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Sample records for bahr-el-ghazal state southern

  1. Integrated mapping of neglected tropical diseases: epidemiological findings and control implications for northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J W Sturrock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF, and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities require mass drug administration (MDA with preventive chemotherapy (PCT, rather than to provide precise estimates of infection prevalence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The integrated survey design used anecdotal reports of LF and proximity to water bodies (for schistosomiasis to guide selection of survey sites. In total, 86 communities were surveyed for schistosomiasis and STH; 43 of these were also surveyed for LF and loiasis. From these, 4834 urine samples were tested for blood in urine using Hemastix reagent strips, 4438 stool samples were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique, and 5254 blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT. 4461 individuals were interviewed regarding a history of 'eye worm' (a proxy measure for loiasis and 31 village chiefs were interviewed regarding the presence of clinical manifestations of LF in their community. At the village level, prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni ranged from 0 to 65.6% and from 0 to 9.3%, respectively. The main STH species was hookworm, ranging from 0 to 70% by village. Infection with LF and loiasis was extremely rare, with only four individuals testing positive or reporting symptoms, respectively. Questionnaire data on clinical signs of LF did not provide a reliable indication of endemicity. MDA intervention thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization were only exceeded for urinary schistosomiasis and hookworm in a few, yet distinct

  2. Government of Republic of South Sudan Public Finance Management Assessment : Northern Bahr el Ghazal State

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to assess the public finance management (PFM) system performance of the Northern Bahr el Ghazal State Government (NBGSG). The assessment is one of a number of public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) assessments being conducted in South Sudan. The PEFA assessment is focused on the PFM systems of NBGSG in South Sudan and the county of Aweil We...

  3. Southern Sudan at odds with itself: dynamics of conflict and predicaments of peace

    OpenAIRE

    Schomerus, Mareike; Allen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This research was commissioned by Pact Sudan through the UK Department for International Development (DfID). The objective of the report was to provide evidence to inform key actors in Southern Sudan in consulting Southern Sudan's citizens and in designing, implementing and prioritising policies and activities that support peace and stability. Three research teams spent a month gathering data in Eastern Equatoria, Upper Nile and Greater Bahr el-Ghazal, returning to Sudan during t...

  4. Notes from the field: Investigation of high HIV prevalence in Western Equatoria State--South Sudan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Data are limited on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Sudan, which became an independent country on July 9, 2011, after decades of civil war. In 2009, estimated HIV prevalence in antenatal clinics across the 10 states that now make up South Sudan was 3.0%, ranging from zero in Northern Bahr el Ghazal to 7.2% in Western Equatoria State (WES). A review of HIV programmatic data in February 2012 suggested consistently higher HIV prevalence in WES than in other states. Because of concerns about the high HIV prevalence and the threat of a worsening epidemic among postconflict communities, the Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to investigate the high HIV prevalence in WES and provide recommendations for the public health response. PMID:23739340

  5. Veterinaires Sans Frontieres Suisse Activities to Eradicate Rinderpest from Southern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a joint programme with a dozen other NGOs working in southern Sudan under the global umbrella of the United Nations OLS, in 1995, VSF Suisse (VSF-CH) started to collaborate with FAO on the eradication of rinderpest in this part of Africa. VSF-CH has been working in eastern Africa since 1995. Its overall objective in southern Sudan was to improve household food security and quality of life for 71,000 households in Northern Bahr El Ghazal Region and 63,000 in Western Upper Nile Region, by improving livestock productivity. The first specific objective was to improve livestock health and productivity by supporting a viable community-based animal health service. The second was to contribute to the eradication of rinderpest by 2010, following the recommendations of GREP, OIE and PACE. Activities were carried out through ten VSF-CH base stations covering 14 payams in Aweil East and Twic Counties of Northern Bahr el Ghazal, and 18 payams in Leer and Koch Counties of southern Western Upper Nile. The beneficiaries were Nuer and Dinka pastoral communities, who were suffering from the longstanding war that hampered daily life in southern Sudan for 20 years until a peace agreement was signed in January 2005. The main task was to provide technical support for the delivery of animal health services: rinderpest vaccination, until it was replaced by surveillance in January 2002; surveillance for other transboundary animal diseases; drug and vaccine distribution; treatments and vaccinations; and capacity building. The first aim was to control livestock diseases with a significant impact on reducing milk yields, as milk is the major marketable or consumable product from livestock raising. Benefits that households gain from healthy animals include milk; and animals for use as dowries in Dinka marriages, for herd replacement, as exchange for grain in times of hunger, or for sale to raise capital to purchase heifers to increase herd sizes. For the second objective

  6. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  7. The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, M; Beauvilain, A; Coppens, Y; Heintz, E; Moutaye, A H; Pilbeam, D

    1995-11-16

    The first sites with Pliocene and Pleistocene mammals west of the Rift Valley in Central Africa in northern Chad were reported in 1959 (ref. 1), and documented the presence of mixed savannah and woodland habitats. Further sites and a probable Homo erectus cranio-facial fragment were subsequently discovered. In 1993 a survey of Pliocene and Pleistocene formations in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Province of Chad (B.E.T.) led to the discovery of 17 new sites in the region of Bahr el Ghazal (classical Arabic for River of the Gazelles) near Koro Toro. One site, KT 12 (15 degrees 58'10"N, 18 degrees 52'46"E) yielded an australopithecine mandible associated with a fauna biochronologically estimated to be 3.0-3.5 Myr old. Australopithecine species described since 1925 are known from southern Africa and from sites spread along the eastern Rift Valley from Tanzania to Ethiopia (Fig. 1). This new find from Chad, which is most similar in morphology to Australopithecus afarensis, documents the presence of an early hominid a considerable distance, 2,500 km, west of the Rift Valley. PMID:7477344

  8. Southern States Lagging in Tough Smoking Bans, CDC Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159529.html Southern States Lagging in Tough Smoking Bans, CDC Says Only 6 in 10 Americans covered ... federal government report says. This type of law bans smoking in all indoor areas of workplaces, restaurants ...

  9. What are the risk factors for the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in a war-affected population? a cross-sectional community study in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayazi Touraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exists on the association of war trauma with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-depression in the general population of low-income countries. The present study aimed to evaluate socioeconomic and trauma-related risk factors associated with PTSD, depression, and PTSD-depression comorbidity in the population of Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan. Methods In this cross-sectional community study (n=1200 we applied the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ and MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to investigate the prevalence of PTSD, depression, and PTSD-depression comorbidity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between these disorders, previous trauma exposure, sociodemographic, and socioeconomic factors. Results PTSD only was found in 331 (28% and depression only in 75 (6.4% of the study population. One hundred and twelve (9.5% of the participants had PTSD-depression comorbid diagnosis. Exposure to traumatic events and socioeconomic disadvantage were significantly associated with having PTSD or PTSD-depression comorbidity but not with depression. Participants with a comorbid condition were more likely to be socioeconomic disadvantaged, have experienced more traumatic events, and showed higher level of psychological distress than participants with PTSD or depression alone. Conclusions In individuals exposed to war trauma, attention should be given to those who may fulfill criteria for a diagnosis of both PTSD and depression.

  10. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states

  11. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  12. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms

  13. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  14. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  15. Southern european model welfare state and economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoutsiou S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has affected the exercise of social policy and has shrunk welfare states in southern Europe. The welfare state, a structure that is a pillar and constant goal of Greek ideology and culture seems to accept strong tremors that threaten the social cohesion of Greek society. This literature review presents the characteristics of the applied social policy and the different models of welfare states, focusing on South model welfare state. Additionally presented benefits of the welfare state such as pension and insurance system and the degree of their contribution to the economic crisis in Greece in recent years.

  16. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  17. Lessons learned by southern states in designating alternative routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southem region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations. Under DOT regulations (49 CFR 177.826), carriers of highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (which include spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste) must use preferred routes selected to reduce time in transit. Such preferred routes consist of (1) an interstate system highway with use of an interstate system bypass or beltway around cities when available, and (2) alternate routes selected by a ''state routing agency.''

  18. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary

  19. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  20. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  1. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments

  2. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

  3. Neotectonics of coastal Jeffara (southern Tunisia): State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly

    2016-04-01

    Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.

  4. 77 FR 42621 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 305 and 319 RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule... and its location to APHIS. APHIS will evaluate plant health risks based on the proposed location...

  5. Thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir in southern of Piauí state

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Lopes da Silva; Laylson da Silva Borges; Valquiria Alves de Sousa; Cicero Pereira Barros Júnior; Tiago Vieira de Andrade; Paulo Henrique Amaral Araújo de Sousa; Edna Teles dos Santos; Leonardo Atta Farias; Severino Cavalcante de Sousa Júnior

    2015-01-01

    In this work we aimed to evaluate the thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir under climatic influence during the morning and afternoon shifts of the raining season of the year, in southern of Piaui state. This study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Piaui (UFPI), Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas (CPCE), situated in Bom Jesus city, in Piaui state. Ten cows in lactation were used and respiratory and cardiac frequencies, rectal temperatur...

  6. Citizen Science Observations of Monarch Butterfly Overwintering in the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Howard; Harlen Aschen; Davis, Andrew K.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the public have long had a fascination with the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, because of its amazing long-distance migration to overwintering sites in central Mexico, and many participate in online citizen-science programs where they report observations of its life history in North America. Here, we examine a little-studied aspect of monarch biology, the degree of overwintering in the southern United States. We compiled 9 years of sightings of overwintering monarchs in the s...

  7. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  8. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.; Tobias Saraiva Kunz

    2009-01-01

    Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to t...

  9. Urbanization Effects on Watershed Hydrology and In-Stream Processes in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Manda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern United States is characterized by a humid, subtropical climate and consists of 16 states (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland and Washington DC. Currently this region is experiencing the largest net population growth in the U.S. Over the last century, the expansion of large urban centers and impervious area in the region has altered the hydrologic cycle. This review synthesizes regional research that shows how watershed hydrology, groundwater recharge, stream geomorphology, climate, biogeochemistry, and stream ecology have been affected by urbanization and the expansion of watershed impervious area.

  10. Assessment of the quality of tuberculosis surveillance data in six selected states in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu U Onyeonoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of TB program interventions, identify deficiencies, and inform policies and programs. These data are also used for advocacy, resource mobilization, and allocation, both nationally and internationally. This study is aimed at verifying the reliability of the data collated and submitted from the direct observation therapy strategy (DOTS facilities to the National TB Program (NTP in some selected states in Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 facilities providing TB services were purposively selected from six states in Southern Nigeria, based on the treatment success rate as reported in 2009. In each selected facility, the following records were reviewed for concordance: Patient treatment cards and facility TB register, facility TB register and facility laboratory register, facility TB register and local government area (LGA TB register, and LGA TB register and TB quarterly reports. Furthermore, a total of 273 patients were selected for interview to validate the information contained in the treatment cards. Results: Agreement between the data sources was relatively high, though higher in some states than the others. Agreement between patient treatment card and facility TB register, and facility TB register and laboratory register were 97% and 85%, respectively. The lowest concordance was observed between the facility TB register and the LGA TB register. All the patients interviewed confirmed the information as recorded in their treatment cards. Conclusion: The study revealed that NTP data in Southern Nigeria is fairly reliable; however, there are variations observed among the states and at various levels. This study underlines the need to improve TB surveillance data in some states, particularly at the facility and at the LGA levels.

  11. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  12. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to the expected occurrence for the state of Santa Catarina. The four most frequent species were Philodryas patagoniensis (n = 22; 13.33%, Liophis miliaris (n = 21; 12.72%, P. aestiva (n = 13; 7.87% and Bothrops jararaca (n = 12; 7.27%, which represent together about 41% of the snakes found dead on the roads. We extend the known distribution of Imantodes cenchoa by about 60km southward.

  13. Beach rocks characterization from the southern coast of Pernambuco state based on petrography and isotopic evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is restricted to the occurence of three lines of beachrocks located between the Maracaipe river and Sirinhaem river, southern coast of Pernambuco state. The mineralogy and petrography, made it possible the characterization of three types of cements (micrite envelope, acicular crust and intergranular cryptocrystalline). They correspond to diagenetics microfacies which are set in different diagenetics environment. X-ray analysis, as well as sup(13)C/ sup(12)C e sup(18) O/ sup(16) O isotope analysis, show evidence of a dominantly marine precipitating fluid with a subordinate fresh water influence on a second cement generation. (author)

  14. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  15. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-01-01

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  16. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw... CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for an intra- corporate family transaction. Applicants state that both rail carriers... SBS lines as ``doing business as'' Saginaw Bay Southern. CSXT supports the proposed transaction...

  17. NCPMA`s efforts to establish new Oilpak{trademark} in the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuquay, J. [Berico Fuels, Inc., Greensboro, NC (United States); Laughlin, T. [North Carolina Petroleum Marketers Association, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    For the last twenty years fuel oil marketers in the North Carolina Petroleum Marketers Association (NCPMA) have tried to convince fuel oil equipment manufacturers to develop and market a packaged outdoor oil furnace with electric air conditioning for southern homes and businesses. In order to accomplish this, NCPMA had to identify if indeed there was a market for this type of product, and if so, the size of the market. Market identification was a simple process after NCPMA staff received numerous inquiries each winter about the need for such equipment from fuel oil marketers and HVAC contractors and even homeowners. Marketers share for fuel oil heated homes began to suffer partly because new building codes prevented the replacement of existing oil furnaces without much difficulty and expense. Furthermore, the limited number of basements in the southern US contributed to the problem of the replacement market. Market size was determined by a NCPMA survey to fuel oil marketers, HVAC contractors, other state petroleum associations and other forces in the industry.

  18. Evaluating Potential Changes in Fire Risk from Eucalyptus Plantings in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System is that surface fire behavior in young stands differs little from surface fires common to pine plantations in the southern Coastal Plain. By the age of 9, the absence of a shrub layer, along with an increased height to live crown, reduced initiation potential despite increased bark shedding. When a shrub layer was introduced in the model, the initiation potential became equivalent to common Pinus fuelbeds. If a crown is ignited, however, the potentials for transmissivity and spread are very high, and the potential for crown fire behavior is more severe. Our modeling effort suggests that fire behavior at the stand level differs little from current conditions and points to the importance of avoiding the development of a shrub layer. Stands managed on short rotation (less than 10 years will likely be harvested before bark shedding presents a significant spotting problem.

  19. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  20. A Study of the Fish Farms in Southern Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odum, O.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the fish farms in the southern part of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out to determine the significant changes that have taken place since a similar study was carried out 5 years earlier. The results show that fish farming has attained a greater commercial status. Between 1989 and 1994, the projected total area under cultivation rose by 86.8 % to 564.4 ha while average production increased significantly to 2, 315.16 kg/ha/yr from 913.07 kg/ha/yr. This increased yield is attributed to better management of the farms. However, many problems are still slowing down the growth and development of aquaculture in the area mainly because many of the measure initiated by government over the years have been largely unsuccessful.

  1. HPLC determination of isoflavone levels in osage orange from the Midwest and southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darji, Ketur; Miglis, Cristina; Wardlow, Ashley; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2013-07-17

    The fruit of the Maclura pomifera tree is a sustainable source for the pharmacologically interesting isoflavones, osajin and pomiferin. A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to identify osage orange samples with high isoflavone content and to determine the optimum conditions for sample preparation. Analytical run time was 8 min at a flow rate of 1 mL/min using a gradient of acetonitrile in H2O (0.1% formic acid) and UV peak detection at 274 nm. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, and limits of detection and quantitation (LOD/LOQ). The method was applied to determine the levels of osajin and pomiferin in extracts prepared from different samples of osage orange growing in the Midwest and southern United States. Results demonstrated the effect of different variables, such as sample preparation, geographical location, and growth stage, on the levels of osajin and pomiferin in analyzed samples. PMID:23772950

  2. Evaluation of Integrated Harvesting Systems in Pine Stands of the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Shawn A.; Westbrook, Michael D. Jr.; Greene, W. Dale; Das, K.C.; Peterson, Joy D.; Izlar, Robert L. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States))

    2008-10-15

    We investigated the addition of a small chipper to mechanized, tree-length harvesting systems to produce biomass chips from tops, limbs, and underbrush in planted southern pine stands. The systems were examined in three replicated studies involving clearcuts and thinnings in 2006 and 2007 in the US state of Georgia. Biomass from understory stems ranged from 8.3 to 59.0 tonnes per hectare in the three studies. Chipping the limbs and tops of merchantable stems did not reduce the production of roundwood, but only produced 7-11 t/ha of biomass. Harvesting understory biomass in addition to chipping limbs and tops worked well with clearcut harvests, but reduced roundwood production by 50% in thinnings. Small chippers added to roundwood operations appear to have the most potential in clearcut harvests where less than 30 t/ha of biomass is harvested and daily chip production is approximately 60-70 tonnes per day

  3. Evaluation of integrated harvesting systems in pine stands of the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Shawn A.; Greene, W. Dale [Center for Forest Business, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States); Westbrook, Michael D. Jr. [The Westervelt Company, 1183 Hwy 24 East, Statesboro, GA 30458 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We investigated the addition of a small chipper to mechanized, tree-length harvesting systems to produce biomass chips from tops, limbs, and underbrush in planted southern pine stands. The systems were examined in three replicated studies involving clearcuts and thinnings in 2006 and 2007 in the US state of Georgia. Biomass from understory stems ranged from 8.3 to 59.0 green tonnes per hectare in the three studies. Chipping the limbs and tops of merchantable stems did not reduce the production of roundwood, but only produced 7-11 t ha{sup -1} of biomass. Harvesting understory biomass in addition to chipping limbs and tops worked well with clearcut harvests, but reduced roundwood production by 50% in thinnings. Small chippers added to roundwood operations appear to have limited potential in current market conditions, but should become a viable option as stronger markets for biomass chips develop. (author)

  4. Evaluation of integrated harvesting systems in pine stands of the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the addition of a small chipper to mechanized, tree-length harvesting systems to produce biomass chips from tops, limbs, and underbrush in planted southern pine stands. The systems were examined in three replicated studies involving clearcuts and thinnings in 2006 and 2007 in the US state of Georgia. Biomass from understory stems ranged from 8.3 to 59.0 green tonnes per hectare in the three studies. Chipping the limbs and tops of merchantable stems did not reduce the production of roundwood, but only produced 7-11 t ha-1 of biomass. Harvesting understory biomass in addition to chipping limbs and tops worked well with clearcut harvests, but reduced roundwood production by 50% in thinnings. Small chippers added to roundwood operations appear to have limited potential in current market conditions, but should become a viable option as stronger markets for biomass chips develop. (author)

  5. Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, we assessed carbon dynamics of urbanized/developed lands in the Southern United States during 1945–2007. The results indicated that approximately 1.72 (1.69–1.77) Pg (1P = 1015) carbon was stored in urban/developed lands, comparable to the storage of shrubland or cropland in the region. Urbanization resulted in a release of 0.21 Pg carbon to the atmosphere during 1945–2007. Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. After a rapid decline of carbon storage during land conversion, an urban ecosystem gradually accumulates carbon and may compensate for the initial carbon loss in 70–100 years. The carbon sequestration rate of urban ecosystem diminishes with time, nearly disappearing in two centuries after land conversion. This study implied that it is important to take urbanization effect into account for assessing regional carbon balance. - Highlights: ► A series of spatial and temporal urban/developed land maps were generated. ► Urbanization effects on regional carbon dynamics were studied with a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). ► Carbon storage of urban/developed land was comparable to that stored in cropland and shrubland in the Southern United States. ► Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. ► Urbanization resulted in carbon emission, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time. - Urbanization has resulted in carbon release to the atmosphere, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time.

  6. Citizen Science Observations of Monarch Butterfly Overwintering in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Howard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the public have long had a fascination with the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, because of its amazing long-distance migration to overwintering sites in central Mexico, and many participate in online citizen-science programs where they report observations of its life history in North America. Here, we examine a little-studied aspect of monarch biology, the degree of overwintering in the southern United States. We compiled 9 years of sightings of overwintering monarchs in the southern United States that were reported to Journey North, a web-based citizen science program, to map the distribution of areas where monarchs are capable of surviving during the winter (i.e., in January and February, differentiating between adult sightings and sightings of breeding activity. We also statistically compared the latitudes of adult and breeding sightings, examined differences across years in latitude of sightings, and quantified the number of monarchs reported with each sighting. Of all 254 sightings, 80% came from Florida and Texas, with the remainder coming from South Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, and even one in Virginia. This distribution was generally consistent with the winter range predicted by prior investigators based on climatic conditions of this region. Sightings of adults were on average from higher latitudes than reports of breeding activity and there was significant variation across years in the average latitude of all sightings. The majority of sightings (94.2% were of fewer than 10 adult monarchs per location, and there were no reports of clustering behavior that is typical of monarch overwintering in California and Mexico. The results of this investigation broaden our collective understanding of this stage of the monarch life cycle and, more generally, highlight the value of citizen science programs in advancing science.

  7. 9. Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    All interviews have been done between 14 March and 13 April 2011, with two exceptions: 11 gave me the interview in early August 2010 and 8 gave me two interviews, one early August 2010 and the other within the mentioned time period in 2011. They all took place in or around Juba, Torit or Magwi. 1 – A member of the Local Government BoardHe is a Dinka coming from Bahr-El-Ghazal. He fought in both wars and became a local government officer in 1972. He participated in the drafting of the Local Go...

  8. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  9. Running over of mammals on roads of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Road deaths represent a factor of great impact on fauna. This is probably one of the main causes of mortality, even for threatened species. However, studies on this subject are unknown in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Considering this lack, the present study presents records of medium to large-sized mammals killed by vehicles on the roads of this state between August 2000 and November 2005. In total, 257 records were made from 20 mammal species, most of which were obtained from the BR 116, BR 282 and BR 470 highways. Cerdocyon thous was the commonest species (82 records; 31.9%, followed by Didelphis albiventris (44; 17.1%, Procyon cancrivorus (21; 8.2%, Conepatus chinga (19; 7.4%, Dasypus novemcinctus (14; 5.4%, Tamandua tetradactyla (14; 5.4% and Sphiggurus villosus (13; 5.1%. Leopardus tigrinus (5; 1.9%, L. wiedii (1; 0.4% and one unidentified Leopardus individual were recorded as threatened species. This indicates a high number of mammals run over on the roads of Santa Catarina state, and hence the necessity of specific studies on this subject and the construction of tunnels and fences for animal passage.

  10. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  11. Inmate Attitudes Toward Vocational Training: A Case Study of Vocational Training Students in the State Prison of Southern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Inmates enrolled in a vocational training program in the State Prison of Southern Michigan responded to a questionnaire on prior and current experience with vocational training, attitudes about the benefits of training in general and to individual respondents, and demographic information. Respondents expected a wide variety of benefits, not only…

  12. Thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir in southern of Piauí state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Lopes da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to evaluate the thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir under climatic influence during the morning and afternoon shifts of the raining season of the year, in southern of Piaui state. This study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Piaui (UFPI, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas (CPCE, situated in Bom Jesus city, in Piaui state. Ten cows in lactation were used and respiratory and cardiac frequencies, rectal temperature and sweating rate were measured. The physical analysis of the thermal environment of the install was acquired in the weather station of the UFPI’s campus, which registered the temperature and air relative humidity. The wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGTI was obtained by a thermometer inserted into a black globe. There was significant difference (P<0.05 for all the weather variables, highlighting the air temperature, which had higher value in the afternoon shift (30.41 °C. A significant effect (P<0.05 was observed for the physiological variables respiratory rate and sweating rate, in which higher values were measured during the afternoon shift, being respectively 51.59 mov./min. and 104.69 g/m/h, probably because this shift showed the highest values for air temperature. The animals evaluated in this study showed a certain level of thermal discomfort, mainly in the afternoon shift.

  13. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  14. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  15. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  16. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Seismicity and state of stress in the central and southern Peruvian flat slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhash; Wagner, Lara S.; Beck, Susan L.; Long, Maureen D.; Zandt, George; Young, Bissett; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estella

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the Wadati-Benioff Zone seismicity and state of stress of the subducting Nazca slab beneath central and southern Peru using data from three recently deployed local seismic networks. Our relocated hypocenters are consistent with a flat slab geometry that is shallowest near the Nazca Ridge, and changes from steep to normal without tearing to the south. These locations also indicate numerous abrupt along-strike changes in seismicity, most notably an absence of seismicity along the projected location of subducting Nazca Ridge. This stands in stark contrast to the very high seismicity observed along the Juan Fernandez ridge beneath central Chile where, a similar flat slab geometry is observed. We interpret this as indicative of an absence of water in the mantle beneath the overthickened crust of the Nazca Ridge. This may provide important new constraints on the conditions required to produce intermediate depth seismicity. Our focal mechanisms and stress tensor inversions indicate dominantly down-dip extension, consistent with slab pull, with minor variations that are likely due to the variable slab geometry and stress from adjacent regions. We observe significantly greater variability in the P-axis orientations and maximum compressive stress directions. The along strike change in the orientation of maximum compressive stress is likely related to slab bending and unbending south of the Nazca Ridge.

  18. Effects of silvicultural activity on ecological processes in floodplain forests of the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities associated with timber harvesting have occurred within floodplain forests in the southern United States for nearly two hundred years. However, it is only in the last ten years that any information has become available about the effects of harvesting on the ecological functions of this valuable resource. Hydrology is the driving influence behind all ecological processes in floodplains and, in most cases, timber harvesting alone has little long-term effect on hydroperiod. However, there may be some instances where logging roads, built in association with harvest sites , can alter hydroperiod to the extent that vegetation productivity is altered positively or negatively. There is no documentation that harvesting followed by natural regeneration represents a threat to ground or surface water quality on floodplain sites, as long as Best Management Practices are followed. Harvested floodplains may increase or have little effect on decomposition rates of surface organic matter. The nature of the effect seems to be controlled by site wetness. Data from recently harvested sites (i.e. within the last ten years) suggest that vegetation productivity is maintained at levels similar to that observed prior to harvests. During the early stages of stand development vegetation species composition is heavily influenced by harvest method. Similarly, amphibian populations (monitored as bioindicators of ecosystem recovery) seem to rebound rapidly following harvests, although species composition may be different. 40 refs, 3 figs

  19. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa R. Jelinek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  20. CHANGING PATTERNS OF ORANGE JUICE CONSUMPTION IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Leigh Ann; Sterns, James A.; Thomas H. Spreen; Wysocki, Allen F.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 through 2004, per capita orange juice purchases decreased by 12.3 percent while the popularity and media coverage of low-carbohydrate dieting exploded. Content analysis was used to count selected Southern region newspaper articles topically related to low-carbohydrate dieting, the Atkins diet, and the South Beach diet. This data was included in a Southern region orange juice demand model, where purchase data served as the independent variable and proxy for consumer demand of orange ...

  1. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  2. Inter-Annual Variability Of Rainfall In Some States Of Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study inter-annual variability of rainfall in some states in Southern Nigeria focuses on analyzing the trends and fluctuations in annual rainfall over six states in Southern Nigeria covering a period of 1972 2012. In order to ascertain the variabilitys and to model the annual rainfall for future prediction to enhance policy implementation the quantitative and descriptive analysis techniques was employed. The rainfall series were analyzed for fluctuations using Standardized Anomaly Index SAI whereas the trends were examined using Statistical Package for Social Science Software SPSS 17.0. At 95 percent confidence level observations in the stations may be signals that the wetter period dominates the drier periods in this study. Each of the series contains two distinct periods when the rainfall anomalies negative and positive of a particular type were most significant. The period where the annual rainfall is above one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Wet and the period below one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Dry for each station. The results of the linear trend lines revealed an increase in rainfall supply over the period of study especially of recent. The annual rate of increase in rainfall over the period of investigation 1972 - 2012 were 15.21mmyear for Calabar 2.18mmyear for Port Harcourt 22.23mmyear for Owerri 3.25mmyear for Benin City 5.08mmyear for Enugu and 16.29mmyear for Uyo respectively. The variability in amount of annual rainfall revealed that in 2012 Calabar received the highest amount of rainfall of about 4062.70mm and the least value of 2099.4mm in 1973. In Porthacourt the highest amount of rainfall occurred in 1993 with a value of 3911.70mm and the least value in 1983 with a value of 1816.4mm. Owerri recorded the highest amount of rainfall of about 3064.0mm in 2011 and the least value occurred in 1986 with a value of 1228.4mm. In 1976 Benin received the

  3. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretation of aeromagnetic data over the Lancinha Shear Zone, Southern Ribeira Belt, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo de Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of shear zones at the southern portion of the Ribeira Belt, PR, BR, as well as its recognition in depth is a major challenge. Despite the lack of subsurface information, the influence of such structures on the installation and evolution of the Paraná Basin during the Phanerozoic is widely accepted. Therefore, in this paper, are applied methods of anomaly enhancement (qualitative analysis and estimative of the sources depth (semiquantitative analysis, on the aeromagnetic coverage of the Lancinha Shear Zone area (LSZ in the Paraná state, in order to verify its spatial arrangement in subsurface. The processing resulted in the interpretation of magnetic-structural framework of the study area, which was validated by the depth estimative of the magnetic sources (Euler solutions. The results indicated the extension of the Lancinha, Morro Agudo and Itapirapuã shear zones under the Paraná Basin coverage.

  4. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2016-06-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  5. A Correlation Study of Student Attitudes Toward Science in a Southern State High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco-Southall, Crystal

    The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the attitudes toward science of students in Grades 11 and 12 and to investigate if there were differences resulting from gender, grade level, ethnicity, and the level of the curriculum received in average or advanced placement (AP) honors science. The participants of this study consisted of 50 randomly selected male and female high school students who were enrolled in AP and average science classes in an urban Southern state high school. The study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) instrument to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories including (a) Social Implications of Science, (b) Normality of Scientists, (c) Attitude Toward Scientific Inquiry, (d) Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, (e) Enjoyment of Science Lessons, (f) Leisure Interest in Science, and (g) Career Interest in Science. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there were gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the seven subscales and measuring different aspects of science attitudes. Statistical treatment of the TOSRA survey involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple and linear regression. Findings did not reveal significant gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were differences on several of the subscales. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean attitude scores for grade level. However, the study did reveal differences in ethnicity and attitudes toward science. With regard to ethnicity, scores for Native Americans and Whites were higher than scores for Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics indicating that Native Americans and White students showed a more positive attitude toward science. Regarding the level of curriculum received by students who were exposed to advanced level science courses showed more positive attitudes toward science than those students

  6. Diatom associations in shelf waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil: annual variation in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Felício Fernandes; Frederico Pereira Brandini

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal variation of diatoms in the inshore waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil was investigated to analyse their temporal dynamics and to detect the main environmental constraints of the planktonic community. Biomass peaks occurred from May to August and from December to March. Among the microplanktonic diatoms, Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima, P. austr...

  7. The Southern African Famine and Genetically Modified Food Aid: The Ramifications for the United States and European Union's Trade War

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Herrick

    2008-01-01

    The 2002 southern African famine marked a new phase in the long-standing trade war between the United States and the European Union over genetically modified organisms. This work will explore how the delivery of genetically modified food aid to the region concretized the ontological disparities between the two trading blocs. In addition, I argue that genetically modified crops necessitate not only new development policy, but new ways of theorizing development itself in the light of globalized...

  8. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  9. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Apistogramma borellii (Regan, 1906): First record for state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lanés, L. E. K.; L. Maltchik; Lucena, C. A. S.

    2010-01-01

    This note extends the distribution of the dwarf cichlid fish Apistogramma borellii, and is the first record of thespecies, and the genus for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, suggesting that the fish diversity of wetlands,although relatively high, is still poorly investigated in southern Brazil.

  10. Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae,Austrolebias periodicus (Costa, 1999): Distribution extension in state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Volcan, M. V.; Lanés, L. E. K.; Gonçalves, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    The present note extends the distribution of annual killifish Austrolebias periodicus, a endangered species,endemic of the Pampas region, in Ibicuí River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This information is neededto develop conservation strategies for this species and its habitat, which are at high risk due to the expansion of riceproduction and exotic forests in southern Brazil.

  11. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Southern Whidbey Island fault, Northwest Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K. M.; Liberty, L. M.; Pratt, T. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is an active fault between the Seattle and Everett Basins in northwest Washington State. Marine seismic and geologic data characterize the SWIF as sub-parallel, northwest trending reverse faults that may extend over a 100 km distance and may be capable of producing M 7 or greater earthquakes. We acquired two land-based seismic transects crossing LIDAR and magnetic lineaments associated with the SWIF near Woodinville, WA, to relate surface scarps to subsurface structures and to characterize deformation in the upper 0.5 km of strata. Nearby borehole data place Pleistocene and younger deposits at depths less than 0.2 km, with Tertiary and older strata identified below. The 2 km, north-south Crystal Lake transect crosses the surface locations of LIDAR and magnetic lineaments and shows reverse faulting that offsets Tertiary and younger strata in a zone that extends more than 1.25 km. In contrast, we interpret relatively undeformed, flat lying Tertiary strata at depths of 0.1 to 0.2 km south of the observed surface lineaments. In the 3 km, east-west Woodinville transect, we identify reverse faulting and folding that forms a small 0.75 km-wide graben within a broader deformation zone. These anomalies are on strike with the LIDAR and magnetic lineaments identified near Crystal Lake. The presence of a small graben in the SWIF is consistent with models that hypothesize strike-slip motion on the fault system, with curvature of adjacent fault strands forming a small pull-apart basin. Our observations suggest that other magnetic lineaments in the region also are likely associated with fault strands. We acquired three additional transects upwards of 30 km southeast of Woodinville to determine whether the SWIF extends beyond surface lineaments and potentially merging with the Seattle Fault. Our preliminary analysis shows faulted Tertiary and younger strata on these profiles. If the observed fault strands on these transects are related to

  12. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  13. THE PARADOX OF MIGRATION AND THE INTERESTS OF THE ATOMISTIC NATION-STATES: THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phazha Jimmy Ngandwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The "paradox of migration and the interests of the atomistic nation-states" interrogates the phenomenon of migration in general and in the Southern African Development Community in particular. The point of departure of the paper is the African Union and the Southern African Development Community’s legal framework on migration, as read with the national legal instruments of the different member states. Its focal point is the raison d’être of this phenomenon of migration and the corresponding approaches and attitudes of the nation-states within which migration takes place inter se. This includes the psycho-social impact of migration. Internationally as well as regionally, States are concerned with issues of sovereignty, the preservation of the welfare of the citizenry, ensuring social cohesion social, cultural and economic development including job creation, and fighting against transnational organised crime, including terrorism. The theme of the paper is that whereas migration should form the bedrock of regionalism and globalisation, the negative attitudes of the nation-states to migration are more often than not at variance with the objectives of regionalism and globalisation. The central question of the research is how states can discharge their duties and obligations vis-à-vis their nationals without perpetuating the bottlenecks to and the stigma that attaches to migration and thereby upsetting the international as well as regional integration objectives of the free movement of people. This is the issue that the paper is intended to explore. The main areas of concern are that the negative attitudes of the nation-states are manifested in the hostile treatment of migrants at all ports of entry, including illegal or ungazetted points of entry, within the nation-states in general, and in their labour markets in particular. This research therefore explores the paradoxical nature of the duties and responsibilities of states within the

  14. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron; André Klafke de Lima; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Nelson Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental eval...

  15. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Castillón Eduardo; Soto-Mata Brianda; Garza-López Miriam; Villarreal-Quintanilla José; Jiménez-Pérez Javier; Pando-Moreno Marisela; Sánchez-Salas Jaime; Scott-Morales Laura; Cotera-Correa Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the ai...

  16. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated to the bromeliad Vriesea inflata of the Atlantic Forest (Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestre Luiz Augusto M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated water inside the bromeliad leaf rosette is a microhabitat for several animal and plant species. In this study, the associated fauna of bromeliad Vriesea inflata was analyzed related to seasons, bromeliad height in relation to the ground and environmental factors. The samples were seasonally collected in Quatro Barras (a municipality of Paraná State, southern Brazil between March 1996 and March 1997. The associated fauna was very rich and it was grouped in 23 taxonomic groups, with a dominance of Coleoptera Scirtidae, Diptera and Hymenoptera Formicidae. We found higher abundance of macroinvertebrates in terrestrial bromeliads during the spring/1996 and in epiphyte bromeliads in the autumn/1997.

  17. White Women and the Fight for Equality in the Southern United States (1920-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Stefani

    2008-09-01

    el llamado « Sólido Sur » resultaba inflexible sobre la necesidad de hacer perenne sus instituciones racistas. Pero fue acogido por una minoría importante de la población sudista como el resultado lógico de un movimiento doloroso de reformas que habían empezado en esta región décadas antes. A diferencia del movimiento para los derechos cívicos de los años 1960, que fue encabezado y popularizado por hombres líderes negros carismáticos, la lucha para los derechos cívicos que precedió fue dirigida esencialmente por reformistas blancos entre quienes las mujeres tuvieron un papel significativamente importante y que no siempre fue reconocido como tal. Estas mujeres blancas, pertenecientes a familias blancas segregacionistas, experimentaron un proceso de cuestionamiento que las hizo arrostrar la supremacía blanca y comprometerse en la lucha por la igualdad racial. La historia de este activismo especial fue caracterizada por un proceso peculiar de radicalización, desde los primeros esfuerzos para establecer una cooperación interracial en el contexto de la segregación en los años 1920 hasta la “fraternidad universal” de los estudiantes en los años 1960. Este artículo muestra que, en el contexto del sur segregado, el activismo de las mujeres blancas fue, en muchos aspectos, más radical que el de sus homólogos de esta misma época.From the late 19th century to the 1960s, racial segregation and patriarchy were the main pillars of society in the southern United States. If the modern Civil Rights Movement that led in a few years to the historic abolition of segregation by the federal government came as a surprise to many Americans at the time, as the so-called Solid South was adamant in its determination to maintain its racist institutions forever, it was indeed welcomed by a significant minority of southerners as the logical outcome of a painful reform movement that had started decades earlier in the region. Unlike the Civil Rights Movement of the

  18. GHG Mitigation Potential of Different Grazing Strategies in the United States Southern Great Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wang; W. Richard Teague; Seong C. Park; Stan Bevers

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by ruminants using improved grazing is investigated by estimating GHG emissions for cow-calf farms under light continuous (LC), heavy continuous (HC) and rotational grazing, also known as multi-paddock (MP), management strategies in Southern Great Plain (SGP) using life cycle assessment (LCA). Our results indicated a GHG emission with these grazing treatments of 8034.90 kg·CO2e·calf−1·year−1 for cow-calf farms in SGP region, which is...

  19. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Olinda Tacuatiá; Lilian Eggers; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses usin...

  20. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

  1. On establishment the professional - oriented regional radioecological collaboration of southern Caucasian new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Today civilized Universe aims 'To Live and Collaborate into Safe - Ecologically Pure Environment'. Citizens of NIS realize this clearly only during last years - years of independence. However, in Georgia (Maybe, in other NIS too) a collective nature between officials and representatives of research and public bodies under solving radioecological problems is not observable. Therefore, researchers from I.Javakhishvili TSU suggest NATO representatives to discuss establishment of Professional-Oriented Regional Radioecological Collaboration (As NGO-Independent Expert Group). The Collaboration aims: 1.To study (As Independent Expert Group) the radioecological situation in separate areas of Southern Caucasus; 2.To assess the risk caused by the influence of ionising radiation on population; 3.To create broadly accessible regional radioecological database; 4.To assist: Popularising of radioecological studies; Upgrading Southern Caucasian population's erudition in the field of radioecology and radiation safety; Improvement of collaboration between NGO-s and governmental institutions. Success of the presented Collaboration under NATO (Or other institutions) support will create: Obvious case of the regional collaboration to solve one of the most timely environment saving problems; Preconditions for enlargement the Collaboration by involvement research bodies from other countries of Caspian region, as the idea of creation the ecologically pure living space is concordant with interests of Eurasian population

  2. Polycyclic migmatites from southern of Minas Gerais state and adjacent parts: structural/petrographic characterization and geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais and adjacent parts of the State of Sao Paulo (SE Brazil) is built up by gray gneisses (Barbacena and Amparo Complexes), pink gneisses (Pinhal Complex) and granulites (Guaxupe Complex) areas, the oldest of them of Archaean ages. Structural, petrographic, geochronological and geologic data indicate that in fact each of those complexes is the result of a long evolution including successive phases of deformation, anatexis and intrusions. The extensive migmatization of the Archaean rocks during the Lower and Upper Proterozoic combined with the intrusion of huge granitoid bodies suggest that the considered region has been involved in successively continental approaches by subduction/collision processes. (author)

  3. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - Global El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  4. The LGBT Divide: A Data Portrait of LGBT People in the Midwestern, Mountain & Southern States

    OpenAIRE

    Hasenbush, Amira; Flores, Andrew; Kastanis, Angeliki; Sears, Brad; Gates, Gary

    2014-01-01

    LGBT Americans in the 29 states without state laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation consistently see greater disparities than in the 21 states with such laws, including less social acceptance, greater economic vulnerability, especially among African-American LGBT workers, and wider household income gaps. This report reviews social climate, demographic, economic and health indicators, and highlights disparities between the 21 states that currently have non-discri...

  5. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  6. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  7. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia

  8. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Matthew E. Gompper; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Ar...

  9. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  10. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  11. Quaternary extrusion rates of the Cascade Range, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, James G.

    1990-01-01

    Quaternary (2-0 Ma) extrusion rates change significantly along the Cascade Range volcanic arc. The extrusion rate north of Mount Rainier is about 0.21 km3 km-1 m.y.-1; the rate in southern Washington and northern Oregon south to Mount Hood is about 1.6 km3 km-1 m.y.-1; in central Oregon the rate is 3-6 km3 km-1 m.y.-1; and in northern California, the rate is 3.2 km3 km-1 m.y.-1. Eruption style also changes along the arc but at latitudes different from rate changes. At the ends of the arc, volcanism is focused at isolated intermediate to silicic composite volcanoes. The composite volcanoes represent ~30% of the total volume of the arc. Mafic volcanic fields partly ring some composite volcanoes, especially in the south. In contrast, volcanism is diffused in the middle of the arc, where numerous overlapping mafic shields and a few composite volcanoes have built a broad ridge. Contrasting eruption style may signify diffuse versus focused heat sources or may reflect changes in permeability to ascending magma along the arc. -Authors

  12. HIV Prevalence Rates Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southern United States: Population-Based Estimates by Race/Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Williams Distinguished Scholar Gary Gates co-authored a paper titled “HIV Prevalence Rates Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Southern United States: Population-Based Estimates by Race/Ethnicity” that has been published in the journal AIDS and Behavior. The report addresses the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) across the southern United States and specifically considers HIV prevalence across racial and ethnic groups. Analyses suggest that HIV rates are subst...

  13. Genetic potential of half-sib families of popcorn for cerrado area from southern Tocantins State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo André Colombo; Aurélio Vaz-de-Melo; Markus Taubinger; Wilma Dias Santana; Júlio Cesar DoVale

    2014-01-01

    The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista an...

  14. THE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF TEN SACRED PLANTS (DASHAPUSHPA) OF KERALA STATE OF SOUTHERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayan S; Prasanna N Rao; Shailaja U; Arun Raj GR

    2013-01-01

    Kerala state is famous for its medicinal plant wealth and the tradition of indigenous system of therapy, specifically the Ayurveda. Dashapushpam constitute a group of ten potential herbs which are culturally and medicinally significant to the people of Kerala state. They are a group of ten herbs with which the ladies decorate their hairs and dance the thiruvathira kali on the day of thiruvathira in the Malayalam month of dhanu (December to January). Dashapushpas are also been eaten in the for...

  15. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily L; Roellig, Dawn M; Gompper, Matthew E; Monello, Ryan J; Wenning, Krista M; Gabriel, Mourad W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0-68%) and opossums (17-52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the

  16. A snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Daniel Y.

    Background. A significant vulnerability to snowmelt-related flooding in the Appalachians was demonstrated by massive events in March, 1936; January, 1996; and January, 1998. Yet, no quantitative estimate of this vulnerability has been published for these mountains. High elevations extending far southward confound the extrapolation of snow hydroclimatology from adjacent regions. Objectives. The principal objective was to develop a complete snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachians, considering the deposition, detention, and depletion phases of snow cover. A snowfall climatology addressed whether and how often sufficient snow falls to create a flood hazard, while a snow cover climatology addressed whether and how often snow is allowed to build to floodrisk proportions. A snowmelt hydroclimatology addressed whether and how often snowmelt contributes directly to large peakflows in a representative watershed. Approach. Monthly and daily temperature, precipitation, and snow data were obtained from approximately 1000 cooperative-network stations with >=10 seasons (Oct-May) of snow data. Mean, maximum, percentiles, and interseasonal and monthly variability were mapped. Time series were analyzed, and proportions of seasonal snowfall from significant events determined, at select stations. A spatially distributed, index snow cover model facilitated classification of Cheat River, WV, peakflows by generating process. Confidence intervals about fitted peakflow frequency curves were used to evaluate differences among processes. Results. Climates in which snow significantly affects floods have been discriminated in the literature by 150 cm mean seasonal snowfall, 30 days mean snow cover duration, or 50 cm mean seasonal maximum snow depth. In the Appalachian Mountains south to North Carolina, these criteria lie within 95% confidence intervals about the median or mean values of these parameters. At return periods of 10 and 20 years, these thresholds are usually

  17. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  18. Complex Type 2 Reactions in Three Patients with Hansen's Disease from a Southern United States Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kristoffer E; Salinas, Jorge L; McDonald, Robert W; Sheth, Anandi N; Fairley, Jessica K

    2015-11-01

    In non-endemic countries, leprosy, or Hansen's disease (HD), remains rare and is often underrecognized. Consequently, the literature is currently lacking in clinical descriptions of leprosy complications in the United States. Immune-mediated inflammatory states known as reactions are common complications of HD. Type 1 reactions are typical of borderline cases and occur in 30% of patients and present as swelling and inflammation of existing skin lesions, neuritis, and nerve dysfunction. Type 2 reactions are systemic events that occur at the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, and typical symptoms include fever, arthralgias, neuritis, and classic painful erythematous skin nodules known as erythema nodosum leprosum. We report three patients with lepromatous leprosy seen at a U.S. HD clinic with complicated type 2 reactions. The differences in presentations and clinical courses highlight the complexity of the disease and the need for increased awareness of unique manifestations of lepromatous leprosy in non-endemic areas. PMID:26304919

  19. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski; Eunice da Costa Machado; Nilva Brandini; Mariana Gallucci Nazario; Kleber Vieira Bonfim

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003) were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosph...

  20. New species of Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Deonier, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Five new species of Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy are described from localities in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. H. alabamae, n. sp. was first collected on water primrose in northern Alabama and later in northern Florida on Nuphar and Nymphoides. At present, there is no indication about potential host plant species. H. naiadis, n. sp. was reared from Najas guadalupensis (Spreng) Morong in northern Florida and later collected throughout the state and also in southeastern Texas. H. apal...

  1. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo; Wilsandrei Cella; Rubens Massafera; Natalia Maria Maciel Guerra Silva; Reinaldo Marqui; Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho; Ueslei Teodoro

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the...

  2. Genetic potential of half-sib families of popcorn for cerrado area from southern Tocantins State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo André Colombo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista and Yoki. A randomized block design was used with two replications. At harvest time the traits were measured, mass of grains per ear, grains yield and popping expansion. Were observed significant genetic variability for all traits. The three traits showed gains with selection. Thus, it was found that the half-sib families of popcorn have genetic potential to be exploited in breeding programs for the conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. However, future studies need to be conducted to determine which breeding strategy should provide more significant results.

  3. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Oliveira; Jacobs, Fernando; Ritter, Rafael; Dias, Rafael Antunes

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  4. Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Costalunga Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S. aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74% confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26% confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32% were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%, where men (48% and women (52% were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%, followed by pastries (25%, cheese (23%, pasta (11% and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%. The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33% followed by commercial food establishments (28%. Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain.

  5. Development Targets and Efficiency in Improving Education and Health Outcomes in Mexico’s Southern States

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan; Wodon, Quentin

    2003-01-01

    Unlike Mexico as a whole, the south (that is, the states of Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca) may well not reach many of the MDGs. The objective of this paper is to document this assertion and discuss some of the constraints toward reaching the MDGs, as well as some initiatives recently taken to make faster progress. In the first section of the paper, we provide a brief diagnostic regarding how much progress has already been achieved toward reaching the MDGs in Mexico as a whole and in the so...

  6. THE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF TEN SACRED PLANTS (DASHAPUSHPA OF KERALA STATE OF SOUTHERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayan S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kerala state is famous for its medicinal plant wealth and the tradition of indigenous system of therapy, specifically the Ayurveda. Dashapushpam constitute a group of ten potential herbs which are culturally and medicinally significant to the people of Kerala state. They are a group of ten herbs with which the ladies decorate their hairs and dance the thiruvathira kali on the day of thiruvathira in the Malayalam month of dhanu (December to January. Dashapushpas are also been eaten in the form of karkkadaka kanji in karkkidaka masam (during mid-July to mid August to get better health in the upcoming monsoon season. Also these plants are used in folklore practice in lithiasis, gonorrhea, vomiting, indigestion, skin diseases, intermittent fever, flatulence, urogenital diseases etc. Most of them are scientifically validated for various bioactivities. Still there are lots of possibilities for potential pharmacological activities from these herbs, yet to be explored. This article would throw light on the therapeutic potential of these ten sacred plants aiding to further propagation of these plants.

  7. Strigiformes and Caprimulgiformes in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil: Relevant records and new localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evair Legal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing ornithological research in Santa Catarina, many localities have already acquired good knowledge about their avifauna, but, some groups of birds are still sub-sampled in most of these ornithological studies. This sub-sampling of certain avian groups, such as the nocturnal (Strigiformes and Caprimulgiformes, may prejudice the evaluation of occurrence status and population state of these species. Thus, we present records of seven Strigiformes species (Megascops sanctaecatarinae, Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Strix hylophila, S. virgata, Glaucidium minutissimum, G. brasilianum and Asio stygius and six Caprimulgiformes (Nyctibius griseus, Podager nacunda, Nyctidromus albicollis, Caprimulgus sericocaudatus, C. longirostris and Macropsalis forcipata observed in our studies, and all the species presented here were recorded in at least one unprecedented location in Santa Catarina.

  8. On the dynamics of persistent states and their secular trends in the waveguides of the Southern Hemisphere troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Risbey, James S.; Monselesan, Didier P.; Horenko, Illia; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2016-06-01

    We identify the dynamical drivers of systematic changes in persistent quasi-stationary states (regimes) of the Southern Hemisphere troposphere and their secular trends. We apply a purely data-driven approach, whereby a multiscale approximation to nonstationary dynamical processes is achieved through optimal sequences of locally stationary fast vector autoregressive factor processes, to examine a high resolution atmospheric reanalysis over the period encompassing 1958-2013. This approach identifies regimes and their secular trends in terms of the predictability of the flow and is Granger causal. A comprehensive set of diagnostics on both isentropic and isobaric surfaces is employed to examine teleconnections over the full hemisphere and for a set of regional domains. Composite states for the hemisphere obtained from nonstationary nonparametric cluster analysis reveal patterns consistent with a circumglobal wave 3 (polar)-wave 5 (subtropical) pattern, while regional composites reveal the Pacific South American pattern and blocking modes. The respective roles of potential vorticity sources, stationary Rossby waves and baroclinic instability on the dynamics of these circulation modes are shown to be reflected by the seasonal variations of the waveguides, where Rossby wave sources and baroclinic disturbances are largely contained within the waveguides and with little direct evidence of sustained remote tropical influences on persistent synoptic features. Warm surface temperature anomalies are strongly connected with regions of upper level divergence and anticyclonic Rossby wave sources. The persistent states identified reveal significant variability on interannual to decadal time scales with large secular trends identified in all sectors apart from a region close to South America.

  9. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Castillón Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality, Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest; the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities, and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses. Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for

  10. Glacially-streamlined hard and soft beds of the paleo- Ontario ice stream in Southern Ontario and New York state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Nick; Doughty, Mike

    2016-06-01

    An extensive tract of glacially-streamlined terrain across a large part of Southern Ontario, Canada, is recognized as the footprint of the paleo-Ontario Ice Stream (OIS) within the easternmost Great Lakes sector of the last Laurentide Ice Sheet. The upstream part is a drumlinized and megagrooved 'hard bed' underlain by Cambro-Ordovician carbonates and sandstones. Subglacial plucking of jointed limestone on the lateral margins of drumlinized escarpment interfluves and rock drumlins generated a large flux of coarse debris within the ice base, recorded by sporadic spreads of hummocky rubble moraine. Downstream, the hard bed passes underneath a streamlined 'soft' bed of till-cored ('drift') drumlins and megaridges of the classic Peterborough and New York State drumlin fields. The boundary between the two bed types is a ~ 10 km wide 'mixed bed' of isolated drift drumlins resting on drumlinized rock suggesting a common erosional origin. Spatial variation in the geomorphology of ~ 2500 drift drumlins, indicates that megaridges are clones resulting from the erosion and dissection of larger parent drumlins. A large moraine system may mark the final collapse and melt of the ice stream, accompanying abrupt flow switching of its margin.

  11. Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

  12. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  13. Monitoring of the radioecological situation in marine and coastal environment of Georgia-Southern Caucasian New Independent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the same time is marked that during the independence period Georgian officials did not yet restore properly the national monitoring infrastructure for radiation in environment. The mentioned can be explained partially by taking notice of western politologists' opinion that 'Georgia as other Southern Caucasian New Independent States (Azerbaijan, Armenia) belongs to small countries category which at the present stage of development are unable to regulate and eliminate the consequences of ecological disasters without active assistance and support of more developed countries. 'Therefore, National Research and Educational Collaboration for Radioecology, successfully acting in Georgia since 2001, as independent expert institution, initiated the corresponding movement by support of 'Open Society - Georgia'Foundation. Analyses of results were obtained by Collaboration during 2001-2002 show: tendency towards 'purification'of soils polluted by anthropogenic radionuclides during Chernobyl Accident was not observed for the region of studies (Georgian area of the Black Sea coast); minimal and maximal committed annual individual effective doze due to external exposure for population in the region of studies come to 0.15 mSv and 0.35 mSv; maintenance of Cs 137 in agricultural products sometimes exceeds the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force. Maintenance of Pb 210 is also significant; maintenance of Cs 137 in various fish and shellfish is significantly lower than the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force

  14. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area. PMID:16046069

  15. Proterozoic basin in the southern Midcontinent of the United States revealed by COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J. A.; Brown, L. D.; Steiner, D.; Oliver, J. E.; Kaufman, S.; Denison, R. E.

    1981-12-01

    COCORP deep crustal seismic profiles in southwestern Oklahoma show strong, persistent, continuous, and undeformed layering in the basement over an area probably very much greater than 2,500 km2. Such layering is very unusual, judging by COCORP experience with basement rocks elsewhere in the United States. The data can be interpreted as representing a Proterozoic basin filled with clastic sedimentary and felsic volcanic rocks 7 to 10 km thick, whose base lies 10 to 13 km deep. These rocks are believed, on the basis of sparse evidence from regional geology, to have been deposited or extruded about 1,200 to 1,400 m.y. ago, and some of them may now be metamorphosed. This basin lies on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, under the Paleozoic Hardeman Basin, and is similar in depth to the Paleozoic Anadarko Basin north of the mountains. The deep basement layering is truncated on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, probably by Precambrian faults in conjunction with granitic intrusions. Pennsylvanian compression probably reactivated these Precambrian trends. Extensive Precambrian basin deposits in this area were unexpected, on the basis of evidence from sparse well control, and reports of other layered basement reflections elsewhere in the southern Midcontinent suggest that Precambrian basins may be an important feature of this region. Simple models for the evolution of southwestern Oklahoma as an aulacogen must be reformulated in the light of these new data.

  16. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Retz de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.O número de relatos de ocorrências de florações de cianobactérias em todo o mundo vem aumentando consideravelmente e na maioria desses episódios, as toxinas dominantes são as microcistinas. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de floração na Lagoa do Violão, município de Torres, RS, em janeiro de 2005. As amostras coletadas em 13/01/2005 foram submetidas a estudos taxonômicos, toxicológicos e químicos. O exame microscópico do fitoplancton mostrou a dominância das espécies Microcystis protocystis e Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense; foram observadas, também, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii e Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis. A toxicidade da floração foi confirmada através de ensaio intraperitonial em camundongos e a análise química de extratos obtidos da biomassa liofilizada mostrou que a substância majoritária era a anabaenopeptina F, seguida por anabaenopeptina B, microcistina-LR e microcistina-RR.

  17. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  18. Epilithic community development on artificial reefs deployed along a cross-shelf environmental gradient off Paraná state, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Brandini; Ariel Scheffer da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Concrete modules were deployed on the bottom of the 11, 18 and 30 meters isobaths along a cross-shelf hydrographic gradient off Paraná State, Southern Brazil, with the purpose of studying the colonization of sessile epilithic macroinvertebrates on artificial surfaces. After one year of submersion a total of 63 species of epilithic organisms were identified, dominated by Ostrea puelchana, Chthamalus bisinuatus, Balanus cf spongicola, Astrangia cf rathbuni, Didemnum spp, poryphers and bryozoans...

  19. The new state of South Sudan and identites in the borderlands -A field study on peace at the borderland of Unity and Southern Kordofan

    OpenAIRE

    Førrisdahl, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is based on a fieldwork that examines identity in the borderland between Unity State in South Sudan and Southern Kordofan with the Nuba Mountains of Sudan. The thesis examines what the primary identity is of the natives in the borderland and how identity is related to future peace in the region. The thesis use critical psychology and constructionist theory of science, and conducted qualitative fieldwork with interviews and observation. The theories used to examine the fieldwork ar...

  20. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…

  1. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  2. Freshwater temperature in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and its implication for fish culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we verified data of water temperatures collected by CORSAN-RS from 1996 to 2004 in several cities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and analyzed the possibility of raising the most cultivated fish species in Brazil. The water temperature from 1996 to 2004 was 16 to 28ºC in summer, 17 to 23ºC in fall, 14 to 17ºC (down to 9ºC in the coldest months in winter and 14 to 21ºC in spring. Native species of this state, such as silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dorado (Salminus brasiliensis, pintado (Pimelodus maculatus, as well as carps (family Cyprinidae, are resistant to the low winter temperatures. These species have a lower growth rate in coldest months (winter/spring but a good development in warmer months (summer/fall, reaching a satisfactory performance throughout the year. In the periods of more intense cold, mortality of some introduced species, such as surubim from Amazon Basin (Pseudoplatystoma sp., pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus, pirarucu (Arapaimas gigas, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus may occur. In addition, as most tropical species have a thermal range for growth and reproduction between 20 to 28ºC, some species may have poor development even in fall. Therefore, water temperature in this state should be considered in the choice of fish species to be cultivated.Neste estudo verificaram-se dados de temperaturas de água coletados pela CORSAN-RS de 1996 a 2004, em várias cidades do estado do Rio Grande Sul, sul do Brasil, e analisou-se a possibilidade de criação das principais espécies de peixe cultivadas no Brasil. A temperatura da água de 1996 a 2004 foi de 16 a 28ºC no verão, de 17 a 25ºC no outono, 14 a 17ºC (chegando a 9ºC nos meses mais frios no inverno e 14 a 21ºC na primavera. Espécies nativas deste estado, como o jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dourado

  3. Rare and endangered orchids’species in forest plant communities of the Tungussky state nature reserve (southern Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Timoshok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide information on distribution, ecosystems occurrence and density of local populations of 7 rare and en-dangered species of Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae Juss.. The species were investigated on representative for the Sountern Evenkia area of state natural reserve ‘Tungussky’. Four of these species (Calypso bulbosa (L. Oakes, Cypripedium calceolus L., C. macranthon Sw., C. ventricosum Sw are included to the Red Book of the Russian Fed-eration (2008 and three (Cypripedium guttatum Sw., Dactylorhiza cruenta (O. F. Muell. Soo, Epipactis helleborine (L. Grantz to the Red Book of the Krasnoyarsky Krai (2012. Six of rare and endangered orchid species (except for Cypripedium guttatum found in the reserve are near the north boundary of their range. Six of the species (except for Dactylorhiza cruenta are typical forest plants and occur mostly in herb-shrub story of rare Larix and Pinus-Larix forests with shrub-green moss or low-herb-green moss cover, on warm southern and western slopes. The habitats of Dactylorhiza cruenta are very different from other species. Local populations of the species are located on the narrow coast of the Hushma river, covered with shrub-leguminous meadows and shrub thickets. The density of populations of Calypso bulbosa varies from very low (1 specimen/sq.m. to dense (19 specimen/sq.m.. The density of Cypri-pedium calceolus и C. macranthon varies similarly from 1.2 to 6.3 specimen/sq.m. The density of local populations of C. ventricosum is low. It is about 2.5 specimen/sq.m. Long-root species C. guttatum has population density from 11.15 to 78.18 partial scions/sq.m. Epipactis helleborine occurrence is very rare. This species occurs only as singular specimen. The density of populations of Dactylorhiza cruenta is from 4.3 to 9.2 species/sq.m. Despite that most of the rare and endangered Orchid species exist on the boundary of their range, all species found in the reserve are stable, blossom and produce harvest

  4. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  5. WIESE, Martin, 2004, Health-vulnerability in a complex crisis situation. Implications for providing health care to a nomadic people in Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Baroin, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Le titre un peu rébarbatif de ce livre reflète mal son contenu. Il ne s’agit pas uniquement de santé en effet, mais d’un bilan global, et tout à fait remarquable, de la situation socio-économique actuelle de deux groupes de pasteurs nomades du Tchad. Ceux-ci se côtoient sans se mêler sur des circuits de transhumance différents, entre le Kanem et le Bahr-el-Ghazal au nord, et le Chari-Baguirmi au sud. Les deux groupes en question sont d’une part des Arabes Juhayna, éleveurs de dromadaires réfu...

  6. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the concentrations of 226Ra

  7. State Development Interventions versus Indigenous Resource management institutions: Whose Reality Count? Evidence from Borana Pastoral system of Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh, Demissie

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to explore the extent to which government policies geared towards “transforming” pastoral way of living into sedentary agriculturalists in pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia had eroded social capital, customary institutions, and livelihoods and deteriorated the living conditions of the very people they are intended to benefit and the resources they are meant to manage. While the essence of building on social capital and local indigenous institutions ...

  8. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago José Canali; Sylvia Marina Soares de Oliveira; Deivid Montero Reduit; Daniele Botelho Vinholes; Viviane Pessi Feldens

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-...

  9. Condom-associated erection problems: a study of high-risk young black males residing in the southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Cynthia A.; Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that young men may experience condom-associated erection loss and that these problems may lead to inconsistent or incomplete condom use. The primary aim of this study was to assess, using a retrospective recall period of 2 months, correlates of condom-associated erection problems among young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Data were collected in clinics treating patients with STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15 to 23 years...

  10. Diatom associations in shelf waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil: annual variation in relation to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Felício Fernandes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of diatoms in the inshore waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil was investigated to analyse their temporal dynamics and to detect the main environmental constraints of the planktonic community. Biomass peaks occurred from May to August and from December to March. Among the microplanktonic diatoms, Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima, P. australis, Rhizosolenia spp., Skeletonema costatum and Thalassionema nitzschioides were dominant species. Nanoplanktonic diatoms were dominated by Naviculaceae, Nitzschia spp., Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros cf. tenuissimus. Concentrations of most of the species decreased during and just after the blooms of Phaeocystis pouchetii in September and of Coscinodiscus wailesii in April. Based on cluster analysis and interpretations of the environmental parameters monitored, six diatom associations were discerned. Four main environmental factors were attributed as the determinants for the grouping: (a the stronger influence of the tropical oligotrophic waters of the Brazil Current in spring/summer, (b the alternation between dry and rainy (nutrient-richer seasons, (c the influence of subantarctic waters mixed with coastal ones in fall/winter, bringing cold species and promoting the growth of autochthonous species, and (d the blooms of nanoplanktonic (Phaeocystis and microplanktonic (C. wailesii species.A variação sazonal das diatomáceas em águas neríticas do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil, foi investigada para analisar sua dinâmica temporal e detectar as principais forçantes ambientais da comunidade planctônica. Picos de biomassa ocorreram de Maio a Agosto e de Dezembro a Março. As espécies dominantes foram Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf

  11. Assessment of the Needs of Caregivers of Stroke Patients at State-Owned Acute-Care Hospitals in Southern Vietnam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Hayashi, MS, MBA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Care for stroke patients has improved steadily in southern Vietnam. Medical treatments such as thrombolytic therapy have been implemented at several hospitals, and stroke-care units composed of a team of various health professionals have been created. However, little attention has been focused on providing support to caregivers of stroke patients. This study aimed to characterize the caregivers of stroke patients who were treated in state-owned acute-care hospitals and to learn about their needs when patients are discharged. Such information can be used to enhance the caregiver’s support system. Methods We used questionnaires to conduct a descriptive study in 2011 at a state-owned acute-care hospital in southern Vietnam. We recruited study participants from among caregivers of stroke patients who had been informed of their hospital discharge date. We assessed 8 caregiver characteristics, and caregiver participants selected their needs from the survey’s list of 15 possible needs. We analyzed the data by using the independent sample t test and logistic regression. Results Of the 93 caregivers who consented to participate, 86 (92.5% completed the survey and indicated their concerns at discharge. The most frequently cited need was information on how to prevent stroke recurrence (72, 83.7%, followed by which drugs are most effective in preventing a relapse (62, 72.1%, how long recovery would take (61, 70.9%, and availability of hospitals in the patient’s hometown (60, 69.8%. A little over half of caregivers indicated financial concerns. A caregiver’s need for information on diet for a stroke survivor increased with the caregiver’s education level. Conclusions This study revealed several needs among caregivers of stroke survivors in southern Vietnam that are similar to those found by studies of caregivers of stroke survivors in high-income countries. Our findings suggest that comprehensive stroke care that includes caregiver

  12. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  13. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among an adult population in a war affected area, Southern Kordofan state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Zeid Alaa Hammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major health problem at global and national levels, contributing to the vulnerability of the poor people in Sudan. Southern Kordofan is affected by Schistosomiasis but the disease prevalence was unknown. Methods 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. Results 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 6.9 % among the adult population. We estimated S. mansoni prevalence as 0.0 %. S. haematobium infection was focally distributed at the village level. The infection was associated with non preference of latrine use – if available, use of open water source for household affairs such as cleaning and also with the history of schistosomiasis treatment. The prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH was also reported as high at 7.8 %, and two species were identified; Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia. Conclusion Schistosomiasis is a significant health problem among the adult population in Southern Kordofan. The estimated prevalence will serve as a guide in developing a Schistosomiasis Control Program and applying treatment plans.

  14. Attenuation characteristics in eastern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau: An understanding of the physical state of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sagar; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika; Sahu, Himanshu

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation characteristics of the crust in the eastern Himalaya and the southern Tibetan Plateau are investigated using high quality data recorded by Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT) during 2001-2003. The present study aims to provide an attenuation model that can address the physical mechanism governing the attenuation characteristics in the underlying medium. We have studied the Coda wave attenuation (Qc) in the single isotropic scattering model hypothesis, S wave attenuation (Qs) by using the coda normalization method and intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qsc-1) quality factors by the multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering in a 3-D half space within the frequency range 2-12 Hz. All the values of Q exhibit frequency dependent nature for a seismically active area. At all the frequencies intrinsic absorption is predominant compared to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo (B0) are found to be lower than 0.5. The observed discrepancies between the observed and theoretical models can be corroborated by the depth-dependent velocity and attenuation structure as well as the assumption of a uniform distribution of scatterers. Our results correlate well with the existing geo-tectonic model of the area, which may suggest the possible existence of trapped fluids in the crust or its thermal nature. Surprisingly the underlying cause of high attenuation in the crust of eastern Himalaya and southern Tibet makes this region distinct from its adjacent western Himalayan segment. The results are comparable with the other regions reported globally.

  15. The Berriasian-Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) boundary transition at Santa Catarina Ticuá, Oaxaca state, southern Mexico: Ammonites, bivalves, calpionellids and their paleobiogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Patrick; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Seija; Adatte, Thierry; Hering, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Ammonites, bivalves and calpionellids of the late Berriasian-early Valanginian from southern Mexico are poorly known; those here described are from the Sabinal Formation at Santa Catarina Ticuá, Oaxaca state. Samples were collected and analyzed bed-by-bed. Ammonite assemblages correlate to the West Mediterranean late Berriasian Subthurmannia boissieri and early Valanginian Thurmanniceras pertransiens and Neocomites neocomiensiformis zones and contain taxa, which are majorly endemic, although a few European species are also identified. The bivalve Arctotis cretacea (Felix, 1891) is common in several horizons throughout the section. Calpionellids are present in the upper part of the Santa Catarina Ticuá section and are indicative of the middle Berriasian Remaniella cadischiana Subzone, the late Berriasian Calpionellopsis Zone (including the Calpionellopsis simplex and Cs. oblonga subzones) and the early Valanginian Calpionellites darderi Subzone. Our data indicate that biogeographic correlation of faunal and environmental changes is possible across the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary between southern Mexico and faunal realms of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico and the western Tethys, and thus throughout the western hemisphere.

  16. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863 (Squamata: Dipsadidae in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  17. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho; Luciano Leandro Plombon

    2014-01-01

    Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae) occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  18. The W (Sn-Mo)-specialized catinga suite and other granitoids of the Brusque Group, neo proterozoic of the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data on the granitoids intrusive in the Brusque Group, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, are presented in this paper. These are late-to post-tectonic rocks, being the most evolved ones those that constitute the Catinga Suite. The granitoids intrusive in the southern domain of the Brusque Group are grayish rocks, in which biotite (when present) is practically the only mafic mineral. They are rather reduced, slightly alkalic, transitional between meta-and peraluminous. An acid subvolcanic pluton, the Ribeirao da Velha pluton, has similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics, and seems to be genetically related to these granitoids. LREE fractionation relative to HREE is incipient for the Catinga suite, and the REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomaly. Initial 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios, from the literature for these granitoids are around 0.721 (Sao Joao Batista granitoid) and the only available tDM model age (Valsungana granitoid) points to a genesis from a continental crust of ca. 2020 Ma old. Gneiss-migmatitic rocks such as those that occur in the eastern portion of Brusque Group domain and as enclaves in the Nova Italia granitoid are strong candidates for protoliths of these granitoids. Little available information on the granitoids intrusive in the northern domain of the Brusque Group reports the presence of pink K-feldspar hornblende granitoids (Faxinal pluton) and light pink K-feldspar biotite granitoid (Guabiruba pluton). These granitoids are more enriched in K and more oxidized than those in the southern domain, and the LREE fractionation relative to HREE is strong, with the REE patterns showing incipient negative Eu anomaly. It is suggested that part of the Au concentrations found in the northern domain may be genetically associated with the granitoids, since they present characteristics favorable to promote Au mineralizations than the granitoids in the southern domain. Distinct protoliths and

  19. Islands and the offshoring possibilities and strategies of contemporary states: insights on/for the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands have transitioned from being conceived as prototypes of idealised polities to being deliberately engineered as offshore enclaves where the rules of the parent state need not fully apply. With their manageable size, separation and distance from the mainland, small islands are rendered as convenient laboratories for entrepreneurial political engineering, and equally handy sites for research on the same. Island migration policies manifest this contemporary flexibility and creative governance of states. As we approach the 500th anniversary of Thomas More’s Utopia (1516, this paper explores these ideas in relation to the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank. Using an island studies approach, it discusses the problematique of island spaces caught in this dynamic but which cannot be ‘offshore’ because, as unitary island states (Cyprus and Malta and unlike larger states with small outlying and peripheral island components (Italy and Australia, they must somehow be ‘both inside and outside’. The paper goes on to critique such facile binarisms, arguing for a more nuanced appreciation of islands as well as a recognition that what may be, at face value, an expression of a state’s authority is as much a manifestation of its limitations.

  20. A numerical method for determining the state of stress using focal mechanisms of earthquake populations: application to Tibetan teleseisms and microseismicity of Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Louis Mercier, Jacques

    1987-03-01

    The numerical method described in this paper enables the study in terms of stress of the kinematics of seismic faults provided by focal mechanisms. This method assumes a mean state of stress in the source region and is based on the simple mechanical model used for fault population analysis which supposes slip in the direction of the resolved shear stress acting on the fault plane. The proposed algorithm first defines compressional and tensional zones resulting from superimposition of the compressional and tensional quadrants limited by the nodal planes. This enables one to test the data homogeneity. Furthermore, this restricts the space where the principal stress axes have to be searched. Then, for each principal stress reference whose location is constrained by above confined zones, the R value (chosen equal to (σ 2' - σ 1')/(σ 3' - σ 1') ) is computed which fits the slip vector on each nodal plane. This permits one to select a set of preferred seismic fault planes from a set of auxiliary planes. Finally, a state of stress is computed from the preferred seismic fault plane set using the non-linear simplex method already applied to fault populations. This algorithm is constructed so as to avoid two major difficulties: misleading estimation of the deviatoric stress tensor which may result from excessive emphasis by minimizing the residuals by a least squares method if some of the data are wrong and a lengthy prospection of the stress references over all the space of directions. This calculation does not take into account possible changes of the strike and dip of the nodal planes. However, we use rotations of nodal planes in agreement with the first arrival data to test the compatibility of these data with the computed state of stress. Tibetan teleseisms and southern Peruvian microseisms are analyzed and results are compared with kinematics of superficial recent and active faults measured in field in the same regions. This suggests that major seismic events may

  1. An Examination of Selected Historical Rainfall-Induced Debris-Flow Events within the Central and Southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L. Scott; Morgan, Benjamin A.; Wooten, R.M.; Morrissey, M.

    2009-01-01

    Generally, every several years, heavy amounts of rainfall trigger a large number of debris flows within the central and southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States. These types of landslides damage buildings, disrupt infrastructure, and occasionally injure and kill people. One of the first large debris flows was described in Pennsylvania in August 1779. The most destructive event occurred during August 19-20, 1969, in Nelson County, Va. During a period of 8 hours, 710 to 800 milimeters of rain triggered more than 3,000 landslides, killing more than 150 people. As the population increases in this region, future storms will likely increase the risks of property damage and loss of life. We provide a general overview of debris flows in the Appalachians, using a compilation of 19 storm events for which rainfall, duration of the storm, and descriptions of the resulting landslides have been substantially documented.

  2. Formic acid treatment for control of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) and safety to Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) under southern United States conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzen, Patti J; Westervelt, David; Lucas, Raymond

    2004-10-01

    The efficacy of a formic acid pad formulation was field tested for control of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman in Florida and Texas. This pad formulation gave 39.8 +/- 11.1% control at the end of a 6-wk treatment period, which did not significantly differ from the initial sample date. Coumaphos treatment provided poor control (38.4 +/- 11.1%) over the 6-wk period, confirming reports of coumaphos resistance in the region. Under relatively warm winter conditions in southern Texas, formic acid caused mortality of developing eggs and brood. If resistance by V. destructor to the two acaricides registered for its control in the United States continues, the formic acid pad could provide an alternative compound to use as part of an integrated pest management approach. Given the low control seen in this trial, however, modifications of application technology would seem necessary. PMID:15568336

  3. 14C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition (12C, 13C and 14N, 15N) and 14C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The δ13C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with δ13C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C3 land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The 14C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  4. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Canali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9% had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%. Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  5. Geochemical and geochronological study of the non-granitic pegmatite body "La Panchita", Oaxaca state, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepetilnikova, Valentina; Solé, Jesús; Solari, Luigi; Abdullin, Fanis

    2014-05-01

    The La Panchita pegmatite body intrudes a >10 m thick pyroxenite dike that in turn is cutting the central portion of ~1Ga Oaxacan Complex rocks, Southern Mexico. The Oaxacan Complex is the largest exposure in Mexico of Neoproterozoic basement rocks metamorphosed up to the granulite facies during the Grenville orogeny. This Complex has multiple intrusions of pegmatite bodies along its extension, some mineralogically simple, some complex. As for the mineralogy, the La Panchita pegmatite is distinct from other pegmatites of the Oaxacan Complex. It contains unusual minerals for a pegmatite, like scapolite and calcite, and it is a non-granitic pegmatite, as suggested before. This work presents preliminary geochemical and geochronological results of this pegmatite body and a discussion about its possible origin. The geochronological study shows that the time of emplacement of this pegmatite is 981.4 ± 7.4 Ma and it is post-tectonic with respect to the granulite facies metamorphic event of the Oaxacan Complex. The geochemical study shows that the pegmatite La Panchita formed during the evolution of an anorogenic magmatic source of carbonatitic-alkaline composition related to a post-Grenvillian rifting event. Medium to low-temperature thermochronometers (K-Ar, fission track and U-Th-He) from this pegmatite are under progress and the results will be given at the meeting.

  6. Condom-Associated Erection Problems: A Study of High-Risk Young Black Males Residing in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L

    2016-03-01

    Previous research indicates that young men may experience condom-associated erection loss and that these problems may lead to inconsistent or incomplete condom use. The primary aim of this study was to assess, using a retrospective recall period of 2 months, correlates of condom-associated erection problems among young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Data were collected in clinics treating patients with STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15 to 23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. A total of 494 men participated. Nineteen percent reported that condom-associated erection problems during condom application occurred at least once, and 17.8% indicated erection difficulties occurred during sexual intercourse at least once in the past 2 months. Multivariate analyses identified that condom-associated erection problems were associated with reports of sex with more than one partner during the recall period, reported problems with condom fit and feel, lower motivation to use condoms, and attempts at condom application before having a full erection. Findings suggest that clinic interventions should address possible condom-associated erection problems among young Black men who are at risk of STIs. Encouraging men who may be vulnerable to erection loss when condoms are used to allow sufficient time for sexual arousal to build may be an effective strategy. PMID:25475105

  7. The southern Hessen waste management task force - initial situation, objectives, state of development; Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft - Ausgangssituation, Zielsetzung und Entwicklungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.J. [Stadt Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994, the rural districts of Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald and Gross-Gerau in southern Hessen and the town of Darmstadt concluded a cooperation agreement permitting them to meet the future demands of the technical code on municipal waste and the `Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz` (act concerning waste recycling and waste management). In order to formally prepare different forms of cooperation and to accompany corresponding preliminary investigations, the Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) was founded as a municipal task force. SAGA`s task is to debate common affairs in the waste management sector with a view to joint planning and joint facilities. In particular, the requirements of the technical code on municipal waste must be met. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1994 haben die suedhessischen Landkreise Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald, Gross-Gerau sowie die Stadt Darmstadt beschlossen, bezueglich der kuenftigen Anforderung der TA Siedlungsabfall und des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes zu kooperieren. Zur formellen Vorbereitung von verschiedenen dann auszufuehrenden Kooperationsformen und zur Begleitung entsprechender Voruntersuchungen wurde die Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) als Kommunale Arbeitsgemeinschaft gegruendet. Aufgabe der Kommunalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft ist es, gemeinsam beruehrende Angelegenheiten im Abfallbereich unter dem Gesichtspunkt gemeinsamer Planung und gemeinsamer Einrichtungen zu beraten. Hierbei sollen insbesondere die Vorgaben der TA Siedlungsabfall beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  8. Physical and biogeochemical controls on the variability in surface pH and calcium carbonate saturation states in the Atlantic sectors of the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Eithne; Clarke, Jennifer S.; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Esposito, Mario; Rérolle, Victoire M. C.; Schlosser, C.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Tyrrell, Toby; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification due to their low temperatures and reduced buffering capacity, and are expected to experience extensive low pH conditions and reduced carbonate mineral saturations states (Ω) in the near future. However, the impact of anthropogenic CO2 on pH and Ω will vary regionally between and across the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Here we investigate the carbonate chemistry in the Atlantic sector of two polar oceans, the Nordic Seas and Barents Sea in the Arctic Ocean, and the Scotia and Weddell Seas in the Southern Ocean, to determine the physical and biogeochemical processes that control surface pH and Ω. High-resolution observations showed large gradients in surface pH (0.10-0.30) and aragonite saturation state (Ωar) (0.2-1.0) over small spatial scales, and these were particularly strong in sea-ice covered areas (up to 0.45 in pH and 2.0 in Ωar). In the Arctic, sea-ice melt facilitated bloom initiation in light-limited and iron replete (dFe>0.2 nM) regions, such as the Fram Strait, resulting in high pH (8.45) and Ωar (3.0) along the sea-ice edge. In contrast, accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from organic carbon mineralisation under the ice resulted in low pH (8.05) and Ωar (1.1) in areas where thick ice persisted. In the Southern Ocean, sea-ice retreat resulted in bloom formation only where terrestrial inputs supplied sufficient iron (dFe>0.2 nM), such as in the vicinity of the South Sandwich Islands where enhanced pH (8.3) and Ωar (2.3) were primarily due to biological production. In contrast, in the adjacent Weddell Sea, weak biological uptake of CO2 due to low iron concentrations (dFeoceans highlights the need for spatially resolved surface data of carbonate chemistry variables but also nutrients (including iron) in order to accurately elucidate the large gradients experienced by marine organisms and to understand their response to increased CO2 in the future.

  9. Forest Harvest Residuals: A Composite Report of Five Years of Research in the Southern United States and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, concerns about domestic energy security and demand for environmentally friendly, low carbon energy sources are renewing interest in using wood for energy. State and federal government have responded to increased interest with legislation that promotes renewable energy. Logging residues important role as an energy feedstock and environmental component has been a central topic of discussion for the growing forest energy sector in the United States. Over the last f...

  10. A Possible Connection between the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Southern United States and the 1877-78 El Niño Episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Henry F.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most severe outbreaks of yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, affected the southern United States in the summer of 1878. The economic and human toll was enormous, and the city of Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the most affected. The authors suggest that as a consequence of one of the strongest El Niño episodes on record-that which occurred in 1877-78-exceptional climate anomalies occurred in the United States (as well as in many other parts of the world), which may have been partly responsible for the widespread nature and severity of the 1878 yellow fever outbreak.This study documents some of the extreme climate anomalies that were recorded in 1877 and 1878 in parts of the eastern United States, with particular emphasis on highlighting the evolution of these anomalies, as they might have contributed to the epidemic. Other years with major outbreaks of yellow fever in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries also occurred during the course of El Niño episodes, a fact that appears not to have been noted before in the literature.

  11. Southern (In)hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  12. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz; Frederico Pereira Brandini; Franciane Maria Pellizzari

    2004-01-01

    The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil) were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass,...

  13. Rare and endangered orchids’species in forest plant communities of the Tungussky state nature reserve (southern Evenkia)

    OpenAIRE

    E. E. Timoshok; Yu. G. Raiskaya; S. N. Skorohodov; V. Yu. Sopin

    2016-01-01

    We provide information on distribution, ecosystems occurrence and density of local populations of 7 rare and en-dangered species of Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae Juss.). The species were investigated on representative for the Sountern Evenkia area of state natural reserve ‘Tungussky’. Four of these species (Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes, Cypripedium calceolus L., C. macranthon Sw., C. ventricosum Sw) are included to the Red Book of the Russian Fed-eration (2008) and three (Cypripedium guttatu...

  14. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  15. Effect of level of concentrate supplementation on milk yield and composition of grazing dairy cows in Southern Kordofan state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaher Z. A.Hassan,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk yield and composition, at East Abasia Tagali-South Kordofan State. Sixteen Nuba Mountain breed (Gadali type (Bgara x Kenana dairy cows in mid-lactation, grazing on natural pasture and agricultural by products (sorghum, maize and groundnuts were selected. The cows were divided in to four groups, each of four animals. The concentrate were supplements at the rate of 0.0 (G1, 0.5 (G2, 1.0 (G3 and 1.5 kg (G4. The milk yield increased linearly (P<0.01 when the level of concentrate supplement increased from 0.0 to 1.5 Kg. The fat content of G1 (5.18% and G2 (5.25% were significantly higher compared to G3 (4.90% and G4 (4.95%. Dairy cows fed 0.5 Kg concentrate attained the highest (P<0.05 ash (0.9 % followed by G1 (0.8% and those fed 1.5 Kg (0.79%, which were not significantly different, while G3 recorded the lowest ash (0.7%. Neither protein percentage nor water content and total solid of milk showed significant difference between the four groups of cows.

  16. GENDER VIOLENCE AND CONTROL BODIES: A CASE ANALYSIS OF MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SOUTHERN STATE OF GUANAJUATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosas-Vargas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives from a research project on gender violence to students in middle and high Guanajuato. Surveys, interviews and workshops were applied were performed. During the course of the latter, the high level of youth reported being raped because you do not meet the image that are supposed to have the body that the media tells them to show. Anxiety over what is apparently not conducive indicates serious trouble and sometimes they have attempted suicide. In this sense, we approach the work from the idea that female bodies which are normalized, and where social norms of womanhood (Harcourt, 2011 will also resist. It is in bodies, socio-culturally constructed, where power games enroll. Butler (2010: 93 states that "we are exposed to others, and while this may be a condition of our desire, it also raises the possibility of subjugation and cruelty This results from the fact that the bodies are closely related to each other. through the material, the feel, language and a number of relationships without which we can not survive. "That is, the need for others, for recognition tell us that to meet our needs, we must be as we are told and if we are not then we will not get the recognition and yes cruelty, but as we can not survive and may reactions are self-destruction and violence. What then are the bodies that represent a problem?

  17. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved. PMID:24362316

  18. Spatial and temporal expression of vegetation and atmospheric variability from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bat guano in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Christopher M.; McFarlane, Donald A.; Bird, Michael I.

    2007-07-01

    Stable isotopes of faeces contain information related to the animals feeding ecology. The use of stable isotope values from subfossil faeces as a palaeoenvironmental indicator depends on how faithfully the animal records their local environment. Here we present insectivorous bat guano δ 13C and δ 15N values from a precipitation gradient across the southern United States and northern Mexico to compare with local vegetation and climate. We find δ 13C values to be an excellent predictor of expected C 4/CAM vegetation, indicating that the bats are non-selective in their diet. Moreover, we find bat guano δ 13C values to be strongly correlated with summer precipitation amount and winter precipitation ratio. We also find evidence for a significant relationship with mean annual temperature. In general, we do not find δ 15N values to be related to any parameters along the climatic gradient we examined. Additionally, we measured δ 13C and δ 15N values of bulk guano deposited annually from 1968 to 1987 in a varved guano deposit at Eagle Creek Cave, Arizona. Neither δ 13C nor δ 15N values were significantly related to various local meteorological variables; however, we found δ 13C values of guano to be significantly related to drought and to the North American Monsoon indicating bat guano δ 13C values preserve an interpretable record of large-scale atmospheric variability.

  19. {sup 14}C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidotto, Elaine; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Gouveia, Susy Eli M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: evidotto@cena.usp.br; pessenda@cena.usp.br; susyeli@cena.usp.br; jab@cena.usp.br; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fresia@ige.unicamp.br; Aravena, Ramon [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: roaraven@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca

    2007-07-01

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N, {sup 15}N) and {sup 14}C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The {delta}{sup 13}C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with {delta}{sup 13}C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C{sub 3} land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The {sup 14}C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  20. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  1. Feeding of the Neotropical River Otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Coastal Region of the Rio Grande Do Sul State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colares E.P.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil, three areas were monitored to study the feeding habits of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis using spraint analysis. The National Park of the Peixe Lagoon was monitored seasonally between August 1995 and July 1996, in the Senandes Creek five samplings were done between June and December 1995 and in the Estiva Creek monthly samplings were done between May 1995 and July 1996. In each of these areas spraints were collected and stored. In the laboratory they were washed, separated and identified. The only area where it was possible to do a seasonal analysis of the feeding habits was the Estiva Creek. In all areas fish was the item found in the great number of spraints and crustaceans also had a considerable importance in areas with salt-water influence. The other items found were present in few samples, being them mollusks, insect, reptiles, birds and mammals. The differences observed in the feeding habits of the species between seasons and areas probably reflects the availability of different preys, agreeing the species opportunism.

  2. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn-based products commercialized in the state of Santa Catarina - Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Cirra Scaff

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Corn flour, "canjica" (corn grits, corn flakes and popcorn for human consumption, commercialized in Santa Catarina (n=82, were analyzed in order to detect the presence of fumonisins B1 (FB1 and B2 (FB2. From the samples, 92.68% showed detectable levels of Fumonisins (FBs. Corn flour showed the highest level of contamination (91.5% with average levels of 3.811 and 5.737 mg/g for the home-processed and industrialized products, respectively. The next most contaminated product was popcorn with a average of 2.872 mg/g and an occurrence in 91.6% of the samples. All samples of corn flakes were contaminated with an average of 1.307 mg/g. The product with the lowest levels of FBs was "canjica" with a average contamination of 0.732 mg/g. These results indicated the need of monitoring corn-based products in this state.Farinha de milho, canjica, flocos de milho, milho de pipoca, destinados ao consumo humano e comercializados em Santa Catarina (n=82, foram analisados a fim de determinar a ocorrência de fumonisinas B1 (FB1 e B2 (FB2. Das amostras, 92,68 % apresentaram níveis detectáveis de FBs. A farinha de milho apresentou os maiores níveis de contaminação (91,5% com níveis médios 3,811 e 5,737 mg/g para as de preparo artesanal e industrializadas, respectivamente. O segundo produto mais contaminado foi o milho de pipoca com uma média de contaminação de 2,872 mg/g e ocorrência em 91,6% das amostras. Todas as amostras de flocos de milho apresentaram contaminação com uma média de 1,307 mg/g. O produto com menores níveis de FBs foi a canjica com contaminação média de 0,732 mg/g. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade de monitoramento dos produtos derivados de milho em nosso Estado, ressaltando-se que os níveis mais expressivos foram encontrados em produtos comercializados no Sul e Oeste de SC, regiões agrícolas, marcadamente colonizadas por descendentes de italianos, consumidores habituais de produtos derivados de milho, particularmente a

  3. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  4. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. PMID:27311896

  5. Application of geologic map information to water quality issues in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Maryland and Virginia, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Peper, J.D.; Bachman, L.J.; Horton, J.W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high acidity and high nitrate concentrations in streams and rivers, tend to be mitigated by some rock and sediment types and not by others. Carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-cemented rocks) have the greatest capacity to neutralize acidic ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments having high carbon or sulfur contents (such as peat and black shale) potentially contribute the most toward denitrification of ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments that are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar, and light-colored clay (rocks such as granite and sandstone, sediments such as sand and gravel) tend not to alter the chemistry of waters that are in contact with them. The testing of relationships between regionally mapped geologic units and water chemistry is in a preliminary stage, and initial results are encouraging.Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high

  6. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on mean and extreme values of column ozone over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropavlovskikh, I.; Evans, R.; McConville, G.; Manney, G. L.; Rieder, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    Continuous measurements of total ozone (by Dobson spectrophotometers) across the contiguous United States began in the early 1960s. Here, we analyze temporal and spatial variability and trends in total ozone from the five US sites with long-term records. While similar long-term ozone changes are detected at all five sites, we find differences in the patterns of ozone variability on shorter timescales. In addition to standard evaluation techniques, STL-decomposition methods (Seasonal Trend decomposition of time series based on LOESS (LOcally wEighted Scatterplot Smoothing)) are used to address temporal variability and "fingerprints" of dynamical features in the Dobson data. Methods from statistical extreme value theory (EVT) are used to characterize days with high and low total ozone (termed EHOs and ELOs, respectively) at each station and to analyze temporal changes in the frequency of ozone extremes and their relationship to dynamical features such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation. A comparison of the fingerprints detected in the frequency distribution of the extremes with those for standard metrics (i.e., the mean) shows that more fingerprints are found for the extremes, particularly for the positive phase of the NAO, at all five US monitoring sites. Results from the STL decomposition support the findings of the EVT analysis. Finally, we analyze the relative influence of low- and high-ozone events on seasonal mean column ozone at each station. The results show that the influence of ELOs and EHOs on seasonal mean column ozone can be as much as ±5 %, about as large as the overall long-term decadal ozone trends.

  7. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño–Southern Oscillation on mean and extreme values of column ozone over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Petropavlovskikh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of total ozone (by Dobson spectrophotometers across the contiguous United States (US began in the early 1960s. Here, we analyze temporal and spatial variability and trends in total ozone from the five US sites with long-term records. While similar long-term ozone changes are detected at all five sites, we find differences in the patterns of ozone variability on shorter time scales. In addition to standard evaluation techniques, STL-decomposition methods (Seasonal Trend decomposition of time series based on LOcally wEighted Scatterplot Smoothing, LOESS are used to address temporal variability and trends in the Dobson data. The LOESS-smoothed trend components show a decline of total ozone between the 1970s and 2000s and a "stabilization" at lower levels in recent years, which is also confirmed by linear trend analysis. Methods from statistical extreme value theory (EVT are used to characterize days with high and low total ozone (termed EHOs and ELOs, respectively at each station and to analyze temporal changes in the frequency of ozone extremes and their relationship to dynamical features such as the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation. A comparison of the "fingerprints" detected in the frequency distribution of the extremes with those for standard metrics (i.e., the mean shows that more "fingerprints" are found for the extremes, particularly for the positive phase of the NAO, at all five US monitoring sites. Results from the STL-decomposition support the findings of the EVT analysis. Finally, we analyze the relative influence of low and high ozone events on seasonal mean column ozone at each station. The results show that the influence of ELOs and EHOs on seasonal mean column ozone can be as much as ±5%, or about twice as large as the overall long-term decadal ozone trends.

  8. Epilithic community development on artificial reefs deployed along a cross-shelf environmental gradient off Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Brandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete modules were deployed on the bottom of the 11, 18 and 30 meters isobaths along a cross-shelf hydrographic gradient off Paraná State, Southern Brazil, with the purpose of studying the colonization of sessile epilithic macroinvertebrates on artificial surfaces. After one year of submersion a total of 63 species of epilithic organisms were identified, dominated by Ostrea puelchana, Chthamalus bisinuatus, Balanus cf spongicola, Astrangia cf rathbuni, Didemnum spp, poryphers and bryozoans. Diversity index and percent cover at reef stations placed at 11, 18 and 30 meters isobaths were respectively 2.28 and 66.7%, 2.79 and 96.6% and 1.66 and 77.4%. Differences of general community structure among the three assemblages were not clearly related to the general environmental conditions at the bottom layers near the reef stations. Turbidity and larval abundance are discussed as important factors affecting colonization processes. Results indicate that depths between 15-20 meters are more suitable for the implementation of large scale artificial reef systems in the inner shelf off Paraná and, possibly, throughout the inner shelves off southern Brazil with similar hydrographic conditions.Blocos quadriláteros de concreto foram assentados no fundo marinho nas isóbatas de 11, 18 e 30 metros ao longo de um transecto na plataforma interna perpendicular a costa do estado do Paraná, Região sudeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de analisar a colonização de macroinvertebrados epilíticos em superfícies artificiais em relação ao gradiente ambiental. Após um ano de submersão foram identificadas 63 espécies de organismos epilíticos dominados por Ostrea puelchana, Chthamalus bisinuatus, Balanus cf spongicola, Astrangia cf rathbuni, Didemnum spp, esponjas e briozoários. Os índices de diversidade e porcentagens de cobertura da macrofauna epilítica nos recifes artificiais assentados sobre as isóbatas de 11, 18 e 30 metros foram respectivamente 2.28 and

  9. Effects of Watershed Land Use and Geomorphology on Stream Low Flows During Severe Drought Conditions in the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, Georgia and North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and physiographic variability influence stream low flows, yet their interactions and relative influence remain unresolved. Our objective was to assess the influence of land use and watershed geomorphic characteristics on low-flow variability in the southern Blue Ridge Mo...

  10. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (South China.

  11. Identification of host fruit volatiles from three mayhaw species (Crataegus series Aestivales) attractive to mayhaw-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these populations could serve as reservoirs for fruit odor discrimination behaviors facilitating sympatric host race formation and speciation, specifically the recent shift from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to domestic apple (Malus domestica) in the northern USA. Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays were used to identify the behaviorally active natal fruit volatile blends for three of the five major southern hawthorns: C. opaca (western mayhaw), C. aestivalis (eastern mayhaw), and C. rufula (a possible hybrid between C. opaca and C. aestivalis). A 6-component blend was developed for C. opaca (3-methylbutan-1-ol [44%], pentyl acetate [6%], butyl butanoate [6%], propyl hexanoate [6%], butyl hexanoate [26%], and hexyl butanoate [12%]); an 8-component blend for C. aestivalis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [2%], butyl acetate [47%], pentyl acetate [2%], butyl butanoate [12%], propyl hexanoate [1%], butyl hexanoate [25%], hexyl butanoate [9%], and pentyl hexanoate [2%]); and a 9-component blend for C. rufula (3-methylbutan-1-ol [1%], butyl acetate [57%], 3-methylbutyl acetate [3%], butyl butanoate [5%], propyl hexanoate [1%], hexyl propionate [1%], butyl hexanoate [23%], hexyl butanoate [6%], and pentyl hexanoate [3%]). Crataegus aestivalis and C. opaca-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind directed flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the non-natal blend and previously developed apple, northern downy hawthorn, and flowering dogwood blends. Eastern and western mayhaw flies also were tested to the C. rufula blend, with eastern flies displaying higher levels of upwind flight compared with the western flies, likely due to the presence of butyl acetate in the C. aestivalis and C. rufula

  12. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  13. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

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    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  14. Macroalgas de riachos da Floresta Nacional de Irati, região centro-sul do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil Stream macroalgae of Irati National Forest, mid-southern Paraná State, Southern Brazil

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    Ciro Cesar Zanini Branco

    2008-06-01

    o Paulo State. There are no extensive studies concerning stream macroalgae in Paraná state. Having in mind the scarcity of works treating these important primary producers in lotic ecosystems, a more comprehensive study was carried out in order to increase our knowledge of stream macroalgal community biodiversity in Paraná state. In this context, the main objective of this study was to do a floristic survey of stream macroalgal communities in Irati National Forest (INF, a protected area of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (Araucaria Forest. Eleven streams were sampled in 2005 (July 19-21 and 2006 (February 2-4. In each stream, a 10-meter cross-transect was established in which a detailed visual examination took place to determine the presence of macroalgae. In addition, the following environmental variables were measured at each sampling date: temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, depth, nutrients, water colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The floristic survey resulted in the identification of 23 taxa and showed the dominance of Chlorophyta over other algal divisions. Only the genus Phormidium Kützing ex Gomont was represented by more than one species. In general, the majority of species found at Irati National Forest have been reported in previous studies; however, a significant portion of the macroalgae was composed of taxa that rarely occur in Brazilian streams or they may be new to science.

  15. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

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    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  16. Nota sobre caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil A case of American Trypanosomiasis in the southern coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se em caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As evidências sugerem a hipótese de a transmissão ter ocorrido graças à contaminação durante o manuseio de carcaças de animais silvestres utilizados na alimentação.An indigenous case of American Trypanosomiasis in the southern coastal region of the State of S. Paulo is reported on. There are no synanthropic triatominae vectors in the area; therefore the transmission mechanism may have been the handling of wild mammal carcasses while they were being prepared for consumption.

  17. New records and description of the microstructural patterns of guard hair in Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 (Carnivora, Skunk for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bazilio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show new records of Conepatus chinga for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, contributing to increase knowledge on its distribution, besides describing the microstructural patterns of its guard hair. Three run-over specimens were found in highway BR-280, two of them in the town of Palmas, in Paraná, and one in the town of Abelardo Luz, in Santa Catarina. For describing the cuticular and medullary pattern of guard hairs, sixty slides were made. Conepatus chinga has a cross-sectional and undulated cuticular pattern and an anisocytic medullary pattern. The description of microstructural patterns of C. chinga makes it easier to conduct studies related to its ecology, increasing the chances to identify hairs found in fecal samples from carnivores in mastofauna studies.

  18. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903) (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae) on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Arzua; Pedro Marcos Linardi; Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2002-01-01

    The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903), had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824). Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present ...

  19. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903 (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae, from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arzua

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903, had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present record represents the meridional limit of geographic distribution for the infestation on M. nigricans.

  20. What Is the Southern California Earthquake Center?

    OpenAIRE

    Aki, Keiiti; Henyey, Thomas; Heaton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    On February 11, Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., Chairman of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, together with the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, and state and local officials, helped inaugurate the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) on the campus of the University of Southern California. SCEC is one of 14 new NSF Science and Technology Centers and includes a substantial commitment from the USGS for FY91. The center is a consortium of sev...

  1. Exhumation and erosion rates in southern Africa from apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He analysis: state of research, ongoing work and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, M.; Beucher, R.; Brown, R. W.; Persano, C.; Stuart, F.

    2011-12-01

    The high elevation of the south-African plateau is now commonly associated with evidence of an active upward flow within the mantle. The southern part of Africa is then interpreted as an example of dynamically sustained topography represented by a high inland plateau surrounded by significantly less-elevated and higher relief areas. So far, the lack of tight constraints on the viscosity and density structure of the mantle have prevented reliable constraints on the timing of uplift using theoretical geodynamic models. The question of the origin of the plateau remains debated, the crux of the debate being whether the present day topography represents an eroded remnant of a Cretaceous elevated interior or if it is much younger and has been uplifted during the Miocene. Low-temperature thermochronology methods which allow us to constrain the time-temperature history of rocks and provide constraints on denudation chronologies, landscape evolution and tectonic histories of geological terrains are powerful tools to resolve this question. Many studies have been carried out during the past decades to sample and date the south-African plateau using mainly the fission-track method. The spatial analysis of these data have revealed a pattern of old ages in the central part of the plateau with ages getting younger toward the border. Modeling of fission track data tend to indicate a dominant uplift event during the Cretaceous (circa 90 Ma) with an estimated 3.5 km of erosion (although this varies spatially) in the central part of the plateau. However, the range of temperature covered by the fission-track system does not provide enough constraints on the late Tertiary history and additional data are required to resolve this part of the history. A major effort by the low-temperature thermochronology team at the University of Glasgow has been to extend the sampling and dating across southern Africa to a series of 8 deep boreholes across south-Africa, with bottom depths ranging from 0

  2. The first cross sectional survey on intracranial malignancy in Kolkata, India: reflection of the state of the art in southern West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Sarkar, Susobhan; Begum, Zarina; Dutta, Shukla; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Bhattacharjee, Malabika; Sarkar, Pallab; Banerjee, Chandra; Mandal, Mousumi; Mazumdar, Anup; Bhattacharjee, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2004-01-01

    Recent increase in the occurrence of intracranial malignancies and poor performance of therapeutic measures have established the disease as an important concern of medical sciences. The lack of information about the disease pattern throughout India creates problems for maintaining community health for prevention. The present study on the hospital population of Kolkata was conducted to determine the incidence pattern of the disease in the population of southern West Bengal, focusing on distribution with age, sex, occupation and religion in different districts of the region, and characterizing diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Among a total of 39,509 cancer patients from 21 health centers of Kolkata, 2.4% had brain cancers and among these more than 60% are gliomas. A cross-sectional study for a period of 3 years reported the occurrence of 15 types of intracranial malignancy, which demonstrated astrocytomas (36.8%), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (7.9%) and meningiomas (11.6%) to be predominant. Brain tumors occur more frequently in males with few exceptions and the incidence was found to be highest among the 40-49 year old group (20.2%). No specific trend for religion and occupation was apparent. However, the district wise distribution showed maximum incidences among industrial areas, namely, Kolkata (33.1%), North 24-Parganas (18.2%), Howrah (9.3%) and Hoogly (7.6%). Diagnosis of the disease was by CT scan, MRI and histological identification (pre and post operative). Therapeutic procedures rely mainly on surgery and radiotherapy, whereas chemotherapy was used as an adjuvant for about 10% of the cases. Evaluation of the scenario regarding intracranial malignancy in this region was a long awaited requirement which should ultimately serve an important function in pointing to risk zones within the population and allow better control measures to be introduced for the disease. PMID:15373704

  3. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  4. The utility of state parks as a conservation tool for isolated and ephemeral wetlands: A case study from the southern Blue Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. H.; Baldwin, R.; Pitt, A. L.; Baldwin, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity management has been historically confined to parks and protected areas and these types of formally-protected areas may help to mitigate the effects of climate change and habitat loss by preventing further fragmentation, degradation and the spread of invasive species. Much research has demonstrated the importance of parks and other such protected areas for their ecological, conservational, and socio-cultural benefits. Protected areas constitute ~ 12% of the earth's land surface and are described as an essential core unit for for in situ conservation. State parks provide a type of a priori conservation, allowing areas which are identified as ecologically important within state park boundaries to be more rapidly prioritized for conservation and management. The development of South Carolina's state parks strongly contributed to cultural, social and ecological improvement across the state and we demonstrate that this network of protected areas can also help scientists to better locate, study and conserve cryptic or unprotected habitats. Our goals for this study were to use the SC state park system to 1) examine the structural and functional differences between wetlands located inside versus outside the state park system, and 2) suggest a conservation framework for small wetlands incorporating both state parks and adjacent areas with variable ownership status. At each wetland, we variables at the within-pond and local (5 m buffer around pool) scales. We visited each study wetland (N = 41, park pool = 19, non-park pools = 22) 5 times during both 2010 and 2011; collected water quality data and recorded the presence and activity of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton and benthic algae. We hypothesized that wetlands within state parks would have better water quality and higher species richness compared to non-park wetlands. Our case study revealed that wetlands outside of state parks exhibited less variable depths and

  5. A Qualitative Analysis of Provider Barriers and Solutions to HIV Testing for Substance Users in a Small, Largely Rural Southern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Integrating HIV testing programs into substance use treatment is a promising avenue to help increase access to HIV testing for rural drug users. Yet few outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States provide HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to incorporating HIV testing with substance use treatment from the perspectives of treatment and testing providers in Arkansas. Methods We used purposive sampling from state directories to recruit providers at state, organization, and individual levels to participate in this exploratory study. Using an interview guide, the first and second authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews in each provider’s office or by telephone. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into ATLAS.ti software (ATLAS.ti Scientific Sofware Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany). We used constant comparison and content analysis techniques to identify codes, categories, and primary patterns in the data. Findings The sample consisted of 28 providers throughout the state, 18 from the substance use system and 10 from the public/ community health system. We identified 7 categories of barriers: environmental constraints, policy constraints, funding constraints, organizational structure, limited inter- and intra-agency communication, burden of responsibility, and client fragility. Conclusions This study presents the practice-based realities of barriers to integrating HIV testing with substance use treatment in a small, largely rural state. Some system and/or organization leaders were either unaware of or not actively pursuing external funds available to them specifically for engaging substance users in HIV testing. However, funding does not address the system-level need for coordination of resources and services at the state level. PMID:24088216

  6. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers for Aspergillus flavus: Emphasis on Variability of Isolates from the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were developed from Aspergillus flavus expressed sequence tag (EST) database to conduct an analysis of genetic relationships of Aspergillus isolates from numerous host species and geographical regions, but primarily from the United States. Twenty-nine primers wer...

  7. Medium and large-sized mammals of Deciduous Seasonal Forest remnants, in Fritz Plaumann State Park and in surrounding areas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Deonisia Hendges

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal forests are one of the most endangered ecosystems in the Atlantic Forest biome, with few protected areas and scarce knowledge on fauna. In order to contribute by means of data on mammal occurrence, distribution, and conservation, this study aimed to provide a list of medium and large-sized mammal species in Fritz Plaumann State Park and in surrounding areas and identify the main threats to mammal species in these locations. Having 741 ha, the park is the only protected area with this ecosystem in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In 2007, 2010, and 2012, samplings were carried out through direct and indirect observation, camera traps, and interviews. Twenty three species were registered, representing 42% of the total number of medium and large-sized land mammals known for the state of Santa Catarina. Six species fell within some threat level in the state or national red list. Even with a small size, this park is one of the largest forest fragments in this region and a refuge for many species within a matrix under intense anthropogenic pressure (e.g. presence of exotic species, hunting. Areas adjacent to the park also show significance for mammal conservation and further strategies must involve, whenever possible, the region as a whole.

  8. Faculty Perceptions of Factors Affecting Faculty Attrition and Retention at 4-Year Public Colleges and Universities in One Southern North American State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, Denton W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of faculty at selected 4-year public colleges and universities in the state of Georgia regarding factors that would influence them to leave or remain at their respective institutions. This study uses a quantitative descriptive design, utilizing an online survey with 20 intrinsic and…

  9. Variations in the abundance of three Parulidae species in the southern portion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássius R. Santana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the distribution of abundance of three species of warblers in the southern portion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF: Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi, the Golden-Crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus and the White-Rimmed Warbler (Basileuterus leucoblepharus. Three types of forests comprise this region of the Atlantic Forest: seasonal semi-deciduous forest (SF, mixed rain forest (MF and dense rain forest (DF. These forest types occur at different elevations: SF ranging from 200 to 800 m, MF ranging from 800 to 1,200 m and DF ranging from sea level up to 2,000 m. We used point counts in fifteen study areas distributed in the three forest types. The White-Rimmed Warbler and the Tropical Parula had higher abundances in MF, and their abundance was positively correlated with the elevation. The Golden-Crowned Warbler did not present a significant difference in abundance among the forest types, and no correlation between abundance and elevation was found. We suggest that the difference in the occupancy of the forest strata by the Golden-Crowned Warbler is because this species is more generalist and thus less sensitive to variations in the vegetation structure among the forests types when compared to the other two warbler species.Nós avaliamos as distribuições de abundância em três espécies de parulídeos na porção sul da Mata Atlântica do Brasil: a Mariquita (Parula pitiayumi, o Pula-pula (Basileuterus culicivorus e o Pula-pula-assobiador (Basileuterus leucoblepharus. Três diferentes tipos de formações florestais compõem esta região da Mata Atlântica: a floresta estacional semidecidual (FES, a floresta ombrófila mista (FOM e a floresta ombrófila densa (FOD. Estes tipos de floresta ocupam altitudes diferentes: FES ocorre entre 200 m e 800 m, a FOM é encontrada entre 800 m e 1200 m de altitude e a FOD ocorre desde o nível do mar até 2000 m. Nós usamos pontos de escuta em 15 áreas florestais localizadas nos tr

  10. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  11. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  12. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  13. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of the Forest Vegetation Simulator Southern Variant (FVS-Sn)for Southern Appalachian Hardwoods

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Nathan Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The FVS-Sn model was developed by the USDA Forest Service to project and report forest growth and yield predictions for the Southern United States. It is able to project forest growth and yield for different forest types and management prescriptions, but it is a relatively new, complex, and untested model. These limitations notwithstanding, FVS-Sn once tested and validated could meet the critical need of a comprehensive growth and yield model for the mixed hardwood forests of the southern A...

  15. Etiology of hypercoagulable state in women with recurrent fetal loss without other causes of miscarriage from Southern Italy: new clinical target for antithrombotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella D’Uva

    2008-10-01

    other causes of miscarriage women affected by RPL should be tested for thrombophilia. Our data demonstrated 78% of women with one or combined thrombophilic conditions. Differences with previous studies should be related to difference in the inclusion and exclusion criteria and ethnic background. Because these patients often also show a hypercoagulable state, it an antithrombotic treatment before and during pregnancy may improve their clinical outcome (ie, secondary prevention of miscarriage and primary thromboprophylaxis.Keywords: recurrent pregnancy loss, late pregnancy loss, thrombophilia, hypercoagulable state, hyperhomocysteinemia, factor V Leiden, prothrombin, antithrombotic drugs

  16. The drosophilid fauna (Diptera, Drosophilidae of the transition between the Pampa and Atlantic Forest Biomes in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil: first records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverton J.C. Hochmüller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although studies on drosophilid (Diptera, Drosophilidae assemblages have become relatively abundant in the past decades, many environments remain to be searched. The present study investigates the composition, the species abundances and the richness of the drosophilid assemblages in two localities of the municipality of Cruz Alta, northwestern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, a point of contact between the biomes Atlantic Forest and Pampa: (i an urban area (2007, constituted by a domestic orchard with Citrus trees, and (ii a forested area, in Centro de Educação, Pesquisa e Proteção Ambiental - CEPPA (2008/2009, of Universidade de Cruz Alta, located in a fragment of riparian forest. Collections were conducted using fermented banana-baited traps and repeated periodically. A total of 7,428 individuals were caught, belonging to two subfamilies, six genera and 53 species. In the urban area, 22 species were found, from two genera (N = 2,421, while in the forested area 46 species were found, from six genera (N = 5,007. Six exotic species were found, markedly more abundant in the urban area, where they corresponded to 95% of the specimens, in comparison to 50% in the forest. Between the Neotropical species, the most common were Drosophila maculifrons Duda and D. polymorpha Dobzhansky & Pavan. Only D. simulans Sturtevant was captured in all samples in both localities. The present survey represents the first records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul of the D. canalinea and D. virilis species groups and the species D. arassari Cunha & Frota-Pessoa, D. fuscolineata Duda, D. nigricruria Patterson & Mainland, D. papei Bächli & Vilela, D. senei Vilela, D. trifilum Frota-Pessoa, D. virilis Sturtevant, Leucophenga maculosa (Coquillett and Rhinoleucophenga obesa (Loew. Furthermore, it also represents the first record for the state of the genera Amiota Loew, Leucophenga Mik and Rhinoleucophenga Hendel and of the subfamily Steganinae. So, the present

  17. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  18. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  19. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  20. Socioeconomic and technical assistance factors related to total bacteria count and somatic cell count of milk from bulk tanks in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gomes Paixão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the socioeconomic and technical assistance profiles of dairy farmers from six districts in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and to identify the possible risk factors associated with total milk bacteria count (TBC above 43,000 CFU mL-1 and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC above 595,000 cells mL-1. Most of the producers were between 41 and 60 years of age (48.9%, 74.2% did not reach high school, and 72.3% of the respondents were satisfied with their profession, although 63% would not recommend dairy farming to their children. Only 34.7% used periodic technical assistance, but 59.1% consulted it in cases of doubt. The risk factors found in the final multivariable regression models were: TBC (Did not consult technical assistance in case of doubt, OR 3.97, P=0.030; Retirement, OR 9.32, P=0.041 and BMSCC (Producer does not reside on farm, OR 4.06, P=0.046; Presence of technical assistance OR 3.29, P=0.041. It can be concluded that the search for emergency technical assistance, as reported by farmers, was effective against the TBC problems; however, it was ineffective for controlling mastitis in the herd and reducing BMSCC levels. The 10 step mastitis control program from the National Mastitis Council needs to be included on the surveyed farms, especially the permanent advisory technical assistance from veterinarians, aiming towards the establishment of goals for udder health status, reviews and records.

  1. New cooperative seismograph networks established in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Southern California has more active faults located close to large, urban population centers than any other region in the United States. Reduction of risk to life and property posed by potential earthquakes along these active faults is a primary motivation for a cooperative earthquake research program between the U.S Geological Survey and major universities in Southern California. 

  2. Accumulation of phosphorus fractions and contamination potential in vineyard soils in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In vineyards, if phosphate is applied both before planting and at intervals during growth without consideration of technical criteria, the soil P fractions may be increased and their proportions altered. This study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation of P fractions and the parameters of the adsorption isotherm in a sandy Typic Hapludalf soil in vineyards with a history of successive and excessive phosphate fertilization. In December 2010, two vineyards were selected, one 4 and the other 15 years old, in Urussanga, State of Santa Catarina (Brazil. Three trenches were dug in each area and soil was collected from the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth ranges. The soil samples were dried in a forced-air oven, sieved and subjected to chemical analyses, P chemical fractionation and P adsorption isotherms. Excessive phosphate fertilization, before and during cultivation, particularly in the older vineyard and, consequently, with a longer history of phosphate fertilization, increased the inorganic P concentrations to the depth of 20 cm, especially in labile fractions extracted by anion exchange resin and NaHCO3 in the non-labile fraction, as well as in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1.0 mol L-1 HCl. The application of phosphate fertilizers and the long cultivation period increased the P levels in the organic labile fraction extracted by 0.5 mol L-1 NaHCO3, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH. Phosphate fertilization of older vineyards, i.e., cultivated for 15 years, increased the amounts of P desorbed in water, indicating a risk of contamination of surface waters and groundwater. The phosphate fertilization before planting, without considering the results of soil analysis, and during cultivation, disregarding the results of soil analysis, leaf analysis and expected yield, led to a reduction in the maximum P adsorption capacity in the 0-5 cm layer of vineyard 2, indicating saturation of part of

  3. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  4. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  5. The Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (Parana State-Southern Brazil): Geochemical and isotopic evidence of magmatic focus migration and its tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present location of the geological units which comprise the Precambrian of the south-southeastern part of the Ribeira fold belt in Parana State, Brazil, is the result of a series of superposed tectono-metamorphic events. During this evolution, and especially at the end of the Neoproterozoic, between 640 and 550 Ma, an important crustal accretion event within the Brasiliano Megacycle was responsible for the generation of the Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (ARMA). This arc is now represented by a large volume of granitic rocks amongst which the Cunhaporanga (CPB) and Tres Corregos (TCB) granitic batholiths stand out. The SSE part of the Ribeira belt forms an long, NE strip with a mainly NE trend, formed by deformed middle to upper crustal rocks, metamorphosed in greenschist to amphibolite facies (Basei et.al.1992; Fiori, 1993; Hackspacher et.al. 1997; Campanha and Sadowski 1999). These rocks are intruded by the Neoproterozoic CPB, TCB and the Agudos Grandes batholith, and many granite stocks. The CPB and TCB are elongated bodies with NE-SW major axes which occur north and south, respectively, of the Itaiacoca metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. Together, they occupy about 6,500 km2. The southeastern contact between the CPB and the Itaiacoca country rocks is intrusive, while the northwestern contact of the BCT with this group is tectonic, represented by the Itapirapua shear zone. Its contact with rocks of the Agua Clara Formation of the Acungui Group is intrusive. The mineral assemblages in the rocks of the two main batholiths are typically calc-alkaline. The CPB is more homogeneous, being mainly composed of porphyritic to inequigranular, isotropic monzogranite which are accompanied by rare granodiorite. The TCB is more heterogeneous, and includes undeformed or deformed quartz monzonite, granodiorite and monzogranite, as well as rare tonalite and syenogranite. The rocks of the CPB (with 65 - 73% SiO2) and the TCB (60-76% SiO2) are meta- to weakly per-aluminous in the

  6. Environmental sanitation and peri-domiciliar organisation as auxiliary practices for the control of phlebotomines in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to compare the results of the collections of phlebotomines, in two distinct periods, i.e. before and after changed environmental conditions in Jussara county, Paraná State, Brazil. Collections were made near to a forest in Jussara farm, between February and April 1992. Six Falcão light traps were installed in houses and animals' shelters. Catches were made once a month and 35,783 phlebotomines were captured. Based on these data, sanitation was done in peridomiciliary area and domestic animals shelters were separated from domiciles in January 1994. Then during February to April 1994 using the same methodology new phlebotomines catches were made. The results showed that an average of just 150 (6,311/42 phlebotomines per hour were collected at this time in contrast with an average of 3,976 (35,783/9 in 1992. The separation of domestic animals shelters from human dwelling may contribute to diminish the phlebotomine population and attenuate the risk of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis.Foram comparados os resultados de coletas de flebotomíneos, realizadas na fazenda Jussara, no Município de Jussara, Paraná, Brasil. As primeiras coletas foram realizadas no ano de 1992, nos meses de Fevereiro, Março e Abril, antes de ter sido feito saneamento ambiental. Seis armadilhas de tipo Falção foram instaladas no domicílio e peridomicílio. Foram realizadas uma coleta por mês e um total de 35,783 flebotomíneos foram coletados. As espécies predominantes foram Lu. whitmani (84.4%, Lu intermedia (8.1%, Lu migonei (5.0%, e outros (2.5%. Na primeira coleta a média horaria foi de 3.976 (353783/9. Baseado nestes dados foi realizado uma limpeza no peridomicílio em Janeiro de 1994 (canalização das águas usadas, retirada de madeiras empilhadas e de matéria orgânica, afastamento das habitações dos animais das residências humanas e corte de árvores. Após estas medidas foi realizado nova coleta

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  8. Competitive destination analysis in Southern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Águas, Paulo; Veiga, Célia; Reis, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist destinations for European Union Member States of Central and Northern Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden and the UK). Design/methodology/approach – Application of the market share analysis tool, initially developed by Faulkner, using secondary data from Eurosta...

  9. Anemia ferropriva em populações da região sul do Estado de São Paulo Iron deficiency anaemia in populations of the Southern area of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Cornblüth Szarfarc

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento da ocorrência de anemia ferropriva no Vale do Ribeira, nas localidades de Iguape, Apiaí, Ribeira, Barra do Chapéu e Pontal do Ribeira, através de dosagens, no sangue, de Hemoglobina, Hematócrito, Ferro sérico e Capacidade de Ligação de Ferro. Na mesma amostra populacional, pelo estudo da composição dos alimentos consumidos, foi obtida a ingestão de ferro, média, diária, "per capita" nas seis localidades referidas. Os resultados da adequação de consumo foram: em Iguape, 91%; Pontal do Ribeira, 63%; Icapara, 81%; Apiaí, 122%; Ribeira, 99% e em Barra do Chapéu, 125%. Através dos índices aplicados, evidenciou-se a existência de anemia como problema de Saúde Pública na grande maioria das áreas estudadas.A study of iron deficiency anaemia in seaside and mountain population of the southern area of the state of S. Paulo, Brazil, was carried out. The towns studies were, Iguape, Pontal do Ribeira, Icapara, Apiai, Ribeira and Barra do Chapeu. Studying the composition of food-stuff consumed a "per capita" average iron consumption was stablished for each town. Results showed that consumption of iron in Iguape was 91% of minimum needs, Pontal do Ribeira, 63%, Icapara, 81%, Apiai, 122%, Ribeira, 99% and Barra do Chapeu, 125%. It was found that in most localities iron deficiency anaemia constitutes a public health problem.

  10. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellan penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) found on the northern shore of the state of São Paulo and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassin, Paula; Taniguchi, Satie; Gallo, Hugo; Silva, Reinaldo José; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 25 livers from Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, found on the state of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The following concentrations of POPs (wet weight) were found: ∑ PCBs: 18.9-775.8 ng g(-1); ∑ DDTs: 2.3-275 ng g(-1); and ∑ HCHs: 1.0-11.8 ng g(-1). Among the PCBs, there was a predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (138 and 153) and heptachlorobiphenyls (180 and 187). Among the organochlorines, DDT predominated. Through histopathologic exams a positive correlation was found between HCB and cardiovascular failure (p=0.012), as HCB values (wet weight) were 6.33-96.49 ng g(-1) for positive animals and 2.45-19.63 ng g(-1) for negative animals. Studies on POPs in Magellan penguins contribute to a better understanding of the distribution and trends of these pollutants in the western South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:22910330

  12. Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para Babesia bovis em rebanhos leiteiros na região sul de minas gerais Seroprevalence and risk factors for Babesia bovis in dairy cattle from region southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência e os fatores de risco associados à soropositividade para Babesia bovis em 556 bovinos leiteiros procedentes de dez propriedades localizadas no sul de Minas Gerais, as quais foram divididas em dois grupos de acordo com a produção média diária de leite: Alta Produção (AP >2.000 l de leite/dia, e Baixa Produção (BP 500 l de leite/dia. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-B. bovis e considerados positivos na diluição de 1:320. A análise estatística foi realizada no programa SPSS 12.0 for Windows e se buscou determinar a associação entre níveis de positividade para B. bovis nos rebanhos e os fatores de risco por meio do Teste Exato de Fischer. Para testar a diferença das médias de soropositividade, foi utilizado o teste T Student e em todos os cálculos considerou-se o grau de significância de 95%. A prevalência média global de bovinos infectados por B. bovis foi de 94,1% (523/556. Não houve diferença significativa na frequência média de anticorpos anti-B. bovis entre as propriedades leiteiras dos grupos de AP (95,97% e BP (92,22%; e o mesmo resultado foi observado entre os animais jovens e adultos de ambos os grupos. Não foi observada associação significativa entre os fatores de risco avaliados e a taxa de bovinos positivos para B. bovis. A alta prevalência de rebanhos leiteiros soropositivos permite caracterizar, epidemiologicamente, a microrregião de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais, como área de elevada estabilidade endêmica para B. bovis.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia bovis infection in 556 dairy cattle from ten properties located in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The herds were divided into two groups according to average daily milk production (liters: I- High Production (HP, >2,000 L milk/day; and II

  13. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  14. Accretion of southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  15. Avaliação da qualidade de solos sob diferentes coberturas florestais e de pastagem no sul de Minas Gerais Evaluation of soil quality under different forest covers and pasture in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Melloni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No sul de Minas Gerais faz-se a substituição de florestas de araucária por pastagens ou extensos plantios de eucalipto. No entanto, poucos estudos relacionam, de forma ampla, os impactos nos atributos físicos, químicos, microbianos e visuais do solo causados por esta substituição. Com esse objetivo, selecionaram-se áreas com eucalipto, araucária implantada, mata nativa e pasto implantado em Delfim Moreira, MG, no verão de 2006, de onde se retiraram amostras deformadas e indeformadas de solo para análises químicas (pH, P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, H + Al, SB, t, T, V, m e matéria orgânica, físicas (densidade do solo, densidade de partículas, índice de floculação, diâmetro médio geométrico, macro e microporosidade e microbianas (atividade microbiana, qCO2, C da biomassa microbiana, relação C da biomassa/C orgânico. Com atributos visuais ligados ao solo, às plantas e aos animais, elaborou-se um indicador da qualidade visual para cada ecossistema, que se destacou pela praticidade, simplicidade e sensibilidade na discriminação das diferentes coberturas vegetais. A grande maioria dos atributos físicos e microbianos mostrou-se eficiente nas avaliações da qualidade ambiental, que revelaram grande disparidade entre a pastagem e os demais ecossistemas, e alta similaridade entre o ecossistema eucalipto com sub-bosque desenvolvido e araucária implantada.Native forests have frequently been substituted by Eucalyptus or annual crops cultivation in Brazil. In southern Minas Gerais State the substitution of Araucaria angustifolia forests by agricultural systems or extensive Eucalyptus stands has also been observed. However, few studies are focused on the impacts of such land use changes on soil physical, chemical and microbial and visual aspect of soils. With this goal in mind, different ecosystems were selected, including introduced Eucalyptus and Araucaria and native forest and pasture in Delfim Moreira county, state of Minas Gerais

  16. Texas and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Texas' participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support core operations and general…

  17. Florida and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Florida's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  18. Alabama and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Alabama's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  19. Louisiana and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Louisiana's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  20. Delaware and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Delaware's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  1. North Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details North Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array…

  2. Tennessee and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Tennessee's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations…

  3. Kentucky and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Kentucky's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  4. Oklahoma and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Oklahoma's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  5. South Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details South Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core…

  6. Maryland and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Maryland's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  7. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  8. Cold War in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

    Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts , Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation , Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot “Cold War†: The USSR in Southern Africa , London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 p...

  9. Terrain analysis and steady-state hydrological modelling of a small catchment in southern China%雷州桉树人工林小集水区地形分析与静态水文学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志宏; 周国逸; 周光益; MORRIS; Jim; SILBERSTEIN; Richard; 王旭

    2005-01-01

    利用小集水区生态水文学模型-Topog模型对雷州半岛桉树人工林纪家示范小集水区进行了地形分析和静态水文学模拟.地形分析表明,该集水区地表较为平坦,集水区总面积为0.63 km2,夏季、冬季与春(秋)分平均太阳辐射值分别为44 MJ·m-2·d-1、25 MJ·m-2·d-1和34 MJ·m-2·d-1.在考虑太阳辐射影响与不考虑太阳辐影响两种情况下进行了集水区土壤含水量指数(WI)静态模拟.设定不同的静态壤中流参数值,Topog模型模拟结果表明,静态壤中流越大,在集水区内高WI的分布范围越大,也即土壤含水量越高.在考虑太阳辐射影响的条件下,分别设置不同的土壤导水率(T)、地表阴蔽系数(Es)、平均降雨量(R)进行了模拟.模拟结果表明,WI分布依各参数的不同而变化.T越大,在集水区内的WI重新分布越快;T越小,在集水区内WI趋向于平均分布.Es越大,集水区土壤所保持的含水量越高.集水区WI随R增大而有升高趋势.%Many hydrological characteristics of a catchment can be inferred from its topography. The eco-hydrological model, Topog, uses a sophisticated analysis of topography to describe the hydrological characteristics of a catchment in detail. This paper describes an integrated terrain analysis and steady state hydrological modelling study of a small forest catchment on Leizhou Peninsula, southern China using Topog. The terrain analysis was based on a DEM (digital elevation model) of the central part of the peninsula including the upper valley of the Nandu River. The basic hydrologic characteristics defining the Jijia catchment were catchment boundary, high points and saddles, calculated ridges and streams, and an element network separating the catchment into a large number of relatively uniform units for modelling. The topographic attributes of each element were calculated automatically, including slope, aspect, upslope contributing area and potential incident solar radiation

  10. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  11. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  12. Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

  13. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12268205

  14. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniegra-O, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  15. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  16. Detecção do Southern bean mosaic virus no Paraná, e separação do Bean rugose mosaic virus em feijoeiro Detection of Southern bean mosaic virus in the State of Paraná and separation from Bean rugose mosaic virus in bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. G. Gasparin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Em lavouras de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris da cultivar Carioca Comum, no município de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, foram encontradas plantas com sintomas de necrose da haste, mosaico clorótico leve e porte reduzido, semelhantes aos sintomas causados por infecção viral. Exames de microscopia eletrônica revelaram a presença de partículas isométricas. Em testes de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar os extratos foliares de plantas infetadas reagiram positivamente com anti-soro específico para o Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV. O vírus foi purificado e a massa molecular de sua proteína capsidial foi estimada em 30 kDa, valor esperado para proteínas do capsídeo de vírus do gênero Sobemovirus. A gama de hospedeiras do SBMV isolado no Paraná foi restrita ao feijoeiro e a algumas cultivares de soja (Glycine max. A separação de dois vírus isométricos comuns em infecções mistas no feijoeiro foi possível através da reação de imunidade ao SBMV apresentada por Crotalaria sp, Chenopodium quinoa e Mucuna deeringiana, e da reação de susceptibilidade dessas mesmas hospedeiras ao Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV.Plants of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, showing symptoms of stunt, stem necrosis and chlorotic mosaic, similar to those induced by virus infection were found in a bean field in Londrina, Paraná. Electron microscopy examinations showed isometric virus particles in the cell cytoplasm. Double immunodifusion serological tests with antiserum for Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV gave positive results when tested against plant sap from infected bean plants. The virus was purified and the molecular mass of its coat protein was estimated as 30 kDa, the expected value for the coat protein of viruses from the genus Sobemovirus. The host range of the virus was restricted to bean and some soybean (Glycine max cultivars. It was possible to separate two isometric viruses commonly found in bean based on the immunity reaction of Crotalaria sp

  17. 76 FR 30739 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison's Eldorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for Southern California Edison... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Southern California Edison (SCE) filed an application under Title V of..., subpart E) for further requirements. Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6. Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State...

  18. Spatial variability of evaporation and moisture storage in the swamps of the upper Nile studied by remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y. A.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2004-04-01

    The water balance of the upper Nile swamps, in particular, the Sudd, has been the topic of debate for many years. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) is a parameterization scheme of surface heat fluxes based on spectral satellite measurements. The SEBAL scheme has been applied to derive the energy balance components from National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) images over the extensive swamps in the upper Nile. The study area covers the swamps of the Sudd, Bahr el Ghazal and the Sobat sub-basins. The actual evaporation and soil moisture for an area between 2-12°N and 26-36°E (approximately 1000 km×1000 km) have been investigated. Monthly (actual) evaporation and soil moisture maps for the year 2000 have been generated. The evaporation results were verified against longer-term averaged rainfall and flow data of the three sub-basins. A close resemblance was obtained for the Sudd (1.8% error) and the Sobat Basin (5.7% error), while the balance lacks closure for the Ghazal basin (27%) due to un-gauged or inadequately gauged inflow from the upper catchments. It is concluded that soil moisture availability controls the monthly evaporation rates for all areas that are not saturated with water, and that a significant dry-down in the winter period occurs. It is concluded that the evaporation for the Sudd wetlands is 20% less and the average area occupied by the wetlands is 74% larger than assumed in earlier hydrological studies (e.g. Jonglei canal studies). The derived results can serve as a sound basis to support the widely debated evaporation losses from the Sudd, as well as form an input to regional scale climate models for studying atmospheric circulation patterns over Africa and the Nile Basin.

  19. Indians and Southern Colonial Statutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1974-01-01

    Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)

  20. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  1. Notes on Southern African Tuberales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Tuberales have been found in Southern Africa.  Terfezia pfeilii Henn. occurs in the Kalahari Desert and adjacent areas of the Cape Province, Botswana and South-West Africa. The other two,  Terfezia austroafricana sp. nov. and  Choiromyces echinulatus sp. nov., are known only from the Cape.  C. echinulatus is the first representative of that genus to be collected in Africa or the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  3. Unemployment Risk in Southern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Rodokanakis

    2010-01-01

    The basic aim of this paper is to investigate the impact that educational level of individuals and participation in training programmes have on their job prospects in Southern Greece (namely the regions of Southern Aegean and Crete) during the implementation of the first Community Support Framework (1989-1993). We try to see whether the educational level itself and participation in training programmes increased the chances of finding a job. More specifically, we research what are the social a...

  4. MULES IN SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Martin A., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides additional empirical evidence concerning the choice of the mule as the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production in the latter 19th and early 20th century. While the mule was uniquely suited to the crops and climate of the region, two divergent arguments have been presented as to why the mule was the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production. This research reevaluates these arguments and provides evidence that it was, in fact, the characte...

  5. Aquatic macrophytes in natural and managed wetlands of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil Macrófitas aquáticas em áreas úmidas naturais e manejadas do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Rolon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study gathers the main results obtained from studies regarding dynamic of aquatic macrophyte community in natural and managed wetlands of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the aquatic macrophytes diversity in wetlands of Southern Brazil, the environmental factors that determine the structure of the aquatic macrophyte community in fragmented wetlands, the effects of floods on the dynamics of macrophytes, and the contributions to the rice field for the conservation of aquatic macrophytes; METHODS: The information was obtained from several researches carried in several spatial scales and different wetlands types over the last 10 years in Southern Brazil; RESULTS: The studies have reported the occurrence of approximately 250 species of aquatic macrophytes. Wetland area, habitat diversity, altitude and hydroperiod were determinant for macrophyte richness and composition in wetlands of Southern Brazil. Furthermore, flood events, long or short-term ones, are strongly associated to the structure of the aquatic macrophyte community. The rice field systems of Southern Brazil (crops and irrigation channel shelter a representative number of species of macrophyte found at natural wetlands in this region. The agricultural practices adopted over rice cultivation cycle in the rice fields have influenced the macrophyte richness and biomass. The different hydrological management practices adopted after the harvesting period (presence or lack of water surface did not influence the macrophyte richness and biomass, however it influenced the species composition; CONCLUSIONS: The increasing process of wetland degradation (e.g. fragmentation, flood control and rice field expansion presents a threat to the conservation aquatic macrophyte species.OBJETIVO: Este estudo reúne os principais resultados obtidos em trabalhos sobre a dinâmica da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas em áreas úmidas naturais e manejadas do sul do Brasil. Nós analisamos a diversidade de

  6. METRIC estimated ET evaluation on the semiarid Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, requires efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on c...

  7. Virginia and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Virginia's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations support SREB's core operations and general…

  8. Southern Regional Education Board Final Legislative Report. 2010 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) follows education budgets and legislation during regular and special legislative sessions. Current actions are found in Legislative Reports that are released on a timely basis during the months that SREB state legislatures are in session, usually from January through July. These reports follow education…

  9. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  10. Making Quilts without Sewing: Investing Planar Symmetries in Southern Quilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Holly Garrett; Hackenberg, Amy J.

    2005-01-01

    The patterns of handmade quilts made in southern United States are utilized for studying the symmetries of the plane and transformational geometry. Quilts are made without sewing and then from the same block, students can make quilts with different wallpaper patterns by using various combinations of transformations and through this geometrical…

  11. Manejo da podridão-de-Sclerotium em pimentão em um argisolo no Amazonas Southern blight management of bell pepper in an argissol in the Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Netto

    2013-09-01

    égias eficientes de manejo da podridão-de-Sclerotium em pimentão. A cobertura morta com serragem não deve ser utilizada em áreas infestadas com S. rolfsii.Southern blight is a common disease in plants belonging to the Solanaceae family in the Amazon. To compare southern blight management strategies for bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. Solanaceae a field experiment was conducted in a split plot design with main plots arranged in randomized blocks, with six replicates for each treatment, in a red-yellow Argisol (Ultisol artificially infested with Sclerotium rolfsii. The main factor was soil cover (sawdust mulch or bare soil The secondary factors were the incorporation to the soil: 1 compost (3 L by planting hole, 2 rice colonized by Trichoderma harzianum (90 g by planting hole, with ≈ 1.4 x 10(9 conidia g-1 and 3 compost and T. harzianum in the same proportion described previously; 4 control. All plants were fertilized with 1.5 L of compost by planting hole except those in the treatments with 3 L of compost by hole. The main plot had three rows with ten bell pepper plants (0.50 x 1.0 m and the subplot, three rows with five plants. Southern blight incidence was accessed twice a week. The sawdust mulch increased the disease incidence significantly. In the mulched plots the disease intensity, expressed as the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC, increase 35.5% compared with bare soil. Trichoderma harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost (1.5 L to 3 L by planting hole reduced the AUDPC by 38.1% and of 37.5%, respectively. Furthermore T. harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost, even with sawdust mulch added, reduced the AUDPC by 52.8% and in 55.1%, respectively, in comparison with mulch alone. These results suggested that the utilization of T. harzianum or the increase in the amount of compost by planting hole are viable strategies to southern blight management in bell pepper. The sawdust surface mulch is not recommended in an S. rolfsii infested area.

  12. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  13. Fire in Southern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 56.4 by 63.5 kilometers (35 by 39

  14. Daily Statistically Downscaled Climate Projections for the US and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily statistically downscaled climate projections for the United States and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains at 0.1 degree...

  15. Soil and vegetation dynamics in a forest-savannah boundary in Southern Amazon state during the holocene, using 14C dating and stable carbon isotopes of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a comparative study between organic soil horizons formed in depressions, distant ca. 500 meters from each sampling site, in a forest/savannah boundary in the Southern Amazon Basin. The influence of the paleovegetation and soil dynamics, based on carbon isotope (12C, 13C, 14C) data of soil organic matter (SOM) was evaluated. The soils were classified as Dystropept (Cambissolo) and were considered as clayey. The total organic carbon contents decreased from the surface to deeper parts of the soils profiles. At deeper parts of the soil profiles in the savannah site, between 100 cm and 30 cm, the δ13C values characterized the influence of C4 plants (around -18,0 per mille). From about 20 cm to the surface the δ13C values characterized the mixture of C3 and C4 plants. The soil δ13C values in the forest site ranged from -25,0 per mille at deeper parts of the profile to -26,0 per mille in the surface, characterizing the dominance of C3 plants in this location. 13C and 14C data from soil samples indicated a predominance of C3 plants in the early Holocene. From ca. 7000 to 3000 years BP the influence of C4 plants increased, characterizing a savannah expansion probably related to a drier climate in the region. Since 3000 years 14C BP, the carbon isotope data suggest the forest expansion, probably due to a return to wetter climate. 14C data in the 40-50 cm and 100 cm soil depth were contemporary, showing no difference on the soil organic matter deposition in the savannah and in the forest locations. (author)

  16. Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.

  17. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the

  18. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  19. INTRODUCTION After fourteen years of pioneering systematic work spanning from 1996 to 2010, carried out in the territory of Santa Catarina State, SC, within the Brazilian Southern region, framed in the socalled Atlantic Slope of the Southern Cone of South America (Agudo-Padrón, 2008a, a basic list of continental (land and freshwater and marine mollusc species was compiled. Besides constant interactions and consultations with numerous national and international specialists, such a list was mostly based on available literature and/or analyses of voucher specimens deposited in collections belonging to research centers or environmental education institutes. To date (up to the first semester of 2010, this list comprises a total of 878 taxa (species and subspecies, including 695 marine and 183 continental forms, and these numbers are likely to increase as field surveys ensue. In the present study, results obtained from the author’s active participation in three recent regional field sampling expeditions dealing with marine and continental mollusc taxa, are reported. I. Official State program for listing and control of invasive exotic species Starting from November 2009, and for the first time in the history of Santa Catarina State, the presence of invasive allochthonous mollusc species in Santa Catarina State was studied and discussed through the organisation of seminars by the Official Foundation for the Environment of the State of Santa Catarina (Fundação do Meio Ambiente – FATMA jointly with the Hórus Institute for Development and Environmental Conservation (Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental, with the main goal to compile the Official State List of Species. To date, the occurrence of a total of twenty allochthonous (exotic forms of mollusc species has been confirmed, 14 Gastropoda and 6 Bivalvia [namely, 11 terrestrial gastropods, 5 freshwater taxa (3 gastropods and 2 bivalves and 4 marine bivalves]. Taking into account the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Available knowledge of malacofauna (mollusc species conservation in the territory of Santa Catarina State,SC, central Southern Brazil region, is shortly analyzed and discussed herein. Present data originate from theauthor's active participation in three recent regional unpublished events dealing with biodiversity conservationin the State, carried out to cope the sensitive lack of population studies which is the main difficulty to face inorder to provide accurate and detailed evaluations on biodiversity and its conservation status.

  20. Ecological niche of family farmers in southern Minas Gerais state (Brazil) Nicho ecológico de agricultores familiares da região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Cavallini; N. Nordi

    2005-01-01

    The concept of ecological niche, considered by the food dimension point of view, was used to characterize a small farmers community from the south of Minas Gerais State (Brazil). Ten small farmer families and 76 different meals eaten by them were evaluated in this study, during three different periods: September 1995 (end of the dry season), December 1995 (rainy season) and April 1996 (end of the rainy season). The analysed community appeared to depend markedly on certain food items showing l...

  1. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states` routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  2. Southern Universities: Are They Rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, John S.

    1986-01-01

    This essay reviews four recent works on Southern universities: (1) "The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History" (Dyer, 1985); (2) "A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia" (Boney, 1984); (3) To Foster Knowledge: A History of the University of Tennessee 1794-1970" (Montgomery, et al., 1984); and (4) "Gone with the Ivy: A Biography…

  3. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  4. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  5. Mobilidade populacional e produção da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil Population mobility and production of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available São escassas as informações sobre o papel da mobilidade populacional na manutenção da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no estado do Paraná. Avalia-se a mobilidade populacional como fator de risco para esta endemia em três mesorregiões do Paraná, utilizando dados gerados na Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no período de 1987 a 2004. Foram notificados 1.933 casos, predominando os casos migrantes (54,4%. Os municípios com maior número de casos notificados foram Maringá (358, Doutor Camargo (108 e Terra Boa (105. Os casos rurais foram predominantemente autóctones (89,8%, enquanto os urbanos, na maioria (84,8% migrantes (pInformation on the role of population mobility in maintaining American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Paraná is scarce. Population mobility was evaluated as a risk factor for this endemic disease in three mesoregions of Paraná, using data built up at the State University of Maringá, covering 1987 to 2004. A total of 1,933 cases were notified, mostly among migrants (54.4%. The municipalities with the greatest numbers of cases notified were Maringá (358, Doutor Camargo (108 and Terra Boa (105. The rural cases were predominantly autochthonous (89.8%, while the urban cases were mostly among migrants (84.8% (p < 0.0001. Among the rural autochthonous cases, there was no difference between the sexes (p = 0.127, whereas among the urban migrant cases, men predominated (p < 0.0001. The migrant cases were mostly related to mobility within and between municipalities. Population mobility seems to be an important variable in the epidemiology of this disease in the State of Paraná.

  6. Maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in southern Nevada: Chapter 7 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Sada, Donald W.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Managers in southern Nevada are challenge with determining appropriate goals and objectives and developing viable approaches for maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in a time of rapid socio-ecological and environmental change. Sustainable or "healthy" ecosystems supply clean air, water and habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals. As described in Chapter 1, sustainable ecosystems retain characteristic processes like hydrological flux and storage, geomorphic processes, biogeochemical cycling and storage, biological activity and productivity, and population regeneration and reproduction over the normal cycle of disturbance events (modified from Chapin and others 1996 and Christensen and others 1996). Ecological restoration of stressed or disturbed ecosystems in an integral part of managing for sustainable ecosystems. The Society of Ecological Restoration International (SERI) defines ecological restoration as the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed (SERI 2004). Many of the southern Nevada's ecosystems are being subjected to anthropogenic stressors that span global, regional, and local scales (Chapter 2)., and are crossing ecological thresholds to new alternative states (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5). These alternative states often represent novel communities with disturbance regimes that differ significantly from historic conditions. Past management and restoration goals often focused on returning ecosystems to pre-disturbance conditions (Harris and others 2006). This approach assumes stable or equilibrium conditions and ignores changes in ecosystems processes due to land uses, increases in CO2 concentrations, and climate change. A more realistic approach is to base management and restoration goals on the current potential of an ecosystem to support a given set of ecological conditions, and on the likelihood of future change due to warming climate (Harris and others 2006). This approach

  7. O estado do Rio de Janeiro como limite sul e norte de distribuição de algumas espécies de aves The state of Rio de Janeiro as the southern and northern boundary of the distribution of some bird species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A região onde se localiza o estado do Rio de Janeiro pode ser considerada biogeograficamente importante por abrigar os limites geográficos extremos da Serra do Mar e das florestas dos tabuleiros (ou de baixada, formações bastante significativas para a distribuição de diversas espécies de aves. Nesse estudo, através de extensa consulta bibliográfica, foram encontradas 59 espécies de aves com seu limite sul (40 espécies ou norte (19 espécies de distribuição geográfica localizado no estado do Rio de Janeiro. As espécies com limite sul de distribuição no estado têm registros em quase todo o território fluminense, exceto na região do alto vale do rio Paraíba do Sul e na porção mais ocidental da costa fluminense. São espécies predominantemente associadas às florestas de baixada e submontanas e mais da metade está incluída na lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção do estado. As espécies com limite norte de distribuição no Rio de Janeiro podem ser classificadas em dois grupos básicos quanto ao seu padrão de distribuição em território fluminense. O primeiro grupo é composto por espécies de ambientes florestais montanos e endêmicas da Mata Atlântica, enquanto o segundo grupo é constituído por visitantes ocasionais associados a ambientes aquáticos. A baixa representatividade de espécies ameaçadas entre aquelas com limite norte de distribuição no Rio de Janeiro pode ser explicada pela elevada proporção, entre suas espécies florestais, de representantes de matas serranas, melhor preservadas que as matas de baixada.The state of Rio de Janeiro is located in a region that can be considered biogeographically important for harboring extreme geographical limits of the Serra do Mar and lowland forests, which are very significant for the distribution of several bird species. In this study, through extensive bibliographic search, 59 bird species were found with their southern (40 species or northern (19 species

  8. O estado do Rio de Janeiro como limite sul e norte de distribuição de algumas espécies de aves The state of Rio de Janeiro as the southern and northern boundary of the distribution of some bird species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A região onde se localiza o estado do Rio de Janeiro pode ser considerada biogeograficamente importante por abrigar os limites geográficos extremos da Serra do Mar e das florestas dos tabuleiros (ou de baixada, formações bastante significativas para a distribuição de diversas espécies de aves. Nesse estudo, através de extensa consulta bibliográfica, foram encontradas 59 espécies de aves com seu limite sul (40 espécies ou norte (19 espécies de distribuição geográfica localizado no estado do Rio de Janeiro. As espécies com limite sul de distribuição no estado têm registros em quase todo o território fluminense, exceto na região do alto vale do rio Paraíba do Sul e na porção mais ocidental da costa fluminense. São espécies predominantemente associadas às florestas de baixada e submontanas e mais da metade está incluída na lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção do estado. As espécies com limite norte de distribuição no Rio de Janeiro podem ser classificadas em dois grupos básicos quanto ao seu padrão de distribuição em território fluminense. O primeiro grupo é composto por espécies de ambientes florestais montanos e endêmicas da Mata Atlântica, enquanto o segundo grupo é constituído por visitantes ocasionais associados a ambientes aquáticos. A baixa representatividade de espécies ameaçadas entre aquelas com limite norte de distribuição no Rio de Janeiro pode ser explicada pela elevada proporção, entre suas espécies florestais, de representantes de matas serranas, melhor preservadas que as matas de baixada.The state of Rio de Janeiro is located in a region that can be considered biogeographically important for harboring extreme geographical limits of the Serra do Mar and lowland forests, which are very significant for the distribution of several bird species. In this study, through extensive bibliographic search, 59 bird species were found with their southern (40 species or northern (19 species

  9. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states' routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process

  10. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states' routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  11. CLIMATE CHANGE AND LABOR MIGRATION IN THE MEXICAN SOUTHERN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA ELENA RUIZ MEZA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To the persistent poverty conditions existing in Mexico, manifestations of climate change, whose most significant impact is observed in the agricultural sector and in food sovereignty, are added. In Chiapas, southern Mexico, with the lowest human development index, the disasters caused by extreme weather events in recent years made worse the vulnerability of the population and significantly increased migration flows. Climate change has serious effects on employment and labor markets in the rural sector which is the most affected sector. In the context of the effects caused by climate variability and the crisis in the agricultural sector, the dynamics of migration has become more complex in recent years. This paper shows that international migration has had the border states of southern Mexico as destination, but increasingly they appear as transit regions and origin of migration to the United States of America, interrelated phenomena that have in common increased poverty because of climate change

  12. Photographs of the southern heavens

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M

    1975-01-01

    The 1 m Schmidt telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has been used for a number of sky surveys. In particular a main task has been an examination of the southern night sky between declinations of -20 degrees and -90 degrees . This exercise is known as the ESO(B) Survey (or Quick Blue Survey); some of the more interesting results are shown and are briefly discussed. The photographic plates used were Kodak II a-o. There are photographs of the two Magellanic Clouds and of the galaxy NGC 1313 and the globular cluster NGC 6752. A spectrogram of our Galaxy for wavelengths in the band 3900 A to 4900 A, taken with the telescope's large objective prism is also shown. (0 refs).

  13. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  14. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh; M Santosh

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2 ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher fH2O favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  15. Youth Unemployment in Southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão; Guida Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.

  16. The Southern Altiplano of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Flores, Ricardo; Bommel, Pierre; Bourliaud, Jean; Chevarria Lazo, Marco; Cortes, Geneviève; CRUZ, Pablo; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, Pierre; Joffre, Richard; Leger, Francois; Nina Laura, Juan Peter; Rambal, Serge; Rivière, Gilles; Tichit, Muriel; Tourrand, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa has been a staple food for Andean populations for millennia. Today, it is a much-appreciated product on the international health-food, organic and fair-trade food markets. Quinoa producers in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia initiated this change approximately 40 years ago. On high desert land, they succeeded in developing a thriving agricultural crop for export. Although they enjoy lucrative niche markets, quinoa producers are not specialized farmers, nor do most of them live yearrou...

  17. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  18. Classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There is a wide variety of flavours of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere, with differing structures and lifecycles. Previous studies have classified these manually using upper level flow features or satellite data. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first identified), has been used to objectively classify these cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere. This simple method is able to separate the cyclones into classes with quite different development mechanisms and lifecycle characteristics. Some of the classes seem to coincide with previous manual classifications on shorter timescales, showing their utility for climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  19. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  20. Venomous snakebites in southern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksić, Boris; Bradarić, Nikola; Prgomet, Sandra

    2006-03-01

    This retrospective study is based on the analysis of 542 snakebite envenomation cases in southern Croatia, which were treated in the University Hospital Split over the period of 21 years. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of venomous snakebite in southern Croatia, epidemiological and clinical features of snakebite and treatment in the region. The mean annual snakebite incidence in southern Croatia was 5.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The nose- horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) was responsible for most bites, only a small proportion being inflicted by the adder (Vipera berus). People of all ages were affected (1 - 82 year old), but the bites were more frequent in individuals older than 50 (46% of the cases) and in children and adolescents 19 year old and younger (27% of the cases). Most snakebite accidents happened in warm spring and summer months, the highest number occurring in May (22%). A majority of the victims were rural people engaged in agricultural activities. Bites on the upper limbs were more frequent (57%) than bites on the lower limbs (42%). With regard to envenomation severity, there were 15.1% minor, 40.5% mild, 26% moderate and 18% severe cases. Two victims died (0.4%). The antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb was given to virtually all patients, and complications following its administration were rare. The antivenom was used more often than it was suggested by the symptoms present. PMID:16617597

  1. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony R. Turton.; Marian J Patrick; Frederic Julien

    2006-01-01

    Literature suggests a linkage between internationally shared water resources and conflict potential. Anthony R. Turton, Marian J. Patrick and Frédéric Julien examine transboundary water resource management in southern Africa, showing that empirical evidence indicates a propensity to cooperation. They use the Hydropolitical Complex concept to explain why states might choose cooperation over conflict where a critical shared resource could limit future development potential. Development (2006) 4...

  2. Kimmeridgian pliosaurids (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca, southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jair Israel Barrientos-Lara; Marta S Fernández; Jesús Alvarado-Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Fossil remains of two specimens of the family Pliosauridae aredescribed in the present manuscript. These fossils are from theKimmeridgian shallow marine strata belonging to the informallyknown Sabinal formation deposited in the Tlaxiaco Basin, which areexposed in Yosobé, near Tlaxiaco town, Oaxaca State, southern Mexico.The first of these specimens consists of a fragment of premaxilla withteeth, which show diagnostic characters that allow its taxonomicalidentification as member of the genus L...

  3. Ethnic Violence in Southern Thailand: the Anomaly of Satun

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    This research uses a historical comparative analysis to investigate the differences between two specific Muslim-majority regions of Thailand the province of Satun, along the western coast of southern Thailand, and provinces of Yala, Narathiwat, Pattani, and Songkhla, which border the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the Gulf of Thailand. The formation of ethnic identities in Satun and Patani has followed different paths over time, and these variations in development have produced dramatically ...

  4. The Field Project CLEOPATRA May - July 1992 in Southern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meischner, P.; Hagen, M; Hauf, T.; Heimann, D.; H. Höller; U. Schumann; Jaeschke, W; Mauser, W.; Puppracher, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    CLEOPATRA (Cloud Experiment Oberpfaffenhofen and Transports) is described. This field program was performed in southern Germany 50 km north of the Alpine foothills, an area of known enhanced thunderstorm activity. The general goal is to quantify elements of the hydrological cycle on a regional scale in dependence upon precipitation events and the vegetation state. Embedded goals are to describe the mechanisms that force organizations of deep convective systems, to compare theories and observa...

  5. Ocelot management and conservation along transportation corridors in Southern Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Tewes, Michael E.; Robert W Hughes

    2001-01-01

    The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is an endangered cat with less than 120 individuals remaining in the United States. Ocelot roadkills are an important problem potentially threatening ocelot persistence in southern Texas. Landscape planning can provide options for the resolution of traffic-ocelot conflicts. We suggest several conservation strategies and tactics involving important road-habitat interfaces, road underpasses, and fences. Support of alternative recovery strategies (e.g., habitat re...

  6. Child poverty and family transfers in Southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Matsaganis, Manos; O’Donoghue, Cathal; Levy, Horacio; Coromaldi, Manuela; Mercader-Prats, Magda; Rodrigues, Carlos Farinha; Toso, Stefano; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2004-01-01

    The drive to reduce child poverty is of particular interest in southern Europe, where the subsidiary role of the State in matters of family policy has implied that programmes of public assistance to poor families with children are often meagre or not available at all. The paper examines the effect of family transfers (used broadly to include contributory family allowances, non-contributory child benefits and tax credits or allowances) on child poverty in Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Usi...

  7. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Nilza Maria Diniz; Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares,; Walter Steve Sheppard; Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2003-01-01

    Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1) and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Sampl...

  8. American segregationist ideology and white Southern Africa, 1948-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Zoe Laura

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between segregationist organisations, publications and individuals in the United States and their pro-apartheid counterparts in southern Africa. It uncovers a sustained and extensive foreign policy of segregationists that has hitherto been overlooked and a relationship between the countries that goes beyond existing analyses of Cold War cooperation or comparative studies of the countries’ racial systems. When the civil rights movement began, steadfast...

  9. Estrutura da comunidade de invertebrados bentônicos em dois cursos d'água do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Community structure of benthic invertebrates in two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. P. Bueno

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The benthic fauna has an important role in the trophic chain of limnic environments, serving as food for fishes and crustaceans. This work aimed to identify and compare, quantitative and qualitatively, the macrobenthic communities from two watercourses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Samplings were done with a Surber sampler, monthly, from September 1999 to August 2000, in one of the creeks forming Tainhas River(29º15'30,2"S, 50º13'12,5"W, around São Francisco de Paula city and in Mineiro Creek (29º30'0,2"S, 50º46'50"W, around Taquara city. At each sampling point, physical and chemical variables of the waters were registered. In the laboratory, the samples were sorted out and the animals identified and quantified. Dissolved oxigen, pH and stream speed were very similar for both environments, whilst conductivity had extreme values. Insects, crustaceans, acari and molluscs dominated in the samples. Abundance, richness and diversity indexes in Tainhas subsidiary had relatively higher average values than Mineiro Creek. Similarity matrix groupings between sampling units indicate three groups. Our research revealed important characteristics of the ecology and distribution of benthic invertebrates, information that can subsidise future environmental monitoring in the region of São Francisco de Paula and Taquara.

  10. Participative methodology to define compensation for socio-environmental projects: the case of fishing compensator made by El Paso at lower southern Bahia state; Metodologicas participativas para a definicao do projetos de compensacao socio-ambiental: o caso da compensacao da pesca pela El Paso no baixo sul da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fatima [El Paso Oleo e Gas do Brasil Ltda., Natal, RN (Brazil); Ortiz, Marcos [Com Junto Ltda. (Brazil); Diogo, Hugo; Figueira, Luciara; Prysthon, Adriano; Pinho, Milena; Link, Monica [SOMA Solucoes em Meio Ambiente Ltda., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to describe and analyze the application of a specific participative methodology - called Rapid Participative Diagnosis (PRA -Participatory Rapid Appraisal) - to the development of a diagnosis for defining socio-environmental compensation projects for oil and gas exploration efforts involving nine fishing communities from lower southern Bahia State in Brazil. It has sought to identify the feasibility in applying this methodology within that context. This study leads to the conclusion that the application of Participative Diagnosis to the definition of socio-environmental compensation projects should open new horizons not only for the communities but also for everyone else involved. However, the monitoring of such kind of process requires outstanding and specific care to insure a satisfactory program implementation in order to avoid expectations and frustrations. The El Paso's DRP was a new experience for all the sectors involved: the environmental agency, the oil company, the government, several institutions and communities. The steps followed drew up the communities' reality and their relationship with the other participants. It was a work of citizenship and democracy, whose impressive results justified all the effort made. (author)

  11. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Almeida, Lúcia M.; Ivani de Oliveira Negrão Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvo...

  12. Aquifer Depletion and the Cost of Water Conservation: The Southern High Plains of Texas Case

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Erin A.; Segarra, Eduardo; Johnson, Phillip N.; Willis, David B.; Johnson, Jeffrey W.

    2006-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture has played a vital role in the development and growth of the Great Plains Region of the United States. The primary source of water for irrigation in this region is the Ogallala Aquifer. The Southern portion of the Ogallala Aquifer is considered exhaustible due to the low level of recharge relative to the quantities of water pumped. Analysis and evaluation of water conservation policies which could extend the economic life of the Ogallala Aquifer in the Southern High Plai...

  13. Ensaios comparativos de cultivares de trigo em diferentes regiões paulistas no biênio 1979/80 Comparative trials of wheat cultivars in southern State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o comportamento de cultivares de trigo recomendados para solos com ou sem alumínio nocivo na camada arável, juntamente com outros cultivares comerciais, foram realizados vários ensaios nas regiões tritícolas paulistas no biênio 1979/80. Nos experimentos em solos com alumínio, somente 'IAC-21' e 'BR-4' apresentaram produções médias superiores à testemunha 'BH-1146', enquanto nos solos sem alumínio os cultivares Tucano, Anahuac, El Pato, Mitacoré, Aracatu, Sema 220, MR 74042 e MR 74501 alcançaram as melhores médias de produção. Entre os cultivares comerciais testados, IAC-13, INIA-66, Itapua-5, PAT-24, IAC-17, IAC-5, BH-1146 e Tobari-66 revelaram as melhores produções, variando de acordo com a região. De maneira geral, em condições de campo, os cultivares PAT-24, IAC-13, INIA-66, CNT-8, Alondra, MR-74044, MR 74501 e Sparrow "S" apresentaram os menores índices de infecção de Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Com relação à ferrugem da folha (P. recondita, os cultivares IAPAR-1 (Mitacoré, IAPAR-3 (Aracatu, Alondra e CNT-8 tiveram os mais baixos índices de infecção.A study was made on the performance of wheat cultivars tolerant, non tolerant to aluminum toxicity and commercial cultivars in several regions of State of São Paulo, during the cropping season of 1979 and 1980. In the trials of cultivars for soils with Al3+ only the cultivars IAC-21 and BR-4 were superior to the control BH-1146 in yield in the studied biennium. In the tests of cultivars for soils without Al3+, Tucano, Anahuac, SEMA 220, El Pato, Mitacoré, Aracatu, MR-74042 and MR-74501 were higher in yield than the control. In 1979/80, the cultivars IAC-13, INIA-66, Itapua-5, PAT-24, IAC-17, IAC-5, BH-1146 and Tobari-66 showed superior performance for yield. In a general way, the cultivars PAT-24, IAC-13, INIA-66, CNT-8, Alondra, MR-74044, MR-74501 and Sparrow "S" showed resistance to prevalent races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

  14. Parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors from Southern of Goias State / Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no Sul do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefferson José Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors in the south of Goias state. Twelve traps two as of each color were used, painted yellow, black, red, white, green and blue were used two as of each color. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. Between March and December 2006, 17 parasitoid specimens were collected from the yellow trap, 15 from the blue trap, 12 from the white trap, 37 from the black trap, one from the green trap and three from the red trap. The parasitoids did not present any preference for any of the trap colors (F=0.772; P=0.58. The most frequently collected parasitoid species was Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, with 80.0%.O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no sul do estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas 12 armadilhas duas de cada tipo pintadas de amarelo preto, vermelho, branco, verde e azul. As pupas dos dípteros foram isoladas pelo método de flutuação, individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência dos parasitóides. Foram coletados no período de março a dezembro de 2006, 17 exemplares de parasitóides na armadilha amarela, 15 na armadilha azul, 12 na armadilha branca, 37 na armadilha preta, um exemplar na armadilha verde e três na armadilha vermelha. Os parasitóides não apresentaram atração por nenhuma das cores das armadilhas (F= 0,772; P=0,58. A espécie de parasitóide mais freqüente foi Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae com 80,0%.

  15. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  16. Erosividade da chuva e erodibilidade de Cambissolo e Latossolo na região de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais Rainfall erosivity and erodibility of Cambisol (Inceptisol and Latosol (Oxisol in the region of Lavras, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são relativamente poucos os estudos envolvendo erodibilidade do solo, principalmente Cambissolos, dada a morosidade na obtenção dos resultados de experimentos com chuva natural. O conhecimento dos índices de erosividade e de erodibilidade é importante para o planejamento conservacionista, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade dos solos. Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar a erosividade da chuva e a erodibilidade de Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sob chuva natural, em Lavras (MG, no período de 1998 a 2002. Os dados de precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos na Estação Climatológica Principal de Lavras, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, próxima das unidades experimentais de perdas de solo. A erosividade (EI30 foi determinada a partir do produto da energia cinética da chuva pela sua intensidade máxima em 30 min. Estes dados, correlacionados com as perdas de solo, permitiram obter o índice de erodibilidade dos solos. A precipitação total média anual foi 1.287 mm e a erosividade média foi de 4.865 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. A erodibilidade foi 0,0355 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Cambissolo e 0,0032 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Latossolo, em consonância com seus atributos mineralógicos, químicos, físicos e morfológicos diferenciais.Relatively few studies in Brazil have investigated soil erodibility, mainly for Cambisols (Inceptisols, due to the tediousness of data collection in natural rainfall experiments. Knowledge about erodibility and erosivity is important for conservation planning, which contributes to soil sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating the rainfall erosivity and erodibility of a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (Inceptisol and a typic dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under natural rainfall, in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1998 and 2002. Pluvial precipitation data were obtained from the main weather

  17. The Southern Universities Nuclear Institute in retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the history, management and activities of the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute (SUNI). SUNI was originally established to enable scientists and students of the universities of Stellenbosch and Cape Town to undertake fundamental research in nuclear physics and chemistry. On 1 April 1983 SUNI was integrated with the National Accelerator Centre. Now the Van de Graaff accelerator is also used in basic research. SUNI's research activities in nuclear physics includes: level-structure studies using the inelastic scattering of neutrons; study of nucleon-nucleon interactions; study of related nuclear levels (analogues); study of compound nuclei; fluctuation phenomena in reactions going via the compound state; studies of nuclear level parameters using charged particle induced reactions and physics of the fissionable nuclei. Research in atomic physics includes: inner shell excitation and outer shell excitation. Research is also done in the fields of nuclear analytical chemistry, solid state and materials science, medical and life sciences and the applications of nuclear technology in industry and the environment

  18. Cold war in Southern Africa : review article

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    1. Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa's Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978-1-86888-456-8, xix + 342 pp. 2. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-47420-7, 253 pp. 3. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot "Cold War": The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978-0745324722, 320 pp.

  19. Seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.; Bull, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global seismic networks document frequent and unusually deep earthquakes in East African rift sectors lacking central volcanoes. The deep seismicity means that we can use earthquakes to probe the geometry and kinematics of fault systems throughout the crust, and to understand the distribution of strain between large offset border fault systems and intrabasinal faults. The southern Tanganyika rift zone has the highest seismicity rate within East Africa during the period 1973-present, yet earlier temporary seismometer networks have been too sparse in space and time to relocate earthquakes with location and depth errors of Lake Tanganyika since June 2014 using a network at 12 broadband seismic stations. The distribution of earthquakes shows that deformation primarily occurs on large offset border faults beneath the lake. Subsidiary earthquake activity occurs along the subparrallel Rukwa graben, and beneath the NE-SW striking Mweru rift. The distribution of earthquakes suggests the southern end of lake Tanganyika is characterized by a network of intersecting NNW and NE striking faults. The depths of earthquakes are distributed throughout the crust, consistent with the relatively strong lithosphere.

  20. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  1. Quaternary evolution of the Caravelas strandplain - Southern Bahia State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary model is proposed for the Caravelas strandplain. The model encompasses integration of: (i mapping of Quaternary deposits, (ii cartography of beach-ridge alignments and their truncations, (iii relative sea-level history, (iv development history of the Abrolhos coral reefs, (v vibra-coring and (vi C14 dating of Quaternary deposits. Seven major evolutionary stages were identified. These stages show that the strandplain has had its Quaternary evolution strongly controlled by relative sea-level changes. In addition, the development of the Abrolhos coral reefs has also played an important role in dispersion and accumulation of sediments along the coastline, causing localized inversion in longshore sediment transport.

  2. Quaternary evolution of the Caravelas strandplain - Southern Bahia State - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C.S. Andrade; José M.L. Dominguez; Louis Martin; ABÍLIO C.S.P. BITTENCOURT

    2003-01-01

    An evolutionary model is proposed for the Caravelas strandplain. The model encompasses integration of: (i) mapping of Quaternary deposits, (ii) cartography of beach-ridge alignments and their truncations, (iii) relative sea-level history, (iv) development history of the Abrolhos coral reefs, (v) vibra-coring and (vi) C14 dating of Quaternary deposits. Seven major evolutionary stages were identified. These stages show that the strandplain has had its Quaternary evolution strongly controlled by...

  3. Stated Preferences for Forest Conservation in Southern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Emmi; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Pouta, Eija;

    % support decreasing forest conservation. An average willingness-to-pay for increased biodiversity conservation was 60-212 € per household per year, depending on the described project and measurement method. In addition to costs per household, the number of conserved biotopes and endangered plant and animal...

  4. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here...... of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging....

  5. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in southern Vietnamese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T.D. Thai; T.Q. Binh; P.T. Giao; H.L. Phuong; L.Q. Hung; N. van Nam; T.T. Nga; M.G.A. Goris; P.J. de Vries

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in southern Vietnam. Methods: All pupils (n = 961) of two primary schools in two communes in southern Vietnam were screened for the presence of serum Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Leptospira IgM was tested in 92 randomly selected sa

  6. Southern Mexico Miocene Magmatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic activity in southern Mexico have been occurred in three important volcanic regions: Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (TVF), Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), and Tacaná Volcanic Complex (TVC). This activity produce alkaline and calc-alkaline products. The TVF has been active since 7 Ma ago producing Na-alkaline basanite, trachybasalt, and trachyandesite (41 63 wt% SiO2), and calc-alkaline basalts, basaltic-andesites, and andesites (45 63 wt% SiO2). The CVA including El Chichon Volcano produced calc-alkaline magmas varying from andesites to dacites (57 65 wt% SiO2) emitted between 2100 ka ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ka and K-alkaline magmas emitted from 1.1 Ma ago (trachybasalt, 46 51 wt% SiO2) to the Recent (trachyandesite, 57 63 wt% SiO2). The TVC emitted calc-alkaline products varying from basaltic-andesite (52 57 wt% SiO2) as mafic enclaves, andesites (57 63 wt% SiO2), and dacites (63 68 wt% SiO2). El Chichón and TVF present slight enrichments in K2O, Na2O, Rb, Sr, Th, U, Cs, and LREE respect to TVC, these are signatures related to subduction environment. The presence of alkaline magmas at El Chichón and TVF correspond to mantle low degree melts that reach the surface along with calc-alkaline lavas due to a tensional stress field that allows their pass to the surface. In the generation of the magmas of southern Mexico three components are involved: mantle partial melting fluids, fluid from subducted lithosphere, and continental crust, likely interacting in different ratios through time and in different proportions from SW to NE.

  7. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  8. Planned Parenthood of Southern Arizona v. Lawall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Court Decision: 180 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 1022; 1999 June 9 (date of decision). The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals held that an Arizona law requiring a minor to have parental consent for abortion was unconstitutional. Planned Parenthood of Southern Arizona had brought an action challenging the validity of the law, which contained a judicial bypass provision allowing minors to obtain an abortion in the absence of parental consent if approved by the court. Because the judicial bypass provision was open-ended and did not contain specific time frames or deadlines, it did not assure an expeditious alternative to parental consent. The Ninth Circuit found that the judicial bypass provision posed a substantial obstacle to abortion in a large fraction of cases and therefore unduly burdened a woman's right to an abortion. The Arizona statute also contained a medical emergency provision which allowed minors to avoid parental consent if an attending physician deemed an abortion medically necessary to the health and bodily function of the minor. Because the medical emergency provision relied on deadlines provided by the judicial bypass provision, and because the judicial bypass provision failed to specify deadlines in a manner that could be useful to physicians in making their decision concerning whether an abortion is medically necessary, the Ninth Circuit found the medical emergency provision unconstitutionally vague. The Ninth Circuit affirmed the District Court's decision by permanently enjoining the State from implementing or enforcing the statute. PMID:16477716

  9. 18 March 2004. Nine of CERN's 20 Member States today signed a new Protocol on privileges and immunities. This brings the Organization into line with other European intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory, which already enjoy international status in all of their Member States.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2004-01-01

    As well as having an immediate practical benefit for the Organization, the Protocol also has an important symbolic value for the future. The Protocol is not only open to CERN Member States for signature, but also to other States collaborating with CERN. "Although this seems symbolic today", explained CERN Director General Robert Aymar in an address to CERN's governing Council today, "I believe that in the future, with the increasing globalisation of particle physics, this will become a valuable tool in helping CERN remain a powerful force in science."

  10. Arterial hypertension: sociodemographic profile and comorbidities of patients from northwest Paraná State, Southern Brazil = Hipertensão arterial: perfil sociodemográfico e comorbidades de pacientes da região Noroeste do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lúcia Gomes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The systemic arterial hypertension (SAH currently a major public health problem, presents high medical and socioeconomic costs, and occurs concurrently with other diseases, of infectious origin or not. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic profile of hypertensive patients with or without co-morbidities assisted in a health reference centre in a municipality of the northwest of the Paraná State, Southern Brazil. We gathered data from 250 medical records, concerning age, gender, race, marital status, educational level, professional duties, place of origin, reasons for seeking the services, occurrences of co-morbidities, and duration of systemic arterial hypertension. SAH occurred more often in the age group of 60-69 years old. The female gender was significantly different from the male. We observed the predominance of married (60.0%, Caucasian (76.0%, with fundamental level of education (54.4%, housewife (39.6%, living in neighborhood towns (58.0%, born in other regions than the Southern Brazil and have seek the service mainly for reasons not related to hypertension (p A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS, atualmente um dos principais problemas de saúde pública, apresenta custos médicos e socioeconômicos elevados e ocorre concomitantemente com outras doenças, de origem infecciosa ou não. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever o perfil sociodemográfico e comorbidades de pacientes hipertensos atendidos em um centro de referência em saúde em município da região Noroeste do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. De 250 prontuários foram coletados dados referentes à idade, sexo, raça, estado civil, escolaridade, atividade profissional, procedência, naturalidade, motivo da procura pelo serviço, ocorrência de comorbidades e tempo da HAS.A HAS teve maior frequência na faixa etária de 60-69 anos. O gênero feminino foi significativamente diferente do masculino. Foram predominantes os casados (60,0%, da raça branca (76,0%, com

  11. Consequences of Biotechnology Policy for Competitiveness and Trade of Southern U.S. Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, Curtis M.; Jefferson-Moore, Kenrett Y.; Traxler, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The effect of policy decisions on the competitiveness of genetically modified (GM) crops was examined. The United States has been an early innovator in the development and use of biotechnology crops and has expanded its export market share of the three major GM crops: soybeans, cotton, and corn. Cotton, soybeans, and corn are all grown in the southern states, but these states have an apparent comparative advantage only in the production of cotton, which may be strengthened with the adoption o...

  12. Balancing the direct and indirect approaches implications for ending the violence in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rodthong, Chaiyo.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The instability in the Southern Border Provinces of Thailand resurged on January 4, 2004. The current conflict is more complicated because the government, the insurgency and the population all need to be recognized as players. Of these, the population is the most important actor, especially its interaction with the international community, as stated in the Dr. Gordon McCormick's Counterinsurgency Model. The state and the counter-state are...

  13. Fluvial response to horizontal shortening: a study in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Frédéric; Braun, Jean

    2006-01-01

    International audience It has been postulated that a steady state between erosional and tectonic processes may develop in continental collision. However, it is not clear whether steady state conditions can be reached for all components of the landscape. Here we show, using landscape evolution models and field evidence, that a true geomorphic steady state may never be reached in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. The strong asymmetries in tectonic uplift and tectonic advection and the onset ...

  14. Rice market integration in southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Oktarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates rice market integration among five provinces in southern Sumatra using data from monthly retail rice markets during 2004-2009. The degree of integration was measured across provinces using vector error correction model. Result revealed that there is spatial market integration in southern Sumatra. Province of Bangka Belitung can make price adjustment more quickly compared to others provinces. In the long run period, rice price in Jambi province, Lampung province, and Bangka Belitung province became a reference price of rice in southern Sumatra. The study suggests policy recommendation for government to intervention this situation.

  15. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  16. The unique requirements of primary health care in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Knobel

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The critical need for primary health care in Southern Africa with special reference to the demands of the heterogenous population is measured against the background of the declaration of Alma Ata at the WHO/UNICEF conference in 1978. In particular the provision of primary health care to the Third World communities of the RSA as an essential part of the security power base of the State is underlined and it is analised in terms of how shortcomings in this service can be exploited in a subversive revolutionary onslaught.

  17. Stopping the "Flow of Co-Eds and Other Female Species": A Historical Perspective on Gender Discrimination at Southern (U.S.) Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Amy Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The interrelated nature of gender and racial constructs in the culture of the southern United States accounts for much of the historical prejudice against coeducation in the region's institutions of higher education. This essay offers a historical perspective on gender discrimination on the campuses of Southern universities from the attempts to…

  18. 77 FR 47921 - Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b/a Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Company--Lease Exemption--Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company Pecos Valley Permian Railroad, L.L.C. d/b... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from the Pecos Valley Southern Railway Company (PVS) and... states that the lease agreement between PVS and PVR will not contain any interchange commitments....

  19. Analysis of private natural heritage reserves as a conservation strategy for the biodiversity of the cocoa region of the southern State of Bahia, Brazil Análise das reservas particulares do patrimônio natural como estratégia de conservação na região cacaueira do Sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Schiavetti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first country in Latin America to establish and regulate this type of reserve, and there are currently more than 700 Private Nature Heritage Reserves (RPPN in Portuguese officially recognized by either federal or state environmental agencies. Together, these RPPN protect more than a half million hectares of land in the country. The coastal forests in the southern part of Bahia State extend 100 to 200 km inland, gradually changing in physiognomy as they occupy the dryer inland areas. The coastal forest has been subjected to intense deforestation, and currently occupies less than 10% of its original area. For this work the creation processes of the RPPN were consulted to obtain the data creation time, size of property, the condition of the remaining forest, succession chain and the last paid tax. After that, interviews with the owners were made to confirm this data. Sixteen RPPN have been established in this region until 2005. Their sizes vary from 4.7 to 800 ha. Ten of these RPPN are located within state or federal conservation areas or their buffer zones. In spite of the numerous national and international conservation strategies and environmental policies focused on the region, the present situation of the cocoa zone is threatening the conservation of the region's natural resources. The establishment of private reserves in the cocoa region could conceivably improve these conservation efforts. This type of reserve can be established under a uniform system supported by federal legislation, and could count on private organizations.O Brasil foi o primeiro País na América Latina a estabelecer e regulamentar este tipo de reserva e hoje, há mais de 700 Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN oficialmente reconhecidas pelos órgãos ambientais federais ou estaduais. Juntos, estas reservas protegem mais de meio milhão de hectares em diferentes biomas dos Pais. A Floresta Atlântica na região Sul da Bahia se estende at

  20. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  1. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  2. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common...

  3. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  4. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  5. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective...

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Residential Segregation in Southern Cities: 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Roof, Wade Clark

    1976-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the age, size, percent black, and occupational income differential in 32 southern cities, the findings show that age is still the strongest predictor of residential segregation. (Author)

  8. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  9. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  10. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  11. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1982. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1999. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  13. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  14. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  15. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  16. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Leporatti; Guarrera Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture ...

  17. Southern Bohemian route of industrial heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Dvořák; Blažena Gehinová; Dagmar Škodová Parmová; Eva Jaderná; Eduard Šitler

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the industrial heritage and its usage in the frame of tourism service supply. There were three so called Anchor Points selected based on the ERIH methodology in the southern Bohemia. And there were also other regional and important places and points named for the future tourist route. The Southern Bohemian Route of Industrial Heritage was invented around the Anchor Point of Schwarzenberg Channel because of its importance in European heritage and its location next to the ...

  18. Climatically driven fluctuations in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Eugene J.; Trathan, Philip N; Watkins, Jon L.; Reid, Keith; Meredith, Michael P.; Forcada, Jaume; Thorpe, Sally E.; Johnston, Nadine M; Rothery, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Determining how climate fluctuations affect ocean ecosystems requires an understanding of how biological and physical processes interact across a wide range of scales. Here we examine the role of physical and biological processes in generating fluctuations in the ecosystem around South Georgia in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean have previously been shown to be generated through atmosp...

  19. ENVIRONMENT, INCOME, AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Duane

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that rural forest and agricultural resources in Southern Africa are overused, in the sense that both biomass and harvest levels are significantly below levels of maximum sustainable yield. However, economic theory suggests that high interest and time preference rates cause the economic optimum to coincide with generally-observed patterns. In addition, low income may be the driving factor behind high interest and time preference rates. In macro-economic terms, Southern Af...

  20. Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

    1992-01-01

    The Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992, comprises 4035 references to the scientific literature on Southern California's Channel Islands. The Bibliography was compiled by the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and is presented here in a February 1993 version. The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History presents a California Channel Islands Bibliography on its website. It has more recent references and overlaps considerably with this bibliography. How...

  1. Grey literature revisited : the Southern African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa, M.M. (ISAS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    Re-examines grey literature on Southern Africa. Analyzes the material from the actual geographical field of concern to determine the suitable handling approach. Asses the extent to which the politico-economic and technological changes in Southern Africa have affected this literature, in terms of its quantities, subject matter, formats, use. Determines how to instil awareness of the value of grey literature first to sub-regional information scientists who will them promote networking and secon...

  2. Education for transformative leadership in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Preece, J

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that education for transformative leadership in a southern African context needs to nurture an understanding of the relationship between spirituality and charisma. This argument is based on a review of some literature pertaining to transformative learning, transformative leadership, and African value systems. The article explores the relationship between transformative leadership and transformative learning and education theories, and relates them to a specific southern Af...

  3. Rice market integration in southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yetty Oktarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates rice market integration among five provinces in southern Sumatra using data from monthly retail rice markets during 2004-2009. The degree of integration was measured across provinces using vector error correction model. Result revealed that there is spatial market integration in southern Sumatra. Province of Bangka Belitung can make price adjustment more quickly compared to others provinces. In the long run period, rice price in Jambi province, Lampung province, and Ba...

  4. Body masses and measurements of birds from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca L Reinert; Júlio C Pinto; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Mauro Pichorim; Miguel Â. Marini

    1996-01-01

    Five hundred and eigh body masses of 74 forest birds, and measurements of wing, tail, tarsus and beak of 14 poorly known species mist-netted at two sites in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraná State, southern Brazil, are presented.

  5. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…

  6. Rethinking the Christian Studies Classroom: Reflections on the Dynamics of Teaching Religion in Southern Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Sandie; Hulsether, Mark; Medine, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    An extended set of conversations conducted by three religious studies faculty teaching at large public universities in the Southern United States spurred these reflections on how their institutional locations inflected issues such as the cultural expectations students bring to the classroom, how these expectations interact with the evolving…

  7. Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Europe and Central Asia, Economic Community of West African States, Middle East and North Africa, Organization for the Harmoni...

  8. Can Inclusive Education in South(ern) Africa Survive the HIV and AIDS Pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Christa; Hay, Johnnie

    2007-01-01

    Fagan (1986, p. 859) stated many years ago that "school psychology has survived the complex interaction between education and psychology, and will continue to do so in future". Applied and adapted to South(ern) Africa of 2007, one may ask whether inclusive education will survive the complex interaction with the HIV and AIDS pandemic, and whether…

  9. Chernobyl fallout in southern and central Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the levels and distributions of radionuclides released in the Chernobyl accident, we sampled surface peat from 62 sites in Southern and Central Finland and measured 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 132Te, 140Ba, 103Ru, 90Sr, 141Ce, and 95Zr. The distribution of fallout activities was highly uneven, depending on movement of the contaminated air mass and rainfall distribution during the critical days. The highest values observed were 420 kBq m-2 of 131I and 70 kBq m-2 of 137Cs. The nuclide ratios showed wide and partly unexpected variations. The high-boiling-point, or nonvolatile, elements Ce and Zr were spread mostly on a 200-km-wide zone extending across Finland from southwest to northeast. The more volatile elements, I, Ce, and Te, showed quite a different, more widespread, fallout distribution, while an intermediate behavior was observed for Ba, Ru, and possibly Sr. These results can be explained by assuming that pulverized nuclear fuel material released in the reactor explosion on 26 April reached Finland via Poland and the Baltic Sea and traversed the country along the above-mentioned narrow zone, while volatile material, evaporated in the reactor fire from 26 April to 5 May, arrived in several waves and was consequently more widely and evenly spread. From their elemental melting and boiling points, Ru and Mo would appear to belong to the nonvolatile group and Sr to the volatile. Yet, their actual behaviors were opposite; Ru in particular was found in the nonvolatile as well as the volatile fallout, possibly because Ru activities were present in the fuel partly in the metallic state and partly as volatile oxides

  10. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  11. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern...

  12. A Political Economy of Water in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is a region characterised by extensive socio-economic underdevelopment. Given water’s key role in social organisation, water allocation, use and management in Southern Africa is embedded in deep historical and structural processes of regional underdevelopment. Gini coefficients of income inequality in several states of the region are the most extreme in the world. Recent data from South Africa shows that Gini coefficients of water inequality vary directly with income inequality. Recent attempts to improve water resources management in the region through IWRM have failed to consider these facts, focusing instead on a mix of institutional, policy and legal reforms. The results of these reforms have been poor. In this essay, I employ a modified version of Allan’s (2003 'water paradigms' framework to locate and assess the positions and interests of actors involved in water resources management in Southern Africa. The essay shows that Southern Africa’s history of underdevelopment has created a dense web of powerful political, economic and social interests linked by a shared technocentric understanding of and approach to water use: i.e. water for 'high modern-style' development, or as labelled by Allen, 'the hydraulic mission'. What is less readily acknowledged is the wide-spread societal support for this mission. For this reason, ecocentric approaches to water management most commonly associated with influential international actors such as the IUCN and World Wide Fund for Nature have limited local support and are of minor relevance to Southern African decision-makers. However, actors supportive of an ecocentric perspective demonstrate considerable ability to inhibit water infrastructure development across the region. In the face of abiding poverty and inequality, and vulnerability to water insecurity, widespread societal support for a technocentric approach to resource use offers a pathway toward broad-based social benefits

  13. Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Azulim Müller

    Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total

  14. Political challenges to implementing IWRM in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatuk, Larry A.

    Southern African states are undertaking comprehensive water sector reforms. While motives for reform are partially local, they are in large part driven by the interests and ideologies of Western states and civil societies. Within the Southern African Development Community (SADC), national (water, sanitation, irrigation) master plans are being written or revised. In several states, new Water Acts are in place and new institutions have been created to improve delivery. The stated goal of these activities is integrated water resources management (IWRM) defined simply as equitable, efficient and sustainable use of the resource. This article summarizes findings of social science-oriented scholarship on water management in the region, in particular that published in three special issues of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (vol. 27, nos. 11-22; vol. 28, nos. 20-27; vol. 29, nos. 15-18). Evidence shows, among other things, that governments have been reluctant to devolve power to stakeholders; that rural dwellers are suspicious of the motives behind reform; that already empowered actors dominate new institutions touting broad-based participation; that efforts to fully recover costs in urban areas have been met with widespread civil resistance; and that new institutions have undermined existing forms of cooperation and conflict resolution, making matters worse not better. At the same time, these studies show the utility of decision support tools, capacity building exercises and research and knowledge production-all positive outcomes that should not be discounted. The paper argues that difficulties with reform reflect the highly political nature of the undertaking. Specifically, the new water architecture proposes a profound realignment of decision making power in already fragile, underdeveloped states. As a result, what may have started as a project now constitutes a context wherein differently empowered actors negotiate and renegotiate roles and rights to resources. Thus

  15. War, Peace and Stabilisation: Critically Reconceptualising Stability in Southern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Robert Carter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article critically treats stabilisation theory and programming through a perspective of peace and conflict, and argues for stabilisation’s reconceptualisation. Through tracking the concept’s emergence, it outlines that stabilisation is theoretically rooted in an insecurity-underdevelopment problematic and relies on the Liberal Peace thesis as a solution. When this concept was operationalised in southern Afghanistan, however, it was translated into a praxis informed by state-building and counterinsurgency imperatives. This approach ultimately produced confused, sometimes counterproductive, effects: simultaneously engendering a liberal, negative, rented and victor’s peace. The article concludes by arguing that stabilisation should be reconceptualised so that it pursues a positive and hybrid peace if it is to be a more effective source of guidance for policy and practice. The first step is to denaturalise the ‘formal’ state in conflict and fragile environments as being seen as a panacea to all ills of instability.

  16. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  17. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrius da Silva Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN, we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed disease expansion to Southern Brazil. We demonstrated the effectiveness of SINAN to monitor notifiable diseases. Our results are useful to develop preventive actions for schistosomiasis control.

  18. Armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae in the Diet Of the Neotropical Otter Lontra longicaudis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Claws, hairs and osteoderms of armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae were found in a scat of a neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in an edge of a pluvial channel near a peat forest in the southern Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Due to the absence of carrion-eating invertebrates in the sample, it is suggested that the armadillo was actively preyed upon by the otter. This is the first record of armadillo in the diet of Lontra longicaudis.

  19. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A DRIVER OF REGIONAL COOPERATION IN ITS SOUTHERN NEIGHBOURHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Irina ION

    2015-01-01

    The European Union's policy towards its southern periphery in North Africa and the Middle East has sought to promote regional cooperation both between itself and the Arab partner states and, most importantly, among the Arab states. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, and later on, the Union for the Mediterranean introduced, after decades of superficial institutionalization of Euro-Mediterranean relations, an element of novelty in the form of the regionalism it promoted and the multilateral se...

  20. Recognition characters and new records of two species of Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de P. Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phylloscyrtini occurs from eastern United States to Argentina and includes 21 valid species. It is a highly neglected group of crickets and little is known about its biology and distribution. Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 and Phylloscyrtus amoenus (Burmeister, 1880 were recorded for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and information on calling song, stridulatory file and recognition characters were provided.

  1. Discourses of violence in the transition from colonialism to independence in southern Sudan, 1955–1960.

    OpenAIRE

    Rolandsen, Øystein H.; Leonardi, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    The Torit Mutiny of August 1955 in southern Sudan did not trigger a civil war, but state violence and disorder escalated over the following years. We explore how the outlook and strategies of the government officials who inherited the state apparatus of the Anglo-Egyptian condominium contributed to this development. They perpetuated authoritarian and violent government practices based on a legalistic distinction between citizen and outlaw, while justifying their actions as part of a developme...

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  3. O padrão de endividamento dos Estados da Região Sul e a sua dinâmica após a edição da Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal por meio de índices-padrão = The pattern of indebtedness of southern states and their dynamics after issue of tax liability law through index-standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willson Gerigk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é verificar o padrão de endividamento dos estados brasileiros da região sul e a sua dinâmica, após o advento da Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal, a partir da definição de índices-padrão de endividamento com dados de todos os estados brasileiros. A metodologia é caracterizada como descritiva, os procedimentos empregados foram pesquisa bibliográfica e documental e a abordagem é quantitativa, com o uso da técnica de índice-padrão. As variáveis analisadas decorrem da literatura sobre endividamento. São analisados os encerramentos de três gestões estaduais, 2002, 2006 e 2010. Os resultados indicam que a LRF não conseguiu estruturar um padrão de endividamento na região sul, pelo contrário, observou-se que a dinâmica nos três estados é diferente. Também, que o controle sobre o endividamento ficou prejudicado, pois os montantes das dívidas aumentaram e a obtenção de novos empréstimos, nesses estados, resultou em aumento no pagamento dos juros sobre o capital tomado, em relação ao praticado pelo conjunto de estados brasileiros. The aim of this article is to verify the pattern of indebtedness of the Brazilian states of the southern region and its dynamics after the enactment of the Fiscal Responsibility Law, from the definition of standard rates of indebtedness with data from all states. The methodology is characterized as descriptive, the procedures used were literature and documents and the approach is quantitative, using the technique of standard index. The variables derived from the literature on debt. The shutdowns of three state administrations, from 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The results indicate that LRF failed to structure a debt default in the south; on the contrary, it was observed that the dynamic is different in the three states. It was also verified that the control over the debt in these states was delayed because the amounts of debts increased and obtaining new loans in such

  4. Southern Ocean deep convection as a driver of Antarctic warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, J. B.; Martin, T.; Steig, E. J.; Jochum, M.; Park, W.; Rasmussen, S. O.

    2016-03-01

    Simulations with a free-running coupled climate model show that heat release associated with Southern Ocean deep convection variability can drive centennial-scale Antarctic temperature variations of up to 2.0°C. The mechanism involves three steps: Preconditioning: heat accumulates at depth in the Southern Ocean; Convection onset: wind and/or sea ice changes tip the buoyantly unstable system into the convective state; and Antarctic warming: fast sea ice-albedo feedbacks (on annual-decadal time scales) and slow Southern Ocean frontal and sea surface temperature adjustments to convective heat release (on multidecadal-century time scales) drive an increase in atmospheric heat and moisture transport toward Antarctica. We discuss the potential of this mechanism to help drive and amplify climate variability as observed in Antarctic ice core records.

  5. Otimização do layout de marcenarias no sul do espírito santo baseado em parâmetros ergonômicos e de produtividade Layout optimization of joineries in southern espirito santo state based on ergonomic and productivity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado em três marcenarias no sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, com o objetivo de analisar o layout e propor mudanças que otimizem o funcionamento harmônico entre o local de trabalho e o trabalhador, considerando-se fatores ergonômicos, fluxo de produção e produtividade. A coleta de dados foi feita analisando-se as condições do ambiente de trabalho (clima, ruído, iluminação e aplicando uma entrevista para avaliar as condições gerais e de segurança no trabalho. O layout foi avaliado por medições, observação da sequência de trabalho nas máquinas e aplicação do software AutoCAD 2000. Os resultados indicaram que o Índice de Bulbo Úmido e o Termômetro de Globo estavam de acordo com a Norma Regulamentadora nº 15 (atividade moderada, sendo de 26,38 ºC, em média. Os níveis médios de ruído foram de 87,48 dB (A, acima do permitido para uma jornada de 8 h diárias (NR 15. A luminosidade média, encontrada em duas marcenarias, ficou acima da faixa de iluminação mínima recomendada para esse trabalho de maquinarias (NBR 5413/92. Todas as marcenarias tinham disposição desordenada do maquinário em razão da sequência lógica de trabalho, presença de pilastras e resíduos na área útil e de passagem, piso desnivelado, falta de rampas para acesso aos galpões, manutenção de máquinas e equipamentos de forma incorreta, falhas no telhado e ausência de bancadas para facilitar a adoção de uma melhor postura durante o manuseio das peças.This research was carried out in three joineries in southern Espírito Santo State to analyze their layout and consider changes to optimize the harmonious functioning between workplace and worker, considering ergonomic factors, production flow and productivity. Data bases were analyzed taking into account the work environment (climate, noise, illumination, through interviews to evaluate general and work safety conditions. The layout was evaluated by measurements, machine

  6. 西部民族地区农村人力资源开发:成效、影响及对策--以新疆南疆三地州为例%Results,Effects and Countermeasures of Rural Human Resource Development in Western Minority Areas:A Case Study of Three Prefecture-level States of Southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明明; 龚新蜀; 李光明

    2016-01-01

    人力资源开发不仅是西部民族地区可持续精准扶贫的重要举措,也是西部民族地区农村全面建成小康社会的根本途径。文章以新疆南疆三地州为例,对西部民族地区农村人力资源开发成效、影响因素和实施对策展开系统研究。结果表明:西部民族地区农村人力资源开发总体成效呈现缓慢增长趋势,2009年后从低级水平迈入中级水平,其中,农村劳动力迁移流动和人力资源素质方面的成效明显,但人力资源规模与结构调整成效却呈现持续恶化态势。农民个人及家庭特征(家庭收入、子女数量、人力资源开发意识及行为)、农村发展条件(政府支持、基础教育、技能培训、文化环境、外出务工机会)、农村社会保障制度(劳动权利、法律普及、安全秩序)等因素对农村人力资源开发成效具有显著影响。西部民族地区应通过引导农民树立人力资源开发的意识,重点加强农村人力资源开发的软、硬环境建设,不断完善人力资源开发的制度保障机制,以提升农村人力资源开发成效。%Rural human resource development is not only an important measure of sustainable precise poverty alleviation ,but also a critical route to rural comprehensive well-off society in western minority areas .Based on three prefecture-level states in southern Xinjiang Uygur autono-mous region ,this paper systematically analyzes the effectiveness ,influencing factors and counter-measures of rural human resource development in western minority areas .It draws the results as follows :the overall effectiveness of rural human resource development in western minority re-gions experiences a slowly growth trend ,and shifts from low level to medium level after 2009 ;the effectiveness in terms of rural labor migration and human resources quality improves signifi-cantly ,but the effectiveness in terms of human resources size and structure adjustment

  7. ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA DE CUSTOS DE PRODUÇÃO E RENDA NA ATIVIDADE LEITEIRA NA REGIÃO SUL GOIANO: 1997/1998 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DAIRY PRODUCTION COSTS AND INCOME IN SOUTHERN GOIÁS STATE 1997/1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pinto da Silva Júnior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo visa a analisar comparativamente o custo de produção e a renda da atividade leiteira na Mesorregião Sul Goiano, de outubro de 1997 a setembro de 1998, a partir de uma amostra intencional composta por 34 produtores, divididos em três grupos. Os elementos de análise foram: unidade animal (UA, vaca em lactação (VL, hectare de pastagem (ha e relação renda total e custo total. Os dois primeiros indicam o desempenho relativo do plantel leiteiro, enquanto o terceiro avalia o das pastagens. A relação renda total-custo total apresenta índices inferiores à unidade (0,60 a 0,93 que indicam que, em termos médios, os empresários não conseguiram obter retornos positivos líquidos para suas inversões. Os resultados e índices, calculados a partir dos valores “caixa”, revelam que todas as relações renda-custo são maiores que a unidade (1,06 a 1,31, que indica o relativo sucesso financeiro dos empresários do setor leiteiro da região Sul Goiano. Dificuldades devem ser superadas pelo setor leiteiro, tais como reduzir os custos fixos da atividade; melhorar a produtividade, o manejo do rebanho e a utilização das pastagens; reduzir as diferenças na profissionalização dos produtores; evitar a instabilidade na produção mensal de leite e nos preços recebidos pelos produtores.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Renda; custo; rentabilidade leiteira.

    This paper shows a comparative analysis of the dairy cattle production cost and income in the Southern Goiás State mesoregion using data from an intentional sample of 34 producers, from October 1997 to September l998. The main variables were the animal unit (UA, the number of milking cows (VL, hectare of pasture (ha, and total income/total cost ratio. The first two indicate the herd relative performance while the third evaluates

  8. Quantificação dos resíduos potencialmente infectantes presentes nos resíduos sólidos urbanos da regional sul de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noil Amorim de Menezes Cussiol

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi o de conhecer a parcela de resíduos potencialmente infectantes ­ aqueles contendo fezes, urina, sangue e fluidos corpóreos ­ de origem domiciliar, presentes nos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Em agosto e setembro de 2002, os resíduos da região Sul de Belo Horizonte foram coletados e levados ao Centro de Tratamento e Disposição Final de Resíduos Sólidos da BR 040, para segregação e quantificação. Os "perfurocortantes" contribuíram com 0,02±0,02% dos resíduos coletados e a presença dos "não-perfurocortantes" foi de 5,47±1,11%. Na categoria "perfurocortante", os aparelhos de barbear predominaram (0,01±0,01%, enquanto que na categoria "não-perfurocortante" as maiores frações foram de papel higiênico (3,00±0,90%, fraldas descartáveis (2,21±1,08% e absorventes higiênicos (0,22±0,12%. Os resíduos infectantes de origem domiciliar corresponderam ao dobro da fração total (infectante e comum dos resíduos de unidades de serviços de saúde. A discussão foi feita sob a égide dos perigos à saúde e segurança dos trabalhadores da coleta formal (garis e informal (catadores de rua e lixões.This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds made up 0.02±0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47±1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01±0.01%, while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00±0.90%, diapers (2.21±1.08%, and sanitary napkins (0.22±0.12%. Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common from healthcare

  9. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  10. Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen

    2009-08-21

    Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349

  11. A review of marine phylogeography in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P. Barker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The southern African marine realm is located at the transition zone between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific biomes. Its biodiversity is particularly rich and comprises faunal and floral elements from the two major oceanic regions, as well as a large number of endemics. Within this realm, strikingly different biota occur in close geographic proximity to each other, and many of the species with distributions spanning two or more of the region’s marine biogeographic provinces are divided into evolutionary units that can often only be distinguished on the basis of genetic data. In this review, we describe the state of marine phylogeography in southern Africa, that is, the study of evolutionary relationships at the species level, or amongst closely related species, in relation to the region’s marine environment. We focus particularly on coastal phylogeography, where much progress has recently been made in identifying phylogeographic breaks and explaining how they originated and are maintained. We also highlight numerous shortcomings that should be addressed in the near future. These include: the limited data available for commercially important organisms, particularly offshore species; the paucity of oceanographic data for nearshore areas; a dearth of studies based on multilocus data; and the fact that studying the role of diversifying selection in speciation has been limited to physiological approaches to the exclusion of genetics. It is becoming apparent that the southern African marine realm is one of the world’s most interesting environments in which to study the evolutionary processes that shape not only regional, but also global patterns of marine biodiversity.

  12. METRIC Estimated ET Evaluation on the Semiarid Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, J. L.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, combine to increase the demand for efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on crop water use. In this study, we applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, and micrometeorological data measured at a grass reference ET weather station maintained by the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network (TXHPET). For this purpose, a Landsat Thematic Mapper image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 at 11:26 AM CST. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the METRIC model was evaluated using measured ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 2.4 to 7.8 mm/d. Good agreement was found between the remote sensing based ET and measured ET. Comparison of estimated daily mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 9% of the measured ET (r2 = 0.89) with a mean square error of 0.9 mm/d. The use of METRIC for advective conditions of the Southern High Plains is promising; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions.

  13. Performance of a Southern Ocean sea ice forecast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, P.; Roberts, A.; Budd, W.

    2003-12-01

    The presentation examines the forecast peformance of an oriented fracture sea ice model applied to the Southern Ocean to predict sea ice state up to five days in advance. The model includes a modified Coulombic elastic-viscous-plastic rheology, enthalpy conserving thermodynamics and a new method of parameterising thickness distribution mechanics. 15 ice thickness classes are employed within each grid cell with a horizontal resolution of 50km. The model provides considerable insight into the thickness evolution and climatology of Antarctic sea ice. To date, thickness evolution of the Southern Ocean sea ice zone has mostly been assessed using course two-category models in climate simulations and results presented in this talk provide much greater detail over some existing model output. Simulations are presented from the model driven with NCEP-2 atmospheric analyses, NOAA sea surface temperatures, and mean climatogological currents generated using an eddy resolving ocean model. Analyses are generated by nudging ice concentrations with daily satellite derived open water fractions, and simulations using this method are compared to those without. There are important considerations in assimilating passive microwave ice concentration data into thickness distribution models, and particular attention is given to the treatment of lead ice and the impact this has on estimated total Southern Ocean sea ice volume. It is shown that nudging the model with satellite derived concentrations has an impact on ice mechanics as judged from simulated buoy tracks. A comparison with sonar soundings of sea ice draft is also favourable but shows variation with location. Whilst 5 day forecasts are reasonably skilled, predictive performance changes with season. Application of this research to operational ocean data assimilation systems is discussed in the final stages of the talk.

  14. Southern Ocean phytoplankton turnover in response to stepwise Antarctic cooling over the past 15 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, James S.; Cody, Rosie D.; Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim R.

    2016-06-01

    It is not clear how Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities, which form the base of the marine food web and are a crucial element of the carbon cycle, respond to major environmental disturbance. Here, we use a new model ensemble reconstruction of diatom speciation and extinction rates to examine phytoplankton response to climate change in the southern high latitudes over the past 15 My. We identify five major episodes of species turnover (origination rate plus extinction rate) that were coincident with times of cooling in southern high-latitude climate, Antarctic ice sheet growth across the continental shelves, and associated seasonal sea-ice expansion across the Southern Ocean. We infer that past plankton turnover occurred when a warmer-than-present climate was terminated by a major period of glaciation that resulted in loss of open-ocean habitat south of the polar front, driving non-ice adapted diatoms to regional or global extinction. These findings suggest, therefore, that Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities tolerate “baseline” variability on glacial–interglacial timescales but are sensitive to large-scale changes in mean climate state driven by a combination of long-period variations in orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide perturbations.

  15. Psychoactive ubulawu spiritual medicines and healing dynamics in the initiation process of Southern Bantu diviners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    The use of psychoactive plants by traditional healers in southern Africa appears to be a neglected area of ethnobotanical research. This article explores the healing dynamics involved in the use of popular psychoactive plant preparations known as ubulawu in the initiation rituals of Southern Bantu diviners. Research methods include a review of the literature, fieldwork interviews with Southern Bantu diviners, and an analysis of experiential accounts from diverse informants on their use of ubulawu. Findings reveal that there is widespread reliance on ubulawu as psychoactive spiritual medicines by the indigenous people of southern Africa to communicate with their ancestral spirits--so as to bring luck, and to treat mental disturbances. In the case of the Southern Bantu diviners, ubulawu used in a ritual initiation process acts as a mnemonic aid and medicine to familiarize the initiates with enhanced states of awareness and related psychospiritual phenomena such as enhanced intuition and dreams of the ancestral spirits, who teach the initiates how to find and use medicinal plants. The progression of the latter phenomena indicates the steady success of the initiates' own healing integration. Various factors such as psychological attitude and familiarization, correct plant combinations/synergy and a compatible healer-initiate relationship influence ubulawu responsiveness. PMID:23061321

  16. Southern Ocean phytoplankton turnover in response to stepwise Antarctic cooling over the past 15 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, James S; Cody, Rosie D; Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim R

    2016-06-21

    It is not clear how Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities, which form the base of the marine food web and are a crucial element of the carbon cycle, respond to major environmental disturbance. Here, we use a new model ensemble reconstruction of diatom speciation and extinction rates to examine phytoplankton response to climate change in the southern high latitudes over the past 15 My. We identify five major episodes of species turnover (origination rate plus extinction rate) that were coincident with times of cooling in southern high-latitude climate, Antarctic ice sheet growth across the continental shelves, and associated seasonal sea-ice expansion across the Southern Ocean. We infer that past plankton turnover occurred when a warmer-than-present climate was terminated by a major period of glaciation that resulted in loss of open-ocean habitat south of the polar front, driving non-ice adapted diatoms to regional or global extinction. These findings suggest, therefore, that Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities tolerate "baseline" variability on glacial-interglacial timescales but are sensitive to large-scale changes in mean climate state driven by a combination of long-period variations in orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide perturbations. PMID:27274061

  17. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  18. Microphysics and Southern Ocean Cloud Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Daniel T.

    Global climate models (GCMs) change their cloud properties in the Southern Ocean (SO) with warming in a qualitatively consistent fashion. Cloud albedo increases in the mid-latitudes and cloud fraction decreases in the subtropics. This creates a distinctive 'dipole' structure in the SW cloud feedback. However, the shape of the dipole varies from model to model. In this thesis we discuss the microphysical mechanisms underlying the SW cloud feedback over the mid-latitude SO. We will focus on the negative lobe of the dipole. The negative SW cloud feedback in the mid-latitudes is created by transitions from ice to liquid in models. If ice transitions to liquid in mixed-phase clouds the cloud albedo increases because ice crystals are larger than liquid droplets and therefore more reflective for a constant mass of water. Decreases in precipitation efficiency further enhance this effect by decreasing sinks of cloud water. This transition is dependent on the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. Parameterizations vary wildly between models and GCMs disagree by up to 35 K on the temperature where ice and liquid are equally prevalent. This results in a wide spread in the model predictions of the increase in liquid water path (LWP, where the path is the vertically integrated mass of water) with warming that drives the negative optical depth cloud feedback. It is found that this disagreement also results in a wide array of climate mean-states as models that create liquid at lower temperatures have a higher mean-state LWP, lower ice water path (IWP), and higher condensed (ice and liquid) water path (CWP). This presents a problem in climate models. GCMs need to have a reasonable planetary albedo in their climate mean-state. We show evidence that GCMs have tuned cloud fraction to compensate for the variation in mid-latitude cloud albedo driven by the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. This tuning results in mid-latitude clouds that are both too few and too bright as well as a

  19. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  20. Aerosol from Organic Nitrogen in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute significantly to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), a portion of ambient organic aerosol was attributed to isoprene oxidation and organic nitrogen from BVO...

  1. Southern Africa power pool : benefits, achievements, challenges and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP) was presented. The SAPP was formed by 12 southern African developing countries as a means of minimizing electricity costs and maintaining reliability. The pool includes over 200 million people in a region of 9 million square meters. The SAPP relies on long-term bilateral contracts for electricity supply between customers and generators. The contracts are supplemented by short-term contracts in the short-term energy market. The pool uses a pricing mechanism with 13 detailed schedules dealing with firm power contracts of varying duration; non-firm power contracts of varying duration; mutual support contracts and emergency energy and control area services; scheduled outage energy; and energy banking. Benefits of the pool include reductions or postponements in generating capacity, reserves and fuel costs. New major initiatives planned by the SAPP include increasing interconnection points, the construction of new transmission lines, and the formulation of regional environmental studies. SAPP is now making plans to increase rural electrification in its membership countries with funding from an electricity levy. It was concluded that political and economic co-operation between member states has resulted in the sustained supply of energy in the region. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  2. A Quantitative Approach to Flash Flood Prediction in Southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Gibson, C. V.; Jackson, M.; McInerney, B.

    2005-05-01

    Flash flood monitoring and prediction is considered to be a critical part of National Weather Service (NWS) severe weather operations in the semi-arid western United States. The complex terrain and steep slopes in this area, combined with impervious rock and soils, can induce flash flooding with relatively light rainfall. This reduces the value of using the more common conceptual flash flood models developed for the central and eastern United States. Thus, forecasters at the NWS Weather Forecast Office in Salt Lake City, Utah, have relied on a locally developed conceptual model to predict the likelihood of flash flooding on a given day. Until this study, common practice was to assume that humid and unstable air combined with low wind speeds in the lower troposphere would yield rainfall conductive to flash flooding. A new approach to flash flood prediction, exploring the connection between atmospheric variables and flash flood reports, will increase situational awareness and provide forecasters with quantitative flash flood guidance. A record of historical flash floods in southern Utah was compiled to determine the frequency of events from 1959 to 2003. A complete data set, consisting of both historical flash flooding days and non-event days, was assembled. A trial of the 2003 three-month flash flood season assessed which variables and which dataset to use in studying the eight flash flood seasons from 1996 to 2003; the trial concluded that the best source of atmospheric data was a set of soundings from Flagstaff, Arizona, a location close to and generally upstream of southern Utah. Neural networks were used to determine the relationship between the atmospheric state and a particular day's flash flood severity. The final neural network used six input variables and a discretized output variable. Precipitable water, low-level relative humidity, convective available potential energy, the 500hPa height change between 12Z and 0Z the following day, and the previous day

  3. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  4. Southern African species of Mentha L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Mentha L. occurring in Southern Africa are reviewed and a key is provided to two indigenous and one naturalized species.  M. wissii Launert is reduced to M. longifolia (L. Huds. subsp. wissii (Launert Codd.

  5. Getting southern Sudanese children to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibeso Luswata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Southern Sudan’s Go to School Initiative,supported by UNICEF, which seeks to get 1.6 millionchildren back in school by the end of 2007, incorporateskey elements of the INEE Minimum Standards for Educationin Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction.

  6. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    the southern African regions. Some of the main research problems that have been dealt with during this research are about (1) the heterogeneity scale of crustal structure and composition, (2) the depth extent of the cratonic keels and their layering, and (3) the strength of crustal anisotropy. The...

  7. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans.

  8. Gender, education and peace in southern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Expanding access to education for boys and girls is a critical Millennium Development Goal and peace-building challenge. In southern Sudan, as in other post-conflict societies, many girls remain excluded from schooling opportunities which could help develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes to build a peaceful society.

  9. Fostering Technology Absorption in Southern African Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This book seeks to understand how firms in southern Africa absorb technology and how policy makers can hurry the process along. It identifies channels of technology transfer and absorption through trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) and constraints to greater technology absorption, and it discusses policy options open to the government and the private sector in light of relevant inte...

  10. Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Lewthwaite, Penny; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong How; Last, Anna; Kumar, Ravi; Desai, Anita; Begum, Ashia; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Shankar, M Veera; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C.; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  12. Geomorphic Aspects of Southern African Dryland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Southern African drylands are host to stable land surfaces with limited denudation rates. The resulting soils manifest long term weathering processes, including leaching, collapse and precipitation of calcium carbonate as is the case in the semi-arid Kalahari. Despite the thickness of some of the Kalahari soils and sands, they are furthermore depicting a range of neotectonic land forms and processes, associated with the contemporary rifting of the southern African continent. This is particularly apparent in satellite imagery and digital elevation data that can be used to examine regional scale surface characteristics. Southern Africa is also home to significant global and regional scale dust sources, which are mostly associated with inland basins and playas. Plumes of dust emitted from playas are able to impact upon downwind soil quality. This can be observed in the both the western Makgadikgadi as well as the Central Namib gravel plain. In the Namib playa dust contributes to the accumulation of gravel plain fines, leaching and massive pedogenic gypsum accumulations. It is apparent that Southern African dryland soils are home to aeolian inputs, host extensive duricrusts and depict neotectonic movement which should be of interest to the wider earth science community.

  13. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea

  14. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  15. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  16. Epidemia de encefalite por arbovírus na região sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1975 e 1976: aspectos da distribuição cronológica e geográfica dos casos Encephalitis outbreak in the southern region of the State of S. Paulo in 1975 and 1976: aspects concerning chronological and geographical distribution of the cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a evolução de uma epidemia de encefalite por arbovirus do grupo B (flavivirus em 20 municípios da região sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, durante os anos de 1975 e 1976. Verificou-se que a moléstia se propagou em forma de onda epidêmica na direção leste-oeste e leste-sudoeste. A cadeia de montanhas situada ao norte e noroeste da região parece ter-se constituido em barreira à doença. Foi observada também variação estacional, com maior morbidade nos meses de verão e início do outono.The evolution of an encephalitis outbreak due to group B arbovirus was studied in 20 districts in the southern region of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1975 and 1976. It was noticed that the disease spread in an epidemic wave in the east west and east southwest directions. The mountains located in the north and north west zones seem to have acted as a barrier to the spread of the arboviruses. A seasonal incidence with most of the cases occurring during late Summer and early Fall was also noticed.

  17. Living in the shadows: internally displaced people in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Ryan Sinclair

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Southern African Studies at the University of the Western Cape has recently begun a research project designed to investigate the extent, conditions and prognoses of internally displaced people (IDPs in southern African countries.

  18. Health Effects of the 2003 Southern California Wildfires on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Künzli, Nino; Avol, Ed; Wu, Jun; Gauderman, W. James; Rappaport, Ed; Millstein, Joshua; Bennion, Jonathan; McConnell, Rob; Gilliland, Frank D.; Berhane, Kiros; Lurmann, Fred; Winer, Arthur; Peters, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: In late October 2003, Southern California wildfires burned more than 3,000 km2. The wildfires produced heavy smoke that affected several communities participating in the University of Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS).

  19. Techniques and strategies in neurocritical care originating from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Jacobsen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years.......To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years....

  20. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... CODE 3410-11-P...

  1. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in..., Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  2. Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159369.html Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer Conditions ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus could spread in southern Europe this summer ...

  3. Revision of the genus Dombeya (Sterculiaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Verdoon

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Dombeya Cav. occurring in southern Africa are revised and a key is provided to the eight species present in the region. A new record for southern Africa, D. quinqueseta (Del. Exell, is included.

  4. Southern Taiwan - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of Taiwan is southern Taiwan. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of Taiwan is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central Taiwan the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern Taiwan [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern Taiwan, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern Taiwan the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from Taiwan by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern Taiwan itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central Taiwan orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around Taiwan shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern Taiwan, and that southern Taiwan is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under

  5. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the develo...

  6. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  7. Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialard, J. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India); Terray, P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), CNRS, IRD, Paris (France); Duvel, J.P. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Nanjundiah, R.S. [IISc, Center of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Shenoi, S.S.C. [Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad (India); Shankar, D. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa (India)

    2011-08-15

    Most of the annual rainfall over India occurs during the Southwest (June-September) and Northeast (October-December) monsoon periods. In March 2008, however, Southern peninsular India and Sri Lanka received the largest rainfall anomaly on record since 1979, with amplitude comparable to summer-monsoon interannual anomalies. This anomalous rainfall appeared to be modulated at intraseasonal timescale by the Madden Julian Oscillation, and was synchronous with a decaying La Nina event in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a coincidence or indicative of a teleconnection pattern? In this paper, we explore factors controlling rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka between January and April, i.e. outside of the southwest and northeast monsoons. This period accounts for 20% of annual precipitation over Sri Lanka and 10% over the southern Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Interannual variability is strong (about 40% of the January-April climatology). Intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over southern India and Sri Lanka are significantly associated with equatorial eastward propagation, characteristic of the Madden Julian Oscillation. At the interannual timescale, we find a clear connection with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); with El Ninos being associated with decreased rainfall (correlation of -0.46 significant at the 98% level). There is also a significant link with local SST anomalies over the Indian Ocean, and in particular with the inter-hemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Indian Ocean (with colder SST south of the equator being conducive to more rainfall, correlation of 0.55 significant at the 99% level). La Ninas/cold SSTs south of the equator tend to have a larger impact than El Ninos. We discuss two possible mechanisms that could explain these statistical relationships: (1) subsidence over southern India remotely forced by Pacific SST anomalies; (2) impact of ENSO-forced regional Indian Ocean SST anomalies on convection. However, the

  8. Beyond Turkey. The EU's energy policy and the southern corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, Kristin [Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Western Industrialised Countries; Vietor, Marcel (eds.) [German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP), Berlin (Germany). Alfred von Oppenheim Center for European Policy Studies

    2010-11-15

    The European Union is seeking to diversify its natural gas supply and intends to establish a new supply route in addition to the three existing ones, from Norway (Northern Corridor), Northern Africa (Western Corridor) and Russia (Eastern Corridor). The fourth, Southern Corridor will make it possible to have natural gas shipped from the Caspian region and the Middle East to customers in Southeastern Europe and the EU. Turkey will be the key transit country for these deliveries via a multitude of pipelines, including Nabucco. Establishing the Southern Corridor could significantly increase the EU's security of supply of natural gas and accelerate Turkey's economic and political integration with the European Union. Furthermore, the inherent need to cooperate among the countries concerned in the Caspian region and the Middle East could enhance regional stability and security in the EU's neighbourhood. But the question remains whether these incentives, as well as the political and financial support that the EU has already provided for setting up the Southern Corridor, are enough to enable the EU to secure sufficient gas supplies and dispel doubts with regard to the Corridor's realisation. Further financial and political commitments on the part of the EU and its member states could boost the Southern Corridor, as could intensified energy cooperation with Turkey or Iranian or Russian participation. The EU and its members must decide whether to continue or, in one way or another, reconsider and strengthen their support for the Southern Corridor. In any case, establishing the Southern Corridor will be the litmus test of their willingness and ability to forge a meaningful foreign energy policy. (orig.)

  9. Variation in the abundance of southern fish species in the southern North Sea in relation to hydrography and wind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.; Kamp, van de G.

    1996-01-01

    Is the increased abundance of southern fish species in the southern North Sea during recent years a signal of a long-term trend, or can it be explained by random variability? Time-series data on the abundance of 12 southern fish species were derived from the 1st quarter International Bottom Trawling

  10. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore the natural

  11. G.R.I.T.S.: the southern subculture of violence and homicide offenses by girls raised in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Jessica M; D'Antonio-Del Rio, Julia M; Chauvin, Chantel D

    2014-03-01

    The southern subculture of violence is a theoretical perspective that has been examined by numerous scholars in an attempt to explain the high rates of violence in the Southern United States. Research over the past several decades has converged on a few explanations for this violence, including a culture of honor, a frontier mentality, and a presence of evangelical Protestantism. The primary focus of this research has been on either male offending or race disaggregated offending. The influence of the southern subculture of violence on female offending has only recently come to the forefront and has concentrated on relatively recent time periods (1990s to present). The present study examines the effect of southern culture on female-perpetrated homicides in the 1970s, a time when female offending was on the rise. Utilizing a southern subculture of violence index, our county-level negative binomial regression analysis finds that in counties with more Southern-born residents and a higher presence of evangelical Protestantism, female homicide offending is higher. Implications of these results and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:24162757

  12. Does southern California have an energy future: the importance of Sundesert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case for building the Sundesert nuclear plant illustrates Southern California's energy problems and leads to a proposal for a new approach to siting power plants. Opposition to Sundesert has led to reversals by the State Energy Commission and the Public Utilities Commission on the role of nuclear energy in California. At stake is whether Southern California will have the energy to achieve its societal and individual goals. A comparison of projected energy supplies with projected demands indicates that, without Sundesert, the energy deficit will have to be bridged by imported oil. The Energy Commission's advocacy of oil-fired plants is counter to the shift to alternative energy supplies. The author proposes that rate-setting and power plant certification be combined in one regulatory authority in order to expedite capital formation. He also proposes a clear delineation be established between state and federal responsibilities

  13. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  14. Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

  15. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dana L.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K.; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gaul, Linda

    2016-01-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  16. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Arridge, C S; Achilleos, N; Bogdanova, Y V; Bunce, E J; Cowley, S W H; Fazakerley, A N; Khurana, K K; Lamy, L; Leisner, J S; Roussos, E; Russell, C T; Zarka, P; Coates, A J; Dougherty, M K; Jones, G H; Krimigis, S M; Krupp, N

    2016-01-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth have enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989 but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly studying the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and iii) double cusp morphologies are...

  17. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  18. Nuclear medicine development in the southern urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last 25 years results of organization work at Nuclear Medicine cluster in the Southern Urals are presented. The main purpose of the project was - to create one of the largest Russian platforms for the development and application of nuclear technology. A successive branched system of radiopharmaceutical production and radiopharmaceuticals consumers effectively operate in the region, and is provided by prepared staff and is able to provide high-tech care for cancer patients using nuclear program in the field of health care

  19. Gulf of Antalya, Southern Turkish Coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The historic and strategic southern Turkish coastline and Gulf of Antalya (37.0N, 31.0E) has, since ancient times, served as the classic land and sea invasion routes to the riches of the Near East as Persian, Greek, Roman and later European Crusader armies traveled the familiar routes of conquest. Even in modern times, this area is still the seat of political and military unrest as diverse cultural groups still strive for regional control.

  20. The Dynamics of Conflict in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Anders; Andersson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged insurgency in Southern Thailand has claimed thousands of victims since the outbreak of major violence in 2004. Drawing on a unique data-set covering all violent incidents since 2004, a hot spot analysis shows that the bulk of the violence is concentrated in clusters of sub-districts forming hotbeds of conflict. Drivers of conflict are identified through a comparative analysis of the hotspots of violence with less violent areas. The analysis shows that identity manifested in lang...

  1. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  2. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jirarattanasopa P; Panon N; Hiranyachattada S; Bhurayanontachai P

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210&n...

  3. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jirarattanasopa, Pichai

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 2...

  4. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  5. An ecological bibliography for southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Engelbrecht

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available An ecological bibliography for southern Africa up until 1975 is currently being compiled. References recorded by researchers at the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria are being expanded and incorporated into a computer data base. All references are annotated with codes, key words, biomes and regions where applicable. The IBM/STAIRS programme package is used for retrieving references by means of authors and subject headings as well as sorting alphabetically.

  6. Beta-Thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, A; Furbetta, M; Ximenes, A; Angius, A; Rosatelli, C; Tuveri, T; Scalas, M T; Falchi, A M; Maccioni, L; Melis, M A; R. Galanello

    1981-01-01

    In this study the prevalence of the different beta-thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia was investigated by cellulose acetate and agar gel electrophoresis or globin chain synthesis analysis on column chromatography or both in (1) all the patients (347) presenting with thalassaemia major or intermedia at our haematology service from 1976 to 1979, and (2) a group of 82 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major randomly chosen from 236 under our care. Apart from six subjects with...

  7. Vertical Eddy Fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Zika, Jan D.; Le Sommer, Julien; Dufour, Carolina O.; Molines, Jean-Marc; Barnier, Bernard; Brasseur, Pierre; Dussin, Raphaël; Penduff, Thierry; Iudicone, Daniele; Lenton, Andrew; Madec, Gurvan; Mathiot, Pierre; Orr, James; Shuckburgh, Emily; Vivier, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    The overturning circulation of the Southern Ocean has been investigated using eddying coupled ocean–sea ice models. The circulation is diagnosed in both density–latitude coordinates and in depth–density coordinates. Depth–density coordinates follow streamlines where the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is equivalent barotropic, capture the descent of Antarctic Bottom Water, follow density outcrops at the surface, and can be interpreted energetically. In density–latitude coordinates, wind-driven ...

  8. Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Sudha; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Larsen, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus isolates from AIDS patients in southern California were characterized by molecular analyses. Pheromone MFα1 and MF a 1 gene fragments were polymerase chain reaction–amplified with fluorescently labeled primers and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on DNA analyzer. CE–fragment-length analyses (CE-FLAs) and CE–single-strand conformation polymorphisms (CE-SSCPs) were used to determine Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), C. neoformans (Cn) varieties neoformans (CnVN) and grubii (CnVG)...

  9. Leptospira infection among pigs in southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Boqvist, Sofia

    2002-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that in pigs primarily causes reproductive disturbances. The disease is a zoonosis, i.e. it can be transmitted between animals and humans. Leptospirosis is spread worldwide, although it is of most importance in tropical regions where animal management and climate favour transmission and survival of the bacteria in the environment, such as the tropical Mekong delta (MD) in southern Vietnam. In the MD, reproduction disturbances in pigs due to infectious agen...

  10. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  11. Star Formation in Southern Seyfert Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Duncan; Norris, Ray

    1998-01-01

    We have produced radio maps, using the ATCA, of the central regions of six southern Seyfert 2 galaxies (NGC 1365, 4945, 6221, 6810, 7582, and Circinus) with circumnuclear star formation, to estimate the relative contribution of star formation activity compared to activity from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The radio morphologies range from extended diffuse structures to compact nuclear emission, with no evidence, even in the relatively compact sources, for synchrotron self--absorption. I...

  12. Regional investments in Southern European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the capacity of four medium-sized cities in Southern Europe, concerning the current situation of their assets (agglomeration economies, urban infrastructures, factors of labor and cost, etc.), the degree of development policies implementation and effectiveness by local authorities and finally the level of local authorities capacity to plan and implement particular policies and partnerships with the private sector in order to shape a favorable and attractive magnitude inve...

  13. Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  14. Competitive Dynamics of Southern California's Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Allen J. Scott

    2005-01-01

    A general outline of the functional and spatial characteristics of the clothing industry in Southern California is sketched out. Two important trends are noted: (a) the increasing design- and knowledge-intensive structure of the industry and (b) the marked increase in offshore subcontracting by local manufacturers that has occurred in recent years. The predicaments and promises of this situation are explored. Will the industry simply continue to lose its employment base in the region? Will it...

  15. Southern California: The Detroit of Electric Cars?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen J. Scott

    1993-01-01

    The California economy is in the doldrums, especially in the Los Angeles region, owing in large part to the decline of aerospace-defense industries. The region also suffers from the nation's worst pollution problem, owing largely to its dependence on automobiles. So, we're led to ask whether these linked perils might be converted into a combined opportunity. We ask whether we might blunt both the environmental and the employment problems by building a new electric-vehicle industry in Southern...

  16. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  17. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  18. Propagation characteristics of thunderstorms in southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, M.; Bartenschlager, B.; Finke, U.

    1998-05-01

    The propagation of thunderstorms in southern Germany was investigated. The thunderstorms were observed by a lightning position system during the summer months of the years 1992 to 1996. On average every second day thunderstorms were observed anywhere in southern Germany. In general thunderstorms approach from westerly and south-westerly directions. The average speed is 13 m/s. No significant relation between the occurrence of thunderstorms and the large scale synoptic pattern described by the Grosswetterlagen (large scale weather pattern) was found. Thunderstorms were observed during almost all Grosswetterlagen. The reduction to 8 weather pattern based on the low-level flow in southern Germany showed that thunderstorms are likely when the flow has westerly directions (43%) or easterly directions (20%). Three distinct groups of different lightning patterns could be identified; stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the wind shear were retrieved from the radio soundings from Muenchen and Stuttgart. On average CAPE was 583 J/kg for stationary, 701 J/kg for moving thunderstorms, and 876 J/kg for thunderstorm lines. The average bulk Richardson numbers are 152, 80 and 52 for stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines, respectively. The steering level was found to be at about 3 and 6 km m.s.l. However, it should be noted, that in most cases the soundings do not completely describe the local environment of thunderstorms, since radio soundings are only available twice a day. (orig.)

  19. Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

  20. The Results of Hemoglobinopathy Screening in Hatay, the Southern Part of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gonul Oktay

    2014-01-01

    Aim: %u03B2-Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are common genetic disorders in Turkey. Because of this reason, either anemic people or couples before marriage are investigated for hemoglobinopathies routinly. In this retrospective study, our aim was to determine the frequency of %u03B2-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Hatay, which is located in the southern part of Turkey. Material and Method: In this study, data from 70226 individuals, admitted to Antakya State Hospital Hemoglobinopathy...

  1. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha; Igor Soares de Oliveira; Marilia Teresinha Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2), Bufonidae (2), Centrolenidae (1), Cycloramphidae (1), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (18), Hylodidae (1), Leiuperidae (2), Leptodactylidae (3), and Microhylidae (1). Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while ...

  2. Factors associated with recurrence of alcohol-related traffic violations in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aurinez R. Schmitz; Goldim, José R; Luciano S. P. Guimarães; Lopes, Fernanda M.; Felix Kessler; Tanara Sousa; Veralice M. Gonçalves; Flavio Pechansky

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze variables associated with recurrence of blood alcohol content (BAC)-related traffic violations among drivers in southern Brazil. Method: This cross-sectional study included 12,204 driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders according to data provided by the Rio Grande do Sul state Transportation Department. Sociodemographic characteristics, license duration, license category, and psychological assessment results were analyzed. Drivers convicted of DUI more than once in...

  3. Southern Philippines and the policy of the second front in the global war on terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jihoon P.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis analyzes the effects of the United States' policy of the second front in the global war on terrorism (GWOT) on the conflict in the southern Philippines. The policy's reliance on intervention measures that are both "preemptive" and "direct" by military means echoes Mearsheimer's argument that "simply put, great powers are primed for offense." The question may be asked: how effective is the second front policy in terms of resolv...

  4. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody detection in blood donors in the Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Araújo; E.E.S. Vianna; M.E.A. Berne

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' Disease, is a widely spread protozoa in America. Blood transfusion is the secondly most important way of acquiring the infection. In blood banks, tests are performed to eliminate potentially infected blood. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity for T. cruzi in blood samples of donor's candidates in Southern Brazil. The study was based on a sampling containing all blood donors of Hemopel - a Pelotas City Blood Center, Rio Grande do Sul State...

  5. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

  6. Eddy heat flux in the Southern Ocean: response to variable wind forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, Andrew Mcc.; Meredith, Michael P; Blundell, Jeffrey R.; Wilson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We assess the role of time-dependent eddy variability in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in influencing warming of the Southern Ocean. For this, we use an eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic model of the wind-driven circulation, and quantify the response of circumpolar transport, eddy kinetic energy and eddy heat transport to changes in winds. On interannual timescales, the model exhibits the behaviour of an "eddy saturated" ocean state, where increases in wind stress do not signicantly ...

  7. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.) and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Briano; Luis Calcaterra; Laura Varone

    2012-01-01

    We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL) since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is repo...

  8. Scenario of research and intellectual production in the area of didactics in the southern of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Fernández Aquino; Vânia Maria de Oliveira Vieira; Marilene Ribeiro Resende; Maria Célia Borges

    2016-01-01

    The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of r...

  9. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of gestational diabetes: A retrospective cohort study from Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreelakshmi, P. R.; Nair, Sanjeev; Soman, Biju; Alex, Rani; K. Vijayakumar; Kutty, V. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes is on the rise. Understanding the various outcomes of it is necessary to face this challenge. Objectives: To study the frequency of occurrence of various maternal and fetal outcomes among gestational diabetes patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in rural Kerala, a southern state of India. The study participants were followed up for a period of 4 years, from 2007 to 2011. The participants included 60 women with ges...

  10. Inter-annual and seasonal trends in cetacean distribution, density and abundance off southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, GS; Thomas, L; Whitaker, K.; Douglas, AB; Calambokidis, J.; Hildebrand, JA

    2015-01-01

    Funding was provided by the Chief of Naval Operations Environmental Readiness Division, the United States Navy’s Pacific Fleet, the Naval Postgraduate School Grant #N00244-11-1-027, and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Living Marine Resources Program. Trends in cetacean density and distribution off southern California were assessed through visual line-transect surveys during thirty-seven California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) cruises from July 2004–Novemb...

  11. Social dimensions of volcanic hazards, risk and emergency response procedures in southern Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Deanne Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Katla volcano in southern Iceland is one the most hazardous in the country. Frequent, destructive eruptions producing catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst floods), tephra fall and lightning hazards pose a serious risk to many local communities. Extensive geological and geophysical research details the current state of Katla and provides insights into past eruptive episodes but only one study, conducted with residents from two communities in 2004, had assessed Katla with respect to th...

  12. Popularising eye health services in southern Mexico: community workers meet a felt need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Michon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Programmes for blindness prevention in southern Mexico face multiple challenges. The people in greatest need live in remote rural villages. Mountain ranges and bad roads make access to these villages difficult. Multiple languages (16 distinct languages in the state of Oaxaca alone along with a diversity of customs and beliefs, make effective communication challenging. It is impossible for an ophthalmologist acting alone to gain the access needed to serve these communities well.

  13. Popularising eye health services in southern Mexico: community workers meet a felt need

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Michon; Joseph Michon

    2006-01-01

    Programmes for blindness prevention in southern Mexico face multiple challenges. The people in greatest need live in remote rural villages. Mountain ranges and bad roads make access to these villages difficult. Multiple languages (16 distinct languages in the state of Oaxaca alone) along with a diversity of customs and beliefs, make effective communication challenging. It is impossible for an ophthalmologist acting alone to gain the access needed to serve these communities well.

  14. Performance of Improved Sweet Potato (Ipomea batatas L.) Varieties in Makurdi, Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Egbe, O. M.; Afuape, S. O.; Idoko, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the performance of some improved sweet potato varieties obtained from the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria, for root yield and other yield components. Study Design: Field experiment. Place and Duration of Study: Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi in Benue State, located in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria from June-November of 2010 and 2011. Materials and Methods: The treatments comprised of el...

  15. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Pathogenic Vibrios in Marine Recreational Waters of Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Gregory; Lim, Keah-ying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of three types of vibrios in Southern California recreational beach waters during the peak marine bathing season in 2007. Over 160 water samples were concentrated and enriched for the detection of vibrios. Four sets of PCR primers, specific for Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus species and the V. parahaemolyticus toxin gene, respectively, were used for the amplification of bacterial genomic DNA. Of 66 samples from Doheny State Beach...

  16. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrius da Silva Martins; Mariana Fabris Xavier; Franciéle de Souza Masiero; Juliana Cordeiro; Patrícia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013). CONCLUSIONS...

  17. Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosq...

  18. Hidromechanical simulation in a fractured rock mass: the experimental site of Coaraze (Southern-Alps, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Corbera Gaju, Sergi

    2004-01-01

    Hydromechanical processes in large permeable jointed rock masses have been poorly studied due to the difficulties in determining boundary conditions in such large sites. To study this type of problems, in situ field experiments have been carried out since 1997 on a small fractured calcareous rock mass in Southern France, near Coaraze (limestone aquifer). The present work is intended to enhance understanding of hydromechanics in rock masses by testing the stress and strain state...

  19. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Iuri Dias; Tadeu Medeiros; Marcos Vila Nova; Mirco Solé

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species...

  20. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Iuri; Medeiros,Tadeu; Vila Nova,Marcos; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distribu...

  1. The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling Program (SOCCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joellen

    2016-04-01

    SOCCOM is a 6-year observational and modeling research program focused on the role of the Southern Ocean in the anthropogenic carbon budget, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate change. The operational goal of SOCCOM is to deploy nearly 200 Argo-compatible biogeochemically-sensored (BGC) profiling floats equipped with pH, oxygen, nitrate and bio-optical sensors throughout the Southern Ocean waters south of 30°S. These climate-ready BGC-floats are calibrated at the time of deployment by high accuracy biogeochemical measurements, and they operate year around, including in ice-covered waters. The data from the BGC-floats is being assimilated by a Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) model that incorporates biogeochemical processes, and this gridded SOSE output is used to constrain high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations designed to both increase our understanding of Southern Ocean processes and to reduce the uncertainty of projections of the future trajectory of the Earth's carbon, climate and biogeochemistry. We will present an overview of the organization and recent results of SOCCOM as well as the exciting next steps being developed.

  2. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  3. Probabilistic Drought Forecasting in Southern Taiwan Using El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien-Tsung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic drought forecasting model to forecast meteorological drought in Southern Taiwan using the El Niño-SouthernNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index. Meteorological drought is defined by the standardized precipitation index (SPI, and the ENSO index is El NiñoNiño sea surface temperature (SST. Two probabilistic forecasting model architectures were constructed based on the transition probabilities from El NiñoNiño SSTs to SPIs. Both model architectures forecast a one-month-ahead probability distribution for meteorological drought using different combinations of El NiñoNiño SST variables. Forecasting results showed the robustness of the probabilistic drought forecasting models. In addition, this study discussed the selection of El NiñoNiño SST variables used in the probabilistic drought forecasting model, and found that models with a single SST input outperformed those with multiple SST inputs.

  4. The impact of SADC social protection instruments on the setting up of a minimum social protection floor in Southern African countries

    OpenAIRE

    M Nyenti; LG Mpedi

    2012-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) was formed to promote the political, economic and social wellbeing of the region. Some of the social objectives of the SADC are the promotion of social development and the alleviation of poverty, the enhancement of the quality of life of the peoples of Southern Africa, and the provision of support to the socially disadvantaged. In order to achieve these objectives, SADC member states have concluded a Treaty and various social protection-relate...

  5. First assessment of the avifauna of Araucaria forests and other habitats from extreme southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil, with notes on biogeography and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos; Santos D'Angelo Neto

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Araucaria forests in the higher reaches of the Serra da Mantiqueira massif is little known and poorly documented. This region is recognized as an important area of differentiation of birds in southeastern Brazil. Here, we present the first ornithological survey of the Araucaria forests and associated habitats in the mountains of extreme southern Minas Gerais state, near the southern tip of the Serra da Mantiqueira. The study area comprises the Serra do Juncal region and se...

  6. Inventory of ocean monitoring in the Southern California Bight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Kenneth C; Weisberg, Stephen B; Raco-Rands, Valerie

    2002-06-01

    Monitoring of the ocean environment in southern California, USA, has been conducted by a diverse array of public and private organizations with different motivations, working on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To create a basis from which to integrate information from these diverse programs, we conducted an inventory of ocean monitoring activities in the Southern California Bight to address the following questions: (1) How much money is being expended annually on marine monitoring programs? (2) Which organizations are conducting the most monitoring? (3) How are resources allocated among the different types of monitoring programs? This inventory focused on programs existing, or those expected to be in existence, for at least 10 years and that were active at any time between 1994 and 1997. For each program identified for inclusion in this study, information was collected on the number of sites, sampling intensity, parameters measured, and methods used. Levels of effort were translated into cost estimates based upon a market survey of local consulting firms. One hundred fourteen marine monitoring programs, conducted by 65 organizations and costing US $31 million annually, were identified. Most of the effort (81 programs, 65% of samples, 70% of costs) was expended by ocean dischargers as part of their compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements. Federal programs (11 programs, 25% of samples, 10% of total expenditures) expended more than state or local government programs. More than one quarter of monitoring expenditures were conducted to measure concentrations and mass of effluent inputs to the ocean. The largest effort expended on receiving water monitoring was for measuring bacteria, followed by sediments, fish/shellfish, water quality, and intertidal habitats. The large level of expenditures by individual agencies has presented opportunities for integrating small, site-specific ocean monitoring programs into

  7. Indigenous Cases of Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) in Southern Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Luis A; Dobbs, Thomas; Walker, Sue; Waller, William; Stryjewska, Barbara M

    2015-07-01

    Hansen's disease or leprosy is a chronic infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. In the U.S., leprosy is mainly reported in immigrants, but indigenous leprosy cases have been also reported in this country, especially in semitropical southern states (i.e., Texas, Louisiana). The objective of this series of cases is to describe indigenous leprosy cases reported in southern Mississippi (MS) during the period 2012-2014. Information was collected from medical records at Hattiesburg Clinic and the MS Department of Health. Four cases were reported during the period of study (3 Caucasian males, 1 African-American woman). Non of visited endemic leprosy country. The age ranged from 60 to 83 years (median: 75.5 years). Of the four cases, three presented with a slowly progressive erythematous rash disseminated mainly on the thorax and abdomen, with a lesser degree on the extremities. The time between onset of rash until the diagnosis ranged from 5 to 16 months (median: 7 months). Only one case had direct contact with armadillos (blood exposure). Non of these patients had a history of immunosuppression. The most common symptoms were neuropathic pain (n=2), generalized pruritus (n=2) and loss of sensation in extremities (n=2). One case had severe peripheral neuropathy with muscle weakness, atrophy in left arm, and wasting on left hand. Skin biopsies showed diffuse granulomatous infiltrate with foamy histiocytes along with acid fast bacilli by Fite stain. By Ridley-Jopling classification system, three cases were diagnosis as lepromatous leprosy, and one, borderline lepromatous. Treatment included clofazimine, dapsone and rifampin that was offered free of charge by the National Hansen's Diseases Program, Baton Rouge, L.A. One patient did not tolerate therapy. In conclusion, a slowly progressive disseminated erythematous skin rash on the trunk should raise suspicion for leprosy in the elderly population in south MS. PMID:26434167

  8. Eddies in the southern Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartly, G. D.; Srokosz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Agulhas Current system contains one of the world's strongest western boundary currents, and plays an important part in the warm water path of the global thermohaline circulation. However, there have been few surveys of the source regions of the Agulhas Current, and thus little in situ measurement of their variability. Utilizing the more than 5-year record of SeaWiFS data, we examine the eddy activity present in the southern portion of the Mozambique Channel. The two sources of Agulhas input from the central Indian Ocean (southward flow through the Mozambique Channel and westward flow around the southern limit of Madagascar) both show great temporal variability, with no clear seasonal signal. A number of large (˜200 km diameter) anticyclonic rings intermittently propagate poleward along the western edge of the channel, sweeping coastal waters into mid-channel. Their passage past Maputo appears to affect the circulation of the lee eddy in the Delagoa Bight. The eastern side of the channel is mainly characterized by cyclonic eddies. These are made manifest in the lee of the southern tip of Madagascar, although it is not clear whether many form there or just develop a visible presence due to entrainment of high-chlorophyll coastal waters. Several of these cyclonic eddies then appear to move in west-southwesterly direction. The chlorophyll data do reveal the apparent East Madagascar Retroflection on occasions, but do not show clear examples of the pinching off of anticyclonic eddies. However, surface waters from the East Madagascar Current may reach the African mainland on occasions when no retroflection is present.

  9. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  10. Food Marketing and Pricing Policy in Eastern and Southern Africa: Lessons for Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Access to Food

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, Thomas S.; Jones, Stephen P.

    1996-01-01

    This study surveys the empirical record of grain marketing and pricing policy in selected Eastern and Southern Africa countries. The paper addresses five key issues with major implications for food policy in Africa: (a) why the anticipated supply response to market liberalization has not yet occurred; (b) why the common assumption of state taxation of farmers to support a cheap food policy does not apply in most of these countries; (c) why the temporary successes of the state-led approach to ...

  11. H2 fuelling infrastructure in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is the local air agency covering the majority of southern California, and the entity legislatively responsible for bringing the region into compliance with the federal Clean Air standards by 2010. One of the tools used by the SCAQMD to accelerate achieving cleaner air is the funding of research, development, and demonstration projects for advanced, clean air technologies. One major focus has been on hydrogen and fuel cells for both stationary and mobile applications. The presentation will discuss the SCAQMD strategy and deployment efforts regarding the development and expansion of hydrogen fueling infrastructure in the South Coast Air Basin. (author)

  12. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Middag, R.; Slooten van, C.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling posit...

  13. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area

  14. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17....... Primary prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  15. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  16. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  17. Dryland orchard development in southern Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With low annual rainfall and high potential of evaporation in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, it is difficult to grow the crops, successfully. Drylands of this tract are vulnerable to high radiation, high temperature and variable rainfall. Hence, dryfarming has become a risky enterprise in this zone and all the above factors altogether reduce the choice of agricultural crops. Considering the magnitude of the area and it's untapped potential, which offers enormous scope for dryland horticulture in this region and thereby improving the soil productivity for other crops too

  18. Eddies in the southern Mozambique Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Quartly, G.D.; Srokosz, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Agulhas Current system contains one of the world's strongest western boundary currents, and plays an important part in the warm water path of the global thermohaline circulation. However, there have been few surveys of the source regions of the Agulhas Current, and thus little in situ measurement of their variability. Utilizing the more than 5-year record of SeaWiFS data, we examine the eddy activity present in the southern portion of the Mozambique Channel. The two sources of Agulhas inp...

  19. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  20. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  1. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    OpenAIRE

    W. D Haacke

    1984-01-01

    The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone wi...

  2. Geo-Engineering in the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Dumping A German research vessel, the Polarstern, is on a 70 day exercise of dumping 20 tonnes of ferrous sulphate (iron sulphate, FeSO4) in the Southern Ocean at a latitude of 46° south. The LOHAFEX experiment of the Alfred Wegner Institute for Polar & Marine Research project will increase the iron level of the treated ocean area by a factor of up to 24 times “the natural iron concentration”. The target area is 20 kilometres in diameter, i.e. approximately 320 square kilometres. It ...

  3. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  4. Southern Education and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: An Analysis of Historic Federal Funding to Improve the South's Low-Achieving Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The new federal stimulus law, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), offers Southern states a historic opportunity to improve public education from pre-school through college especially for low income students. ARRA allocates over $100 billion directly to the 15 states of the South for creating jobs and spurring economic…

  5. 77 FR 22389 - State of Michigan Department of Transportation-Acquisition Exemption-Certain Assets of Norfolk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board State of Michigan Department of Transportation--Acquisition Exemption--Certain Assets of Norfolk Southern Railway Company The State of Michigan Department of...

  6. Modelling Water Trade in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, D.; Dwyer, G.; D. Appels; Fry, J

    2005-01-01

    This Productivity Commission staff working paper, 'Modelling Water Trade in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin', was released in November 2004. It examines the likely economic impacts of expanding water trade in the southern Murray-Darling Basin. The paper uses TERM-Water, a bottoms-up regional CGE model of the Australian economy, to examine the regional effects of expanding trade of irrigation water in the southern Murray-Darling Basin. The study finds that water trading dampens the impact of...

  7. Southern Ocean Sector Centennial Climate Variability and Recent Decadal Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Mojib; Martin, Torge; Park, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the notion that some contribution to the recent decadal trends observed in the Southern Hemisphere, including the lack of a strong Southern Ocean surface warming, may have originated from longer-term internal centennial variability originating in the Southern Ocean. The existence of such centennial variability is supported by the instrumental sea surface temperatures (SSTs), a multimillennial reconstruction of Tasmanian summer temperatures from tree rings, and a mill...

  8. Southern Westerly Winds submit to the ENSO regime: A multiproxy paleohydrology record from Lake Dobson, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Andrew B. H.; Cwynar, Les C.; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn

    2015-10-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) profoundly influence synoptic-scale climate in the Southern Hemisphere. Although many studies have invoked either phenomenon to explain trends in proxy data, few have demonstrated the transition from a climate dominated by SWW flow to one controlled by El Niño activity, which is postulated to have occurred after 5 cal ka BP in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Tasmania, southeast Australia, is ideally situated to detect changes in both of these climatic controls. Currently, El Niño and La Niña events result in drier and wetter conditions island-wide, respectively, with the greatest impact in the north. Further, Tasmania houses north-south trending mountain ranges near its western coast. As a result, areas west of the mountains exhibit a positive correlation between SWW flow and precipitation, while eastern regions possess either no or a negative relationship. Here, we present data from chironomid remains, charcoal, and geochemical proxies to investigate the paleohydrological history of Lake Dobson, a site located in Mount Field National Park, Tasmania. The proxies revealed three broad periods: (1) an early Holocene (11.5-8.3 cal kyr BP) characterised by generally high rainfall, the occurrence of irregular fires, and elevated charcoal influx at 11.4 and 10.2 cal ka BP - conditions compatible with attenuated SWW flow over the site; (2) an ambiguous mid-Holocene (8.3-5 cal kyr BP) that marks the transition from a SWW- to ENSO-dominated climate; and (3) a relatively dry and stable late Holocene (5 cal kyr BP to present) that is consistent with the onset of a climate controlled by ENSO activity (i.e., characterised by a more mean El Niño climate state). The proxy record of Lake Dobson highlights the teleconnections between the equatorial Pacific and southern Australasia.

  9. Desmatamento no sul do estado de Roraima: padrões de distribuição em função de projetos de assentamento do INCRA e da distância das principais rodovias (BR-174 e BR-210 Deforestation in the southern portion of the Roraima state: distribution with respect to INCRA settlement projects and distance from major highways (BR-174 and BR-210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Barni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento na Amazônia representa, atualmente, um dos principais problemas ambientais do Brasil. A contenção deste processo requer políticas públicas baseadas no entendimento das forças que controlam, aceleram e desaceleram a perda de floresta. Para avaliar ocorrências de desmatamento no sul do Estado de Roraima foram utilizados dois buffers de 20 km de largura subdivididos em oito faixas de 2500 metros ao longo das duas principais rodovias da região: BR-174 e BR-210 em um ambiente de Sistema de Informações Geográficas - SIG. O período analisado foi entre 2001 e 2007, sendo utilizados dados de desmatamento do PRODES e análises visuais em imagens TM Landsat 5. Também foram utilizados arquivos shapefile da malha viária e de Projetos de Assentamento (PAs do Sul do Estado de Roraima, junto com observações de campo. Os resultados mostraram que os desmatamentos do período estão fortemente relacionados com a disponibilidade de estradas e com o número de famílias dentro dos PAs. O desmatamento foi maior na área da BR-210 pela presença na região de grandes proprietários e invasões de terras. O pólo madeireiro, situado à margem da BR-174, pode ter influenciado na formação de pequenas áreas de desmatamento na região de Rorainópolis. A exploração madeireira predatória e novas ocupações de terras estão acontecendo de forma rápida e desordenada. Este quadro indica forte potencial para a perda de floresta em Roraima caso o fluxo de migração para esta área aumentar, como seria esperado se Roraima for conectada ao "Arco do Desmatamento" pela reabertura da Rodovia BR-319, ligando Manaus a Porto Velho.Deforestation in the Amazon currently represents one of the greatest environmental issues in Brazil, and stopping this process requires public policies based on understanding the forces that control the forest loss in different parts of Amazonia. We evaluated deforestation in the southern portion of Roraima State using a

  10. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  11. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  12. Hidden Markov Models for Detecting Aseismic Events in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, R.

    2004-12-01

    We employ a hidden Markov model (HMM) to segment surface displacement time series collection by the Southern California Integrated Geodetic Network (SCIGN). These segmented time series are then used to detect regional events by observing the number of simultaneous mode changes across the network; if a large number of stations change at the same time, that indicates an event. The hidden Markov model (HMM) approach assumes that the observed data has been generated by an unobservable dynamical statistical process. The process is of a particular form such that each observation is coincident with the system being in a particular discrete state, which is interpreted as a behavioral mode. The dynamics are the model are constructed so that the next state is directly dependent only on the current state -- it is a first order Markov process. The model is completely described by a set of parameters: the initial state probabilities, the first order Markov chain state-to-state transition probabilities, and the probability distribution of observable outputs associated with each state. The result of this approach is that our segmentation decisions are based entirely on statistical changes in the behavior of the observed daily displacements. In general, finding the optimal model parameters to fit the data is a difficult problem. We present an innovative model fitting method that is unsupervised (i.e., it requires no labeled training data) and uses a regularized version of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to ensure that model solutions are both robust with respect to initial conditions and of high quality. We demonstrate the reliability of the method as compared to standard model fitting methods and show that it results in lower noise in the mode change correlation signal used to detect regional events. We compare candidate events detected by this method to the seismic record and observe that most are not correlated with a significant seismic event. Our analysis

  13. Southern Appalachian hillslope erosion rates measured by soil and detrital radiocarbon in hollows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T.C.; Scharer, K.M.; Wooten, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment generation and transport on hillslopes provides important constraints on the rate of sediment output from orogenic systems. Hillslope sediment fluxes are recorded by organic material found in the deposits infilling unchanneled convergent topographic features called hollows. This study describes the first hollow infilling rates measured in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Infilling rates (and bedrock erosion rates) were calculated from the vertical distribution of radiocarbon ages at two sites in the Coweeta drainage basin, western North Carolina. At each site we dated paired charcoal and silt soil organic matter samples from five different horizons. Paired radiocarbon samples were used to bracket the age of the soil material in order to capture the range of complex soil forming processes and deposition within the hollows. These dates constrain hillslope erosion rates of between 0.051 and 0.111mmyr-1. These rates are up to 4 times higher than spatially-averaged rates for the Southern Appalachian Mountains making creep processes one of the most efficient erosional mechanisms in this mountain range. Our hillslope erosion rates are consistent with those of forested mountain ranges in the western United States, suggesting that the mechanisms (dominantly tree throw) driving creep erosion in both the western United States and the Southern Appalachian Mountains are equally effective. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Black Population Distribution and Growth in the United States. Geography Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletti, John C.

    The self-study unit for intermediate grades deals with growth and distribution of the black population of the United States. The unit shows how and why the black population started from a rural southern base and became a largely urban population, compares the black people of two cities, one northern and one southern, and discusses how they are…

  15. Reappraisal of the seismotectonics of southern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental objectives of this study were to review and improve the seismological data base as an aid in more realistic evaluation of seismic hazard in southern Ontario. For this purpose, the following procedures have been undertaken: In the first stage, the types of errors in earthquake location files are identified, sources of uncertainties are discussed and a sensitivity analysis of the errors to different parameters is presented. In the second stage, a group location technique, Joint Hypocenter Determination (JHD), has been utilized to improve the locations of a group of 67 well-recorded events, mostly from the more active region near the Ottawa River and in western Quebec. The third stage, to relocate smaller and less reliably detected events in southern Ontario, utilized a nw algorithm, 'HYPOCENTER', which proved very efficient and flexible in the test runs for handling local explosion and natural events. A preliminary interpretation of the seismicity patterns in the study regions shows that earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger tend to align along preferred seismic trends which may, in turn, be controlled by weakness planes in the Earth's crust. These inferred trends coincide with dominant northwesterly and northeasterly striking structural directions. For earthquakes smaller than magnitude 4 prior to 1970 and for microearthquakes (M<3) which occurred near the Lake Ontario shoreline, the detection coverage was not sufficient to conclusively discuss accurate locations and causative mechanisms

  16. A CO Survey of the Southern Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, L.; May, J.; Luna, A.

    On December 12th 1982 the 1.2 mSouthern Millimeter Wave Telescope, an instrument specifically designed for CO surveys of molecular clouds in the Southern Galaxy, arrived Cerro Tololo after being constructed and tested atop the roof of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies by Columbia University staff and students, and by Universidad de Chile and NASA personnel. The telescope saw first light on December 22nd 1982, and has been operational ever since. During these years we have completed deep CO surveys of the Carina arm (Grabelsky et al. 1987), the IV galactic quadrant (Bronfman et al. 1988), the III galactic quadrant (May et al. 1993), and the galactic center (Bitran et al. 1997), contributing with a major fraction of the presently available galactic CO data. When combined with CO surveys of the I and II galactic quadrants obtained with its twin instrument, the Northern 1.2m Millimeter Wave Telescope now at the Center for Astrophysics, these data provided for the first time a complete, well sampled, and homogeneous picture of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way.

  17. Detector Considerations for a HAWC Southern Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    DuVernois, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory in central Mexico is currently the world's only synoptic survey instrument for gamma rays above 1 TeV. Because there is significant interest in covering the full TeV sky with a survey instrument, we have examined options for a Southern Hemisphere extension to HAWC. In addition to providing all-sky coverage of TeV sources, a southern site could complement existing surveys of the densest part of the Galactic Plane, provide continuous monitoring of Galactic and extragalactic transient sources in both Hemispheres, and simplify the analysis of spatially extended signals such as diffuse gamma rays and the TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy. To take advantage of the air-shower physics and lower the energy threshold of the experiment as much as possible, a high altitude site above 5000 m a.s.l (vs. 4100 m a.s.l. at the current site in Mexico) has been specified. To facilitate efficient detector construction at such altitudes, the detector tanks would be assembled at lower a...

  18. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, C. S.; Jasinski, J. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Lamy, L.; Leisner, J. S.; Roussos, E.; Russell, C. T.; Zarka, P.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jones, G. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth has enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989, but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly study the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that (i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, (ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and (iii) double cusp morphologies are consistent with the position of the cusp oscillating in phase with Saturn's global magnetospheric periodicities.

  19. SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasavage, John P.; Lepine, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present early results from the SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf SURVEY (SSSWDS). Our initial sift of relatively bright (15 < V < 18), white dwarf candidates uses the technique of reduced proper motion with inputs from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database combined with photographic magnitudes. Crude distance estimates from the linear photographic magnitude-color relation of Oppenheimer et al. 2001 are obtained and permit prioritized follow-up. For confirmation of luminosity class, we use the SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon equipped with the Goodman Spectrograph and a moderate resolution grating. In tandem, we acquire multi-epoch, optical Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI photometry using the SMARTS 1.0m telescope atop CTIO. Combined with JHK from 2MASS, we compare the photometric SED to relevant white dwarf model atmospheres to estimate physical parameters (e.g., effective temperature, mass) and distance. For the nearest targets, specifically those within the RECONS (www.recons.org) horizon of 25 pc, we aim to obtain trigonometric parallaxes as part of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) project being conducted at the SMARTS 0.9m telescope. To date, we have confirmed 100 relatively bright, new white dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Of those, 13 are estimated to be within our 25 pc horizon-of-interest, including two that are estimated to be within 15 pc. Ongoing observations will boost these figures by the end of the project.

  20. The Eradication of Rinderpest from Southern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, Veterinaires Sans Frontieres (VSF) Belgium was one of the NGOs that joined the Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) Livestock Programme coordinated by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in conflict-affected southern Sudan. The objective of the programme was to improve household food security through the control of rinderpest and the establishment of community-based animal health services. VSF Belgium trained and supported community-based animal health workers (CAHWs) in several agropastoralist communities of southern Sudan. The CAHWs carried out rinderpest vaccination using heat-stable vaccine, and provided vaccinations and treatments for other important diseases of cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. In 1996, VSF Belgium set up a training centre for mid-level animal health workers, to provide a cadre of animal health auxiliaries (AHAs) as CAHW supervisors and field coordinators. As a result of the widespread vaccination efforts, rinderpest outbreaks decreased and apparently stopped. The last confirmed rinderpest outbreak was in 1998, although there was a suspected but unconfirmed outbreak in 2001. About this time, FAO-GREP advised the Republic of Sudan to stop vaccinating and to enter the surveillance phase of the OIE Pathway to freedom from rinderpest.