using fermented banana-baited traps and repeated periodically. A total of 7,428 individuals were caught, belonging to two subfamilies, six genera and 53 species. In the urban area, 22 species were found, from two genera (N = 2,421, while in the forested area 46 species were found, from six genera (N = 5,007. Six exotic species were found, markedly more abundant in the urban area, where they corresponded to 95% of the specimens, in comparison to 50% in the forest. Between the Neotropical species, the most common were Drosophila maculifrons Duda and D. polymorpha Dobzhansky & Pavan. Only D. simulans Sturtevant was captured in all samples in both localities. The present survey represents the first records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul of the D. canalinea and D. virilis species groups and the species D. arassari Cunha & Frota-Pessoa, D. fuscolineata Duda, D. nigricruria Patterson & Mainland, D. papei Bächli & Vilela, D. senei Vilela, D. trifilum Frota-Pessoa, D. virilis Sturtevant, Leucophenga maculosa (Coquillett and Rhinoleucophenga obesa (Loew. Furthermore, it also represents the first record for the state of the genera Amiota Loew, Leucophenga Mik and Rhinoleucophenga Hendel and of the subfamily Steganinae. So, the present

  3. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  4. Proceedings of the 23rd Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Weir; Alice V. Hatcher; [Compilers

    1995-01-01

    The 23rd Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference was held at the Holiday Inn SunSpree Resort in Asheville, North Carolina. The Conference was sponsored by the Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee and hosted by the N. C. State University-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program. A total of 37 presentations, three invited and 34 voluntary, were given....

  5. Spatial variability of the rainfall erosivity in southern region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil Variabilidade espacial da erosividade da chuva na região sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity and its spatial variability were studied for 54 pluviometric stations in Southern Minas Gerais State (48º00' - 44º00'W; 23º50' - 20º00'S, aiming to plan the land-use strategies. Therefore, erosivity factor was determined for the pluviometric stations, using long-term rainfall data sets obtained along with the Brazilian National Water Agency- ANA, which varied from 15 to 40 years. The monthly and annual erosivity indexes were generated using Fournier equation for Lavras, MG and the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity was studied on the basis of geostatistical approaches considering only the distance which separates them, developing the isotropic experimental semivariogram. The semivariogram adjustment was done based on the Weighted Least Squares method and the spatial dependence degree. Once the structure and the semivariogram adjustment were defined, the ordinary kriging maps were created, providing erosivity spatial behavior in Southern Minas Gerais. It was observed that the Southern Minas Gerais presents high erosivity patterns, ranging from 5,145 to 7,776 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, in Ijaci (north of region and Itajubá (southern region, respectively. Besides, it was verified that the erosivity indexes are intensely influenced by the topography, associated with climatic conditions. Higher erosivity is connected to areas with a higher altitude, such as along the Mantiqueira Range Mountain, and on high plateaus and mountain ranges in the North-Central part of the region. The geostatistical approach using long-term rainfall data in Southern region of Minas Gerais state, which is a relatively heterogeneous region in terms of altitude, soil depth and slope, showed to be adequate to the proposal of this study.Foram estudadas a erosividade e sua variabilidade espacial para cinquenta e quatro estações pluviométricas do Sul de Minas Gerais (48º00' - 44º00'W; 23º50' - 20º00'S visando à implementação do planejamento

  6. Entrepreneurial actions in public management: analysis of the Programme “Crédito Solidário” (PCS in a southern town of Minas Gerais State [doi: 10.21529/RECADM.2016005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Assis Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the current trends in the Campo de Públicas is the inclusion of entrepreneurship subject in the discussion on the public policy formulation and implementation. This kind of thinking came from the understanding that with the globalization process it was necessary for the public sector to adapt to changes through a more flexible management that could respond to society’s demands. This research aims to analyze, from the beneficiaries’s point of view of the Programme “Programa Crédito Solidário” (PCS in a town in the southern of Minas Gerais State, in levels of economic, social and political emancipation of those who benefit from this public policy. It becomes clear how this type of action represents a process of implementation and formulation of public projects in a paradoxical condition, because at the same time it promotes new alternatives for the development of small business from the Economia Solidária (Solidarity Economy, it alters to be rather weak in a context of economical, social and political emancipation of beneficiaries.   Keywords Public entrepreneurship; Solidarity economy; Emancipation.

  7. Medium and large sized mammal assemblages in coastal dunes and adjacent marshes in southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.11705

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Resende Secchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on species composition and use of habitat of medium and large sized mammal assemblages in a coastal dunes segment and adjacent marshes at Rio Grande municipality, southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Records were obtained through visualization of living animals and identification of footprints, feces and remains. From November 2007 to September 2008, nine 600 m long and 5 m wide linear transects were settled on coastal dunes segment (frontal and intermediate dunes and adjacent marshes, parallel to ocean shore on a 23 km section at Cassino Beach. Transects were settled in areas under high, medium and low levels of anthropic occupancy (A1, A2 and A3, respectively, being three transects on each area. Fourteen species were recorded, distributed in five orders and 10 families. Lepus europaeus was the most frequent species (81.9% of the transect walks, present in all areas and seasons, followed by Lycalopex gimnocercus (23.5% and Conepatus chinga (10.3%.  Five species were present on A1, seven on A2 and fourteen on A3. Seven species were recorded on frontal dunes, nine on intermediate dunes and 13 on adjacent marshes.  

  8. Soil-water flux in the southern Great Basin, United States: temporal and spatial variations over the last 120,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Chapman, J.B.; Conrad, S.H.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Miller, J.J.; Sully, M.J.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste in arid regions requires a thorough understanding of the occurrence of soil-water flux and recharge. Soil-water chemistry and isotopic data are presented from three deep vadose zone boreholes (> 230 m) at the Nevada Test Site, located in the Great Basin geographic province of the southwestern United States, to quantify soil-water flux and its relation to climate. The low water contents found in the soils significantly reduce the mixing of tracers in the subsurface and provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of climate variation on recharge in arid climates. Tracing techniques and core data are examined in this work to reconstruct the paleohydrologic conditions existing in the vadose zone well beyond the timescales typically investigated. Stable chloride and chlorine 36 profiles indicate that the soil waters deep in the vadose zone range in age from approximately 20,000 to 120,000 years. Secondary chloride bulges that are present in two of the three profiles support the concept of recharge occurring at or near the last two glacial maxima, when the climate of the area was considerably wetter and cooler. The stable isotopic composition of the soil water in the profiles is significantly more depleted in heavy isotopes than is modern precipitation, suggesting that recharge under the current climate is not occurring at this arid site. Past and present recharge appears to have been strongly controlled by surface topography, with increased incidence of recharge where runoff from the surrounding mountains may have been concentrated. The data obtained from this detailed drilling and sampling program shed new light on the behavior of water in thick vadose zones and, in particular, show the sensitivity of arid regions to the extreme variations in climate experienced by the region over the last two glacial maxima

  9. Characterization of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers for Aspergillus flavus: emphasis on variability of isolates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwang; Wadl, Phillip A; Wood-Jones, Alicia; Windham, Gary; Trigiano, Robert N; Scruggs, Mary; Pilgrim, Candace; Baird, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from Aspergillus flavus expressed sequence tag (EST) database to conduct an analysis of genetic relationships of Aspergillus isolates from numerous host species and geographical regions, but primarily from the United States. Twenty-nine primers were designed from 362 tri-nucleotide EST-SSR sequences. Eighteen polymorphic loci were used to genotype 96 Aspergillus species isolates. The number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 2 to 24 with a mean of 8.2 alleles. Haploid diversity ranged from 0.28 to 0.91. Genetic distance matrix was used to perform principal coordinates analysis (PCA) and to generate dendrograms using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Two principal coordinates explained more than 75 % of the total variation among the isolates. One clade was identified for A. flavus isolates (n = 87) with the other Aspergillus species (n = 7) using PCA, but five distinct clusters were present when the others taxa were excluded from the analysis. Six groups were noted when the EST-SSR data were compared using UPGMA. However, the latter PCA or UPGMA comparison resulted in no direct associations with host species, geographical region or aflatoxin production. Furthermore, there was no direct correlation to visible morphological features such as sclerotial types. The isolates from Mississippi Delta region, which contained the largest percentage of isolates, did not show any unusual clustering except for isolates K32, K55, and 199. Further studies of these three isolates are warranted to evaluate their pathogenicity, aflatoxin production potential, additional gene sequences (e.g., RPB2), and morphological comparisons.

  10. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  11. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  12. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  13. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. A methodology for assessing annual risk of southern pine beetle outbreaks across the southern region using pheromone traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald F Billings; William W. Upton

    2010-01-01

    An operational system to forecast infestation trends (increasing, static, declining) and relative population levels (high, moderate, low) of the southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has been implemented in the Southern and Eastern United States. Numbers of dispersing SPB and those of a major predator (the clerid beetle, ...

  15. Accumulation of phosphorus fractions and contamination potential in vineyard soils in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In vineyards, if phosphate is applied both before planting and at intervals during growth without consideration of technical criteria, the soil P fractions may be increased and their proportions altered. This study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation of P fractions and the parameters of the adsorption isotherm in a sandy Typic Hapludalf soil in vineyards with a history of successive and excessive phosphate fertilization. In December 2010, two vineyards were selected, one 4 and the other 15 years old, in Urussanga, State of Santa Catarina (Brazil. Three trenches were dug in each area and soil was collected from the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth ranges. The soil samples were dried in a forced-air oven, sieved and subjected to chemical analyses, P chemical fractionation and P adsorption isotherms. Excessive phosphate fertilization, before and during cultivation, particularly in the older vineyard and, consequently, with a longer history of phosphate fertilization, increased the inorganic P concentrations to the depth of 20 cm, especially in labile fractions extracted by anion exchange resin and NaHCO3 in the non-labile fraction, as well as in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1.0 mol L-1 HCl. The application of phosphate fertilizers and the long cultivation period increased the P levels in the organic labile fraction extracted by 0.5 mol L-1 NaHCO3, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH. Phosphate fertilization of older vineyards, i.e., cultivated for 15 years, increased the amounts of P desorbed in water, indicating a risk of contamination of surface waters and groundwater. The phosphate fertilization before planting, without considering the results of soil analysis, and during cultivation, disregarding the results of soil analysis, leaf analysis and expected yield, led to a reduction in the maximum P adsorption capacity in the 0-5 cm layer of vineyard 2, indicating saturation of part of

  16. The Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (Parana State-Southern Brazil): Geochemical and isotopic evidence of magmatic focus migration and its tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeres Fihlo, H.J.; Baei, M.A.S.; Harara, O.M.M.; Passarelli, C.R.; Siga Jr, O; Reis Neto, J.M; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    The present location of the geological units which comprise the Precambrian of the south-southeastern part of the Ribeira fold belt in Parana State, Brazil, is the result of a series of superposed tectono-metamorphic events. During this evolution, and especially at the end of the Neoproterozoic, between 640 and 550 Ma, an important crustal accretion event within the Brasiliano Megacycle was responsible for the generation of the Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (ARMA). This arc is now represented by a large volume of granitic rocks amongst which the Cunhaporanga (CPB) and Tres Corregos (TCB) granitic batholiths stand out. The SSE part of the Ribeira belt forms an long, NE strip with a mainly NE trend, formed by deformed middle to upper crustal rocks, metamorphosed in greenschist to amphibolite facies (Basei et.al.1992; Fiori, 1993; Hackspacher et.al. 1997; Campanha and Sadowski 1999). These rocks are intruded by the Neoproterozoic CPB, TCB and the Agudos Grandes batholith, and many granite stocks. The CPB and TCB are elongated bodies with NE-SW major axes which occur north and south, respectively, of the Itaiacoca metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. Together, they occupy about 6,500 km 2 . The southeastern contact between the CPB and the Itaiacoca country rocks is intrusive, while the northwestern contact of the BCT with this group is tectonic, represented by the Itapirapua shear zone. Its contact with rocks of the Agua Clara Formation of the Acungui Group is intrusive. The mineral assemblages in the rocks of the two main batholiths are typically calc-alkaline. The CPB is more homogeneous, being mainly composed of porphyritic to inequigranular, isotropic monzogranite which are accompanied by rare granodiorite. The TCB is more heterogeneous, and includes undeformed or deformed quartz monzonite, granodiorite and monzogranite, as well as rare tonalite and syenogranite. The rocks of the CPB (with 65 - 73% SiO 2 ) and the TCB (60-76% SiO 2 ) are meta- to weakly per-aluminous in

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  18. The Generalizing Work on History and Culture of the Cossacks (Book Review: Essays on the History and Culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia: Collective Monograph [Text] / ed. by G. G. Matishov, I. O. Tyumentsev ; Southern Scientic Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Volgograd Branch of Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration”. – Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo Filiala FGBOU VPO RANKhiGS, 2014. – 624 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay Nikolay F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a review of the collective monograph “Essays on the history and culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia”, published in 2014 under the auspices of the Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Volgograd branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The review provides a critical analysis of the material in the collective monograph on the problems of studying the history and culture of the Cossacks. The author notes that the revival of Cossacks that began in the 1990s, not only drew attention to the Cossack problem in modern Russia, but also stimulated scientific and public interest in the history and culture of the Cossacks. Russian Cossacks have rich past and its culture is colorful and specific, its role in the history of Russia is significant. Issues of origin and development of the Cossacks, their place among the peoples of Russia, the specificity of cultural practices are constantly causing great interest for researchers. All this has led scientistsspecialists in the history and culture of the Cossacks to the idea of the creation of this scientific work, which has become a generalization of accumulated research experience on the most important issues of the Cossacks’ historical existence. The authors of the monograph limited their research by Southern Russia because of the complexity of creating general work on all Cossack troops which have historically existed in the Russian state and had sometimes very great cultural differences and special historical destiny. The authors made a very successful attempt to highlight the main problematic aspects of the history and culture of the Cossacks. The genre of essay chosen for creating a collective monograph, has allowed not only to identify the most relevant topics of the Cossack history and culture, but also to consider them in relation and development. Each essay contains material that allows to

  19. A conspicuous globule in the Southern Coalsack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, B.J.; Sim, M.E.; Hawarden, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the Southern Coalsack is the finest dark nebula in the Southern Milky Way. Two photographs are here shown taken in October 1976 with the SRC 1.2 m Schmidt telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia. These show the whole of the Coalsack in all its beauty, and its features are discussed. It is shown how much can be learned by simple star counting techniques. A large number of potential globules are indicated, some of which are described. (U.K.)

  20. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Potassium and Thorium) were used and processed independently to investigate the Southern. Anambra basin for the .... Based on the Rybach equation (1) above, Uranium produces the .... Geothermal Exploration: State of the Art. Techniques.

  1. Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017) ... Pre-packaged applications in business reorganisations: International principles · EMAIL ... Microcredit supply under Islamic Banking in Khartoum State, Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  2. Aquatic macrophytes in natural and managed wetlands of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas em áreas úmidas naturais e manejadas do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Silvia Rolon; Henrique Flores Homem; Leonardo Maltchik

    2010-01-01

    AIM: This study gathers the main results obtained from studies regarding dynamic of aquatic macrophyte community in natural and managed wetlands of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the aquatic macrophytes diversity in wetlands of Southern Brazil, the environmental factors that determine the structure of the aquatic macrophyte community in fragmented wetlands, the effects of floods on the dynamics of macrophytes, and the contributions to the rice field for the conservation of aquatic macrophytes; ...

  3. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  4. United States Policy for Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    tribes . A primary rivalry is between the nearly six million Zulus and the Xhosa-speaking tribes . The principle Zulu party, Inkatha, led by Chief...impact of tribalism and tribe loyalty as a devisive factor in the South African political scene. "The land is divided among 10 separate black tribal...dividing the blacks by tribe . White government officials argue that the experience elsewhere in Africa has taught them that efforts towards tribal

  5. Anemia ferropriva em populações da região sul do Estado de São Paulo Iron deficiency anaemia in populations of the Southern area of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Cornblüth Szarfarc

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento da ocorrência de anemia ferropriva no Vale do Ribeira, nas localidades de Iguape, Apiaí, Ribeira, Barra do Chapéu e Pontal do Ribeira, através de dosagens, no sangue, de Hemoglobina, Hematócrito, Ferro sérico e Capacidade de Ligação de Ferro. Na mesma amostra populacional, pelo estudo da composição dos alimentos consumidos, foi obtida a ingestão de ferro, média, diária, "per capita" nas seis localidades referidas. Os resultados da adequação de consumo foram: em Iguape, 91%; Pontal do Ribeira, 63%; Icapara, 81%; Apiaí, 122%; Ribeira, 99% e em Barra do Chapéu, 125%. Através dos índices aplicados, evidenciou-se a existência de anemia como problema de Saúde Pública na grande maioria das áreas estudadas.A study of iron deficiency anaemia in seaside and mountain population of the southern area of the state of S. Paulo, Brazil, was carried out. The towns studies were, Iguape, Pontal do Ribeira, Icapara, Apiai, Ribeira and Barra do Chapeu. Studying the composition of food-stuff consumed a "per capita" average iron consumption was stablished for each town. Results showed that consumption of iron in Iguape was 91% of minimum needs, Pontal do Ribeira, 63%, Icapara, 81%, Apiai, 122%, Ribeira, 99% and Barra do Chapeu, 125%. It was found that in most localities iron deficiency anaemia constitutes a public health problem.

  6. Chemical-Mineralogical Characterization of Magnetic Materials from Magnetic Soils of the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Chain and of the Upper Jequitinhonha Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christófaro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Chain and in the Upper Jequitinhonha Valley, magnetic soils, in different pedogenetic stages, are found to be forming over intrusions of basic lithology. The essential chemical and mineralogical properties of samples from magnetic soil profiles from those two physiographic environments in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are reported. Three of the pedons (Rhodic Kandiustox – RKox, Rhodic Haplustox – RHox, and Typic Argiustoll - TAoll were identified as being indeed developed over basic rocks; the fourth pedon (Typic Haplustox - THox is currently forming on an acidic rock. Particle size and routine chemical analyses were performed on samples from all horizons of the four selected soil profiles. For a deeper insight into the dominant mineralogy of each diagnostic soil horizon, the elemental contents, expressed in terms of the corresponding metal cation oxides, namely Fe2O3, Al2O3, and MnO2, were obtained from digesting the whole soil samples with sulfuric acid. A similar chemical analytical procedure was performed for the residual solid extracts obtained from attacking the whole soil materials with mixtures of (i dithionite - citrate - bicarbonate and (ii oxalate - oxalic acid. The soil samples were also analyzed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (~298 °K in an attempt to better identify the main magnetic iron oxides. Maghemite (δFe2O3 was found in all samples and magnetite (Fe3O4 was identified only for the sample from the Typic Argiustoll. The pedogenetic loss of silica and consequent accumulation of iron and aluminum oxides along the profile are found to be somehow correlated to the weathering sequence in the soils forming on basic rocks: TAoll < RKox < RHox.

  7. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  8. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  9. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  10. A Southern African positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.; Teemane, M.R.B.; Mills, S.; Nortier, F.M.; Van der Walt, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    The first stage of a state of the art positron beam, being constructed at the University of Cape Town, is currently being brought into operation. This is the first positron beam on the African continent, as well as being the first positron beam dedicated to solid and surface studies in the southern hemisphere. The project also contains a high proportion of local development, including the encapsulated 22 Na positron source developed by our collaboration. Novel features in the design include a purely magnetic in-line deflector, working in the solenoidal guiding field, to eliminate unmoderated positrons and block the direct line of sight to the source. A combined magnetic projector and single pole probe forming lens is being implemented in the second phase of construction to achieve a spot size of 10 μm without remoderation

  11. The southern cone petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine oil sector has been moving strongly toward complete deregulation since 1989. Price controls on byproducts has been lifted, old petroleum contracts became into concessions, and the state oil company, YPF, is under process of privatization. In this context, the international companies scouting for opportunities can find an important menu of potential investments But here remain some problems connected with this deregulation, too. The lack of a reference crude and product market price is one of them. This paper focuses how to overcome this trouble with the establishment of an institutional market for crude and products, not only for Argentina but also for the entire Southern Cone Region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay), inquiring into the benefits of its creation

  12. Southern Universities Nuclear Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Southern Universities Nuclear Institute was created in 1961 to provide postgraduate research and teaching facilities for the universities of Cape Town and Stellenbosch. The main research tool is the 6,0 MV Van de Graaff accelerator installed in 1964. Developments and improvements over the years have maintained the Institute's research effectiveness. The work of local research groups has led to a large number of M Sc and doctorate degrees and numerous publications in international journals. Research at the Institute includes front-line studies of basic nuclear and atomic physics, the development and application of nuclear analytical techniques and the application of radioisotope tracers to problems in science, industry and medicine. The Institute receives financial support from the two southern universities, the Department of National Education, the CSIR and the Atomic Energy Board

  13. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  14. Southern Alberta system reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, A. [Alberta Electric System Operator, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    System planning for the Alberta Electric System Operator's (AESO) southern system was discussed in view of the growing interest in developing wind energy resources in the province. While Alberta currently has a total of 11,500 MW of installed wind power, southern Alberta has a very small capability for interconnecting additional wind resources. There are 3 main agencies involved in system planning for the southern region: (1) the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC), (2) the AESO, and (3) the transmission facility owners. Transmission needs are studied by the AESO, who then applies to the AUC for approval. Transmission facility owners also apply to the AUC for approval to construct facilities. The AESO's roles are to operate the wholesale electricity market; plan the transmission system; arrange access for loads and generation; and oversee transmission system operation. The AESO is an independent agency with a public interest mandate. The AESO's queue management process has been designed to facilitate non-discriminatory system access. Development options currently being considered by the AESO include a 240 kV AC transmission line; a 500 kV AC transmission line; a 765 kV AC transmission line; a high voltage direct current (HVDC) system; and a voltage source converter (VSC) HVDC system. Radial and looped configurations are also being considered. The AESO is currently conducting a participant involvement program that involves open houses with the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) and other provincial stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  15. Forest Fire Occurrence in Southern Counties, 1966-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle

    1977-01-01

    Forest fire occurrence data for individual protection units generally are unavailable outside particular state organization. Number of fires, area protected and fire occurrence rate (fires per 1,000,000 acres) from 1966 to 1975, are presented in tables for the 993 counties under protection in 13 southern states. These data are compared with data for the preceeding...

  16. Doenças neurológicas de ovinos na região central do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in sheep from central Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são descritos aspectos epidemiológicos e clinico-patológicos das principais doenças neurológicas de ovinos diagnosticadas no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM no período entre 1990 e 2007. A partir de uma busca nos arquivos do LPV-UFSM foram encontrados 586 exames de ovinos correspondentes a necropsias realizadas no laboratório ou a exames de amostras remetidas por veterinários de campo. Sessenta e nove casos experimentais foram excluídos do estudo. Os 517 casos restantes eram compostos de 361 casos (69,8% com diagnóstico conclusivo e 156 casos (30,2% com diagnóstico inconclusivo. Ovinos morreram em decorrência de doença neurológica em 58 casos (16% do grupo com diagnóstico conclusivo. As doenças diagnosticadas mais frequentemente foram cenurose (15 casos ou 25,8%, listeriose (nove casos ou 15,5%, tétano (oito casos ou 13,7%, abscessos vertebrais (quatro casos ou 6,8% e abscessos encefálicos (três casos ou 5,1%. Intoxicação por Erytroxylum argentinum, mielite supurativa pós-caudectomia, meningoencefalite fibrino-supurativa, polioencefalomalacia e raiva (dois casos ou 3,4% cada foram ocasionalmente diagnosticadas. Desmielinização medular, edema da substância branca encefálica, encefalomalacia focal simétrica, hidranencefalia, hipoplasia cerebelar, intoxicação por organofosforado, intoxicação por Solanum pseudocapsicum, mielite fibrino-supurativa e provável intoxicação por closantel (um caso ou 1,7% cada foram raramente observadas.A retrospective study of neurological diseases of sheep in southern Brazil was conducted over an 18-year period (1990-2007. A data base search was carried out in the files of the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology (LPV of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, central Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. A total of 586 sheep were examined. These cases corresponded to necropsies performed in the LPV-UFSM or to

  17. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  18. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  19. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa publishes articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on responses to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Submissions are reviewed by at least two referees. The practice of 'blind' reviewing is adhered to. The Journal ...

  20. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  1. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  2. The Mysterious Southern Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. S.

    2004-05-01

    Something weird happened to twist the southern hemisphere out of alignment with the northern, as evidenced by the positions of the mountain ranges of North and South America, the Atlantic MAR, and the closure of West Africa to North America - all smooth were the torque reversed. What happened, and when, and why? We identify a number of global "cracks" of almost exactly the same length and direction, with some, even more peculiarly, turning the same angle, and proceeding an equal distance in the new direction. The Emperor-Hawaiian chain, the Louisville chain and the west coast of North America, as examples, are essentially parallel. Their northerly legs follow the angle of the axis of orbital ellipse. But then they all make equal 45 degree easterly bends, to 17.5 NW, and continue on, still parallel, for very similar distances. It is the same at the north coast of South America, and the mid-section of the MAR from 46W to 12W. It is the distance from the Cameroons to Kenya, from the south end of the Red Sea to the SE Indian Ridge at the Nema Fracture zone, from west to east of the Nazca plate.What is all this? Coincidence? Seeing things? Researchers have attributed plate motion or hot spot motion or both or absolutely none, to all of the above. Geophysicists have dated the surfaces from Archean to Pleistocene by all possible scientific means, certainly no possible correlation can be made. Yet we postulate the physical reality can be demonstrated. It is so global a phenomenon that it is well beyond what a hot spot or a plate could do. Even a really tremendous impact would have trouble making such precise geometric arrangements. So what is it - perhaps the angle of rotation, or the inertia of northern hemisphere mass above the geoid? And if so, then, what changed it? It would seem that some huge imbalance occurred. Suppose the whole bottom blew out of the southern hemisphere, and the center of mass drastically altered. Suppose some unknown universal force changed our

  3. SOFRA and RPA: two views of the future of southern timber supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius Adams; John Mills; Ralph Alig; Richard. Haynes

    2005-01-01

    Two recent studies provide alternative views of the current state and future prospects of southern forests and timber supply: the Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SOFRA) and the Fifth Resources Planning Act Timber Assessment (RPA). Using apparently comparable data but different models and methods, the studies portray futures that in some aspects are quite similar...

  4. Influences of management of Southern forests on water quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Mark Riedel; Rhett Jackson; Randy Kolka; Devendra Amatya; Jim Shepard

    2004-01-01

    Water is a key output of southern forests and is critical to other processes, functions, and values of forest ecosystems. This chapter synthesizes published literature about the effects of forest management practices on water quantity and water quality across the Southern United States region. We evaluate the influences of forest management at different temporal and...

  5. 76 FR 30739 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison's Eldorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... LLCAD09000] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison's Eldorado... INFORMATION: Southern California Edison (SCE) filed an application under Title V of the Federal Land Policy...) for further requirements. Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6. Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. [FR Doc...

  6. THE SOUTHERN AEGEAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Berg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although world-systems theory was originally formulated with our modern economic system in mind (Wallerstein 1974, it was not long before archaeologists began to apply it to ancient societies. Archaeologists and world-system theorists alike both argued that Wallerstein had disregarded evidence of interconnected, hierarchical systems in prehistoric times (Schneider 1977; Chase-Dunn & Hall 1991, 1997; Kardulias 1999a. Pailes and Whitecotton (1979 were among the first to modify world-systems theory for use in pre-capitalist settings. Since then many archaeologists have looked at data and regions with a world-systems perspective in mind (e.g. Champion 1989; Bilde et al. 1993; Rowlands & Larsen 1987; Kardulias 1999a. Some have attempted to map Wallerstein's theory directly onto prehistory (Kohl 1979; Whitecotton & Pailes 1986; Ekholm & Friedman 1982. Others have found the world systems model heuristically useful but lacking the analytical power needed for their prehistoric cases (Blanton et al. 1981; Upham 1982; Plog 1983; Alcock 1993. Building on the assumption that ancient societies were not qualitatively, but only quantitatively, different from modern capitalist ones (Schneider 1977; Sherratt & Sherratt 1991, this study applies world systems theory to the Southern Aegean during the Middle and Late Bronze Age (ca. 2000-1550 BC.

  7. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  8. Southern African Business Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of South Africa. ... the right to make minor editorial adjustments without consulting the author.

  9. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  10. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W F.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  11. Aquatic macrophytes in natural and managed wetlands of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas em áreas úmidas naturais e manejadas do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Rolon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study gathers the main results obtained from studies regarding dynamic of aquatic macrophyte community in natural and managed wetlands of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the aquatic macrophytes diversity in wetlands of Southern Brazil, the environmental factors that determine the structure of the aquatic macrophyte community in fragmented wetlands, the effects of floods on the dynamics of macrophytes, and the contributions to the rice field for the conservation of aquatic macrophytes; METHODS: The information was obtained from several researches carried in several spatial scales and different wetlands types over the last 10 years in Southern Brazil; RESULTS: The studies have reported the occurrence of approximately 250 species of aquatic macrophytes. Wetland area, habitat diversity, altitude and hydroperiod were determinant for macrophyte richness and composition in wetlands of Southern Brazil. Furthermore, flood events, long or short-term ones, are strongly associated to the structure of the aquatic macrophyte community. The rice field systems of Southern Brazil (crops and irrigation channel shelter a representative number of species of macrophyte found at natural wetlands in this region. The agricultural practices adopted over rice cultivation cycle in the rice fields have influenced the macrophyte richness and biomass. The different hydrological management practices adopted after the harvesting period (presence or lack of water surface did not influence the macrophyte richness and biomass, however it influenced the species composition; CONCLUSIONS: The increasing process of wetland degradation (e.g. fragmentation, flood control and rice field expansion presents a threat to the conservation aquatic macrophyte species.OBJETIVO: Este estudo reúne os principais resultados obtidos em trabalhos sobre a dinâmica da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em áreas úmidas naturais e manejadas do sul do Brasil. Nós analisamos a diversidade de

  12. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  13. A Christian Value? Faculty Diversity at Southern Evangelical Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marquita; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2016-01-01

    This case study research project examined efforts at three member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), all located in the southern United States, to increase faculty diversity. The study also explored how these efforts related to institutional mission and what aspects within the history of evangelicalism…

  14. A history of southern forest science, management, and sustainability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher

    2004-01-01

    The 13 Southern States from Virginia to Texas have a combined area of approximately 500 million acres. Our understanding of the complex cultural and ecological history of this large region is still evolving. It may be fair to say that until recently, our view of the native peoples of the South and the landscape in which they lived derived chiefly from reports provided...

  15. Capparis Cleghornii Dunn, a species from Southern India (Capparaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Rolla S.; Raghavan, R. Sundara

    1964-01-01

    Among recent collections from the evergreen forests of Mysore State in southern India, material was found of Capparis cleghornii Dunn which had only been known from the original collection made by Cleghorn in 1846 and from a Stocks specimen from “Kanara”. Further scrutiny of fresh collections from

  16. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  17. A management guide for invasive plants in southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Steven T. Manning; Stephen F. Enloe

    2013-01-01

    Invasions of nonnative plants into forests of the Southern United States continue to spread and include new species, increasingly eroding forest productivity, hindering forest use and management activities, and degrading diversity and wildlife habitat. This book provides the latest information on how to organize and enact prevention programs, build strategies,...

  18. The Prevalence of Hepatitis B (Australia) Antigen in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Hepatitis B (Australia) Antigen in Southern Africa. ... An assessment of the frequency of HBAg in various tribal groups of either Sana ... the eastern Orange Free State, Natal Midlands and Zululand (4 - 4,7%), while the lowest ...

  19. Bottom sediment transport by radioactive tracer techniques off a stretch of the southern coast from Sao Paulo State - Brazil; Trasnporte do sedimento de fundo por tecnicas de tracadores radioativos ao largo de trecho da costa sul do Estado de Sao Paulo - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomtempo, V.L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the methodology and results obtained with radioactive tracer techniques as applied to study sea-bottom sediments movements off a stretch of the southern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, namely Praia do Una. Three injections of ground glass containing Iridium-192 were made and the behaviour of this material was tracked by special detection techniques, as it was acted upon by hydrodynamic agents, in two distinct periods of the year of 1982 (summer and winter). Measurement of hydrodynamic parameters was conducted simultaneously with tracer experiments. From the experiments with radioactive tracers, combined with other conventional studies, qualitative and quantitative conclusions could be drawn, as follows: waves are the prevailing agents in moving bottom sediments; during summer time, onshore and alongshore transport can be identified; during winter time, offshore and alongshore transport are present; for summer conditions, Massif transport rate was estimated to be 150 kg m{sup -1} day {sup -1}. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs.

  20. Manejo da podridão-de-Sclerotium em pimentão em um argisolo no Amazonas Southern blight management of bell pepper in an argissol in the Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Netto

    2013-09-01

    égias eficientes de manejo da podridão-de-Sclerotium em pimentão. A cobertura morta com serragem não deve ser utilizada em áreas infestadas com S. rolfsii.Southern blight is a common disease in plants belonging to the Solanaceae family in the Amazon. To compare southern blight management strategies for bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. Solanaceae a field experiment was conducted in a split plot design with main plots arranged in randomized blocks, with six replicates for each treatment, in a red-yellow Argisol (Ultisol artificially infested with Sclerotium rolfsii. The main factor was soil cover (sawdust mulch or bare soil The secondary factors were the incorporation to the soil: 1 compost (3 L by planting hole, 2 rice colonized by Trichoderma harzianum (90 g by planting hole, with ≈ 1.4 x 10(9 conidia g-1 and 3 compost and T. harzianum in the same proportion described previously; 4 control. All plants were fertilized with 1.5 L of compost by planting hole except those in the treatments with 3 L of compost by hole. The main plot had three rows with ten bell pepper plants (0.50 x 1.0 m and the subplot, three rows with five plants. Southern blight incidence was accessed twice a week. The sawdust mulch increased the disease incidence significantly. In the mulched plots the disease intensity, expressed as the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC, increase 35.5% compared with bare soil. Trichoderma harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost (1.5 L to 3 L by planting hole reduced the AUDPC by 38.1% and of 37.5%, respectively. Furthermore T. harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost, even with sawdust mulch added, reduced the AUDPC by 52.8% and in 55.1%, respectively, in comparison with mulch alone. These results suggested that the utilization of T. harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost by planting hole are viable strategies to southern blight management in bell pepper. The sawdust surface mulch is not recommended in an S. rolfsii infested area.

  1. Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey Exploration and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    tourism , security, etc. It is home to Western Mindanao Command and some of the Philippine Air Forces. It also enjoys reliable power most of the time...Philippines as part of a widespread Islamic state which would span Indonesia, Malaysia , southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, and the southern Philippines...Services w2data$Q17.B <- as.numeric(recodeFivePos(w2data$Q17.B)) # Health/ Medical Services w2data$Q17.C <- as.numeric(recodeFivePos(w2data$Q17.C

  2. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  4. Special section: religion and territorial politics in southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi , Alberta; Itçaina , Xabier

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The invisible politics of religion in southern European territories: preliminary considerations With this issue of Religion, State & Society, we inaugurate a planned series of special sections focusing on the analysis of the political involvement of religious associations and organisations at the local level. Without pre-empting the more substantial conclusion that we plan for the last of the special sections, in this short introduction we aim to state brieflythe main ...

  5. Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal actively seeks to publish articles investigating the impact of Shakespeare in other parts of the world, such as India, the United States, South East Asia and South America. Other websites ... Interview: Introducing Sonny – the story of “The Robben Island Bible” · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  6. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  7. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  8. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  9. Soil and vegetation dynamics in a forest-savannah boundary in Southern Amazon state during the holocene, using 14C dating and stable carbon isotopes of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidotto, Elaine; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Ribeiro, Adauto de Souza; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study between organic soil horizons formed in depressions, distant ca. 500 meters from each sampling site, in a forest/savannah boundary in the Southern Amazon Basin. The influence of the paleovegetation and soil dynamics, based on carbon isotope ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 C) data of soil organic matter (SOM) was evaluated. The soils were classified as Dystropept (Cambissolo) and were considered as clayey. The total organic carbon contents decreased from the surface to deeper parts of the soils profiles. At deeper parts of the soil profiles in the savannah site, between 100 cm and 30 cm, the δ 13 C values characterized the influence of C 4 plants (around -18,0 per mille). From about 20 cm to the surface the δ 13 C values characterized the mixture of C 3 and C 4 plants. The soil δ 13 C values in the forest site ranged from -25,0 per mille at deeper parts of the profile to -26,0 per mille in the surface, characterizing the dominance of C 3 plants in this location. 13 C and 14 C data from soil samples indicated a predominance of C 3 plants in the early Holocene. From ca. 7000 to 3000 years BP the influence of C 4 plants increased, characterizing a savannah expansion probably related to a drier climate in the region. Since 3000 years 14 C BP, the carbon isotope data suggest the forest expansion, probably due to a return to wetter climate. 14 C data in the 40-50 cm and 100 cm soil depth were contemporary, showing no difference on the soil organic matter deposition in the savannah and in the forest locations. (author)

  10. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  11. REC profile 2: Southern Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented of South Electric plc, one of the United Kingdom's Regional Electricity Companies (RECs), at present distributing electric power in central southern England. Known in financial markets as an efficient performer, the staff reductions and changes of employment conditions undertaken to achieve this end are described. The need to maintain success in its core business, while simultaneously seeking diversification, drive the company's keen competitive edge. The relationship between the RECs and the electricity regulator is also explored, as Southern Electric considers a friendly merger with another REC to improve its market competitiveness in price terms. (UK)

  12. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  13. Sexty Southerners: Sexting Content and Behaviors among Selected Southern Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Marshall, S. Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Sexting is defined as sending/posting/sharing sexually explicit messages or nude/semi-nude images via electronic communication. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and determine relationships of sexting behavioral intentions, sexting behaviors, and sexting content among selected Southern undergraduate students. Methods: Survey…

  14. Parasites of economically important bivalves from the southern coast of Bahia State, Brazil Parasitos de bivalves de interesse econômico no Litoral Sul do Estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Calvi Zeidan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the parasites of three commercially important bivalve species (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella guyanensis and Lucina pectinata from the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 540 specimens were collected in August 2009 and February 2010, at three localities. The bivalve specimens were measured on their longest axis, opened, and macroscopically examined for the presence of parasites or signs of disease. They were then fixed in Davidson' solution and subjected to routine histological processing, with paraffin embedding and H&E staining; next, the specimens were examined under a light microscope. No parasites were observed associated with L. pectinata. Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Sphenophrya sp. (Ciliophora, Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa, Urastoma sp. (Turbellaria and Bucephalus sp. (Digenea were observed in both C. rhizophorae and M. guyanensis, as well as Ancistrocoma sp. (Ciliophora and Tylocephalum sp. (Cestoda in the former. A high prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was seen, but caused no apparent damage to the host. Bucephalus sp. caused the destruction of tissues, with castration, but showed low prevalence. The other parasites occurred in low prevalence and intensity, without causing significant damage.Neste estudo foram investigados os parasitos de três espécies de bivalves de interesse econômico (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella guyanensis e Lucina pectinata da Bahia. Foram analisados 540 exemplares, obtidos em duas coletas (agosto-2009 e fevereiro-2010, em três localidades. Os bivalves foram medidos quanto ao seu maior eixo, abertos e examinados macroscopicamente quanto à presença de parasitos ou sinais de enfermidades. Depois disso, foram fixados em solução de Davidson e processados por rotina de histologia, com inclusão em parafina e coloração com H&E. O material foi examinado ao microscópio de luz. Nenhum parasito esteve associado a L. pectinata. Bactérias do tipo RLOs (organismos assemelhados a

  15. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Journal of Environmental Education (SAJEE) is an accredited and ... It is published at least once a year, by the Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa (EEASA). ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  16. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  17. Review of Southern African Studies: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Southern African Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Review of Southern African Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Review of Southern African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Southern African Studies is a multidisciplinary journal of Arts, Social and Behavioural Sciences. Vol 13, No 1 (2009). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Health-Care Waste Practices in Selected Health-Care Facilities in Maseru ...

  19. Unprecedented emergency in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Despite knowledge of better prevention strategies, AIDS continues to be an unprecedented emergency in southern Africa. Statistics show that in 1998, 1.4 million people between the ages of 15 and 49 in the 9 countries of southern Africa were infected, with nearly three-quarters of a million of these new infections occurring in South Africa. In addition, some 2 million people died of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa in 1998 and millions of new infections are occurring every year. Factors such as the loneliness suffered by migrant laborers, the wars and armed conflicts in Rwanda, and the stigma of shame, silence, and denial associated with AIDS all generate fertile conditions for the spread of HIV in southern Africa. Overcoming silence and denial, and bringing AIDS out into the open, has been considered by some countries in southern Africa. In Botswana and South Africa, appeals for greater awareness and openness by the top leadership have been coupled with a decision to set up government funding and AIDS. The challenge now will be to translate these into effective prevention and care programs.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  1. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  2. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupo Mändla; Sven-Erik Enno; Mait Sepp

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer month...

  3. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  4. Uso não Prescrito de Metilfenidato entre Estudantes de uma Faculdade de Medicina do Sul de Minas Gerais / Non-Medical use of Methylphenidate among Students of a Medical School in the Southern of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Mauad Coli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar dentre acadêmicos de uma Faculdade de Medicina no Sul de Minas Gerais, usuários do metilfenidato, os principais motivos de utilização deste fármaco, as formas de aquisição e os possíveis efeitos colaterais. Materiais e Métodos: O estudo é descritivo e transversal e para a coleta de dados foi utilizado um questionário fechado, de caráter anônimo e de autopreenchimento, aplicado entre os meses de agosto e dezembro de 2015. Foram incluídos ao acaso 120 alunos dos 6 anos do curso médico. Resultados: Entre os participantes, 70 (58,33% eram do sexo feminino e 50 (41,67% eram do sexo masculino e a média de idade foi de 22,27 anos. Foi encontrada uma prevalência de 25% para o uso não prescrito de metilfenidato, com maior proporção de uso no sexo masculino. O aumento da concentração em época de provas foi citado como propósito de uso por 76,67% do total de pessoas que fazem uso indiscriminado. Além disso, 66,67% afirmaram ter tido o primeiro contato com a substância na faculdade e 60% obtiveram a droga por meio de doação de amigos. Os principais efeitos colaterais citados foram: ansiedade, insônia, euforia, taquicardia, redução de apetite, irritabilidade, cefaleia e tremores. Conclusão: O presente estudo evidencia uma elevada prevalência do uso não prescrito de metilfenidato, por acadêmicos de Medicina. Objective: Identify among the academic students, users of methylphenidate in a medical school in the southern Minas Gerais, the main reasons for the use, the access and the possible side effects. Materials and Methods: The study is a cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study among 120 students of six series of the medical school. The instrument used for gathering data was an anonymous self-filling questionnaire, applied between August and December 2015. Results: Among the participants, 70 (58.33% were female and 50 (41.67% were male and the average age was 22, 27 years. A prevalence of 25

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  6. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states' routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process

  7. Thirty-Two Years of Forest Service Research at the Southern Forest Fire Laboratory in Macon, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    1991-01-01

    When completed in 1959, the Southern Forest Fire Laboratory was the world?s first devoted entirely to the study of forest fires, Since then the scientists at the Laboratory have: 1) performed basic and applied research on critical fire problems of national interest, 2) conducted special regional research on fire problems peculiar to the 13 Southern States, and 3)...

  8. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1994-01-01

    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  9. Paleoseismicity and sedimentation evidence found in the southern compartment of the cretaceous Reconcavo Basin, Bahia State, Brazil; Paleossismicidade e sedimentacao: Evidencias no compartimento Sul da Bacia do Reconcavo, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja Gabaglia, G P [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Recursos Humanos

    1991-01-01

    Cretaceous Sediments that have undergone deformation in their unconsolidated state are significantly best represented in stratigraphic intervals contemporary to the formation of the brazilian marginal basins. In the drift stage, these facies are much less expressive. The Caruacu Layers (Marlin Formation) and the Pitanga Member (Candeias Formation) in the Reconcavo Basin show deformations of this nature in core samples and outcrops. The optimum granulometric fraction (from silt to fine sand) and the significant amount of water that are present in the delta systems of Reconcavo Rift get associated with seismological energy resulting from existing tectonics during its implantation and create the fundamental geological circumstances for the occurrence of such facies. Analogies with the Recent, as well as quantitative and semi-quantitative data are presented to support the model that associates paleoseismicity to sedimentation. (author). 30 figs., 4 tabs., 22 refs.

  10. Photographs of the southern heavens

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M

    1975-01-01

    The 1 m Schmidt telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has been used for a number of sky surveys. In particular a main task has been an examination of the southern night sky between declinations of -20 degrees and -90 degrees . This exercise is known as the ESO(B) Survey (or Quick Blue Survey); some of the more interesting results are shown and are briefly discussed. The photographic plates used were Kodak II a-o. There are photographs of the two Magellanic Clouds and of the galaxy NGC 1313 and the globular cluster NGC 6752. A spectrogram of our Galaxy for wavelengths in the band 3900 A to 4900 A, taken with the telescope's large objective prism is also shown. (0 refs).

  11. Identification of southern radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, A.; Bolton, J.G.; Wright, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Identifications are suggested for 36 radio sources from the southern zones of the Parkes 2700 MHz survey, 28 with galaxies, six with confirmed and two with suggested quasi-stellar objects. The identifications were made from the ESO quick blue survey plates, the SRC IIIa-J deep survey plates and the Palomar sky survey prints. Accurate optical positions have also been measured for nine of the objects and for five previously suggested identifications. (author)

  12. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  13. Heartbeat of the Southern Oscillation explains ENSO climatic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, John T.; Allen, J. Icarus; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2017-08-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) nonlinear oscillator phenomenon has a far reaching influence on the climate and human activities. The up to 10 year quasi-period cycle of the El Niño and subsequent La Niña is known to be dominated in the tropics by nonlinear physical interaction of wind with the equatorial waveguide in the Pacific. Long-term cyclic phenomena do not feature in the current theory of the ENSO process. We update the theory by assessing low (>10 years) and high (features. The observational data sets of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), North Pacific Index Anomaly, and ENSO Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly, as well as a theoretical model all confirm the existence of long-term and short-term climatic cycles of the ENSO process with resonance frequencies of {2.5, 3.8, 5, 12-14, 61-75, 180} years. This fundamental result shows long-term and short-term signal coupling with mode locking across the dominant ENSO dynamics. These dominant oscillation frequency dynamics, defined as ENSO frequency states, contain a stable attractor with three frequencies in resonance allowing us to coin the term Heartbeat of the Southern Oscillation due to its characteristic shape. We predict future ENSO states based on a stable hysteresis scenario of short-term and long-term ENSO oscillations over the next century.Plain Language SummaryThe Pacific El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) nonlinear oscillator phenomenon has a far reaching influence on the climate and our human activities. This work can help predict both long-term and short-term future ENSO events and to assess the risk of future climate hysteresis changes: is the elastic band that regulates the ENSO climate breaking? We update the current theory of the ENSO process with a sophisticated analysis approach (Dominant Frequency State Analysis) to include long-term oscillations (up to 200 years) as well as tropical and extratropical interaction dynamics. The analysis uses instrumental and paleoproxy data

  14. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duterme, B.

    2011-01-01

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  15. Estrutura da comunidade de invertebrados bentônicos em dois cursos d'água do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Community structure of benthic invertebrates in two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. P. Bueno

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The benthic fauna has an important role in the trophic chain of limnic environments, serving as food for fishes and crustaceans. This work aimed to identify and compare, quantitative and qualitatively, the macrobenthic communities from two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Samplings were done with a Surber sampler, monthly, from September 1999 to August 2000, in one of the creeks forming Tainhas River(29º15'30,2"S, 50º13'12,5"W, around São Francisco de Paula city and in Mineiro Creek (29º30'0,2"S, 50º46'50"W, around Taquara city. At each sampling point, physical and chemical variables of the waters were registered. In the laboratory, the samples were sorted out and the animals identified and quantified. Dissolved oxigen, pH and stream speed were very similar for both environments, whilst conductivity had extreme values. Insects, crustaceans, acari and molluscs dominated in the samples. Abundance, richness and diversity indexes in Tainhas subsidiary had relatively higher average values than Mineiro Creek. Similarity matrix groupings between sampling units indicate three groups. Our research revealed important characteristics of the ecology and distribution of benthic invertebrates, information that can subsidise future environmental monitoring in the region of São Francisco de Paula and Taquara.

  16. Participative methodology to define compensation for socio-environmental projects: the case of fishing compensator made by El Paso at lower southern Bahia state; Metodologicas participativas para a definicao do projetos de compensacao socio-ambiental: o caso da compensacao da pesca pela El Paso no baixo sul da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fatima [El Paso Oleo e Gas do Brasil Ltda., Natal, RN (Brazil); Ortiz, Marcos [Com Junto Ltda. (Brazil); Diogo, Hugo; Figueira, Luciara; Prysthon, Adriano; Pinho, Milena; Link, Monica [SOMA Solucoes em Meio Ambiente Ltda., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to describe and analyze the application of a specific participative methodology - called Rapid Participative Diagnosis (PRA -Participatory Rapid Appraisal) - to the development of a diagnosis for defining socio-environmental compensation projects for oil and gas exploration efforts involving nine fishing communities from lower southern Bahia State in Brazil. It has sought to identify the feasibility in applying this methodology within that context. This study leads to the conclusion that the application of Participative Diagnosis to the definition of socio-environmental compensation projects should open new horizons not only for the communities but also for everyone else involved. However, the monitoring of such kind of process requires outstanding and specific care to insure a satisfactory program implementation in order to avoid expectations and frustrations. The El Paso's DRP was a new experience for all the sectors involved: the environmental agency, the oil company, the government, several institutions and communities. The steps followed drew up the communities' reality and their relationship with the other participants. It was a work of citizenship and democracy, whose impressive results justified all the effort made. (author)

  17. Espécies de Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota do litoral centro-sul do estado de São Paulo III: Grupos químicos equinocárpico e stíctico Species of Parmotrema sensu strict (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota from the central-southern coast of São Paulo state II: Chemical groups equinocarpic and stictic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Navarro Benatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento das espécies pertencentes aos gêneros de grandes parmélias do litoral centro-sul do Estado de São Paulo revelou a ocorrência de sete espécies de Parmotrema sensu stricto (talos foliosos de lobos arredondados em geral com mais de 0,5 cm larg. com margens inferiores não rizinadas contendo como constituintes químicos medulares os ácidos equinocárpico ou stíctico. São tipicamente reconhecidos pela forte cor amarela que resulta dos testes de coloração com hidróxido de potássio. São apresentados chave de identificação, descrições, comentários e ilustrações baseados em material brasileiro.In a survey of the species pertaining to genera of large parmeliae occurring in the coastal areas of the central-southern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil, seven species of Parmotrema sensu stricto (foliose thalli with rounded lobes usually more than 0.5 mm wide with nude lower margins containing equinocarpic or stictic acids as the main medullar substances were found. These are typically recognized by the strong yellow- staining potassium hydroxide spot test. An identification key, descriptions, comments, and illustrations based on Brazilian material are provided for these species.

  18. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  19. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  20. Parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors from Southern of Goias State / Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no Sul do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefferson José Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors in the south of Goias state. Twelve traps two as of each color were used, painted yellow, black, red, white, green and blue were used two as of each color. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. Between March and December 2006, 17 parasitoid specimens were collected from the yellow trap, 15 from the blue trap, 12 from the white trap, 37 from the black trap, one from the green trap and three from the red trap. The parasitoids did not present any preference for any of the trap colors (F=0.772; P=0.58. The most frequently collected parasitoid species was Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, with 80.0%.O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no sul do estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas 12 armadilhas duas de cada tipo pintadas de amarelo preto, vermelho, branco, verde e azul. As pupas dos dípteros foram isoladas pelo método de flutuação, individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência dos parasitóides. Foram coletados no período de março a dezembro de 2006, 17 exemplares de parasitóides na armadilha amarela, 15 na armadilha azul, 12 na armadilha branca, 37 na armadilha preta, um exemplar na armadilha verde e três na armadilha vermelha. Os parasitóides não apresentaram atração por nenhuma das cores das armadilhas (F= 0,772; P=0,58. A espécie de parasitóide mais freqüente foi Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae com 80,0%.

  1. Erosividade da chuva e erodibilidade de Cambissolo e Latossolo na região de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais Rainfall erosivity and erodibility of Cambisol (Inceptisol and Latosol (Oxisol in the region of Lavras, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são relativamente poucos os estudos envolvendo erodibilidade do solo, principalmente Cambissolos, dada a morosidade na obtenção dos resultados de experimentos com chuva natural. O conhecimento dos índices de erosividade e de erodibilidade é importante para o planejamento conservacionista, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade dos solos. Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar a erosividade da chuva e a erodibilidade de Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sob chuva natural, em Lavras (MG, no período de 1998 a 2002. Os dados de precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos na Estação Climatológica Principal de Lavras, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, próxima das unidades experimentais de perdas de solo. A erosividade (EI30 foi determinada a partir do produto da energia cinética da chuva pela sua intensidade máxima em 30 min. Estes dados, correlacionados com as perdas de solo, permitiram obter o índice de erodibilidade dos solos. A precipitação total média anual foi 1.287 mm e a erosividade média foi de 4.865 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. A erodibilidade foi 0,0355 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Cambissolo e 0,0032 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Latossolo, em consonância com seus atributos mineralógicos, químicos, físicos e morfológicos diferenciais.Relatively few studies in Brazil have investigated soil erodibility, mainly for Cambisols (Inceptisols, due to the tediousness of data collection in natural rainfall experiments. Knowledge about erodibility and erosivity is important for conservation planning, which contributes to soil sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating the rainfall erosivity and erodibility of a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (Inceptisol and a typic dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under natural rainfall, in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1998 and 2002. Pluvial precipitation data were obtained from the main weather

  2. Illegal Immigration: Is the Use of Military Force in Policing the United states' Border with Mexico a Viable Option?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, David

    2001-01-01

    Illegal immigration across the United States' borders, in particular the Southern Border with Mexico, has been a continual problem confronting our local, state and national political decision makers...

  3. FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT, FEDERAL SPENDING, AND THE POSTWAR SOUTHERN ECONOMIC REBOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Bateman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Franklin Roosevelt publicly stated his devotion to the American South and pledged to help reform the region’s laggard economy. However, Southern states received significantly fewer federal expenditures per capita, both during the New Deal of the 1930s and the military emergency of the 1940s. This article investigates economic, political, and strategic reasons for this result. Additionally, we apply a public goods perspective to New Deal and World War II spending and propose that lower levels of per capita spending in the South do not necessarily translate into a smaller impact of that spending.

  4. First records of Melilotus albus Medik. (Fabaceae, Faboideae) in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Ramos Ferreira, João Paulo; Adriano Funez, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Melilotus albus Medik. is a cosmopolite and invasive species, native to the Old World, which in Brazil had its occurrence hitherto recorded only in the states of São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. This study extends its distribution to Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, due to the recen...

  5. Regional efforts to promote forestry best management practices: a southern success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb Nicholson; John Colberg; Hughes Simpson; Tom Gerow; Wib Owen

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Group of State Foresters has a long history of water resource protection efforts, providing leadership in BMP development, improvement, and implementation, enhancing state BMP programs, establishing effective partnerships, and standardizing an approach to consistently monitor implementation across the region.

  6. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  7. Identification of southern radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, A.; Bolton, J.G.; Wright, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Identifications are suggested for 53 radio sources from the southern zones of the Parkes 2700-MHz survey, 32 with galaxies, 11 with suggested QSOs and 10 with confirmed QSOs. The identifications were made from the ESO quick blue survey plates, the SRC IIIa-J deep survey plates and the Palomar Sky Survey prints. Accurate optical positions have been measured for four of the new identifications and for two previously suggested identifications. A further nine previously suggested QSO identifications have also been confirmed by two-colour photography or spectroscopy. (author)

  8. TTVs study in southern stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Schwartz, Martín; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    In this contribution we present 4 complete planetary transits observed with the 40-cm telescope ``Horacio Ghielmetti'' located in San Juan(Argentina). These objects correspond to a continuous photometric monitoring program of Southern planet host-stars that we are carrying out since mid-2011. The goal of this project is to detect additional planetary mass objects around stars with known transiting-planets through Transit Timing Variations (TTVs). For all 4 transits the depth and duration are in good agreement with the values published in the discovery papers.

  9. Identification of southern radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, A.

    1976-01-01

    Identifications are suggested for 32 radio sources from the southern zones of the Parkes 2700 MHz survey, 18 with galaxies, one with a confirmed and 12 with possible quasistellar objects, and one with a supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The identifications were made from the ESO IIa-O quick blue survey plates, the SRC IIIa-J deep survey plates and the Palomar sky survey prints. Accurate optical positions have also been measured for 10 of the objects and for five previously suggested QSOs. (author)

  10. Southern high-velocity stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augensen, H.J.; Buscombe, W.

    1978-01-01

    Using the model of the Galaxy presented by Eggen, Lynden-Bell and Sandage (1962), plane galactic orbits have been calculated for 800 southern high-velocity stars which possess parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity data. The stars with trigonometric parallaxes were selected from Buscombe and Morris (1958), supplemented by more recent spectroscopic data. Photometric parallaxes from infrared color indices were used for bright red giants studied by Eggen (1970), and for red dwarfs for which Rodgers and Eggen (1974) determined radial velocities. A color-color diagram based on published values of (U-B) and (B-V) for most of these stars is shown. (Auth.)

  11. Preparing Soil for Turfgrass Establishment - Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Michael; Schaible, Candace; Heflebower, Rick; Cardon, Grant; Beddes, Taun; Kopp, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information for successfully establishing a lawn including planning, soil preparation, appropriate seed or sod choice, and an understanding of turfgrass requirements in southern Utah.

  12. Forest carbon trends in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Mickler; James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2004-01-01

    Forest, agricultural, rangeland, wetland, and urban landscapes have different rates of carbon (C) sequestration and total C sequestration potential under alternative management options. Future changes in the proportion and spatial distribution of land use could increase or decrease the capacity of areas to sequester C in terrestrial ecosystems. As the ecosystems within...

  13. the state president's unit in its capacity asceremonial guard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State President from various cities, especially those cities in .... SP Wag op parade tydens die opening van die Parlement, Januarle 1985. State President' ... Argus Printing and Publishing Co,Who's Who of Southern Africa. Johannesburg. 7.

  14. Future climate change over Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, Claire L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents key messages drawn from recent subsets of future climate projections for the southern Africa region. Material in this chapter is drawn from Chapter 3 of Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa (Davis 2011...

  15. Decadal variability and metastability in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Terence; Risbey, James; Franzke, Christian; Horenko, Illia; Monselesan, Didier

    2014-05-01

    An examination of systematic changes in the metastability of the southern hemisphere 500hPa circulation is performed using both cluster analysis techniques and split flow blocking indices. The cluster methodology is a purely data-driven approach for parametrisation whereby a multi-scale approximation to non-stationary dynamical processes is achieved through optimal sequences of locally stationary fast Vector Auto-Regressive Factor (VARX) processes and some slow (or persistent) hidden process switching between them. Comparison is made with blocking indices commonly used in weather forecasting and climate analysis to identify dynamically relevant metastable regimes in the 500hPa circulation in both reanalysis and AMIP model data sets. Our analysis characterises the metastable regime in both reanalysis and model data sets prior to 1978 as positive and negative phases of a hemispheric mid-latitude blocking state with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) associated with a transition state. Post 1978, SAM emerges as a true metastable state replacing the negative phase of the hemispheric blocking pattern. The hidden state frequency of occurrences exhibits strong trends. The blocking pattern dominates in the early 1980s then gradually decreases. There is a corresponding increase in the SAM frequency of occurrence. This trend is largely evident in the reanalysis summer and spring but was not evident in the AMIP data set. Non-stationary cluster analysis was then further used to identify the Southern Oceans response to the systematic changes in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation and identify dynamical regimes associated with subsurface thermocline anomalies which were found to teleconnect the Pacific and Atlantic regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC).

  16. THE ORIGINS OF THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN MAMMAL FAUNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa can be geographically subdivided into different biotic zones, differing from .... The greater part of the southern African mammal fauna consists of savanna .... spread into southern Africa by way of the Savanna biotic zone.

  17. INFANT MORTALITY IN THE SOUTHERN URALS IN THE 1930 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravilya Rakhimyanovna Khisamutdinova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to study infant mortality in the southern Urals in the 1930 years and the establishment of its causes. The relevance of the researched problem is connected with difficulties of solving demographic problems in the country and the policy of the state to protect motherhood and childhood. Methodology. Basis of research is historical and comparative and historical and systematic methods and critical analysis. Results. Infant mortality is the most significant symptom of demographic decline among the population. This period has been one of the most difficult in the history of our nation, as it was accompanied by major economic, social and political processes that influenced the decline of natural increase among the population. Based on the analysis of Central and local archives, statistical information of mortality of the 1930 years in the region, the authors made the weather dynamics of the number of deaths among children under 1 year and came to the conclusion that the causes of high mortality in the early 1930 years were not only the political processes in society, and especially the famine of 1932–1933 years. The authors have proved that the population of the southern Urals in the 1930 years the mortality rate of children under 1 year was high, not only in relation to the population of the region but for the country as a whole. The number of child deaths in the region was the leader Chelyabinsk region, especially among the urban population. This was due to the high level of population, the predominance of urban population over the rural, the needs of industrialization, that is heavy physical labour of women, weak health care system. By the middle of the period under review, despite the measures taken by the state for the support of motherhood and childhood, the infant mortality rate in the southern Urals remains at a high level, increasing the number of illegal abortions, infectious diseases in the summer

  18. Power generation in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the main characteristics of power generation in Southern Africa, in terms of primary energy resources, existing and projected power supply and demand, types and location of power plants, regional integration, and environmental management aspects. Various options for future development of power generation are presented as part of an overall integrated resource planning (IRP) process for the power industry. These include coal and natural gas based options, hydro power and other renewable energy, and nuclear power plants. A specific option, the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), under development by Eskom Enterprises and other international and local partners, is described in terms of overall design parameters, inherent safety features, economics and environmental aspects. Included is a high level discussion on the selection of materials for the design of this PBMR plant, an advanced design version of a high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (orig.)

  19. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  20. Professional Learning: Trends in State Efforts. Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mire, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a multi-year study of how states are implementing their state college- and career-readiness standards. In this report, the Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB's) Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards project studied state efforts in 2014-15 and 2015-16 to foster effective…

  1. 18 March 2004. Nine of CERN's 20 Member States today signed a new Protocol on privileges and immunities. This brings the Organization into line with other European intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory, which already enjoy international status in all of their Member States.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2004-01-01

    As well as having an immediate practical benefit for the Organization, the Protocol also has an important symbolic value for the future. The Protocol is not only open to CERN Member States for signature, but also to other States collaborating with CERN. "Although this seems symbolic today", explained CERN Director General Robert Aymar in an address to CERN's governing Council today, "I believe that in the future, with the increasing globalisation of particle physics, this will become a valuable tool in helping CERN remain a powerful force in science."

  2. Some southern African entry points into global history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Parsons

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available So-called Global History has taken off in the Unites States to liberate undergraduates from Big Power parochialism, and has been the topic of a major conference held in London in May this year. The key element of Global Studies is to demonstrate the connectedness between different peoples and lands and periods of time. This paper is an attempt to crack the small-end of the egg by starting studies in one familiar region of the world, rather than the big-end approach of starting with general explanations or theory and then relating them back to particulars. It suggests three ways in which Southern Africa could be used as the starting point to throw more general light upon the world’s history. First, by taking cues from and asking questions about the latest genetic research which suggests that modern human population dispersal about 60 000 years ago began in Angola-Namibia frontier region. Second, by taking cues and asking questions about Indonesian contact with Africa and coastal settlement that may account for significant influences on southern African societies. Third, by tracing the biographies of real individuals whose careers encompass not only southern Africa but other parts of the world and in doing so demonstrate not only inter- connectedness of cultural, social, political and economic histories but also significant points of comparison in the experience of global trends and events.

  3. Arterial hypertension: sociodemographic profile and comorbidities of patients from northwest Paraná State, Southern Brazil = Hipertensão arterial: perfil sociodemográfico e comorbidades de pacientes da região Noroeste do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lúcia Gomes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The systemic arterial hypertension (SAH currently a major public health problem, presents high medical and socioeconomic costs, and occurs concurrently with other diseases, of infectious origin or not. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic profile of hypertensive patients with or without co-morbidities assisted in a health reference centre in a municipality of the northwest of the Paraná State, Southern Brazil. We gathered data from 250 medical records, concerning age, gender, race, marital status, educational level, professional duties, place of origin, reasons for seeking the services, occurrences of co-morbidities, and duration of systemic arterial hypertension. SAH occurred more often in the age group of 60-69 years old. The female gender was significantly different from the male. We observed the predominance of married (60.0%, Caucasian (76.0%, with fundamental level of education (54.4%, housewife (39.6%, living in neighborhood towns (58.0%, born in other regions than the Southern Brazil and have seek the service mainly for reasons not related to hypertension (p A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS, atualmente um dos principais problemas de saúde pública, apresenta custos médicos e socioeconômicos elevados e ocorre concomitantemente com outras doenças, de origem infecciosa ou não. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever o perfil sociodemográfico e comorbidades de pacientes hipertensos atendidos em um centro de referência em saúde em município da região Noroeste do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. De 250 prontuários foram coletados dados referentes à idade, sexo, raça, estado civil, escolaridade, atividade profissional, procedência, naturalidade, motivo da procura pelo serviço, ocorrência de comorbidades e tempo da HAS.A HAS teve maior frequência na faixa etária de 60-69 anos. O gênero feminino foi significativamente diferente do masculino. Foram predominantes os casados (60,0%, da raça branca (76,0%, com

  4. Availability of urinary albumin measurement in Southern Brazilian laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Aguiar Soares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD is the leading worldwide cause of end-stage renal disease. The current recommendation is to screen for DKD by evaluating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and measuring urinary albumin (UA levels in a spot sample. The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of UA measurement in Southern Brazilian laboratories.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the routine use of UA in all laboratories registered in the State Pharmacy Council ofRio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state ofBrazil. Data was collected by mail, e-mail, telephone, or personal interview. A sample size of at least 384 laboratories was necessary to achieve 5% precision at a 95% confidence level based on a fixed proportion of 0.5.   Results: Eight hundred and eighty laboratories currently registered in the state were invited to participate in the study; 548 (62% answered the technical specification questionnaire. Only 306 (55% of the 548 surveyed laboratories performed UA measurements. The laboratories were also required to provide the number of UA measurements performed per day, which ranged from less than one per week to 65 per day.  Conclusion: The availability of UA measurements is undesirably low inSouthern Brazil. This demonstrates the urgent need to increase the availability of this important test. It also reveals the gap between the current guidelines and the awareness about them among health care professionals.

  5. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  6. The unique requirements of primary health care in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Knobel

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The critical need for primary health care in Southern Africa with special reference to the demands of the heterogenous population is measured against the background of the declaration of Alma Ata at the WHO/UNICEF conference in 1978. In particular the provision of primary health care to the Third World communities of the RSA as an essential part of the security power base of the State is underlined and it is analised in terms of how shortcomings in this service can be exploited in a subversive revolutionary onslaught.

  7. Alabama's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Alabama's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base. in 1980 than in 1970. Of the 13 Southern States, only 5 had more forest products industry employment than Alabama. Moreover, during...

  8. Stopping the "Flow of Co-Eds and Other Female Species": A Historical Perspective on Gender Discrimination at Southern (U.S.) Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Amy Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The interrelated nature of gender and racial constructs in the culture of the southern United States accounts for much of the historical prejudice against coeducation in the region's institutions of higher education. This essay offers a historical perspective on gender discrimination on the campuses of Southern universities from the attempts to…

  9. A Measurement Invariance Examination of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a Southern Sample: Differential Item Functioning between African American and Caucasian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Lindsay Rae; Buchanan, Erin; Ebesutani, Chad; Ale, Chelsea M.; Heiden, Laurie; Hight, Terry L.; Damon, John D.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large sample of youth from the Southern United States. The authors aimed to determine (a) if the established six-factor Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale structure could be replicated in this Southern sample and (b) if scores were…

  10. Mammalia, Myrmecophagidae, Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cervidae, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758): contribution to the knowledge of the historical distribution in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tortato, Fernando; Althoff, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports historical records of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the north plateau of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, thus contributing to the knowledge about the distribution of these species. The possible causes of the extinction of Ozotoceros bezoarticus are also discussed as well as management tactics to conserve these species in southern Brazil.

  11. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  12. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  13. Analysis of private natural heritage reserves as a conservation strategy for the biodiversity of the cocoa region of the southern State of Bahia, Brazil Análise das reservas particulares do patrimônio natural como estratégia de conservação na região cacaueira do Sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Schiavetti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first country in Latin America to establish and regulate this type of reserve, and there are currently more than 700 Private Nature Heritage Reserves (RPPN in Portuguese officially recognized by either federal or state environmental agencies. Together, these RPPN protect more than a half million hectares of land in the country. The coastal forests in the southern part of Bahia State extend 100 to 200 km inland, gradually changing in physiognomy as they occupy the dryer inland areas. The coastal forest has been subjected to intense deforestation, and currently occupies less than 10% of its original area. For this work the creation processes of the RPPN were consulted to obtain the data creation time, size of property, the condition of the remaining forest, succession chain and the last paid tax. After that, interviews with the owners were made to confirm this data. Sixteen RPPN have been established in this region until 2005. Their sizes vary from 4.7 to 800 ha. Ten of these RPPN are located within state or federal conservation areas or their buffer zones. In spite of the numerous national and international conservation strategies and environmental policies focused on the region, the present situation of the cocoa zone is threatening the conservation of the region's natural resources. The establishment of private reserves in the cocoa region could conceivably improve these conservation efforts. This type of reserve can be established under a uniform system supported by federal legislation, and could count on private organizations.O Brasil foi o primeiro País na América Latina a estabelecer e regulamentar este tipo de reserva e hoje, há mais de 700 Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN oficialmente reconhecidas pelos órgãos ambientais federais ou estaduais. Juntos, estas reservas protegem mais de meio milhão de hectares em diferentes biomas dos Pais. A Floresta Atlântica na região Sul da Bahia se estende at

  14. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  15. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  16. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Hemisphere Forestry Journal. ... The journal particularly encourages contributions from South America, Africa and tropical/subtropical ... Alternative eucalypts for commercial pulpwood production at moderately dry sites in the warm ...

  17. Southern African Development Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to craft policies for fruitful integration into the global economy and inclusive growth. ... The grant will support a broad-based research network, the Southern Africa ... researchers based in regional institutions; transforming selected institutions ...

  18. Southern African Business Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific ... Accounting, Public Management, Tourism Management and related fields. ... This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that ...

  19. Introduction to prescribed fires in Southern ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a guide for resource managers on planning and executing prescribed burns in Southern forests and grasslands. It includes explanations of reasons for prescribed burning, environmental effects, weather, and techniques as well as general information on prescribed burning.

  20. Climate Prediction Center Southern Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Indices. It contains Southern Oscillation Index which is standardized sea level...

  1. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  2. Exploring sustainable transportation for Texas Southern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Texas Southern University is a commuter campus with students, faculty, and staff traveling from the : Greater Houston area to the university. Over the past few years, the TSU campus has made marked : improvements to move towards a greener more ...

  3. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge and community based management of wildlife resources: a study of the Mumbwa and Lupande Game Management areas of Zambia. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.

  5. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  6. sustainable management of rainforest in southern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    2012-07-23

    Jul 23, 2012 ... predict the stand structures of the most complex tropical rainforest ecosystem in Southern ... matrix R was 0.977, which is the intrinsic rate of natural increase with less than zero. ..... management of renewable resources with.

  7. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  8. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Albert R

    2005-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the history of southern Thailand, including the political factors behind the Malay-Muslim rebellions of the past, the roots of this rebellion back to the era of Patani Raya...

  9. Irreplaceable Acting | Wright | Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Two Hamlets | Burnett | Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  12. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  13. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuboń Maciej; Olech Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the ...

  14. Southern Ocean carbon-wind stress feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason

    2018-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is the largest sink of anthropogenic carbon in the present-day climate. Here, Southern Ocean pCO2 and its dependence on wind forcing are investigated using an equilibrium mixed layer carbon budget. This budget is used to derive an expression for Southern Ocean pCO2 sensitivity to wind stress. Southern Ocean pCO2 is found to vary as the square root of area-mean wind stress, arising from the dominance of vertical mixing over other processes such as lateral Ekman transport. The expression for pCO2 is validated using idealised coarse-resolution ocean numerical experiments. Additionally, we show that increased (decreased) stratification through surface warming reduces (increases) the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean pCO2 to wind stress. The scaling is then used to estimate the wind-stress induced changes of atmospheric pCO_2 in CMIP5 models using only a handful of parameters. The scaling is further used to model the anthropogenic carbon sink, showing a long-term reversal of the Southern Ocean sink for large wind stress strength.

  15. Growth pf Chinese tallow in a bottomland forest in Southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana Tian; Zhaofei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Chinese tallow tree [Triadica sebifera (L.) Small, formerly Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.] is a monoecious and deciduous tree, native to central and southern China. As a nonnative invasive tree species, it has aggressively invaded forestlands in southeastern United States, particularly the low- and bottom-land forests along the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico. This...

  16. Southern forest resource conditions and management practices from 1950-2000: Benefits of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacek P. Siry

    2004-01-01

    Over the past five decades, research progress and implementation have been the leading factors supporting the rapid development of southern forestry. The South has become the leading timber-supplying region in the United States, taking advantage of a large accumulation of growing stock and a substantial investment in intensive, research-based management treatments....

  17. Globalization and Higher Education in Southern California: Views from the Professoriate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Peter A.; Rexhepi, Jevdet; Chang, ChenWei; Jones, Lauren; Layton, Lucas Arribas; Liu, Amy; McKibben, Susan; Misiaszek, Greg; Olmos, Liliana; Quon, Amy; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In this study, faculty at institutions of higher education in Southern California were surveyed to determine the ways they interpret the effects of globalization dynamics upon their various teaching and research activities. Faculty in the state's three higher education tiers spoke positively about the intellectual benefits to be gained by exposure…

  18. Market perceptions and opportunities for native plant production on the southern Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Janet C. Lynn; Anne L. Mottek-Lucas; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2010-01-01

    Increases in revegetation activities have created a large demand for locally adapted native plant materials (NPM) in the southwestern United States. Currently, there is a minimal supply of local genotypes to meet this demand. We investigated the potential for the initiation of a native plant market in the southern Colorado Plateau. Through a literature search,...

  19. Comparison of fecundity and survival of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in northern and southern populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemis Roehrig; Joseph. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced species first reported in the eastern United States in 1951. The infestation has since spread in all directions from its initial sighting in Virginia, to its current range from northern Georgia, to southern Maine, and westward into Tennessee, causing...

  20. Role of the Southern Baptist Chaplains and Missionaries in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bineham, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The United States Civil War from 1861 to 1865 was no different. The purpose of this thesis is to look at the events leading up to the Civil War and the conflict itself from the viewpoint of the Southern Baptist denomination...

  1. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  2. New approaches for air-sea fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gille, S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Air-sea exchanges in the Southern Ocean of momentum, heat, freshwater, carbon dioxide, and other gases are not well documented because fluxes are sparsely sampled (see Figure 1) and because high winds, high sea state, and lack of calibration...

  3. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen; [Editors

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Chapter topics include population and demographic trends; economic and tax issues; land use planning and policy; urban effects on forest ecosystems; challenges for forest resource management and conservation; social consequences of...

  4. 76 FR 56242 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 52-018-COL, 52-019-COL, 52-025-COL, 52-026-COL; ASLBP No. 11-913-01-COL-BD01] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment... following captioned cases: Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, (William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and...

  5. Seeking 'telos' in the 'transfrontier'? neoliberalism and the transcending of community conservation in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn Southern Africa the last ten years have seen a rather dramatic shift in donor and state interest and funding from 'community conservation' to 'transfrontier conservation'. The new trend broadens the aim of conservation - development interventions to also include interstate

  6. Exceptional Leadership in Exceptional Times: Perspectives and Ideologies of Special Education Directors in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Tangela R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the self-reported personal perspectives of special education directors in K-12 urban school districts in Southern California. Over 20,000 administrators oversee the delivery of special education services in the United States and the demand for such leadership exceeds the supply…

  7. Monohedotrochus capitolii, a new genus and species of solitary azooxanthellate coral (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae) from southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitahara, M.V.; Cairns, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of azooxanthellate solitary coral, Monohedotrochus capitolii, are described in the subfamily Caryophylliinae, based on 42 specimens, most collected off Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states, southern Brazil. The new genus is characterized by being solitary and attached,

  8. Southern Foresters' Perceptions of Climate Change: Implications for Educational Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Leslie; Hubbard, William; Megalos, Mark; Morris, Hilary L. C.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of foresters' perceptions of climate change is important for developing effective educational programs on adaptive forest management. We surveyed 1,398 foresters in the southern United States regarding their perceptions of climate change, observations and concerns about climatic and forest conditions, and knowledge of and interest…

  9. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  10. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…

  11. Preserving heritage resources through responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands [Chapter 9] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada’s cultural resources (heritage resources) include archeological remains, sacred sites, historic sites, and cultural landscapes of significance to Native Americans and many other cultural groups. Locating, maintaining, and protecting these special places are part of the mandate of Nevada’s Federal and state agencies. This summary addresses Sub-goal 2.2...

  12. Impact of ecological and socioeconomic determinants on the spread of tallow tree in southern forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan Tan; Joseph Z. Fan; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Based on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database, relationships between the presence of tallow tree and related driving variables including forest landscape metrics, stand and site conditions, as well as natural and anthropogenic disturbances were analyzed for the southern states infested by tallow trees. Of the 9,966 re-measured FIA plots in...

  13. Estimating long-term carbon sequestration patterns in even- and uneven-aged southern pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration has become an increasingly important consideration for forest management in North America, and has particular potential in pine-dominated forests of the southern United States. Using existing literature on plantations and long-term studies of naturally regenerated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated stands on...

  14. A Political Economy of Water in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is a region characterised by extensive socio-economic underdevelopment. Given water’s key role in social organisation, water allocation, use and management in Southern Africa is embedded in deep historical and structural processes of regional underdevelopment. Gini coefficients of income inequality in several states of the region are the most extreme in the world. Recent data from South Africa shows that Gini coefficients of water inequality vary directly with income inequality. Recent attempts to improve water resources management in the region through IWRM have failed to consider these facts, focusing instead on a mix of institutional, policy and legal reforms. The results of these reforms have been poor. In this essay, I employ a modified version of Allan’s (2003 'water paradigms' framework to locate and assess the positions and interests of actors involved in water resources management in Southern Africa. The essay shows that Southern Africa’s history of underdevelopment has created a dense web of powerful political, economic and social interests linked by a shared technocentric understanding of and approach to water use: i.e. water for 'high modern-style' development, or as labelled by Allen, 'the hydraulic mission'. What is less readily acknowledged is the wide-spread societal support for this mission. For this reason, ecocentric approaches to water management most commonly associated with influential international actors such as the IUCN and World Wide Fund for Nature have limited local support and are of minor relevance to Southern African decision-makers. However, actors supportive of an ecocentric perspective demonstrate considerable ability to inhibit water infrastructure development across the region. In the face of abiding poverty and inequality, and vulnerability to water insecurity, widespread societal support for a technocentric approach to resource use offers a pathway toward broad-based social benefits

  15. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  16. Separatist Conflicts in the ASEAN Region: Comparing Southern Thailand and Mindanao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rupprecht

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two cases of separatist conflict, namely the conflict in Southern Thailand and the conflict in the southern Philippines. Both conflicts have been long-lasting, extremely violent, and embedded in ethnic and religious sentiments. The comparison shows that there are structural analogies in both conflict cases that indicate similar root causes. State-internal conflicts of this scale are not purely a matter of national politics. States and non-state actors have influenced – and are still influencing – both separatist conflicts in various ways and towards different outcomes. It becomes apparent that non-traditional security issues that are linked to state-internal conflicts demand a more proactive role of ASEAN in the field of conflict management.

  17. Political challenges to implementing IWRM in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatuk, Larry A.

    Southern African states are undertaking comprehensive water sector reforms. While motives for reform are partially local, they are in large part driven by the interests and ideologies of Western states and civil societies. Within the Southern African Development Community (SADC), national (water, sanitation, irrigation) master plans are being written or revised. In several states, new Water Acts are in place and new institutions have been created to improve delivery. The stated goal of these activities is integrated water resources management (IWRM) defined simply as equitable, efficient and sustainable use of the resource. This article summarizes findings of social science-oriented scholarship on water management in the region, in particular that published in three special issues of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (vol. 27, nos. 11-22; vol. 28, nos. 20-27; vol. 29, nos. 15-18). Evidence shows, among other things, that governments have been reluctant to devolve power to stakeholders; that rural dwellers are suspicious of the motives behind reform; that already empowered actors dominate new institutions touting broad-based participation; that efforts to fully recover costs in urban areas have been met with widespread civil resistance; and that new institutions have undermined existing forms of cooperation and conflict resolution, making matters worse not better. At the same time, these studies show the utility of decision support tools, capacity building exercises and research and knowledge production-all positive outcomes that should not be discounted. The paper argues that difficulties with reform reflect the highly political nature of the undertaking. Specifically, the new water architecture proposes a profound realignment of decision making power in already fragile, underdeveloped states. As a result, what may have started as a project now constitutes a context wherein differently empowered actors negotiate and renegotiate roles and rights to resources. Thus

  18. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  19. War, Peace and Stabilisation: Critically Reconceptualising Stability in Southern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Robert Carter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article critically treats stabilisation theory and programming through a perspective of peace and conflict, and argues for stabilisation’s reconceptualisation. Through tracking the concept’s emergence, it outlines that stabilisation is theoretically rooted in an insecurity-underdevelopment problematic and relies on the Liberal Peace thesis as a solution. When this concept was operationalised in southern Afghanistan, however, it was translated into a praxis informed by state-building and counterinsurgency imperatives. This approach ultimately produced confused, sometimes counterproductive, effects: simultaneously engendering a liberal, negative, rented and victor’s peace. The article concludes by arguing that stabilisation should be reconceptualised so that it pursues a positive and hybrid peace if it is to be a more effective source of guidance for policy and practice. The first step is to denaturalise the ‘formal’ state in conflict and fragile environments as being seen as a panacea to all ills of instability.

  20. Recognition characters and new records of two species of Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de P. Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phylloscyrtini occurs from eastern United States to Argentina and includes 21 valid species. It is a highly neglected group of crickets and little is known about its biology and distribution. Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 and Phylloscyrtus amoenus (Burmeister, 1880 were recorded for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and information on calling song, stridulatory file and recognition characters were provided.

  1. The Southern Divide: Testing morphological differences among bifacial points from southern and southeastern Brazil using geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Okumura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bifacial points have been used to characterize the “Umbu” tradition in southern and southeastern Brazil. This archaeological tradition has been related to sites dated from the late Pleistocene-early Holocene boundary to near historical times. Such a huge temporal range and vast territory have suggested the existence of greater diversity within this tradition that has been ignored thus far due to the lack of systematic regional studies of such points. Through geometric morphometric analysis, this article aims to test the hypothesis that there are substantial differences in the Holocene bifacial points associated with the Umbu tradition in southeastern Brazil. Five landmarks were digitized in standardized photographs from 658 points from the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that points made by groups from southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state present a very distinct morphology (size and shape in comparison to  those made by the southern groups (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. This would indicate a regional identity shared only by some groups from São Paulo (at least regarding the projectile points. It is possible that Umbu tradition presents a more restricted range, both in chronological and spatial terms, than the one proposed so far.

  2. Coastal ocean transport patterns in the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M.A.; Rosenberger, K.J.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, several large programs that monitor currents and transport patterns for periods from a few months to a few years were conducted by a consortium of university, federal, state, and municipal agencies in the central Southern California Bight, a heavily urbanized section of the coastal ocean off the west coast of the United States encompassing Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the Palos Verdes shelf. These programs were designed in part to determine how alongshelf and cross-shelf currents move sediments, pollutants, and suspended material through the region. Analysis of the data sets showed that the current patterns in this portion of the Bight have distinct changes in frequency and amplitude with location, in part because the topography of the shelf and upper slope varies rapidly over small spatial scales. However, because the mean, subtidal, and tidal-current patterns in any particular location were reasonably stable with time, one could determine a regional pattern for these current fields in the central Southern California Bight even though measurements at the various locations were obtained at different times. In particular, because the mean near-surface flows over the San Pedro and Palos Verdes shelves are divergent, near-surface waters from the upper slope tend to carry suspended material onto the shelf in the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. Water and suspended material are also carried off the shelf by the mean and subtidal flow fields in places where the orientation of the shelf break changes abruptly. The barotropic tidal currents in the central Southern California Bight flow primarily alongshore, but they have pronounced amplitude variations over relatively small changes in alongshelf location that are not totally predicted by numerical tidal models. Nonlinear internal tides and internal bores at tidal frequencies are oriented more across the shelf. They do not have a uniform transport direction, since they move fine sediment

  3. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  5. Incidence of Herdsmen Militancy in Southern Nigeria: A Threat-Import Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Simeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the threat implication of the incidence of Fulani herdsmen militancy in Southern Nigeria. Though engaged in nomadic cattle grazing, the militant group in Nigeria otherwise referred to as Fulani Herdsmen were known to be operating predominantly within the Middle Belt region of Northern Nigeria where they have been at daggers drawn with the native settled farmers. In recent times however, these nomadic pastoralists have aggressively expanded the frontiers of their operation to Southern Nigeria, unleashing mayhem against the host communities. Drawing from qualitative analysis of data collected through primary and secondary sources, this paper argues that the unbridled escalation of herders’ belligerence against the communities of Southern Nigeria would not only endanger state security but threaten the corporate existence of Nigeria. It therefore recommends that government at all levels should promulgate legislations outlawing open grazing of cattle while urging herders to establish ranches for their cattle.

  6. Bottomland hardwood afforestation: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; D. Ramsey Russell; Mark Oliver; Lamar C. Dorris

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, land managers have implemented large-scale afforestation operations across the Southern United States to rehabilitate agricultural land historically converted from bottomland hardwood forest cover types. These afforestation efforts were initially concentrated on public land managed by State or Federal Government agencies, but have later shifted...

  7. The genetic prehistory of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Patterson, Nick; Barbieri, Chiara; Berthold, Falko; Gerlach, Linda; Güldemann, Tom; Kure, Blesswell; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Nakagawa, Hirosi; Naumann, Christfried; Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Lachance, Joseph; Mountain, Joanna; Bustamante, Carlos D; Berger, Bonnie; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Henn, Brenna M; Stoneking, Mark; Reich, David; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Southern and eastern African populations that speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants are known to harbour some of the most ancient genetic lineages in humans, but their relationships are poorly understood. Here, we report data from 23 populations analysed at over half a million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, using a genome-wide array designed for studying human history. The southern African Khoisan fall into two genetic groups, loosely corresponding to the northwestern and southeastern Kalahari, which we show separated within the last 30,000 years. We find that all individuals derive at least a few percent of their genomes from admixture with non-Khoisan populations that began ∼1,200 years ago. In addition, the East African Hadza and Sandawe derive a fraction of their ancestry from admixture with a population related to the Khoisan, supporting the hypothesis of an ancient link between southern and eastern Africa.

  8. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  9. ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA DE CUSTOS DE PRODUÇÃO E RENDA NA ATIVIDADE LEITEIRA NA REGIÃO SUL GOIANO: 1997/1998 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DAIRY PRODUCTION COSTS AND INCOME IN SOUTHERN GOIÁS STATE 1997/1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pinto da Silva Júnior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo visa a analisar comparativamente o custo de produção e a renda da atividade leiteira na Mesorregião Sul Goiano, de outubro de 1997 a setembro de 1998, a partir de uma amostra intencional composta por 34 produtores, divididos em três grupos. Os elementos de análise foram: unidade animal (UA, vaca em lactação (VL, hectare de pastagem (ha e relação renda total e custo total. Os dois primeiros indicam o desempenho relativo do plantel leiteiro, enquanto o terceiro avalia o das pastagens. A relação renda total-custo total apresenta índices inferiores à unidade (0,60 a 0,93 que indicam que, em termos médios, os empresários não conseguiram obter retornos positivos líquidos para suas inversões. Os resultados e índices, calculados a partir dos valores “caixa”, revelam que todas as relações renda-custo são maiores que a unidade (1,06 a 1,31, que indica o relativo sucesso financeiro dos empresários do setor leiteiro da região Sul Goiano. Dificuldades devem ser superadas pelo setor leiteiro, tais como reduzir os custos fixos da atividade; melhorar a produtividade, o manejo do rebanho e a utilização das pastagens; reduzir as diferenças na profissionalização dos produtores; evitar a instabilidade na produção mensal de leite e nos preços recebidos pelos produtores.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Renda; custo; rentabilidade leiteira.

    This paper shows a comparative analysis of the dairy cattle production cost and income in the Southern Goiás State mesoregion using data from an intentional sample of 34 producers, from October 1997 to September l998. The main variables were the animal unit (UA, the number of milking cows (VL, hectare of pasture (ha, and total income/total cost ratio. The first two indicate the herd relative performance while the third evaluates

  10. Quantificação dos resíduos potencialmente infectantes presentes nos resíduos sólidos urbanos da regional sul de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noil Amorim de Menezes Cussiol

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi o de conhecer a parcela de resíduos potencialmente infectantes ­ aqueles contendo fezes, urina, sangue e fluidos corpóreos ­ de origem domiciliar, presentes nos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Em agosto e setembro de 2002, os resíduos da região Sul de Belo Horizonte foram coletados e levados ao Centro de Tratamento e Disposição Final de Resíduos Sólidos da BR 040, para segregação e quantificação. Os "perfurocortantes" contribuíram com 0,02±0,02% dos resíduos coletados e a presença dos "não-perfurocortantes" foi de 5,47±1,11%. Na categoria "perfurocortante", os aparelhos de barbear predominaram (0,01±0,01%, enquanto que na categoria "não-perfurocortante" as maiores frações foram de papel higiênico (3,00±0,90%, fraldas descartáveis (2,21±1,08% e absorventes higiênicos (0,22±0,12%. Os resíduos infectantes de origem domiciliar corresponderam ao dobro da fração total (infectante e comum dos resíduos de unidades de serviços de saúde. A discussão foi feita sob a égide dos perigos à saúde e segurança dos trabalhadores da coleta formal (garis e informal (catadores de rua e lixões.This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds made up 0.02±0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47±1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01±0.01%, while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00±0.90%, diapers (2.21±1.08%, and sanitary napkins (0.22±0.12%. Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common from healthcare

  11. Helmintos do cachorro do campo, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 e do cachorro do mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 no sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Helminths of Pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 and of Crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Ruas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta canídeos selvagens foram capturados por "live trap" nos municípios de Pedro Osório e Pelotas, sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e transportados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Após serem necropsiados, segmentos do intestino, respiratório, urinário e fígado foram separados e examinados. Os crânios dos animais foram usados para identificação taxonômica. Dos 40 animais capturados, 22 (55% foram Pseudalopex gymnocercus e 18 (45% Cerdocyon thous. Os nematóides mais prevalentes foram: Ancylostoma caninum (45,4 em P. gymnocercus e 22,2% em C. thous, Molineus felineus (9,9 em P. gymnocercus e 5,6% em C. thous, Strongyloides sp. (22,7 em P. gymnocercus e 16,7% em C. thous, Trichuris sp. (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 11,1% em C. thous, e Capillaria hepatica (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 5,5 % em C. thous. Os trematódeos observados foram: Alaria alata (50,0% em C. thous e 36,4 em P. gymnocercus, e Asthemia heterolecithodes em 5,6% dos C. thous. Cestóides foram identificados como Spirometra sp. (61,1% em C. thous e 54,5 em P. gymnocercus, Diphyllobothriidae (81,8 em P. gymnocercus e 77,8% em C. thous, e Acantocephala do gênero Centrorhynchus foi observado somente em 5,6% dos C. thous. Estes resultados indicaram a helmintofauna de canídeos selvagens nas áreas estudadas.Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55% were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55% Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous, Molineus felineus (9.9 in P

  12. Geophysical identification and geological Implications of the Southern Alaska Magnetic Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2003-01-01

    The southern Alaska magnetic trough (SAMT) is one of the fundamental, crustal-scale, magnetic features of Alaska. It is readily recognized on 10 km upward-continued aeromagnetic maps of the state. The arcuate SAMT ranges from 30 to 100 km wide and extends in two separate segments along the southern Alaska margin for about 1200 km onshore (from near the Alaska/Canada border at about 60 degrees north latitude to the Bering Sea) and may continue an additional 500 km or more offshore (in the southern Bering Sea). The SAMT is bordered to the south by the southern Alaska magnetic high (SAMH) produced by strongly magnetic crust and to the north by a magnetically quiet zone that reflects weakly magnetic interior Alaska crust. Geophysically, the SAMT is more than just the north-side dipole low associated with the SAMH. Several modes of analysis, including examination of magnetic potential (pseudogravity) and profile modeling, indicate that the source of this magnetic trough is a discrete, crustal-scale body. Geologically, the western portion of the SAMT coincides to a large degree with collapsed Mesozoic Kahiltna flysch basin. This poster presents our geophysical evidence for the extent and geometry of this magnetic feature as well as initial geological synthesis and combined geologic/geophysical modeling to examine the implications of this feature for the broad scale tectonic framework of southern Alaska.

  13. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic data......, low densities in the upper-mantle or mantle dynamics, is likely. The relationship between topography and Moho depth breaks down for the Oslo Graben and the Fennoscandian Shield to the east and north. High density lower crustal rocks below Oslo Graben and increasing crust and lithospheric thicknesses...

  14. Natural road construction materials of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Weinert, HH

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available respectively. p. 210. column 4: Insert Notre in rect311glc directly below heading Matrix. p. 240, paragraph 5, line 4: J 770 should read I 700. I ~I -~ r THE NATURAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS OF SOUTHERN AFRICA ACADEMICA I PRETORIA ICAPE TOWN ISBN... and the author acknowledges gratefully the valuable assistance and the trouble taken by the following persons: Southern African road authorities: Mr W. J. Biesenbach, Mr H. K. Geel, Mr C. L. Laubscher, Mr G. P. Marais, Mr R. L. Mitchell, Mr I. P. A. Smit, Mr C...

  15. The Southern Kalahari: a potential new dust source in the Southern Hemisphere?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; D’Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S; Cassar, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity. (letter)

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  17. Spectrophotometric studies of marine surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Drozdowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea constitute the organic matter from riverine waters discharges as well as the secondary degradation products of marine phytoplankton excretion. They reach the surface microlayer by the upwellings and turbulent motions of water and in the membranes of the vesicles as well as from the atmosphere. To assess concentration and spatial distribution of marine surfactants in the southern Baltic Sea, the steady-state spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric measurements of water samples taken from a surface film and a depth of 0.5 m were carried out. Water samples were collected during windless days of the cruise of r/v ‘Oceania’ in November 2012, from the open and the coastal waters having regard to the vicinity of the Vistula and Łeba mouths. In the present paper, fractions of dissolved organic matter having chromophores (CDOM or fluorophores (FDOM are recognized through their specific spectroscopic behavior, i.e., steady-state absorption, fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectra. The steady-state spectroscopic measurements revealed the CDOM and FDOM molecules characteristic to both the land and marine origin. Moreover, the concentration and spatial distribution of marine surfactants significantly depend on the distance from the river mouth. Finally, higher values of absorbance and fluorescence intensity observed in a surface film in comparison to these values in a depth of 0.5 m clearly suggest the higher concentration of organic matter in a marine film. On the other hand, our results revealed that a surface microlayer is composed of the same CDOM and FDOM as bulk water.

  18. Commercial fish price shock behaviour in Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fish price shock behaviour in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register ... Producer – consumer price behaviour in the long run depends on several factors. This study tested for the ...

  19. Southern Africa power pool : benefits, achievements, challenges and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.O.; Opok, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP) was presented. The SAPP was formed by 12 southern African developing countries as a means of minimizing electricity costs and maintaining reliability. The pool includes over 200 million people in a region of 9 million square meters. The SAPP relies on long-term bilateral contracts for electricity supply between customers and generators. The contracts are supplemented by short-term contracts in the short-term energy market. The pool uses a pricing mechanism with 13 detailed schedules dealing with firm power contracts of varying duration; non-firm power contracts of varying duration; mutual support contracts and emergency energy and control area services; scheduled outage energy; and energy banking. Benefits of the pool include reductions or postponements in generating capacity, reserves and fuel costs. New major initiatives planned by the SAPP include increasing interconnection points, the construction of new transmission lines, and the formulation of regional environmental studies. SAPP is now making plans to increase rural electrification in its membership countries with funding from an electricity levy. It was concluded that political and economic co-operation between member states has resulted in the sustained supply of energy in the region. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

    2010-12-01

    The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  1. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  2. Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series: Admiralty Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dethier, Megan N.; Hodson, Timothy O.; Kull, Kristine K.; Golden, Nadine E.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Moegling, Crescent; Pacunski, Robert E.; Cochrane, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 initiated the Puget Sound Scientific Studies and Technical Investigations Assistance Program, designed to support research in support of implementing the Puget Sound Action Agenda. The Action Agenda was created in response to Puget Sound having been designated as one of 28 estuaries of national significance under section 320 of the U.S. Clean Water Act, and its overall goal is to restore the Puget Sound Estuary's environment by 2020. The Southern Salish Sea Mapping Project was funded by the Assistance Program request for proposals process, which also supports a large number of coastal-zone- and ocean-management issues. The issues include the recommendations of the Marine Protected Areas Work Group to the Washington State Legislature (Van Cleve and others, 2009), which endorses a Puget Sound and coast-wide marine conservation needs assessment, gap analysis of existing Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and recommendations for action. This publication is the first of four U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Maps that make up the Southern Salish Sea Mapping Project. The remaining three map blocks to be published in the future, located south of Admiralty Inlet, are shown in figure 1.

  3. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  4. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  5. The electrical lithosphere in Archean cratons: examples from Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, D. T.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Webb, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southern African tectonic fabric is made up of a number Archean cratons flanked by Proterozoic and younger mobile belts, all with distinctly different but related geological evolutions. The cratonic margins and some intra-cratonic domain boundaries have played major roles in the tectonics of Africa by focusing ascending magmas and localising cycles of extension and rifting. Of these cratons the southern extent of the Congo craton is one of the least-constrained tectonic boundaries in the African tectonic architecture and knowledge of its geometry and in particular the LAB beneath is crucial for understanding geological process of formation and deformation prevailing in the Archean and later. In this work, which forms a component of the hugely successful Southern African MagnetoTelluric Experiment (SAMTEX), we present the lithospheric electrical resistivity image of the southern boundary of the enigmatic Congo craton and the Neoproterozoic Damara-Ghanzi-Chobe (DGC) orogenic belt on its flanks. Magnetotelluric data were collected along profiles crossing all three of these tectonic blocks. The two dimensional resistivity models resulting from inverting the distortion-corrected responses along the profiles all indicate significant lateral variations in the crust and upper mantle structure along and across strike from the younger DGC orogen to the older adjacent craton. The are significant lithospheric thickness variations from each terrane. The The Moho depth in the DGC is mapped at 40 km by active seismic methods, and is also well constrained by S-wave receiver function models. The Damara belt lithosphere, although generally more conductive and significantly thinner (approximately 150 km) than the adjacent Congo and Kalahari cratons, exhibits upper crustal resistive features interpreted to be caused by igneous intrusions emplaced during the Gondwanan Pan-African magmatic event. The thinned lithosphere is consistent with a 50 mW.m-2 steady-state conductive

  6. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  7. State of the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education Finance, 2017

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, a group of school finance scholars and public school practitioners gathered in Jacksonville, Florida, for the National Education Finance Academy's annual conference to discuss, among an array of topics, the state of P-20 finance in all 50 states. At the roundtable discussion, 36 states were represented, and scholars representing 30 states…

  8. Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology: Site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Southern Africa Journal of Education, Science and Technology: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAD) in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted for the prevalence of risk factors for CAD among 200 patients admitted at the different hospitals of Southern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2012 to April ...

  12. Climate and southern Africa's water-energy-food nexus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conway, D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available be strengthened for this purpose: the Southern African Development Community, the Southern African Power Pool and trade of agricultural products amounting to significant transfers of embedded water....

  13. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket Number FRA-2012-0087] Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation The Norfolk Southern Corporation (NS) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking the approval of the proposed discontinuance of automatic...

  14. Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela and the southern and ... during the model fitting: internal forcing by means of the trophic flow controls ... and two kinds of external forcing, namely fishing and the environment.

  15. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  16. Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Algerian's natural brine sampled from chott Baghdad may be a source of mineral salts with a high economic value. These salts are recoverable by simple solar evaporation. Indeed, during isothermal solar evaporation, it is possible to recover mineral salts and to determine the precipitation sequences of different ...

  17. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  18. First Hemolivia from southern Africa: reassigning chelonian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, only a single species of Hemolivia, Hemolivia mauritanica (Sergent & Sergent, 1904), has been described from African terrestrial tortoises. Although various haemogregarines have been described from southern African terrapins and tortoises, including species from the genus Haemogregarina and one from the ...

  19. Southern Europeans in France: Invisible Migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremenko, T.; El Qadim, N.; Steichen, E.; Lafleur, J.-M.; Stanek, M.

    2016-01-01

    France fared relatively well at the start of the current economic crisis, but has experienced low economic growth and high unemployment rates in the recent years. As a result it has been a less popular destination with Southern Europeans and EU migrants in general in search of economic

  20. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome

  1. Structural Change in Southern Softwood Stumpage Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The potential for structural change in southern stumpage market models has impacts on not only our basic understanding of those markets, but also on harvest, inventory and price projections, and related policy. In this paper, we test for structural change in both sawtimber and pulpwood softwood stumpage markets in the U.S. South over the period 1950-1994. Test...

  2. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  3. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment was initiated in 1999 as a result of concerns raised by natural resource managers, the science community, and the public regarding the status and likely future of forests in the South. These included changes to the region’s forests brought about by rapid urbanization, increasing timber demand, increasing numbers of...

  4. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  5. Community management of coastal resources, southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chansnoh, P.

    1993-01-01

    The involvement of communities with the assistance and support of government and non government organizations on the management of the coastal resources in Southern Thailand are discussed. The 3 most important resources, mangrove, seagrass and coral, create a complex coastal ecology. Several man-made activities causing the deterioration of this resources are also presented.

  6. Gold deposits of the southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, J.T.; Park, C.F.

    1948-01-01

    This report deals chiefly with the gold mines in the Southern Appalachian gold belt whose workings were accessible at the time of examination, but it also · summarizes available information concerning many mines that were not accessible. Most of the mines lie within a belt, 10 to 100 miles wide, that extends

  7. Assessing estuarine biota in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2005-01-01

    In southern California, most estuarine wetlands are gone, and what little habitat remains is degraded. For this reason, it is often of interest to assess the condition of estuaries over time, such as when determining the success of a restoration project. To identify impacts or opportunities for restoration, we also may want to know how a particular estuary, or area...

  8. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  9. Soyabeans and sustainable agriculture in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Murwira, M.S.; Dhliwayo, D.K.C.; Mafongoya, P.L.; Mpepereki, S.

    2011-01-01

    Maize is the dominant staple crop across most of southern Africa - it is so dominant in some areas that more than 80 per cent of the smallholder land area is planted with maize. Soyabean was identified as the crop with a potential to address the need for diversifying the cropping systems, which

  10. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rishan Singh

    2012-01-01

    The mainland region of Africa is Southern Africa because it is considered to be robust with an estimate of around 1700 tree species that are native and a couple 100 more that are alien, but have become accustomed to the natural environment; invading, penetrating and replacing vegetation.

  11. Zoogeography of the southern African echinoderm fauna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-04-17

    Apr 17, 1988 ... Pertinent features of the oceanography of southern Africa are reviewed and an analysis of the echinoderm fauna in relation to the genera] ..... five extant echinoderm classes (all species). Crinoids. Asteroids Ophiuroids .... Australia and New Zealand, which are included with. R eprod u ced by Sabin et G.

  12. Southern forests: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Neil Sampson

    2004-01-01

    In the 20th century, southern forests changed dramatically. Those changes pale, however, when compared to what happened to the people of the region. In addition to growing over fourfold in numbers, the South's population has urbanized, globalized, and intellectualized in 100 years. Rural and isolated in the 19th century, they are today urban and cosmopolitan. One...

  13. Rabies vaccine and neuraxial anaesthesia | Rewari | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 5 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF ...

  14. Towards a Southern African English Defining Vocabulary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of parameters, such as avoiding synonyms and antonyms, to determine which words are necessary to write definitions in a concise and simple way. It has been found that existing defining vocabularies lack certain words that would make definitions more accessible to southern African learners, and therefore there is a need ...

  15. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  16. A MEAT PRODUCTION STRATEGYFOR SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the task of formulating a rneat prclduction strategy fclr. Southern Africa .... Ch ickcn. '55. '5? '59. '61. 6l. '65. '61. '69. '71. '7-f is. "47. Fig. I Edible protein deived from various animal products ...... of the effort and finance expended on the original.

  17. Globalisation, transport and HIV | Andrews | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol. 5 (4) 2004: 41-44. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  18. Globalisation, transport and HIV | Andrews | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 4 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  19. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  20. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  1. Home garden system dynamics in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellisse, Beyene Teklu; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Giller, Ken E.; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical

  2. Radio broadcasting for sustainable development in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick O. Waeber and Yvonne Orengo

    2008-12-01

    Dec 1, 2008 ... ABSTRACT. The Millennium Development Goals have been written into the Madagascar Road Map (2007 - 2012) in order to improve the Malagasy social, economic and environmental situation. The Andrew Lees Trust Radio Broadcasting Project in southern. Madagascar has been set up to alleviate ...

  3. Resource reviews | Naude | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petro Naude. Walk through the wilderness by Don Richards and Clive. Walker. Published by Endangered Wildlife Trust and Wilderness Trust of Southern Africa, Johannesburg. Second (revised) edition 1986. 146 pp., photographs, maps, charts and line drawings. Price R9,95. 2. Pat Irwin. Trout in South Africa edited by P.H. ...

  4. PLANT DERMATITIS IN THE SOUTHERN TRANSVAAL*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    le bush stinging-nettle may be encountered in bush ps in Southern Transvaal veld. vo patients with seasonal rashes of the face suggestive lant dermatitis were seen in this series, but no definite es were found. MANAGEMENT. ~rential Diagnosis mditions seen in the survey period which could be used with plant dermatitis ...

  5. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  6. Review of Southern African Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 1. Every manuscript should be accompanied with a statement that it has not been submitted for publication elsewhere. 2. The Review of Southern African Studies prefers articles which cut across disciplinary boundaries. Articles with narrow foci and incomprehensible to people outside those disciplines ...

  7. Review of Southern African Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Board. Prof. R.C. Leduka Institute of Southern African Studies, NUL. Dr. F. Baffoe Baffoe and Associates, Maseru. Prof. Q. Chakela National University of Lesotho. Prof. L.B.B.J. Machobane Machobane and Associates, Maseru. Prof. E.M. Sebatane National University of Lesotho. Dr. E. Obioha National University of ...

  8. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    rates are not well constrained for the entire domain. Despite of that, extensive karstification in some areas limits the validity of a morphometric analysis in particular of the upper reaches of the drainage system and leads to a long term persistence of landforms (e.g. plateaus). In this study we focus on the drainage pattern of the eastern Southern Alps and the adjacent southern foreland basin. We use a high-resolution digital elevation model and a novel numerical approach to extract characteristic parameters of the morphology for the entire eastern Southern Alps with a high spatial resolution. We explore deviations in the steepness of channels from an equilibrium state and knick-points in longitudinal channel profiles and interpret these features in terms of (a) active tectonics, and variable uplift rates, (b) lithological effects like erodibility contrasts and karstification, and (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and Messinian preconditioning. The drainage system of the Adige shows the most significant deviations from a fluvial equilibrium. This is documented in the normalized steepness index of the main channel and all tributaries as well as in the longitudinal channel profile. The main channel shows several sections of downstream steepening and extremely low channel gradients in the lower reach. Similar deviations are also observed in the Brenta catchment situated east of the Adige drainage system. In contrast to the two large western catchments of the study region, the Piave and particularly the Tagliamento catchment show well graded channel profiles and uniform normalized steepness indices despite of the glacial history. This clear west to east trend from highly disturbed to overall well graded channels has never been documented before and may be explained in the light of increased uplift rates in the east and differences in onset and timing of topography formation between the western and eastern sector of the study region.

  9. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  10. Southern Forest Resource Assessment and Linkages to the National RPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick Cubbage; Jacek Siry; Steverson Moffat; David N. Wear; Robert Abt

    1998-01-01

    We developed a Southern Forest Resource Assessment Consortium (SOFAC) in 1994, which is designed to enhance our capabilities to analyze and model the southern forest and timber resources. Southern growth and yield analyses prepared for the RPA via SOFAC indicate that substantial increases in timber productivity can occur given current technology. A survey about NIPF...

  11. Straight studs are produced from southern pine cordwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    A Process for converting southern pine veneer cores into 8-foot 2 by 4's of SPIB Stud grade and better has been developed at the Alexandria, Louisiana, Utilization Laboratory of the Southern Forest Experiment Station. The research leading to this development suggests that a similiar process would be practical for converting 8-foot southern pine cordwood into studs...

  12. Southern hardwood forestry group going strong after 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Steve Meadows; Jeff Portwood

    2005-01-01

    On November 15,200 1, the Southern Hardwood Forestry Group (referred to as the Group) met at the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station's Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville, hlississippi to celebrate the Group's 50th anniversary. About 130 members and guests attended to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Group and to honor its charter...

  13. 77 FR 15994 - Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting via teleconference. SUMMARY: The Southern Region... and requests to Southern Region Recreation RAC, Caroline Mitchell, P.O. Box 1270, Hot Springs, AR...

  14. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  15. The reproduction of lake trout in southern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1955-01-01

    The principal spawning grounds of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) in United States waters of southern Lake Superior are on rocky shoals at depths of less than 20 fathoms. Most spawning occurs in October and early November. Of the mature fish collected on or near the spawning grounds, 60 to 69 percent were males. Among mature fish the average length of females was greater than that of males; few males less than 24 inches or females less than 26 inches in total length were caught. Recoveries of lake trout tagged on the spawning grounds showed that some males remained in the immediate area for a period of several weeks during the spawning season. Marked fish showed a tendency to return during later years to spawning grounds on which they had been tagged, even though many of them ranged long distances between spawning seasons.

  16. Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series data catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 initiated the Puget Sound Scientific Studies and Technical Investigations Assistance Program, which was designed to support research for implementing the Puget Sound Action Agenda. The Action Agenda was created because Puget Sound was designated as one of 28 estuaries of National Significance under section 320 of the Clean Water Act, and its overall goal is to restore the environment of the Puget Sound Estuary by 2020. The Southern Salish Sea Mapping Project was funded through the Assistance Program request for proposal process which also supports a large number of coastal-zone- and ocean-management issues, and includes the recommendations of the Marine Protected Areas Work Group to the Washington State Legislature. These recommendations include a Puget Sound and coast-wide marine conservation needs assessment, gap analysis of existing Marine Protected Areas and recommendations for action.

  17. Do melanoma patients from Southern climates have a worse outcome than those from Northern climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Charles E; Martin, Robert C G; Stromberg, Arnold J; Ginter, Brooke; Burton, Alison; Ross, Merrick I; Edwards, Michael J; McMasters, Kelly M; Scoggins, Charles R

    2009-08-01

    Sun exposure is known to cause melanoma; what is not known is whether patients from the Southern United States have a different profile of clinicopathologic factors and outcomes than those from the Northern United States. Data from a prospective, randomized trial on surgery for cutaneous melanoma were analyzed. All patients underwent wide excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients were categorized into two groups: Northern or Southern according to their state of residence. Clinicopathologic factors and outcomes were compared between groups. A total of 2025 patients were included in the analysis; 1214 (60%) were from Southern states. The median follow-up was 52 months. Despite significant differences in clinicopathologic features between groups on both univariate and multivariate analysis, two important factors, namely primary tumor thickness and ulceration were not different, nor was the rate of lymph node metastasis. Additionally, there were no differences in disease-free survival or overall survival between the two groups. Significant differences exist between primary melanomas based on geographic regions; however there are no differences in survival. Cumulative versus episodic sun exposure may play some role in these differences.

  18. Trends in asthma mortality in young people in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatkin, J M; Barreto, S M; Fonseca, N A; Gutiérrez, C A; Sears, M R

    1999-03-01

    Mortality from asthma increased and is now declining in some countries, but little is known about these trends in South America. We aimed to assess trends in mortality from asthma in southern Brazil in children and young adults. Death certificates of 425 people in the state of Rio Grande do Sul aged between 5 and 39 years in whom asthma was reported to be the underlying cause of death during the period 1970 to 1992 were reviewed. Population data were available in 10-year age groups. Testing for trends in mortality rates was conducted using linear and log-linear regression procedures. Asthma mortality rates in the age groups 5 to 19 and 20 to 39 years ranged between 0.04 and 0.39/100,000 and 0.28 to 0.75/100,000, respectively, and were nonuniformly distributed over the study period. The mean annual increase in rate in 5- to 19-year olds was +0.01 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.016), an average annual percentage increase of +6.8% (95% CI 3% to 11%), with a total increase of 352% between 1970 and 1992. This increase was not due to a shift in labeling from bronchitis to asthma. In the 20 to 39-year age group, asthma and bronchitis mortality rates showed no trend to increase or decrease. Asthma mortality in southern Brazil is low, but rose significantly between 1970 and 1992 in the 5 to 19-year age group. This trend differs from that found in other states of Brazil and several other Latin American countries. Reasons for this difference remain unclear.

  19. 76 FR 35508 - Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Railroad, L.L.C.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern... grant nonexclusive overhead temporary trackage rights to Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C. (ABS) over a... http://www.stb.dot.gov . Decided: June 13, 2011. By the Board. Rachel D. Campbell, Director, Office of...

  20. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...