WorldWideScience

Sample records for bahan sel surya

  1. ANALISA DIFRAKSI SINAR X TiO2 DALAM PENYIAPAN BAHAN SEL SURYA TERSENSITISASI PEWARNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Hastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Upaya pengembangan sel surya organic sebagai solusi alternatif krisis energi dunia merupakan hal yang perlu dan penting untuk dilakukan, mengingat sumber energi sel surya yang melimpah dan terbarukan. Salah satu bahan penyusun sel surya adalah semikonduktor TiO2 sebagai transport pembawa muatan. Struktur kristal yang cocok digunakan adalah anatase karena memiliki ukuran pori yang kecil dan bersifat fotoaktif. Pada penelitian ini dikarakterisasi bahan TiO2 yang akan digunakan sebagai bahan semikonduktor dalam sel surya pewarna menggunakan difraksi sinar X dan dianalisa menggunakan program match. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa TiO2 memiliki  fase anatase dan ukuran kristalnya 2.6 nm. Ukuran kristal yang berukuran nano dapat memaksimalkan penyerapan pewarna sehingga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi sel surya.

  2. SIMULASI PERHITUNGAN REFLEKSI CAHAYA OLEH PERMUKAAN SEL SURYA SILIKON : STUDI PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAPISAN ANTI REFLEKSI ZINC OKSIDA (ZnO

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    Andi Suhandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan simulasi perhitungan untuk mendapatkan gambaran pengaruh penambahan lapisan anti refleksi ZnO terhadap persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya Silikon. Proses perhitungan dilakukan dengan bantuan software Sigma Plot. Perhitungan menggunakan konsep-konsep dasar fisika terkait optika, diantaranya konsep refleksi dan transmisi gelombang cahaya ketika melewati bidang batas dua medium yang berbeda kerapatan optiknya, konsep polarisasi cahaya, dan konsep anti refleksi. Hasil simulasi perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya silikon nilainya bergantung pada panjang gelombang cahaya datang (. Persen refleksi turun dari dari 38% ketika permukaan sel surya Silikon tidak dilapisi lapisan antirefleksi ZnO menjadi sekitar 15 % setelah permukaan sel surya silikon dilapisi lapisan ZnO dengan ketebalan sekitar 110 nm. Hasil lainnya menunjukkan bahwa persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya Silikon yang telah dilapisi lapisan anti refleksi ZnO nilainya bervariasi bergantung pada ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi yang digunakan. Dalam rentang data simulasi, ketika tebal lapisan anti refleksi ZnO ditingkatkan, persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya silikon nilainya turun, namun ketika ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi ditingkatkan lagi, ternyata persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya naik kembali. Keadaan ini menunjukkan adanya nilai ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi optimum yang menghasilkan persen refleksi cahaya oleh sel surya bernilai minimum. Penurunan persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya akan meningkatkan persen transmisi cahaya menuju lapisan aktif sel surya, yang pada akhirnya akan meningkatkan efisiensi konversi sel surya Silikon.

  3. PENGARUH LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP EFISIENSI SEL SURYA TERSENSITISASI DYE DARI TINTA SOTONG DAN EKSTRAK TEH HITAM

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    M. Choirul Umam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya merupakan energy alternatif yang sangat berpotensi untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu jenis sel surya adalah sel surya organic yang menggunakan elektrolit sebagai medium transport muatan dan dye sebagai penyerap sinar matahari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi lama perendaman dalam dye hasil ekstraksi teh hitam dan tinta sotong terhadap efisiensi sel surya dan mengetahui efisiensi sel surya tersensitisasi dye dengan menggunakan kaca TCO. Pembuatan Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC diawali dengan menyiapkan elektroda yang dibuat dari nanokristal TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada substrat kaca konduktif, yang kemudian direndam dalam dye. Sedangkan elektroda lawan dibuat dengan cara melapiskan grafit pensil pada kaca konduktif. Sel surya dibentuk dengan struktur sandwich dimana dua substrat kaca konduktif mengapit komponen- komponen dari DSSC. Lama perendaman sel surya dalam dye mempengaruhi voltase dan arus keluaran. Daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye teh hitam sebesar    8,85 x 10-8  W dan 8,5 x 10-3  %. Sedangkan daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye tinta sotong sebesar 23,4 x 10-8 W dan 23,19 x 10-3 %.

  4. STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE P3HT DAN GRAFIT TERHADAP KINERJA SEL SURYA

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    - Nurussaniah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya organic merupakan suatu divais fotovoltaik yang mampu mengubah cahaya matahari menjadi energi listrik. Sel surya organik adalah sebuah alternatif untuk menggantikan sel surya silikon karena dapat diproduksi dengan teknik yang mudah dan biaya yang murah. Struktur pada penelitian ini adalah TiO2/P3HT/elektrolit/FTO dan TiO2/P3HT/elektrolit/FTO+Grafit. Karakterisasi I-V menunjukkan bahwa penambahan konsentrasi P3HT dapat meningkatkan kinerja sel surya. Penggunaan grafit pensil sebagai elektroda lawan menghasilkan performa DSSC yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan yang tidak menggunakan grafit pensil. Grafit pensil yang dideposisikan pada kaca konduktif sebagai elektroda lawan mampu menjadi katalis untuk mempercepat reaksi redoks dengan elektrolit. Performa sel surya terbaik dari penelitian ini diperoleh pada sel dengan struktur TiO2/P3HT/elektrolit/FTO+Grafit dengan konsentrasi P3HT 1% dan menggunakan grafit sebagai elektroda lawan, efisiensi yang dihasilkan adalah 2,9×10-3%.

  5. STRUKTUR MORFOLOGI, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN RESISTANSI LAPISAN TIO2-CU SEBAGAI LAPISAN AKTIF PADA SEL SURYA FOTOELEKTROKIMIA

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    Rita Prasetyowati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan efisiensi sel surya titania terus dikembangkan. Salah satunya adalah memodifikasi titania yang berfungsi sebagai lapisan aktif. Lapisan titania dapat disisipi dengan logam Cu. Penyisipan logam Cu pada TiO2 dilakukan melalui pembuatan nanokomposit TiO2-Cu dengan metode sol-gel. Lapisan TiO2-Cu yang terbentuk dikarakterisasi dengan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy untuk mengetahui struktur morfologi permukaan, EDX (Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy untuk mengetahui komposisi bahan. Sedangkan resistansi lapisan diukur menggunakan Jembatan Wheatstone. Berdasarkan hasil SEM dapat ditunjukkan bahwa struktur morfologi permukaan lapisan TiO2-Cu tidak berbeda secara signifikan dengan lapisan TiO2, yaitu cukup homogen dan memiliki ukuran butir (grain yang hampir sama. Tetapi dari hasil EDX diperoleh bahwa lapisan TiO2-Cu yaitu lapisan TiO2 yang disisipi logam tembaga mengandung  unsur Ti sebanyak 59,8%, unsur O sebanyak 40,02% dan unsur Cu sebanyak 0,19%. Sedangkan lapisan TiO2 saja mengandung unsur Ti sebanyak 54,25% dan unsur O sebanyak 45,75%. Penyisipan logam tembaga pada lapisan titania dapat menurunkan resistansi listrik lapisan. Nilai resistansi lapisan TiO2 adalah 7,714 kilo ohm. Sedangkan nilai resistansi lapisan TiO2-Cu adalah 6,624 kilo ohm.

  6. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS FILM TIPIS CdTe SEBAGAI ABSORBER SEL SURYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DOPING TEMBAGA (Cu

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    P. Marwoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Film tipis CdTe dengan doping tembaga (Cu berkonsenterasi 2% telah berhasil ditumbuhkan di atas substrat Indium Tin Oxide (ITO dengan metode dc magnetron sputtering. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh doping Cu(2% terhadap struktur morfologi, struktur kristal, fotoluminisensi dan resistivitas listrik film CdTe. Citra morfologi Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM dan hasil analisis struktur dengan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe:Cu(2% mempunyai citra permukaan dan struktur kristal yang lebih sempurna dibandingkan film CdTe tanpa doping. Hasil analisis spektrometer fotoluminisensi menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe dan CdTe(2% mempunyai puncak fotoluminisensi pada tiga panjang gelombang yang identik yaitu 685 nm (1,81 eV, 725 nm (1,71 eV dan 740 nm (1,67 eV. Film CdTe dengan doping Cu(2% memiliki intensitas puncak fotoluminisensi yang lebih tajam pada pita energi 1,81 eV dibandingkan dengan film CdTe tanpa doping. Pengukuran arus dan tegangan (I-V menunjukkan bahwa pemberian doping Cu(2% dapat menurunkan resistivitas film dari 8,40x109 Ωcm menjadi 6,92x105 Ωcm. Sebagai absorber sel surya, kualitas film tipis CdTe telah berhasil ditingkatkan dengan pemberian doping Cu(2%.CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has been successfully grown on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using dc magnetron sputtering. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of Cu(2% doping on the morphologycal structure, crystal structure, photoluminesence, and resistivity of CdTe thin film. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM  images and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results showed that CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has morphologycal and crystal structures more perfect than undoped CdTe film. Photoluminesence spectroscopy results showed that CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2% thin films have luminesence peak at three identical wevelength regions i.e. 685 nm (1.81 eV, 725 nm (1.71 eV and 740 nm (1.67 eV however CdTe:Cu(2% film shows sharper photoluminescence peak at band

  7. TENAGA SURYA DAN ARSITEKTUR: SUATU ANALISIS LINGKUNGAN DAN PERANCANGAN

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    Tri Harso Karyono

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential use of solar energy in building as an alternative solution of energy resources to reduce the negative impact in burning fossil fuels to the environment. It higlights the positive aspects in environment by generating solar energy and also discusses the aesthetical values in employing solar panels on buildings. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Isue mengenai pemanasan bumi yang diakibatkan oleh produksi gas karbon dioksida sebagai akibat pembakaran bahan bakar minyak (minyak bumi, batu bara, gas alam memaksa ilmuwan, pakar energi, akhli lingkungan, serta pihak-pihak lain yang terkait untuk ikut memikirkan penggunaan energi alternatif yang aman. Tenaga nuklir yang tidak menghasilkan gas buang semacam karbon dioksida, ternyata bukan merupakan solusi energi alternatif yang baik karena meninggalkan sampah radioaktif yang belum ada solusi pembuangan yang diangap aman untuk masa yang akan datang. Tenaga surya, yang umumnya sudah digunakan secara tradisional sejak ratusan abad yang silam, perlu mendapat perhatian. Pemanfaatan tenaga surya baik secara pasif maupun aktif bagi bangunan perlu mendapat perhatian dari para arsitek. Pemanfaatan tenaga surya secara aktif, dimana tenaga surya dikonversikan terlebih dahulu menjadi tenaga listrik dengan solar sel, seyogyanya tidak berdiri sendiri, perlu diintegrasikan dengan aplikasi perancangan secara pasif. Perancangan secara aktif bertujuan untuk mengurangi beban listrik yang berasal dari minyak bumi - secara langsung mengurangi jumlah gas karbon dioksida yang dibuang ke udara, sedangkan perancangan pasif bertujuan untuk mengurangi beban penggunaan energi listrik - yang berasal dari sumber listrik apapun - di dalam bangunan. Makalah ini membahas isue yang diutarakan diatas, dimana pada akhirnya memberikan contoh dari suatu karya arsitektur yang dianggap berhasil dalam mengaplikasikan strategi perancangan secara aktif (menggunakan solar sel serta tidak meninggalkan sterategi

  8. Pengaruh Penambahan Karbon terhadap Sifat Mekanik dan Konduktivitas Listrik Komposit Karbon/Epoksi sebagai Pelat Bipolar Polimer Elektrolit Membran Sel Bahan Bakar (Polymer Exchange Membran(PEMFC

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    Ara Gradiniar Rizkyta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sel bahan bakar merupakan sel elektrokimia yang mampu mengkonversi bahan bakar menjadi energi listrik. Lebih dari 70% dari total berat dan 60%  biaya dalam  fuel cell berupa pelat bipolar. Maka dibutuhkan pemilihan bahan yang sesuai untuk mereduksi berat, volume dan biaya  pada sel bahan bakar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh karbon terhadap sifat mekanik dan konduktivitas listrik komposit karbon/epoksi. Matriks yang digunakan adalah epoksi dengan hardener poliamino amid dengan  rasio pencampuran 20 dan 80% poliamino amid. Filler yang digunakan adalah karbon dengan kadar karbon 20, 40, 60 dan 80%.  Bahan campuran dimatangkan dalam furnace pada temperatur 50, 100, 150, 200, 240oC selama satu jam. Pengujian yang dilakukan yaitu FT-IR, tarik, SEM, TGA dan konduktivitas listrik. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan penambahan karbon  dapat meningkatkan Modulus Young tetapi menurunkan sifat tarik dan elongasi. Kekuatan tarik epoksi tertinggi adalah 61 MPa, sedangkan pada 20% karbon 18,9 MPa. Stabilitas thermal meningkat dengan penambahan karbon, data 60% karbon menunjukkan  berat sisa pada 800⁰ C senilai 63%. Penambahan karbon juga dapat menaikkan konduktivitas listrik. Data tertinggi diperoleh pada komposisi 80% karbon yaitu 424,8 S.Cm-1

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Grafit terhadap Sifat Tarik, Stabilitas Termal dan Konduktivitas Listrik Komposit Vinil Ester/Grafit sebagai Pelat Bipolar Membran Penukar Proton Sel Bahan Bakar (PEMFC

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    Galang Wisnu Wardana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sel bahan bakar merupakan sel elektrokimia yang mampu mengkonversi bahan bakar menjadi energi listrik. Lebih dari 80% dari volume, 70% dari total berat dan 60%  biaya dalam  fuel cell berupa pelat bipolar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh grafit terhadap sifat, stabilitas termal  dan konduktivitas listrik komposit vinil ester/grafit. Matriks yang digunakan adalah epoxy vinil ester (EVE dan novolac vinil ester (NVE. Filler yang digunakan adalah grafit dengan kadar grafit 20 dan 40%.  Bahan campuran dimatangkan dalam furnace pada temperatur  50, 100,  150, 200, 250oC selama dua jam. Pengujian yang dilakukan yaitu FT-IR, tarik, SEM, TGA dan konduktivitas listrik. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan penambahan grafit  dapat menurunkan Modulus Young, sifat tarik dan elongasi. Kekuatan tarik  tertinggi EVE adalah 16.6 MPa sedangkan NVE 10.7 MPa, sedangkan 40% 3.0 MPa untuk EVE dan 2.95 MPa untuk NVE. Stabilitas thermal meningkat dengan penambahan grafit, data 40% grafit menunjukkan  berat sisa pada 800⁰ C senilai 47% untuk EVE maupun NVE. Penambahan grafit juga dapat menaikkan konduktivitas listrik. Data tertinggi diperoleh pada komposisi 40% grafit  yaitu 1,1 S.Cm-1 untuk EVE dan 0.93 untuk NVE.

  10. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

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    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  11. PERBANDINGAN UNJUK KERJA ANTARA PANEL SEL SURYA BERPENJEJAK DENGAN PANEL SEL SURYA DIAM

    OpenAIRE

    Syafaruddin Ch

    2010-01-01

    The ability to produce electrical energy at Solar Power Plant  is highly dependent on the magnitude and duration of sun exposure on the solar cell panels. The movement of the sun from east to west that periodicity in every day is a problem at  the  optimization generation of electricity at  Solar Power Plant   if using solar panel that motionless. This is because the solar cell panel can not catch the maximum sun exposure. To solve the above problem then designed a solar cell panel  tracker...

  12. PERBANDINGAN UNJUK KERJA ANTARA PANEL SEL SURYA BERPENJEJAK DENGAN PANEL SEL SURYA DIAM

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    Syafaruddin Ch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce electrical energy at Solar Power Plant  is highly dependent on the magnitude and duration of sun exposure on the solar cell panels. The movement of the sun from east to west that periodicity in every day is a problem at  the  optimization generation of electricity at  Solar Power Plant   if using solar panel that motionless. This is because the solar cell panel can not catch the maximum sun exposure. To solve the above problem then designed a solar cell panel  tracker  capable of follo-wing the movements of the sun. Then conducted a test to see the performance of solar cell pa-nel  tracker  and compare it with the performance of solar cell panel was motionless. The testing doing along 6 days, with way to irradiate the panel of solar cells  tracker  and panels of solar cell motionless with sun exposure  along a  full day. Then the electric current generated each panel were recorded. The comparison of current then generating comparison of electric power delivery. The result show that the solar cell panel  tracker  produce the average current is 2.19 A whereas solar-cell panel still 1.97 A.  This result   indicate that average power for solar cell panel  tracker  39.41 W while for solar cell panel that motionless is  35.46 W. These results indicate that the performance of solar cell panel  tracker  better than  solar cell panel motionless.

  13. KOLEKTOR SURYA PRISMATIK

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    James Laeyadi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar collector is the essential item of equipment which transforms solar radiation energy to some other useful energy form, for example as the water heater. One of the shape solar collector, is prismatic which have ability to receive solar radiation intensity from all the sun's position, so that using solar energy as water heater can more effective. Solar collector can absorb solar radiation intensity and convert it to useful calor for heating the water inside the pipes of the collector, so the temperature of the water is rise and natural convection is happen by the basic of thermosiphon because effect of mass density fluid difference. From the experiment is found the best position to locate the collector which can produce optimal efficiency are 15 degrre from east to north. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kolektor surya merupakan suatu bagian dari peralatan yang dibutuhkan untuk mengubah energi radiasi matahari ke bentuk energi panas untuk berbagai keperluan, misalnya sebagai pemanas air. Salah satu bentuk dari kolektor surya adalah bentuk prisma yang memiliki kemampuan untuk menerima intensitas radiasi matahari dari segala posisi matahari, sehingga diharapkan pemanfaatan energi tersebut sebagai pemanas air dapat lebih efektif. Kolektor surya akan menyerap energi dari radiasi matahari dan mengkonversikannya menjadi panas yang berguna untuk memanaskan air di dalam pipa-pipa kolektor, sehingga suhu air akan meningkat dan terjadi konveksi alami berdasarkan efek termosipon karena adanya perbedaan masa jenis fluida. Dari percobaan didapatkan bahwa posisi terbaik dari kolektor yang menghasilkan efisiensi yang optimal dengan menempatkan kolektor 15° dari arah timur ke utara. Kata kunci: Pemanas air tenaga surya

  14. Pengukuran Kadar Natrium Alginat dari Alga Cokelat Spesies Sargassum sp sebagai Bahan Dasar Pembuatan Bahan Cetak Kedokteran Gigi ( Irreversible Hydrocolloid/Dental Material

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlindah Hamrun, Dr.drg.Nurlindah Hamrun.M.Kes

    2016-01-01

    Kadar natrium alginat yang terkandung dalam dinding sel alga cokelat dipengaruhi oleh baberapa fakto, diantaranya : Kualitas spesies alga coklat,lokasi tempat tumbuh,waktu pengambilan sampel,bagian anatomis spesies alga cokelat dan metode ekstraksi Irrevevsible hydrocolloid merupakan bahan cetak yang relatif sering digunakan di bidang kedokteran gigi.Namun,bahan baku dari bahan cetak ini masih diimpor dari luar negeri.

  15. Rancang Bangun Sistem Tracking Panel Surya Berbasis Mikrokontroler Arduino

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    Benny Prabawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Rancang bangun sistem tracking panel surya berbasis mikrokontroler arduino merupakan sebuah alat yang digunakan untuk mengikuti arah pergerakkan matahari setiap jamnya, mulai dari terbit hingga terbenam. Sistem tracking panel surya ini akan mendeteksi setting waktu yang diinput oleh RTC (Real Time Clock. Pembuatan sistem ini dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu pertama adalah perancangan perangkat keras (hardware yang terdiri dari perancangan perangkat elektronika dan perancangan perangkat mekanik. Kedua adalah perancangan perangkat lunak (software. Pemrograman sistem tracking menggunakan software arduino. Panel surya digerakkan dengan menggunakan motor servo yang bergerak sesuai input waktu yang diberikan oleh RTC. Pergerakkan panel surya diatur setiap jam dengan sudut yang telah diuji, sehingga posisi panel surya selalu tegak lurus dengan arah datangnya cahaya matahari. Hasil dari rancang bangun sistem tracking panel surya berbasis mikrokontroler arduino menunjukkan bahwa alat yang dirancang sudah dapat mengikuti pergerakkan matahari berdasarkan waktu. Kata Kunci : Panel Surya, Motor Servo, RTC (Real Time Clock, Mikrokontroler Arduino ATMega 328.

  16. Eosinofil Sel Penyaji Antigen

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    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sel eosinofil merupakan jenis sel lekosit yang terlibat dalam berbagai patogenesis penyakit. Sel eosinofil pada awalnya dikenal sebagai sel efektor  dari sistem imunitas alamiah. Akan tetapi, kemampuan sel eosinofil dalam memfagositosis patogen menimbulkan dugaan bahwa sel eosinofil ikut berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen. Hal ini dianalogikan dengan sel makrofag dan sel dendritik yang bisa memfagositosis dan menyajikan antigen sebagai hasil dari degradasi patogen yang difagositosis. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini, penulis melakukan penelusuran artikel tentang eosinofil sebagai sel penyaji antigen melalui US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Healthdengan kata kunci eoshinophil dan antigen presenting cell. Hasil penelusuran adalah ditemukannya 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik. Hasil dari sintesis kesepuluh jurnal tersebut adalah sel eosinofil mampu berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen yang profesional (professionalantigenpresentng cell

  17. Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation: A Path to Good Health

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    Amit Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation is an ancient and sacred yogic technique of India for expressing gratitude to the Sun. Surya Namaskar is a set of 12 Asanas (postures, It is done preferably in the morning while facing the rising sun. There are numerous health benefits of Surya Namaskar for different system of the body specially musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous system, respiratory and endocrinal. The heart, liver, intestine, stomach, chest, throat, legs and backbone are main benefited organs. By practicing Surya Namaskar each and every cell of body get revitalize and regenerated, therefore it is highly recommended by all yoga experts for healthy routine life. The regular practice of Surya Namaskar improves blood circulation throughout the body, maintains health and makes the body disease-free. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar gives strength, flexibility and vitality to the body. Sun Salutation asanas help to burn extra body fat on belly, buttocks and back by modulating endocrinal system. It also helps to regulate menstrual cycles among women and also facilitate an easy childbirth. Apart from these benefits of Surya Namaskar also help to keep the mind stress free, calm and illuminated. Thus, a regular practice of Surya Namaskar is highly recommended to keep the body and mind healthy. Though the Surya Namaskar steps are very scientific and practical science ancient time but still it needs advance modern scientific justification to spread it globally, keeping this thing into the mind the present review has been framed to revalidate sacred steps of Surya Namaskar on the basis of available evidence based studies.

  18. Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi, Kepemimpinan, dan Motivasi Kerja terhadap Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan CV Surya Raya

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    Laksmi Sito Dwi Irvianti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted on CV Surya Raya which is engaged in car shipping. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of organization culture, leadership, and working motivation partially to employees’ satisfaction in CV Surya Raya. The data was collected by conducting interviews with the company and distributing questionnaires to 67 employees as respondents and then analyzed using linear regression analysis method. From the research results, leadership variable does not have a significant impact on employees' job satisfaction in CV Surya Raya. Whereas, the motivation variable has greater influence on job satisfaction of CV Surya Raya employees compared to the organization's culture.

  19. WebSelF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Ernst, Erik; Brabrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    We present WebSelF, a framework for web scraping which models the process of web scraping and decomposes it into four conceptually independent, reusable, and composable constituents. We have validated our framework through a full parameterized implementation that is flexible enough to capture...

  20. Perbandingan antara Bahan Cetak Silikon pada Bahan Cetak Zinc Oxide Eugenol Pasta pada Jaringan Lunak Palatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaidar Masulili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mendapatkan suatu detil pencetakan dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor seperti, viskositas, kebasahan, cara pengangan bahan cetak dan kemampuan bahan cetak untuk mengalir di atas jaringan lunak. Petunjuk anatomi palatum yaitu sutura palatum median, rugae dan papilla incisive dapat dipakai untuk mendeteksi hasil cetakan.Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan pencetakan dari 15 model cetakan paatu yang dicetak dengan bahan cetak silikon, dan 15 model cetakan palatum yang dicetak dengan bahan pasta zinc oxide eugenol, kemudian dievaluasi dengan menentukan jumlah skore detil jaringan dari masing-masing kelompok bahan cetak ini. Walaupun terlihat adanya perbedaan reproduksi detil, dari hasil uji statistik tidak menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna antara hasil reproduksi detil dari kedua bahan cetak tersebut. Kenyataan yang bertentangan dapat disebabkan sifat kebasahan jaringan, kebasahan bahan cetak, adanya perbedaan efek penipisan karena sobekan, jumlah dan ukuran partikel bahan pengisi dan kompatibilitas gips dengan bahan cetak.

  1. Pemilihan Bahan Alloy Untuk Konstruksi Gigitiruan

    OpenAIRE

    Medila Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Pada kedokteran gigi bahan alloy sangat banyak digunakan dalam segala bidang. Dalam pembuatan konstruksi gigitiman biasanya digunakan alloy emas, alloy kobalt kromium, alloy nikei kromium dan alloy stainless steel sebagai komponen gigitiman kerangka logam serta pembuatan mahkota dan jembatan. Pemilihan bahan alloy dapat dilakukan berdasarkan sifat yang dimiiiki oleh masing-masing bahan alloy sehingga akan didapat hasil konstmksi gigitiruan yang memuaskan. Pada pemakaiannya didaiam mulut...

  2. Pengukuran Dan Perbaikan Produktivitas Dengan Menggunakan Model APC (American Productivity Center) Di PT. Pantja Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Muhammad Gani

    2010-01-01

    PT. Pantja Surya adalah Perusahaan manufaktur yang memproduksi Crumb Rubber dengan Standard Indonesian Rubber yang berdiri sejak bulan juli 1965. Jenis produk yang diproduksi adalah S.I.R 20. Dalam menghadapi persaingan yang semakin kompetitif PT. Pantja Surya selalu berusaha meningkatkan produktivitas perusahaan, dimana untuk mengetahui tingkat produktivitas perusahaan perlu dilakukan suatu pengukuran produktivitas yang merupakan ukuran dan akan dijadikan sebagai patokan untuk dianalisa, ...

  3. Hubungan Elastisitas Dengan Stabilitas Dimensional Pada Bahan Cetak Siloxane

    OpenAIRE

    Riny Zoraya Rinaldy

    2010-01-01

    Bahan cetak siloxane adalah salah satu bahan cetak rubber base impression material yang disebut juga silikon tipe adisi. Bahan cetak ini pertama kali diperkenalkan pada tahun 1970-an dan sejak saat itu sering digunakan karena memiliki stabilitas dimensional yang baik. Stabilitas dimensional sering dihubungkan dengan temperature, penggunaan sarung tangan latex, proses cross linking, viskositas, tekanan, flow, dan juga sifat elastisitas bahan cetak tersebut. Bahan cetak tersebut memiliki be...

  4. Sistem Tracking Panel Surya Untuk Pengoptimalan Daya Menggunakan Metode Kendali Logika Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Imadul Haq

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu jenis energi alternatif yang berkembang pesat dan banyak digunakan adalah energi matahari yang digunakan sebagai pembangkit listrik, dalam bentuk panel surya. Dalam rangka mengoptimalkan penggunaan panel surya tersebut, diperlukan sebuah sistem pengendali yang dapat mengontrol posisi panel surya agar selalu mengikuti arah dan posisi dari matahari secara otomatis. Sistem yang digunakan untuk pengaturan tersebut dinamakan sistem tracking matahari dengan dua derajat kebebasan. Sistem ini bekerja menggunakan perubahan daya yang terbaca oleh panel surya. Kelebihan dari sistem ini dapat mengikuti posisi matahari. Dalam sistem ini digunakan perbandingan daya yang terbaca oleh sistem dan mencari yang paling optimal diantara daya tersebut. Berdasarkan perbedaan daya yang diterima, Kendali Logika Fuzzy akan menggerakkan motor servo untuk melakukan aksi kendali terhadap posisi panel surya supaya selalu  tegak lurus terhadap posisi matahari. Perbandingan respon unjuk kerja antara sistem yang tanpa menggunakan kontroler fuzzy yaitu tegangan =15,40 V, arus = 0,46 A, dan daya = 7.17 W , sedangkan untuk sistem yang menggunakan kontroler fuzzy 2 DOF (Degree Of Freedom menghasilkan tegangan = 15,54 V, arus = 0,51 A, dan daya = 7.94  W. Sistem yang dibuat sudah mengikuti matahari untuk mencapai daya yang maksimal.

  5. ANALISIS PERPUTARAN RADIASI SURYA TERHADAP KINERJA SEL FOTOLISTRIK SEBAGAI ENERGI RAMAH LINGKUNGAN DI NUSA PENIDA KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG PROVINSI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N. Suastaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectric cells is an equipment made of semiconductor material of Silicone (Si14 functioned to catchand converse sun light to become electric energy directly. Through photoelectric phenomenon, that sun lightas particles with frequency/wavelength of certain light can release electrons in a material. This electrons’movement can produce electric current. The aim of this research was to find out the performance of aphotoelectric cells collector in conversing sun light to become electric energy due to the rotation of solarradiation in Nusa Penida.The research was conducted at PLTS electric home solar system Nusa Penida for 5 days the measurementto the parameter of Current (Isc and Voltage (Vsc. Each measurement had duration of lighting for 8 hourseach from 09.00 until 16.00 Central Indonesian Time, with time interval of 30 minutes. Measurement anddata analysis produced in the research on Saturday, June 29th 2013 obtained: the amount of solar radiationarrived at earth’s outer atmosphere was 1321.90 W/m2, and passed along to earth’s surface at 621.29 W/m2,and received by photoelectric cells collector as heat power at 113.63 Watt, and efficiency produced was 25.3%,and electric power produced was 28.74 Watt, and can be equalized with fossil energy of 0.0237 liter ofgasoline, or equivalent to 106.65 rupiah. It meant that, photoelectric cells collector with area of 50 x 110cm2in a day can protect earth from global warming of 28.74 Watt, in using of fossil energy at 0.0237 liter ofgasoline.The efficient performance of photoelectric cells was still considered small. In order to achieve big capacityof electric power required a lot of collector modules and large area, so that with the growing of semiconductortechnology, it is expected that whenever possible it can reduce electron binding energy on material, andoptimize solar lighting system to photoelectric cells collector modules, so that the efficient performance ofphotoelectric cells can be expected to be above 90%.

  6. Manajemen Energi Di Rumah Sakit Surya Husadha Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Gde Weda Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rumah Sakit Surya Husadha Denpasar merupakan rumah sakit berstandar internasional dengan tingkat hunian kamar pada tahun 2011 cukup tinggi sekitar 75%.Yang berdampak pada tingkat pemakaian energi listrik. Tingkat pemakaian energi listrikrumah sakit tiap bulan rata-rata sebesar 123,071 kWh, diperuntukan pengoperasian AC sebanyak 43%, peralatan medis 29%, lampu 13%, elektronik 11% dan lainnya 4%. Dalam hal ini konservasi energi yang dilakukan difokuskan pada AC dan lampu karena hal tersebut memungkinkan untuk dilakukan pengontrolan pemakaian, penggantian peralatan dan tidak termasuk kategori peralatan vital seperti halnya peralatan medis. Dari tahapan audit energi diperoleh data bahwa nilai IKE adalah 245,40 kWh/m2/tahun. Sebanyak 37,1% kapasitas AC dan 84,54% kuat pencahayaan telah sesuai dengan pembebanan ruangan dan pedoman pencahayaan rumah sakit. Untuk perancangan manajemen energi, pimpinan rumah sakit belum memiliki acuan penyusunan sehingga perlu dilakukan pemetaan terhadap kebijakan dan sistem, organisasi, motivasi, sistem informasi, promosi dan investasi. Rancangan manajemen energi yang disusun mengacu pada matriks manajemen energi. Hasil matriks manajemen energi menunjukan bahwa manajemen energi rumah sakit belum terkelola dengan baik namun dalam hal penerapan teknologi dan sistem perawatan lampu dan AC dapat dijadikan best practice.

  7. KERACUNAN BAHAN KIMIA BERACUN DI RUMAH TANGGA DAN PENANGGULANGANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satmoko Satmoko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pada umumnya semua bahan kimia merupakan racun, termasuk obat-obatan. Bahan kimia beracun di dalam rumah setiap saat dapat mengancam keselamatan kita, terutama anak-anak.Bahan bahan kimia yang sering digunakan dan, disimpan di rumah tangga adalah sangat beragam. Hal ini perlu diperhatikan oleh masyarakat umum karena bahan kimia tersebut dapat membahayakan anak-anak, khususnya balita atau bahkan orang dewasa apabila dalam pelabelan tidak jelas atau memindahkan wadah asli bahan kimia ke wadah lain tanpa diberikan keterangan atau label.Bahan kimia yang sering disimpan di rumah tangga adalah antara lain, spiritus (metil alkohol, asam cuka, air aki, aseton (penghapus cat kuku, bensin, pestisida, deterjen, karnper, kaporit, karbol, minyak tanah, terpentin, oli, obat obatan (boorwater, asetosal, obat-obatan penurun panas, barbiturat, mereurochrom, dan lain sebagainya.  

  8. BATA LEMPUNG BAHAN BANGUNAN DINDING ALTERNATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentius Totok Noerwasito

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "Bata lempung" is block of wall material, main basic material is sols contains 50-60% clay, pressed and molded, without combusted, used after 28 days and production doesn't depend climates. "Bata lempung" can used as bearing wall or curtain wall, exposed and in low-cost housing, exclusive house and real estate. Resultants of research "Bata lempung" used sols from Pandaan Jawa-Timur are resistance compression 60 -70 kg/cm2, waterproofing and cheaper than brick if produced in site of project. "Bata lemping" are material saving energy, without pollution, efficient, structural and art material. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : "Bata lempung" adalah bahan bangunan dinding berupa blok terbuat dari tanah "lempung" dengan kandungan 50-60% Clay, dicetak dengan pemadatan, pengeringan tanpa dibakar, dipergunakan setelah berumur 28 hari. Karena dicetak proses pembuatan tidak tergantung pada cuaca. Aplikasi "bata lempung" adalah sebagai dinding pemikul atau sebagai dinding pengisi, yang dapat diekspose pada dinding rumah murah, rumah mewah atau pada kompleks perumahan real estate. Hasil penelitian dari tanah yang berasal dari Pandaan - Jawa timur menghasilkan blok "bata lempung" dengan kuat tekan 60 -70 kg/cm2, tahan air .dan harga dibawah harga bata merah dipasaran jika diproduksi dilokasi bangunan. "Bata lempung" adalah bahan bangunan yang ramah lingkungan,henat enrgi, tidak meninggalkan banyak sisa blok, merupakan bahan bangunan struktural dan juga bahan bangunan seni. Kata kunci: Bahan bangunan dinding, blok, Clay, Semen, pemadatan, pencetakan, pembakaran, ekspose, natural, modul, kuat tekan, dinding pemikul, dinding pengisi, polusi, hemat energi, material struktural, material seni.

  9. BERBAGAI ALTERNATIF BAHAN BAKU LOKAL UNTUK PAKAN IKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarman Sukarman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian besar bahan baku pakan ikan merupakan barang impor, sehingga harga pakan yang dihasilkan menjadi mahal. Perlu dicari alternatif bahan baku lokal yang bisa dipakai untuk pakan ikan dan udang. Tujuan makalah ini adalah membahas beberapa bahan baku alternatif lokal, nilai nutrisi dan rekomendasi penggunaannya dalam pakan ikan dan udang. Hasil studi literatur menunjukkan bahwa limbah industri mie instan, tepung daun singkong, homini, limbah roti, tepung rebon, dan MBM bisa dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pakan alternatif untuk ikan dan udang. Bahan lainnya juga memungkinkan dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan asal diketahui aspek-aspek nutrisi baik proksimat, asam amino, vitamin, mineral, kecernaan dan anti nutrisinya, serta telah dilakukan uji coba pada ikan.

  10. Efektifitas Penambahan Flour Pada Bahan Restorasi Semen Ionomer Kaca

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Sri Kesumawati

    2008-01-01

    Semen ionomer kaca adalah bahan tumpatan yang dalam penggunaannya dapat mempertahankan atau menggantikan jaringan gigi sebanyak mungkin, membantu terjadinya proses remineralisasi, dan mempunyai estetik yang baik. Bahan restorasi yang biasa digunakan dan dapat melepaskan fluor adalah semen ionomer kaca. Bahan ini sebagai perekat yang mengikat struktur gigi dan melepas fluor sebanyak yang dibutuhkan gigi agar dapat mencegah terjadinya karies. Dentin merupakan lapisan dibawah email, sehingga...

  11. Penentuan Properties Bahan Bakar Batubara Cair untuk Bahan Bakar Marine Diesel Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Juhantoro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal water mixture (CWM adalah bahan bakar campuran antara batubara dan air dengan peambahan zat aditif yang dapat membentuk suspensi cairan homogen dan stabil selama penyimpanan, pengangkutan, dan pembakaran. Tahap pertama pembuatan bahan bakar batubara cair adalah dengan teknologi Upgrading Brown Coal (UBC. Pada proses upgrading ini digunakan larutan kerosen dan aspal sebagai media upgradingnya, sedangkan rasio antara larutan kerosen-aspal dengan batubara adalah 1,25. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pembuatan slurry bahan bakar batubara cair dengan teknologi Coal Water Mixtures (CWM. Pada proses CWM ini diameter batubara maximum 38 um. Komposisi antara batubara dengan air adalah 40% : 60%. Untuk menstabilkan CWM digunakan  bahan aditif berupa CarboMextyl Cellulose (CMC dan sebagai dipersant digunakan Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic  (ABS.  Perbandingan masing-masing aditif pada  komposisi campuran adalah 0.01% CMC dan 0.07% ABS. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan variasi temperatur pemanasan untuk mengetahui hasil fisik maupun karakteristik bahan bakar batubara cair. Dari hasil fisik dan karakteristik diperoleh keadaan batubara cair memiliki kemiripan dengan Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO pada temperatur pemanasan 15 0C dan 50 0C.

  12. PERSIAPAN DAN PENYUSUNAN BAHAN BAKU LOKAL UNTUK FORMULASI PAKAN IKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruddin Kamaruddin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Usaha budidaya ikan dalam keramba jaring apung masih mengandalkan pasok pakan alami berupa ikan rucah yang dapat mencapai 60%--70% dari total biaya produksi. Karena itu perlu pengadaan pakan buatan yang memenuhi persyaratan kebutuhan nutrisi bagi pembesaran ikan, baik makro maupun mikro nutrien diperlukan sebagai informasi dasar dalam upaya pengembangan pakan buatan. Terdapat banyak bahan baku lokal yang sangat potensial dijadikan bahan baku pakan, seperti: ikan rucah, rebon, kepala udang (limbah cold storage, tepung darah (limbah pemotongan hewan, dan tepung DOC (limbah penetasan ayam. Dari beberapa bahan baku tersebut telah dianalisis kandungan nutrisinya dan telah dilakukan uji kecernaan masing-masing bahan menunjukkan bahwa bahan tersebut dapat mensubstitusi bahan baku impor tepung ikan sebagai sumber protein hewani. Selain bahan hewani, juga telah dilakukan analisis kandungan nutrisi bahan nabati lokal, seperti pemanfaatan bungkil kelapa sawit, bungkil kopra, dan dedak halus. Untuk menghasilkan pakan yang berkualitas, maka semua bahan harus dalam bentuk tepung yang halus, serta mempunyai keseimbangan antara protein, lemak, dan energi serta suplemen vitamin dan mineral.

  13. Effects of Combinatorial Expression of selA, selB and selC Genes on the Efficiency of Selenocysteine Incorporation in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ya-wei; YAN Gang-lin; LUO Gui-min; JIANG Zhi-hua; MU Ying; ZHANG Lei; ZHAO Si-qi; LIU Shu-jun; WANG Cheng; ZHAO Yang; L(U) Shao-wu

    2013-01-01

    In Escherichia coli,four gene products(selA,selB,selC and selD) and a selenocysteine(Sec) insertion sequence(SECIS) are required for the correct translation of UGA codons encoding Sec.Previous studies have shown that the stoichiometry of selenoproteine mRNA and elongation factor SelB affect the efficiency of Sec incorporation.Herein lies a detailed analysis of the effects of co-expressing selA,selB and selC genes under inducible promoters on the incorporation efficiency of Sec.Over-expression of either selA or selB reduced the efficiency of Sec incorporation by 61.1% or 11.6%,respectively,compared to the over-expression of the reporter vector alone did.Concomitant over-expression of selC with selA or selB completely reversed the reduce of the efficiency of Sec but still reduced the efficiency of the incorporation relative to that observed for expression of selC alone.Over-expression of selC gene alone under L-arabinose induction reduced the efficiency of the incorporation relative to that observed for co-expressing selC with selA and selB under the control of its endogenous promoter in the absence of L-arabinose.Co-expression of selA,selB and selC with selA or selB under the control of inducible promoters increased the efficiency of Sec incorporation by 69.7%.Moreover,inducing selenoprotein-related gene expression during the late exponential phase increased the efficiency of Sec incorporation by a factor of 5.4 relative to that observed for the reporter vector alone.These results suggest that the co-expression of selA,selB and selC in Escherichia coli under the control of inducible promoters is a viable and promising strategy for increasing the yields of selenoproteins.

  14. Effects of Surya Nadi Pranayama (Right Nostril Breathing on Hematological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Singh Bal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of Surya nadi pranayama on hematological parameters. Forty, university level girls of Department of Physical Education (T, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar between the age group of 21-26 years (Mean ± SD: age 22.95 ± 1.796 years, height 5.552 ± 1.974 feet’s, body mass 61.265 ± 4.080 kg volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects from Group-A: Experimental were subjected to a 4-weeks surya nadi pranayama (Right Nostril. Student t test for paired samples was utilized to compare the means of the pre-test and the post-test. No significant differences were found in Hemoglobin (Hb, Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-Cholesterol and Triglycerides (TG among University Level Girls.

  15. DISAIN TEKNOLOGI SURYA SEBAGAI "FORM-GIVER" PADA ARSITEKTUR Implementasi Bangunan Perumahan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Priatman

    2001-01-01

    faktor penentu disain sistem surya yang mempengaruhi disain arsitektur yang akan membentuk suatu langgam arsitektur baru yang dinamakan "arsitektur surya". Kata kunci: Disain Teknologi Surya, Arsitektur Surya.

  16. POTENSI BIOMASSA FITOPLANKTON Tetraselmis chui SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Sukmawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian mengenai potensi biomassa fitoplakton Porphyridium cruentum dan Tetraselmis chui sebagai bahan baku pembuatan bioetanol dengan metode fermentasi telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, dilakukan serangkaian kultivasi fitoplankton untuk memperoleh biomassa sebagai bahan baku substrat untuk fermentasi bioetanol. Proses pembuatan bioetanol terdiri dari dua tahap yakni pretreatment biomassa dan fermentasi bioetanol. Proses pretreatment terdiri dari proses delipidasi dengan metode ekstra...

  17. Pengaruh Bahan Organik Terhadap Ketersediaan Hara P Dari Beberapa Jenis Pupuk Fosfat Pada Tanah Ultisol

    OpenAIRE

    Zega, Radius Oranizatulo

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian Bahan Organik Limbah Padat Sawit dan Beberapa Jenis Pupuk Fosfat dalam meningkatkan ketersediaan hara P - Tanah Ultisol. Model rancangan menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terpisah ( RPT ) dengan perlakuan sebagai berikut : Pemberian Bahan Organik Limbah Padat Sawit sebagai Petak Utama terdiri dari 3 (tiga) taraf : BO ( Bahan Organik 0.00 g/polybag ) BI ( Bahan Organik 18.75 g/polybag ) dan B3 ( Bahan Organik 37.5 g/polybag ). Pemberian...

  18. Pemodelan Matematik Kinerja Pengering Surya Efek Rumah Kaca (ERK-Hibrid Menggunakan Rak Berputar secara Vertikal (Mathematical Modeling Performance of Greenhouse Effect (GHE-Hybrid Solar Dryer with a Vertical Rotating Rack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Triwahyudi

    2016-12-01

    ini menyajikan uji unjuk kerja dan pemodelan matematik pengering energi surya (ERK-Hibrid  menggunakan  rak berputar secara vertikal. Pengering terdiri dari bangunan rumah kaca berukuran (1100 × 860 × 1300 mm dengan delapan buah rak dan sistim pemanas tambahan yang terdiri dari kolektor plat datar (1,04 m2, tangki penyimpan air panas (197 liter dan penukar panas. Untuk mengetahuikinerja pengering energi surya, dilakukan lima kali percobaan variasi kecepatan putar rak (1, 4, 7, 10 rpm dan tanpa pemutaran rak. Bahan yang dipergunakan pada pengujian adalah kapulaga lokal (Amomum cardamomum Wild. Masing-masing percobaan seberat 9 sampai dengan 10 kg. Rata-rata suhu air tangki penyimpan panas bervariasi dari 50,0 sampai dengan 55,0 °C suhu ruang pengering antara 38,9 sampai dengan 45,9 °C, sedangkan kelembaban relatif (RH ruang pengering berkisar antara 32,1 sampai dengan 47,4 %. Perlakuan pemutaran rak berpengaruh terhadap keseragaman suhu bahan maupun kadar air pada masing rak pengering. Pada perlakuan pemutaran 1 rpm (percobaan II, didapatkan kondisi terbaik (suhu bahan maupun kadar air yang paling seragam. Dengan kecepatan putar rak yang semakin meningkat menyebabkan nilai ragam suhu bahan maupun kadar air semakin meningkat. Untuk melakukan simulasi unjuk kerja dilakukan pemodelan matematik berdasarkan pindah panas dan massa serta pendekatan pengeringan lapisan tipis. Persamaan diselesaikan secara numerik menggunakan finite difference Euler dengan bantuan bahasa pemrograman Visual Basic Aplication (VBA Excell. Validasi dilakukan dengan membandingkan antara perhitungan hasil pemodelan (data prediksi dengan data hasil pengukuran (data observasi. Kriteria kevalidan ditentukan dengan melihat nilai koefisien determinasi (R2, nilai RMSD maupun nilai MAPD. Pemodelan  matematik yang telah dibangun dapat menggambarkan dengan tepat perubahan suhu air tangki penyimpan panas, suhu ruang pengering, suhu bahan maupun penurunan kadar air. Kata kunci: Pengering surya efek rumah

  19. Integrasi Bahan Ajar Kewirausahaan Bidang Produktif Bangunan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Lilik Hariyanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Integrasi Bahan Ajar Kewirausahaan Bidang Produktif Bangunan. Lulusan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan diharapkan: (1 bekerja pada bidang pekerjaan yang sesuai dengan bidang kejuruannya, (2 melanjutkan pendidikan ke tingkat yang lebih tinggi, dan (3 berwirausaha. SMK Bangunan harus mampu membuat lulusannya menciptakan laangan kerja. Hal ini dapat dicapai salah satunya dengan mengintegrasikan kewirausahaan ke dalam pembelajaran mata pelajaran produktif. Ada tiga rumusan masalah, yaitu: (1 bagaimana mengimplementasikan standard kometensi dan kompetensi dasar, silabus kerja batu? (2 bagaimana integrasi mata pelajaran kewirausahaan ke dalam mata pelajaran produktif? (3 bagaimana pengembangan RPPnya? Langkah-langkah integrasi meliputi: (1 identifikasi elemen kewirausahaan, (2 identifikasi pengetahuan, keterampilan, sikap, dan nilai, (3 mengklasifikasi di dalam bentuk topic dan tema, (4 identifikasi kompetensi dasar, (5 menemukan strategi belajar, (6 revisi, (7 uji coba.  Kesimpulan: (1 mata pelajaran kewirausahaan dan mata pelajaran produktif untuk praktik kerja konstruksi dan beton dapat diintegrasikan, (2 Hasil integrasi dapat meningkatkan kesiapan siswa, (3 (2 Product integration can foster entrepreneurship student readiness. Kata kunci: bahan ajar, teknik bangunan, integrasi

  20. Data collection procedures for the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Gerard; Valett, Jon; Wild, Mary

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guidebook to collecting software engineering data on software development and maintenance efforts, as practiced in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). It supersedes the document entitled Data Collection Procedures for the Rehosted SEL Database, number SEL-87-008 in the SEL series, which was published in October 1987. It presents procedures to be followed on software development and maintenance projects in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for collecting data in support of SEL software engineering research activities. These procedures include detailed instructions for the completion and submission of SEL data collection forms.

  1. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Scott; Basili, Victor; Godfrey, Sally; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Waligora, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) cleanroom process model is described. The term 'cleanroom' originates in the integrated circuit (IC) production process, where IC's are assembled in dust free 'clean rooms' to prevent the destructive effects of dust. When applying the clean room methodology to the development of software systems, the primary focus is on software defect prevention rather than defect removal. The model is based on data and analysis from previous cleanroom efforts within the SEL and is tailored to serve as a guideline in applying the methodology to future production software efforts. The phases that are part of the process model life cycle from the delivery of requirements to the start of acceptance testing are described. For each defined phase, a set of specific activities is discussed, and the appropriate data flow is described. Pertinent managerial issues, key similarities and differences between the SEL's cleanroom process model and the standard development approach used on SEL projects, and significant lessons learned from prior cleanroom projects are presented. It is intended that the process model described here will be further tailored as additional SEL cleanroom projects are analyzed.

  2. PENGARUH TINGKAT YOGURT DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI TERHADAP KECERNAAN IN VITRO BAHAN KERING, BAHAN ORGANIK, PROTEIN, DAN SERAT KASAR KULIT NANAS FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati (Nurhayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilaksanakan untuk melihat pengaruh tingkat yogurt dan waktu fermentasi terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, protein, dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu tingkat yogurt (0, 3, 6, dan 9 ml/kg dan lama waktu fermentasi (24, 48, dan 72 jam yang diulang sebanyak 5 kali. Bahan yang digunakan adalah kulit nanas, plain yogurt yang mengandung bakteri Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dan Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, bahan kimia yang digunakan untuk analisis proksimat protein dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi, larutan saliva buatan McDougall dan cairan rumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 tingkat yogurt terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar tetapi tidak berbeda nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Waktu fermentasi berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, protein kasar, dan serat kasar secara in vitro. Interaksi tingkat yogurt dengan waktu fermentasi memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik dan protein kasar tetapi tidak memberikan perbedaan pengaruh nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa tingkat yogurt 6 ml/kg dan waktu fermentasi 72 jam dapat meningkatkan kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar serta menurunkan kecernaan in vitro serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. (Kata kunci: Fermentasi, Kecernaan in vitro, Kulit nanas, Yogurt

  3. Penggunaan Bahan Tumpatan Resin Komposit Dengan Prosedur Etsa Asam

    OpenAIRE

    Della Arfiza

    2008-01-01

    Etsa asam adalah larutan monomer pada permukaan dentin yang akan membentuk suatu lapisan monomer resin untuk meningkatkan ikatan antara komposit dengan struktur permukaan enamel. Pembagian bahan etsa asam terdiri dari Benzalkonium chlohda (BCA) dan Scotchbond Etchant yang mengandung asam posfat, Etsa asam dilakukan dengan asam posfat 37% selama 15-30 detik kemudian dicuci minimal selama 15 detik. Pemilihan bahan etsa asam sebaiknya dalam bentuk gel atau semigel karena lebih lengket dan dapat ...

  4. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Maria; Heller, Gerard; Steinberg, Sandra; Spiegel, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base tables is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database, through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL), are discussed.

  5. PICUNG (PANGIUM EDULE SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET IKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermana Hermana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available (Pangium edule sebagai bahan pengawet ikan (Pitjung (Pangium edule as a preservative for fish. Pitjung (Pangium edule contains an antiseptic substance. It can be used as a preservative for fish in combination with salt. The self-life of fish will be increased if, in addition to 3% salt, certain amounts of pitjung are added. Sensory evaluation indicated that a combination of 6% pitjung with 3% salt could keep the fresh characteristics of fish for 6 days, therefore is useful to preserve fish during transport. Cara mengawet ikan seperti dilakukan orang di Labuan Jawa Barat, menggunakan picung (Pangium edule dan garam. Dengan cara ini garam yang digunakan lebih sedikit daripada yang diperlukan untuk mengasin. Picung terdapat di seluruh Indonesia, memungkinkan penggunaan cara ini di daerah-daerah penangkapan ikan yang kekurangan es atau garam. Penelitian ini bertujuan menilai kegunaan cara tersebut sehubungan dengan kesukaan konsumen.

  6. Performansi Kolektor Surya Pemanas Air Dengan Penambahan External Helical Fins Pada Pipa Dengan Variasi Sudut Kemiringan Kolektor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Nugraha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Menipisnya sumber energi fosil mengakibatkan diperlukannya pemanfaatan energi alternatif seperti penggunaan kolektor surya untuk memanaskan air. Salah satu cara meningkatkan efisiensi kolektor adalah dengan menambahkan external helical fins pada pipa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana performansi kolektor surya dengan penambahan sirip berbentuk helical serta mengetahui pengaruh perubahan sudut kemiringan kolektor serta warna kaca penutup. Penelitian ini menggunakan variasi warna kaca penutup yaitu bening dan hitam dimana setiap warna divariasikan sudut kemiringan kolektor surya sebesar 100, 200 dan 300 serta debit diatur konstan sebesar 300 lt/jam. Pengambilan data dilakukan setiap satu jam dari pukul 09.00-15.00 WIB. Dari hasil penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa efisiensi kolektor surya dengan penambahan external helical fins pada pipa terjadi pada saat kaca penutup bening dengan sudut kemiringan kolektor 300 yaitu sebesar 65,81% Pada saat radiasi matahari sebesar 4,177 MJ/m2. Sudut kemiringan 300 merupakan sudut kemiringan paling baik dibanding 100 dan 200 serta penggunaan kaca penutup bening menghasilkan efisiensi yang lebih baik dibanding kaca hitam. Penambahan external helical fin pada pipa dapat meningkatkan efisiensi kolektor jika dibandingkan dengan tanpa penambahan fin.

  7. ANALISIS SENSITIVITAS TURBULENSI ALIRAN PADA KANAL BAHAN BAKAR PWR BERBASIS CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endiah Puji Hastuti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbulensi aliran pendingin pada proses perpindahan panas berfungsi untuk meningkatkan nilai koefisien perpindahan panas, tidak terkecuali aliran dalam kanal bahan bakar. Program CFD (CFD=computational fluid dynamics, FLUENT adalah program komputasi berbasis elemen hingga (finite element yang mampu memprediksi dan menganalisis fenomena dinamika aliran fluida secara teliti. Program perhitungan CFD dipilih dalam penelitian ini karena selain akurat juga dapat memberikan visualisasi dengan baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami karakteristika perpindahan panas, massa dan momentum dari dinding rod bahan bakar ke pendingin secara visual, pada medan temperatur, medan tekanan, dan medan energi kinetika pendingin, sebagai fungsi dinamika aliran di dalam kanal, pada kondisi tunak dan transien. Analisis dinamika aliran pada kanal bahan bakar PWR berbasis CFD dilakukan dengan menggunakan sampel data reaktor PWR dengan daya 1000 MWe dengan susunan bahan bakar 17x17. Untuk menguji sensitivitas persamaan aliran yang sesuai dengan model aliran turbulen pada kanal bahan bakar dilakukan pemodelan dengan menggunakan persamaan k-omega (Ƙ-ω, k-epsilon (Ƙ-ε, dan Reynold stress model (RSM. Pada analisis sensitivitas aliran turbulen di dalam kanal digunakan model mesh hexahedral dengan memilih tiga geometri sel yang masing masing berukuran 0,5 mm; 0,2 mm dan 0,15 mm. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pada analisis kondisi tunak (steady state, terdapat hasil yang mirip pada model turbulen Ƙ-ε standard dan Ƙ-ω standard. Pengujian terhadap kriteria Dittus Boelter untuk bilangan Nusselt menunjukkan bahwa model Reynold stress model (RSM direkomendasikan. Analisis sensitivitas terhadap geometri mesh antara sel yang berukuran 0,5 mm, 0,2 mm dan 0,15 mm, menunjukkan bahwa geometri sel sebesar 0,5 mm telah mencukupi. Aliran turbulen berkembang penuh telah tercapai pada model LES dan DES, meskipun hanya dalam waktu singkat (3 s, model LES memerlukan waktu komputasi

  8. "seisatan sel minemise rajal..." : [luuletused] / Hanna Kangro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangro, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "seisatan sel minemise rajal..." ; "mingis hääletus sisemuses..." ; "murdumisnurk terav..." ; "Vasaku käe veen on veel vaba" ; "jaapanlased teevad ületunde..." ; "kuulsin praginat..." ; "kütan kolme ahju..." ; "tühi hääbunud õhtune pühapäev..." ; "ootasin tulemist..."

  9. Combined effect of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises to reduce anger among substance dependence subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malhotra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises on anger management. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Specific exercise was planned for anger management based on a thorough literature review, which consisted of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises (brisk walking and jogging to be taught in a two-week period. Results: Anger was assessed by using standardised tool and after intervention for fifteen days, significant reduction in anger score was found in experimental group. Conclusion: Physical exercises were found to be effective for managing the anger among substance dependence subjects.

  10. PENGARUH TEBAL PLAT DAN JARAK ANTAR PIPA TERHADAP PERFORMANSI KOLEKTOR SURYA PLAT DATAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoe Kiem San

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate solar collector is an equipment to used for water heater. This collector absorb the radiant energy from the sun and convert it to heat in the tubes collector. Parameters which influence the performance this collector are thickness of the plate absorber and distance between the tubes which called collector fin efficiency. From the research it is found that more and more the thickness of the plate absorber and more and more the small distance between of the tubes collector, more and more optimum fin eficiency the collector. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kolektor surya plat datar merupakan suatu peralatan yang dapat digunakan untuk memanaskan air. Kolektor tersebut menyerap energi radiasi dari matahari dan mengkonversikannya menjadi panas pada pipa-pipa kolektor. Parameter-parameter yang berpengaruh terhadap unjuk kerja kolektor tersebut diantaranya adalah ketebalan plat penyerap dan jarak antar pipa-pipa kolektor yang disebut dengan efisiensi sirip kolektor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tebal plat penyerap dan semakin kecil jarak antar pipa-pipa kolektor, efisiensi sirip dari kolektor semakin optimum. Kata kunci: kolektor surya plat datar, performansi, efisiensi sirip.

  11. PERBANDINGAN KONFIGURASI PIPA PARALEL DAN SERPENTINE TERHADAP UNJUK KERJA KOLEKTOR SURYA PLAT DATAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahardjo Tirtoatmodjo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pipes used to circulate water in a solar collector usually has 'parallel' configuration. The water would absorb more solar energy if it flows slower in the pipes. It could be accomplished by using 'serpentine' configuration. A research on a 'parallel' collector and a 'serpentine' collector was carried on the same time, which were 7 days for one cover glass and the next 7 days for two cover glasses. From the research, it is found that if the water stored in a reservoir tank is to be used in the evening, 'parallel' configuration is more suitable than 'serpentine' configuration. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pipa sirkulasi yang ada pada kolektor surya umumnya mempunyai konfigurasi 'paralel'. Air akan menerima radiasi matahari lebih banyak jika mengalir lebih lambat dalam pipa sirkulasi. Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan konfigurasi 'serpentine'. Pengujian kolektor dengan konfigurasi 'paralel' dan 'serpentine' dilakukan secara bersamaan selama 7 hari untuk satu kaca penutup dan 7 hari berikutnya untuk dua kaca penutup. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan konfigurasi 'paralel' lebih baik jika air yang disimpan dalam tanki hendak dipergunakan pada sore hari. Kata kunci : kolektor surya, pipa sirkulasi.

  12. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Manajemen Proyek Pengaksessan Dokumen Perakitan PCBA Di PT Surya Teknologi Batam Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukino .

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intisari— PT. Surya Teknologi Batam sebagai perusahaan yang peduli lingkungan juga berupaya mengurangi konsumsi kertas dan toner printer, dengan memindahkan dokumen – dokumen yang berhubungan dengan perintah kerja perakitan PCB yang sebelumnya diberikan kepada line produksi dalam bentuk kertas, menjadi sistem online dengan menggunakan pemanfaatan layar komputer. Untuk itu pemanfaatan teknologi informasi memegang peranan penting dalam mewujudkan perubahan ini. Sistem informasi pengelolaan dokumen ini dibangun dengan menggunakan metode waterfall. Pembangunan sistem informasi pengelolaan dokumen ini diawali dengan melakukan analisis kebutuhan, perancangan sistem, serta implementasi dan pengujian sistem. Analisis kebutuhan dilakukan untuk mengumpulkan data-data yang diperlukan dalam membangun sistem. Perancangan sistem meliputi perancangan arsitektur, basis data, dan perancangan user interface. Implementasi sistem menggunakan basis data MySQL dengan bahasa pemrograman PHP dan Javascript. Pengujian sistem dilakukan dengan metode black-box yang berfokus pada fungsional sistem. Hasil dari pengujian yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa sistem informasi pengelolaan dokumen di PT. Surya Teknologi Batam berbasis web telah sesuai dengan kebutuhan fungsional sistem. Kata kunci: Sistem  Informasi, Pengelolaan Dokumen.

  13. Perbandingan sitotoksisitas tiga jenis algyrogel terhadap sel fibroblas (Citotoxicity comparation of three types of algyrogel on fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefany Elan Saktiyawardani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of osteoporosis and bone defects in the world and Indonesia increase each year. Algyrogel is a alginate-based hydrogel material recently very popular used as a bone substitute through injectable bone substitute (IBs method. One of advantages algyrogel is biocompatibility to the body tissues. some natural-based polymer (alginate, chitosan, dan hyaluronat have different biocompatibility. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the cytotoxicity of three types algyrogel against fibroblast cells. Methods: This study used three types algyrogel, there were algyrogel containing alginate (Alg, a mixture of alginate with chitosan (Alg/Ch, and a mixture of alginate with hyaluronic acid (Alg/Ha. Each type algyrogel was exposed in the Vero cell line of fibroblast with volume 2 μL; 4 μL; 6 μL; 8 μL; 10 μL; 12 μL; 14 μL; 16 μL; 18 μL; and 20 μL respectively. The cytotoxicity performed by MTT method to determine the percentage of cell death. The optical density was measured by an ELIsA plate reader then data was analyzed using ANOVA and probit. Results: The percentage of cell death in all groups of algyrogel have below 30%. LC50 value at Alg was 651.017 mg/mL (21.56%, Alg/Ch was 280.478 mg/mL (20.91%, and Alg/Ha was 1054.094 mg/ mL (17.2%. Conclusion: Alg/Ha has the lowest cytotoxicity on fibroblast cells and may have potential as an osteoconductor-synthetic bone product.Latar belakang: Prevalensi osteoporosis dan cacat tulang di Indonesia maupun dunia semakin meningkat tiap tahunnya. Algyrogel sebagai bahan hidrogel yang berbasis alginat akhir-akhir ini sangat popular digunakan sebagai bahan pengganti tulang melalui metode Injectable Bone substitute. Kelebihan algyrogel antara lain biokompatibel terhadap jaringan tubuh. Beberapa hidrogel berbasis polimer alami (alginat, chitosan, dan hyaluronat memiliki perbedaan biokompatibilitas. Tujuan: studi ini bertujuan meneliti sitotoksisitas tiga jenis algyrogel terhadap sel

  14. Systematic survey on the prevalence of genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins SElM, SElO, and SElN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; von Eiff, Christof

    2004-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of food-poisoning with substantial impact on public health. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA), we studied the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) superantigens sem, sen, and seo, associated with the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc), in 429 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. 294 (68.5%) isolates tested positive for at least one of the three SEl genes. In contrast to the fixed gene combination seg/sei also located on egc, a substantial number of isolates (n = 108) were found to bear only one or two of the genes encoding SElM, SElN, and SElO. Regarding the origin of the S. aureus isolates, a significant difference (P = 0.022) was found for the possession of seo (61.2% of blood isolates versus 42.9% of nasal strains). Also sem (not significantly) was found more common in blood isolates (52.1% versus 40.5%). The survey of the newly described SEl genes sem-seo supports the concept that most clinical S. aureus isolates harbor subsets of pyrogenic toxin superantigens. The potential contribution of seo and sem to the pathogenic potential of S. aureus has to be further evaluated.

  15. Analisa Penggunaan Bahan Bakar Bioethanol Dari Batang Padi Sebagai Campuran Pada Bensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Dwiky Kurniawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kandungan minyak bumi didunia semakin menipis, karena semakin bertambahnya kebutuhan manusia terhadap penggunaan  minyak bumi sebagai bahan bakar. Dengan kondisi yang semakin menipis ini, cadangan minyak diprediksi hanya cukup untuk beberapa tahun ke depan. Semakin menipisnya kandungan minyak bumi menyebabkan harga bahan bakar melambung tinggi. Indonesia merupakan negara yang mempunyai sumber daya alam yang melimpah.  Banyak kekayaan alam yang terdapat di Indonesia, dimana sektor pertanian merupakan salah satu urat nadi bangsa Indonesia.  Sektor pertanian merupakan sektor yang mempunyai peranan strategis dalam struktur pembangunan perekonomian nasional. Melimpahnya sumber daya alam dan semakin menipisnya kandungan minyak bumi di Indonesia mendorong manusia beralih menggunakan bahan bakar alternative yang ramah lingkungan dan mempunyai jumlah atau stok yang banyak.  Bahan bakar yang berasal dari alam disebut bioethanol.  Salah satu sumber daya alam yang bisa digunakan untuk dijadikan bahan bakar yaitu Batang padi.  Pada saat panen padi para petani hanya mengambil biji atau berasnya saja, sekam dan batang padi hasil panen dibuang begitu saja padahal sekam dan batang padi bisa digunakan untuk membuat bahan bakar alternative yaitu bioethanol. Penelitian ini membahas tentang bagaimana pembuatan bioethanol dari batang padi, kandungan ethanol dalam batang padi, uji performa mesin otto dengan variasi konsentrasi bahan bakar bensin dengan etanol dengan variasi 100% Bensin, 75% Bensin + 25%Etanol, 50% Bensin + 50% Etanol, 25% Bensin + 75% Etanol dan 100% Etanol. Serta dengan variasi pembebanan yaitu dengan menggunakan beban 500, 1000, 1500, 2000,2500 watt. Selain itu juga dilakukan penelitian emisi yang dihasilkan oleh bahan bakar bioethanol. Dari hasil pengujian yang telah dilakukan bahan bakar bioethanol memilki kandungan ethanol sebesar 95% dan hasil uji performa dari mesin otto dengan menggunakan variasi konsentrasi bahan bakar dan variasi

  16. PENGGUNAAN ENZIM CAIRAN RUMEN SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF UNTUK MENDUKUNG PEMANFAATAN BAHAN BAKU PAKAN IKAN LOKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan bahan baku pakan alternatif telah banyak dilakukan yaitu dengan menggunakan bahan baku pakan lokal yang mudah didapat dan biasanya berupa limbah yang belum termanfaatkan secara optimal. Namun, upaya pemanfaatan bahan baku pakan lokal tersebut masih mengalami kendala salah satunya adalah tingginya kandungan serat kasar yaitu lebih dari 7%. Kandungan serat kasar yang tinggi menyebabkan bahan baku lokal tersebut perlu diolah lagi agar dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan. Salah satu alternatif teknologi yang dapat digunakan adalah pemanfaatan cairan rumen untuk menurunkan kandungan serat kasar bahan pakan. Cairan rumen merupakan salah satu sumber bahan alternatif yang murah dan dapat dimanfaatkan dengan mudah sebagai sumber enzim hidrolase. Pengolahan bahan baku pakan lokal hasil limbah agro industri dan limbah peternakan menggunakan enzim cairan rumen akan dapat memberikan dampak peningkatan nilai nutrisi bahan pakan lokal sehingga dapat digunakan menjadi sumber pakan alternatif yang berkualitas.

  17. PEMANFAATAN TENAGA ANGIN DAN SURYA SEBAGAI ALAT PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK PADA BAGAN PERAHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wibawa Budi Santosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tenaga matahari dapat dikonversi langsung menjadi energi listrik dengan menggunakan solar cell atau photovoltaik. Begitu pula energi gerak angin yang dapat dimanfaatkan dengan cara menerapkan angin tersebut ke penampang baling-baling supaya berputar. Putaran inilah yang akan membangkitkan listrik sedemikian rupa sehingga energi listrik tersebut dapat disimpan dalam batere. Pengujian alat pembangkit listrik tenaga angin dan surya pada bagan perahu di laksanakan di perairan utara Demak. Hasilnya  Solar cell lebih responsif mengisi batere/accu dibandingkan Wind turbine karena keberadaan cahaya matahari relatif lebih kontinyu dan stabil dibandingkan angin. Persentase keberhasilan pengisian Wind turbine dalam ± 12 jam @ 69%, hal ini dapat terjadi karena keberadaan angin yang tidak terus menerus dan kecepatan angin yang tidak konstan. Batere/accu setelah pengisian oleh solar cell selama 12 jam efektif mampu menghasilkan listrik sebesar 650 Watt-jam. Batere/accu setelah pengisian oleh Wind turbine selama 8,65 jam efektif mampu menghasilkan listrik sebesar 44,82 Watt-jam.  Jika dilihat segi sosial ekonomi dengan energi alternatif, masyarakat sudah tidak lagi tergantung oleh BBM untuk penerangan di bagan apung mereka.

  18. PENGARUH PENGUKUSAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN ASAM SIANIDA DALAM BEBERAPA BAHAN MAKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uken S. Soetrisno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengamatan pengaruh pengukusan terhadap kandungan asam sianida dari enam jenis bahan makanan yaitu keluwak, picung, terung ungu kecil, rebung, umbi singkong dan daun singkong. Analisis asam sianida digunakan metoda Volhard berdasarkan prinsip argentometri. Kandungan air dianalisis dengan metoda pengeringan dalam oven 105 derajat celcius. Sebelum pengukusan kandungan asam sianida tertinggi terdapat pada daun singkong yaitu 149,4 ppm, kemudiian keluwak sebesar 135,7 ppm. Umbi singkong dan rebung memiliki kadar asam sianida yang sama, yaitu 119,8 dan 119,9 ppm. Kandungan sianida terendah sebelum pengukusan dijumpai pada terung ungu, yaitu 27,4 ppm. Setelah pengukusan penurunan asam sianida tertinggi terdapat dalam bahan makanan yang mengandung sianida terendah yaitu terung ungu. Penurunan terendah terjadi pada keluwak yang mengandung sianida cukup tinggi. Kandungan air setelah pengukusan meningkat, peningkatan tertinggi pada terung ungu, dan terendah pada rebung.

  19. PENGARUH PENGUKUSAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN ASAM SIANIDA DALAM BEBERAPA BAHAN MAKANAN

    OpenAIRE

    Uken S. Soetrisno; Suryana Purawisastra

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan pengamatan pengaruh pengukusan terhadap kandungan asam sianida dari enam jenis bahan makanan yaitu keluwak, picung, terung ungu kecil, rebung, umbi singkong dan daun singkong. Analisis asam sianida digunakan metoda Volhard berdasarkan prinsip argentometri. Kandungan air dianalisis dengan metoda pengeringan dalam oven 105 derajat celcius. Sebelum pengukusan kandungan asam sianida tertinggi terdapat pada daun singkong yaitu 149,4 ppm, kemudiian keluwak sebesar 135,7 ppm. Umbi si...

  20. Penghasilan Pati Asam dari Ketela Pohon sebagai Bahan Dasar Roti

    OpenAIRE

    Suharni, Theresia Tri

    2017-01-01

    Pati asam dibuat dengan cara fermentasi dan dengan penambahan asam. Kandungan asam laktat pada pati yang dihasilkan adalah berturut-turut pada pati hasil perlakuan asam 1,37%, pati hasil fermentasi 1,22% dan pati hasil pembuatan tradisional 0,24%; sedangkan kandungan asam asetat dan asam bulirat dari ketiga perlakuan tidak berbeda nyata. Pati asam yang diperoleh dari kedua perlakuan dan pati tradisional dapat dimasukkan ke dalam Kelas B,Roti yang dibuat dari bahan dasar pati asam tersebut sif...

  1. Pengaruh Sudut Kemiringan Kolektor Surya Pelat Datar Terhadap Efisiensi Termal Dengan Penambahan Eksternal Annular Fin Pada Pipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unggul Dwi Setyadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan jaman saat  ini banyak sekali penemuan-penemuan teknologi tentang penggunaan energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan sebagai upaya penghematan energi. Salah satunya adalah memanfaatkan energi surya. Energi surya sebagai energi alternatif yang dirasakan sesuai dengan kondisi saat ini karena disamping murah juga bersifat renewable. Alat yang digunakan untuk menyerap energi surya salah satunya adalah pemanas air kolektor surya pelat datar. Dimensi dari kolektor itu sendiri adalah 500 mm  x 1500 mm Untuk meningkatkan efisiensi dari kolektor dengan cara memperluas permukaan penyerapan panas yaitu menggunakan sirip (fin berbentuk annular. Metodologi penelitian yang  dilakukan adalah menggunakan satu dan dua kaca penutup pada kolektor dengan cara memvariasikan sudut kemiringan kolektor sebesar 10º, 20º, dan 30º pada debit air tetap yaitu 1000 liter/jam.. interval waktu pengambilan data dilakukan selang waktu 1 jam sekali selama 6 jam perhari mulai pukul 09.00 WIB sampai dengan pukul 15.00 WIB. Pengambilan data dilakukan selama 12 hari pada bulan juni 2014. Parameter yang diukur adalah Intensitas cahaya (IT, Kecepatan angin (Vw, Temperatur udara luar (T∞1, Temperatur antar kaca penutup (T∞2, Temperatur dalam kolektor (T∞3, Temperatur permukaan kaca satu (Tc1, Temperatur permukaan kaca dua  (Tc2, Temperatur permukaan pipa tembaga (Tsc, Temperatur permukaan pelat absorber (Tsp, Temperatur air masuk kolektor (Ti, Temperatur air keluar kolektor (TO, Temperatur triplek (TT. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan temperatur air keluar kolektor tertinggi terjadi pada sudut kemiringan kolektor 30 derajat yaitu sebesar 42,8 ºC dengan intensitas matahari (IT rata-rata 764,71 W/m2 untuk 1 kaca penutup, sedangkan untuk 2 kaca penutup temperatur sebesar 44,8 ºC dengan intensitas matahari (IT rata-rata 790,85 W/m2. Dari semua sudut kemiringan, efisiensi rata – rata solar kolektor satu kaca penutup  51,98%, dan untuk efisiensi rata – rata solar

  2. Analisis Sifat Mekanik Tulangan Beton Pasca Bakar (Sebagai Bahan Pengayaan Mata Kuliah Bahan Bangunan dan Struktur Beton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Santoso

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis besarnya tegangan leleh tulangan beton bertulang  yang dibakar pada suhu 6000 Celcius dan 9000 Celcius  dengan tebal lindungan beton  2 cm dan 4 cm. Diharapkan hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pengayaan pada mata kuliah  Bahan Bangunan dan Struktur Beton. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen dan pelaksanaannya dilakukan di Laboratorium Bahan Bangunan Fakultas Teknik UNY, Laboratorium Struktur dan Laboratorium Teknik Mesin Universitas Gajah Mada. Jumlah sampel  sebanyak 15 buah. Bentuk konstruksi beton berupa balok, dengan ukuran 15 x 20 cm dengan  panjang 45 cm. Tulangan yang digunakan adalah tulangan baja polos berdiameter 10 mm dan begel diameter 6 mm sebagai bahan untuk merangkai tulangan. Analisis data menggunakan deskriptif kuantitatif dengan mencari harga reratanya. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh antara lain besarnya tegangan leleh tulangan sebelum dilakukan pembakaran= 385,12 MPa, setelah dibakar pada suhu 6000 Celcius dengan tebal lindungan beton 2 cm  sebesar 385,25 MPa, sedangkan untuk tebal lindungan beton 4 cm sebesar 382,50 MPa. Besarnya tegangan leleh tulangan  beton setelah dilakukan pembakaran pada suhu 9000 Celcius dengan tebal lindungan beton 2 cm sebesar 374,97 MPa, sedangkan untuk tebal lindungan beton 4 cm sebesar  377,48 MPa.  Secara umum beton yang dibakar sampai dengan suhu sampai 9000 Celcius, tegangan lelehnya  masih memenuhi persyaratan, yaitu masih dalam satu kelas (SII 0136-80dan penurunan tegangan  lelehnya sebesar 2,63%.

  3. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR MEMBACA TEKS NOVEL BERBAHASA JAWA MELALUI SIMPLIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Esti Kurniawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian Bahan ajar teks novel berbahasa Jawa melalui simplifikasi dikembangkan atas persepsi kebutuhan peserta didik dan guru. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kebutuhan peserta didik dan guru berkaitan dengan pengembangan bahan ajar membaca teks novel melalui simplifikasi, menyusun karakteristik bahan ajar membaca teks novel berbahasa Jawa melalui simplifikasi, membuat model novel yaitu Jemini, Asmarani, dan Para Pawestri Pejuwang karya Suparto Brata sebagai bahan ajar membaca teks novel di SMA, dan memperoleh keefektifan menggunakan bahan ajar membaca teks novel melalui simplifikasi. Pendekatan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan Research and Development (R&D oleh Borg and Gall yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan penelitian. Langkah penelitian Borg and Gall diadaptasi menjadi tujuh tahap, yakni analisis teoretis dan praktis, analisis kebutuhan pengembangan menurut persepsi guru dan peserta didik, penyusunan draf produk, uji ahli, revisi produk, uji keefektifan produk, revisi hasil uji penggunan produk pengembangan. Hasil uji keefektifan yang dilakukan di SMA Negeri 1 Bergas menunjukkan ada peningkatan nilai rata-rata pretes dan postes pembelajaran membaca teks novel melalui simplifikasi. Uji t hitung = 9,734, sedangkan t tabel  =2,00. Artinya t hitung > t tabel. Maka dapat dikatakan produk tersebut efektifNovel text teaching materials through simplification Javanese developed on the perception of the needs of learners and teachers.This study aims to determine the needs of the students and teachers associated with the development of teaching materials text reading novels through simplification, compiling the characteristics of teaching materials text reading novels in Java through simplification, models making novel that Jemini, Asmarani, and the Pawestri Pejuwang works soeparto Brata as material instructional text reading novels in high school, and obtain the effectiveness of using text reading novel teaching

  4. AKTIFITAS ANTIHELICOBACTER DARI LACTOBACILLUS SP SECARA INVITRO : POTENSI SEBAGAI SUATU BAHAN BIOTERAPI TUKAK LAMBUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Zaraswati Dwyana

    2007-01-01

    Salah satu upaya yang dilakukan adalah mencari bahan bioterapi alami yang dapat digunakan dalam pengobatan terhadap infeksi Helicobacter pylori. Tujuan penelitian ini ingin mengetahui kemampuan Lactobacillus sebagai bahan bioterapi dengan mengetahui aktivitas antimikrobanya terhadap Helicobacter pylori yang kemudian dapat disebut antihelicobacter. Lactobacillus ditumbuhkan media tumbuh dan difermentasi lalu disentrifus sehingga diperoleh kultur lactobacillus cair lalu diliofilikasi untuk...

  5. EFEK PEMBERIAN KOMBINASI BUAH SIRIH (Piper betle L FRUIT, DAUN MIYANA (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR. LEAF, MADU DAN KUNING TELUR TERHADAP PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS DAN KAPASITAS FAGOSITOSIS SEL MAKROFAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Astuti Nugroho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang, kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat Sulawesi Utara untuk mengobati malaria.  Diharapkan kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur juga memiliki potensi untuk merangsang respon imun. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur terhadap aktivitas dan kapasitas sel makrofag. Metode, tiga puluh ekor mencit Swiss dibagi ke dalam 5 grup. Grup I mendapatkan air suling, grup II mendapatkan 0,55 mg/20g BB Stimuno. Sementara kelompok perlakuan: grup III sampai V masing-masing mendapatkan  0,07 mL; 0,21 mL; 0,6 mL/20 g BB. Bahan uji diberikan secara oral pada hari pertama sampai dengan ketujuh. Pada hari kedelapan, kepada masing-masing mencit disuntik secara intraperitoneal bakteri Staphylococcus aureus (SA. Aktivitas dan kapasitas sel  makrofag dihitung dari sediaan apus cairan peritoneum dengan menghitung persentase fagosit yang melakukan fagositosis dari 100 fagosit. Kapasitas fagositosis ditetapkan berdasarkan jumlah SA yang difagositosis oleh 50 fagosit aktif. Hasil, aktivitas dan kapasitas sel makrofag meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan dosis kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur dibandingkan dengan kontrol negatif. Kata  kunci: Buah sirih, Piper betle L, Makrofag, Fagositosis 

  6. Association of SelS mRNA expression in omental adipose tissue with Homa-IR and serum amyloid A in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jian-ling; SUN Chang-kai; L(U) Bo; MEN Li-li; YAO Jun-jie; AN Li-jia; SONG Gui-rong

    2008-01-01

    Background Tanis was repoded as a putative receptor for serum amyloid A(SAA)involving glucose regulated protein in insulin regulated resistance.It was found to be dysregulated in diabetic rats(Psammomys obesus,Israeli sand rat)and its homologue for humans is SelS/AD-015.The present study analyzed mRNA expression of SelS in omental adipose tissue biopsies from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM),and age-and weight-matched nondiabetic patients,the relationship of SelS mRNA with Homa-IR and serum SAA level.Methods Human omental adipose tissues from ten cases of type 2 diabetic patients and twelve cases of nondiabetic individuals were analyzed for the expression level of SelS mRNA by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction(PCR),Homa-IR estimated by standard formula and SM level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Results SelS mRNA expression.Homa-IR and serum SAA were higher in T2DM sufferers than in nondiabeUc control group.SelS mRNA level was positively correlated with Homa-IR and SAA level in each group.Conclusions SelS protein may be involved in insulin resistarice;in Chinese with T2DM by acting as the SAA receptor,thus playing an important role in the development of T2DM and atherosclerosis.

  7. Analisa Perbandingan Kadar Kotoran (Dirt Content) Pada Karet Remah Yang Berasal Dari Bahan Baku Lump Mangkok Dengan Bahan Baku Latex PT.Bridgestone Sumatera Rubber Estate,Tbk

    OpenAIRE

    Oriza Irawan

    2011-01-01

    Karet remah adalah karet yang dibuat secara khusus, sehingga mutu teknisnya terjamin dan penetapannya didasarkan pada sifat teknis. Salah satu parameter yang dianalisa pada karet remah yaitu kadar kotoran. Dan sampel yang dianalisa adalah karet remah yang berasal dari bahan baku cuplump (SIR 20), dan karet remah yang berasal dari bahan baku lateks (SIR 3), yang memiliki nilai standar sesuai dengan Standard Indonesian Rubber (SIR) yaitu maksimum 0,20% untuk karet remah yang berasal dari ba...

  8. Kombinasi Boraks dan Asam Borat sebagai Bahan Penghambat Api dan Antirayap Pada Kayu Meranti Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Santoso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kayu mempunyai sifat yang mudah terbakar dan sebagian besar mempunyai keawetan alami yang rendah. Perbaikan kualitas kayu dilakukan untuk mengatasi kelemahan tersebut, salah satunya dengan mengimpregnasikan bahan kimia yang bersifat menghambat api dan beracun terhadap organisme perusak kayu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melihat kemampuan boraks:asam borat (1:1 untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering dan mengetahui proses pengawetan yang efektif. Penelitian ini menggunakan kayu meranti merah (Shorea spp berukuran 6 x 15 x 500 cm. Waktu pengawetan adalah 1, 2, dan 3 jam serta konsentrasi bahan pengawet 7% dalam 5 ulangan. Metode pengawetan menggunakan metode sel kosong dengan tekanan 12 kg/cm2 . Pengujian ketahanan terhadap api mengacu pada ASTM E 69-02 prosedur B, pengujian ketahanan terhadap rayap kayu kering mengacu pada metode rayap makan tanpa pilihan. Parameter yang diamati ialah absorpsi, retensi aktual, intensitas bakar, suhu pembakaran maksimal, lama pembaraan, mortalitas rayap kayu kering, pengurangan berat contoh uji, derajat kerusakan dan kondisi fisik sampel setelah uji bakar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi boraks:asam borat (1:1 memiliki efektivitas yang tinggi untuk meningkatkan ketahanan kayu meranti merah terhadap api dan rayap kayu kering. Proses pengawetan yang paling efektif adalah lama penekanan 2 jam dengan absorpsi 331 kg/m3 ; retensi aktual 28,8 kg/m3 ; intensitas bakar 10,9%; suhu pembakaran maksimal 140ºC; lama pembaraan 1,03 menit; mortalitas rayap kayu kering 100%; pengurangan berat contoh uji 0,002%; serta derajat kerusakan kategori ringan. Katakunci: penghambat api, anti rayap, boraks, Shorea spp, Cryptotermes cynocephalus   Borax and Boric Acid Combination As Fire Retardant and Anti-termite Agents on Red Meranti Wood Abstract Woods have properties which are easy to be ignited by fire and most of them have a low natural durability. Therefore, it is required to

  9. Komposit Laminate Rami Epoksi Sebagai Bahan Alternatif Socket Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus P. Irawan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available pure plant oil, biofuel, coconut oil, palm oil, jatropha oilSocket is the most important component in a prosthesis making. Performance criteria for prosthetic socket material include strength, durability, minimal weight, comfort, and minimal fabrication cost. This research attempts to analyze the strength of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy laminate composite as an alternative of socket prosthesis. The research based on ASTM D 3039/D 3039M for tensile strength and ASTM D 695 for compressive strength. The ramie fiber used was a continuous fiber 100 % Ne14'S, with Epoxy Resin Bakelite EPR 174 and Epoxy Hardener V-140. The sample test was created using a hand lay-up method. The result of this research is presented in a correlation of finsile strength (st, compression strength (sc, elasticity modulus (E versus fraction volume of fiber (Vf. The result is then being compared with some of the prosthesis material’s strength produced by Otto Bock. The analysis was completed with the mode of the failure observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The result concludes that the ramie fiber reinforced epoxy laminate composite is potentially developed further as a socket prosthesis material on Vf 40 – 50 %. Tensile strength and specific strength that has been generated was higher than that of several materias for socket prosthesis, including fiberglass. The mode of the failure found were a brittle failure on Vf: 10-30%, debonding and delamination on Vf: 40-50%. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Socket merupakan bagian terpenting dalam pembuatan prosthesis. Kriteria bahan socket prosthesis antara lain kekuatan, ketahanan, ringan, kenyamanan dan biaya produksi yang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kekuatan komposit laminate berpenguat serat rami epoksi sebagai bahan alternatif socket prosthesis. Pengujian kekuatan mengacu standar ASTM D 3039/D 3039M uji tarik dan ASTM D 695 uji tekan. Serat rami yang digunakan berupa serat kontinyu jenis

  10. RANCANG SISTEM INFORMASI PERSEDIAAN BAHAN BAKU TERKOMPUTERISASI PT. KPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviliani Yenty Yuliana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done at PT. KPL which produces plastic goods. In order to compete with other plastic goods manufacturers during the economic crisis, PT. KPL must be able to minimize production costs. One of the ways is to reduce raw materials cost. The results were obtained with production demand forecasting, using the Holt-Winter method; the Moving Average with Index Seasonal method; the Single Exponential Smoothing Method; the Double Exponential Smoothing method; and the Multiplicative Winter method. Based on economic order quantity, the minimum total inventory cost was obtained. Economic order quantity was entered into Material Requirement Planning (MRP. Relevant, accurate, and timely information is needed for planning and controlling raw material inventory. For that purpuse, a computerized conceptual information system for raw material inventory was designed. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi Kasus dilakukan pada PT. KPL yang bergerak dibidang pembuatan barang-barang plastik. Agar PT. KPL dapat bersaing dengan perusahaan sejenis dimasa krisis ekonomi. PT. KPL harus mampu menekan biaya produksi seminimal mungkin. Salah satu cara dengan menekan biaya persediaan bahan baku. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh ramalan kebutuhan produk, yang diolah menggunakan metode: Holt Winter, Moving Average With Index Seasonal, Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing, Multiplicative Winter. Berdasarkan Economic Order Quantity dihasilkan total biaya persediaan yang minimum. Jumlah pemesanan yang ekonomis dimasukkan kedalam Material Requirement Planning (MRP. Informasi yang cepat, tepat, dan akurat diperlukan dalam merencanakan dan mengendalikan persediaan bahan baku. Untuk itu dirancang sistem informasi tersediaan bahan baku terkomputerisasi secara konsep. Kata kunci: ramalan kebutuhan produk, EOQ, MRP, sistem informasi

  11. Systematic survey on the prevalence of genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins SElM, SElO, and SElN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; von Eiff, Christof

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of food-poisoning with substantial impact on public health. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA), we studied the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) superantigens sem, sen, and seo, as

  12. Functional characterization of two secreted SEL1L isoforms capable of exporting unassembled substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Monica; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Martino, Simone; Cardano, Marina; Orlandi, Rosaria; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Biunno, Ida

    2009-04-24

    SEL1L-A, a transmembrane glycoprotein residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is a component of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Alternative splicing generates two smaller SEL1L isoforms, -B and -C, that lack the SEL1L-A membrane-spanning region but retain some sel-1-like repeats, known to be involved in multi-protein interactions and signal transduction. In this study the functional characteristics of SEL1L-B and -C were investigated in human cell models. We show that these two isoforms are induced upon ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response, together with SEL1L-A. Using transient transfection experiments (based on wild-type and mutant SEL1L constructs) combined with several biochemical tests we show that SEL1L-B and, more prominently, SEL1L-C are secreted glycoproteins. Although SEL1L-C is in monomeric form, SEL1L-B is engaged in intramolecular/intermolecular disulfide bonds. Both isoforms localize in secretory and degradative cellular compartments and in areas of cell-cell contact. However, whereas SEL1L-B is mainly associated with membranes, SEL1L-C shows the typical intralumenal localization of soluble proteins and is present in intercellular spaces. Furthermore, because of its peroxisomal domain, SEL1L-C localizes to peroxisomes. Both SEL1L-B and -C are involved in sorting and exporting unassembled Ig-mu(s) but do not affect two other ERAD substrates, the null Hong Kong variant of alpha(1)-antitrypsin, and mutant alpha(1)-AT Z. Overall these findings suggest that SEL1L-B and -C participate to novel molecular pathways that, in parallel with ERAD, contribute to the disposure of misfolded/unfolded or orphan proteins through degradation or secretion.

  13. Functional Characterization of Two Secreted SEL1L Isoforms Capable of Exporting Unassembled Substrate*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Monica; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Martino, Simone; Cardano, Marina; Orlandi, Rosaria; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Biunno, Ida

    2009-01-01

    SEL1L-A, a transmembrane glycoprotein residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is a component of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Alternative splicing generates two smaller SEL1L isoforms, -B and -C, that lack the SEL1L-A membrane-spanning region but retain some sel-1-like repeats, known to be involved in multi-protein interactions and signal transduction. In this study the functional characteristics of SEL1L-B and -C were investigated in human cell models. We show that these two isoforms are induced upon ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response, together with SEL1L-A. Using transient transfection experiments (based on wild-type and mutant SEL1L constructs) combined with several biochemical tests we show that SEL1L-B and, more prominently, SEL1L-C are secreted glycoproteins. Although SEL1L-C is in monomeric form, SEL1L-B is engaged in intramolecular/intermolecular disulfide bonds. Both isoforms localize in secretory and degradative cellular compartments and in areas of cell-cell contact. However, whereas SEL1L-B is mainly associated with membranes, SEL1L-C shows the typical intralumenal localization of soluble proteins and is present in intercellular spaces. Furthermore, because of its peroxisomal domain, SEL1L-C localizes to peroxisomes. Both SEL1L-B and -C are involved in sorting and exporting unassembled Ig-μs but do not affect two other ERAD substrates, the null Hong Kong variant of α1-antitrypsin, and mutant α1-AT Z. Overall these findings suggest that SEL1L-B and -C participate to novel molecular pathways that, in parallel with ERAD, contribute to the disposure of misfolded/unfolded or orphan proteins through degradation or secretion. PMID:19204006

  14. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database organization and user's guide, revision 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morusiewicz, Linda; Bristow, John

    1992-01-01

    The organization of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) database is presented. Included are definitions and detailed descriptions of the database tables and views, the SEL data, and system support data. The mapping from the SEL and system support data to the base table is described. In addition, techniques for accessing the database through the Database Access Manager for the SEL (DAMSEL) system and via the ORACLE structured query language (SQL) are discussed.

  15. Pemanfaatan Isi Rumen Dari Limbah Rumah Potong Hewan Sebagai Bahan Pakan Dalam Ransum Ikan Nila

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Arida Fauzana

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mengetahui kandungan gizi isi rumen sebagai bahan pakan ikan yang bergizi , 2) mengetahui pengaruh kandungan protein dalam ransum ikan dan penambahan filtrat air abu sekam terhadap pertumbuhan ikan dan (3) menetapkan konsentrasi isi rumen yang terbaik sebagai bahan pakan dalam ransum ikan. Parameter yang diamati adalah pertumbuhan mutlak ikan nila yang meliputi pertambahan berat (gr) dan pertambahan panjang (cm), pertumbuhan relatif (%) baik berat maupun ...

  16. Ösel Foods paindub turul hästi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ösel Foods AS-i juhatuse esimees Kuldar Leis tutvustab ettevõtte tegevust, tootearendust ja müügistrateegiat ning võrdleb eestlaste maitsmismeelt ja tarbimisharjumusi naaberriikidega. Kommenteerib Põltsamaa Felix AS-i juhatuse esimees Andres Koern

  17. "Sel kevadel olen ma eriti ilus..." : [luuletused] / Triin Soomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomets, Triin

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: "Sel kevadel olen ma eriti ilus..." ; "Tahaksin teha midagi tõelist; midagi suurt..." ; "veebruaris on keha nii valge et syda läheb pahaks..." ; "kõige kohutavamad lepingud..." ; "Igal loojangul kutsun sind ja igal koidikul tõukan su ära..." ; "need hakid..." ; "Põhja vajudes on viimane asi, mida ma näen, rohelised sähvatused..."

  18. Sel nädalal on silmad Gruusial / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2009-01-01

    7. augustil möödub aasta Venemaa-Gruusia sõjalisest konfliktist. Sel puhul teatas Venemaa esindaja Vitali Tšurkin ÜRO peaassambleele, et Venemaa kiire tegutsemine Lõuna-Osseetias päästis maailma "uuest genotsiidist"

  19. "Koolitants" kutsub noori ka sel hooajal / Liisi Seil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seil, Liisi, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Festival "Koolitants", mille tänavune moto on "Tants toob naeru näole!", püüab sel aastal hakkama saada kolmandiku võrra väiksema eelarvega. Kokkuhoiu mõttes jäetakse ära piirkondlikud voorud

  20. SISTEM PENGENALAN KONDISI SEL DARAH MERAH (ERYTHROCYTE PADA CITRA MIKROSKOPIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Anggreani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sistem pengenalan kondisi sel darah merah adalah suatu sistem yang pengenalan sel darah merah manusiadengan membandingkan kondisi sel darah merah dengan kondisi acuan yang ada dalam basisdata. Sistem inimenggunakan metode moments untuk mengektraksi fitur citra dengan menghasilkan 7 (tujuh nilai invariantmoments untuk setiap objek. Citra uji akan dicocokkan dengan citra acuan , citra-citra tersebut dihitung fiturnyaterlebih dahulu menggunakan metode yang ada dan hasil pencocokan akan mendapatkan suatu nilai kedekatan(skor antara dua fitur citra tesebut, hasil dari sistem ini adalah sebuah citra acuan yang memiliki skor terkecildengan citra acuan. Pencocokan dianggap sukses jika deskripsi citra yang dihasilkan oleh sistem sama dengan hasilanalisis dokter. Penelitian ini mencari akurasi sistem dengan menggunakan nilai parameter tertentu. Penelitian inidiuji 50 sampel citra sel darah merah dengan jumlah objek sebanyak 741 buah, dan dengan 50 citra acuan denganjumlah objek 364 buah. Dari penelitian diperoleh metode yang memberikan tingkat kesuksesan tertinggi yaitu94.86% untuk pengenalan kondisi normal dan 88.89% untuk pengenalan kondisi abnormal.

  1. DIFERENSIASI KELAMIN TIGA GENOTIPE IKAN NILA YANG DIBERI BAHAN AROMATASE INHIBITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Ariyanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan hormon sintetik 17 a-metiltestosterone untuk sex reversal ikan konsumsi sudah dilarang. Salah satu bahan yang terbukti efektif dalam sex reversal adalah bahan aromatase inhibitor. Bahan ini dapat digunakan dalam proses pembalikan kelamin karena menghambat sekresi enzim aromatase yang bertanggung jawab dalam konversi hormon androgen menjadi estrogen. Tingginya kadar androgen dalam tubuh akan mengarahkan proses diferensiasi kelamin ke arah kelamin jantan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemberian bahan aromatase inhibitor terhadap diferensiasi kelamin tiga genotipe ikan nila. Bahan utama yang digunakan adalah larva ikan nila genotipe XX, XY, dan YY yang diberi bahan aromatase inhibitor, khususnya imidazole. Penambahan hormon sintetik 17a-metiltestosterone digunakan sebagai kontrol (+. Pemberian imidazole dilakukan melalui pakan pada larva ikan nila yang berumur 7 hari setelah menetas, selama 28 hari. Selanjutnya benih dipelihara dalam hapa pendederan selama 60 hari di kolam tanah. Pada akhir pendederan dilakukan identifikasi jenis kelamin, bobot individu rata-rata, dan sintasan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa imidazole efektif meningkatkan rasio kelamin jantan pada ikan nila genotipe XX dan YY, tetapi tidak pada genotipe XY. Sampai akhir tahap pendederan, semua genotipe dan perlakuan yang berbeda tidak memberikan efek yang berbeda nyata terhadap laju pertumbuhan maupun nilai sintasan, kecuali pada genotipe YY

  2. SIFAT MEKANIK BAHAN GESEK REM KOMPOSIT DIPERKUAT SERAT BAMBU

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    Sutikno -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bahan gesek komposit diperkuat serat bambu untuk kampas rem otomotif dibuat menggunakan mesin pres isostatik panas pada 19oC selama 3 jam. Jumlah serat bambu dan serbuk logam di dalam pencampuran dioptimasi, setiap komposisi komponen lain dibuat tetap, pengaruhnya pada sifat-sifat mekanik dan struktur mikro diselidiki. Serat bambu disini digunakan sebagai pengganti serat asbes yang jumlahnya divariasi antara 2,86-17,14% dari volume total dan fraksi berat masing-masing unsur penyusun ditentukan menggunakan energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Angka kekerasan Brinell, kekuatan tarik maksimum, dan ketahanan aus khas bahan gesek yang difabrikasi berada pada rentang 21,7-43,4 kg/mm2, 0,021-0,036 ton, dan 1,5exp-11-5,2exp-11 m2/N.Friction materials of bamboo fibers reinforced composites for automotive brakes were made using hot isostatic pressing machine at 190oC for 3 hours. The contents of bamboo fiber and metal powder in the mixing were optimized, each composition of other components was fixed, its effects on mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. Bamboo fibers were used here as substitutes for asbestos fibers whose number varied between 2.86 to 17.14% of the total volume and weight fraction of each constituent element is determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Brinell hardness number, the maximum tensile strength and specific wear resistance of friction materials fabricated in the ranges of 21.7 to 43.4 kg/mm2, 0.021 to 0.036 tons, and 1.5 exp-11-5, 2exp-11 m2 / N, respectively.

  3. PENGEMBANGAN PROGRAM VRML (VIRTUAL REALITY MODELLING LANGUAGE UNTUK E-LEARNING BERBASIS WEB TERINTEGRASI DALAM PHP-MySQL MATA KULIAH ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUMI DAN ANTARIKSA POKOK BAHASAN SISTEM TATA SURYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Anas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang fenomena sistem tata surya  membutuhkan daya imaginasi yang cukup. Hal ini merupakan salah satu kesulitan dalam memahami materi tentang sistem tata surya, sehingga diperlukan adanya visualisasi untuk membantu mengatasi kesulitan tersebut. Salah satu visualisasi adalah dengan menggunakan program visualisasi 3D. Pembuatan program diawali dengan identifikasi masalah dan persiapan perangkat lunak. Dalam hal ini program yang digunakan adalah VRML(Virtual Reality Modelling Language. Pelaksanaan pembuatan program dimulai dengan memodelkan gejala-gejala fisis yang terkait dengan fenomena sistem tata surya. Bahasa pemrograman VRML hanya mampu melakukan perhitungan dasar yang sangat sederhana. Untuk perhitungan data yang kompleks digunakan bantuan Microsoft Office Excel. Data yang dihasilkan dari perhitungan menggunakan Microsoft Office Excel kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam list program VRML. Hasil penelitian berupa pemodelan sistem tata surya yang diintergrasikan dalam e-learning berbasis web. Untuk menampilkan hasil program ini digunakan browser Cortona VRML player. Tampilan 3D yang dihasilkan menarik dan interaktif. User dapat mengamati model 3D dari berbagai sudut pengamatan dengan menggunakan toolbar yang tersedia pada browser. Kata kunci : VRML, visualisasi 3D, sistem tata surya

  4. Rehabilitasi Pasien Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Pasca Bedah Menggunakan Obturator dengan Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Yunisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Tindakan pembedahan pada pasien dengan kanker rongga mulut dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya defek di area intra oral dan maksillofasial. Defek tersebut dapat mengakibatkan terganggunya fungsi normal rongga mulut, yaitu mengunyah, bicara dan estetis, serta mengurangi rasa percaya diri. Untuk megatasinya diperlukan rehabilitasi fungsi rongga mulut berupa pembuatan obturator. Tujuan. Rehabilitasi defek pasca bedah pada pasien karsinoma sel skuamosa yang melibatkan palatum keras, sebagian palatum lunak, rongga hidung dan sinus maksilaris. Laporan Kasus dan Penatalaksanaan. Seorang pasien laki-laki, usia 74 tahun, datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM UGM, atas rujukan dari RSUP Dr Sardjito Yogyakarta, untuk dibuatkan hidung dan penutup untuk langit-langit mulutnya yang terbuka. Pasien merasa malu karena kondisi hidungnya yang hilang dan terbuka, serta susah untuk menelan makanan dan jika berbicara kurang jelas karena langit-langit mulutnya juga hilang/terbuka. Pasien telah menjalani operasi pembedahan hidung dan palatum, karena terdiagnosa karsinoma sel skuamosa. Pemeriksaan obyektif menunjukkan terdapat defek yang cukuo besar pada rongga hidung dan palatum durum dan sebagian palatum molle. Gigi yang tersisa pada rahang atas hanya gigi 23. Perawatan yang dilakukan adalah dengan pembuatan protesa hidung dan obturator. Obturator dibuat dari bahan resin akrilik dengan klamer C pada gigi 23. Untk menambah kekuatan retensi maka ditambahkan magnet di fitting surface obturator yang dilekatkan dengan protesa hidung. Kontrol dilakukan 1 bulan kemudian. Pasien merasa nyaman menggunakan obturator dengan penguat magnet pada protesa hidung. Pasien bisa menelan makanan dan bicaranyapun sudah lebih jelas. Pasien juga merasa obturatornya tidak mudah lepas, ketika menelan makanan maupun saat berbicara. Kesimpulan. Penggunaan obturator dengan magnet dapat mengembalikan fungsi normal rongga mulut akibat defek pasca bedah, serta mengembalikan rasa percaya

  5. PENENTUAN ANGKA OKTANA BAHAN BAKAR KOMERSIAL DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL KINETIKA OKSIDASI DAN PEMBAKARAN HIDROKARBON MULTIKOMPONEN

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    Yuswan Muharam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of gasoline fuel is anti-knock property represented by its octanenumber. The determination of octane numbers in Indonesia is by using cooperative fuel researchengines. The usage of cooperative fuel research engines in Indonesia has constraints, i.e. the limitednumber of the units and the old age. This study aims to obtain the octane numbers of commercialfuels by using kinetic models. The kinetics models of the oxidation and combustion of primaryreference fuel and multi component hydrocarbons are used to calculate the ignition delay times ofprimary reference fuel and commercial fuels, respectively. The ignition delay times of primaryreference fuel and commercial fuels are calculated at the same initial pressure and temperature, aswell as the same equivalence ratio. The octane number of a commercial fuel is known if its ignitiondelay time agrees with that of PFR possessing a certain volume percentage of isooctane. The modelgenerates the octane numbers of commercial fuels BB-A being 92.5, BB-B being 94.5, BB-C being89, BB-D being 90.5 and BB-E being 91.5 with the good agreement with those claimed by the fuelproducers. Salah satu karakteristik bahan bakar bensin adalah sifat anti ketukan yang dinyatakan dengan angkaoktana. Penentuan angka oktana di Indonesia menggunakan mesin CFR (cooperative fuel research.Pemakaian mesin CFR di Indonesia memiliki kendala, yaitu jumlah unit terbatas dan usia tua.Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan angka oktana bahan bakar komersial dengan menggunakanmodel kinetika. Model kinetika oksidasi dan pembakaran bahan bakar rujukan utama dan modelhidrokarbon multikomponen yang telah divalidasi masing-masing digunakan untuk menghitungwaktu tunda ignisi bahan bakar rujukan utama dan bahan bakar komersial. Waktu tunda ignisibahan bakar rujukan utama dan bahan bakar komersial dihitung pada tekanan dan temperatur awal,serta rasio ekuivalensi yang sama. Angka oktana suatu bahan bakar komersial

  6. SEL Hardness Assurance in a Mixed Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Alia, Ruben; Danzeca, Salvatore; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Frost, Christopher; Gaillard, Remi; Mekki, Julien; Saigné, Frédéric; Thornton, Adam; Uznanski, Slawosz; Worbel, Frédéric; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between monoenergetic and mixed-field Single Event Latchup (SEL) cross sections, concluding for components with a very strong energy dependence and highly-energetic environments, test results from monoenergetic or soft mixed-field spectra can significantly underestimate the operational failure rate. We introduce a semi-empirical approach that can be used to evaluate the SEL rate for such environments based on monoenergetic measurements and information or assumptions on the respective sensitive volume and materials surrounding it. We show that the presence of high-Z materials such as tungsten is particularly important in determining the hadron cross section energy dependence for components with relatively large LET thresholds.

  7. Pengaruh Konsentrasi dan Waktu Kontak Ekstrak Etanol Lerak (Sapindus rarak DC) Sebagai Alternatif Bahan Irigasi Saluran Akar Terhadap Kelarutan Jaringan Pulpa (Penelitian in Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Heng Yan

    2015-01-01

    Pengaruh Konsentrasi Dan Waktu Kontak Ekstrak Etanol Lerak (Sapindus rarak DC) Sebagai Alternatif Bahan Irigasi Saluran Akar Terhadap Kelarutan Jaringan Pulpa (Penelitian in Vitro) xi + 48 halaman Keberhasilan perawatan endodontik tergantung pada penyingkiran jaringan pulpa, debris dentin dan bakteri secara kemomekanis. Konsentrasi dan waktu kontak bahan irigasi akan mempengaruhi daya kelarutan jaringan pulpa. Buah lerak dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif bahan irigasi saluran akar karena ...

  8. PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN MELALUI PELATIHAN PENGOLAHAN BAHAN PANGAN LOKAL

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    Wildan Saugi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pelatihan pengolahan bahan pangan lokal yang dapat memberdayakan warga perempuan dusun Pagerjirak, Kejobong, Purbalingga. Penelitian ini merupakan participatory action research (PAR dengan pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari kepala dusun, tujuh anggota tim pengelola dusun, dan 15 warga perempuan dusun. Data penelitian diperoleh dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut. (1 Perencanaan partisipatoris terdiri dari identifikasi kebutuhan dusun dan penyiapan tim pengelola program dusun. (2 Pelaksanaan proses pemberdayaan melalui pelatihan dimulai dengan  menyiapkan tim pengelola, membentuk  kelompok usaha, menjalin kemitraan dengan pihak pemerintah dan swasta, membangun rumah produksi, mengajukan izin produksi, produksi dan pemasaran produk,  melakukan studi banding ke industri rumah tangga, melakukan perbaikan dan diversifikasi produk, dilanjutkan dengan pelatihan massal, dan pendampingan. (3 Indikator keberhasilan pelatihan diantaranya adalah bertambahnya pengetahuan dan keterampilan warga, serta diperolehnya pendapatan hasil usaha penjualan produk. (4 Keberlanjutan program pemberdayaan perempuan ditunjukkan dengan telah adanya pengembangan produk atau variasi produk dan terbentuknya kemandirian tim. Kata Kunci: pemberdayaan perempuan, pelatihan, bahan pangan lokal   WOMAN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH LOCAL PRODUCE PROCESSING TRAININGS Abstract This research aims to reveal the local produce processing that can empower women in Pagerjirak, Kejobong, Purbalingga. This research was participatory action research with the qualitative and quantitative approach. The research subject consisted of the village chief, core team consisting of seven people, and 15 women in the village. The research data were obtained through observations, interviews, and documentation. The results of research are as follows. (1 The participatory planning

  9. PENGARUH VARIASI TEKANAN PENGEPRESAN DAN KOMPOSISI BAHAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIS BRIKET ARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Setiowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar alternatif diperlukan untuk pengganti sumber daya alam yang tidak dapat diperbarui.Salah satu bahan bakar alternatif tersebut yang dikembangkan adalah briket arang dengan memanfaatkan limbah biomassa.Pada penelitian ini dibuat briket arang dengan mengkaji pengaruh variasi tekanan pengepresan dan komposisi bahan terhadap sifat fisis briket arang. Proses karbonisasi pada tempurung kelapa 450ºC selama 15 menit. Serbuk kayu dikarbonisasi menggunakan klin drum selama 4-5 jam. Perbandingan komposisi bahan tempurung kelapa dengan serbuk kayu adalah sebagai berikut 75%:25%, 25%:75%, 50%:50%, 100%:0%, 0%: 100% dengan tekanan pengepresan 50 N/cm2, 100 N/cm2,150N/cm2. Pengeringan briket dilakukan di dalam oven dengan suhu 60°C selama 24 jam. Briket berbentuk silinder dengan diameter 5 cm.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan briket paling optimum dengan perbandingan komposisi bahan 100% tempurung kelapa menggunakan tekanan antara 100-150 N/cm2 dengan nilai parameter uji sebagai berikut densitas 0.634 gr/cm3, kekuatan mekanik 43.167 N/cm2 dan lama pembakaran 64,39 menit.

  10. SINTESIS MEMBRAN ULTRAFILTRASI NON FOULING UNTUK APLIKASI PEMPROSESAN BAHAN PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Membran ultrafiltrasi (UF telah terbukti sebagai proses yang menjanjikan untuk aplikasi di bidang pemprosesan bahan pangan. Namun, peristiwa fouling dapat menurunkan kinerja membran secara signifikan. Meskipun banyak metode pengendalian fouling telah diusulkan, dalam banyak kasus kinerja proses sangat dipengaruhi oleh membran sebagai jantung dari proses. Dalam makalah ini pengendalian fouling dilakukan dengan memodifikasi permukaan membran dengan teknik kopolimerisasi foto-grafting. Acrylic acid (AA, acrylamido methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS, poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA, dan N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N-(3sulfopropylammonium betaine sebagai senyawa zwitterion (ZI digunakan sebagai monomer fungsional. Pengaruh waktu iradiasi terhadap efektifitas modifikasi telah diamati. Kinerja membran hasil modifikasi kemudian diuji dengan menggunakan berbagai model larutan foulant yang meliputi larutan protein, larutan polisakarida dan larutan polifenol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sifat non fouling membran sangat jelas dapat ditingkatkan baik dengan PEGMA maupun dengan ZI. Secara umum, modifikasi menggunakan PEGMA menunjukkan kinerja yang lebih baik. Larutan polifenol menunjukkan karakter foulant yang paling kuat diantara model foulant.

  11. APLIKASI MODEL HOUSE OF RISK (HOR UNTUK MITIGASI RISIKO PADA SUPPLY CHAIN BAHAN BAKU KULIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rizki Kristanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam aktivitas supply chain selalu berpotensi untuk timbul risiko, oleh sebab itu manajemen risiko sangat diperlukan untuk penanganan risiko. Pada perusahaan yang memproduksi sepatu kulit seperti PT. Karyamitra Budisentosa, dalam aktivitas supply chain bahan baku kulit memiliki peluang untuk timbul risiko. Oleh sebab itu perlu dilakukan analisa risiko dan rancangan aksi mitigasi, untuk memitigasi risiko atau gangguan yang berpeluang timbul pada supply chain bahan baku kulit tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan model house of risk yang terdiri dari 2 fase. Fase pertama yaitu pengidentifikasian risiko dan agen risiko, yang kemudian dilakukan pengukuran tingkat severity dan occurance serta perhitungan nilai aggregate risk priority (ARP. Fase kedua yaitu penanganan risiko. Setelah dilakukan penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa terdapat 27 kejadian risiko dan 52 agen risiko. Terdapat 6 aksi mitigasi yang dapat digunakan, dengan harapan mampu memitigasi risiko pada supply chain bahan baku kulit.

  12. EFEKTIVITAS BAHAN AJAR IPA TERPADU TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR TINGKAT TINGGI SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yuliati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas bahan ajar IPA terpadu untuk SMP, khususnya tema Air Limbah Rumah Tangga. Desain penelitian menggunakan kuasi-eksperimen dengan Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMPN 20 Malang kelas VII. Sampel ditetapkan dengan purposive sampling. Perlakuan pada kelompok eksperimen adalah pembelajaran yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA terpadu, sedangkan kelompok kontrol  menggunakan buku  sekolah elektronik (BSE. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah butir soal tes, lembar observasi pembelajaran, dan perangkat  pembelajaran. Analisis data dilakukan dengan Anava AB untuk uji perbedaan rerata dan uji scheffe untuk uji efektivitas bahan ajar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi pada siswa SMP yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA Terpadu dengan siswa SMP yang menggunakan bahan ajar IPA yang terpisah bidang kajiannya, dan bahan ajar IPA terpadu efektif untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa. This study aims totest the effectiveness of an integrated science teaching materials for students of junior high school, particularly in themeof Domestic Wastewater. The study designused a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with control group design. The experiment was conductedin Junior High School of Malang. Samples were determined by purposive sampling. Treatmentin the experimental group was learning to integrated science teaching materials, whereas in the control group with the teaching materials available in schools. The instrument used were a matter oftestitems, observation sheets of learning, and learningtools. Data analysis was performed with AnovaAB totestmean difference and Scheffetesttotestthe effectiveness ofinstructional materials. The results showed that 1there aredifferences inhigher-order thinkingskillsinjunior high school students using teaching materials in integrated science withjunior high school students

  13. KUALITAS BAHAN MAKANAN DAN MAKANAN JAJANAN YANG DIJUAL DI PASAR TRADISIONAL DI BEBERAPA KOTA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptini Supraptini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasar tradisional merupakan fasilitas umum untuk tempat jual beli bahan makanan/ makanan jajanan yang banyak dikunjungi masyarakat . Di Indonesia terdapat sekitar 13.450 pasar tradisional dengan 12.625 juta pedagang beraktivitas di dalamnya.  Selama ini masih sering terjadi keracunan makanan di masyarakat, oleh karena itu perlu diteliti kualitas makanan/ bahan makanan yang dijajakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur kualitas makanan (bahan makanan dan makanan jajanan yang dijual di pasar tradisional. Populasi adalah pasar tradisional yang sudah pernah dibina oleh Ditjen PP-PL. Sampel diambil secara purposif dari pasar yang telah dibina, kemudian diambil pasar yang mewakili daerah Jawa (Kab.Sragen dan Bali (Kab.Gianyar karena daerah Sumatera yang tadinya akan diwakili pasar Payakumbuh tidak dapat dilakukan akibat gempa yang menghancurkan pasar tersebut. Penelitian diaksanakan buan Februari – Nvember 2010. Metode pemeriksaan cemaran bakteriologi pada sampel makanan dengan Profile Method. Pemeriksaan cemaran kimia pada sampel uji petik makanan dengan Comparation Method, dan amino antipirin method. Dari hasil pemeriksaan beberapa makanan jajanan baik di pasar yang dibina maupun belum dibina mengandung bahan pewarna Rhodamin-B pada kue mangkok merah, cenil warna merah, kue ku merah, geplak merah, roll cake merah-kuning kerupuk warna-warni, kembang goyang orange mengandung Rhodamin-B. Methanyl Yellow ditemukan pada kerupuk warna-warni. Selain itu pengawet bahan makanan formalin ditemukan pada mie kuning di pasar yang dibina. Hasil pemeriksaan bakteriologis E. coli dan Coliform pada semua sampel daging negatif, tetapi ada beberapa sampel total mikroba positif antara 104 sampai dengan 107, yang artinya masih ada pencemaran mikroba lain selain E. coli dan Coliform. Kualitas air bersih yang digunakan di sebagian besar pasar tradisional masih memenuhi persyaratan Permenkes No.41/1999. Kesimpulan : Beberapa bahan makanan dan makanan jajanan yang dijual

  14. Ösel Foodsi müügihitid / Aivar Hundimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hundimägi, Aivar, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    2001. aastal müüs Ösel Foods poole firma käibest andnud Linnuse kalja Coca-Colale, 2003. aastal otsustas A. Le. Coq Tartu Õlletehas Öseli ära osta. Mõlemat tehingut peetakse heaks müügitehinguks müüjale. Diagramm: Kali ja mahlad tõid Öseli tagasi kasumisse. Lisad: Ösel Foods keskendus 2001. aastal mahla tootmisele; Ösel hindas Aura ACE turuletoomise edukaks; Ösel Foodsi tippjuhid tegid mitu müügitehingut

  15. SelMa - Self-guided Learning in Teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang WEBER

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the project ``Self-guided Learning in Teaching Mathematics - SEC II'' (SelMa, five authoring schools are working out scenarios, media and materials for phases of self-guided learning, which will be tested systematically by 10 trial schools with regard to their everyday suitability. In this paper three approaches to such learning arrangements (independent learning centre, jigsaw classroom and learning at stations are being outlined and relevant experiences are being made available. Learning diaries prove to be useful for the learners' reflection of their learning process. The development as well as the management of such learning arrangements does place new demands on the teachers.

  16. Maksilektomi Inferior pada Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Palatum Durum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak          Karsinoma Palatum Durum adalah keganasan daerah kepala dan leher yang jarang terjadi dimana setengah diantaranya merupakan Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa. Pada fase awal keganasan ini dapat bersifat asimptomatis namun dapat juga menimbulkan gejala berupa ulkus yang terasa nyeri pada perkembangan penyakitnya. Operasi maksilektomi inferior merupakan salah satu pilihan tindakan yang dapat dilakukan dalam tatalaksana kasus ini, diikuti oleh pemberian radioterapi. Kasus ini dibuat untuk memahami penatalaksanaan karsinoma palatum durum. Dilaporkan kasus seorang laki-laki 45 tahun dengan diagnosis Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Palatum Durum (Well to Moderately Differentiated Keratinized stadium IVa (T4aN0M0 dilakukan operasi maksilektomi inferior, namun tidak diikuti dengan radioterapi karena pasien menolak. Maksilektomi inferior merupakan pilihan pembedahan pada tumor yang terbatas pada palatum, lantai sinus maksila dan kavum nasi. Prognosis karsinoma sel skuamosa palatum durum cukup baik dan angka harapan hidup lima tahun akan bertambah bila dilakukan operasi diikuti dengan pemberian radioterapi. Kata kunci: Karsinoma sel skuamosa, maksilektomi inferior, radioterapi AbstractCarcinoma of the hard palate is a rare head and neck cancer in which half of it was Squamous Cell Carcinoma. In the initial phase of this malignancy may be asymptomatic, but can also cause symptoms such as painful ulcers in the development of the disease. Inferior maxillectomy is one of the choice of operation that can be performed, followed by radiotherapy to understand the management of carcinoma of the hard palate. Reported one case of a man 45 years old with diagnosis Squamous Cell Carcinoma of hard palate (Well to Moderately Differentiated Keratinized stage IVa (T4aN0M0 treated by inferior maxillectomy surgery, but not followed by radiotherapy because the patient refused. Inferior Maksilektomi is a surgical option in tumor that limited to the palate, floor of the

  17. Biodièsel : impacte en origen del biodièsel consumit a Catalunya i a Espanya

    OpenAIRE

    Figueras Alsius, Mireia; Ramos Martín, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Actualment la situació del mercat espanyol i català del biodièsel es caracteritza per les grans importacions d'oli de palma africana. Per a produir aquesta matèria primera s'estan establint plantacions a gran escala d'Elaeis guineensis (palma africana) a Indonèsia. El monocultiu d'Elaeis guineensis i la producció de l'oli tenen associats grans impactes ambientals i socials. Per una banda, els impactes ambientals són principalment la desforestació, el canvi d'ús del sòl, la pèrdua de biodivers...

  18. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PERSEDIAAN DENGAN MEMPERTIMBANGKAN WAKTU KADALUARSA BAHAN DAN FAKTOR INCREMENTAL DISCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasetyo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model persediaan yang mempertimbangkan waktu kadaluarsa bahan dan faktor incremental discount untuk mendapatkan biaya total (total cost persediaan yang minimum. Model persediaan Economic Order Quantity (EOQ Single Item digunakan sebagai dasar pengembangan model. Algoritma pencarian solusi model dibuat untuk mendapatkan solusi dari model. Selain itu pada bagian akhir diberikan studi kasus implementasi model di PT. XYZ.

  19. Studi Pembuatan Cat Tembok Emulsi dengan Menggunakan Kapur sebagai Bahan Pengisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studi pembuatan cat tembok emulsi menggunakan bahan pengisi kapur sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan karena ketersediaan kapur yang banyak di alam. Cat tembok emulsi telah dibuat dari campuran bahan pengisi, bahan pengikat, pigmen, pelarut, dan bahan tambahan lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari apakah cat tembok emulsi dapat dihasilkan dari kapur atau tidak dan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi CaO sebagai filler, dan konsentrasi polivinil asetat (PVA sebagai binder terhadap kualitas cat tembok emulsi yang dihasilkan. Prosedur penelitian dan analisis mutu produk mengacu pada SNI 3564:2009 tentang cat tembok emulsi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kapur dapat digunakan dalam membuat cat tembok emulsi. Baik konsentrasi PVA dan konsentrasi CaO yang divariasikan mempengaruhi semua parameter kualitas cat sebagaimana ditetapkan dalam SNI 3564:2009. Hasil optimum penelitian diperoleh pada perlakuan konsentrasi PVA 20% dan konsentrasi CaO 26% yaitu masing-masing untuk padatan total cat sebesar 76,43%, waktu kering cat 36,00 menit, daya sebar cat 8,4 m2/kg, viskositas cat 110,99 KU, sedangkan daya tutup cat sebesar 8,20 m2/L pada konsentrasi CaO 24%.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN KAMPAS REM SEPEDA MOTOR DARI KOMPOSIT SERAT BAMBU TERHADAP KETAHANAN AUS PADA KONDISI KERING DAN BASAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramuko Ilmu Purboputro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini untuk menemukan komposisi bahan kampas rem yang optimal  non asbes, yang mempunyai karakteristik dinamik yang lebih baik. Komposisi dilakukan dari serat bambu,fiberglass, serbuk aluminium, dengan pengikat poliester. Pengujian awal yang dilakukan adalah kekerasan bahan dan keausan pada kondisi kering dan pembasahan air. Hasil yang didapat adalah kampas rem dengan komposisi Variasi 1 adalah paling keras , dengan harga kekerasan sebesar  14,47 BHN yang lebih keras dibanding produk di pasaran dengan harga kekerasan 13,7 BHN.  Pengujian Keausan Ogoshi pada kondisi kering maksimal mempunyai nilai keausan yang paling rendah yaitu sebesar 0.00041mm2/kg. Untuk Pengujian Keausan Ogoshi Kondisi basah dengan air, diperoleh bahwa, bahan kampas rem dengan Variasi 1 paling rendah keausannya yaitu sebesar 0,0062 mm2/kg. Kondisi basah dengan oli, diperoleh bahwa, bahan kampas rem dengan Variasi 2 paling rendah keausannya yaitu sebesar 0,0003 mm2/kg.

  1. WebSelF: A Web Scraping Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob; Ernst, Erik; Brabrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    We present, WebSelF, a framework for web scraping which models the process of web scraping and decomposes it into four conceptually independent, reusable, and composable constituents. We have validated our framework through a full parameterized implementation that is flexible enough to capture...... previous work on web scraping. We have experimentally evaluated our framework and implementation in an experiment that evaluated several qualitatively different web scraping constituents (including previous work and combinations hereof) on about 11,000 HTML pages on daily versions of 17 web sites over...... a period of more than one year. Our framework solves three concrete problems with current web scraping and our experimental results indicate that com- position of previous and our new techniques achieve a higher degree of accuracy, precision and specificity than existing techniques alone....

  2. Le sel de Camargue au Moyen Âge

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, Alain

    2015-01-01

    L’ensemble du littoral du Golfe du Lion, depuis le Roussillon actuel jusqu’à l’embouchure du Var « réunit des conditions particulièrement favorables à l’exploitation du sel : forte salinité des eaux de la Méditerranée, évaporation intense favorisée à la fois par l’action du soleil et du vent », présence d’étangs généralement peu profonds, suffisamment séparés de la haute mer et pourtant en communication aisée avec celle-ci. Néanmoins, des différences de structures géographiques, plus ou moins...

  3. perbedaan dua bahan glass ionomer terhadap kebocoran tepi pada restorasi kelas II yang menggunakan teknik open sandwich

    OpenAIRE

    juliana, andi riska

    2012-01-01

    2011 Kebocoran tepi merupakan salah satu faktor terjadinya kegagalan restorasi. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi kebocoran tersebut dengan restorasi sandwich yang menggunakan dua macam bahan yaitu semen glass ionomer dan resin komposit. Semen glass ionomer mempunyai kekurangan sifat fisik antara lain kelarutan yang tinggi dan pengerasan yang lambat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pada dua bahan glass ionomer yaitu glass ionomer konvensional dan glass ionomer modifikas...

  4. Produksi Bioetanol dari Bahan Baku Singkong, Jagung dan Iles-iles :Pengaruh Suhu Fermentasi dan Berat Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kusmiyati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan bahan bakar di masa sekarang semakin bertambah besar sehingga berdampak pada menipisnya sumber bahan bakar dan meningkatnya polusi udara di lingkungan. Penggunaan bahan bakar alternatif dari sumber non fosil merupakan pilihan terbaik sebagai pengganti bahan bakar fosil. Bioetanol merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang tepat digunakan baik di masa sekarang ataupun di masa yang akan datang. Bahan baku etanol yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah singkong, dan iles-iles.Variabel penelitian yang diamati temperatur fermentasi (30°C; 40°C;­­ 50°C dan komposisi Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2,5 g; 5 g; 10 g; 15 g Proses pembuatan bioetanol terdiri dari hidrolisis enzim yaitun likuifikasi menggunakan a-amylase1,6% v/w (t = 1 jam; T = 95-100°C; pH 6 dan sakarifikasi menggunakan b-amylase 3,2% v/w (t = 4 jam; T = 60°C; pH 5 serta proses fermentasi menggunakan Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( t = 120 jam; pH 4,5; yeast 5 g. Kadar etanol tertinggi dihasilkan pada temperatur fermentasi 30°C untuk semua bahan baku dengan kadar etanol masing-masing 83,43 g/L untuk singkong,80,77 g/L untuk jagung,dan 79,94 g/L untuk iles-iles. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  5. UJI KALOR BAKAR BAHAN BAKAR CAMPURAN BIOETANOL DAN MINYAK GORENG BEKAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Tazi, Sulistiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Menurut  laporan  The  World  Energy  Council   tahun  1993,  menjelang   tahun  2020 kebutuhan energi  dunia  akan  meningkat  dari  8,8  Gtoe  (gigatons  of  oil  equivalent  menjadi  11,3 sampai  17,2  Gtoe  (IEA,  2006.  Kondisi  tersebut  akan  menguras  banyak  cadangan  minyak  bumi. Bietanol adalah salah satu sumber energi alternatif baru.  Tujuan khusus  dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui besar kalor yang dihasilkan oleh  bahan bakar tersebut,mengetahui komposisi campuran bioetanol dan minyak goreng bekas  yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar kompor bertekanan. Hasil dari penelitian uji kalor bakar bahan bakar campuran bioetanol dan minyak goreng bekas untuk nilai kalornya adalah 76,86 J/kg – 27,52J/kg, sedangkan nilai viskositasnya 46,5 cSt – 22,5 cSt. Hasil dari  penelitian ini menunjukkan untuk nilai kalor yang tepat dijadikan sebagai bahan bakar  kompor bertekanan apabila campuran bioetanol lebih banyak dari pada minyak goreng bekas. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa besar nilai kalor yang dihasilkan oleh bahan  bakar campuran bioetanol dan minyak goreng bekas adalah 76,86 J/kg dengan  viskositasnya 46,2 cSt. Sedangkan nilai kalor bakar  terendah  adalah  27,52  J/kg  dengan  viskositasnya  22,5  cSt.  Bertambahnya  campuran  akan mempengaruhi penurunan nilai kalor bakar campuran bioetanol. Komposisi campuran bioetanol dan minyak goreng bekas yang  dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar pada kompor bertekanan apabila penambahan campuran bioetanol lebih banyak dari minyak goreng bekas.

  6. Perbedaan Kekuatan Kompresi Gipsum Tipe III Pabrikan dan Daur Ulang serta Gipsum Tipe III Daur Ulang dengan Penambahan Larutan Zink Sulfat 4% sebagai Bahan Model Kerja Gigitiruan

    OpenAIRE

    Pitri, Yulindia

    2015-01-01

    Gipsum di bidang kedokteran gigi berasal dari bahan Kalsium Sulfat Dihidrat murni kemudian mengalami kalsinasi menjadi Kalsium Sulfat Hemihidrat. Gipsum mempunyai sifat reversibel sehingga dapat dilakukan proses daur ulang. Gipsum yang sering digunakan adalah gipsum tipe III menurut spesifikasi American Dental Association (ADA) dan digunakan sebagai bahan model kerja gigitiruan. Gipsum sebagai bahan model kerja gigitiruan yang digunakan harus mempunyai kekuatan kompresi yang tinggi agar dihas...

  7. SINTESIS SILIKA AEROGEL DENGAN BAHAN DASAR ABU BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazriati Nazriati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SILICA AEROGEL FROM BAGASSE ASH. Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid (SA. Silicic acid solution was then added with TMCS and HMDS as surface modifier agent. In order to form gel pH must be adjusted to final pH of 8-9 by addition of NH4OH solution. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. Characterization of products was done by measuring its pore volume, surface area, and hydrophobisity (contact angle. TMCS serves as water expeller from the pores and subsequently surface was modified by HMDS and TMCS. HMDS content will linearly increase surface area, pore volume, and the contact angle of the resulting silica aerogel. Characteristics of silica aerogel was generated by varying the composition of the SA:TMCS:HMDS resulting has a surface area of 50-488 m2/g, pore volume from 0.2 to 0.9 m3 /g, the contact angle of 48-119 and pore diameter ranging from 5.7-22.56 nm. Based on the resulting pore diameter, the synthesized of silica aerogel categorized as mesoporous.      Abstrak   Sintesis silika aerogel dari bahan dasar abu bagasse dilakukan dengan ekstraksi basa dan diikuti dengan sol-gel. Abu bagasse diekstrak dengan NaOH pada suhu didihnya sambil diaduk selama satu jam, menghasilkan sodium silikat. Selanjutnya, sodium silikat dilewatkan resin penukar ion, menghasilkan asam silicic (SA. Larutan asam silicic kemudian ditambahkan trimethy­l­chlorosilane (TMCS dan hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS sebagai agen pemodifikasi permukaan. Untuk terjadinya gel pH diatur hingga mencapai 8-9 dengan penambahan larutan NH4OH. Gel yang dihasilkan kemudian di-aging dan dikeringkan pada tekanan ambien pada suhu dan

  8. Penentuan Pola dan Pusat Distribusi Bahan Pokok Untuk Wilayah Berbasis Kepulauan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Figur Alfenza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah kepulauan Indonesia yang tersebar hingga ujung perbatasan negeri menyebabkan terjadinya kesenjangan perekonomian, khususnya untuk ketersediaan bahan pokok. Harga bahan pokok yang dijual di wilayah kepulauan terluar Indonesia jauh lebih mahal jika dibandingkan dengan harga jual di Pulau Jawa. Salah satu solusi yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi kesenjangan ekonomi tersebut adalah dengan merencanakan pusat distribusi dan pola jaringan transportasi laut yang sesuai dengan karakteristik kepulauan. Penentuan pusat distribusi menggunakan metode gravitasi dan didapat Pulau Ulu dan Pulau Sangihe sebagai  hub port. Penentuan rute optimum menggunakan teori Travelling Salesman Problem. Teori jaringan yang direncanakan adalah multiport calling dan hub and spoke network. Dalam satu tahun kapal untuk konsep multiport calling dapat beroperasi 52 kali dan untuk konsep hub and spoke network dapat beroperasi 53 kali. Selisih unit biaya kedua pola tersebut adalah sebesar 2%.

  9. Karakteristik Termoplastik Polietilena Dengan Serat Batang Pisang Sebagai Komposit Untuk Bahan Palet Kayu

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzah Ram

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat Serat Batang Pisang ( SBP ) sebagai penguat bahan komposit Polietilena ( PE ). Pencampuran Serat Batang Pisang terhadap Polietilena dilakukan dengan perbandingan 10%, 20%, 30%, dan 40%. Kepingan Polietilena dicampur dengan SBP dengan menggunakan mesin Hot Press dengan variasi waktu untuk masing- masing komposisi selama 5 menit, 10 menit, 15 menit, 20 menit, 25 menit, dan 30 menit. Pembanding komposit PE- SBP adalah PE- murni (100%) dan palet kayu indu...

  10. Uudised : Tormisega Amsterdamis. AS Ösel toetab Voices of Europe'i kontserti / Ingrid Peek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peek, Ingrid

    2000-01-01

    15. aug. dirigeeris E. Klas Amsterdami Concertgebouws V. Tormise "Avamängu nr. 2". AS Ösel toetab 100 000 krooniga 1. sept. toimuvat kontserti, kus tuleb ettekandele A. Pärdi uudisteos "which was the son of"

  11. Judokas Indrek Pertelson rajab veel sel aastal kaks spordikeskust / Merike Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Merike

    2005-01-01

    Tippspordiga lõpparve teinud judoka Indrek Pertelson avab veel sel aastal Tallinnas kaks perespordikeskust, kus peale idamaiste võitlusviiside harrastamise saab ka tervist kontrollida ja jõudu taastada

  12. Esimene Teater Ö(ö)sel festival läks korda / Merje Pors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pors, Merje

    2006-01-01

    15.-16. juulil Kuressaares ja Saare maakonnas toimunud Läänemere saari ühendavast festivalist "Teater Ö(ö)sel". Festivalist võtsid osa Rügeni, Alandi, Gotlandi, Hiiumaa ja Saaremaa teatritrupid

  13. Valitsus sel korral sügisest majandusennustust ei tee / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2009-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi osakonnajuhataja Andrus Sääliku selgitusel on sügisese majandusprognoosi edasilükkamise taga EL-i otsus lükata sel aastal stabiilsus- ja konvergentsiprogrammide raportite esitamine kaks kuud edasi. Diagramm

  14. Simulasi Pengendalian Multiproses Industri dengan Programmable Logic Controller sebagai Sarana dan Bahan Ajar Praktik Instalasi Listrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukir Sukir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan unjuk kerja yang baik tentang simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller (PLC sebagai sarana dan bahan ajar Praktik Instalasi Listrik. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri atas analisis kebutuhan, perancangan, pembuatan atau implementasi, pengujian unjuk kerja dan perbaikan serta finishing. Pengumpulan data dengan cara observasi. Instrumen yang digunakan antara lain multimeter Sanwa, ceklist deskripsi kerja sarana praktik, angket validasi ahli media, ahli materi dan mahasiswa terhadap kelayakan sarana praktik serta labsheet. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diperoleh simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sarana praktik dan bahan ajar (labsheet pada Praktik Instalasi Listrik yang mempunyai unjuk yang baik diantaranya: (1 simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sebagai sarana praktik mempunyai deskripsi kerja yang sesuai dengan perencanaan; (2 Hasil pengamatan kelayakan simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sarana praktik oleh ahli materi, ahli media dan mahasiswa diperoleh hasil rata-rata total sebesar 2,89 atau 72,25% dalam kategori baik serta (3 Hasil pengamatan kelayakan simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai bahan ajar (labsheet oleh ahli materi, ahli media dan mahasiswa diperoleh skor rata-rata total sebesar 2,85 atau 71,25% yang masuk dalam kategori baik.

  15. PENGARUH KOMPOSISI SERAT KELAPA TERHADAP TEMPERATUR GESEK BAHAN KOPLING GESEK KENDARAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramuko Ilmu Purboputro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh komposisi bahan dengan menggunakan fraksi berat serat kelapa, serbuk tembaga, fiberglass dengan resin phenolic terhadap keausan dan kekerasan specimen kampas kopling dan membandingkannya dengan kampas kopling yang sudah ada di pasaran Special Genuine Part (SGP . Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah serat kelapa, serbuk tembaga, fiberglass, dan resin phenolic.               Pembuatan dilakukan dengan  proses kompaksi, dengan gaya sebesar 2 ton dan ditahan selama 60 menit. Setelah mencapai holding time yang diinginkan, dies (cetakan dimasukkan kedalam oven dan dilakukan proses sintering dengan suhu 800 C selama 40 menit dan specimen dikeluarkan dari cetakan. Setelah didapat tiga specimen kampas kopling variasi serart kelapa, serbuk tembaga, dan fiberglass lalu dilakukan proses pengujian kekerasan Brinell dengan standar ASTM F 1957-99 dan pengujian keausan dengan standar ASTM D 3702-94 kemudian dilakukan foto makro untuk melihat kepadatan dan sifat masing-masing bahan penyusun specimen kampas kopling.               Hasil pengujian ini menunjukkan bahwa variasi 1 memiliki temperatur rata-rata yang paling tinggi yaitu dengan 77,70C dan yang paling rendah adalah variasi 2 yaitu 710C. Hasil temperatur gesek terendah adalah 77oC pada variasi 2pada kondisi kering. Pada kondisi basah temperatur gesek terendah adalah  47,7oC pada  variasi 3.

  16. Cloning and functional analysis of SEL1L promoter region, a pancreas-specific gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, M; Sorio, C; Malferrari, G; Rogozin, I B; Bernard, L; Scarpa, A; Zollo, M; Biunno, I

    2001-01-01

    We examined the promoter activity of SEL1L, the human ortholog of the C. elegans gene sel-1, a negative regulator of LIN-12/NOTCH receptor proteins. To understand the relation in SEL1L transcription pattern observed in different epithelial cells, we determined the transcription start site and sequenced the 5' flanking region. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of consensus promoter elements--GC boxes and a CAAT box--but the absence of a TATA motif. Potential binding sites for transcription factors that are involved in tissue-specific gene expression were identified, including: activator protein-2 (AP-2), hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF3 beta), homeobox Nkx2-5 and GATA-1. Transcription activity of the TATA-less SEL1L promoter was analyzed by transient transfection using luciferase reporter gene constructs. A core basal promoter of 302 bp was sufficient for constitutive promoter activity in all the cell types studied. This genomic fragment contains a CAAT and several GC boxes. The activity of the SEL1L promoter was considerably higher in mouse pancreatic beta cells (beta TC3) than in several human pancreatic neoplastic cell lines; an even greater reduction of its activity was observed in cells of nonpancreatic origin. These results suggest that SEL1L promoter may be a useful tool in gene therapy applications for pancreatic pathologies.

  17. PEMILIHAN CERITA ANAK SEBAGAI BAHAN AJAR MEMBACA DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH (MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosihan Anwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kriteria-kriteria yang digunakan dalam pemilihan cerita anak yang layak sebagai bahan ajar membaca di MTs. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk menganalisis cerita anak yang layak sebagai bahan ajar membaca di MTs berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria itu.Penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah cerita anak yang ada di Buku Sekolah Elektronik, buku bacaan, dan internet. Objek penelitiannya adalah isi cerita. Ada dua puluh cerita anak yang yang dijadikan sampel penelitian. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan membaca dan mencatat. Analisis data dilakukan dengan cara reduksi, penyajian, dan penyimpulan data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 ada tiga kriteria yang digunakan dalam pemilihan cerita anak yang layak sebagai bahan ajar membaca di MTs. Kriteria-kriteria itu adalah kriteria nilai/moral, motivasi, dan kesesuaian jenis sekolah. (2 Dari dua puluh cerita yang dianalisis, sebelas cerita dinyatakan layak dan sembilan cerita dinyatakan tidak layak dijadikan bahan ajar membaca di MTs. Kata kunci: cerita anak, bahan ajar, membaca   THE SELECTION OF CHILDREN STORIES AS READING TEACHING MATERIAL IN MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH (MTS Abstract The study aims to describe criteria used in the selection proper children stories as reading teaching material in Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs. In addition, the study also aims to describe proper children stories as reading teaching material in Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs based on the criteria.The study is descriptive qualitative research. The subjects of the study are children stories in Buku Sekolah Elektronik (BSE, reading book, and internet. The object of the study is the contents of the stories. There are twenty children stories that the research sample. The sample was taken by purposive sampling technique. The collection of data is done by reading and writing. Data

  18. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR GEOGRAFI BERBASIS CERITA LEGENDA NUSANTARA DI KELAS X SMA NASIMA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Deni Aryani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pembelajaran konsep Geografi di kelas X Semester 1 SMA Nasima tahun 2013-2014menunjukkan adanya hambatan berupa rendahnya minat siswa terhadap pembelajaran.Materi ini tingkat kesulitannya tinggi, serta bahan ajar kurang mendukung.Pemilihan bahan ajar cerita legenda memiliki alasan (1 desainnya menarik; (2berisi nilai karakter Indonesia sesuai visi misi SMA Nasima; (3 merupakan latarsuatu tempat, yang merupakan ruang lingkup Geografi yang dapat dikaji dengankonsep esensial Geografi. Bahan ajar diwujudkan dalam bentuk buku Nonteks Pelajaran/buku suplemen/ pendamping yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan aktivitasbelajar siswa dalam pembelajaran. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan metodepenelitian pengembangan dengan tehnik analisis SPSS Uji T dua sampel berpasangan.Efektifitas penggunaan bahan ajar terhadap peningkatan aktivitas siswadalam belajar penguasaan konsep esensial geografi dengan membandingkan datahasil belajar siswa sebelum dan sesudah memakai bahan ajar tersebut. Hasil penelitianmengatakan pada kelompok eksperimen terbukti efektif yaitu Ha diterima, adaperbedaan nilai sebelum dengan sesudah perlakuan. Hasil uji T ini didukung olehhasil pengamatan sikap dengan nilai rata – rata baik pada semua aspek sikap yangdiamati. Namun ada korelasi yang tidak signifikan sebesar 0,175 karena selisih nilaiyang rendah antara sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Learning concept of Geography in Semester 1 class X SMA Nasima 2013-2014 showed somebarriers in the form of students’ low interest towards learning. This material was categorizedas a high degree of difficulty, and the teaching materials was less supportive. There weremany reasons of selecting the teaching materials of legends; (1 it had attractive design; (2 itcontained the value of the Indonesia character according to the vision and mission of NasimaHigh School; (3 it had background of some places, in which the Geography scope could bestudied with Geography essential concepts. Instructional

  19. DESAIN KONSEP TANGKI PENAMPUNG BAHAN BAKAR PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadiwinata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari reaktor MSR. Desain reaktor PCMSR membutuhkan tempat khusus penampung sementara bahan bakar pada saat terjadi insiden, misalnya kecelakaan yang menyebabkan peningkatan suhu bahan bakar. Tangki penampung bahan bakar tersusun dari 3 bagian yang saling terhubung yaitu bagian penampung cairan bahan bakar, cerobong (chimney, dan penukar kalor. Dalam penelitian ini, tangki dimodelkan secara lump dan dilakukan variasi daya awal reaktor dan ketinggian cerobong. Syarat batas model ditetapkan suhu bahan bakar maksimum 1400 °C, yang didasarkan pada titik didih larutan garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara menghitung rugi tekanan total dan transfer kalor untuk variasi daya awal antara 1800-3000 MWth dan ketinggian cerobong antara 1-10 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukan semakin besar daya reaktor, maka tinggi tangki penampung bahan bakar dan tinggi alat penukar kalor yang dibutuhkan akan semakin besar, tejadi kenaikan suhu fluida pendingin dan suhu udara pendingin, dan menyebabkan kenaikan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, sedangkan laju aliran masa udara menurun. Peningkatan ketinggian cerobong menyebabkan ketinggian tangki penampung bahan bakar dan ketinggian alat penukar kalor semakin menurun, penurunan suhu fluida pendingin, tetapi suhu udara meningkat, dan menyebabkan peningkatan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, tetapi laju aliran masa udara akan semakin menurun. Kata kunci: PCMSR, cerobong, alat penukar kalor, variasi daya.   The Passsive Compact Molten Salat Reactor (PCMSR reactor is developed from MSR reactor. The PCMSR reactor design requires special place to temporarily storage for reactor fuel when incident occurs, such as when there is an accident which caused the temperature of the fuel increases. The tank consist of three interconnected parts, the reservoir liquid fuel, chimney, and the heat exchanger. In this research, the tank system is modeled based on

  20. Aplikasi Metode Group Technology dalam Memperbaiki Tata Letak Mesin untuk Meminimalkan Jarak Perpindahan Bahan (Studi Kasus di Perusahaan Mebel Logam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Material handling process is affected by planning and setting layout facility since cost of material handling can reached 30-90% total production cost. In a metal furniture factory products were made without good setting layout facility. The machines and material were set at empty places. Distances between machines were not set so the traffic would get traffic jam. Unfinished material must wait until the number requirement for handling is reached. The layout setting of machines will be set with Group Technology. The methods used are Rank Order Clustering, Similarity Coefficient and p-median. The result of this method can reduce distance of material handling until 68%. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Perencanaan dan pengaturan tata letak pabrik berpengaruh pada proses pemindahan bahan karena biaya proses pemindahaan bahan dapat mencapai 30%-90% dari total biaya produksi. Selama ini sebuah perusahaan mebel logam melakukan proses pembuatan mebel logam berdasarkan lokasi mesin-mesin yang ada. Penempatan penambahan mesin ataupun bahan yang digunakan hanya berdasarkan ruang yang ada. Jarak antara proses (mesin satu dengan yang lain tidak dipertimbangkan sehingga terjadi kesimpangsiuran proses. Bahan setengah jadi harus menunggu hingga jumlah tertentu untuk dipindahkan. Untuk itu dilakukan pengaturan tata letak mesin-mesin yang ada dengan menggunakan Metode Group Techonology. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode Rank Order Clustering, Similarity Coefficient dan p-median. Dengan metode ini jarak perpindahan bahan berhasil dikurangi hingga 68 %. Kata kunci: Group technology, rank order clustering, pengangkutan material.

  1. Pembuatan Aplikasi Pendukung Keputusan untuk Peramalan Persediaan Bahan Baku Produksi Plastik Blowing dan Inject Menggunakan Metode ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average di CV. Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Herwindyani Hutasuhut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Persediaan bahan baku memiliki peranan penting bagi perusahaan karena akan berpengaruh pada kemampuan perusahaan untuk memenuhi permintaan pelanggan. Berbagai kendala dapat muncul akibat kurangnya bahan baku untuk produksi, seperti kekurangan bahan baku untuk produksi sehingga menimbulkan keterlambatan terhadap pemenuhan permintaan pelanggannya. Akibat keterlambatan tersebut akhirnya perusahaan mengalami beberapa kerugian. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut, perusahaan memerlukan perencanaan di berbagai hal, khususnya perencanaan yang berhubungan dengan persediaan. Salah satu bentuk perencanaan persediaan yaitu meramalkan persediaan bahan baku untuk setiap waktu. Metode ARIMA merupakan metode yang disarankan untuk kasus CV. Asia karena memiliki sifat yang fleksibel, yaitu mengikuti pola data yang ada. Metode ARIMA memiliki tingkat akurasi yang tinggi dan cenderung memiliki nilai error yang kecil karena prosesnya yang terperinci. Model ARIMA yang diperoleh nantinya akan diimplementasikan dalam Microsoft Excel menggunakan Visual Basic for Application, dengan mempertimbangkan kondisi kekinian perusahaan yang menggunakan Microsoft Excel untuk proses bisnis kesehariannya, sehingga dapat membantu CV. Asia untuk meramalkan persediaan bahan bakunya dan melakukan pengambilan keputusan.

  2. DESAIN TERAS DAN BAHAN BAKAR PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR (PBMR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM SRAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkowo Wahyu Santoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisis desain down scale teras dan bahan bakar PBMR-HTR dengan menggunakan program SRAC bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh variasi pengayaan U235, burnable poison, laju aliran pendingin dan suhu pendingin masuk terhadap kekritisan teras serta aspek-aspek keselamatan reaktor nuklir dengan parameter nilai keff dan koefisien reaktivitas suhu bahan bakar, moderator dan pendingin. Teras PBMR-HTR berbentuk silinder finite dengan lubang ditengahnya yang berisi 334.000 bahan bakar pebble bed. Bahan bakar berupa UO2, moderator grafit dan pendingin helium. Model desain down scale dilakukan pada ½ teras yang mewakili keseluruhan teras. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memvariasikan pengayaan bahan bakar sebesar 8%, 8,5%, 9%, 9,5% dan 10% sementara variasi konsentrasi burnable poison sebesar 5 ppm, 7 ppm, 9 ppm, 11 ppm, dan 15 ppm. Variasi laju aliran pendingin sebesar 60%, 80%, 100%, 120%, dan 140% sementara variasi suhu masukan pendingin sebesar 673,15K; 723,15K; 773,15K; 823,15K dan 873,15K. Pada penelitian ini keff pada BOL tanpa Gd2O3 sebesar 1.026213 dan EOL sebesar 0.995865 dengan excess reactivity sebesar 2,5 % dengan pengkayaan U235 9%. Sementara keff pada BOL dengan menggunakan Gd2O3 sebesar 1.0069680 dan EOL sebesar 0.9961928 dengan excess reactivity sebesar 0.69 % dengan konsentrasi Gd2O3 7 ppm. Koefisien reaktivitas suhu bahan bakar,moderator dan pendingin berturut-turut sebesar -9,074583E-05/K, -2,971833E-05/K dan 1,120700E-05/K. Koefisien reaktivitas bernilai negatif menunjukkan karakteristik keselamatan melekat (inherent safety telah terpenuhi. Peningkatan suhu masukan dan penurunan laju aliran pendingin berkontribusi menurunkan nilai keff teras sehingga koefisien reaktivitas bernilai negatif. Kata kunci : PBMR-HTR, kritikalitas, reaktivitas, down scale, burnable poison Core and fuel down scale analysis on PBMR-HTR using SRAC program aims to identify the influence of U235 enrichment, burnable poison, coolant flow rate and coolant temperature

  3. PENGENDALIAN PERSEDIAAN BAHAN BAKU BASE MATERIAL PADA INDUSTRI KERAMIK DI PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Susanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inventory of raw materials in the company is very important, so it has to be controlled. A good inventory control of raw materials should be supported with cost efficiency. This study was to analyze factors that cause the base material inventories excess at PT. XYZ and analyze the purpose of the base material inventories to be controlled. The reseacrh was using a fish bone method and continue with using pairwise comparison method assisted with the expert choice 2000 software. The classification result based on ABC analysis, the selected item that was going to be analyzed was the A category items.The items that are included in the A category are clay ex belitung jw, clay ja 1/ja b and sodium feldspar. The EOQ equations model was used to answer the purpose of the base material inventories control. Based from the EOQ model, the needed quantity, order quantity, order frequency, reorder point (ROP, total order cost (TOC, total carrying cost (TCC, and total inventory cost (TIC could be obtained. The comparison of the total cost of inventory among the EOQ model and company policies showed that the EOQ model in seven months can save up to Rp311.612.769. PT. XYZ could minimize the base material inventory costs by calculating the costs incurred. The EOQ model could be implemented if all of the departments involved are well cooperated. PT. XYZ should also be able to make inventory control standards which are quantity order, order frequency, and reorder point. Keywords: Cost, EOQ, frequency, inventory, ROPABSTRAKPersediaan bahan baku pada perusahaan sangatlah penting, sehingga harus dapat dikendalikan. Pengendalian persediaan bahan baku yang baik harus didukung dengan efisiensi biaya. Penelitian ini untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan kondisi persediaan bahan baku base material berlebih di PT. XYZ dan menganalisis persediaan bahan baku base material agar dapat dikendalikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode fish bone dilanjutkan dengan metode

  4. Kandungan bahan tambahan pangan berbahaya pada makanan jajanan anak sekolah dasar di Kabupaten Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhona Paratmanitya

    2016-08-01

    dengan keracunan akibat penyebab lain, misalnya obat, kosmetika, dan lain-lain. Salah satu penyebab keracunan makanan adalah adanya cemaran kimia dalam makanan tersebut, seperti boraks, formalin dan rhodamin-B. Dalam data tersebut, diketahui 2,93% sampel makanan jajanan pada anak sekolah mengandung boraks, 1,34% mengandung formalin, dan 1,02% mengandung rhodamin-B. Akumulasi bahan-bahan tersebut di dalam tubuh dapat berdampak negatif bagi kesehatan.Tujuan: Mengetahui persentase makanan jajanan anak sekolah dasar (SD yang tercemar bahan tambahan pangan berbahaya (boraks, formalin, rhodamin-B di Kabupaten Bantul. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah observasional dengan rancangan survei. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan melibatkan 68 SD di Kabupaten Bantul sebagai sampel. Seluruh makanan jajanan yang dijajakan baik di luar maupun di kantin sekolah dan diduga mengandung bahan kimia berbahaya diuji kandungan cemaran kimianya yaitu kandungan boraks, formalin dan rhodamin-B. Pengujian kualitatif kandungan boraks menggunakan kurkumin, formalin menggunakan KMnO4, dan rhodamin-B menggunakan test kit Rhodamin-B. Hasil: Terdapat 107 sampel makanan dari 68 SD yang diuji. Jenis makanan jajanan yang diduga mengandung bahan kimia berbahaya yang paling banyak dijajakan di SD adalah jenis bakso (bakso, bakso tusuk, bakso goreng yaitu sejumlah 22,4% dari seluruh sampel jajanan. Di antara 98 sampel yang diuji kandungan boraks dan formalinnya, 15 sampel (15,3% positif mengandung boraks dan 25 sampel (25,5% positif mengandung formalin. Di antara 15 sampel yang diuji kandungan rhodamin-B-nya,7 sampel (46,7% positif mengandung rhodamin-B. Terdapat 34 SD (50% yang tidak terdapat jajanan yang tercemar bahan kimia berbahaya. Kesimpulan: Persentase makanan jajanan anak SD yang mengandung boraks, formalin dan rhodamin-B masih cukup tinggi.KATA KUNCI: makanan jajanan, boraks, formalin, rhodamin-B

  5. PENGGUNAAN BAHAN AJAR DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANDRAGOGI SEBAGAI UPAYA MENINGKATKAN KREATIVITAS DAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA SMA RSBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umriyah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Andragogi merupakan teori pembelajaran orang dewasa. Konsep pembelajaran orang dewasa merupakan pembelajaran yang berpola non otoriter. Berdasarkan ciri-ciri biologis maupun psikologis sebagian besar siswa SMA telah memasuki usia dewasa, sehingga pendekatan andragogi agaknya lebih sesuai. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yaitu mengembangkan bahan ajar dengan pendekatan andragogi, bertujuan untuk memperoleh bahan ajar yang dapat meningkatkan kreativitas dan hasil belajar siswa. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa  kelas X-2 SMA Islam Sudirman Ambarawa tahun pelajaran 2010/2011. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan metode dokumentasi, observasi dan  test hasil belajar.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan digunakannya bahan ajar dengan pendekatan andragogi, skor kreativitas  dan hasil test kognitif siswa rata-rata meningkat.Andragogy is adult learning theory. Adult learning concept is learning activity that gets to pattern non authoritarian. Based on biological characteristics and also psychological a large part Senior High School students  have entered adult age, so pedagogy approach (education for children was not suitable anymore for them, it seems that andragogy (education for adult is more suitable. This research is development research which develop learning material in andragogy approach, has an aim to get a learning material that can develop creativity and studying result. The research is executed in X2 class at Sudirman Islamic Senior High School of Ambarawa, academic year 2010 / 2011 which is chosen bases random sampling. Data taking is done by documentation method, observation and learning result test.  Data analysis  indicate   an  improving  of average  value  in creativity and learning result.

  6. SelInv - An Algorithm for Selected Inversion of a Sparse Symmetric Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.; Lu, Jianfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-10-16

    We describe an efficient implementation of an algorithm for computing selected elements of a general sparse symmetric matrix A that can be decomposed as A = LDL^T, where L is lower triangular and D is diagonal. Our implementation, which is called SelInv, is built on top of an efficient supernodal left-looking LDL^T factorization of A. We discuss how computational efficiency can be gained by making use of a relative index array to handle indirect addressing. We report the performance of SelInv on a collection of sparse matrices of various sizes and nonzero structures. We also demonstrate how SelInv can be used in electronic structure calculations.

  7. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  8. SEL2 servicing: increased science return via on-orbit propellant replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; DeWeese, Keith; Kienlen, Michael; Aranyos, Thomas; Pellegrino, Joseph; Bacon, Charles; Qureshi, Atif

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft designers are driving observatories to the distant Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2 (SEL2) to meet ever-increasing science requirements. The mass fraction dedicated to propellant for these observatories to reach and operate at SEL2 will be allocated with the upmost care, as it comes at the expense of optics and instrument masses. As such, these observatories could benefit from on-orbit refueling, allowing greater dry-to-wet mass ratio at launch and/or longer mission life. NASA is developing technologies, capabilities and integrated mission designs for multiple servicing applications in low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cisluner locations. Restore-L, a mission officially in formulation, will launch a free-flying robotic servicer to refuel a government-owned satellite in LEO by mid 2020. This paper will detail the results of a point design mission study to extend Restore-L servicing technologies from LEO to SEL2. This SEL2 mission would launch an autonomous, robotic servicer spacecraft equipped to extend the life of two space assets through refueling. Two space platforms were chosen to 1) drive the requirements for achieving SEL2 orbit and rendezvous with a spacecraft, and 2) to drive the requirements to translate within SEL2 to conduct a follow-on servicing mission. Two fuels, xenon and hydrazine, were selected to assess a multiple delivery system. This paper will address key mission drivers, such as servicer autonomy (necessitated due to communications latency at L2). Also discussed will be the value of adding cooperative servicing elements to the client observatories to reduce mission risk.

  9. KEANEKARAGAMAN KARAKTER TANAMAN KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L. YANG DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN UPACARA PADUDUSAN AGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniek Kriswiyanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to identify the characteristic variations of the coconuts (Cocos nucifera L. trees that are used as materials for the Padudusan Agung ceremony in Bali. Exploration, interview, and observation of character variations of coconuts have been conducted from coconut plantation area from each regency in Bali. The characteritations was identified based on measurements and observations of parts of plant according to “Discriptors for Coconuts”. The result shows that there was a narrow variation on the stem and leaf characters (2.81-11.83%, while high variations found on the fruit numbers in a bunche for the generative characters (42.8%. Padudusan Agung ceremony uses eleven types (cultivars of coconuts. Those are: gadang, gading, bulan, and surya with green, yellow, white, red epicarpium colours respectively. Young fruit of Udang coconuts have red mesocarpium, sudamala has double spathas, bingin has root grown on stem, be julit has plicated primordium leaves, bojog has hush likes the color of monkey hairs, ancak has branched stem, and rangda has petiole twisted on the top of the stem.

  10. Sel1L is indispensable for mammalian endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, S.; Shi, Guojun; Han, X.; Francisco, A.; Ji, Y.; Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Suppressor/Enhancer of Lin-12-like (Sel1L) is an adaptor protein for the E3 ligase hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase degradation protein 1 (Hrd1) involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Sel1L’s physiological importance in mammalian ERAD, however, remains to be established. Her

  11. Penggunaan Minyak Nabati Sebagai Bahan Bakar Alternatif Pada Motor Diesel Sistim Injeksi Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Winaya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil as an example product of agricultural engineering, has potential to be developed to renewable energy called bio-diesel. This paper describes comparison study performance from a direct injection system diesel-engine fueled with composition 20%, 30% and 40% bio-diesel, with diesel engine fueled diesel oil (solar. The test results have shown that the engine fueled with 20%, 30%, and 40% bio-diesel produce slightly lower torque and power than the same engine fueled with solar. The other research before, the emission test results have shown a lower particulate matter, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide from exhaust. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Minyak nabati sebagai suatu contoh produk dalam bidang rekayasa pertanian, berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi suatu bentuk energi bahan bakar yang terperbaharui yang disebut dengan bio-disel. Tulisan ini membahas tentang studi perbandingan performansi motor disel sistim injeksi langsung berbahan bakar dengan komposisi 20%, 30% dan 40% bio-disel, dengan yang berbahan bakar minyak diesel (solar. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa motor disel yang menggunakan bahan bakar dengan komposisi 20%, 30% dan 40% biodisel menghasilkan torsi dan daya yang lebih rendah daripada motor yang sama berbahan bakar solar. Hasil penelitian sebelumnya, hasil uji emisi menujukkan adanya partikel, hidrokarbon dan karbon monoksida yang lebih rendah pada saluran buang. Kata kunci: Minyak nabati, Biodisel, Torsi, daya.

  12. PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING INDUSTRI MELALUI ANALISA BIAYA KUALITAS (Studi Kasus pada Perusahaan Bahan Baku Makanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felecia Felecia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about quality costs analysis to improve industrial competitiveness, through a study case at food ingredients industry. The purpose of this quality costs analysis is to know quality cost resources which are not efficient. The first condition shows that 90% of total quality costs is used as prevention cost and 8% as internal failure cost. The final condition after analysis and improvement shows no more internal failure and the average quality costs is reduced by 9.66%. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Artikel ini membahas tentang analisa biaya kualitas untuk peningkatan daya saing industri, studi kasus di sebuah industri bahan baku makanan. Tujuan dari analisa biaya kualitas adalah untuk mengetahui sumber-sumber biaya kualitas yang tidak effisien. Kondisi awal perusahaan menunjukkan bahwa 90% dari total biaya kualitas digunakan sebagai biaya pencegahan, dan 8% sebagai biaya kegagalan internal. Kondisi akhir setelah dilakukan analisa dan perbaikan adalah tidak lagi ditemukan biaya kegagalan internal dan rata-rata biaya kualitas perusahaan secara umum menurun sebesar 9.66%. Kata kunci: analisa biaya kualitas, industri bahan baku makanan.

  13. Pengolahan Lumpur Tinja Pada Sludge Drying Bed IPLT Keputih Menjadi bahan Bakar Alternatif Dengan Metode Biodrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Rizkiyah Lestari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumpur tinja memiliki kandungan kadar organik yang tinggi, sehingga lumpr tinja berpotensi dijadikan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif. Dalam penelitian ini, lumpur tinja diolah dengan proses biodrying. Pada pengolahan lumpur tinja akan dianalisis pengaruh variasi air flow rate dan waktu tinggal terhadap perubahan suhu, penurunan kadar air, serta potensi lumpur tinja sebagai bahan bakar alternatif. Variasi pemberian air flow rate sebesar 25 liter/menit dan 15 liter/menit. Pada tiap variasi pemberian air flow rate akan dikenakan variasi waktu detensi selama 7, 14 dan 21 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukan air flow rate 25 liter/menit, kadar air dan nilai karbon akhirnya mencapai 80,9% dan 40,40% selama 7 hari; 13,65% dan 39,76% selama 14 hari; 10,53% dan 38,90% selama 21 hari. Pada reaktor dengan pemberian air flow rate 15 liter/menit kadar air dan nilai karbon akhirnya  mencapai 86,19% dan 39,41% selama 7 hari; 81,29% dan 38,41% selama 14 hari; 67,90% dan 35,77% selama 21 hari. Berdasarkan nilai kalor aktual, waktu detensi optimum diperoleh selama 18 hari dengan air flow rate 25 liter/menit tiap 0,23 kg berat kering atau setara dengan 6,52 m3 jam-1 kg-1. Pada kondisi tersebut nilai kalor aktual sebesar 3767,28 cal/gram.

  14. Pengaruh macam limbah organik dan pengenceran terhadap produksi biogas dari bahan biomassa limbah peternakan ayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARTO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pamungkas GS, Sutarno, Mahajoeno E. 2012. Pengaruh macam limbah organik dan pengenceran terhadap produksi biogas dari bahan biomassa limbah peternakan ayam. Bioteknologi 9: 18-25. Kelangkaan bahan bakar merupakan masalah penting saat ini, sehingga diperlukan berbagai alternative sumbernya. Dengan sistem biodigester anaerob, limbah peternakan ayam dengan penambahan limbah organik lain dapat menghasilkan biogas, sebagai sumber energi terbarukan (renewable energy. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (i menguji produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob limbah peternakan ayam dengan perlakuan pengenceran, dan penambahan berbagai substrat sampah organik skala laboratorium, (ii mengetahui produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob sistem curah limbah peternakan ayam dengan frekuensi agitasi berbeda pada skala semi pilot. Penelitian dilakukan dua tahap yaitu penelitian skala laboratorium dan skala semi pilot. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari 2 faktor yaitu, rasio pengenceran, dan penambahan substrat. Hasil dari produksi biogas terbaik direkomendasikan pada penelitian skala semi pilot sistem curah. Perlakuan dalam tahapan semi pilot dengan interval waktu pengadukan, yaitu 4 jam/hari dan 8 jam/hari. Produksi biogas tertinggi diperoleh dari penyampuran kotoran ayam dengan eceng gondok pengenceran 1:1 sebesar 0,60 L dalam 6 minggu dan efisiensi perombakan COD, TSS, VS adalah 63,80%; 14,79%; 75,14%. Pada sekala semi pilot sistem curah dengan frekuensi pengadukan 8 jam/hari, diperoleh hasil biogas tertinggi sebesar 624,99 L dalam 6 minggu.

  15. Analisis Kinerja Supplier Bahan Baku Menggunakan Integrasi Supply Chain Operations Refrence dan Analytic Hierarchy Process PT. Asia Raya Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Jati, Wahyu Listyo

    2015-01-01

    Persaingan bisnis yang semakin cepat menuntut PT. Asia Raya Foundry sebagai salah satu perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang manufaktur pengecoran logam untuk produksi spare part mesin pabrik perkebunan dan alat berat harus memperhatikan keinginan konsumen terhadap produk. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan terdapat keluhan dari pabrik terhadap pasokan bahan baku langsung yang diperoleh dari supplier sehingga menyebabkan adanya keterlambatan dalam penyelesaian produk. Gangguan yang disebabkan ...

  16. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH BATANG PISANG KEPOK (Musa paradisiaca formatypica) SEBAGAI BAHAN DASAR PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL DENGAN METODE HIDROLISIS SECARA ASAM DAN FERMENTASI

    OpenAIRE

    ., Sulfiani; Abd.Karim; Natsir, Hasnah

    2017-01-01

    Abstrak. Bioenergi, diantaranya bioetanol, adalah salah satu bentuk energi alternatif yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan energi masa depan. Bioetanol adalah etanol yang dihasilkan melalui proses fermentasi terhadap glukosa dari bahan alam yang mengandung komponen pati dan selulosa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan batang pisang kepok, yang memiliki kandungan selulosa sebesar 64%, guna menghasilkan bioetanol dengan cara hidrolisis asam dan fermentasi bakteri menggunakan bakteri Clostridu...

  17. ANALISIS TERMAL-ALIRAN KISI BAHAN BAKAR BOLA TERAS RGTT200K DENGAN FLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dhandhang Purwadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan Perpres No.5/2010, PTRKN-BATAN mengembangkan dua varian desain konseptual reaktor daya maju kogenerasi, yaitu RGTT200K dan RGTT200KT. Energi termal pada kedua sistem reaktor ini dipasok oleh teras reaktor berbahan bakar bola dengan daya termal 200 MWt. Komposisi geometri dan struktur teras didesain agar dapat menghasilkan keluaran pendingin gas helium bertemperatur 950OC sehingga dapat digunakan untuk produksi hidrogen dan atau unit industri proses lainnya secara kogeneratif. Luaran gas helium bertemperatur sangat tinggi ini akan menimbulkan tegangan termal pada bola bahan bakar yang mengancam integritas sistem pengungkungan produk fisi di dalamnya. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan analisis termal-aliran untuk mengetahui distribusi temperatur dan aliran pendingin gas helium dalam kisi bahan bakar bola. Salah satu cara terbaik untuk melakukan analisis termal-aliran adalah dengan pemodelan tiga dimensi menggunakan perangkat lunak komputasi dinamika fluida (computational fluid dynamics yang teruji. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan perangkat lunak FLUENT 6.3. Analisis termal aliran pada kisi bola bahan bakar dilakukan dengan memodelkan dinamika fluida pendingin dengan perpindahan panas kombinasi tiga moda, konduksi, konveksi dan radiasi, serta mempertimbangkan adanya turbulensi aliran gas. Model Discret Ordinate dan Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS masing-masing digunakan dalam perhitungan perpindahan panas radiasi dan turbulensi. Dari distribusi temperatur bola bahan bakar hasil pemodelan CFD dengan aliran turbulen pada pendinginnya diketahui bahwa temperatur maksimum bahan bakar bola mencapai 1036,1OC. Temperatur setinggi ini masih jauh dari temperatur yang dapat menyebabkan kegagalan pengungkungan produksi fisi, yaitu 1600OC. Kata kunci: pemodelan pendinginan, model kisi kubus sederhana, reaktor kogenerasi, RGTT, komputasi dinamika fluida   In accordance to the Presidential Regulation No.5/2010, PTRKN-BATAN develops two variants

  18. SEL as a Component of a Literature Class to Improve Relationships, Behavior, Motivation, and Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Zipora; Abu Yaman, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the effect of social and emotional learning (SEL) integrated in a literature class, named here "affective teaching," as compared to conventional teaching. Dependent variables include relationships, behavior, motivation to learn, and content knowledge. Participants were 36 teacher trainees in one college in Israel and 1,137 fifth…

  19. Ravimiturg peaks ka sel aastal jõudsalt kasvama / Violetta Riidas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riidas, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Äripäev 30. apr. lk. 16. Eelmise aasta ravimituru kasv jätkub tõenäoliselt ka sel aastal, kuna negatiivne riigieelarve ravimihüvitisi ei kärbi. Vt. samas: Võrdlus: Ravimituru jaotus haiglaapteekide ning teiste asutuste vahel peamiste ATC rühmade lõikes, 2007

  20. 200 varju uurib sel nädalal tudengielu / Agne Narusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Narusk, Agne, 1971-

    2010-01-01

    Sel nädalal toimub Tallinna Ülikoolis ning TLÜ Rakvere ja Haapsalu kolledžites tudengivarju nädal, mis pakub abiturientidele võimaluse osaleda ühe päeva vältel end huvitava eriala õppetöös

  1. Ansip : uus valitsus tuleb sel nädalal / Anneli Ammas, Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Reformierakonna esimees Andrus Ansip on seisukohal, et kokkulepped valitsuse moodustamiseks sõlmitakse sel nädalal, Riigikogu juhatuse valimised näitasid, et ratsionaalseteks kokkulepeteks ollakse valmis. Peale A. Ansipi on teine võimalik peaministrikandidaat Villu Reiljan. Lisa: Erakondade positsioonid kõnelustel

  2. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). Data base organization and user's guide, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, P. S.; Wyckoff, D.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) data base is described. It defines each data base file in detail and provides information about how to access and use the data for programmers and other users. Several data base reporting programs are described also.

  3. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  4. SINTESIS BAHAN UBAHAN GRADUAL ALUMINUM TITANAT/KORUNDUM DARI ALUMINA TRANSISI DENGAN PENAMBAHAN MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sulhan Fauzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of research on the use of transition alumina for improving the performance of ceramics. Synthesis has been made of gradual changes materials (Functionally Graded Materials, FGM aluminum titanate (AT / corundum based on transition alumina powders with the addition of MgO as a stabilizer of AT as much as 2 wt.%. Samples without the addition of MgO was also made for comparison. Transition alumina with and without the addition of MgO were calcined at a temperature of 1100C for 1 hour to become ?-alumina. The powder mixture was compacted at a pressure of 49.3 MPa and then prasintered at a temperature of 1100C for 1 hour, then repeatedly infiltrated with infiltrator TiCl3 solution (20% which prepared by dissolving the Ti metal powders into HCl. Furthermore, the material sintered at temperatures of 1500C with a holding time for 3 hours. Physical character of materials showed an increase in density and decrease in porosity of the material due to the addition of MgO. Phase identification results obtained from the content of AT and corundum phases which gradual in depth, indicating that FGM has been formed. These results were supported by analysis of x-ray diffraction pattern showing the formation of a solid solution Al2 (1-x + MgxTi1 xO5 which marked by the shifting of the peak of AT phase in FGM samples with the addition of MgO. Tulisan ini menjelaskan hasil penelitian tentang penggunaan alumina transisi untuk meningkatkan performa keramik. Telah dilakukan sintesis bahan ubahan gradual (Functionally Graded Material, FGM aluminum titanat (AT/korundum berbahan dasar serbuk alumina transisi dengan penambahan MgO sebagai penstabil AT sebanyak 2 wt.%. Sampel tanpa tambahan MgO juga dibuat sebagai pembanding. Alumina transisi dengan dan tanpa penambahan MgO dikalsinasi pada temperatur 1100C selama 1 jam sehingga menjadi ?-alumina. Serbuk campuran dikompaksi pada tekanan 49,3 MPa lalu diprasinter pada temperatur 1100C selama

  5. Perbedaan Penggunaan Bahan Desensitizing dan Tanpa Desensitizing Pasca Bleaching Ekstra-Koronal terhadap Kekerasan Email

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wignyo Hadriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Pada bleaching ekstrakoronal diketahui terjadi proses demineralisasi sehingga terjadi hiersensitivitas dentin. UltraEZ salah satu bahan desensitizing yang dapat mengurangi hipersensitivitas akibat demineralisasi email pasca bleaching ekstrakoronal terkini. Tujuan penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kekerasan email pasca pemutihan gigi ekstra-koronal dengan aplikasi bahan desensitizing dan tanpa aplikasi bahan desensitizing. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan 20 gigi premolar permanen pasca pencabutanyang masih utuh dan direndam dalam saliva buatan, kemudian dilakukan pemolesan pada bagian bukal dengan menggunakan pasta profilaksis kemudian gigi dicuci dan dikeringkan. Bahan pemutih Opalescence Xtra Boost diaplikasikan pada semua permukaan bukal gigi premolar kemudian dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok I, II, masing-masing kelompok sebanyak 10 gigi. Kelompok I sebagai kelompok control setelah dilakukan pemutihan, tidak dilakukan aplikasi Ultra-EZ, dimasukkan dalam wadah botol dan direndam dalam saliva buatan kemudian disimpan dalam incubator. Mahkota dan akar gigi,kemudian ditanam dalam resin akrilik sesuai kelompok sebelumnya dengan permukaan bukal menghadap ke atas. Semua sampel diuji kekerasannya dengan uji kekerasan Vickers menggunakan beban 100 g selama 15 detik. Permukaan bukal menghadap ke atas, kemudian dijepit dengan alat penjepit pada meja alat Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. Sampel diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga akan terlihat gambar yang dapat diukur panjang diagonalnya langsung dengan micrometer yang ada pada lensa okuler. Nilai kekerasan email dalam Vickers hardness number (VHN juga dapat diperoleh dari table setelah mengetahui rata-rata panjang diagonal, berat badan yang digunakan dan waktu yang digunakan untuk uji kekerasan. Pengujian ini dilakukan pada setiap kelompok. Selanjutnya diuji dengan uji-t. hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara aplikasi ultraEZ lima menit

  6. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Şara; Alina Rodica Ani (Toma); Erol Gabor; Mihai Benţea

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group). Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex) at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spe...

  7. PERBAIKAN MUTU BUNGKIL KOPRA MELALUI BIOPROCESSING UNTUK BAHAN PAKAN IKAN BANDENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neltje Nobertine Palinggi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bungkil kopra adalah hasil ikutan dari ekstraksi minyak dari daging buah kelapa kering yang masih mengandung protein sekitar 16%-18% dan berpotensi digunakan sebagai bahan pakan ikan. Faktor pembatas penggunaan bungkil kopra adalah kualitas nutrisi yang rendah antara lain karena kandungan lemak kasarnya agak tinggi dan mudah tengik sehingga perlu peningkatan ketersediaan biologisnya melalui fermentasi menggunakan mikroorganisme. Mikroba yang digunakan terdiri atas (A Aspergillus niger, (B Saccharomyces cereviceae, (C Rhizopus sp., dan (D Bacillus subtilis. Bungkil kopra yang sudah difermentasi kemudian dikeringkan dan ditepungkan, lalu dilakukan analisis proksimat, uji ketengikan dengan menentukan bilangan peroksidanya, dan komposisi asam aminonya. Juga dilakukan analisis kecernaannya untuk ikan bandeng ukuran sekitar 50 g dengan metode marker menggunakan krom oksida (Cr2O3. Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh fermentasi dapat meningkatkan kandungan protein bungkil kopra 21%-42% dan menurunkan kandungan lemak dan serat kasarnya masing-masing 50% dan 27% pada fermentasi menggunakan Rhizophus sp., serta menurunkan bilangan peroksida 10%-47%. Nilai koefisien kecernaan protein dan lemak bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp., A. niger, dan S. cereviceae lebih tinggi masing-masing 10%-11% dan 9%-13% dibanding bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan B. subtilis dan tanpa fermentasi. Bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus  sp. mengalami peningkatan kualitas nutrisi yang terbaik untuk bahan pakan ikan bandeng.

  8. STUDI DESAIN DOWN SCALE TERAS REAKTOR DAN BAHAN BAKAR PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR – HTR 100 MWe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Parmanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap teras reaktor Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR dengan daya 100 Mwe berbahan bakar UO2. Reaktor ini menggunakan moderator grafit dan helium sebagai pendingin. Studi down scale dilakukan tanpa mengubah geometri teras maupun geometri bahan bakar. Parameter yang dianalisis adalah kritikalitas teras, reaktivitas lebih, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur bahan bakar, moderator dan pendingin serta nilai ekonomis bahan bakar. Dari penelitian ini diharapkan diperoleh desain bahan bakar yang bernilai ekonomis dan memiliki fitur keselamatan melekat. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan program SRAC 2003. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah desain bahan bakar UO2 berbentuk pebble dengan pengkayaan 10% U235 dan 90 ppm racun dapat bakar Gd2O3. Nilai faktor multipilkasi effektif keff pada beginning of life (BOL adalah 1,01115 dan menjadi 1,00588 setelah 2658 hari operasi reaktor (EOL. Koefisien reaktivitas temperatur total diperoleh sebesar - 3,25900E-05 ∆k/k/K saat BOL dan -1,10615E-04 ∆k/k/K saat end of life (EOL. Reaktor ini memenuhi karakteristik keselamatan melekat ditandai dengan nilai koefisien reaktivitas temperatur yang negatif. Kata kunci: PBMR, desain bahan bakar, faktor multipilkasi effektif, reaktivitas lebih, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur.   Research of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR 100 MWe which used UO2 fuel has been done. This reactor uses graphite as moderator and helium as coolant. Down scale studies performed without changing the core and fuel geometry. The parameter being analyzed were core criticality, excess reactivity, fuel, moderator, coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and fuel economy. This research is expected to obtain the design that has fuel economy and inherent safety features. In this research, we have employed SRAC 2003 code. The calculation show that the UO2 pebble fuel design with 10% enrichment of U235 and 90 ppm burnable poison of Gd2O3 results in the effective multiplication

  9. SEU/SEL Resistant Ultra-Low Power Asynchronous Processor Design for Low-Temperature Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal seeks funding to develop a radiation-hardened circuit architecture to achieve SEU and SEL immunity by using delay-insensitive asynchronous...

  10. Synthesis and properties of 10% Zn layered CdTe thin films by SEL method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugan, S.; Mutharasu, D.

    2011-10-01

    Te/Cd/Te/Zn/Cd stacked layers were prepared by Stacked Elemental Layer (SEL) Method. All stacks were annealed from 200 °C to 500 °C and the prepared films were confirmed as polycrystalline nature. Cubic CdTe and Hexagonal ZnTe were identified at high annealing temperature. Transmittance spectra emphasized the significance of Zn doping by annealing the stack. The calculated optical constants n and k were 1.52-2.45 and 0.07-0.36 respectively. The band gaps (Eg) were observed between 1.38 and 1.44 eV at above 350 °C. A uniform surface morphology could be observed at high annealing temperatures. The observed results encouraged the Zn doping using SEL method.

  11. Texas Instruments-Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20 SEL Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anthony B.; Poivey, C.; Kim, H. S.; Gee, George B.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the testing of the Texas Instrument Digital Signal Processor(TI-DSP)SMJ320F20. Tests were performed to screen for susceptibility to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and measure sensitivity as a function of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for an application specific test setup. The Heavy Ion Testing of two TI-DSP SMJ320F240 devices experienced Single Event Latchup (SEL) conditions at an LET of 1.8 MeV/(mg/square cm) The devices were exposed from a fluence of 1.76 x l0(exp 3) to 5.00 x 10(exp 6) particles/square cm of the Neon, Argon and Krypton ion beams. For DI(sub DD) an average latchup current occurred at about 700mA, which is a magnitude of 10 over the nominal current of 700mA.

  12. Thermodynamics of the GTP-GDP-operated conformational switch of selenocysteine-specific translation factor SelB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleskava, Alena; Konevega, Andrey L; Rodnina, Marina V

    2012-08-10

    SelB is a specialized translation factor that binds GTP and GDP and delivers selenocysteyl-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome. By analogy to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), SelB is expected to control the delivery and release of Sec-tRNA(Sec) to the ribosome by the structural switch between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations. However, crystal structures of SelB suggested a similar domain arrangement in the apo form and GDP- and GTP-bound forms of the factor, raising the question of how SelB can fulfill its delivery function. Here, we studied the thermodynamics of guanine nucleotide binding to SelB by isothermal titration calorimetry in the temperature range between 10 and 25 °C using GTP, GDP, and two nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs, guanosine 5'-O-(γ-thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) and guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)-triphosphate (GDPNP). The binding of SelB to either guanine nucleotide is characterized by a large heat capacity change (-621, -467, -235, and -275 cal × mol(-1) × K(-1), with GTP, GTPγS, GDPNP, and GDP, respectively), associated with compensatory changes in binding entropy and enthalpy. Changes in heat capacity indicate a large decrease of the solvent-accessible surface area in SelB, amounting to 43 or 32 amino acids buried upon binding of GTP or GTPγS, respectively, and 15-19 amino acids upon binding GDP or GDPNP. The similarity of the GTP and GDP forms in the crystal structures can be attributed to the use of GDPNP, which appears to induce a structure of SelB that is more similar to the GDP than to the GTP-bound form.

  13. Toluidine Blue Vital Staining sebagai Alat Bantu Diagnostik pada Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Lidah

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Suhartiningtyas; Bernadeta Esti Chrismawaty; Dewi Agustina; Goeno Subagyo

    2012-01-01

    Latar belakang. Karsinoma sel skuamus oral (KSSO) merupakan salah satu kanker mulut yang paling sering terjadi. Deteksi dini kanker mulut menyulitkan oleh karena etiologi yang tidak pasti dan gambaran klinis yang tidak khas. Toluidine blue vital staining (TBVS) dilaporkan dapat membantu penegakan diagnosis KSSO. Tujuan. Penulisan ini bertujuan melaporkan kasus KSSO di lidah yang terdiagnosis melalui TBVS. Kasus dan penanganannya. Laki-laki 77 tahun dengan gigi tiruan lengkap mengeluhkan sakit...

  14. SINTESIS SENYAWA TURUNAN P-KUMARAMIDA DAN UJI AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP SEL TUMOR LEUKIMIA P388

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian tentang metode sintesis senyawa turunan p-kumaramida, yakni N- propil-p-kumaramida, N,N-dietil-p-kumaramida, dan piperidinil-p-kumaramida serta uji aktivitasnya terhadap sel tumor leukimia P388 telah dilakukan. Senyawa turunan p-kumaramida disintesis dari asam p-kumarat dan amina yang sesuai sebagai reaktan dengan menggunakan katalis asam borat pada kondisi refluks di dalam pelarut DMF dan atmosfir nitrogen selama 16 jam. Melalui metode tersebut maka diperoleh senyawa N-propil-p-ku...

  15. Expressions of SEL 1L and C-erbB-2 in Gastric Cancer Tissues and Its Clinical Signiifcance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Guanghui; Li Yu; Li Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions and clinical signiifcance of human sel-1-like (SEL 1L) gene and oncogene c-erbB-2 in gastric cancer tissue. Methods:SEL 1L and c-erbB-2 expressions in gastric cancer tissues of 96 patients with gastric cancer were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: The positive expression rate of SEL 1L gene in gastric cancer tissue was 84.4% (81/96), and its expression was significantly associated with the differentiated degree of gastric cancer tissue (P=0.001), but had no association with the age, gender, tumor size, infiltration depth, lymphatic metastasis and TNM staging (P>0.05). The positive expression rate of c-erbB-2 was 70.8% (68/96), and its expression was related to the differentiated degree of gastric cancer tissue, inifltration depth, lymphatic metastasis and TNM staging (P=0.002,P0.05). SEL 1L and c-erbB-2 expressions had a signiifcantly positive correlation (r=0.568,P<0.01). Conclusion: Both SEL 1L and c-erbB-2 are highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues and their joint detection can be considered as a biomarker for identifying the high-risk patients with gastric cancer.

  16. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Modul Elektrokimia untuk Siswa SMA Kelas XII IPA dengan Pendekatan Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing

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    Lilik Fatmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kelayakan, dan keefektifan modul elektrokimia un-tuk siswa SMA kelas XII hasil pengembangan. Modul Elektrokimia hasil pengembangan terdiri dari dua kegiatan belajar, yaitu untuk materi sel Volta dan untuk materi sel elektrolisis. Hasil penilaian oleh dua dosen kimia Universitas Negeri Malang dan dua guru kimia kelas XII sebagai ahli isi/materi pem-belajaran untuk kelayakan isi adalah 92,9%, untuk kelayakan dan kelengkapan penyajian adalah 91,1%, dan untuk kelayakan kebahasaan adalah 92,3%, yang tergolong kriteria sangat layak. Secara keseluruhan rata-rata nilai kelayakan tersebut adalah 92,1. Efektifitas modul hasil pengembangan di-tunjukkan oleh persepsi dan hasil belajar siswa. Persepsi siswa diperoleh dari penilaian siswa terhadap modul hasil pengembangan. Pada ujicoba lapangan terbatas diperoleh nilai rata-rata untuk seluruh aspek adalah 81,8 dari nilai maksimum 100. Perolehan rata-rata nilai hasil belajar siswa untuk aspek kognitif adalah 83,3, untuk aspek afektif adalah  82,3, dan untuk aspek psikomotorik adalah 83,8 dari nilai maksimum 100. Hasil keseluruhan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Modul Elektrokimia untuk sis-wa SMA Kelas XII IPA hasil pengembangan sangat layak dan sangat efektif digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran.Kata kunci: inkuiri terbimbing, modul elektrokimia, model 4-D

  17. Kinerja Mesin Diesel Memakai Bahan Bakar Biodiesel Biji Karet dan Analisa Emisi Gas Buang

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    I Wayan Susila

    2010-01-01

    reactor (BCR tekanan atmosfir telah dilaporkan. Spesifikasi B-100 tersebut dipergunakan sebagai bahan bakar dalam penelitian ini yaitu: densitas 882 g/ml; viskositas kinematik 5,19 cSt; calculated cetane index (CCI 47,5; titik tuang –6oC; flash point 200 oC; residu karbon mikro dalam sampel asli 0,126% massa dan dalam 10% ampas distilasi 2,87% massa; sedimen 0,01% volume; temperatur distilasi 347oC; kandungan sulfur 0,72 ppm; angka asam 0,01 mgKOH/g; serta nilai kalor rendah 9184,43 kkal/kg. Biodiesel dicampur dengan solar (B-0 pada tingkat perbandingan tertentu sehingga diperoleh B-5, B-10, B-15, dan B-20 (B-5 adalah campuran antara biodiesel 5% serta solar 95%, dst dipergunakan sebagai bahan bakar pada mesin diesel stasioner. Kinerja mesin diesel dan emisi gas buang dibandingkan dengan mesin yang memakai solar (B-0. Mesin dioperasikan pada putaran konstan 1350, 1750, 2150, 2550, dan 2950 rpm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahan bakar B-10 menghasilkan kinerja mesin terbaik pada putaran 2550 rpm. Pada putaran ini diperoleh daya maksimum sebesar 36,95 PS, konsumsi bahan bakar spesifik terendah sebesar 0,256 kg/(PS.jam, efisiensi termal 58,44%, kandungan CO terkecil sebesar 0,4%, dan opasitas gas buang 58,6% HSU memenuhi Peraturan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 5 tahun 2006, dan tidak perlu memodifikasi mesin. Jika dibandingkan dengan solar murni (B-0, B-10 lebih baik dari pada B-0 karena pada kondisi optimum menghasilkan kenaikan daya sebesar 1,8%, konsumsi bahan bakar spesifik sama 0,256 kg/(PS.jam, efesiensi termal naik 2,4%, kadar CO gas buang turun 80%, serta CO2 turun 55%. Kata kunci: Biodiesel, RSO, non-katalis, mesin diesel.

  18. Mutations in genes involved in nonsense mediated decay ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 mutants with amber stop mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Aubert Sylvie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presenilin proteins are part of a complex of proteins that can cleave many type I transmembrane proteins, including Notch Receptors and the Amyloid Precursor Protein, in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Dominant mutations in the human presenilin genes PS1 and PS2 lead to Familial Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans sel-12 presenilin gene cause a highly penetrant egg-laying defect due to reduction of signalling through the lin-12/Notch receptor. Mutations in six spr genes (for suppressor of presenilin are known to strongly suppress sel-12. Mutations in most strong spr genes suppress sel-12 by de-repressing the transcription of the largely functionally equivalent hop-1 presenilin gene. However, how mutations in the spr-2 gene suppress sel-12 is unknown. Results We show that spr-2 mutations increase the levels of sel-12 transcripts with Premature translation Termination Codons (PTCs in embryos and L1 larvae. mRNA transcripts from sel-12 alleles with PTCs undergo degradation by a process known as Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD. However, spr-2 mutations do not appear to affect NMD. Mutations in the smg genes, which are required for NMD, can restore sel-12(PTC transcript levels and ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 mutants with amber PTCs. However, the phenotypic suppression of sel-12 by smg genes is nowhere near as strong as the effect of previously characterized spr mutations including spr-2. Consistent with this, we have identified only two mutations in smg genes among the more than 100 spr mutations recovered in genetic screens. Conclusion spr-2 mutations do not suppress sel-12 by affecting NMD of sel-12(PTC transcripts and appear to have a novel mechanism of suppression. The fact that mutations in smg genes can ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 alleles with amber PTCs suggests that some read-through of sel-12(amber alleles occurs in smg backgrounds.

  19. SINTESIS LAPIS TIPIS BERBASIS NANOPARTIKEL TITANIA TERMODIFIKASI SILIKA SECARA SOL-GEL SEBAGAI BAHAN ANTIFOGGING

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    L.V. Rissa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sintesis lapis tipis berbasis nanopartikel titania termodifikasi silika (TiO2-SiO2 secara sol-gel sebagai bahan antifogging untuk (i mengetahui pengaruh temperatur kalsinasi terhadap energi band-gap, struktur dan ukuran kristal, serta porositas titania-silika, (ii mengetahui pengaruh komposisi sol terhadap karakteristik lapis tipis titania-silika yang meliputi hidrofilitas dan sifat transparan, serta (iii mengetahui kinerja antifogging lapis tipis titania-silika pada substrat kaca. Sintesis dilakukan melalui  metode sol-gel. Teknik pelapisan pada kaca menggunakan teknik celup, kemudian diaplikasikan sebagai bahan anti-kabut. Hasil sintesis TiO2-SiO2 dikarakterisasi dengan XRD untuk mengetahui struktur dan ukuran kristal, SEM-EDX untuk mengetahui morfologi dan komposisi padatan, serta DR-UV untuk mengetahui band-gap TiO2-SiO2. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa TiO2-SiO2 dengan 15% b/b silika  pada temperatur kalsinasi 500°C memiliki ukuran partikel dan band gap optimum  yaitu masing-masing sebesar 11,15 nm dan  3,20 eV. Hasil ini bersesuaian dengan hasil pengukuran sudut kontak minimum yaitu sebesar sebesar 14,49°. Hasil uji kinerja antifogging menunjukkan bahwa lapis tipis TiO2-SiO2 memiliki kemampuan untuk digunakan sebagai bahan anti-kabut. The research on synthesis of thin layer Based on TiO2 nanoparticle modified silica by sol gel as antifogging materials has been conducted to (i determine the effect of calcination temperature on the gap energy, structure and size of crystal, and porous titania-silica, (ii determine the effect of sol composition on thin layer titania-silica covering hydrophilic and transparent character, and (iii determine the performance of antifogging thin layer titania-silica on glass substrate. The synthesis is done by using sol-gel method. Dye technique was used to coat the glass, and then applied as antifogging materials. The result of synthesis of TiO2-SiO2

  20. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

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    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king. Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikasi. Alat yang diperlukan dalam pembuatan biodiesel yaitu: labu alas bulat dilengkapi kondensor, gelas ukur, pengaduk magnetik, alat-alat gelas lab, dan lain sebagainya. Proses pengambilan minyak dilakukan dengan penyangraian yang hasilnya di degumming dengan asam fosfat 5% b/b pada suhu 80ºC selama 15 menit. Degumming bertujuan untuk menghilangkan getah, lendir, protein, resin dan gum. Proses kedua yaitu transesterifikasi dengan metanol 1:6 (minyak dan mtanol dengan KOH 0,1 N pada suhu 60ºC selama 1 jam. Setelah diperoleh metil ester, dilakukan proses pencucian atau penetralan metil ester pada suhu pemanasan 104ºC untuk menghilangkan kadar airnya. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh rendemen minyak sebesar 86,92%, uji densitas 874,08 kg/m³, viskositas 3,07 mm2/s, dan bilangan asam 0,5601 mg KOH/g. Metil ester yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SNI-04-7182-2006. An increased demand of the fossil fuel would lead to scarcity of the fossil fuel in the future. An alternative of environmentally friendly energy sources is biodiesel. It is accounted that the resources for producing biodiesel should not compete with food raw materials, such as mahogany grain, (swietenia macrophylla king. The necessary steps in the experiment of producing biodiesel are process of taking the mahogany seed-oil by using roasting method, degumming, and transesterification process. The required equipments for producing biodiesel were round-bottom flask equipped with condenser

  1. PEMBUATAN MMC BERBASIS TEKNOLOGI METALURGI SERBUK DENGAN BAHAN BAKU ALUMINIUM DARI LIMBAH KALENG MINUMAN DAN ADITIF ABU SEKAM PADI

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    M. Akrom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Komposit matriks logam (aluminium yang berasal dari limbah kaleng minuman dengan penguat partikel silikon karbida danpenguat tambahan abu sekam padi telah berhasil difabrikasi dengan metode teknologi metalurgi serbuk. Tujuan dari penelitian iniadalah merekayasa material baru yang murah akan tetapi memiliki mutu dan daya saing yang sangat baik. Penelitian ini terdiri daribeberapa tahap yakni, pembuatan bahan baku, pencampuran, pencetakan sampel, sintering dan pengujian. Dari hasil pengujianfisik diperoleh bahwa komposit matrik logam dengan penambahan abu sekam padi memiliki kerapatan lebih rendah dibandingkandengan komposit Al/SiC tanpa sekam padi, sedangkan sifat kekerasan dan kekuatannya jauh lebih besar dibandingkan Al/SiCtanpa penambahan abu sekam padi. Dari analisis XRD ditemukan bahwa terjadi penyebaran unsur utama Al, Si, senyawa SiC,serta timbul senyawa stabil MgAl O , Al O yang bersifat konstruktif yang dapat memberikan sifat mekanis yang baik bagi komposit,dan senyawa destruktif Al C yang bersifat korosif. Analisis SEM menunjukkan ukuran butiran partikel yang cenderung lebar danmemanjang, ikatan antar partikel penyusun bahan yang terbentuk cukup baik, sehingga memberikan sifat mekanis bahan yangbaik.Tidak tampaknya pori-pori bahan menunjukkan pula bahwa ikatan partikel antar bahan cukup baik. Metal (aluminium matrix composite originated from beverage can waste with carbide silicon particle reinforcement and additionalreinforcement of paddy chaff ash has been fabricated successfully by employing powder metallurgy technology method. Thepurpose of the research is to create a cheap new material, qualified and having high competitive value. This research wasconducted through several stages, those were making raw material, mixing, sample moulding, sintering, and testing. The result ofphysical test shows that metal matrix composite added by paddy chaff ash has lower density, stronger and bigger power comparedto Al/SiC composite without

  2. POROSITAS DAN PERMEABILITAS KOMPOSIT BERPORI DENGAN BAHAN DASAR LIMBAH KACA (CULT

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    MI Savitri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Komposit berpori dengan bahan dasar limbah kaca dan Polyethylen Glycol  (PEG telah dihasilkan dengan metode pencampuran sederhana. Pori pada komposit terbentuk akibat PEG yang menguap ketika dipanaskan pada temperature 700oC selama 2,5 jam. Variasi pori dihasilkan dengan mengatur komposisi PEG yaitu 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, dan 9%. Komposit berpori memiliki nilai porositas yang bertambah dengan kenaikan komposisi PEG. Komposit berpori memiliki porositas pada rentang 1% hingga 5% dan nilai permeabilitas komposit berpori yaitu (0.3-25x10-15 m2. Potensi komposit berpori sebagai filter air diujicobakan dengan mengalirkan limbah air sungai. Hasil pengujian diperoleh air dengan sifat fisis air bening dan tidak berbau, sehingga komposit berpori dari limbah kaca dapat menyaring air limbah.  {0>Komposit berpori dengan bahan dasar limbah kaca dan Polyethylen Glicol (PEG telah dihasilkan dengan metode pencampuran sederhana.<}0{>Porous composites from waste glass and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG have been synthesized by a simple mixing method.<0} {0>Pori pada komposit terbentuk akibat PEG yang menguap ketika dipanaskan pada temperature 700oC selama 2,5 jam.Variasi pori dihasilkan dengan mengatur komposisi PEG yaitu 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, dan 9%.Komposit berpori memiliki nilai porositas yang bertambah dengan kenaikan komposisi PEG.<}0{>The pores of the composite were formed due to the evaporation of PEG when heated at temperature of 700oC for 2.5 hours. The pore variation may be obtained by adjusting the PEG composition, i.e. 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, and 9%. The porous composites have higher porosity because of the PEG composition.<0} {0>Komposit berpori memiliki porositas pada rentang 1% hingga 5% dan nilai permeabilitas komposit berpori yaitu (0.3-25x10-15m2.Potensi komposit berpori sebagai filter air diujicobakan dengan mengalirkan limbah air sungai.<}0{>Mesoporous composites have porosity ranging from 1% to 5% and the permeability has value

  3. SINTESA DAN KARAKTERISASI PADUAN ZrNbMoGe UNTUK MATERIAL KELONGSONG BAHAN BAKAR NUKLIR

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    Iman Kuntoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sintesa paduan ZrNbMoGe untuk material kelongsong dilakukan dengan proses peleburan dan pengerolan panas untuk menghasilkan pelat tipis dengan ketebalan 1,4 mm. Proses peleburan dilakukan dengan melebur unsur pemadu ZrNbMoGe dalam dapur busur listrik dengan komposisi (prosen berat 97,5% Zr, 1% Nb, 1% Mo dan 0,5% Ge. Proses pengerolan panas dilakukan pada temperatur 800 oC dan 850 oC dengan rasio reduksi 5 % untuk tiap langkah. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan kekerasan ingot dan pelat paduan ZrNbMoGe masing-masing sebesar 199 VHR dan 188 VHR, lebih tinggi dibandingkan kekerasan bahan kelongsong Zirkaloi-4. Peningkatan kekerasan diperkirakan terjadi akibat terbentuknya presipitat keras Zr3Ge dalam ingot selama proses peleburan, yang telah diamati dari hasil uji presipitat dengan SEM-EDX dan uji XRD. Hasil uji korosi dalam lingkungan air aqua bidistillate menunjukkan laju korosi yang cukup rendah sebesar 0,0457 MPY, sedangkan hasil uji oksidasi suhu tinggi pada temperatur 800 oC selama 36 jam memberikan pertambahan berat sebesar 0,0959 mg/cm2, mendekati harga pertambahan berat untuk bahan Zirkaloi-4 sebesar 0,1105 mg/cm2. Kata kunci : sintesa, zirkonium, kelongsong, rol.   Synthesis of ZrNbMoGe alloy used for nuclear fuel cladding material was performed by melting and hot rolling processes to produce thin plates of 1.4 mm thickness. The melting process was done by melting the elements of ZrNbMoGe alloy using an arc melting furnace with compositions (weight percentage of 97.5% Zr, 1% Nb, 1% Mo and 0.5% Ge. The hot rolling process was done at temperatures of 800 oC and 850 oC with reduction ratios of 5% for each step. Result of the characterizations showed that the hardness of ingot and plate of ZrNbMoGe alloy were 199 VHR and 188 VHR respectively. These are higher than the hardness of the cladding material of Zircaloi-4. Increasing of hardness was believed due to the formation of hard precipitates of Zr3Ge in the ingot during the melting process

  4. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pecahan Genteng sebagai Katalis dalam Reaksi Pirolisis Plastik Polipropilena Menjadi Bahan Bakar Alternatif

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    Rahmat Jaya Eka Syahputra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mendiskusikan karakterisasi pecahan genteng dan pemanfaatannya untuk memproduksi katalis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik pecahan genteng dan kemudian melakukan modifikasi untuk pembuatan katalis. Katalis dibuat dengan pilarisasi nikel ke dalam pecahan genteng, dan dikarakterisasi menggunakan x-ray diffractometer (XRD. Pirolisis dilakukan terhadap limbah plastik polipropilena hingga diperoleh cairan minyak. Minyak direforming menggunakan katalis pecahan genteng terpilarisasi nikel. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa pecahan genteng mempunyai kandungan logam oksida berdasarkan standar Fe2O3, NiO2, Al2O3, SiO2. Refinement dilakukan menggunakan program Rietica metode Le-Bail dan diperoleh hasil nilai keberterimaan Rp/Rwp <10. Setiap 1,3 kg sampel limbah polipropilena diperoleh hasil minyak sebanyak 1,7 L. Hasil reforming menunjukkan bahwa densitas minyak sebesar 745,919 kg/m3 dan viskositas 0,720 cp. Berdasarkan analisis GC-MS diperoleh fraksi pembentukan terbesar dari katalis pecahan genteng terpilarisasi nikel adalah fraksi C10 - C12. Sehingga, pecahan genteng yang terpilarisasi nikel efektif dijadikan sebagai katalisator dalam proses pirolisis untuk mengubah limbah palstik polipropilena menjadi bahan bakar.

  5. AKTIVITAS ANTIPROLIFERASI ISOLAT 4 EKSTRAK PETROLEUM ETER DAUN Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl. PADA SEL KANKER SERVIKS MANUSIA (HeLa

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    Dwi Utami

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kanker serviks merupakan penyebab kematian kedua wanita di Indonesia setelah kanker payudara. Mahkota dewa Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl telah dikenal oleh masyarakat dan digunakan secara tradisional untuk pengobatan kanker. Ekstrak petroleum eter daun mahkota dewa menunjukkan aktivitas antiproliferasi pada sel kanker serviks manusia (HeLa dengan IC50 9 µg/ml (Kintoko dan Hawariah, 2007. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui aktivitas antiproliferasi isolat 4 ekstrak petroleum eter terhadap sel kanker serviks manusia (HeLa. Serbuk daun mahkota dewa disokletasi dengan petroleum eter, kemudian difraksi dengan etil asetat hingga diperoleh fraksi etil asetat. Fraksi etil asetat dilakukan kromatografi preparatif dengan fase gerak heksana : etil asetat (9:1. Aktivitas antiproliferasi terhadap sel HeLa ditetapkan harga LC50dan doubling time melalui uji sitotoksik dan pengamatan kinetika proliferasi dengan metode MTT. Hasil isolasi dengan kromatografi preparatif diperoleh lima isolat masing-masing dengan harga Rf : 0,05 ; 0,10 ; 0,20 ; 0,60 ; dan 0,90. Harga LC50 dari isolat 4 adalah sebesar 82,091 µg/ml. Isolat 4 menunjukkan penghambatan pertumbuhan sel HeLa dengan memperpanjang doubling time (16,495 jam dibanding kontrol sel (10,170 jam.

  6. MEMFASILITASI HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS DALAM PERKULIAHAN BIOLOGI SEL MELALUI MODEL INTEGRASI ATRIBUT ASESMEN FORMATIF

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    Sigit Saptono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Higher order thinking skills sangat dibutuhkan untuk memahami permasalahan dan esensi materi perkuliahan Biologi Sel. Studi dengan desain Research and Development ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan kemampuan penalaran dan berpikir analitik mahasiswa calon guru biologi melalui penerapan model pembelajaran Integrasi Atribut Asesmen Formatif (IAAF. Sejumlah 61 mahasiswa program studi Pendidikan Biologi Universitas Negeri Semarang semester tiga yang sedang menempuh mata kuliah Biologi Sel menjadi subjek penelitian. Kemampuan penalaran dan berpikir analitik mahasiswa diukur melalui tugas individu, tugas kelompok pembuatan peta konsep dan penyusunan laporan reviu artikel, dan 30 item soal berbentuk selected response questions dan constructed response questions tervalidasi. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan penalaran dan berpikir analitik mahasiswa dapat berkembang secara signifikan, meskipun perkembangan kemampuan argumentasi, salah satu kategori kemampuan berpikir analitik, masih perlu perhatian yang cukup serius.   Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ Higher order thinking skills are needed to understand the problem and the essence of the lecture material Biology Sel. Study design Research and Development aims to develop reasoning skills and analytic thinking biology student teachers through the application of learning models Integration Attributes Formative Assessment (IAAF. Some 61 students of Biology Education Semarang State University who is doing his third semester courses Cell Biology is the subject of research. Analytical reasoning and thinking ability of students is measured through individual assignments, group assignments concept map creation and preparation of the Review articles, and 30 items about the shape of the selected response and constructed response questions, validated questions. The result showed

  7. OPTIMASI GEOMETRI TERAS REAKTOR DAN KOMPOSISI BAHAN BAKAR BERBENTUK BOLA PADA DESAIN HIGH TEMPERATURE FAST REACTOR (HTFR

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    Agustina Mega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan desain High Temperature Fast Reactor (HTFR tipe pebble dengan bahan bakar uranium plutonium nitrida berpendingin Pb-Bi. Parameter yang dianalisis adalah kritikalitas teras, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur bahan bakar, koefisien reaktivitas void pendingin dan kemampuan breeding reaktor. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan paket program SRAC2K3. Dari penelitian ini diharapkan diperoleh desain teras berumur lama dan memiliki fitur keselamatan melekat. Dari penelitian ini diperoleh desain reaktor dengan diameter 520 cm dan tinggi 480 cm. Bahan bakar berbentuk pebble dengan 63 % UN-37 % PuN pada zona core dan 95,5 % UN-4,5 % PuN pada zona blanket. Reaktor tidak kritis setelah kurang lebih 800 hari dan keff pada BoL 1,078223 dan keff setelah 800 hari adalah 0,986379. Dari penelitian ini diperoleh koefisien reaktivitas temperatur bahan bakar sebesar -2,190014E-05 pada saat BoL dan -1,390773E-05 setelah 800 hari serta koefisien reaktivitas void pendingin sebesar -2,160402E-04/% void pada saat BoL dan setelah 800 hari sebesar -2,942364E-03/% void. Reaktor merupakan jenis fast breeder ditandai dengan naiknya densitas plutonium 239. Kata kunci : desain, teras, HTFR, keselamatan, umur, koefisien reaktivitas.   Design of pebble bed type High Temperature Fast Reactor (HTFR with uranium plutonium nitride fuel and Pb-Bi cooled has been done. The parameters being analyzed were core criticality, fuel temperature coefficient, void coefficient and reactor breeding ability. Calculation was done by using SRAC2K3 computer code. This research is expected to obtaine the design with long life core and inherent safety features. This research obtained core design with a diameter of 520 cm and 480 cm core high. Shaped pebble fuel bed with the 63 % UN-37 % PUN on core zone and 95.5 % UN-4.5 % Pu on blanket zone and keff value is 1.078223 with approximately 800 day of core life. The fuel temperature coefficient is -2.190014E-05 at BOL and is 1.390773E-05 at EOL and

  8. KUALITAS MUTU BAHAN MENTAH DAN PRODUK AKHIR PADA UNIT PENGALENGAN IKAN SARDINE DI PT. KARYA MANUNGGAL PRIMA SUKSES MUNCAR BANYUWANGI

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    Dyah Agustin Wulandari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutu ikan kaleng tergantung pada kesegaran bahan mentah, cara pengalengan, peralatan dan kecakapan serta pengetahuan pelaksana-pelaksana teknis, sanitasi dan higiene pabrik dan lingkungan.  Kesegaran bahan mentah sangat penting dalam industri perikanan.  Kesegaran adalah tolak ukur untuk membedakan ikan jelek dan bagus kualitasnya.  Bila kualitas bahan mentah bagus, maka produk yang dihasilkan juga bagus.  Untuk mengendalikan mutu produk yang dihasilkan perusahaan diperlukan suatu sistem yang terkendali dan dapat mengendalikan seluruh aktifitas yang mempengaruhi mutu produk. Khusus untuk produk perikanan lahirnya konsep HACCP mendorong negara-negara maju menerapkan sistem pengawasan mutu ini kepada produsen sebagai jaminan mutu produknya. Dari hasi studi pustaka dan penelitian serta pengamatan langsung pada PT. Karya Manunggal Prima Sukses Muncar,  ternyata diketahui bahwa mutu bahan baku dan produk akhir berupa ikan kaleng sardine saus tomat yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI 01-3548-1994.  Sedangkan penerapan konsepsi HACCP belum terlaksana dengan baik sehingga diperlukan perbaikan, baik GMP dan SSOP pada unit pengolahan.Kata kunci : Mutu ikan kaleng, HACCP.  The quality of a certain tinned-fish depends on several things; those are the freshness of raw materials, tinning technique, devices, knowledge, and capability of the technicians, sanitation and hygienist of the factory. The freshness of raw materials is important in fishery industries.  Freshness is one of indicators in determining fish quality. If raw materials are in good quality so that the product will be. To maintain quality of a product in certain factory, system that are able to control all of the elements affecting product quality, is absolutely needed. In fishery product, availability of HACCP, encourage the advanced-countries to apply a monitoring system of product quality to the producer as a kind of quality guarantee. From the study of certain literature

  9. Kemampuan Daya Hambat Bahan Aktif Beberapa Merek Dagang Hand sanitizer terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus

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    Putri Srikartika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHand sanitizer sebagai pembersih tangan antiseptik inovatif saat ini, sering menjadi alternatif pengganti cuci tangan dengan sabun dan air. Mencuci tangan dengan hand sanitizer merupakan salah satu cara memelihara kebersihan tangan agar terhindar dari penyakit  yang disebabkan oleh flora normal di kulit yang berpotensi patogenik seperti bakteri Staphylococcus aureus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menilai kemampuan daya hambat beberapa merek dagang hand sanitizer terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode rancangan acak lengkap pada empat macam hand sanitizer dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Data diolah secara manual dan menggunakan analisis varians (ANOVA dilanjutkan dengan uji pos-hoc dengan Tukey HSD dan independent t test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahan aktif hand sanitizer mampu mengurangi pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus secara signifikan. Perbedaan prosentase rerata pengurangan jumlah koloni pada waktu 30 detik berkisar antara 57,65%-72,45%, sedangkan pada waktu 1 menit berkisar 67,88%-82,65%. Hasil analisis menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna terhadap perlakuan, antar perlakuan dan waktu yang diujikan dengan nilai signifikasi p <0,05. Didapatkan hand sanitizer lebih efektif menghambat pertumbuhan pada waktu 1 menit daripada 30 detik. Hand sanitizer yang mengandung alkohol 70% dan triklosan 0,05% memiliki kemampuan daya hambat lebih baik terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus.Kata kunci: bahan aktif, hand sanitizer, Staphylococcus aureus AbstractHand sanitizer is one of the ways for maintaining the hand hygiene. Hand sanitizer as an innovative antiseptic product at this time, becomes an alternative hand washing with soap and water. It prevents  the disease that can be caused by normal flora that potentially pathogenic bacterium such as Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibition ability of several trademarks hand sanitizer on the growth of

  10. Pemanfaatan Biji Turi Sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Kecap Secara Hidrolisis dengan Menggunakan Ekstrak dan Nanas

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    Aminah Asngad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman turi oleh  masyarakat masih terbatas, bagian dari tanaman turi yang banyak dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat hanya bunganya.  Padahal biji turi yang berbentuk bulat berwarna kuning kecoklatan mempunyai rasa dan aroma khas jenis kacang-kacangan juga dapat dimanfaatkan karena kaya dengan mineral dan vitamin serta mengandung protein. Biji dari tanaman turi dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku alternatif  dalam pembuatan  kecap karena biji tanaman turi tersebut  mempunyai komposisi  kandungan gizi yang tidak jauh berbeda dengan kedelai, terutama kandungan  protein biji turi sebesar 36,21%  yang setara  dengan kandungan protein kedelai sebesar 37,5% Pembuatan kecap dengan menggunakan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas dapat mempercepat waktu pembuatan kecap secara hidrolisis protein karena adanya enzim papain pada pepaya dan enzim bromelin pada nanas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kadar protein kecap biji turi dengan menggunakan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas serta untuk  mengetahui organoleptik kecap biji turi dengan menggunakan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial. Faktor tersebut yaitu jenis ekstrak yang digunakan (ekstrak pepaya dan ekstrak nanas dan penambahan volume ekstrak (80 ml, 100 ml, dan 120 ml dengan 6 kombinasi perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas berpengaruh pada kadar protein kecap. Hasil kadar protein tertinggi pada perlakuan J1V1 yaitu 12,11%,  sedangkan  kadar protein terendah pada perlakuan J2V1 yaitu 7,53 %. Kecap dengan perlakuan menggunakan ekstrak nanas, volume 120 ml merupakan kecap yang dapat diterima oleh masyarakat.

  11. Rehabilitasi Prostetik Protesa Jari dengan Bahan Silikon Rtv untuk Mengembalikan Bentuk dan Estetik

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    Ayu Agung Subiantari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tangan memiliki fungsi utama untuk menggenggam dan meraba. Organ ini dipergunakan untuk sarana komunikasi penting yang menunjukkan bahasa tubuh dan kontak sosial. Amputasi pada jari atau sebagian jari tangan merupakan kasus yang paling sering dijumpai sebagai bentuk hilangnya sebagian tangan yang dapat menimbulkan dampak buruk secara fisik, psikologis, maupun kerugian secara ekonomi bagi individu. Rehabilitasi prostetik pada  amputasi jari menjadi pertimbangan ketika rekonstruksi mikro vaskular merupakan kontraindikasi atau perawatan mengalami kegagalan. Tujuan dari studi kasus ini adalah  mengkaji rehabilitasi prostetik protesa jari menggunakan bahan silikon RTV untuk mengembalikan bentuk dan estetik. Pasien telah menyetujui kasusnya dipublikasikan untuk kepentingan ilmu pengetahuan. Pasien laki- laki, 24 tahun datang dengan keluhan kehilangan sebagian jari telunjuk kanan . Riwayat trauma disebabkan oleh tangan kanannya tergilas mesin bubut 6 tahun yang lalu. Tatalaksana kasus : Anamnesa, pemeriksaan klinis, dan rehabilitasi prostetik protesa jari dengan ahan silikon RTV. Protesa jari dengan estetik yang baik dapat memberi dukungan psikologis terhadap pasien. Rehabilitation Finger Prosthesis with RTV Silicone to Restore Form and Esthetic. The hand has basic functions like grasping and feeling. It is a mean of communication and is of mayor importance for body language and social contact. Finger and partial finger amputations are some of the most frequently encountered forms of partial hand loss causing devastating physical, psychosocial and economic damage to an individual.  Prosthetic rehabilitation of amputed finger is considered when micro vascular reconstruction is contraindicated or unsuccessful. The purpose of  case study is to review rehabilitation finger prosthesis with RTV silicone to restore form and esthetic. Case : A 24 year old male patient with the complaint of the partially lost right index  He had a history of trauma to his

  12. BRIDGE TO TERABITHIA DAN ISLAND OF THE BLUE DOLPHIN SEBAGAI BAHAN AJAR BERMUATAN PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER

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    Abdu Rajab

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan: (1 Nilai-nilai pendidikan karakter yang termuat dalam novel Bridge to Terabithia dan Island of the Blue Dolphin (2 Sejauh mana novel-novel tersebut dapat dijadikan bahan ajar Bahasa Inggris bermuatan pendidikan karakter. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dengan menggunakan metode analisis isi. Penelitian kualitatif mengungkapkan gejala secara menyeluruh, dan sesuai dengan konteks permasalahannya dipecahkan melalui pengumpulan data dari latar alami dengan memanfaatkan diri peneliti sebagai instrumen kunci (Djukri dkk, 2010, p.18. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 Novel Bridge to Terabithia dan Island of the Blue Dolphin memberikan penggambaran contoh nilai-nilai pendidikan karakter dengan frekuensi dan variasi yang tinggi juga dengan kualitas penggambaran yang kuat dan realistis, (2 Kedua novel memiliki bahasa yang imajinatif dan kisah yang inspiratif, (3 Kedua novel relevan dengan tujuan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ BRIDGE TO TERABITHIA AND ISLAND OF THE BLUE DOLPHIN AS INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL EMBODYING CHARACTER EDUCATION Abstract This study aims at describing: (1 Character education values embodied in the novel Bridge to Terabithia and Island of the Blue Dolphin, (2 The extent to which those novels can be utilized as English instructional material embodying character education.  This study is a descriptive qualitative research, which employs content analysis method. Qualitative research describes the entire indications based on the context of the matter which is solved through collecting data of natural context employing the researcher as key instruments (Djukri dkk, 2010, p.18.The results of the study show that: (1 Bridge to Terabithia and Island of the Blue Dolphin give examples of high frequency and high variation as well as strong and realistic

  13. PENGEMBANGAN PASAR LELANG FORWARD KOMODITAS BAHAN OLAH KARET (BOKAR DI PROVINSI SUMATERA SELATAN

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    Heri Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Permintaan karet dunia terus meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan kebutuhan industri karet global untuk negara-negara seperti Amerika Serikat, Jepang, Eropa, dan China. Potensi dan peluang dapat meningkatkan ekspor karet alam Indonesia, untuk meningkatkan pendapatan petani yang memproduksi bahan Karet (bokar, secara tidak langsung. Namun, kurangnya harga referensi dari karet rakyat di tingkat nasional, membuat para petani selalu dirugikan, karena harga cenderung ditentukan oleh pedagang dan produsen, dan membuat lemah posisi tawar petani, sehingga pengembangan lelang pasar ke depan menjadi potensi dan peluang untuk penjualan bokar yang dapat menguntungkan petani. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pasar lelang forward dari bokar memiliki potensi dan peluang sebagai tempat yang baik untuk transaksi yang lebih menguntungkan untuk para petani. Melalui pasar lelang forward, petani diminta untuk bersedia dan mampu berkelompok, untuk menghasilkan kualitas bokar yang baik, sehingga nilai penjualan bokar ini lebih tinggi, karena dijual oleh kelompok dengan cara lelang. Abstract World rubber demand increased continuously in line with the increase in global rubber industry needs forthe countries like US, Japan, Europe, and China. The potential and opportunity should boost Indonesia's natural rubber exports, provide to increase the income of farmers that producing Material Rubber (bokar, indirectly. However, the lack of reference prices of rubber smallholder at the national level, made of the farmers always disadvantaged, because the prices tend to be determined by the traders and manufacturers, and made weak thebargaining position of farmers, so the development of forward auction market into the potential and opportunities for bokar’ssales that can benefit the farmers. The results showed that the forward auction market of bokar has the potential and opportunities as a good place for transaction that more profitable for farmers.Through the forward

  14. sel-11 and cdc-42, two negative modulators of LIN-12/Notch activity in C. elegans.

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    Min Sung Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LIN-12/Notch signaling is important for cell-cell interactions during development, and mutations resulting in constitutive LIN-12/Notch signaling can cause cancer. Loss of negative regulators of lin-12/Notch activity has the potential for influencing cell fate decisions during development and the genesis or aggressiveness of cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe two negative modulators of lin-12 activity in C. elegans. One gene, sel-11, was initially defined as a suppressor of a lin-12 hypomorphic allele; the other gene, cdc-42, is a well-studied Rho GTPase. Here, we show that SEL-11 corresponds to yeast Hrd1p and mammalian Synoviolin. We also show that cdc-42 has the genetic properties consistent with negative regulation of lin-12 activity during vulval precursor cell fate specification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results underscore the multiplicity of negative regulatory mechanisms that impact on lin-12/Notch activity and suggest novel mechanisms by which constitutive lin-12/Notch activity might be exacerbated in cancer.

  15. mSEL-1L (Suppressor/enhancer Lin12-like) protein levels influence murine neural stem cell self-renewal and lineage commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardano, Marina; Diaferia, Giuseppe R; Cattaneo, Monica; Dessì, Sara S; Long, Qiaoming; Conti, Luciano; Deblasio, Pasquale; Cattaneo, Elena; Biunno, Ida

    2011-05-27

    Murine SEL-1L (mSEL-1L) is a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. It is essential during development as revealed by the multi-organ dysfunction and in uterus lethality occurring in homozygous mSEL-1L-deficient mice. Here we show that mSEL-1L is highly expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) but silenced in all mature neural derivatives (i.e. astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons) by mmu-miR-183. NSCs derived from homozygous mSEL-1L-deficient embryos (mSEL-1L(-/-) NSCs) fail to proliferate in vitro, show a drastic reduction of the Notch effector HES-5, and reveal a significant down-modulation of the early neural progenitor markers PAX-6 and OLIG-2, when compared with the wild type (mSEL-1L(+/+) NSCs) counterpart. Furthermore, these cells are almost completely deprived of the neural marker Nestin, display a significant decrease of SOX-2 expression, and rapidly undergo premature astrocytic commitment and apoptosis. The data suggest severe self-renewal defects occurring in these cells probably mediated by misregulation of the Notch signaling. The results reported here denote mSEL-1L as a primitive marker with a possible involvement in the regulation of neural progenitor stemness maintenance and lineage determination.

  16. mSEL-1L (Suppressor/Enhancer Lin12-like) Protein Levels Influence Murine Neural Stem Cell Self-renewal and Lineage Commitment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardano, Marina; Diaferia, Giuseppe R.; Cattaneo, Monica; Dessì, Sara S.; Long, Qiaoming; Conti, Luciano; DeBlasio, Pasquale; Cattaneo, Elena; Biunno, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Murine SEL-1L (mSEL-1L) is a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. It is essential during development as revealed by the multi-organ dysfunction and in uterus lethality occurring in homozygous mSEL-1L-deficient mice. Here we show that mSEL-1L is highly expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) but silenced in all mature neural derivatives (i.e. astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons) by mmu-miR-183. NSCs derived from homozygous mSEL-1L-deficient embryos (mSEL-1L−/− NSCs) fail to proliferate in vitro, show a drastic reduction of the Notch effector HES-5, and reveal a significant down-modulation of the early neural progenitor markers PAX-6 and OLIG-2, when compared with the wild type (mSEL-1L+/+ NSCs) counterpart. Furthermore, these cells are almost completely deprived of the neural marker Nestin, display a significant decrease of SOX-2 expression, and rapidly undergo premature astrocytic commitment and apoptosis. The data suggest severe self-renewal defects occurring in these cells probably mediated by misregulation of the Notch signaling. The results reported here denote mSEL-1L as a primitive marker with a possible involvement in the regulation of neural progenitor stemness maintenance and lineage determination. PMID:21454627

  17. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the New Labour Discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) across Schools in England and Wales: Conversations with Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the New Labour (1997-2010) discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, and how it was understood and enacted by policymakers in England and in Wales within the context of devolved government across the UK. By SEL I mean universal school-based programs, located in the…

  18. Studi Proses Pemisahan Bitumen dari Asbuton dengan Proses Hot Water Menggunakan Bahan Pelarut Kerosin dan Larutan Surfaktan

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    Mochamad Sidiq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan studi proses pemisahan bitumen dari asbuton dengan proses hot water menggunakan bahan pelarut kerosin dan larutan surfaktan. Asbuton adalah aspal alam yang terdeposit dalam batuan dengan kadar bitumen antara 15-30% yang terdapat di Pulau Buton, Sulawesi Tenggara dengan jumlah deposit aspal sebesar 677juta ton. Bitumen dapat digunakan sebagai campuran aspal minyak untuk pembangunan dan pemeliharaan sarana infrastruktur berupa jalan raya. Salah satu cara pemisahan bitumen dari mineral adalah dengan proses hot water menggunakan bahan pelarut kerosin dan larutan surfaktan. Sistem yang ditinjau dalam penelitian ini adalah tangki berpengaduk berbentuk silinder dengan kapasitar 2000cm2. Dalam penelitian ini akan ditinjau pengaruh dari penambahan ratio larutan surfaktan/asbuton dan penambahan kerosin terhadap %recovery bitumen. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan selama 20 menit dengan suhu proses 90oC dan kecepatan putar pengaduk 1500 rpm. Hasil proses ini akan terbentuk 3 lapisan yaitu lapisan atas terdiri dari larutan bitumen (kerosin dan bitumen, lapisan tengah terdiri dari air, larutan surfaktan dan mineral murni yang terpisah, dan lapisan bawah terdiri dari asbuton yang tidak terekstrak, kerosin dan sedikit air. Lapisan paling atas di ambil dan dilakukan analisa densitasnya untuk diketahui konsentrasi bitumennya. Sehingga dapat dihitung %recovery bitumen yang dihasilkan. Lapisan paling atas dipisahkan dan dianalisa konsentrasi bitumennya dengan mengukur densitasnya. Dari hasil eksperimen diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa (% recovery bitumen tertinggi adalah pada penambahan kerosin 50% dan 0,1% konsentrasi larutan surfaktan 35 % sebesar 80,797%.

  19. Pembelajaran Bangun Ruang Sisi Lengkung Menggunakan Bahan Limbah Berbasis Lesson Study di Kelas IX SMPN 1 Kromengan

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    Musni Yuliastuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini bertujuan mendiskripsikan pembelajaran bangun ruang sisi lengkung dengan materi volume dan luas sisi tabung menggunakan bahan limbah melalui kegiatan Lesson Study. Kegiatan lesson Study dilaksanakan dalam tiga tahap yaitu plan pada tanggal 10 September 2015 di SMP Negeri 1 Kromengan. Tahap do dan see dilaksanakan pada tanggal 1 oktober 2015 juga bertempat di SMP Negeri 1 Kromengan. Berdasarkan hasil refleksi didapat bahwa dengan tayangan video di awal pembelajaran dapat membangkitkan motivasi siswa.  Menggunakan media bahan limbah memudahkan siswa untuk mendapatkan konsep volume dan luas sisi tabung.This article aims to describe learning with curved side with material volume and extensive side of the tube using waste materials through Lesson Study activities. Lesson study activities carried out in three stages, plan on 10 September 2015 SMP Negeri 1 Kromengan. Stage do and see held on 1 October 2015 are also at SMP Negeri 1 Kromengan. Based on the results obtained that the reflection with a video show in early learning can be motivating students. Using media waste materials easier for students to get the concept of volume and area of the tube. 

  20. KADAR ZAT GIZI MAKANAN JAJAN DI DESA CIJENGKOL: SUATU PERBANDINGAN ANTARA ANALISA KIMIA DAN PERHITUNGAN DAFTAR KOMPOSISI BAHAN MAKANAN

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    Krisdinamurtirin Krisdinamurtirin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kadar zat gizi beberapa makanan jajan dari desa Cijengkol Jawa Barat telah dibandingkan hasil analisa kimianya dengan hasil perhitungan dengan Daftar Kompisisi Bahan Makanan. Makanan jajan yang diteliti yaitu yang di desa tersebut dikenal namanya sebagai gegentur, puruy, noga wijen, kremes, goreng pisang sale, tape goreng, boder, gemblong.Kedua cara menghasilkan kadar zat gizi yang umumnya berbeda, yang secara statistik tidak berarti, kecuali untuk protein dan kalsium. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk lemak, hidrat arang, fosfor dan besi, hitungan dengan Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan tidak mempunyai penyimpanan yang besar, kecuali untuk protein dan kalsium. Untuk protein, hidrat arang, lemak dan fosfor, hasil hitungan lebih besar daripada analisa kimia. Sedangkan untuk kalsium dan besi, hitungan lebih kecil daripada analisa kimia.Penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai kadar zat gizi secara analisa kimia dibanding dengan perhitungan Daftar Komposisi perlu dilakukan baik terhadap makanan jajan maupun hidangan tunggal dan hidangan sehari-hari dari beberapa daerah sampel lainnya. Dari penelitian seperti ini akan didapatkan angka penyimpanan untuk mengadakan koreksi pada perhitungan penelitian makanan (dietary survey.

  1. EKSTRAKSI TANNIN SEBAGAI BAHAN PEWARNA ALAMI DARI TANAMAN PUTRIMALU (MIMOSA PUDICA MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ORGANIK

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    Tjukup Marnoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EXTRACTION OF TANNINS AS NATURAL DYES FROM PUTRIMALU (MIMOSA PUDICA PLANT USING VARIOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS. Public awareness on using natural dyes has encouraged the extraction of tannins from putrimalu. Extraction was performed continuously using a Soxhlet apparatus. The parameter studied was the influence of solvent polarity on the amount of tannin and mass transfer coefficient. Tannin was extracted from ten grams of dried putrimalu plants using polar solvents (ethanol, acetone and methanol and a non-polar solvent (n-hexane. Extraction is considered complete when the concentration of tannins in the liquid is no longer changing with time. Liquid samples were withdrawn every 20 minutes interval for tannin analyses using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. The results showed that the maximum concentration of tannins in the extract (g/mL when extraction were performed using n-hexane was 0.0031, acetone (0.016, methanol (0.0274 and ethanol (0.044. From extract yield and mass transfer coefficient point of views, it can be concluded that the best solvent is ethanol. The relationship between tannin concentration in the ethanol 96% solvent and the time was expressed in term of mathematical equations             CAL=1.046(1-e-0.0213t with error was 3.6%. Where CAL is the concentration of tannins in the solvent (g/ml and t is the extraction time (minutes.  Kesadaran masyarakat untuk kembali menggunakan bahan pewarna alami mendorong dilakukannya ekstraksi tannin dari putrimalu. Ekstraksi dilakukan secara kontinyu menggunakan alat Soxhlet. Parameter yang dipelajari adalah pengaruh polaritas pelarut terhadap ekstrak tannin dan koefisien transfer massa. Tannin diekstrak dari sepuluh gram tanaman putrimalu kering menggunakan pelarut polar (etanol, aseton dan metanol dan pelarut non-polar n-heksana. Ekstraksi dianggap selesai jika konsentrasi tannin di dalam pelarut sudah tidak berubah. Tannin di dalam contoh cairan yang diambil setiap selang waktu 20

  2. EFEK PEMBERIAN SPILANTHES ACMELLA DAN LATIHAN FISIK TERHADAP JUMLAH SEL OSTEOBLAS FEMUR MENCIT YANG DIINDUKSI DEKSAMETASON

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    Hening Laswati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTelah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui uji aktivitas anti-osteoporosis secara in vivo dari tanaman Spilanthes acmella terhadap sel osteoblas tulang trabekula proksimal femur mencit jantan model osteoporosis induksi deksametason. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan rancangan penelitian posttest only control group, 60 ekor mencit jantan sehat (usia >5 bulan dikelompokkan secara random menjadi 10 kelompok yaitu kelompok sehat tanpa induksi deksametason dan kelompok osteoporosis induksi deksametason. Kontrol positif mendapat suspensi alendronat dan kelompok latihan fiik menggunakantreadmill mencit berjalan 10m/menit bertahap selama 5 -12 menit, 3 kali dalam satu minggu, kelompok kombinasi ekstrak etanol 70% dan latihan fiik serta kelompok uji fraksi butanol, heksan, etil asetat dan air. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 4 minggu. Osteoporosis akibat pemakaian glukokortikoid menjadi penyebab osteoporosis sekunder yang meningkatkan risiko fraktur. Telah banyak bukti klinik tentang peran fioestrogen dalam pengobatan osteoporosis pada pascamenopause. Spilanthes acmella, atau yang dikenal masyarakat dengan sebutan Legetan, termasuk famili Asteracea merupakan satu tanaman obat di Indonesia yang mempunyai kandungan senyawa polifenol dan flvonoid. Dari hasil penelitian sebelumnya diketahui bahwa baik fraksi butanol dan air dari tanaman tersebut mampu meningkatkan aktivitas enzim alkalin fosfatase yang merupakan marker pembentukan tulang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol 70% Spilanthes acmella dikombinasikan dengan latihan fiik meningkatkan jumlah sel osteoblas secara bermakna bila dibandingkan dengan hanya ekstrak etanol atau latihan fiik. Ini membuktikan bahwa ekstrak etanol 70% Spilanthes acmella mempunyai efek additive terhadap efek latihan pembebanan aksial pada kondisi osteoporosis. Fraksi heksana, etil asetat dan air juga meningkatkan secara bermakna jumlah sel osteoblas. Fraksi non polar merupakan fraksi yang lebih potensial untuk

  3. Protective Action of Se-Supplement Against Acute Alcoholism Is Regulated by Selenoprotein P (SelP) in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Yingfang; Qiu, Changwei; Deng, Ganzhen; Guo, Mengyao

    2017-02-01

    Acute alcoholism is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver failure around the world. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient promoting liver health in humans and animals. Selenoprotein P (SelP) is a glycoprotein secreted within the liver, which interacts with cytokines and the growth factor pathway to provide protection for hepatic cells. The present study was conducted to confirm the effect and mechanism of Se and SelP action in livers affected by acute alcoholism. In this study, a mouse model of acute alcoholism, as well as a hepatocyte model, was successfully established. The Se content of the liver was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The protein expression of inflammatory factors was detected by ELISA. The other proteins were analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that pathological damage to the liver was gradually weakened by Se-supplementation, which was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and TUNEL staining. Se-supplementation inhibited expression of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β and promoted production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the liver with acute alcoholism. Se-supplementation also prevented the apoptosis of hepatocytes by suppressing the cleavage of caspases-9, 3, 6, 7, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Through correlational analysis, it was determined that the effects of Se-supplement were closely related to SelP expression, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis molecule production. The sienna of SelP further confirmed the protective action of Se-supplementation on the liver and that the mechanism of SelP involves the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis molecules in acute alcoholism. These findings provide information regarding a new potential target for the treatment of acute alcoholism.

  4. PROSES PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI LIMBAH CAIR GULA DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN POTENSI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR DALAM PERSPEKTIF LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusta Samodra Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle inventory assessment merupakan salah satu tahapan di dalam Life Cycle Assessment (LCA yang bisa digunakan untuk menggambarkan interaksi materi dan energi di dalam suatu proses produksi bioetanol. Studi kasus dilakukan di pabrik gula kawasan Subang dan pabrik bioetanol di kawasan Palimanan yang merupakan pabrik gula dan bioetanol terbesar di Jawa Barat. Inventory yang dilakukan adalah pada bagian perkebunan tebu, pabrikasi tebu menjadi gula, transportasi dari pabrik gula menuju ke pabrik bioetanol, dan pabrikasi etanol. Luas lahan kebun tebu yang dimiliki oleh pabrik gula di Subang adalah seluas 5000 hektar. Dari bahan baku tebu 3000 ton/hari dihasilkan molase sebanyak 60 ton/hari, sisanya menjadi gula dan ampas tebu. Pada inventory kali ini selain dari sisi proses juga dilakukan inventory pada sisi transportasi.

  5. PROTOTIPE PEMESANAN BAHAN PUSTAKA MELALUI WEB MENGGUNAKAN ACTIVE SERVER PAGE (ASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2002-01-01

    . Salah satunya adalah Active Server Pages (ASP yang digabungkan sistem database untuk meyimpan data. Komponen penunjang lainnya adalah interface antara aplikasi dengan database yaitu ActiveX Data Objects (ADO. ASP memiliki keunggulan dalam metode scriptingnya dan mudah dalam berhubungan dengan database. Prototipe yang dibuat ini terdiri dari dua bagian utama yaitu bagian untuk administrator dan bagian untuk user. Prototipe yang dibuat ini ini mampu menghasilkan fasilitas pengeditan data, pencarian data, dan melihat informasi pesanan secara online. Untuk pencarian dan pemesanan artikel maka user dapat langsung melakukan proses download. Karena sistem E-commerce di Indonesia baru saja berkembang maka perlu diperhatikan juga mengenai metode pembayaran dimana tidak setiap orang mempunyai kartu kredit. Maka dalam prototipe ini terdapat juga suatu form untuk user yang tidak mempunyai kartu kredit. Begitu user telah melakukan pembayaran maka user bersangkutan bisa melakukan transaksi secara online. Disini dipakai juga keunggulan ASP yaitu "session" dimana data - data dalam proses yang terjadi tidak akan hilang selama user masih berada dalam session tersebut. Ini digunakan dalam proses user area dan admin area dimana user dan admin dapat melakukan berbagai macam proses. Kata kunci: e-commerce, bahan pustaka, world wide web, Active Server Page, ActiveX Data Objects.

  6. Sintesis Senyawa Turunan Sekunder dan Tersier p-Kumaramida dan Uji Aktivitasnya Sebagai Anti Tumor Sel Leukimia P388

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Senyawa-senyawa turunan p-kumaramida berpotensi sebagai anti tumor. Penelitian tentang metode sintesis senyawa turunan p-kumaramida, yakni N-propil-p-kumaramida, N,N-dietil-p-kumaramida, dan piperidinil-p-kumaramida serta uji aktivitasnya terhadap sel tumor leukimia P388 telah dilakukan. Senyawa turunan p-kumaramida disintesis dari asam p-kumarat dan amina yang sesuai sebagai reaktan dengan menggunakan katalis asam borat pada kondisi refluks di dalam pelarut DMF dan atmosfir nitrogen selam...

  7. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group. Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spermatozoa of the three summers carp. Analyzing the results obtained shows that the addition of organic selenium in the nutrition of carp breeders caused a slight increase in protein, and fat decreased slightly from sperm, the differences between groups were non-significant (p>0.05%. The slight increase in the amount of protein in milt is due to the positive effect of organic selenium over glutathione peroxidase activity of sperm cores (SN-GSH-Px, which is an integral part of sperm chromatin with the possibility of amino-acid uptake. Researches regarding viability, meristically and somatic measurements of breeders were carried out and significant differences were recorded in the experimental group compared to the control.

  8. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN BIJI KAKAO KERING DAN BAHAN ALAT SANGRAI TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN PROFIL SENYAWA VOLATIL KAKAO SANGRAI SERTA SIFAT SENSORIS COKELAT BATANG YANG DIHASILKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Gae Lada

    2015-02-01

    menggunakan alat sangrai dari alumunium, besi dan tanah liat menghasilkan profil senyawa volatil yang berbeda. Dari kromatogram SPME-GC-MS diketahui bahwa alat sangrai dari tanah liat menghasilkan kelompok senyawa dan total luas area yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan alat sangrai dari alumunium dan besi. Cokelat batang yang dihasilkan melalui perendaman dan disangrai menggunakan alat sangrai dari tanah liat adalah yang paling disukai oleh panelis. Kata kunci: Perendaman, bahan alat sangrai, biji kakao sangrai, profil senyawa volatil, cokelat batang

  9. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH BIOMASSA CANGKANG KAKAO DAN KEMIRI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR BRIKET (Utilization of Biomass Wastes from Cocoa and Candlenut Shells as Fuel Briquette)

    OpenAIRE

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Syamsiro, Moch.; Tambunan, Bisrul Hapis

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRAK Biomassa adalah sumber energi utama jutaan manusia di dunia, akan tetapi penggunaannya menurun ketika batubara, minyak dan gas tersedia cukup melirnpah. Namun akhir-akhir ini perhatian muncul kembali karena terjadinya krisis energi dan isu-isu lingkungan. Pemanfaatan biomassa untuk menggantikan bahan bakar fosil dapat menurunkan persoalan emisi CO2 global. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji alternatif sumber energi terbarukan dengan pemanfaatan limbah biomassa cangkang kakao dan ...

  10. TPRpred: a tool for prediction of TPR-, PPR- and SEL1-like repeats from protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söding Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solenoid repeat proteins of the Tetratrico Peptide Repeat (TPR family are involved as scaffolds in a broad range of protein-protein interactions. Several resources are available for the prediction of TPRs, however, they often fail to detect divergent repeat units. Results We have developed TPRpred, a profile-based method which uses a P-value-dependent score offset to include divergent repeat units and which exploits the tendency of repeats to occur in tandem. TPRpred detects not only TPR-like repeats, but also the related Pentatrico Peptide Repeats (PPRs and SEL1-like repeats. The corresponding profiles were generated through iterative searches, by varying the threshold parameters for inclusion of repeat units into the profiles, and the best profiles were selected based on their performance on proteins of known structure. We benchmarked the performance of TPRpred in detecting TPR-containing proteins and in delineating the individual repeats therein, against currently available resources. Conclusion TPRpred performs significantly better in detecting divergent repeats in TPR-containing proteins, and finds more individual repeats than the existing methods. The web server is available at http://tprpred.tuebingen.mpg.de, and the C++ and Perl sources of TPRpred along with the profiles can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.tuebingen.mpg.de/ebio/protevo/TPRpred/.

  11. PENYERAPAN FORMALIN OLEH BEBERAPA JENIS BAHAN MAKANAN SERTA PENGHILANGANNYA MELALUI PERENDAMAN DALAM AIR PANAS (THE ADSORPTION OF FORMALDEHYDE BY SOME FOODSTUFFS AND ITS ELIMINATION BY SOAKING THEM IN HOT WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryana Purawisastra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Penggunaan formalin sebagai bahan pengawet makanan dilarang oleh Pemerintah, karena bahan ini bersifat toksik (racun. Namun, hasil survei mengindikasikan bahwa beberapa jenis bahan makanan di pasar tradisional masih mengandung formalin. Formalin bisa digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet makanan, karena formalin dapat mengikat protein membentuk ikatan methylene (-NCHOH. Protein pada ikatan methylene ini tahan terhadap kerusakan, baik yang disebabkan oleh aktivitas mikroorganisme maupun oksidasi, sehingga makanan tersebut terhindar dari kerusakan dan menjadi awet. Artikel ini menyajikan hasil pengujian penyerapan formalin oleh beberapa jenis bahan makanan yang mengandung protein, serta pengaruh proses perendaman dalam air panas terhadap kandungan formalinnya. Metodologi: Sampel bahan makanan direndam dalam larutan formalin 1 persen. Sementara pengaruh proses perendaman dalam air panas terhadap kandungan formalin dilakukan dengan merendam bahan makanan berformalin di dalam air panas. Selama waktu periodik perendaman, bahan makanan dianalisis kadar air, formalin dan proteinnya. Hasil: Penyerapan formalin tertinggi oleh bahan makanan terjadi pada tahu, kemudian daging ayam, dan yang terendah adalah mi basah pasar. Akan tetapi, ada perbedaan tingkat penyerapan formalin antar-tahu, serta antara daging dada dan paha ayam. Kadar formalin dalam bahan makanan bisa dikurangi melalui perendaman dalam air panas. Besar pengurangan tergantung dari tingginya kandungan formalin. Sebagai contoh, kadar formalin tahu adalah 0.7 mg per g, dan menjadi 0 pada perendaman dalam air panas selama 2 jam. Kesimpulan: Penyerapan formalin oleh bahan makanan, kadarnya berbeda tergantung dari reaktivitas protein untuk bereaksi dengan formalin. Perendaman bahan makanan berformalin dalam air panas dapat mengurangi kandungannya. Rekomendasi: Perendaman bahan makanan, dengan merendam dalam air panas di rumah tangga, merupakan salah satu usaha ibu-ibu rumah tangga

  12. STUDI PENGARUH VARIASI SUHU KALSINASI TERHADAP KEKERASAN BENTUK MORFOLOGI, DAN ANALISIS POROSITAS NANOKOMPOSIT CAO/SiO2 UNTUK APLIKASI BAHAN BIOMATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan biomaterial saat ini dibutuhkan bagi masyarakat, namun saat ini penyediaannya sangat terbatas dan harganya yang mahal. Hal ini mendorong terciptanya inovasi bahan biomaterial yang efisien dan berasal dari alam Untuk itu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk membuat bahan biomaterial dari limbah cangkang kerang dan lumpur Sidoarjo. Metode yang digunakan adalah melakukan sintesis nanokomposit CaO dan SiO2, dan mencampur dengan rasio 2:1, kemudian dikalsinasi pada suhu 700oC, 800oC, 900oC setelah itu mengkaraterisasinya menggunakan uji mekanik harness vickers dan SEM, BET. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan pada suhu 900oC nilai kekerasan tertinggi dicapai pada suhu pemanasan 900oC yaitu sebesar 109,1 ± 5,22 VHN. Kemudian bentuk mikrostruktur dimana pada suhu ini terbentuk butiran yang menggumpal dan membesar dengan ukuran pori mengecil. Sedangkan untuk analisa porositasnya pada suhu ini nilai surface area sebesar 23.843 m2/g dan volume pori sebesar 0.007 cc/g. Dari analisis diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa meningkatnya suhu pemanasan menyebabkan sifat kekerasannya semakin meningkat dan mempengaruhi bentuk mikrostruktur serta surface area pada permukaan sampel.Kata kunci : Biomaterial, nanokomposit CaO/SiO2, Hardness Vickers, SEM, BET

  13. PENGARUH BAHAN ORGANIK DAN TRACE ELEMENTS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN KANDUNGAN GULA TANAMAN STEVIA (STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERTONI M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lussana Rossita Dewi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of research was to study the effect of organic material and trace elements added on growth and sugar content of Stevia rebaudiana. The research was designed using Complete Random Design (CRD consist of 20 factors with 3 repeats. The factors given consist of combination of 0, 0,5, 1, and 1,5 kg of organic material, 0, 25, and 50 ppm of trace elements, and spraying time, unsprayed, sprayed once every 3 days, and sprayed once every 6 days, respectively. Observed variable includes plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of root and stem. The observation was conducted every 4 days, started from 1 week after planting up to harvest. Observation of fresh and dry weight of root and stem was conducted upon harvesting. The result indicated that application of organic material have significant influence on plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of root and stem. Concentration of trace elements showed significant influence on plant height, number of leaves, and stem fresh weight, but didnt influence on stem dry weight and fresh and dry weight of root. Spraying time of trace elements had significant influence on number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of stem and root fresh weight, but didnt show significant influence on plant height and root dry weight. The content of stevia sugar using treatment applications with organic material and trace elements was higher compared to control. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian bahan organik dan unsur trace elements terhadap pertumbuhan dan kandungan gula stevia pada tanaman Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap yang terdiri dari 20 perlakuan dengan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah kombinasi bahan organik dengan dosis 0 kg, 0,5 kg, 1 kg, dan 1,5 kg, trace elements (dosis 0 ppm, 25 ppm, dan 50 ppm, dan waktu penyemprotan (tanpa disemprot, disemprot 3 hari sekali, dan disemprot 6 hari sekali. Peubah yang diamati

  14. Toluidine Blue Vital Staining sebagai Alat Bantu Diagnostik pada Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Lidah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suhartiningtyas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Karsinoma sel skuamus oral (KSSO merupakan salah satu kanker mulut yang paling sering terjadi. Deteksi dini kanker mulut menyulitkan oleh karena etiologi yang tidak pasti dan gambaran klinis yang tidak khas. Toluidine blue vital staining (TBVS dilaporkan dapat membantu penegakan diagnosis KSSO. Tujuan. Penulisan ini bertujuan melaporkan kasus KSSO di lidah yang terdiagnosis melalui TBVS. Kasus dan penanganannya. Laki-laki 77 tahun dengan gigi tiruan lengkap mengeluhkan sakit pada lidah sejak 2 minggu lalu, yang tidak sembuh dengan terapi konvensional. Pasien adalah perokok berat selama 60 tahun. Temuan klinis menunujukkan ulkus soliter berdiameter 2,5 cm pada ventral lidah, tepi membulat, indurasi dan tertutup pseudomembran putih. Temuan lain berupa kandidas mulut pada mukosa palatal, kedua sudut mulut dan dorsum lidah. Berdasar anamnesis dan pemeriksaan klinis, dicurigai adanya keganasan pada lesi lidah. Perawatan awal ditujuan untuk pembersihan rongga mulut, terapi anti jamur dan perbaikan status nutrisi. Lima hari kemudian, dilaporkan adanya kaku lidah dan gangguan fungsi mulut. Klinis tampak ulkus pada lidah semakin dalam dan melebar, untuk memastikan kecurigaan keganasan dilaksanakan pemeriksaan TBVS. Hasil pemeriksaan positif sehingga ditegakkan diagnosis kerja KSSO. Pemeriksaan lebih lanjut, pasien dikirim ke Klinik Bedah Mulut Rumah Sakit Dr. Sarjito. Hasil biopsi positif menunjukkan KSSO, selanjutnya pasien dirujuk ke Klinik Onkologi. Kesimpulan. Karsinoma sel skuamus oral memiliki gambaran klinis tidak khas sehingga penyakit ini sulit terdeteksi secara dini. Diagnosis dan perawatan dini KSSO akan meningkatkan survival rate dan kualitas hidup penderitanya. Metode pemeriksaan diagnostic bantu dengan TBVS sangat membantu dalam penegakan diagnosis keganasan di rongga mulut.   Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most oral cancers occurred. Early detection of oral cancer is difficult due to uncertain

  15. PENGARUH ORIENTASI OBJEK PADA PROSES 3D PRINTING BAHAN POLYMER PLA DAN ABS TERHADAP KEKUATAN TARIK DAN KETELITIAN DIMENSI PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobron Lubis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui pengaruh posisi objek dalam pembuatan protipe cepat (rapid prototyping dengan menggunakan 3D printing untuk bahan polymer PLA dan ABS terhadap kekuatan tarik maupun ketelitian dimensi yang dihasilkan. Untuk  mencapai objektif penelitian ini dilakukan percobaan dengan membuat prototype spesimen ujitarik berdasarkan ASTM dengan menggunakan 3D printer. Produk yang dihasilkan dilakukan pengukuran dimensi untuk melihat akurasi peroduk melalui perubahan dua posisi variasi orientasi objek yakni secara vertikal dan horizontal. Setelah proses pengukuran dimensi, dilakukan pengujian tarik spesimen dengan menggunakan alat uji tarik. Dari eksperimen yang dilakukan diketahui bahwa posisi orientasi dan besar layer pada proses printing memberi efek terhadap kualitas permukaan, efisiensi waktu dan kekuatan dari benda. Produk material PLA dengan orientasi posisi objek horizontal memiliki kualitas dimensi yang paling baik. Jumlah kesalahan akurasi material ini tidak melebihi 1 mm pada setiap layer. Material ABS dengan posisi orientasi objek  vertikal dan tebal layer sebesar 0,10 mm menghasilkan kekuatan tegangan tarik yang terkecil sebesar 8,62 MPa dan material PLA dengan orientasi posisi objek horizontal dengan dan tebal layer sebesar 0,40 mm menghasilkan kekuatan tegangan tarik terbesar 35,57 MPa

  16. AKUMULASI LISTRIK STATIS PADA GELAS PLASTIK PRODUKSI MESIN INJECTION MOLDING: PENGARUH KELEMBABAN UDARA, TEMPERATUR, DAN BAHAN ADITIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akumulasi listrik statis pada gelas polipropilena hasil produksi mesin injection molding dapat menyebabkan gelas memiliki gaya elektrostatik dan tidak dapat turun secara gravitasi. Masalah ini menghambat aplikasi gelas pada mesin pengisian air minum dalam kemasan (AMDK. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kelembaban udara, temperatur, dan penambahan bahan aditif TiO2 terhadap potensial listrik permukaan gelas polipropilena. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa potensial listrik permukaan dipengaruhi oleh kelembaban udara ruang produksi, temperatur, dan penambahan TiO2. Potensial listrik permukaan semakin kecil dengan naiknya kelembaban udara. Setelah kelembaban mencapai 68% potensial listrik permukaan cenderung konstan. Ditinjau dari beda potensial (DV antara permukaan dua gelas, kelembaban optimum adalah 67-68%, yang ditandai dengan beda potensial yang paling rendah. Beda potensial ≤ 5,2 kV menyebabkan gelas cepat turun, beda potensial 5,2 kV < DV ≤ 6,7 kV menyebabkan gelas turun dengan lambat, dan DV ≥ 6,7 kV menyebabkan gelas sangat lambat turun atau menempel. Potensial listrik turun dengan naiknya temperatur. Potensial listrik statis permukaan hanya sedikit turun akibat penambahan 0,75% berat TiO2. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan gelas dengan potensial listrik permukaan rendah dapat menaikkan kecepatan mesin pengisian AMDK menjadi 220-250 rpm dan 140-160 rpm, masing-masing untuk mesin pengisian gelas 180 ml dan 225 ml.

  17. Model-based neural networks to predict emissions in a diesel engine operating with biodiesel blends of castor; Modelo basado en redes neuronales para predecir las emisiones en un motor diésel que opera con mezclas de biodiésel de higuerilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Narváez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some identification methods of nonlinear systems using artificialneural networks are explained. Also, a model based on Neural Networks“Supervised Feed Forward” is presented, developed to identifyand predict the behavior of volumetric emissions from combustion of astationary diésel engine based on two input variables: the engine load and the mixture of castor biodiésel. The neural network training and model validation was performed by using the NNModel.

  18. El prestigio del devenir cíclico: las hierofanías selénicas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Decir luna es decir alternancia y eterna esperanza de regeneración. Es por ello que las hierofanías selénicas se hallan involucradas con todos los procesos que encierran la alternativa en los ciclos "amén de sus fases", esto es, todo lo cambiante, a saber, la vegetación, la fertilidad, la mujer, las aguas. Sin embargo, con base en la decrepitud del astro nocturno, el homo religiosus se sintió pronto involucrado en el destino lunar e hizo de esta mostración sacra su propia realidad luego del d...

  19. PENGARUH JENIS ANODA PADA PROSES PEMULIHAN LOGAM NIKEL DARI TIRUAN AIR LIMBAH ELECTROPLATING MENGGUNAKAN SEL ELEKTRODEPOSISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaenudin Dhaenudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF ANODES TYPES ON NICKEL RECOVERY FROM SYNTHETIC ELECTROPLATING WASTE ELECTRODEPOSITION CELLS. A study concerning the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater artificial solution. The study was conducted with a batch system using electrodeposition cell consisting of two spaces separated by water hyacinth leaf, copper cathode plate, H2SO4 solution anolyte, catholyte solution of NiSO4 plus NaCl supporting electrolyte and anode varied. Electrodeposition performed at the direct current of 5V power for 4 hours each run. The research objective was to obtain the best anode in nickel electrodeposition process of electroplating waste artificial solution. Graphite, stainless steel type AISI 316 and the lead were used as a variation of the anode. Concentration of nickel in the catholyte at baseline 2200 mg/L. The results showed that the anode was a graphite anode with best value decreased by 72.44% nickel concentration, deposition of nickel on the cathode of 0.188 grams and specific energy values ​​of 6.1625 kWh/kg.nickel.   Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pemulihan logam nikel dari larutan tiruan air limbah electroplating. Penelitian dilakukan dengan sistem batch menggunakan sel elektrodeposisi yang terdiri dari dua ruang yang dipisahkan dengan daun eceng gondok, katoda pelat tembaga, anolit larutan H2SO4, katolit larutan NiSO4 ditambah elektrolit pendukung larutan NaCl dan anoda divariasikan. Elektrodeposisi dilakukan pada listrik searah sebesar 5V selama 4 jam setiap tempuhan. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh anoda terbaik pada proses elektrodeposisi nikel dari larutan tiruan limbah electroplating. Grafit, Stainless Steel  tipe AISI 316 dan timbal digunakan sebagai variasi jenis anoda. Konsentrasi nikel dalam katolit pada awal penelitian 2200 mg/L. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa anoda grafit merupakan anoda yang paling baik dengan nilai penurunan konsentrasi nikel sebesar 72,44%, deposisi nikel di katoda sebesar 0

  20. Production and characterization of biodiesel from chicken fat; Producción y caracterización de biodiésel a partir de aceite de pollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Montenegro Mier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the world has been working on substituting fossil fuels by alternative fuels, among other reasons, due to the depletion of non-renewable natural resources and the emissions that they produce, generating large environmental implications. This article is part of the research advancement between 2009 and 2012 related to the “Production and characterization of biodiésel from chickenfat”. Tests for viscosity, density, distillation curve calculation of ketene index,were performed in order to determine the feasibility for the use of biodiésel as afuel in internal combustion ignition by compression engines MCI-EC. The studyshowed that the biodiésel obtained meets existing technical standards for liquidbiofuels at the international level and could, therefore, be successfully used ininternal combustion engines.

  1. PENGARUH JARAK LOKASI PEMELIHARAAN TERHADAP MORFOLOGI SEL DAN MORFOLOGI RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii DI DESA LOBUK KECAMATAN BLUTO, KABUPATEN SUMENEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah Rozaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lokasi pemeliharaan rumput laut pada jarak yang berbeda akan dipengaruhi oleh parameter oceanografi. Rumput laut memiliki syarat hidup pada kondisi yang baik dan mendukung pertumbuhan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui morfologi sel dan rumput laut terhadap jarak lokasi pemeliharaan berbeda pada rumput laut jenis Kappaphycus alvarezii di desa Lobuk, kecamatan Bluto, kabupaten Sumenep. Pemeliharaan Kappaphycus alvarezii menggunakan  metode rakit apung  sebanyak 3 buah diletakkan pada jarak 300 m, 600 m, 900 m. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan RAK kemudian hasil dianalisis dengan sidik ragam untuk mengetahui perbedaan perlakuan. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rata – rata panjang thallus utama rumput laut 13,85 cm (300 m, 13,58 cm (600 m, 14,26 cm (900 m. Rata – rata diameter thallus utama rumput laut 10,19 mm (300 m, 9,97 mm (600 m, 10 mm (900 m. Kemudian untuk hasil ADG, diperoleh 2,43 % (300 m, 3,09 % (600 m, 3,46 % (900 m. Berdasarkan hasil analisis sidik ragam menunjukkan bahwa  morfologi sel dan morfologi rumput laut tidak menunjukkan perbedaaan yang nyata dari setiap jarak lokasi pemeliharaan. Jarak lokasi pemeliharaan 300 m dari garis pantai masih layak digunakan untuk pembudidayaan rumput laut.Kata Kunci: jarak lokasi, morfologi , Kappaphycus alvarezii

  2. Evaluación de estrategias de producción de biodiésel en Chile en base a criterios ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo principal de la tesis es evaluar, mediante el Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV), los impactos ambientales y la demanda de energía y agua de la futura producción de biodiésel en Chile y de sus cultivos energéticos asociados, colza y girasol, bajo diferentes opciones de producción a escala nacional, en el corto plazo. Los objetivos adicionales son determinar las etapas críticas en el ciclo de vida del biodiésel, de colza y de girasol y evaluar ambientalmente opciones de mejora en la p...

  3. Respuestas morfológicas y fisiológicas de Rhizophagus intraradices y Medicago sativa ante contaminación por diésel.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Ortega, Herminia Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio evaluó el crecimiento, cambios morfológicos, actividades fisiológicas y expresión de genes en Medicago sativa en respuesta al estrés por la contaminación con diésel, y por la inoculación del hongo micorrízico arbuscular Rhizophagus intraradices. Este trabajo fue dividido en cuatro capítulos que describen cuatro diferentes fases experimentales. El primer capítulo describe el efecto del diésel en el desarrollo y colonización de R. intraradices. El segundo capítulo presenta resultad...

  4. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI BAHAN STABILISATOR PEG 1000 DAN LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP KESTABILAN DIMENSI KAYU KECAPI (Sandoricum koetjape Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusyiani Lusyiani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kayu bersifat higroskopis dan anisotropis, karena itulah untuk meningkatkan kualitas kayu diperlukan suatu perlakuan stabilisasi dimensi.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh konsentrasi Polyethylene Glycol 1000 dan waktu perendaman terhadap stabilisasi dimensi kayu yakni nilai penyusutannya.  Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Polyethylene glycol 1000, kayu Kecapi dan air suling sebagai pelarutnya.  Proses stabilisasi dimensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode proses difusi bulking yang mengganti bahan penstabilnya dengan air.  Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah sebanyak 120 buah sampel.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Polyethylene Glycol 1000 pada tingkat konsentrasi 30% dan lama perendaman 5 hari memiliki nilai stabilisasi dimensi terbaik untuk semua parameter yang diuji.  Tingkat konsentrasi tertinggi untuk Polyethylene Glycol 1000 dan lama perendaman yang terlama, nilai penyusutannya paling kecil dan juga dapat meningkatkan nilai stabilisasi dimensi. Wood is hygroscopic and anisotropic, hence it is needed to improve the quality of wood by dimension stabilization treatment. The aim of study is to examine the effect of Polyethylene Glycol  1000 concentration and soaking time on the shrinkage rate stabilization dimensions. Polyethylene glycol 1000 and Kecapi wood were used in the research and distilled water as a solvent.  Stabilization was carried out by bulking method that replaced stabilizer material with water by diffusion process.  A member of 120 pieces samples were used in the study. The research results showed that Polyethylene Glycol  1000 at 30% concentration level and 5 days of soaking time have the best value of stabilization for all tested parameters.  The hingher level concentration of Polyethylene Glycol 1000 and the longer immersion time, smaller shrinkage and increasing the value of stabilization dimensions, as well.

  5. PENAMBAHAN MIKROBA, Aspergillus niger DALAM BUNGKIL KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PAKAN UNTUK PEMBESARAN IKAN KERAPU MACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neltje Nobertine Palinggi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh dosis Aspergillus niger dalam bungkil kelapa sawit sebagai bahan pakan pada pembesaran ikan kerapu macan. Ikan uji yang digunakan berukuran bobot rata-rata 23,15±0,23 g; ditebar dalam keramba jaring apung ukuran 1 m x 1 m x 2 m, dengan kepadatan 16 ekor/keramba. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah penambahan Aspergillus niger sebanyak 2, 4, 8, 16 g/kg bungkil kelapa sawit dan kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali dan disain adalah rancangan acak lengkap. Selama pemeliharaan, ikan diberi pakan uji dua kali sehari (pagi dan sore secara satiasi selama 20 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan 8 g Aspergillus niger/kg bungkil kelapa sawit memberikan pertambahan bobot dan laju spesifik lebih tinggi daripada kontrol (P0,05, namun nilainya nyata lebih tinggi (P0.05 among those of the juveniles fed on the diets with 2, 4, 16 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake. Although the feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention of juveniles fed on the diet with 8 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake were not significantly different (P>0.05 from those of the juveniles fed on the diets with 2 and 4 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake, those of juveniles the fed diet with 8 g of A. niger/kg palm oil cake were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of the juveniles fed the diet with 16 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake. The best of growth rate of tiger grouper juveniles occurred at the dosage of 7.8—8.2 g A. niger/kg palm oil cake.

  6. Deficiency of Suppressor Enhancer Lin12 1 Like (SEL1L) in Mice Leads to Systemic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Embryonic Lethality*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Adam B.; Singh, Rajni; Li, Shuai; Vani, Anish K.; Yang, Liu; Munroe, Robert J.; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Cardano, Marina; Biunno, Ida; Qi, Ling; Schimenti, John C.; Long, Qiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important causal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and diabetes mellitus. Insight into the genetic determinants responsible for ER homeostasis will greatly facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these debilitating diseases. Suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) is an ER membrane protein and was thought to be involved in the quality control of secreted proteins. Here we show that the mice homozygous mutant for SEL1L were embryonic lethal. Electron microscopy studies revealed a severely dilated ER in the fetal liver of mutant embryos, indicative of alteration in ER homeostasis. Consistent with this, several ER stress responsive genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in SEL1L exhibited activated unfolded protein response at the basal state, impaired ER-associated protein degradation, and reduced protein secretion. Furthermore, markedly increased apoptosis was observed in the forebrain and dorsal root ganglions of mutant embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for SEL1L in protein quality control during mouse embryonic development. PMID:20197277

  7. Deficiency of suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) in mice leads to systemic endoplasmic reticulum stress and embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Adam B; Singh, Rajni; Li, Shuai; Vani, Anish K; Yang, Liu; Munroe, Robert J; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Cardano, Marina; Biunno, Ida; Qi, Ling; Schimenti, John C; Long, Qiaoming

    2010-04-30

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important causal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and diabetes mellitus. Insight into the genetic determinants responsible for ER homeostasis will greatly facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these debilitating diseases. Suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) is an ER membrane protein and was thought to be involved in the quality control of secreted proteins. Here we show that the mice homozygous mutant for SEL1L were embryonic lethal. Electron microscopy studies revealed a severely dilated ER in the fetal liver of mutant embryos, indicative of alteration in ER homeostasis. Consistent with this, several ER stress responsive genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in SEL1L exhibited activated unfolded protein response at the basal state, impaired ER-associated protein degradation, and reduced protein secretion. Furthermore, markedly increased apoptosis was observed in the forebrain and dorsal root ganglions of mutant embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for SEL1L in protein quality control during mouse embryonic development.

  8. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks.

  9. Evaluasi karakteristik abu sekam padi dengan kitosan molekul tinggi nanopartikel sebagai bahan dentinogenesis (Characteristic evaluation of rice husk ash with chitosan high molecule nanoparticle as dentinogenesis material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Farida Sinta Silalahi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC are the material used for indirect and direct pulp capping due to biocompatibility, but these materials have many shortcomings. Mineral trioxide aggregate contains a little amount of arsenic and has long setting time, while HEMA containing RMGIC are cytotoxic. Rice husk ash nanoparticles (RHAn is a potential source of silica. High molecular chitosan nanoparticles (HMCn can stimulate the formation of reparative dentin. Combination of these two materials is biocompatible and have good sealing ability. Purpose: This study was aimed to study RHAn + HMCn used as biomaterials for prevention of pulpodentinal complex by examined at the microstructure of dentin surfaces applied with RHAn + HMCn. Methods: Twenty-four mandibular premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes, were made cavity class I preparation with 3 mm depth above the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ. Then each tooth was cut in bucco-lingual direction and each part was cut using a cervical disc bur. Samples were divided into 3 groups, group I the teeth were applied with MTA; group II the teeth were applied RMGIC; group III the teeth were apllied with RHAn + HMCn. Characterization was done by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM on the interface between test material and dentin adjacent to the pulp to see surface microstructure. Results: Material microstructure of RHAn + HMCn applied to the dentine showed tags like structure which was more significant than MTA. RHAn + HMCn showed to have better sealing ability than MTA. Porosity of ASPn + HMCn was less than MTA and RMGIC. Conclusion: The study suggested that the combined RHAn + HMCn biomaterials could be used as an active biomaterial that can maintain the integrity of pulp dentinal complex.Latar belakang: Mineral trioksida agregat (MTA dan semen ionomer kaca modifikasi resin (SIKMR adalah bahan yang digunakan untuk pulp capping langsung dan tidak

  10. ANTIBODI MONOKLONAL STREPTOKOKUS MUTANS 1(c 67 kDa DALAM PASTA GIGI BAHAN DASAR UNTUK MENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOKOKUS MUTANS

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    Rini Devijanti R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of dental caries is still continuing, because the prevalency caries is high. There was many methods to prevent dental caries etc. dental education, oral hygiene, special method on tooth brushing, water fluoridation, fissure sealant and later on the passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to investigate about monoclonal antibodies IgA, IgG1 and IgG3 against Streptococcus mutans 1(c in basic paste for inhibiting the growth Streptococcus mutans. The monoclonal antibodies were IgA Ab, IgG1 Ab and IgG3 Ab. Formula basic paste from PT “X” contained Aqua, Sorbitol, Nipagin, Dicalcium Phosphat, Titanium Dioxid, Sodium Carboxyl Methyl Sel. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sacarin. Basic paste was mixed with monoclonal antibodies IgA, IgG1 and IgG3 in room temperature (27oC then to investigate zone of inhibition from these tooth paste with Wistreich and Lechman methods. The data obtained in this study was analyzed with one way Anova and LSD. The result showed that there was a significant differences between basic paste with or without monoclonal antibodies. From the data analyzed in this study it can be concluded that monoclonal antibodies against S. mutans 1( c could be formulation with basic paste.

  11. Intoxicação por selênio em suínos no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo C. Gomes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos dois surtos de intoxicação por selênio em suínos na região Sul do Brasil. Foram acometidos leitões em fase de creche, entre 27 e 22 dias, com mortalidade variando de 16% a 15,3% (Surto 1 e 2 respectivamente. Os suínos apresentaram poliomielomalacia simétrica focal e lesões de casco, que inicialmente eram caracterizadas por uma linha avermelhada na borda coronária que evoluía nos suínos sobreviventes para desprendimento do casco. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram após seis dias (Surto 1 e 30 horas (Surto 2 da introdução da ração com alto teor de selênio. O surgimento dos sinais foi abrupto, caracterizado por andar cambaleante, com evolução para paralisia dos membros pélvicos e posteriormente tetraparesia. Macroscopicamente observaram-se focos circulares amarelados com áreas deprimidas mais escuras, restritas ao corno ventral da substância cinzenta em intumescências cervical e lombar. Microscopicamente essas áreas corresponderam à malacia da substância cinzenta, caracterizada por microcavitações, perda neuronal, cromatólise, neuronofagia, infiltrado de células Gitter, microgliose, astrócitos de Alzheimer tipo II e proliferação de células endoteliais evidenciadas na imunohistoquímica (IHQ para fator de von Willebrand. Ainda, no segundo surto, dois animais apresentaram vacuolização difusa do citoplasma de neurônios e em um suíno foram observados astrócitos gemistocíticos. Na IHQ para GFAP ficou evidenciada uma astrocitose e astrogliose. Além dessas alterações medulares, em dois suínos observou-se, polioencefalomalácia simétrica no tronco encefálico. Em amostras de ração, detectou-se 3,38ppm (Surto 1 e 154ppm (Surto 2 de Se/kg e em amostras de fígado foram encontradas dosagens superiores a 3,34ppm (variando de 3,34 até 10ppm. No Surto 2, após 44 dias da retirada da ração, foi realizada eutanásia de seis suínos para monitoramento de níveis hepáticos de selênio (dois su

  12. Efeito de fontes e níveis de selênio sobre parâmetros fisiológicos em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a retenção aparente, a deposição hepática, tecidual e plasmática, bem como a eficiência da glutationa peroxidase hepática e plasmática em frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis e fontes de selênio. Utilizaram-se 300 pintos machos com 14 dias, submetidos a um esquema fatorial 3x3 + 1 (três níveis de Se - 0,150; 0,300; 0,450ppm, e três fontes comerciais de Se - uma inorgânica e duas orgânicas + um tratamento controle sem suplementação, em DIC. Do primeiro ao 14º dia de idade - período de depleção -, as aves receberam rações basais sem suplementação de selênio. Aos 14 dias, receberam as dietas com selênio, por um período de 14 dias, sendo coletadas as excretas nos últimos quatro dias. A retenção de selênio foi relativamente alta. O uso da fonte orgânica A em níveis crescentes apresentou menor queda na retenção aparente de selênio. As fontes orgânicas participaram mais ativamente nas atividades de tecidos de forma geral, e a fonte inorgânica foi neutralizada no tecido hepático. A eficiência dessa enzima no plasma aumentou linearmente quando se elevaram os níveis dietéticos. Para a fonte inorgânica, não houve mudança nesta eficiência.

  13. ADSORPSI Pb2+ DALAM LIMBAH CAIR ARTIFISIAL MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ADSORPSI KOLOM DENGAN BAHAN ISIAN ABU LAYANG BATUBARA SERBUK DAN GRANULAR

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    Widi Astuti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Batubara  merupakan  salah  satu  sumber energi  alternatif  yang murah. Oleh karena itu,  penggunaan  batubara  di  Indonesia meningkat pesat  setiap  tahunnya. Penggunaan batubara  ini  menghasilkan  limbah  yang  dapat mencemari lingkungan baik limbah gas  seperti   CO2, NOX,  CO,  SO2,  hidrokarbon  maupun  limbah  padat  yang berupa abu  layang dan  abu  dasar. Abu  layang  mengandung SiO2, Al2O3,  dan sisa karbon yang tidak terbakar sehingga potensial digunakan sebagai adsorben. Pada penelitian ini, kemampuan adsorpsi abu layang ditingkatkan melalui aktivasi termal dan diuji untuk menjerap ion Pb2+ dalam limbah cair artifisial. Adsorpsi dilakukan pada sistem kolom yang berlangsung kontinyu menggunakan bahan isian abu layang teraktivasi, dalam bentuk serbuk dan granular, pada laju alir influen yang bervariasi. Hasilnya, laju alir mempengaruhi nilai kapasitas (qo, konstanta thomas (KtH dan waktu breakthrough.Kata Kunci : Pb2+ , adsorpsi, abu layang, breakthrough Coal is one of the inexpensive alternative energy. Therefore, the usage of coal in indonesia has been increased every year. It produces waste that can pollute the environment including gases waste such as CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons and solid waste including fly ash and bottom ash. Coal fly ash is composed of  SiO2, Al2O3 and unburned carbon that enables it to act as a potential adsorbent. In this research, the adsorption capasity has increased by thermal activation and used to adsorp Pb2+ ion in wastewater.  The adsorption was carried out in packed column contains powder and granular activated fly ash. In the system, flow rate was varied.  The results show that flow rate influences adsorption capacity, Thomas constant and breakthrough time.Keywords: Pb2+, adsorption, coal fly ash, breakthrough

  14. Síntesis de biodiésel y caracterización de bebidas alcohólicas mediante técnicas de elevada resolución

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Montaner, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se describe el desarrollo de procedimientos de síntesis de biodiésel y caracterización de bebidas alcohólicas mediante técnicas analíticas de elevada resolución. La puesta a punto de los procedimientos de síntesis de biodiésel y sus estudios de caracterización se realizó en respuesta a la demanda de producción de biocombustibles basados en materias primas renovables y de bajo impacto ambiental que puedan reemplazar de manera efectiva al diésel convencional obtenido a pa...

  15. UJI AKTIVITAS IMUNOMODULATOR KASUMBA TURATE (Carthamus tinctorius LINN) SEBAGAI UPAYA PEMBUATAN SEDIAAN TERSTANDAR MENUJU PROTOTIPE SKALA INDUSTRI KECIL

    OpenAIRE

    Usmar; Syukur, Rahmawati; Tayeb, Rosany; Abdullah, Nurlaila

    2008-01-01

    Kekebalan tubuh adalah resistensi terhadap penyakit terutama penyakit infeksi. Gabungan sel, molekul dan jaringan yang berperan dalam resistensi terhadap infeksi disebut sistem imun dan reaksi yang dikoordinasi sel-sel dan molekul-molekul terhadap mikroba dan bahan lainnya disebut respon imun. Sistem imun diperlukan tubuh untuk mempertahankan keutuhannya terhadap bahaya yang dapat ditimbulkan berbagai bahan dalam lingkungan hidupnya. Aktifitas system imun dapat menurun karena berbagai factor...

  16. Selenium Supplementation in Fish: A Combined Chemical and Biomolecular Study to Understand Sel-Plex Assimilation and Impact on Selenoproteome Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pacitti

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential oligonutrient, as a component of several Se-containing proteins (selenoproteins, which exert important biological functions within an organism. In livestock, Se-enriched products have been proposed as dietary supplements to be included into functional feeds for animal preventive health care. To this end, it is important to understand the optimal range of concentrations for supplementation and how long it takes to be assimilated into the organism.In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were fed a control diet containing 0.9 g Kg-1 Se or the same diet supplemented with a Se-Yeast product (Sel-Plex to achieve Se concentrations ranging from 1.5-8.9 g Kg-1 for a period of ten weeks. Fish were sampled every two weeks for analysis. The kinetics of Se bioaccumulation and the effects on fish selenoprotein expression was determined in different tissues combining chemical and bimolecular techniques.The Sel-Plex enriched diets did not have any effect on survival and growth performance. The highest Se levels were found in liver and kidney followed by muscle and blood cells. Analysis of the Se concentration factor showed that liver is able to initially regulate the amount of Se accumulated. However, with higher dietary Se level (4.8 and 8.9 g Kg-1 and longer times of exposure (10 weeks, regulation is ineffective and the Se tissue concentration increases. The expression of the selected trout selenoprotein transcripts showed an inverse correlation with Sel-Plex augmentation in most cases. In liver, kidney and blood cells the highest up-regulation of the trout selenoprotein genes was seen mostly in the group fed the diet enriched with the lowest concentration of Sel-Plex (0.5 g Kg-1 for 10 weeks.Sel-Plex may represent an excellent Se supplement to deliver a high level of Se without provoking harm to the fish and to guarantee the maximal absorption of the element. According to our results, a dietary supplementation of Sel

  17. Analisis Pengaruh Susunan Komposit Laminat Graphene-TiO2 sebagai Lapisan Semikonduktor Terhadap Unjuk Kerja Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

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    Wahyu Tirta Nugraha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai sel surya mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan beberapa tahun terakhir. Khususnya penelitian tentang sel surya lanjutan, Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC.Karena fabrikasinya yang mudah dan murah dibandingkan dengan sel surya konvensional. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan untuk menghasilkan prototype DSSC. DSSC tersebut difabrikasi menggunakan susunan komposit laminat Graphene – TiO2 yang berbeda dengan metode Spincoating sebagai lapisan semikonduktor dan dye organik dari ekstrak Bunga Geranium. Lapisan semikonduktor dikarakterisasi menggunakan X –Ray Diffraction (XRD dan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM untuk mengetahui terbentuknya lapisan Graphene-TiO2. Absorbansi larutan dye diuji menggunakan UV-Vis Spektrofotometer. Dan pengujian unjuk kerja kelistrikan diukur menggunakan I-V Keithley Instrumen.Hasil terbaik didapatkan pada susunan komposit laminat TiO2/Graphene/TiO2 (TGT dengan nilai daya maksimum sebesar 0.259 Wm-2 , nilai efisiensi sebesar 0.0241 % dan Fill Factor sebesar 0.42.

  18. Seláquios do Acervo do Museu de Ciências da Terra / DNPM-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Alves Souto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os seláquios depositados na Coleção de Peixes Fósseis do MCTer correspondem a uma amostragem da ocorrência do grupo no Brasil. São 86 registros, sendo 9 deles holótipos, no acervo, 32,5% dos exemplares são representantes do Devoniano e Permiano, 46,5% do Cretáceo e 21% do Cenozóico, que correspondem a 19 gêneros e 36 espécies. Devido a configuração cartilaginosa do seu esqueleto, o registro fóssil restringe-se a partes mineralizadas como dentes, escamas, espinhos de nadadeiras e cefálicos. Eventualmente, ocorre a preservação de um esqueleto completo incluindo partes moles como o Tribodus limae Brito & Ferreira, 1989. Do Paleozóico, destacam-se os espinhos de Xenacanthiformes e pertencem ao acervo os holótipos de Xenacanthus tocantinsensis Santos & Salgado, 1970; Xenacanthus albuquerquei (Santos, 1946 e Xenacanthus santaritensis Ragonha, 1986. Da ordem Ctenacanthiformes há os holótipos de Ctenacanthus gondwanus Santos, 1947 e Ctenacanthus maranhensis Santos, 1946; há um representante ainda, dos Eugeneodontiformes, síntipos de Anisopleurodontis pricei Santos 1994. Entre os seláquios cretáceos estão os Lamniformes, com os exemplares de Cretolamna serrata, (Agassiz, 1843 e Scapanorhynchus rapax (Quaas, 1902. Os Hibodontiformes constituem o grupo mais representativo do mesozóico, são espinhos de nadadeiras, espinhos cefálicos e alguns dentes de Hybodus sp. O holótipo de Hybodus florencei (Moraes Rego, 1960 da Formação Corumbataí, bem como o parátipo de Tribodus limae Brito & Ferreira 1989; da Formação Santana, bacia do Araripe, fazem parte do acervo do MCTer. Dos seláquios cenozóicos estão os representantes da Formação Pirabas, Mioceno do Estado do Pará, dos quais constam dois holótipos, Carcharhinus ackermanii, Santos & Travassos 1960 e Galeocerdo paulinoi Santos & Travassos, 1960; e um dente de Carcharocles megalodon (Agassiz,1835, o maior tubarão carnívoro já existente e alguns peixes fósseis que

  19. Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholz, Anton Schindling (Hrsg.): Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Tl. 2, Münste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wittram, Heinrich, 1931-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen : Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil 2. Münster, 2010

  20. [Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil 1.] / Jürgen Beyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beyer, Jürgen, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil 1. (Münster : Aschendorff, 2009)

  1. [Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Letgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. 2. und 3. Teil] / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Letgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Hrsg. von Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholz, Anton Schindling. 2. und 3. Teil.

  2. MODIFIKASI TEPUNG UMBI TALAS BOGOR (COLOCASIA ESCULENTUM (L SCHOTT DENGAN TEKNIK OKSIDASI SEBAGAI BAHAN PANGAN PENGGANTI TEPUNG TERIGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Ariyanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman talas bogor (Colocasia esculentum (L Schott sangat mudah dibudidayakan di daerah tropik dan sub-tropik, termasuk Indonesia. Umbi talas bogor kaya akan karbohidrat, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai sumber energi yang potensial bagi manusia melalui berbagai proses modifikasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah memperbaiki kualitas tepung umbi talas bogor dengan mengkaji pengaruh konsentrasi suspensi, katalis, oksidator, dan temperatur dari proses modifikasi dengan cara oksidasi menggunakan larutan hidrogen peroksida (H2O2. Variabel yang dikaji adalah suspensi tepung dengan air (40, 30, 20, dan 10%, waktu reaksi (30, 60, 90, dan 120 menit, konsentrasi katalis (0; 0,1%; 0,2%, konsentrasi oksidator (1%, 2% dan 3% dan temperatur (30; 40; 50oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan konsentrasi suspensi 40% , konsentrasi katalis 0,1%, konsentrasi H2O2 2% dan temperatur 30oC pada waktu oksidasi 30 menit memberikan hasil yang paling optimum ditinjau dari daya kembang (swelling power dengan nilai 7g/g dan kelarutannya dalam air yaitu 4% dengan mempertimbangkan aspek teknis dan ekonomis dari proses. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan H2O2 sebagai oksidator cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan nilai daya kembang tepung talas bogor yang sebelumnya hanya 4,3 g/g menjadi 7 g/g, dimana nilai tersebut telah masuk dalam rasio daya kembang tepung terigu yaitu 6,8-7,9 g/g. Namun oksidator H2O2 tidak cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan nilai kelarutan tepung dalam air yang sebelumnya hanya 2% menjadi 4%, dimana nilai tersebut masih dibawah rasio kelarutan tepung terigu yaitu 6,3-7,3%. Selain itu uji organoleptik pada kue kering berbahan baku tepung umbi talas bogor teroksidasi menunjukkan kelemahan berupa rasa yang agak pahit dan tekstur yang terlalu rapuh dibandingkan dengan kue kering yang menggunakan bahan baku tepung terigu.Bogor taro (Colocasia esculentum (L Schott is one of the local resources which can be used as raw material for flour

  3. SEMI SINTESIS SENYAWA 2,4,6-TRINITROFENILHIDRAZON KALANON DAN UJI AKTIVITAS TERHADAP SEL LEUKIMIA L1210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Chasani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalanon adalah senyawa antikanker yang diisolasi dari Calophyllum biflorum Hends dan Ws. Aktivitas kalanon terhadap sel leukemia L1210 masih rendah yakni dengan niali IC50 = 59,4 ug/mL. Suatu senyawa dikatakan aktif sebagai antikanker jjika memiliki nilai IC50 di bawah 10 ug/mL. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan kalanon dan diharapkan diperoleh senyawa baru yang mempunyai aktivitas lebih tinggi dibandingkan senyawa asal kalanon. Senyawa turunan kalanon diperoleh melalui reaksi antara kalanon dengan 2,4,6-trinitrofenilhidrazin. Reaksi dilakukan pada suhu 78 oC selama delapan jam. Analisis pendahuluan senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menggunakan eluen n-heksana dan etil asetat (2:1, v/v. Pemurnian senyawa hasil sintesis menggunakan teknik rekristalisasi dengan pelarut n-heksana dan diklorometan (3:1, v/v. Senyawa hasil sintesis diperoleh dengan Rf = 0,6609 dan rendemen 5,125 % ( b/b serta berupa kristal berwarna coklat. Identifikasi senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan spektrometer massa dan spektrofotometer IR. Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa senyawa hasil sintesis yang diharapkan telah terbentuk. Data spektrometer massa diperoleh ion molekul M+ = 647 dengan lepasnya molekul H2. Fragmen-fragmen yang terbentuk adalah pada m/e = 504, m/e = 479, m/e = 451, m/e = 429, m/e = 405, m/e = 377, m/e = 341, m/e = 316, m/e = 281, m/e = 253, m/e = 233, m/e = 207, m/e = 177, m/e = 156, m/e = 135, m/e = 96, m/e = 73, dan m/e = 41. Hasil spektrofotometer IR menunjukkan pita serapan pada 1654.8 cm-1 yang merupakan daerah regang ikatan rangkap C=N, pita serapan pada 3000 cm-1 – 3400 cm-1 adalah pita getaran OH fenol dan pita pada 1380 cm-1 menunjukkan rentangan simetri gugus nitro (NO2. Hasil uji sitotoksik terhadap sel leukemia L1210 menghasilkan nilai IC50 sebesr 47.69 μg/ml.

  4. [cDNA cloning, expression and determination of substrate specificity of mice selenocysteine-containing protein SelV (Selenoprotein V)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamova, E G; Novoselov, S V; Novoselov, V I

    2015-01-01

    To date various bioinformatics tools allowed to identify 25 selenocysteine-containing mammalian proteins. The name of these proteins assumes that they contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Functionally characterized selenocysteine-containing proteins are oxidoreductases with various functions, including glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, deiodinases etc. However, the functions of more than half of identified proteins are still unclear, and mammalian selenoprotein SeIV is among them. We studied the selV in all stages of postnatal development with the maximum level of mRNA expression during puberty, whereas in adult mice (8-18 months) we observed a gradual decrease of expression. In order to get closer to the functional role of Selenoprotein V, we have carried out experiments on the substrate specificity and enzymatic activity measurement of this selenocysteine-containing protein. It was shown that SelV posseses glutathionperoxidase and thioredoxinreductase activities.

  5. Estudio de la reactividad en diversas atmósferas y caracterización de diferentes tipos de hollines representativos de motor diésel

    OpenAIRE

    Arnal Forcada, Cristina; Bilbao Duñabeitia, Rafael; Millera Peralta, Ángela

    2014-01-01

    1. Introducción El número de vehículos con motor diésel se ha incrementado en gran medida a lo largo de las últimas décadas. Los gases de escape de los motores diésel contienen materia particulada y óxidos de nitrógeno (NOx) como principales contaminantes. Las regulaciones de emisiones de estos contaminantes son cada vez más restrictivas y las nuevas tecnologías han de adaptarse a la legislación vigente (Jung y cols., 2008). La materia particulada consiste en partículas de hollín o soot, de m...

  6. PERSPEKTIF KEADILAN DAN KEPASTIAN HUKUM DALAM PUTUSAN PRAPERADILAN NOMOR: 04/Pid.Prap/2015/PN.Jkt.Sel. TAHUN 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktein Josephus Susak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pretrial arrangement in the Criminal Procedure Code is a strict rule with a clear limitation. One function of pretrial is to test the validity of the initial arrest and detention as a forced effort on behalf of legislation. Pretrial in the formulation of the Criminal Procedure Code is more directed at administrative oversight. In a pretrial ruling No. 04/Pid.Prap/2015/PN.Jkt.Sel., judges have intruded normative boundaries by extending the authority of a preliminary hearing object includes examining “determination of the suspect”, although not explicitly mentioned in the Criminal Procedure Code provisions. The problem in this research is “How is the existence of Criminal Pretrial Case Decision No. 04/Pid.Prap/2015/PN.Jkt.Sel., viewed from the aspect of justice and the rule of law?”. This research is a normative juridical approach method using the conceptual approach, case approach and the approach of legislation. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the examination in pretrial is a voluntair examination as an effort to actualize the procedural justice, but related  to a quo case, to realize substantial justice the judges act by entering the “determination of the suspect” as an element of the object of new norms in the series Article 77 letter a Criminal Procedure Code into a pretrial authority. This creates legal uncertainty, since it contradicts with the principle of Lex Specialis Derogat Legi Generalis, Noscitur a Sociis principle, Ejusdem Generis principle and the principle of Expressio Unius Exclusio Alterius. With the model of reasoning methods argumentum a'contrario as one of the construction methods of the law against Article 77 letter a Criminal Code, it is known that the “determination of the suspect” is not a pretrial object . The actions of judges had exceeded its authority, and the logic of the law of the judge in the formation of the new norm object element does not include extensive interpretation

  7. EFECTO DEL AGREGADO DE DIÉSEL-OIL SOBRE ALGUNOS PARÁMETROS MICROBIOLÓGICOS DEL SUELO CON Y SIN PRESENCIA DE PLANTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Petenello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La actividad industrial, el transporte de combustibles y las fugas de tanques y cañerías provocan frecuentemente derrames de hidrocarburos durante la manipulación y el uso de los mismos, que contaminan el suelo con el riesgo de alcanzar las capas freáticas. Dentro de los métodos de remediación de suelos contaminados, la fitorremediación es una de las técnicas de remoción de contaminantes para recuperar la salud del suelo que combina la acción de las plantas con los microorganismos asociados a ellas. En el presente trabajo se utilizó el proceso de remediación menos costoso, no se emplearon fertilizantes, ni se incorporaron bacterias seleccionadas por su capacidad remediadora, sino que se aprovechó la propia actividad de los microorganismos (atenuación natural. Ciertas propiedades biológicas del suelo pueden emplearse para monitorear la marcha de un proceso fitorremediador. En el experimento se emplearon dos concentraciones de diésel-oil en suelo (1 y 2%, con la presencia de plantas de Spartina argentinensis y Melilotus alba, se evaluaron la respiración, la biomasa microbiana y el cociente respiratorio en dos momentos. Hacia el final del experimento, la producción de CO2 se vio incrementada por la presencia de diésel-oil. La biomasa microbiana aumentó con la menor concentración de diésel-oil pero la mayor concentración provocó probablemente un efecto tóxico sobre los microorganismos, en consecuencia, el mayor estrés causado por la concentración de contaminante (2% de diésel-oil quedó demostrado con el qCO2. La importancia de los parámetros evaluados radica en que permiten conocer la respuesta de las comunidades microbianas del suelo ante la presencia del diésel-oil.

  8. Kekerasan mikro enamel gigi permanen muda setelah aplikasi bahan pemutih gigi dan pasta remineralisasi (Enamel micro hardness of young permanent tooth after bleaching and remineralization paste application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Liwang

    2014-12-01

    : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti kekerasan mikro permukaan email gigi permanen muda, dan efek aplikasi pasta remineralisasi setelah pemutihan gigi. Metode: Empat belas gigi permanen muda ditempatkan dalam blok resin dengan jendela pada enamel permukaan bukal dan dilakukan pengukuran kekerasan permukaan enamel sampel awal dengan menggunakan alat Microvickers Hardness Tester. Kemudian dilakukan aplikasi bahan bleaching hidrogen peroxide 30% sebanyak 3 kali masing-masing selama 15 menit. Setelah aplikasi bahan bleaching, kekerasan permukaan enamel sampel diukur kembali. Sampel dibagi 2 kelompok; kelompok pertama diaplikasi pasta remineralisasi Hidroksi apatit + NaF 1450ppm, dan kelompok kedua diaplikasi pasta CPP-ACP + NaF 900ppm. Masing-masing pasta tersebut diaplikasikan selama 30 menit 7 hari berturut-turut. Setelah aplikasi pasta remineralisasi, sampel diukur kembali kekerasan permukaan enamelnya. Hasil: Kekerasan mikro permukaan enamel menurun setelah aplikasi pemutih gigi, dari 333.09 ± 10.49 VHN ke 299,15 ± 5.70 VHN. Kekerasan mikro setelah aplikasi Hidroxy apatit + NaF "> 1450ppm adalah 316,61 ± 5.87 VHN dan setelah aplikasi CPP-ACP + NaF 900ppm adalah 319,94 ± 3,25 VHN, namun kekerasan mikro setelah aplikasi pasta remineralisasi masih lebih rendah dari kekerasan mikro awal. Simpulan: Bahan pemutih gigi menurunkan kekerasan mikro permukaan enamel gigi permanen muda secara signifikan. Aplikasi pasta remineralisasi dapat meningkatkan kembali kekerasan mikro permukaan enamel gigi permanen muda.

  9. MODA ODAKLI İÇGÜDÜSEL SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞINA ETKİ EDEN FAKTÖRLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur TÜFEKÇİ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Günümüzde geleneksel birçok moda perakendecisi, esnek olmayan tedarik zinciri, onun yarattığı aşırı stok ve kâr kayıplarıyla mücadele ederken, hızlı moda perakendecileri esnek tedarik zinciri yönetimi ve yeni trendlere hızla uyum sağlayarak bu problemi avantaja dönüştürmüşlerdir. Bu sayede hızlı moda pazarını oluşturma ve geliştirmede büyük başarı sağlamışlardır. Dolayısıyla çalışma, bu pazarda yer alan tüketicilerin algı ve tutumlarının satın alma davranışlarına etkisini belirlemek amacıyla düzenlenmiştir. Çalışma Atatürk Üniversitesi’nde okuyan kız öğrencilere 387 adet anket uygulaması yoluyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın amaçları doğrultusunda öncelikle hızlı moda perakendeciliğine yönelik tutum, kıtlık algısı, düşük fiyat algısı ve tükenebilir algısının moda odaklı içgüdüsel satın alma davranışı üzerine etkisini belirlemek için çoklu regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Sonrasında ise çok kriterli karar verme tekniklerinden TOPSIS yöntemi ile bu değişkenlerin önem sıralaması belirlenmiştir. Söz konusu değişkenlerin moda odaklı içgüdüsel satın alma üzerinde anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olduğu ve kriterler arasında en önemi etkiyi “tükenebilir algısı”nın taşıdığı belirlenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Hızlı Moda, Moda Odaklı İçgüdüsel Satın Alma, TOPSIS. ABSTRACT: Many traditional fashion retailer are struggling with inflexible supply chain and the excess inventory and profit loss due to this inflexibility. But, these problems have been converted into advantages by fast fashion retailers, via adapting quickly to new trends and flexible supply chain management. In this way, they have achieved great success which is the creation of the fast fashion market and development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine consumers' perceptions and attitudes effect on purchase behavior in this market

  10. CMOS SRAM器件单粒子锁定敏感区的脉冲激光定位试验研究%Research of SEL sensitive region of CMOS SRAM by pulsed laser mapping facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余永涛; 封国强; 陈睿; 蔡明辉; 上官士鹏; 韩建伟

    2014-01-01

    The pulsed laser mapping facility is used to study the single event latch-up sensitive regions of the CMOS SRAM K6R4016V1D. Experiment results show that the SEL sensitivity mappings of the device have similar repetitive patterns and the individual SEL sensitive region is of high aspect ratio. The impacts of the SEL sensitivity mappings on the SEL ground test methods and the SEL rate prediction are also discussed.%利用脉冲激光定位成像系统,对CMOS SRAM K6R4016V1D器件开展了单粒子锁定效应(SEL)敏感区定位的试验研究。试验结果表明:该器件的单粒子锁定效应敏感区呈周期性分布,而对于单一的SEL敏感区,其长度和宽度相差很大。在此基础上进一步讨论了SEL敏感区的分布对测试方法和空间SEL发生频次计算的影响。

  11. Evaluation of a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL for simultaneous detection of injured Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Suo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many rapid and high throughput molecular methods have been developed in the recent years for the multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens, the simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured cells is still a problem that needs to be considered. Combined with previous established multiplex real-time PCR assay, the capability of simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes cells was evaluated in a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL. The injured cells were obtained by heat shock. After evaluation of different procedures, 1 h of recovery period prior to 20 h of enrichment was proved to be necessary for the detection of less than 10 CFU/5 mL broth of injured L. monocytogenes. When the detection method was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef, all the three injured pathogens could be simultaneously detected without discrimination by real-time PCR combined with SEL broth, the detection limit was < 5 CFU/10 g ground beef. Comparatively, when BPW was employed as the enrichment broth in the same detection procedure, injured L. monocytogenes could not be detected if the initially spiked level was below 10² CFU/10 g ground beef. Considering the capability of co-enrichment and high detection effectiveness, the real-time PCR assay combined with SEL broth herein appears to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of a large number of processed food samples, which require either single or multiple pathogen detection. More important, the sublethally injured foodborne pathogen cells were also detectable.

  12. Contagem de células somáticas no leite de vacas suplementadas no pré-parto com selênio e vitamina E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal Juliana Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O selênio e a vitamina E são antioxidantes importantes na defesa de células e tecidos e atuam diretamente na manutenção da saúde do úbere, influenciando a contagem de células somáticas, indicador no leite da mastite. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da suplementação do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a contagem de células somáticas no leite de vacas da raça holandesa, durante o período das águas. Oitenta animais foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: controle; suplementação com 2,5mg Se dia-1; suplementação com 1000 UI vit. E dia-1 e suplementação com 2,5mg Se + 1000 UI vit. E dia-1. A suplementação foi iniciada 30 dias antes da provável data de parição, prolongando-se até o parto. Amostras do volumoso e do concentrado foram colhidas, quinzenalmente, para análise bromatológica completa e levantamento dos níveis de selênio. O sangue foi colhido antes do início da suplementação, no parto, 30 e 60 dias após o parto, para determinação dos níveis de Se no soro sangüíneo das vacas. O leite foi colhido semanalmente para determinação da contagem de células somáticas (CCS. O período de colheita iniciou-se logo após o período colostral, prolongando-se até a décima segunda semana de lactação. Um mês após a suplementação, as vacas que receberam selênio apresentaram níveis séricos superiores (P0,05 a CCS nas doze primeiras semanas de lactação e não foi encontrado efeito de interação entre os dois elementos.

  13. Estudio de la viabilidad técnico-económica del biodiésel obtenido a partir de oleína de palma

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Mario Fernando; Cabrera, Gerardo; Laín Beatove, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la evaluación del desempeño de dos formulaciones de biodiésel obtenidas a partir de aceite vegetal de palma. Los resultados obtenidos en ensayos en un dinamómetro para motores de encendido por compresión demuestran su viabilidad tanto técnica como ecológica para la producción de potencia. También se formulan lineamientos para su viabilidad económica. Por consiguiente, la posibilidad de cultivos de energía autosustentables es una posibilidad real....

  14. Concentração e retenção do selênio em peixes marinhos Concentration and retention of selenium in marine fish

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Tenuta Filho; Luciene Fagundes Lauer Macedo; Déborah Inês Teixeira Favaro

    2010-01-01

    O pescado contém substancialmente maiores concentrações de selênio (Se) do que outras carnes e é, por isso, considerado a maior fonte dietária desse nutriente. Ao mesmo tempo, o pescado também é a maior fonte de ingestão de mercúrio (Hg) na dieta humana, cuja toxidez pode ser reduzida pelo Se, por interação entre ambos. Em consequência, a biodisponibilidade do Se é reduzida. No presente estudo, a ocorrência do Se foi avaliada em espécies marinhas de peixes brasileiros, comercialmente disponív...

  15. Modification de la bentonite par un sel de diphosphonim – Applications à l’adsorption des colorants textiles (rouge, bleu et jaune Bemacide).

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI, fatima

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de notre étude est d’améliorer les propriétés de sorption de la bentonite vis-à-vis les colorants qui sont classés parmi les produits les plus toxiques et comparaison entre bentonite sodique et modifiée. La première partie du travail concerne la préparation et la caractérisation des bentonites modifiées avec un sel de diphosphonium(p-HpHBM). Les bentonites modifiées sont obtenues par échange cationique entre les cations inorganiques qui se trouvent dans les feuillets de...

  16. A SEL1L mutation links a canine progressive early-onset cerebellar ataxia to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Kyöstilä

    Full Text Available Inherited ataxias are characterized by degeneration of the cerebellar structures, which results in progressive motor incoordination. Hereditary ataxias occur in many species, including humans and dogs. Several mutations have been found in humans, but the genetic background has remained elusive in dogs. The Finnish Hound suffers from an early-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia. We have performed clinical, pathological, and genetic studies to describe the disease phenotype and to identify its genetic cause. Neurological examinations on ten affected dogs revealed rapidly progressing generalized cerebellar ataxia, tremors, and failure to thrive. Clinical signs were present by the age of 3 months, and cerebellar shrinkage was detectable through MRI. Pathological and histological examinations indicated cerebellum-restricted neurodegeneration. Marked loss of Purkinje cells was detected in the cerebellar cortex with secondary changes in other cortical layers. A genome-wide association study in a cohort of 31 dogs mapped the ataxia gene to a 1.5 Mb locus on canine chromosome 8 (p(raw = 1.1x10(-7, p(genome = 7.5x10(-4. Sequencing of a functional candidate gene, sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (SEL1L, revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.1972T>C; p.Ser658Pro, in a highly conserved protein domain. The mutation segregated fully in the recessive pedigree, and a 10% carrier frequency was indicated in a population cohort. SEL1L is a component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD machinery and has not been previously associated to inherited ataxias. Dysfunctional protein degradation is known to cause ER stress, and we found a significant increase in expression of nine ER stress responsive genes in the cerebellar cortex of affected dogs, supporting the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study describes the first early-onset neurodegenerative ataxia mutation in dogs, establishes an ERAD-mediated neurodegenerative

  17. Alternativa de purificación de biodiésel obtenido por transesterificación de aceite de palma con metanol supercrítico

    OpenAIRE

    Garay Mayorga, Edgar Asdraldo

    2014-01-01

    En estudios recientes sobre la producción de biodiésel obtenido por transesterificación de aceite de palma con metanol, se han diseñado reactores que trabajan a condiciones supercríticas en ausencia de un catalizador, con resultados de conversiones superiores al 96%. Sin embargo, a la salida del reactor también hay glicerol (coproducto) y metanol (reactivo en exceso). Este proceso se lleva a cabo a condiciones de alta presión y alta temperatura, lo que se traduce en un proceso costoso de alto...

  18. PERFORMA NEUTRONIK BAHAN BAKAR LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 PADA SMALL MOBILE-MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Rokhman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis terhadap performa neutronik bahan bakar garam lebur LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 pada Small Mobile-Molten Salt Reactor (SM-MSR. Penyesuaian konfigurasi teras dan temperatur operasi harus dilakukan untuk penggunaan bahan bakar baru tersebut agar mencapai keff > 1 dan CR (conversion ratio > 1 pada fraksi 0,5% 233U, 20% 232Th, 28% Li, 51,5% Be. Setelah didapat nilai keff ≈ 1 dan CR ≈ 1, dilakukan analisis pengaruh perubahan Th terhadap Be dan Be terhadap Li yang terlihat dalam perubahan parameter keff dan CR. Setelah itu fraksi 233U divariasi antara 0,5–0,46% untuk memperoleh keff > 1 dan CR > 1. Dalam perhitungan koefisien reaktifitas temperatur (αT, temperatur teras dinaikkan sebesar +25K dan +50K., dan untuk koefisien reaktifitas void (αV, densitas bahan bakar dikurangi hingga 90%. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa pengurangan Th terhadap Be menyebabkan penurunan nilai CR dan naiknya keff akibat berkurangnya material fertil. Sebaliknya penambahan Be terhadap Li mengakibatkan terjadi kenaikan nilai keff dan menurunkan CR, akibat laju serapan Li lebih besar dari Be. Pada 5 (lima fraksi 233U dalam rentang 0,5–0,49%, hasil perhitungan keff dan CR masing-masing bervariasi dalam rentang 1,00001 - 1,00327 dan 1,00016 - 1,00731. Untuk faktor puncak daya (PPF, hasil perhitungan memberikan nilai dalam rentang 2,4311 -2,4714. Sedangkan untuk parameter keselamatan, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur (αT dan reaktivitas void (αV masingmasing bernilai negatif dalam rentang 4,972×10-5 - 5,909×10-5 dan 2,596×10-2- 2,8287×10-2 ∆k/k/K. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa teras SM-MSR memberikan nilai negatif di kedua koefisien reaktivitas tersebut untuk setiap fraksi,, sehingga memenuhi kriteria keselamatan dan keselamatan melekat. Kata kunci: SM-MSR (small mobile-molten salt reactor, bahan bakar LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4, keselamatan melekat, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur, koefisien reaktivitas void   The analysis of neutronic performance has

  19. ANEMIA SEL SABIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Agus Suwiryawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Anemia is a form of blood disorder most often occurs in the community. Sickle cell anemia is anemia due to hemoglobinopathy caused by a change in the amino acid-6 of the ? globin chain. Sickle cell anemia is common in tropical areas of Africa and some parts of the region Saudi Arabia, India and the Mediterranean as well as black people in America. In addition there are also careers in various European countries. In pathophysiology, there are amino acid change from glutamic acid to valine in the ?-globin chain that causes red blood cells become sickle-shaped when deoxygenatied, but still be able to return to its normal shape when experiencing oxygenation. When the red blood cell membrane have been amended, the polymerization of red blood cells has become irreversible. Clinical picture seen in sickle cell anemia can be divided into two, namely: acute and chronic. Diagnosis can be done is to distinguish between heterozygous or homozygous sickle cell. Treatment provided in accordance with the clinical picture appears. Treatment that can be done is by blood transfusion, bone marrow transplant, anti-sickling drug delivery, and drug delivery to trigger the synthesis of HbF. Treatment still in the development stage is to use stem cells. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  1. Avaliação dos níveis de hiper-homocisteinemia, vitamina E, selênio, cobre, ceruloplasmina e ferritina em pacientes com diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico

    OpenAIRE

    Harboe-Gonçalves,Lillian; Vaz,Luiz Sérgio; Marcelo,Buzzi

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar níveis sangüíneos de hiper-homocisteinemia, vitamina E, selênio, cobre, ceruloplasmina e ferritina em pacientes com diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI). CASUÍSTICA, MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal analítico de 104 pacientes diagnosticados com AVCI e 98 controles. Dosagem de homocisteína e vitamina E feita por cromatografia líquida de alta performance. O selênio foi dosado por tecnologia de espectrometria de massa por plasma indutivamente acopla...

  2. Efek ekstrak buah delima (Punica Granatum L terhadap ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster

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    Sri Hernawati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer in the oral cavity. DNA tests showed that almost 90% of cases revealed wild p53 gene mutations. Wild p53 gene mutations cause p53 inactivation so the cell cycle does not stop in G1 phase but continues to S phase and G2 and M, it makes the mutated DNA remains multiplied and apoptosis does not occur. One candidate of the cancer treatment alternatives is pomegranate extract (Punica granatum L – PGL. Purpose: The purpose of study was to examine the effect of PGL on wild p53 expression in oral cavity malignant cell of swiss webster strain mice. Methods: Thirty- two swiss webster strain mice (Balb/c 5 months old were randomly divided into four groups. Two control groups (K0: no benzopirene exposed and untreated; K1: benzopirene exposed and untreated; and 2 treatment groups (P1: benzopirene exposed and given EA; P2: benzopirene exposed and given PGL extract. The expression of wild p53 was determined by immunohistochemical techniques. Results: The results showed that administration of PGL could increase the expression of wild p53 in malignant epithelial cells in the oral mucosa of mice, and the expression was higher than EA. Conclusion: This study suggested that the PGL extract could express wild p53 in the oral cavity malignant cells of swiss Webster strains mice.Latar belakang: Karsinoma sel skuamosa merupakan kanker yang sering terjadi pada rongga mulut. Pemeriksaan DNA menunjukkan hampir 90% kasus dijumpai adanya mutasi gen wild p53. Mutasi gen wild p53 menyebabkan inaktivasi wild p53 sehingga siklus sel tidak berhenti pada fase G1 tetapi berlanjut ke fase S dan G2 dan M, sehingga DNA yang mengalami mutasi tetap dilipatgandakan dan apoptosis tidak terjadi. Salah satu kandidat obat kanker adalah ekstrak buah delima (Punica Granatum L - PGL. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek ekstrak PGL terhadap ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster

  3. PENGARUH BERBAGAI KECAMBAH KACANG-KACANGAN LOKAL SEBAGAI BAHAN DASAR MEAT ANALOG TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK (TEKSTUR, KESUKAAN DAN RASIO ARGININ/LISIN

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    Bayu Kanetro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the best of local legume sprout as raw material of meat analog, based on its texture, sensory (preference properties, and the ratio of arginine/lysine, compared to meat analog from soybean. Meat analogs were made of protein of local legumes sprout, which were velvet beans, cowpeas, and winged beans that had been germinated for 48, 36 and 24 hr respectively. The protein of velvet beans, cowpeas, and winged beans sprout for meat analog production were extracted at pH 9 and precipitated at pH 4, 5, and 5 respectively. Hence their products were analyzed the texture, the sensory properties (the hedonic scales of color, texture, odor, taste, and overall, and the ratio of arginine/lysine. The characteristics of meat analog from the legumes sprout were compared to meat analog from soybean for determination of the best legume sprout as raw material of meat analog. The result of this research showed the properties of meat analog from winged bean and cowpeas sprouts were better than velvet beans sprout. The meat analog from soybean was still better than meat analog from the local legumes sprout, especially its texture. The arginine content, that was known as  hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic component,  of meat analog from cowpeas sprout was lower than meat analog from soybean, but its ratio of arginie/lysine was not signifi cantly different. While the ratio of arginine/lysine of meat analog from the other legumes sprout were lower than meat analog from soybean. Therefore the meat analog from cowpeas sprout was chosen as the best product and was potential as functional food especially for reducing blood cholesterol. Keywords: Meat analog, sprout, local legumes, arginine/lysine ratio   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jenis kecambah kacang-kacangan lokal terbaik sebagai bahan baku kedelai berdasarkan tekstur, sifat sensoris, dan rasio arginin/lisin dibandingkan meat analog dari biji

  4. Pengaruh Konsentrasi dan Lama Aplikasi Sodium Hipoklorit (NaOCL sebagai Bahan Irigasi Saluran Akar terhadap Kekuatan Geser Perlekatan Siler Berbahan Dasar Resin Pada Dentin Saluran Akar

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    Tunjung Nugraheni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Salah satu tahap penting perawatan saluran akar yaitu preparasi saluran akar. Pada preparasi saluran akar digunakan bahan Irigasi sodium hipoklorit (NaOCI, dengan konsentrasi 0,5%-5.25%. Penggunaan NaOCL berpengaruh pada struktur permukaan dentin saluran akar, yang selanjutnya mempengaruhi perlekatan dentin saluran akar dengan bahan pengisi saluran akar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi dan lama aplikasi NaOCI terhadap kekuatan geser perlekatan siler berbahan dasar resin pada dentin saluran akar. Metode Penelitian. Tiga puluh gigi premolar dipotong arah bukolingual, jaringan pulpa dibersihkan dan permukaan dentin saluran akar diratakan. Gigi difiksasi resin akrilik, sisi dentin saluran akar menghadap ke atas. Sampel dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok masing-masing 15 gigi, kelompok 1 di rendam dalam 6ml NaOCI 2,5%. Kelompok II direndam dalam 6 ml NaOCI 5%. Kelompok I dan II dibagi menjadi 3 sub kelompok lama perendaman, yaitu sub kelompok a direndam selama 5 menit, sub kelompok diremdam selama 10 menit, sub kelompok direndam selama 15 menit. Cetakan siler difiksasi pada akar gigi, dilakukan insersi siler ke dalam cetakan kemudian dimasukkan inkubaror pada suhu 370 C selama 72 jam. Pengujian kekuatan geser perlekatan menggunakan Universal Testing Machine. Hasil penelitian. Hasil uji statistik AVANA dua jalur menunjukkan kekuatan geser perlekatan siler berbahan dasar resin pada dentin saluran akar setelah diirigasi dengan konsentrasi NaOCI dan lama irigasi yang berbeda terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (p=0,007. Uji LSD menunjukkan bahwa kekuatan geser perlekatan siler berbahan dasar resin berbeda bermakna pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 2,5% selama 5 menit dengan 15 menit,, pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 2,5% selama 10 menit dengan 15 menit, pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 5% selama 15 menit dengan kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 2,5% selama 15 menit serta pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 5% selama 5

  5. [Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil I] / Heinrich Wittram

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wittram, Heinrich, 1931-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung. Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen. Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil I. Münster : Aschendorff, 2009. (Katholisches Leben und Kirchenreform im Zeitalter der Glaubensspaltung, 69)

  6. [Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen : Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil 4. Hrsg. von Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholtz und Anton Schindlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maasing, Madis, 1984-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen : Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. Teil 4. (Katholisches Leben und Kirchenreform im Zeitalter der Glaubensspaltung, 72). Hrsg. von Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholtz und Anton Schindling. Verlag Aschendorff. Münster 2012

  7. [Matthias Asche, Werner Buchholz, Anton Schindling. Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen; Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. T. 1-3] / Axel von C

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Campenhausen, Axel von

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Asche, Matthias, Bucholz, Werner, Achindling, Anton. (Hrsg.) Die baltischen Lande im Zeitalter der Reformation und Konfessionalisierung : Livland, Estland, Ösel, Ingermanland, Kurland und Lettgallen; Stadt, Land und Konfession 1500-1721. T. 1-3. Münster: Aschendorff Verlag 2009, 2010, 2011

  8. Tratamiento de los aceites vegetales usados, como materia prima para la elaboración de biodiésel en la ciudad de Arequipa

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor Zúñiga, Rosa María; Huaco Álamo, Hortencia Elena; Cuentas Machicao, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Las hipótesis de la investigación son: a) Se puede obtener combustible ecológico (biodiésel) a partir de aceites usados, mediante la transesterificación, usando alcohol etílico, y b) Se puede disminuir el grado de contaminación de las aguas efluentes de los principales restaurantes de Arequipa, mediante el tratamiento de los aceites usados que se generan y a través de asesoramiento técnico correspondiente en la separación de este desecho.Para la investigación se tomaron en cuenta las siguient...

  9. Gestión de la cadena de abastecimiento del biodiésel: una revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Barón

    2013-06-01

    Con base en el tendiente crecimiento del negocio de los biocombustibles, tanto a ni-vel mundial como local, resulta pertinente contar con herramientas técnicas que apoyen la toma de decisiones en la gestión agroindustrial para aprovechar de mejor manera un mercado por ahora naciente, pero que a mediano y largo plazo se escenifica como un gran sector productivo que podrá generar desarrollo a las regiones productivas. Este trabajo tiene el fin de presentar un estado del arte sobre la cadena de abastecimiento-del biodiésel y los modelos matemáticos desarrollados para apoyar la toma de decisio-nes en la gestión de la cadena de suministro.

  10. La teneur en iode du sel de cuisine consommé à Lubumbashi et le statut iode des personnes vulnérables: cas de femmes enceintes de milieux défavorisés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banza, Bienvenue Ilunga; Lumbu, Jean Baptiste Simbi; Donnen, Philippe; Twite, Eugène Kabange; Kwete, Daniel Mikobi; Kazadi, Costa Mwadianvita; Ozoza, Jean Okolonken; Habimana, Laurence; Kalenga, Prosper Muenze Kayamba; Robert, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La consommation du sel faiblement iodé peut engendrer des troubles divers liés à la carence iodée Ce travail a pour objectif d’évaluer la teneur en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi et de déterminer le statut iodé des femmes enceintes, cible privilégiée de la carence iodée. Méthodes Une étude transversale descriptive a été consacrée à une analyse iodométrique d'iode dans 739 échantillons de sel collectés dans les ménages et marchés de Lubumbashi en 2014. Précédemment, l'iode urinaire a été déterminé par la technique de minéralisation au persulfate d'ammonium chez 225 femmes enceintes reçues en consultation du 15 mars 2009 au 25 avril 2011. Résultats Notre enquête a révélé 47,5% des échantillons de sels de cuisine adéquatement iodés (15 à 40 ppm), 36,9% d’échantillons faiblement iodés, 7,4% d’échantillons trop riches en iode et 8,1% des échantillons non iodés. La disponibilité en iode du sel de cuisine analysé était globalement de 54,9%, se trouvant nettement en dessous des normes OMS (90%). En mesurant l'iode urinaire chez la femme enceinte, la carence iodée (iode urinaire risques majeurs des troubles dus à la carence en iode. PMID:27279956

  11. Comportement mécanique des cavités dans le sel. Etat actuel de nos connaissances Mechanical Behaviour of Salt Cavities. Present State of Our Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucly P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation depuis dix ans des premières cavités salines créées sur le site de Tersanne s'est accompagnée d'une réduction de leur volume relativement importante. Cette observation a conduit le Gaz de France à développer d'importantes études sur le comportement rhéologique du sel dans lequel sont creusées les cavités. Ces études, effectuées en collaboration avec des laboratoires universitaires, ont consisté en de nombreux essais en laboratoire (essais de longue durée à la température des terrains visant à déterminer les lois de comportement du matériau. Parallèlement, des modèles de calcul de divers degrés de complexité ont été élaborés afin de prendre en compte ces lois dans l'estimation de la stabilité et de la tenue à long terme de la cavité. Ces études ont abouti récemment à la mise au point d'un premier modèle de comportement du sel qui rend compte de l'ensemble des observations effectuées à ce jour sur les cavités. Grâce à ce modèle, il est maintenant possible d'étudier quelle influence a sur leur volume un type d'utilisation donné des cavités. The exploitation over the last ten years of the first salt cavities created in the Tersanne area has resulted in a relatively large decrease in their volume. This observation led Gaz de France to do extensive research on the rheological behavior of the salt into which cavities are leached. This research, performed in cooperation with university laboratories, consisted of numerous laboratory tests (long-duration tests at formation temperatures to determine the behavior laws of the material. At the same time, models for computing different degrees of complexity were developed to take these laws into account in evaluating the stability and long-term resistance of the cavity. This research has recently resulted in the development of an initial salt-behavior model involving all the observations made concerning these cavities to date. This model can now be

  12. Sifat fisik hidroksiapatit sintesis kalsit sebagai bahan pengisi pada sealer saluran akar resin epoxy (Physical properties of calcite synthesized hydroxyapatite as the filler of epoxy-resin-based root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2013-12-01

    : Penambahan bahan pengisi pada sealer berbahan dasar resin akan meningkatkan sifat fisik polimer. Karena sifat biologis bagus, hidroksiapatit (HA sintetis digunakan sebagai bahan pengisi material kedokteran gigi seperti resin komposit. Hidroksiapatit sintesis kalsit merupakan HA yang hasilkan dari mineral kalsit berasal dari berbagai daerah pertambangan di Indonesia. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti pengaruh berbagai konsentrasi HA sintesis kalsit sebagai bahan pengisi sealer berbahan dasar resin epoksi terhadap sifat fisiknya yaitu sudut kontak, ketebalan film dan kekerasan mikronya. Metode: Kristal HA sintesis kalsit yang berukuran 7,721-88,710 nm dengan rasio Ca/P 1,6886 diperoleh dari sintesis di Laboratorium Keramik, Teknik Mesin, Universitas Gadjah Mada menggunakan wet method dengan microwave hidrotermal. Serbuk resin epoksi dipersiapkan dengan menambahkan kristal HA sintesis kalsit dalam lima konsentrasi yang berbeda yaitu HA-10%, HA-20%, HA-30%, HA-40% dan HA-50% (dalam berat. Masing-masing serbuk diaduk dengan pasta resin epoksi dengan perbandingan 3:1 menggunakan spatula di atas glassplate hingga homogen, selanjutnya dilakukan pengukuran sudut kontak dan ketebalan film. Pengukuran kekerasan mikro dilakukan setelah sealer disimpan dalam inkubator 37 oC selama 24 jam sehingga mencapai polimerisasi sempurna. Hasil: Semua kelompok menunjukkan bahwa sudut kontak <90o dan menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan (p=0,510. Semua kelompok menunjukkan bahwa ketebalan filmnya sesuai dengan ISO 6876 (<50 um dan menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan (p=0,858. Pada kelompok HA-10%, 20% dan 30% kekerasan mikronya meningkat, sedangkan pada HA-50% menurun dan HA-40% kekerasannya sama dengan kelompok kontrol (HA-0%. Simpulan: Penambahan hingga 50% HA sintesis kalsit sebagai bahan pengisi sealer resin epoksi tidak mempengaruhi sudut kontak dan ketebalan film. Kekerasan sealer dapat ditingkatkan dengan menambahkan HA sintesis kalsit maksimum hingga 30%.

  13. PEMANFAATAN BAHAN ORGANIK SEBAGAI BAHAN PEMBAWA INOKULAN FUNGI MIKORIZA ARBUSKULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNE NURBAITY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF is known as one type of biofertilizer. The carrier for this biofertilizer is usually made from inorganic material such as zeolite. Currently, it is important to find the alternative materials that can be used as biofertilizers’ carrier due to the need of lower cost and easily available, such organic matter. Rice straw and husk are some of the organic matter sources that can be used as a carrier of AMF. A glass house experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of different type of organic matter as a carrier of AMF’s inoculum. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized block design with two factors, i.e. type of organic matter (zeolite as a control, straw, burnt-rice’s husk and combination of straw and rice husk 50/50 v/v and type of different hosts of AMF’s (Jatropha sp. and Sorghum sp.. The results showed that application of burnt-rice’s husk was better carrier of AMF inoculum instead of straw or combination of straw and burnt-rice’s husk. The quality of AMF inoculum with burnt-rice’s husk as a carrier was as good as the control inoculum that used zeolite, in terms of the number of spores, the percentage of root colonization, root length colonized and root fresh weight. In summary, burnt-rice’s husk has a good potential carrier of AMF biofertilizer.

  14. SEL-Çekirdek Çarpıştırıcılarında Nd144 ve Nd146 Çekirdeklerinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur ÖZCAN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nükleer Fizik arastırmaları için Nükleer Rezonans Floresans (NRF deneyleri ve yeterince monokromatik ısınım kullanımı çok önemlidir. Lineer elektron hızlandırıcılarına dayalı serbest elektron lazerlerinin (SEL bu deneylerde kullanılması son yıllarda tartısılmaktadır. Bu lazerlerin tam iyonize çekirdek demetleri ile tepkimeye girmesi çekirdeklerin uyarılma seviyelerinin daha yüksek istatistikle çalısılmasına imkan saglayacaktır. Önceki çalısmalarda gözlenemeyen uyarılma seviyeleri, yasam süreleri, spin ve parite degerleri gibi özellikler de bu hassas ısık kaynagı ile kolayca belirlenecektir. Bu çalısmada Serbest Elektron Lazeri (SEL ile, Büyük Hadron Çarpıstırıcısı (LHC ve HERA bazında kurulabilecek SEL-LHC ve SEL-HERA çarpıstırıcılarının ana parametreleri ve fizik arastırma potansiyeli arastırılmıstır. Örnek çekirdek olarak Nd144 ve Nd146 çekirdekleri seçilmistir.

  15. 存储单元抗 TID/SEL电路加固技术面积代价研究%Study on the Memory Cell TID/SEL Hardening by Design Technology Area Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 桑红石; 沈绪榜

    2014-01-01

    In space radiation environment ,total ionizing dose (TID) effect and single event latch (SEL) have serious impact on the reliability of memory devices . Total Ionizing Dose effect and Single Event Latch and radiation hardening technologies were discussed ,especially the Radiation Harden by Design hardening technologies .Four types of new TID/SEL tolerable memory cells are designed to compare the area cost with the available designs .The results show TID/SEL tolerable memory cell design generally increases the cell area by 87 .5% at least .One of the proposed programs could make a good trade-off between the hardening performance and the area cost .%在太空辐射环境中,总剂量辐射(Total Ionizing Dose ,TID)效应和单粒子闩锁(Single Event Latch ,SEL)效应严重影响存储器的可靠性.由此讨论了存储单元 TID效应和SEL效应的原理,探讨了基于电路的加固技术(RHBD),设计了4种新的抗TID/SEL存储单元加固方案,并和现有几种方案进行对比,研究了这些加固方案的面积代价.研究结果表明,抗TID/SEL RHBD方案普遍会使存储单元的版图面积增加87.5%以上.提出了一种加固方案,可以在加固性能和面积代价上得到较好的折衷.

  16. Selenato e selenito na produção e biofortificação agronômica com selênio em arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernandes Boldrin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de doses de selenato e selenito na biofortificação de arroz (Oryza sativa com Se, bem como a influência dessas formas de Se nos teores de P, S, Fe e Zn nos grãos. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos com 4 dm³ de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, de textura média, em arranjo fatorial 5x2, com cinco doses de Se (0, 0,75, 1,50, 3,0 e 6,0 mg dm-3 e duas formas de Se (selenato e selenito. Observou-se que o selenato proporcionou maior eficiência na absorção de Se pelas raízes, aproveitamento pela planta, translocação para a parte aérea e teor desse elemento nos grãos. A aplicação do selênio na adubação altera os teores de P, S e Zn, mas não afeta os de Fe nos grãos de arroz.

  17. PROTEKSI VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN KOKTAIL SEL UTUH TERHADAP KO-INFEKSI Mycobacterium fortuitum DAN Aeromonas hydrophila PADA IKAN GURAME, Osphronemus gouramy Uni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uni Purwaningsih

    2014-08-01

    serangan agen patogen. Pemberian vaksin diharapkan dapat merangsang respons imun spesifik dan non spesifik pada ikan. Keberhasilan vaksinasi dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi antigen, reaksi silang dan kompetisi di antara antigen yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis level proteksi vaksin monovalen dan koktail sel utuh terhadap ko-infeksi M. fortuitum dan A. hydrophila pada ikan gurame. Respons imun perlakuan vaksin monovalen maupun koktail pada gurame pasca ko-infeksi menunjukkan nilai parameter-parameter yaitu: hematokrit, hemoglobin, indeks fagositik, persentase fagositik, titer antibodi, uji respiratory burst (NBT, aktivitas komplemen, dan diferensial leukosit yang berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dibanding kontrol. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila menunjukkan nilai RPS sebesar 92,3% dan monovalen M. fortuitum sebesar 78,6% setelah ditantang dengan infeksi tunggal bakteri homolog namun menunjukkan proteksi yang rendah terhadap ko-infeksi. Vaksin koktail 50Mf :50Ah memberikan proteksi yang lebih baik dari vaksin monovalen pasca uji tantang dengan ko-infeksi bakteri M. fortuitum dan A. hydrophila.

  18. PDI reductase acts on Akita mutant proinsulin to initiate retrotranslocation along the Hrd1/Sel1L-p97 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiyu; Cunningham, Corey Nathaniel; Manickam, Nandini; Liu, Ming; Arvan, Peter; Tsai, Billy

    2015-10-01

    In mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), characterized by insulin deficiency, MIDY proinsulin mutants misfold and fail to exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, these mutants bind and block ER exit of wild-type (WT) proinsulin, inhibiting insulin production. The ultimate fate of ER-entrapped MIDY mutants is unclear, but previous studies implicated ER-associated degradation (ERAD), a pathway that retrotranslocates misfolded ER proteins to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. Here we establish key ERAD machinery components used to triage the Akita proinsulin mutant, including the Hrd1-Sel1L membrane complex, which conducts Akita proinsulin from the ER lumen to the cytosol, and the p97 ATPase, which couples the cytosolic arrival of proinsulin with its proteasomal degradation. Surprisingly, we find that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the major protein oxidase of the ER lumen, engages Akita proinsulin in a novel way, reducing proinsulin disulfide bonds and priming the Akita protein for ERAD. Efficient PDI engagement of Akita proinsulin appears linked to the availability of Hrd1, suggesting that retrotranslocation is coordinated on the lumenal side of the ER membrane. We believe that, in principle, this form of diabetes could be alleviated by enhancing the targeting of MIDY mutants for ERAD to restore WT insulin production.

  19. 输出对CMOS反相器SEL特性的影响评估%The Impact Evaluation of Output to SEL Characteristic of CMOS Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪俊; 师谦; 邓文基

    2009-01-01

    文中通过计算机模拟的方法分析了器件在不同输出电平时,CMOS反相器单粒子闩锁(SEL)特件的变化.通过对器件输出电平不同时,不同衬底的CMOS反相器进行仿真研究,我们得出,P村底器件输出为高电平时比输出为低电平时得到的闩锁电流大,而N衬底器件在输出不同时,得到的闩锁电流大小相近.对下同种衬底的器件在输出不同时对SEL的敏感性几乎相同.在深亚微米的器件中,输出对器件SEL特性的影响均较大,需要在研究器件SEL特性时把其考虑在内.

  20. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy Abusyairi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to day, the materials of Arabic teaching that are developed and used widely in Indonesia in general are the teaching materials used in the madrassah in the Middle East. If the teaching material is the result of the development of amounts not so much. While the demands for innovation and the development of Arabic language teaching materials, today continues to roll, in line with the dynamics of the development of science and technology. Besides that , the demand for Arabic teaching materials that use Indonesian as the language develops in most introductory students, especially those with a general educational background. Thus, one needs to have a competence of teachers in performing their duties is developing instructional materials. Development of teaching materials a teacher is important for learning more effective, efficient, and does not deviate from the competency achieved. Arabic teaching materials can be developed through the following steps : a analysis, b design, c the writing and preparation of the material, d evaluation, e revision.

  1. Kajian Morfologi Anatomi dan Agronomi antara Kedelai Sehat dengan Kedelai Terserang Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus serta Pemanfaatannya sebagai Bahan Ajar Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As’ad Syamsul Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu penyebab rendahnya produktivitas kedelai di Indonesia adalah serangan virus belang samar kacang tunggak Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian survei yang bertujuan untuk menggambarkan dan mengumpulkan informasi tentang kajian morfologi, anatomi dan agronomi terhadap infeksi CPMMV antara varietas yang terinfeksi dengan yang tidak terinfeksi. Data dianalisi secara deskriptif dan secara Inferensial ANAVA dengan menggunakan pro-gram SPSS for Windows versi 16. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: Varietas Gumitir sehat, Anjosmoro sehat, Mahameru sehat , MLGG 0021, dan MLGG 0268 memiliki ukuran lebih besar dalam hal panjang daun, lebar daun, panjang petiol daun, nisbah daun (L/W, dan nisbah daun (L/PL dibandingkan va-rietas yang sakit. Varietas Argopuro sakit memiliki ukuran lebih besar dalam hal panjang daun, lebar daun, panjang petiol daun, dan nisbah daun (L/W, Nisbah daun (L/PL dibandingkan varietas yang sehat. Tidak terdapat perbedaan warna hipokotil, perbedaan bentuk daun, warna daun, warna bulu batang, permukaan daun antara kedelai sehat dan sakit pada keenam varietas. Terdapat perbedaan warna biji, warna polong masak, antara kedelai sehat dan sakit pada keenam varietas. Warna bunga pada kelima varietas kedelai sehat dan sakit berwarna ungu, kecuali pada varietas Gumitir berwarna putih. Terdapat perbedaan bentuk daun pada varietas Argopuro, Anjosmoro, Mahameru sehat dan sakit. Tidak terdapat perbedaan bentuk daun antara sehat dan sakit pada varietas Gumitir, MLGG 0021 dan MLGG 0268. Ada pengaruh varietas, kondisi, interaksi varietas dan kondisi terhadap ukuran sel daun. Ada pengaruh varietas terhadap jumlah stomata, kondisi serta interaksi varietas dan kondisi tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap jumlah stomata. Tidak terdapat pengaruh varietas, interaksi varietas dan kondisi terhadap jumlah epidermis. Ada pengaruh kondisi terhadap jumlah epidermis. Jumlah trikoma varietas kedelai sehat lebih banyak daripada

  2. SEU and SEL response of the Westinghouse 64K E-2PROM, analog devices AD7876 12-bit ADC, and the Intel 82527 Serial Communications Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, F. W.; Hash, G. L.; Connors, M. P.; Murray, J. R.; Schwank, J. R.; Winokur, P. S.; Bradley, E. G.

    The Westinghouse SA3823 64K E(sup 2)PROM radiation-hardened SONOS non-volatile memory exhibited a single-event-upset (SEU) threshold in the read mode of 60 MeV-sq cm/mg and 40 MeV-sq cm/mg for data latch errors. The minimum threshold for address latch errors was 35 MeV-sq cm/mg. Hard errors were observed with Kr at V(sub p) = 8.5 V and with Xe at Programming voltages (V(sub p)) as low as 7.5 V. No hard errors were observed with Cu at any angle up to V(sub p) = II V. The system specification of no hard errors for Ar ions or lighter was exceeded. No single-event latchup (SEL) was observed in these devices for the conditions examined. The Analog Devices AD7876 12bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) had an upset threshold of 2 MeV-cm(sup 2)/mg for all values of input voltage (V(sub in)), while the worst-case saturation cross section of approximately 2 x 10(exp -3)sq cm as measured with V(sub in) = 4.49 V. No latchup was observed. The Intel 82C527 serial communications controller exhibited a minimum threshold for upset of 2 MeV-cm(exp 4)/mLi, and a saturation cross section of about 5 x 10(exp-4)sq cm. For latchup the minimum threshold was measured at 17 MeV-sq cm/mg, and cross section saturated at about 3 x10(exp -4)sq cm. Error rates for the expected applications are presented.

  3. Organic Selenium (Sel-Plex and its Impact on the Indices of Growth, Consumption and Meat Quality of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio, the Galitian Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Rodica Ani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the impact of organic selenium (Se (Sel-Plex on the growth performance, consumption and quality of meat in the case of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Galitian variety. The experiment was conducted over two years and had the following structure: (1 growth stage juveniles (159 days, year 2008; the period of hibernation; and (2 the status of fish for consumption (200 days, year 2009. Fish growth was conducted at Mărtineşti fish farm, Romania. The total number of specimens was 200, organized in two equal groups: experimental group and control group. Average weight of individuals at the beginning of the experiment was 1.5 g/individual. Growth conditions were identical for the two groups, except food. The experimental group received 0.03 mg organic Se/kg food. At the end of the experiment the individual average weight of the experimental group was 1191±014.21g/individual, with a food conversion rate of 1.79:1:1 kg foodd/kg body weight; compared to the control group with a mean weight of 908.67±17.78g/individual and a food conversion rate of 1.88:1 kg foodd/kg body weight. Regarding these indices significant differences resulted between two groups when analyzing experiment results; while, regarding meat quality in terms of protein content, dry matter, water and fat there were no significant differences between the two groups. Analysis was done using ANOVA program.

  4. Evaluación de rutas alternativas de aprovechamiento de la glicerina obtenida en la producción de biodiésel: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Augusto Hernández Mora; Juan Camilo Acevedo Páez; Carlos Francisco Valdés Rentería; Fausto René Posso Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Producto del creciente mercado del biodiésel, se genera un incremento en la oferta de glicerina sin refinar, obtenida como subproducto del proceso, lo que ha motivado el estudio de su utilización. En este trabajo se aplicó un método cualitativo por puntos, considerando tres factores para clasificar las opciones de aprovechamiento de glicerina: (i) análisis DOFA (Debilidades, Oportunidades, Fortalezas, Amenazas), (ii) análisis de costos y (iii) evaluación del impacto ambiental. A cada f...

  5. Ortaokul Öğrencilerinde İnsani Değerlerin Özyeterlik Algılarını ve Bilişsel Strateji Kullanımını Yordama Gücü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay ORAL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, ortaokul öğrencilerinde insani değerlerin özyeterlik algılarını ve bilişsel strateji kullanımını yordama gücü incelenmiştir. Bu araştırmadaki veriler 2012-2013 eğitim öğretim yılında Denizli il merkezinde bulunan resmi kurumlarda öğrenim gören 192 kız (%60,4 ve 126 erkek (%39,6 olmak üzere toplam 318 ortaokul 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıf öğrencilerinden elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada Dilmaç (1999 tarafından geliştirilen Ahlaki Olgunluk Ölçeği ve Pintrich ve De Groot (1990 tarafından geliştirilen ve Üredi (2005 tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan Özyeterlik Algısı Ölçeği ve Bilişsel Strateji Kullanımı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Veriler SPSS 16.0 paket programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiş ve verilerin analizinde .01 anlamlılık düzeyi kabul edilmiştir. İnsani değerlerin, öğrencilerin özyeterlik algılarını ve bilişsel strateji kullanım düzeylerini yordama gücünü belirlemek amacıyla yapılan basit doğrusal regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre, insani değerlerin özyeterlik algılarını ve bilişsel strateji kullanımını anlamlı düzeyde yordadığı gözlenmiştir.

  6. Genel Bilişsel Yetenek Ölçümlerinde Süre ve Performans İlişkisinde A Tipi Kişiliğin Rolü(The Role of Type A Personality on the Relationship between Time and Performance in Measurement of General Cognitive Ability)

    OpenAIRE

    Murat GÜLER; H. Nejat BASIM

    2016-01-01

    Organizasyonların personel seçiminde kullanılan bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin, objektif ve yansız olarak yapılması, ihtiyaç duyulan uygun nitelikteki insan kaynağının temin edilmesi için önemli bir husustur. Ancak, bilişsel yetenek testlerinin kişilik özelliklerinden etkilendiğine dair bazı bulgular öne sürülmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, genel bilişsel yetenek (GBY) ölçümlerinde süre ve performans ilişkisinde A Tipi kişiliğin rolü 271 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen verilerle...

  7. Pemantauan Parameter Panel Surya Berbasis Arduino secara Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizal Fachri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the output parameters of a solar module is required for assessing its performance under real operating conditions. This paper presents a new technique for monitoring the output parameters i.e. current and voltage of a solar module directly under real operating conditions. In this new monitoring technique, the output parameters of a solar module can be directly processed in real time condition and their results are displayed in a graph. The monitoring system is developed using microprocessor Arduino Atmega 328P and equipped with calibrated current and voltage sensors, a data acquisition system which is integrated directly into an Excel spreadsheet using the PLX-DAQ application program and a memory card for backup. The monitoring system is connected to a computer using a RS232 serial port. The collected data is saved directly into a spreadsheet and plotted in real time. This technique provides an easy access to the collected data for further analysis.

  8. FORMULASI LOTION TABIR SURYA EKSTRAK ETANOL BERAS MERAH (Oryza nivara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Saadah Daud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunburn, premature aging and skin cancer due to the exposure of UV radiation especially UVA and UVB, became one of the causes the cosmetic products commercialization containing sunscreen compound increase. Red rice as one of the natural ingredient was reported have sunscreen activity as its containing anthocyanin pigments. This study was conducted to formulate the ethanolic extract of red rice into the sunscreen lotion form that has the sunscreen activity and stable. The extraction was done using maceration method with 96% ethanol as a solvent. Pysical stability and sunscreen effectiveness studies were done to the three formula lotions containing ethanolic extract respectively of 2.5% (Formula A, 5% (Formula B and 10% (Formula C. All lotions were scented of typical rose oil in semi-solid form with an average value of viscosity were of 90-100 dPa.s. The sunscreen lotions were colored white to white dark peach. The studies showed the stability of all lotion preparations remained homogeneous and did not undergo a phase inversion with the emulsion type of oil in water (O/W through cycling test. Unfortunately the distinctive odor of rose oil were reduced and the dosage form became more dilute caused the spread force became larger. The studies also showed the sunscreen effectiveness of SPF values were increase as the increasing of the extract concentration. The SPF value for each formula were 5.30 (moderate protection, 6.30 (extra protection and 7.00 (extra protection. The base components of lotion did not affect the sunscreen activity with SPF values of 1.76 (not effective.

  9. Evaluasi Keandalan Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya yang Terhubung ke Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of a photovoltaic system is influenced by two kind of challenges i.e. the availability of the sunlight and the readiness of the PV system components to generate power. A PV system consists of electronic components which are placed outdoors and suffered harsh weather, therefore its reliability needs to be evaluated. Bayesian Networks are utilized to calculate the probabilities of having full and reduced power output of the PV system. The study results show that the reduced power output state of the PV system is twice more likely than the no-output state. In general, the reliability of the PV system is relatively good.

  10. Determinación de puntos óptimos para la localización e implantación de plantas de biodiésel en el estado de Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Siebert Pinedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo mostrar el resultado de un análisis realizado en el Estado de Tocantins (Brasil con la finalidad de determinar los puntos óptimos para la instalación de usinas para la fabricación de biodiésel. Para este análisis fueron considerados las variables del tipo transporte, producción, almacenamiento, abastecimiento de materia prima como sebo, aceite o cualquier otro producto que pueda servir para producir biodiésel. Sabemos que en tiempos actuales para obtener un buen resultado, las empresas tienen que centrarse en un análisis riguroso de la cadena logística, que tiene como objetivo a un menor costo posible hacer que los productos y servicios queden disponibles en algún lugar donde sea necesario. Para obtener los resultados usamos en nuestro modelo matemático la Programación Lineal Entera Mixta (PLEM y después la técnica de escenarios afín de obtener un resultado satisfactorio.

  11. Concentração e retenção do selênio em peixes marinhos Concentration and retention of selenium in marine fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tenuta Filho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O pescado contém substancialmente maiores concentrações de selênio (Se do que outras carnes e é, por isso, considerado a maior fonte dietária desse nutriente. Ao mesmo tempo, o pescado também é a maior fonte de ingestão de mercúrio (Hg na dieta humana, cuja toxidez pode ser reduzida pelo Se, por interação entre ambos. Em consequência, a biodisponibilidade do Se é reduzida. No presente estudo, a ocorrência do Se foi avaliada em espécies marinhas de peixes brasileiros, comercialmente disponíveis, e determinada sua retenção em cação-mangona. Os níveis médios de Se encontrados nos peixes ósseos, corvina (Micropogonias furnieri, peixe-porco (Balistes capricus, pescada-branca e sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis, 0,48 ± 0,18 μg.g-1, e nos peixes cartilaginosos, cação-anjo, cação-cambeva, cação-machote e cação-mangona, 0,36 ± 0,07 μg.g-1, não diferiram entre si (p > 0,05 e situaram-se na mesma faixa de ocorrência indicada na literatura para peixes marinhos em geral. Os níveis de Se detectados nos cações (espécies predadoras não permitem o estabelecimento de relação estequiométrica suficiente para a interação com o Hg, visando à proteção tóxica esperada. A retenção efetiva do Se medida em cação-mangona, após extração com água, foi considerada elevada (mínimo de 68,81% e importante sob os pontos de vista nutricional e toxicológico.Fish contains considerably higher selenium (Se concentrations than other kinds of meats, and thus it is considered a major dietary source of this nutrient. At the same time, fish is also the major source of mercury (Hg in the human diet, whose toxicity can be reduced by the Se through the interaction between both compounds. In consequence, the biological availability of Se is reduced. In the current study, the occurrence of Se was evaluated in commercially available Brazilian marine species, and the retention of Se in sharks (sand tiger shark was determined. The

  12. KARAKTERISASI PATI GANYONG (Canna edulis DAN PEMANFAATANNYA SEBAGAI BAHAN PEMBUATAN COOKIES DAN CENDOL Characterization of Edible Canna Starch (Canna edulis and Its Application as Ingredient for Cookies and Cendol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Harmayani

    2012-05-01

    ganyong serta mengevaluasi penggunaannya sebagai bahan pembuatan beberapa produk olahan. Pati ganyong diperoleh dari Kelompok Tani Mekar Sari, Kulon Progo. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dalam tiga tahap berikut: 1 karakterisasi pati ganyong, meliputi sifat kimia, fisik, dan fisikokimia; 2 formulasi dan pembuatan produk dari pati ganyong berdasarkan karakteristik yang diperoleh; dan 3 uji organoleptik produk-produk yang telah dikembangkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sampel pati ganyong memiliki kadar total pati 93,30 % (db, kadar amilosa 42,49 % (db dan kadar amilopektin sebesar 50,90 % (db. Protein, lemak, abu, serat kasar, dan gula reduksi merupakan komponen minor. Pati ganyong tergolong memiliki water binding capacity (162,15% dan swelling power (9,96 g/g  yang rendah. Pada konsentrasi 5 %, pati ganyong memiliki viskositas pasta panas yang rendah (9,67 dPa.s. dan stabil, viskositas meningkat menjadi 14,67 dPa.s setelah pendinginan. Berdasarkan beberapa karakteristik tersebut, pati ganyong dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pembuatan cookies dan cendol. Hasil uji kesukaan menunjukkan bahwa pati ganyong dapat digunakan hingga 75 % pada pembuatan cookies dan 100 % pada pembuatan cendol dengan tingkat kesukaan yang tidak berbeda nyata dibandingkan cookies terigu dan cendol tepung beras. Dari penelitian tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa pati ganyong memiliki karakteristik yang potensial untuk diversifikasi pangan.

  13. Énergie nucléaire. Mesure de la radioactivité dans l'environnement. Eau. Mesurage de l'indice de radioactivité bêta globale en équivalent strontium 90 et yttrium 90 dans l'eau peu chargée en sels.

    CERN Document Server

    Association Française de Normalisation. Paris

    1997-01-01

    Énergie nucléaire. Mesure de la radioactivité dans l'environnement. Eau. Mesurage de l'indice de radioactivité bêta globale en équivalent strontium 90 et yttrium 90 dans l'eau peu chargée en sels.

  14. Concentrações de selênio na dieta e nas unhas de pré-escolares de um centro de educação infantil de São Paulo-SP
    Selenium in diet and nails of preschool from the nursery in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. SILVA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo objetivou determinar a concentração de selênio nas unhas e na dieta consumida por 66 pré-escolares matriculados em um Centro de Educação Infantil do Município de São Paulo. Para a obtenção do consumo alimentar foi utilizado o método de registro alimentar, com a aplicação da pesagem direta dos alimentos. Os teores de selênio na dieta e nas unhas foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica em forno de grafi te. A ingestão média de selênio das crianças de 2 a 3 anos foi de 18,7μg/dia e das de 4 a 6 anos de 29,5μg/dia. Os teores de selênio nas unhas das crianças de 2 a 3 anos foi 0,50μg/g e nas de 4 a 6 anos 0,48μg/g. Os resultados sugerem que os pré-escolares recebem na instituição uma alimentação adequada com relação ao selênio.

  15. CLIC- LHC Temelindeki Serbest Elektron Lazer (SEL-Çarpıstırıcısında 40Ar Çekirdeğinin Düşük Enerjili Seviyelerinin İncelenmesi

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    Aynur TATAR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nükleer Rezonans Floresans (NRF çekirdekte yapısal bozulmalar olusturmadan incelenme imkanı saglayan bir metottur. Bu çalısmalarda kullanılacak ısınımın yüksek kaliteli bir ısınım olması çalısma sonuçları açısından çok önemlidir. Serbest Elektron Lazer (SEL demeti Nükleer Rezonans Floresans (NRF deneyleri için ideal bir kaynaktır. Bu kaynak tek renkli, ayarlanabilir enerjili ve büyük oranda düzeyde kutuplanabilir bir ısınımdır. Large Hadron Collider (LHCdan alınan büyük enerjili çekirdek demetleri ile Serbest Elektron Lazer (SEL demeti uygun bir noktada çarpıstırılacak ve olusan büyük miktardaki olay sayısı çekirdeklerin uyarılma seviyelerini incelemek imkanı saglayacaktır. Argon (40Ar çekirdegi LHC'nin ikinci fazında kullanılacak bir çekirdek olup bu çalısmanın benzerleri ikinci fazda kullanılacak diger çekirdekler ve uygun tüm çekirdekler için de yapılabilir. Bu çalısmada Argon (40Ar çekirdeginin (g, g¢ deneylerinde gözlenmis enerji seviyeleri seçilerek incelenmistir.

  16. Sustitución de combustible diésel por gas licuado de petróleo en un tostador de café de la Torrefactora del Este en Cuba

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    Jehannara Calle Domínguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El tema del uso racional de la energía y el cuidado del medio ambiente se ha convertido en una preocupación para dirigentes y técnicos relacionados con la investigación y los servicios, por el encarecimiento de los portadores energéticos y el impacto medioambiental. Actualmente en Cuba, el tostado de café se realiza utilizando diésel como portador energético, sin embargo, es conocido que a nivel mundial se utilizan preferentemente combustibles gaseosos, tales como, el gas natural y gas licuado de petróleo. En este trabajo se estudiaron algunos aspectos de factibilidad técnica-económica de sustitución del combustible diésel por gas licuado de petróleo en la Torrefactora del Este del Grupo Empresarial Cubacafé. Se realizó un balance de energía. Se calculó el volumen del tanque de almacenamiento requerido. Se obtuvo que la cantidad de gas licuado de petróleo necesaria sería de 1240 L diarios con un gasto de 496 dólares. En relación al aspecto ambiental, fue favorable, ya que se dejarían de emitir 383,8 kg de CO2 y 7,9 kg de SO2 por día; garantizándose una reducción en la cantidad de emisiones a la atmósfera.

  17. Sustitución de combustible diésel por gas licuado de petróleo en un tostador de café de la Torrefactora del Este en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehannara Calle Domínguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema del uso racional de la energía y el cuidado del medio ambiente se ha convertido en una preocupación para dirigentes y técnicos relacionados con la investigación y los servicios, por el encarecimiento de los portadores energéticos y el impacto medioambiental. Actualmente en Cuba, el tostado de café se realiza utilizando diésel como portador energético, sin embargo, es conocido que a nivel mundial se utilizan preferentemente combustibles gaseosos, tales como, el gas natural y gas licuado de petróleo. En este trabajo se estudiaron algunos aspectos de factibilidad técnica-económica de sustitución del combustible diésel por gas licuado de petróleo en la Torrefactora del Este del Grupo Empresarial Cubacafé. Se realizó un balance de energía. Se calculó el volumen del tanque de almacenamiento requerido. Se obtuvo que la cantidad de gas licuado de petróleo necesaria sería de 1240 L diarios con un gasto de 496 dólares. En relación al aspecto ambiental, fue favorable, ya que se dejarían de emitir 383,8 kg de CO2 y 7,9 kg de SO2 por día; garantizándose una reducción en la cantidad de emisiones a la atmósfera.

  18. Evaluación de rutas alternativas de aprovechamiento de la glicerina obtenida en la producción de biodiésel: una revisión

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    Jorge Augusto Hernández Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Producto del creciente mercado del biodiésel, se genera un incremento en la oferta de glicerina sin refinar, obtenida como subproducto del proceso, lo que ha motivado el estudio de su utilización. En este trabajo se aplicó un método cualitativo por puntos, considerando tres factores para clasificar las opciones de aprovechamiento de glicerina: (i análisis DOFA (Debilidades, Oportunidades, Fortalezas, Amenazas, (ii análisis de costos y (iii evaluación del impacto ambiental. A cada factor se asignó una ponderación cuyo resultado permite concluir sobre la viabilidad de cada alternativa estudiada para una planta de producción de biodiésel de 20.000 l/día, que genera aproximadamente 2000 kg/día de glicerina cruda. Como resultado se obtiene un orden jerárquico de factibilidad de implementación de las alternativas en el que el uso de la glicerina cruda en la producción de fertilizantes constituye la mejor opción, ya que mejora la fertilidad del suelo con la incorporación de subproductos y residuos agroindustriales, y es una de las opciones de menor costo de implementación. El método de evaluación aplicado resulta apropiado para una estimación inicial de los diferentes usos de la glicerina cruda, aunque posteriormente requiere un análisis más detallado de la mejor opción.

  19. Exchange reactions between a molten salt and a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone; Reactions d'echange entre un sel fondu et une solution de phosphate de tributyle dans un silicone liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    . The equilibrium constants for the reactions: (I) Co{sup 2+} + CN{sup -} {yields} CoCN{sup +} (II) Co{sup 2+} + Cl{sup -}{yields} CoCl{sup +} have been determined: K{sub 1} 10{sup -4}, K{sub 2} = 0.16. (author) [French] L'interet actuel porte aux sels fondus s'explique par leur emploi possible clans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire, en particulier comme supports de combustibles et comme agents de reprocessing. II nous a paru interessant de considerer un sel fondu comme un solvant et d'y etudier les phenomenes de partage avec une seconde phase stable a haute temperature. Le sel choisi est un eutectique ternaire de nitrates alcalins et la seconde phase est une solution de phosphate de tributyle dans un silicone liquide. La temperature de travail est fixee a 150 deg. C. Nous avons etudie en premier lieu la stabilite des deux phases et leurs solubilites respectives a cette temperature. On a demontre que les deux solvants sont immiscibles et stables. D'autre part nous avons decrit l'extraction par la solution de silicone de differents corps en solution dans la phase sel, determine les coefficients de partage et les formules des molecules extraites. Il nous a ete possible de calculer les coefficients de partage des cations suivants extraits sous la forme nitrates: Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} dont les coefficients de partage sont tres faibles: Mg{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, dont les rendements d'extraction sont superieurs a 50 pour cent; enfin Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, tres extraits. De meme les anions suivants ont ete extraits sous forme de sels alcalins: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, CN{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup -}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}. Parmi ceux-ci seuls les halogenes ont des coefficients de partage non negligeables. Dans certains cas particuliers, nous avons pu etudier l'influence de la formation de

  20. Dietary supplementation of chelated selenium and broiler chicken meat qualitySuplementação de selênio quelatado na ração e qualidade da carne de frango

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    Massami Shimokomaki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is selenium-containing enzyme, which catalyses the reduction of hydrogen peroxides and lipid hydroperoxides preventing the oxidative damages in animal tissues. The selenium (Se deficiency increases the need for vitamin E. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of chelated Se on the poultry meat quality. Fourteen Cobb chicks with 1 day of age were divided into two groups: C-Control group (without supplementation and S-Supplemented group (with 0.03mg of chelated Se.kg-1 of feed. Birds at 42 days of age were slaughtered and boneless skinless chicken thighs were collected and stored at –18ºC for 30 days. Thighs were analyzed for the cooking loss, lipid oxidation by Thiobarbituric-Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS and GSH-Px activity by coupled assay procedure recording the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidation. Samples of Supplemented group presented 33.8% less water after cooking (p ? 0.05 and were 23.6% (p ? 0.10 less oxidized when compared with samples of group Control. The GSH-Px activity of thighs did not differ significantly (p> 0.05 between groups Supplemented and Control. The supplementation with 0.03mg of Se in the kg of feed improved the meat quality by reducing the lipid oxidation and cooking loss, however did not increase the GSH-Px activity.O selênio (Se é componente da enzima glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px que catalisa a redução de peróxido de hidrogênio e peróxido lipídico, prevenindo danos oxidativos nos tecidos animais. A deficiência de Se aumenta a necessidade de vitamina E pelos animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação de selênio quelatado sobre a qualidade da carne de frango. Os 14 pintinhos de corte da linhagem Cobb de 1 dia de idade foram divididos em 2 grupos: C-Controle (sem suplementação e S-Suplementado com 0,03mg Se quelatado. kg-1 de ração. Os frangos com 42 dias de

  1. Selülozun diyabet, kolestrol ve tansiyon sınıfına ait bazı ilaçların kontrollü salımında kullanılması ve ilaç etkileşimlerinin deneysel ve teorik olarak incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Harzadın, Münevver

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, selüloz adsorbanının bazı diyabet (Akarboz (D1), Metformin (D2), Gliklazid (D3)), kolesterol (Gemfibrozil (K1), Ezetimib (K2), Fenofibrat (K3)) ve tansiyon (Atenolol (T1), Metoprolol (T2), Karvedilol (T3)) ilaçları ile adsorpsiyon kabiliyetinin ikili ve üçlü ilaç etkileşimleri araştırılmıştır. Teorik hesaplamalarda MOPAC2012 paket programında PM6 ve PM7, Gaussian 09 paket programında DFT hibrit yaklaşımı, adsorpsiyon deneylerinde ilaç aktif maddelerinin selüloz üzerindeki ads...

  2. Absorption of some mineral salts by root system of different woody species and accumulation over a whole vegetative cycle (1963); Absorption de quelques sels par l'appareil radiculaire de differentes especes ligneuses et accumulation au cours d'un cycle vegetatif complet (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, J.; Gerard, J.M. [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The concentration power of plant tissues and the translocation speed of mineral salts are considerably varying with the absorbed salt, the botanical species, the considered tissue and the part of the vegetative cycle. In Grenoble, with Picea excelsa, the 'true dormancy' is short (half-november, end of december). It is accompanied by a pre-dormancy period (October, half-november) and a post dormancy period (January, february, march). In vegetative period, Picea excelsa leaves are less concentrating mineral salt than Acer campestris leaves (coefficient 2 for calcium - 3 for phosphates) and Populus nigra leaves (coefficient 3 for calcium, coefficient 5 for phosphates). (author) [French] Le pouvoir de concentration de tissus vegetaux, et particulierement la vitesse de transport des sels mineraux varient beaucoup selon le sel mineral absorbe, l'espece vegetale, le tissu considere ainsi que la periode du cycle vegetatif. A Grenoble, pour les epiceas 'la dormance veritable' est courte (mi-novembre, fin decembre). Elle est encadree par des periodes de pre-dormance (octobre, mi-novembre) et de post-dormance (janvier, fevrier, mars). Pendant la periode vegetative, le pouvoir de concentration de sels mineraux des aiguilles d'epiceas est plus faible que celui des feuilles d'erables (coefficient 2 pour le calcium - coefficient 3 pour les phosphates) ou que celui des feuilles de peupliers (coefficient 3 pour le calcium - coefficient 5 pour les phosphates). (auteur)

  3. Evaluación de las técnicas de atenuación natural, bioventing, bioaumentación y bioaumentación- bioventing, para la biodegradación de diésel en un suelo arenoso, en experimentos en columna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Muskus Morales

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue desarrollado dentro del convenio de cooperación institucional realizado entre laUniversidad Pontifi cia Bolivariana, Seccional Bucaramanga y el Instituto Colombiano de Petróleos – ICP, con el fi nde dar solución a una problemática que se presenta en las zonas de manejo de hidrocarburos, donde se evidenciansuelos arenosos contaminados con diésel hasta concentraciones del 6% y a una profundidad máxima de 80 cm.Para el desarrollo metodológico se contaminó un suelo artifi cialmente con diésel para evaluar las técnicas deBioventing, Atenuación Natural, Bioaumentación y Bioventing-Bioaumentación, utilizando montajes en columnas.Se defi nieron los parámetros de diseño y seguimiento como dimensiones de las columnas, caudal de entrada,concentración de diésel, oxígeno disuelto y crecimiento bacteriano; para la bioaumentación se inoculó el suelocon un consorcio bacteriano producido por el ICP. Se realizaron los montajes experimentales por triplicado y secontroló el proceso durante cuatro meses. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que en la técnica de Bioventingse obtuvieron porcentajes de remoción de diésel hasta del 97%. Con la técnica de Bioventing-Bioaumentación sealcanzaron porcentajes de remoción hasta del 75% y con las técnicas de Atenuación Natural y Bioaumentación,los porcentajes de remoción no superaron el 48%. El estudio mostró que el consorcio bacteriano utilizado yevaluado mediante las técnicas de Bioaumentación y Bioventing-Bioaumentación, no potencializó la efi cienciade los procesos de biorremediación del suelo arenoso contaminado con diésel.

  4. STRUKTUR SEKRETORI TANAMAN BAHAN RAMUAN OBAT DIABETES

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    Dorly

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical structure of medicinal plants wich are used in diabetic therapy is not yet completely identified. This research was conducted to study the structure of their secretory tissues. Observation of anatomical structure of leaves was done by making paradermal and transversal sections, while observation of anatomical structure of stem, fruits, and rhizomes were performed by making transversal sections. Microscopic observation found several types os secretory structure in plant organs observed. Glandular hairs were found in kiurat (Plantago mayor L. leaves, sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f Wallich ex Nees leaves, and kumis kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume Miq. leaves; lithocysts cell were found in sambiloto leaves; oil cavity/cells were found in salam (Syzygium polyanthim (Wight Walp. leaves, jambu (Psidium guajava L. leaves, lada (Piper nigrum L. fruits, and jahe (Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes; idioblast cells wich contained starch grains were found in brotowali (Tinospora crispa (L. Miers stems, lada fruits, and jahe rhizomes; and latex cells were found in brotowali stems.

  5. KANDUNGAN KOLESTEROL DALAM BERBAGAI BAHAN MAKANAN HEWANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Saidin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of consuming large quantities of food containing cholesterol has been widely known by the community. However, information concerning cholesterol content in a variety of foods originating from animal tissue is not very well known. By knowing the cholesterol content of food products, people could restrict or prevent their consumption of high cholesterol food and select foods with a low cholesterol content. The cholesterol content of various foods originating from animal tissues, such as beef, mutton, broiler and domestic chicken meat, entrails (liver, heart, kidney and intestines, skin, tail part and eggs and fish (salt water and fresh water had been investigated. Cholesterol content was analysed using David Sleighton's method, which was a modification from Abell et. al. The study revealed that the cholesterol content of every 100 g wet weight meat of domestic chiken was similar to that of broiler chicken, 116 mg and 110 mg respectively. Cholesterol content of broiler chiken entrails was higher than that of domestic chicken. The highest cholesterol content of broiler chicken entrails was liver (529 mg/100 g and the lowest was heart (171 mg/100 g, while for domestic chicken, the highest was kidney (336 mg/100 g and the lowest was heart (164 mg/100 g. Egg yolk cholesterol content of domestic chicken was 922 mg/100 g nearly two folds of broiler chicken's egg which was 485 mg/100 g. The highest content of cholesterol among salt water animals was shrimp (179 mg/100 g and the lowest was pomfret (97 mg/100 g, while for fresh water fishes the highest was catfish (94 mg/100 g and the lowest was mujair (52 mg/100 g.

  6. Penggunaan Karbamid Peroksida Sebagai Bahan Pemutih Gigi

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    Endang Suprastiwi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbamide peroxide as a whitening agent for teeth is very popular because the use of this agent is easy and inexpensive. There are two kinds of concentrations, i.e. 10%-15% and 35%. The methods are home bleaching and in office bleaching. For home bleaching, the duration of whitening application is 2-6 weeks, each day for 8 hours, whilst for in office bleaching, two hour application will be required. Whitening efficacy might be increased up to 2-5 levels and the color may sustain for 1-3 years, and this treatment could be reapplied. There is an effect on pulp system, but the effect is reversible, i.e. sensitivity which could be treated with fluoridation or application of potassium nitrate. The side effects on gingiva include inflammation which is caused by the buffer and is only temporary. Bleaching is safe to be use and the result will be satisfying if proper procedure is followed.

  7. İçsel Markalaşma Uygulamalarıyla Markanın Örgüt İçerisinde Tutundurulması: ARKAS Holding Örnek Olayı* ( Promoting Brand Within Organization Via Internal Branding: ARKAS Holding Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun KAHRAMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available İçsel markalaşma; çalışanların, çalıştıkları işletmenin marka vaadini, marka değerini anlaması ve benimsemesi sonucunda, dış müşterilerin de markayı daha kolay benimseyeceğini savunmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ülkemiz literatüründe yeterince ele alınmamış olan içsel markalaşma olgusunu teorik temeller ve uygulama aşamaları açısından açıklığa kavuşturmaktır. Çalışmada ilk olarak markalaşmanın önemine ve markalaşma sürecinde çalışanların rollerine değinilmiştir. Daha sonra içsel markalaşma kavramı, içsel markalaşma uygulamalarında kullanılan teknikler ve araçlar teorik olarak incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın uygulama bölümü için bir hizmet işletmesi olan Arkas Holding’in iki yöneticisiyle, Arkas Holding’deki içsel markalaşma uygulamalarıyla ilgili olarak derinlemesine görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Yapılan görüşmeler sonrasında elde edilen bulgular değerlendirildikten sonra Arkas Holding’de içsel markalaşmanın önemi, içsel markalaşma uygulamalarının nasıl gerçekleştiği, bu süreçte dikkat edilmesi gereken unsurlar ve karşılaşılan zorluklar ortaya konulmuştur. Internal branding supports the idea that external customers will internalize the brand more easily if employees understand and adopt the brand promise and brand values of the company which they work for. The aim of this study is to clarify internal branding phenomenon, which which has not been discussed enough in the Turkish literature, in terms of literature and application areas. Firstly the study has discussed the importance of branding process and the role of employees in this process. Then, the concept of internal branding, the technics and the tools whics are used for application of internal branding is examined theoretically. In the application part in-depth interviews were conducted with two managers of Arkas Holding about internal branding activities in Arkas Holding. After

  8. PENGARUH WAKTU FERMENTASI MENGGUNAKAN Lactobacillus plantarum TERHADAP KANDUNGAN PROTEIN PADA TEPUNG MOSOF (Modified Sorghum Flour

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    Faza Aruni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sumber karbohidrat yang paling banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat Indonesia adalah beras dan terigu. Ketika permintaan pasar semakin meningkat sedangkan ketersediaan bahan terbatas akan terjadi permasalahan baru yaitu kelangkaan bahan pangan tersebut. Salah satu alternatif pemecah masalah kelangkaan bahan pangan adalah melalui substitusi dengan sorgum atau sering disebut dengan MOSOF (modified sorghum flour. Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench merupakan salah satu sumber karbohidrat. Pada proses fermentasi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kandungan protein terhadap waktu fermentasi. Pada penelitian kali ini fermentasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme yaitu Lactobacillus plantarum. Dari hasil uji counting chamber ditetapkan jumlah sel mikroorganisme yang digunakan sebanyak 107 sel/ml, pada bakteri Lactobacillus plantarum pemanenan starter dilakukan pada jam ke 2,5. Dari data hasil laboratorium didapatkan data untuk sorgum yang difermentasi menggunakan Lactobacilus plantarum menurunkan protein dari 9,819 + 0,766 menjadi 7,428 + 0,931 %.

  9. Metacognitive Awareness Levels of Reading Strategies of University Students (İnönü University Case / Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Okuma Stratejileri Üstbilişsel Farkındalık Düzeyleri (İnönü Üniversitesi Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe ATEŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the metacognitive awareness level s of reading strategies were investigated on students of Inonu University. For this purpose, answers of fallowing questions were determined. What is the level of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of students? Are there vary significantly according to the faculties in the level of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of students? Are there vary significantly according to the gender in the level of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of students? In this study, qualitative research, data collection tools is “Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory" created by Mokhtari ve Reichard (2002. In addition, the reliability and validity of this inventory was made by Öztürk (2012. As a result of, students of İnönü University were observed at "Promote to Reading Strategies” level and the "Public Reading Strategy" as the middle level and "Problem Solving Strategy" as the high level. Metacognitive awareness levels of female students were significantly found higher than male students. Bu araştırmada İnönü Üniversitesi’nde öğrenim gören öğrencilerin okuma stratejileri üstbilişsel farkındalık düzeyleri belirlenmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, “Öğrencilerin okuma stratejileri üstbilişsel farkındalık durumu ne düzeydedir? Öğrencilerin okuma stratejileri üstbilişsel farkındalık durumu okudukları fakültelere göre anlamlı değişiklik gösteriyor mu? Öğrencilerin okuma stratejileri üstbilişsel farkındalık durumu cinsiyete göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı değişiklik gösteriyor mu?” sorularına cevap aranmıştır. Nicel bir araştırma olan bu çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak Mokhtari ve Reichard (2002 tarafından oluşturulan, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması ise Öztürk (2012 tarafından yapılan “Okuma Stratejileri Üstbilişsel Farkındalık Envanteri” kullanılmıştır. Sonuç olarak

  10. Evaluación de las técnicas de atenuación natural, bioventing, bioaumentación y bioaumentación- bioventing, para la biodegradación de diésel en un suelo arenoso, en experimentos en columna

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica María Muskus Morales; Claudia Santoyo Muñoz; Luijesmarth Silvia Plata Quintero

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio fue desarrollado dentro del convenio de cooperación institucional realizado entre laUniversidad Pontifi cia Bolivariana, Seccional Bucaramanga y el Instituto Colombiano de Petróleos – ICP, con el fi nde dar solución a una problemática que se presenta en las zonas de manejo de hidrocarburos, donde se evidenciansuelos arenosos contaminados con diésel hasta concentraciones del 6% y a una profundidad máxima de 80 cm.Para el desarrollo metodológico se contaminó un suelo artifi ...

  11. Efeito da suplementação de cobre e selênio na dieta de novilhos Brangus sobre o desempenho e fermentação ruminal The effects of copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on performance and rumen fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Del Claro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e oito bovinos Brangus foram usados para determinar o efeito da suplementação de cobre e selênio no desempenho e na fermentação ruminal. Os animais foram divididos em: 1 C(Controle - sem a suplementação de cobre e selênio; 2 Se - 2mg Se/kg de matéria seca na forma de selenito de sódio; 3 Cu - 40mg Cu/kg de matéria seca na forma de sulfato de cobre; 4 Se/Cu - 2mg Se/kg de matéria seca na forma de selenito de sódio e 40mg Cu/kg de matéria seca na forma de sulfato de cobre. As pesagens dos animais foram feitas em intervalos de 28 dias, após jejum completo de 18 horas. Foram colhidas amostras de líquido ruminal para análises de ácidos graxos voláteis e pH. O ganho de peso diário aumentou com a suplementação de Se (P0,05. Os animais submetidos à suplementação com Cu apresentaram menor pH ruminal quando comparado com a suplementação Se/Cu (P0,05 entre os tratamentos. Apesar do pouco efeito na fermentação ruminal, as suplementações de selênio, cobre e selênio/cobre proporcionaram uma melhor eficiência alimentar.Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on performance and rumen fermentation. The animals were divided in: 1 (Control - without supplementation of copper and selenium; 2 Se - 2mg Se/kg of dry matter as sodium selenite; 3 Cu - 40mg Cu/kg of dry matter as copper sulphate; 4 Se/Cu - 2mg Se/kg of dry matter as sodium selenite and 40mg Cu/kg of dry matter as copper sulphate. Animal weighing was performed in 28 day intervals, after 18 hours of fasting. Samples of rumen liquid were collected for analysis of volatile fatty acid and pH. The daily weight gain increased with selenium supplementation (P0.05. The animals that received copper supplementation had lower pH rumen compared with selenium/copper supplementation (P0.05 among treatments. Despite the little effect on rumen fermentation, the supplementations of selenium, copper and selenium

  12. Os Sistemas de Espaços Livres na Constituição da Forma Urbana Contemporânea no Brasil: Produção e Apropriação (QUAPÁSEL II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Soares Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta proposta é continuação do projeto temático de pesquisa “Os Sistemas de Espaços Livres e a Constituição da Esfera Pública Contemporânea no Brasil”, desenvolvido nos anos de 2006-2011 no Laboratório QUAPÁ da FAUUSP em conjunto com o Grupo de Pesquisa “Requalificação Urbana” do CEATEC/ PUC-Campinas, processo FAPESP n. 2006/56623-2 com o envolvimento da Rede Nacional de Pesquisa QUAPÁ-SEL. Trata-se de novo Projeto Temático que visa investigar as relações entre os sistemas de espaços livres e a produção da forma urbana das cidades brasileiras na atualidade. O objeto é complexo (MORIN, 2008: não são os espaços livres nem a forma urbana em si, mas as relações que se estabelecem entre ambos que constituem o foco desta pesquisa. Tais relações constituem sistema, apresentam estrutura e organização que contêm em seu interior, dialeticamente, as relações que a estabelecem e que a desestabilizam. Impõe-se abordagem crítica para apreender o processo socioespacial de constituição das formas, e o que é comum à produção do espaço a nível nacional e para cada local investigado. Aprofunda-se o entendimento do papel dos principais agentes da produção do objeto investigado – do espaço concebido ao espaço vivido(LEFÈBVRE, 1974 – e estabelecer critérios de qualidade que considerem as especificidades locais – do clima às manifestações culturais – e as possibilidades de arranjo dos espaços livres e edificados integrantes do sistema espacial quanto às suas formas, funções e apropriações. Não se trata de criar manual da boa forma urbana, mas de estabelecer princípios teóricos e consolidar métodos de avaliação contribuindo para as diversas escalas de planejamento e de projeto do espaço urbano, com ênfase na vida pública.

  13. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans / Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Darüşşifalarında Müzikle Tedavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    etki günümüzde açıkça bilinmektedir. Bilinen en eski tedavi yöntemlerinden biri olan Müzikle tedavinin geçmişi binlerce yıl öncesine dayanır. Türklerin, müzikle tedavide İbn Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî ve Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi gibi bilim adamlarının yaptıkları araştırmaların yer aldığı kitaplardan faydalanarak, Selçuklu ve Osmanlılar döneminde, akıl hastalıklarının tedavisine uygun akustikle inşa edilen hastaneler-darüşşifalarda kullanmaları, ilk ciddi müzikle tedavi uygulamaları olarak değerlendirilir. Darüşşifa, Türk ve İslam dünyasında pratiğe ve gözleme dayalı sağlık hizmetleri veren hastaları tedavi eden sağlık ve eğitim kurumlarına verilen isimlerden birisidir. Darüşşifalar Tıp mesleğinin uygulanmasına yönelik özel mimari anlayış içeren yapıları ile de ayrıcalıklı bir yere sahiptir. Türkler Anadolu’ya yerleşmeleri ile birlikte çeşitli imar faaliyetlerine başlamışlardır. Yapılan bu faaliyetler içerisinde kervansaraylar, medreseler ve camilerle birlikte darüşşifalar da bulunmaktadır. Selçuklu ve Osmanlı darüşşifalarında tıbbi konular araştırmalara ve bilimsel esaslara bağlı kalınarak işleniyor, aynı zamanda tıp medreselerinde cerrah yetiştiriliyordu. Yapılan eğitimler dışında tatbiki uygulamaların da yaptırıldığı bilinmektedir. Darrüşşifalar, Anadolu Selçuklu ve Osmanlı medreseleri plan şemasına uygun olarak tasarlanmıştır. Genelde derslerin verildiği ana eyvan ve farklı ihtiyaçlar için düzenlenmiş avlu etrafında yer alan odalardan oluşmaktaydı. Türk sanat tarihi içerisinde sıklıkla karşılaştığımız tıp siteleri aynı zamanda günümüz tıp fakültesi mantığı ile örtüşmektedir. Buralarda tedavi edici sağlık hizmetleri sunulmaktaydı. Müzikle tedavi yapılan darüşşifalardan günümüze ulaşan ve önem teşkil edenler bu çalışmada sanat tarihi ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün yüzyıllar

  14. Aitajaid sel teekonnal pole / Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Madli, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    11. märtsil esietendus teatris NO98 ja Sine Loco (A. Türnpu projekt) koostöös lavastus "Inimese teekond", mille lähtematerjaliks on J. Bunyani religioosne teos "Palveränduri tee". Lavastaja ja kokkupanija A. Türnpu

  15. Peningkatan Kapasitas Sel Pada Sistem Seluler GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Hikmaturokhman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing cell capacity in GSM applied by several methods such as Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA, Channel Sharing, Channel Borrowing and Cell Splitting to solve the massive increasing of cellular users amount in the whole world. It necessary to calculate the number of the subscriber within each cell in a certain busy hour based on available channel capacity in order to serve the traffic capacity in a cell. In this work, we present calculations to compare cell capacity without increasing cell capacity method and cell capacity using increasing capacity methods. As a programming tool,  we used Borland Delphi 7. In addition, this simulation software added with comprehensive explanations, Erlang B Table, and graphics to make it easier and more efficient in analyzing.

  16. Effect of selenium-vitamin E injection in selenium-deficient dairy goats and kids on the Mexican plateau Efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a produtividade de cabras e cabritos no México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Ramírez-Bribiesca

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the optimum selenium-vitamin E injection level to maintain acceptable blood selenium (Se status of does and kids, as well as to determine the relation of that status to mortality rates in kids. In experiment 1, 238 goats were assigned to one of three groups during the mating period: A1-control, A2- 0.06mgSe+0.8IU vitE/kgBW and A3-0.125mgSe+1.7IU vitE/kgBW. No differences (P>.05 for fertility and prolificacy were observed among the groups. Blood Se concentration did not differ among Se-vit E groups and control group before injection, and both groups showed Se deficient condition. There was a trend (PForam conduzidos três experimentos para determinar a quantidade ótima da injeção de selênio-vitamina E (Se-vit E para manter o nível aceitável do status de selênio no sangue de cabras e cabritos e determinar essa relação com o status sobre a taxa de mortalidade de cabritos. No primeiro experimento, 238 cabras foram usados em um dos três grupos durante o período do acasalamento: A1- controle, A2- 0,06mgSe+0,8UI vit E/kg de peso-vivo e A3- 0,125mgSe+1,7UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo. Não houve diferenças (P>0,05 entre os grupos para fertilidade e prolificidade. A concentração de Se no sangue não foi diferente entre os grupos que receberam Se-vit E e o controle antes da injeção e ambos os grupos mostravam deficiência de Se. Sessenta dias pós-tratamento houve tendência (P<0,05; 32% de aumentar o nível de Se no sangue e não houve diferença entre os grupos A2 e controle. Houve diferença significativa (P<0,05; 103% entre os grupos A1 e A2 e o grupo A3. No segundo experimento, 48 cabras foram divididas em quatro grupos: B1- controle, B2- 0,125mgSe+1,7UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo, B3- 0,25mgSe+3,4UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo e B4- 0,31mgSe+4,2UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo. O grupo B4 alcançou a concentração mais alta no terceiro mês depois da injeção (0,11ppm e diminuiu depois de 100 dias, quando o valor

  17. 4. Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Üstbilişsel Okuma Stratejilerini Kullanma Durumları ve Bu Stratejilerle Okuduğunu Anlama Arasındaki İlişki 4th Grade Students' Using Metacognitive Reading Strategies Conditions and between the Relationship Reading Comprehension and Using These Strategies

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    Mustafa BAŞARAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to determine that 4th grade students' usingmetacognitive reading strategies conditions and the relationshipbetween reading comprehension rates and using these strategies ratesin this grade. The Research method of this study is relational scan thatis a descriptive method. The universe of the study is 4th grade students,who attend state elementary schools in the center of Kütahya provincein 2012-2013 academic season. The sample of study is 89 4th gradestudents, who were selected from this universe. The study consists offour parts. In the first chapter, Metacognition and metacognitive readingstrategies are discussed. The method of study is explained in the secondchapter. The findings and the comments are available in the thirdsection. In the last chapter, there are the results of the study and thediscussing of results. According to the results of study, 4th gradestudents’ use often before reading, during reading and after readingmetacognitive reading strategies but students use fewer strategies forremembering. The gender of students has no significant effect on usingmetacognitive reading strategies However, the branch has significanteffect on the rate of use metacognitive reading strategies. According tothe results of the research there is not a significant relationshipbetween using metacognitive reading strategies rates andunderstanding. Bu araştırmada 4. sınıf öğrencilerinin üstbilişsel okuma stratejilerini kullanma durumlarının ve bu sınıf seviyesindeki öğrencilerin üstbilişsel okuma stratejilerini kullanma oranı ile okuduğunu anlamaları arasındaki ilişkinin tespiti amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın yöntemi, betimsel yöntemlerden, ilişkisel taramadır. Araştırmanın çalışma evreni 2012-2013 eğitim öğretim yılında Kütahya il merkezindeki ilkokullarda öğrenimine devam eden 4. sınıf öğrencileridir. Araştırmanın örneklemini ise bu evrenden rastgele seçilen bir devlet okulunun

  18. Kajian tentang Kemungkinan Pemanfaatan Bahan Serat Ijuk sebagai Bahan Penyerap Suara Ramah Lingkungan

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    Zulfian Zulfian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The probability of application of palm fibre from arenga pinnata appear as best treatment for sound absorption material which can be used in controlling noise. The objective of this study is to determine sound absorption coefficient value of palm fibre through a testing the absorbent material, by applying sabine reverberation time formulation in reverberation chamber at Thermal and acoustics laboratory Syiah Kuala University. Result of this study show that sound absorption coefficient value is obtained 0.97, at 2000 Hz. Whereas thickness of material 20 cm with density of 150 kg/m3. Addition of density can increase sound absorption coefficient value in frequency range 1/3 octave. Proven that a comparison palm fibre and artificial material and consequently palm give better quality values because it economic value and friendly environment. Keywords: palm fiber, reverberation chamber, sound absorption coefficient

  19. Kajian Eksperimental Perbandingan Performansi Mesin Otto Bahan Bakar Premium dengan Bahan Bakar LPG

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Jefferson

    2013-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels led to a variety of ideas how to solve this problem. LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) is one alternative fuel that can be used in trending engine, one of which is a gasoline engine generator sets in 4-stroke. By modifying the carburetor so the engine can work as when using gasoline. Although the performance of the machine tends to not give optimal results such as engine performance when using gasoline, but has the advantage of LPG fuel, the emissions p...

  20. Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik dan Degradabilitas Serat pada Pakan yang Disuplementasi Tanin dan Saponin

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    Idha Muthiah Dwi Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT. The study was conducted to assess the effect of the addition of tannins, saponin and their combinations on the feed, as defaunation agent in the dry matter and organic matter digestibility and ADF, NDF degradability. The study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 : feed without supplementation; T1: feed supplementation with 1,2% saponin; T2 : feed with supplemetation combined of 0,5% tannin and 0,9% saponin; T3 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,0% tannin and 0,6% saponin; T4 : feed with supplementation combined of 1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin and T5 : feed with supplementation with 2% tannins. The result showed that DMD and OMD increased with treatment added combination  of tannin and saponin.  The best result for DMD and OMD in combination of  1,5% tannin and 0,3% saponin.  Degradability of ADF and NDF was decreased on the supplemented feed.  The addition of a combination of tannins and saponins in the feed at dose of 1% tannin and 0.6% saponin showed the best result that increased of DMD and OMD and give good value on NDF and ADF degradability.

  1. Implementasi Mikrokontroler Atmega 8535 pada Panel Surya Statis dan Panel Surya Dinamis Berdasarkan Waktu Menggunakan Real Time Clock (RTC) DS1307

    OpenAIRE

    Syahrial, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The increase in human population are demanding the renewal of natural resources to meet various needs. For example, the needs of electrical energy that greatly influences the development and technology of a some region. Electrical energy is one of the vital part that should be always exist. For that is needed a new electric energy source that can be replace the source of electrical energy before. This research aims to make a simulation tools of solar power plant or called solar cells. This si...

  2. Genel Bilişsel Yetenek Ölçümlerinde Süre ve Performans İlişkisinde A Tipi Kişiliğin Rolü(The Role of Type A Personality on the Relationship between Time and Performance in Measurement of General Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat GÜLER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizasyonların personel seçiminde kullanılan bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin, objektif ve yansız olarak yapılması, ihtiyaç duyulan uygun nitelikteki insan kaynağının temin edilmesi için önemli bir husustur. Ancak, bilişsel yetenek testlerinin kişilik özelliklerinden etkilendiğine dair bazı bulgular öne sürülmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, genel bilişsel yetenek (GBY ölçümlerinde süre ve performans ilişkisinde A Tipi kişiliğin rolü 271 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen verilerle incelenmiştir. Veriler, A Tipi Kişilik Ölçeği ve Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler Testi ile toplanmıştır. Genel örneklemde ve A Tiplerinde GBY test performansı ve süresi ile A Tipi kişilik arasında anlamlı bir ilişki gözlenmezken, B Tiplerinde test süresinin ve yaşın GBY test performansının yordayıcısı olduğuna ilişkin bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Objectively and impartially application of cognitive ability measurements that used in personnel selection of organizations, is a vital issue for providing needed appropriate human resources. But, some findings have been suggested that personality traits influence the measurement of cognitive abilities. In the current study the relationship between general cognitive ability (GCA and Type A personality (TAP was investigated with the data collected from 271 university students. The assessment instruments used were: Type-A Behavior Scale and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test. The findings revealed that, while there was no relationship between GCA, testing time and TAP in the general sample and Type A group, testing time and age were predictors of the GCA test performance in the Type B group

  3. An old paper revisited: "a mathematical model of carbohydrate energy metabolism. Interaction between glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles at varying ATPases load" by V.V. Dynnik, R. Heinrich and E.E. Sel'kov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaret, Christine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-07

    We revisit an old Russian paper by V.V. Dynnik, R. Heinrich and E.E. Sel'kov (1980a,b) describing: "A mathematical model of carbohydrate energy metabolism. Interaction between glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles at varying ATPases load". We analyse the model mathematically and calculate the control coefficients as a function of ATPase loads. We also evaluate the structure of the metabolic network in terms of elementary flux modes. We show how this model can respond to an ATPase load as well as to the glucose supply. We also show how this simple model can help in understanding the articulation between the major blocks of energetic metabolism, i.e. glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the H-transporting shuttles.

  4. PERUBAHAN SEBARAN SEL-SEL ASIDOFIL DAN BASOFIL HIPOFISA PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PASAK BUMI (Eurycoma longifolia Jack

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    Hurip Pratomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi is popular as an aphrodisiac in the traditional medical herb. Boiled drink water of the root powder of pasak bumi is believed can increase the secondary reproduction characters such as libido and the duration of erection. This article is part of the research report that focus on: the distribution of hypophysis acidophil and basophil cells caused of the pasak bumi optimal dose treatment. Research carried out in an experiment using Hemaktosilin Eosin(HE staining method to study micromorphological distribution of the acidophil and basophil cells of the male rat hypophysis after pasak bumi treatment (the dose of 18 mg pasak bumi/200 g body weight during three days, and the control of 1 ml aquadest. Result of the research showed that: Basophyl cells increased significantly in the third days of pasak bumi administered. Meanwhile acidophyl cells decreased in the third days of pasak bumi administered.

  5. Tanis\SelS蛋白的研究进展%Tanis/SelS Protein Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕柳

    2011-01-01

    Tanis is a recently discovered protein, which encodes a 189 -amino acid protein and contains a putative transmembrane domain. Tanis may be a membrane protein. Tanis is reported to be a putative receptor for serum amyloid A. The research found that Tanis plays a role in the development of insulin resistance in vivo. Tanis impairs the cellular damage which the H202 results in. The research discovered thatTanis participates in sugar metabolism by interacting with serum amyl - oid A and makes relationship between type 2 diabetes,inflammation,cardiovascular diseases and metabolic diseases, which provides new direction of study for the development of the diseases.%Tanis蛋白是一种新发现的由189个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白。研究发现,Tanis蛋白具有胰岛素抵抗的现象,抵抗过氧化氢引起的细胞损伤。Tanis是一种跨膜蛋白,可能作为血清淀粉样蛋白A(SAA)的受体存在,通过与SAA相互作用参与糖代谢。在2型糖尿病、炎症反应、心血管疾病以及代谢性疾病之间建立了连接,为了解这些疾病的发生发展提供了新的研究方向。

  6. Safety of Aminophylline for Asthma Therapy in Delta Surya Hospital at Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Lorensia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aminophylline is common used for treating asthma in Indonesia and has narrow therapeutic index. Despite of its affordable price, data on the safety of using aminophylline is still poorly documented. The aims of this study is to analyze the safety of using aminophylline based on Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR in hospitalized patients. This study used retrospective design by collecting 2-years-data of hospitalized patients. Using purposive sampling methods, samples were collected from patients who received aminophylline for asthma therapy. ADR event were recorded and evaluated based on some literatures. It was evaluated by Naranjo Scale, a common tool to identify the probability of ADR related drug. From 41 patients who used aminophylline for their exacerbation in asthma treatment, there was one suspected incident of ADR events related to hypertension with tachycardia. In general, aminophylline would improve symptoms in hospitalized patients with asthma. This study demonstrates that aminophylline is safe although there was only one suspected incident of ADR which could be recorded during these observations. However, for further research it still requires observation from laboratory tests and communication with patients and other healthcare workers.

  7. Unjuk Kerja Kolektor Surya dengan Absorber Bentuk V yang Dilengkapi Honeycomb dengan Beberapa Aspek Rasio

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    Ekadewi A. Handoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple apparatus using solar radiation that is essential for people in tropical area like Indonesia is called solar collector. A solar collector can be applied to heat air which can be used to dry some crops or agricultural products. One of some effort to improve the solar collector performance is using a v-corrugated absorber plate or installing slats in a honeycomb shape over the absorber to reduce heat loss. This paper will describe the combination of both. From the research, it was found that a solar collector with v-corrugated absorber plate has its best performance when the velocity of air is 0.5 m/s with aspect ratio H/L = 3/1. The performance includes the collector efficiency and the increase temperature of air flowing through the collector.

  8. Desain Sistem Kendali untuk Pengering Gabah dengan Kolektor Surya dan Penyimpan Panas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrul Irfan Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the solar drying is the fluctuation of solar radiation that causes drying process takes place un-continuously. The purpose of this research was to design a control system in a grain dryer model using solar collectors and water as a heat storage so that the drying process model, heat storage and its utilization can take place effectively and efficiently. The control method used the ON-OFF control system based on microcontroller ATmega 16. The control system algorithm was based on comparison among air equilibrium moisture content (Me of environment, Me in the drying chamber and the potential air Me. The results showed that the control system worked well on grain dryers system using solar collectors and water as the medium of heat storage.The average ambient air temperature of 35.6oC, RH of 51.3%, plenum of 35.4oC and the total radiation of 1.66 kWh/m2, the system could dried 5 kg of grains at the top level from initial moisture content of 42.5% d.b to 18.3% d.b and at the bottom level of 42.2% d.b to 16.1% d.b during 10 hours. The water temperature rise although still used, from 32.1oC to the maximum reached 44.2oC and the remaining of 38.8oC.

  9. RANCANG BANGUN KONVERSI ENERGI SURYA MENJADI ENERGI LISTRIK DENGAN MODEL ELEVATED SOLAR TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Hasan, Erika Rani

    2012-05-01

    31.600Lux, 43 300 Lux, and 56,000 Lux. Dari hasil penelitian tersebut menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi panas pada kolektor tidak konstan. Efisiensi kolektor tertinggi mencapai 83,92% sedangkan terendah mencapai 22,55% dengan rata-rata sebesar 57%. Dan efisiensi sistem dari alat konversi tersebut tertinggi mencapai 0,01% sedangkan terendah mencapai 0,0022% dengan rata-rata efisiensi sebesar 0,0053%. Adapun daya listrik yang dihasilkan mencapai 72,469 Kata Kunci : Konversi Energi, Elevated Solar Tower, Efisiensi Kolektor

  10. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI PT. SURYA WARFA KHARISMA STUDI KASUS: PENJULAN, PIUTANG, DAN PENERIMAAN KAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparto Darudiato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To increase sales, the management and sales department requires accurate, relevant and up-to-date information to support its function. Currently the amount of outstanding accounts receivables becomes one of the obstacles. So, credit limits criteria are applied as one of the effort to emphasise the outstanding receivables. Surely it will have an impact on increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and ultimately will enhance the competitiveness. This research was done in three stages, data collection, analyzing the system requirements of current system to synergy with companys target, and the results of needs analysis are developed into a new accounting information system with object-oriented approach and UML diagrams.

  11. Optimum dose of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate based bonding material on pulp cells toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Saraswati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, one type of resins commonly used as bonding base material, is commonly used due to its advantageous chemical characteristics. Several preliminary studies indicated that resin is a material capable to induce damage in dentin-pulp complex. It is necessary to perform further investigation related with its biological safety for hard and soft tissues in oral cavity. Purpose: The author performed an in vitro test to find optimum dose of HEMA resin monomer that may induce toxicity in pulp fibroblast cells. Method: The method of this study was experimental laboratory with post test control group design. Primary cell culture was made from dental pulp fibroblast cells, and was given with HEMA resin bonding material in various concentrations (5 µg/ml–2560 µg/ml, and then subjected to toxicity test (MTT assay. Result: HEMA optimum concentration was 320 µg/ml to induce cytotoxicity in pulp fibroblast cells. Conclusion: The used of HEMA - base bonding material with the concentration of 200 µg/ml may induced pulp fibroblas cell toxicity.Latar belakang: Keberhasilan suatu bahan bonding secara klinis tergantung pada kandungan fisik, kimia dan keamanan secara biologis. HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate adalah bahan resin yang paling banyak digunakan karena memiliki sifat fisik-kimia yang baik. Beberapa penelitian pendahuluan menyebutkan bahwa resin merupakan bahan yang mampu menyebabkan gangguan pada kompleks dentin pulpa sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut menyangkut segi keamanan secara biologis bagi jaringan keras dan jaringan lunak di rongga mulut. Tujuan: Penelitian ini akan menguji secara in vitro (pada kultur sel fibroblas pulpa gigi untuk mengetahui dosis optimal monomer resin HEMA yang dapat menyebabkan toksisitas pada sel fibroblas pulpa. Metode: Metode penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratoris dengan rancangan penelitian post test control group design. Kultur sel primer dibuat dari

  12. Okul Öncesi Eğitim Kurumuna Devam Eden 36–48 Aylık Çocukların Bilişsel Gelişim Düzeyleri / Cognitive Development Levels of 36-38 Month-Old Children Attending a Pre-School Education

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    Sevinç DEMİR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Araştırmada, MEB 2006 Okul Öncesi Eğitim Programında öngörülen 36–48 aylık çocukların bilişsel gelişim özelliklerine örneklemin ne derece sahip olduğunu ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Tarama modelinde desenlenmiş olan bu araştırmanın örneklemini, 2009–2010 eğitim-öğretim yılında Kütahya il merkezindeki okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarına devam eden 36–48 aylık 53 çocuk oluşturmuştur. Verilerin toplanmasında araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanmış olan Bilişsel Gelişim Değerlendirme Formu (BGDF ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde ikili gruplar arasındaki ilişkiye bakmak amacı ile t-testi, ANOVA ve Kruskal Wallis-H testi uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre örneklemin BGDF’nin 1. ve 2. uygulamaları sonucunda aldıkları puanlar cinsiyet, devam ettikleri okul türü, okul öncesi kurumuna devam etme süresi, annenin yaşı, annenin çalışma durumu, babanın yaşı, babanın öğrenim durumu, kardeş sayısı, kaçıncı çocuk olduğu, ailenin ekonomik durumu değişkenlerine göre farklılaşmamaktadır. BGDF 1. ve 2. uygulama sonucunda alınan puanlar annenin öğrenim durumu değişkenine göre birinci uygulamada de��il, ancak ikinci uygulamada farklılaşmaktadır.

  13. Zinc-Laccase Biofuel Cell

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    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A zinc-laccase biofuel cell adapting the zinc-air cell design features is investigated. A simple cell design configuration is employed: a membraneless single chamber and a freely suspended laccase in a quasi-neutral buffer electrolyte. The cell is characterised according to its open-circuit voltage, polarization profile, power density plot and discharge capacity at constant current. The biocatalytic role of laccase is evident from the polarization profile and power output plot. Performance comparison between a single chamber and dual chamber cell design is also presented. The biofuel cell possessed an open-circuit voltage of 1.2 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.9 mW/cm2 at current density of 2.5 mA/cm2. These characteristics are comparable to biofuel cell utilising a much more complex system design.KEY WORDS (keyword:  Biofuel cell, Bioelectrochemical cell, Zinc anode, Laccase and Oxidoreductase.ABSTRAK: Sel bio-bahan api zink-laccase dengan adaptasi daripada ciri-ciri rekabentuk sel zink-udara telah dikaji. Sel dengan konfigurasi rekabentuk yang mudah digunapakai: ruangan tunggal tanpa membran dan laccase diampaikan secara bebas di dalam elektrolit pemampan quasi-neutral. Sel dicirikan berdasarkan voltan litar terbuka, profil polarisasi, plot ketumpatan kuasa dan kapasiti discas pada arus malar. Peranan laccase sebagai bio-pemangkin adalah amat ketara daripada profil polarisasi dan plot ketumpatan kuasa. Perbandingan prestasi di antara sel dengan rekabentuk ruangan tunggal and dwi-ruangan turut diketengahkan. Seperti dijangkakan, sel dengan rekabentuk ruangan tunggal menunjukkan kuasa keluaran yang lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan rekabentuk dwi-ruangan kemungkinan disebabkan fenomena cas bocor. Sel bio-bahan api ini mempunyai voltan litar terbuka 1.2 V dan memberikan ketumpatan kuasa maksima 0.9 mW/cm2 pada ketumpatan arus 2.5 mA/cm2. Ciri-ciri ini adalah sebanding dengan sel bio-bahan api yang menggunapakai rekabentuk sel

  14. Osmanlı Devrinde Vize Sancağındaki Selâtin ve Ümera Vakıfları (1530-1613 Selatin And Umera Foundations In The District Of Vize During The Ottoman Empire (1530-1613

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    Volkan ERTÜRK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined selatin foundations (the foundations established by sultans and umera foundations (the foundations established by emirs, which had sources of income in the townships of Vize district, within the bounds of possibility provided by the accounting summary book of Vize district dated 1530 and the book offoundations of Vize district dated 1613. The changes experienced bythese foundations as well as the increases and decreases in theirsources of income in approximately 80-year period were revealed in thisstudy. It is known that the foundations established made a greatcontribution to the social and economic development of Vize district,and enabled the urbanization of that region. Standing as a bridgebetween Istanbul and the Balkans, Vize region changed into a Muslim-Turkish city with the alms houses created by the foundationsestablished by sultans, state dignitaries, and benefactors among thecommon people in a short span of time.This study concluded that there were villages bringing aconsiderable amount of income to selatin and umera foundations intownships affiliated to the district of Vize. It is surely beyond doubt thatthe fact that Vize region was very close to Istanbul, the capital of theempire, and the soils of that region were quite productive and incomegeneratingcaused the villages subject to selatin and umera foundationsto become dense in that region. At the end of our study, we tried toelaborate the roles Vize foundations played in socio-economic structure.İt is understood that in the Ottoman period Vize foundations had asignificant place within the practice of Ottoman foundations with regardto both their revenues and their spheres of influence. Bu makalede 1530 tarihli Vize sancağı muhasebe-i icmal defteri ile 1613 tarihli Vize sancağı evkaf defterinin verdiği bilgiler çerçevesinde Vize sancağı kazalarında gelir kaynakları bulunan selâtin ve ümera vakıfları incelenmiştir. Bu bağlamda vakıfların takriben

  15. Rancang bangun pabrik plastik dari bahan polietilen food grade

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    Irene Sri Sukaeni

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out process of production and the relation between cost, sell price and percentage of break even point. Production of capacity planned is 43.200 bottles perday, so that in a year with 288 workday, capacity produced is 12.400.000 bottles. The economical calculation are as follows the total capital is fixed capital + working capital - Rp. 1.489.200.308,00 ; the total production cost is variable cost a year + fixed cost a year = Rp.3.532.949.829,00;. The manufacturing cost = Rp. 285,00 / bottle, the profit calculation before taxing is Rp. 466.230.171,00 and after taxing is Rp. 372.984.136, the pay out period calculation consist of the percentage of profit to return the capital (rate of return before taxing is 31.30%, after taxing is 25.04% and the pay out period before taxing 2 year 11 months, after taxing 3 year 7 months ; the break even calculation consist of break even point is Rp. 1.988.929.421,00; the percentage of break even point is 49,73% and the capacity of break even point is 6.166.25O bottles.

  16. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

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    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  17. Kulit ikan balida sebagai industri bahan baku industri barang kulit

    OpenAIRE

    Muchtar Lutfie; Esti Rahayu; Widhiati Widhiati

    1999-01-01

    This study is aimed at detecring of physical properties (tensile strength and elongation) of balida fosh skin lather (Natopterus chitala sp). Material used in this study is nfive sides from Pontianak (West Kalimantan). They were then tracted with Chromosal B as tanning agent and Irgata I.V as retanning agent to be finitshed leather. On testing the finished leather it is found that there is not aby significant different betweeb the dry and salted balida fish skin leather on their fisical pro...

  18. Kulit ikan balida sebagai industri bahan baku industri barang kulit

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    Muchtar Lutfie

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at detecring of physical properties (tensile strength and elongation of balida fosh skin lather (Natopterus chitala sp. Material used in this study is nfive sides from Pontianak (West Kalimantan. They were then tracted with Chromosal B as tanning agent and Irgata I.V as retanning agent to be finitshed leather. On testing the finished leather it is found that there is not aby significant different betweeb the dry and salted balida fish skin leather on their fisical properties of tensile strength and clongation, the mean of tensile streght of dry preserved balida skin lather and salied balida akin leather of which respect tively are 226,82 kg/cm2 and 43,2% respecrively. Viewed from thye test result, it is obviously that balida skin leather to be used material pf leather goods.

  19. Oviposisi dan Perkembangan Nyamuk Armigeres Pada Berbagai Bahan Kontainer

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    Endang Puji Astuti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Armigeres mosquito being the vector responsible for Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Filaria. Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes. Acurated entomological data is needed to support control mosquito vector, like data hits habitats armigeres. This study is aimed to compare oviposition of armigeres and the development in various container. the clay container (44 eggs more many found egg is compared with plastical stuff (11 eggs. Moulting process of armigeres almost the same to Culicinae, that is average ± 2 - 3 days. Mosquito development in this laboratory test only until third generation (f3. Rearing of armigeres need-ed the enviromental kondusif with nature habitat.

  20. PEMBUATAN PEPTON SECARA ENZIMATIS MENGGUNAKAN BAHAN BAKU JEROAN IKAN TONGKOL

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    Tati - Nurhayati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakJeroan ikan tongkol memiliki kandungan protein yang hampir sama dengan daging ikan sehingga memilikipotensi yang besar untuk dijadikan pepton. Penelitian ini bertujuan memproduksi pepton dari jeroan ikantongkol menggunakan enzim papain dan mengujinya untuk pertumbuhan bakteri. Konsentrasi enzim optimalyang digunakan untuk hidrolisis protein jeroan ikan tongkol adalah 0,26% dengan waktu hidrolisis selama3 jam. Pepton jeroan ikan tongkol memiliki kadar air 7,66%; kadar abu 2,34%; kadar protein 50,18%; dankadar lemak 0,47%. Kadar asam amino tertinggi dan terendah masing-masing adalah asam glutamat (6,38%dan sistein (0,68%. Pepton jeroan ikan tongkol memiliki kelarutan 98,20%; total nitrogen 8,03%; α-aminonitrogen bebas 1,12%; rasio asam amino bebas terhadap total nitrogen 13,93%; kadar garam 0,79%; rendemen3,92-5,54% dan pH 6,02. Pepton jeroan ikan tongkol dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu penyusun media luriabroth (LB untuk pertumbuhan bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus. Kecepatan pertumbuhanspesifi k maksimum E. coli pada media yang menggunakan pepton jeroan tongkol lebih tinggi dibandingkandengan pepton komersial, sedangkan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k maksimum S. aureus lebih rendah padamedia pertumbuhan LB yang mengandung pepton jeroan tongkol.Kata kunci: hidrolisis, jeroan ikan, papain, pepton

  1. UJI SITOTOKSISITAS BAHAN CYANOACRYLATE VENEER DENGAN MTT ASSAY

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    Elly Munadziroh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of acrylic resin restoration basen on methyl methacrylate material in the dentistry, has already been replaced by composite because of certain poor characteristics. Recently, the restoration materials of methyl methacrylate have been re-developed, and made commercially available with cyanoacrylates added. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of cyanoacrylate veneer materials by 3-(3,4-dimethylthyazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl retrazolium biomide (MTT assay methods. Cyanoacrylate veneer specimens were immersed in eppendorf microtubes with cell culture media for 1, 12, 24 or 48 hour. Culture media were immersed and used to investigate the cytotoxic effect to BHK 21 cell lines by MTT assay method. The density of optic formazan was live indicate a cell. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and HSD Tukey. The results show that the cytotoxic effects between the five immersion were similar but higher than control cell. In conclusion Immersion in cyanoacrylate veneer has a cytotoxic effect to BHK 21 cell lines. The lowest percentage of cells a live after immersion was 86,95%.

  2. RISIKO KESEHATAN SISTEM PERNAFASAN AKIBAT PEMANFAATAN BAHAN BAKAR BRIKET BATUBARA

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    Sukar Sukar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A Study was conducted during 1997-1998 inPedan, Klaten,  Central Java for collectinginformation on health effects of using coal briquet fuel. The odds ratios (OR for 95% confident intervals(CI were analysed by comparing the risk of the respiratory disease between people who use coal briquet fuel in their houses and similar households not using such fuels for cooking. Result of analysis show: OR95%CI of mother for: whooping cough 5.07(0.61-42.35,chronical sputum 4.05(0.46-35.43, air way resistance 0.17 (  0.02-1.37, while asthma, chest pain, and tuberculosis were not detected. The analysis ofOR among children under five years old for: whooping cough 1.27(0.64-2.52,chronical sputum 0.51(0.13.68,asthma 4.05(0.46-35.43, air way resistance 1.35(0.35-5.83, whereas wheezing, chest pain, andtuberculosiswere not detected. Less significant OR was shown for mother (whooping cough andchronicalsputum,and for children under five years old (whooping cough, asthma, and air way resistance. The studysuggeststhat coal briquet fuel should be used with precautions and care. Used carefully, it can be used for long-term heating.

  3. MENDESAIN BAHAN AJAR BAHASA INDONESIA UNTUK TUJUAN AKADEMIS

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    Widjono Hs.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Article on how to design Indonesian language course material for academic purposes discusses some aspects necessary to be understood in designing the materials used by students at university level. Understanding of language essence, academic competence, appropriate course materials, and effective learning process covering the three stages of accountability model according to Moore, and the seven textuality criteria according to Rankema, is ablsolutely needed to be able to design good course materials. Article also includes a model structure of learning academic paragraph writing and academic essay.

  4. SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI PEMBELIAN BAHAN BAKU UNTUK PROYEK

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    Lianawati Christian

    2012-05-01

    improving application design that features document numbering, document filing, and reports. The new designed accounting information system of raw material purchases of the construction company can generate a report needed timely, completely and accurately, so that it can be used by the management in decision-making process.

  5. Penentuan Lot Size Pemesanan Bahan Baku Dengan Batasan Kapasitas Gudang

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    Dana Marsetiya Utama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the problem of determining the lot size of ordering raw materials with warehouse capacity limitation in order to minimize inventory costs. Generally, the lot size of ordering raw materials determined without considering warehouse capacity. The algorithm that used is Wagner Within (WW which is modified by adding a warehouse capacity as a constraint. The result shows the minimum of total inventory cost is 24,100 and the ordering raw materials at the week 3, 5 and 7.

  6. EFEKTIVITAS NIRA AREN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGEMBANG ADONAN ROTI

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    Mody Lempang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a natural process that happen in fresh-sweet sap of aren trees (Arenga pinnata Merr., because many kinds of microorganism stay and life in this substance e.g. bakteria (Acetobacter acetic and yeast (Saccharomyces tuac. Species of yeast from genus of Saccharomyses, e.g. Saccharomyses serivisae is wellknown as microorganism that can ferment sugar (glucose into alchohol and CO2. This natural process as well happen in aren sap, so that this substance potencially using as a swollen agent of bread or cake dough. This research objective is to recognize the effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough. Fermentation duration of bread dough was one hour by using swollen agent of fresh, 10 hours old and 20 hours old of aren sap. Daily yield of sap tapped from aren trees in Maros district, South Sulawesi province was 7 litre (4-5 litre collected in the morning and 2-3 litre colected in the afternoon. Aren sap containt some of nutritions e.g. carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin C and mineral. Sweet taste of aren sap caused by it’s charbohydrate content of 11.18%. The effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough is lower than instant (commercial yeast. The older of aren sap the lower of it’s effectiveness as a swollen agent of dough and kuality of bread yield.    Keywords : Sap, Arenga pinnata, swollen agent, bread dough

  7. MODEL DISTRIBUSI BAHAN AJAR UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA

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    Sitta Alief Farihati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Universitas Terbuka (UT was implementing the centralized distribution of learning material, it is not considered efficient. Therefore, the decentralized distribution system which requires warehouses at certain regional offices will be proposed. The aims of this research are (1 investigating the decentralized learning material distribution model, (2 choosing the optimal location of warehouses to minimize the cost of learning material distribution, (3 choosing the regional offices which will be served optimally by each warehouse, (4 comparing efficiency of the centralized and decentralized learning material distribution system. The distribution problem is modeled as a linear mixed integer programming problem. The model will be solved using Branch and Bound method. This study considers centralized learning material distribution system and two alternative of decentralized learning material distribution systems, which are alternative 1 and alternative 2. It is found that in 2008 the cost of the alternative 2 is lower than the centralized learning distribution system. Besides, if the demand of learning material is increasing, the alternative 2 is still less costly than the other systems.

  8. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Pengajaran Mikro Matematika Kelas SBI

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    Imam Sujadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at producing printed teaching materials for micro teaching program which can be used as one of learning resources for students of international standard school  in  Math Department. The main activity in this research is developing teaching material which is designed to support the achievement of teaching curricular i.e the students are capable of teaching math in international program. This covers two stages- exploration and developing draft model. In the first stage, the researchers performed related literatures reviews and collected varied information related to the problems faced by the students/ teachers in conducting teaching activities in international program. Based on the data gathered, the draft model was developed. Results of the research show that the English competence of the students in math department needs to be enhanced. Courses related to micro teaching program for international school should be rigorously planned, syllabus and its implementation in teaching learning process needs to be revised. In the micro teaching program for international standard school, students have to practice activities dealing with planning classroom management, using media, and developing lesson plan in English. The provision of teaching and learning resources for micro teaching program of  international standard school in math department is far from sufficient level and needs improvement. Teaching materials developed cover how to start the lessons, structure the lesson, use learning aids/media, use textbooks, respond to students’ performance, and administer the exams. Developing varieties of teaching materials and their periodical revision are badly needed. Key words : English competence, micro teaching, teaching materials.

  9. Karakterisasi kulit kayu tingi (Ceriops tagal sebagai bahan penyamak nabati

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    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tingi (Ceriops tagal bark was highly potential as tanning materials due to high tannin concentration. The aim of the study was to determine the characterization of properties of tanning material made from tingi bark, including the tannin levels, the non-tannin levels, the tannin type, the absorption level of the solution and the FTIR spectrum analysis. The method used in this research was countercurrent system in the extraction process, feed solution preparation process, the thickening process, powder formation process conducted with the aid of Rotavapor- 151 Standard, and testing. The results showed that the tingi bark contains tannin level 70.91% and non-tannin levels 10.63%. Tannins from tingi bark were classified as procyanidin condensed tannins type and the absorption values obtained maximum value at wavelength 490 nm. The FTIR spectral data indicated that tingi tannins contained hydroxyl group (ⱱ O-H; ⱱ N-H in the area (3467.418-3057.025 cm-1, aromatic group (ⱱ C-H in the area of 2875,733 cm-1, ⱱ C=O (ester group in tanned material in the area (1747.442-1612.422 cm-1, ⱱ-OH; R-COO-in the area of 1444.626 cm-1 and ⱱ(SO42 -; R-SO3; R-SO3H in the area (1112.823-1062.729 cm-1.

  10. Poliester tak jenuh sebagai bahan baku pembuatan helm pengaman

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    Sri Nadilah

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unsaturated polyester is applied in many products such as aircraft sections, boats, building, panels, automotive accessories and modifications, etc. In this research, unsaturated polyester was used as a raw material, which was reinforced with a fiberglass mat, and casted in a silicon rubber mold. The concentrations of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (1-3 phr as an initiator and cobalt naphtanate (0-2 phr as an accelerator were used in the preparation of safety helmet. Subsequently, the effects of the compounds to the reaction time, the brittleness of the products, an the physical properties, were studied. The results showed that the compound composed by 100 phr unsaturated polyester, 2 phr methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, 2 phr cobalt naphtanate, 40 phr silica, 20 phr fiberglass mat and 1 phr pigment was not brittle, had a good reaction time and nonflammable, gave 4.82 mm in resistance to penetration, and the deflection of A and B were 4.5 and 0.0 mm, respectively.

  11. ANALISA KEANDALAN SISTEM BAHAN BAKAR MOTOR INDUK PADA KM. LEUSER

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    Eko Sasmito Hadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil system is one of the vital main engine supporting systems of MV. Leuser because this system is directly influence the main engine performance. The failure of fuel system should be the main engine shut down. The bigger affect was the ship could not be operated so the financial lost would be occurred. The aim of the research is an analysis the fuel system by approximation on reliability based. An analysis of the system was using qualitative and quantitative approximation. Qualitative analysis could be achieved by the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA and the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA. The quantitative analysis could be achieved by the Monte Carlo simulation. The resulted of the research, severity components such as filter, separator, transfer pump and booster pump was obtained by the severity classification and failure probability. The simulation would be achieved the value availability at 0.97 and the value of MTTFF (Mean Time to First Failure is 2423.8363 hours. The simulation used some scenarios, the system availability would be more decrease if there were more stand by components occur the failure in the one of the components at 0,893.

  12. POTENSI LICHEN SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN OBAT: SUATU KAJIAN PUSTAKA

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    ERIS SEPTIANA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.

  13. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Aqidah Ahklak di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah

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    Fitri Erning Kurniawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DEVELOPING AKIDAH AKHLAK TEACHING MATERIAL AT MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH. Teacher has a strategic role in the learning process, can be said that to realize the learning success is teacher responsibility. The learning successit was not yet enough if only measured by how many students who can pass and get a good score, especially in teaching AkidahAkhlakstudent must actualize the Islamic values in their real life. This article tried togive the impression how provide the purpose of the AkidahAkhlaklearning process, by developing AkidahAkhlakteaching materials at the elementary level, without deny the principlesthat must be fulfilled in developing teaching materials.

  14. Kualitas Kompos dari Berbagai Kombinasi Bahan Baku Limbah Organik

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    TATI BUDI KUSMIYARTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Quality of Compost on Various Combinations of Organic Waste Raw Materials Evaluation of compost stability prior to its use is essential for the recycling of organic waste in agricultural soils. During composting, most of the biodegradable organic compound are broken down and a portion of the remaining organic material is converted into humic-like substances, with production of a chemically stabilized composted material. This experiment aimed to monitor the changes in physicochemical characteristics during composting of three kinds compost heap and to define parameters suitable for evaluating the stability of compost. The experiment were conducted from Mei to October 2011 and consisted of three treatments with six replicates for each treatment. Compost pile temperature,the pH, that reflected the initiation and stabilization of the compost, were measured during the composting process. The carbon organic material content, carbon and nitrogen content, the carbon to nitrogen ratio, organoleptic characteristics, and K2O, P2O5, Mg, Ca content were measured to evaluate the quality of the physicochemical properties of the compost. Compost toxicity level had evaluated using Germination Index. The result showed that the quality of compost from all treatments that were evaluated in this experiment meet the standard quality of SNI 2004.

  15. Perkembangan Proses Pembuatan Biodiesel sebagai Bahan Bakar Nabati (BBN

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    Joelianingsih

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As energy dernands increase and fossil fuel reservas are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fluls. A potential diesel fuel substitusi is biodiesel, obtained from fatty acids methyl esters (FAME and produced by the transesterfication reaction of triglyceride or free fatty acid (FFA of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohol, mainly methanol. Most of the currently of alcohol. Although the removal of the excess alcohol can be easily achieved by distillation, however the removal of catlyst and the by-product formed from its reaction with the reactants is complicated while several methode for glycerol purification have been reported. The disadvantages resulting from the use of a catalyst and itsremoval from theproducts can beeliminated if a non-catalytic reaction of the vegetable oils with alcohol can be realized and a simpler and cheaper process can be developed.indonesia has the opportunity to expand oil palm and other plantations such as jatropha curcas (jarak pagarin order to provide sufficient amount of crude oil for development of biodiesel industry.

  16. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L TERHADAP KELENJAR PROSTAT TIKUS PUTIH

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    M. Wien Winarno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah pare (Momordica charantia L.. selain dikenal sebagai sayuran juga digunakan sebagai obat tradisional. Beberapa hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa perasan buah pare dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Sebagai kontrasepsi pria, buah pare terbukti menyebabkan abnormalitas struktur morfologi sperma dan menurunkan kadar testosteron darah. Ekstrak buah pare secara invitro menghambat pertumbuhan sel-sel kanker prostat. Buah pare mengandung momordisin, momordin, asam resinal dan sterol. Berdasarkan efeknya yaitu dapat menurunkan hormon testosteron, dan secara invitro menghambat sel-sel kanker prostat dan adanya kandungan sterol, maka dilakukan penelitian Pengaruh infus buah pare (M. charantia L. terhadap kelenjar prostat tikus putih. Penelitian menggunakan hewan coba tikus putih, galur Wistar dengan bobot badan 180-200 gram. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan "Rancangan Acak Lengkap". Bahan yang diteliti berupa infus buah pare dengan dosis pemberian 625 mg, 1250 mg, 2500 mg dan 5000 mg/kg bb. Sebagai pembanding digunakan akuades. Bahan diberikan secara oral, satu kali sehari selama 30 hari. Hari ke-31 hewan dibunuh, diambil kelenjar prostatnya untuk dibuat preparat histopatologi. Pengamatan meliputi berat dan ketebalan sel epitel kelenjar prostat. Hasilnya, pemberian infus buah pare pada semua dasis dibandingkan dengan akuades (kontrol berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap berat kelenjar prostat. Sementara infus buah pare dosis 2500 mg/kg bb. berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap tebal set epitel kelenjar prostat. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa infus buah pare dapat menurunkan berat kelenjar prostat normal dan menipiskan sel epitel dari kelenjar prostat.   Kata kunci : pare, Momordica charantia L., kelenjar prostat

  17. Biyoloji Öğretmen Adaylarının “Bakteri” Konusundaki Bilişsel Yapılarının Ve Alternatif Kavramlarının Belirlenmesi Determining Biology Student Teachers’ Cognitive Structure And Alternative Concepts On The Concept Of “Bacteria”

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    Hakan KURT

    2013-09-01

    ; Mills, Shaw, Van Horne, Zhang ve Boughman, 2008. Bu yaklaşıma göre önceki deneyimlerle yapılan ilişkilendirmeler nedeniyle zihindeki mevcut bilişsel yapılar bireylerin yeni olayları algılamalarını ve yeni oluşturacakları bilişsel yapıları etkilemektedir. Zayıf bir bilişsel yapının, yeni bilgilerin zihinde yapılandırılma sürecini olumsuz etkilemesi ve böylece yeni bilginin anlamlı olarak yapılanamamasını olumsuz etkilemesi söz konusu olabilmektedir (Tsai ve Huang 2002; Vosniadou, Ioannides, Dimitrakopoulou ve Papademetriou, 2001.Bu kapsamda araştırmacılar öğrencilerin sadece sahip oldukları bilgileri değil; öğrencilerin sahip oldukları farklı bilgi ve kavramlar arasındaki ilişkilerini ve bilişsel yapılarını ölçen tekniklere yönelmişlerdir (Vance, Miller ve Hand, 1995. Bahar (2003, bu stratejiler, kelime ilişkilendirme, yapılandırılmış grid, dallanmış ağaç, kavram haritaları, kavramsal değişim metinleri, analoji, tahmin-gözlem-açıklama şeklinde sıralanabilir. Öğrencilerin bilişsel yapısını inceleyen bu tekniklerden en genel ve en eski olanı, aynı zamanda bu araştırmada da kullanılmış olan teknik kelime ilişkilendirme tekniğidir (Bahar, Johnstone ve Sutcliffe, 1999; Hovardas ve Korfiatis, 2006; Özatlı ve Bahar, 2010; White ve Gunstone, 2000. Bu çalışmanın amacı biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının “bakteri” kavramı konusundaki bilişsel yapılarını incelemektir. Konuyla ilgili literatür taramasında bağımsız kelime ilişkilendirme testi ve çizme-yazma tekniğinin birlikte kullanılarak biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının bakteriyle ilgili kavramsal yapılarını araştıran herhangi bir çalışmaya rastlanmamıştır. Bu çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır (Yıldırım ve Şimşek, 2006. Veriler toplam 44 öğretmen adayının katılımıyla toplanmıştır. Verilerin toplanmasında bağımsız kelime ilişkilendirmetesti ve çizme-yazma tekni

  18. Desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de selênio, zinco e manganês, criados sob condições de estresse térmico Performance of broilers fed diets containing different sources of selenium, zinc and manganese reared under thermal stress conditions

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    M.M. Boiago

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e partes de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas que continham selênio, zinco e manganês complexados ou não a moléculas orgânicas, criados em diferentes temperaturas. Foram utilizados 980 pintinhos machos de um dia de idade, de linhagem comercial, criados durante 42 dias em três câmaras climáticas, que proporcionaram temperaturas alta, termoneutra e baixa. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x2+1, sendo três temperaturas de criação, duas fontes de Se, Zn e Mn - inorgânica e orgânica, mais o tratamento testemunha - criação em câmara termoneutra sem adição de Se, Zn e Mn na ração, com sete repetições por tratamento. As aves criadas em condições de estresse térmico apresentaram piores resultados para consumo de ração, ganho de peso e viabilidade, sendo mais sensíveis ao calor do que ao frio. Quando criadas em ambientes quentes, a conversão alimentar foi melhor quando se utilizaram os minerais na forma orgânica. Sob temperatura neutra, as aves não necessitaram da suplementação da dieta com os minerais avaliados.The performance and carcass yield of broilers fed supplemented diets with different selenium, zinc and manganese sources (organic and inorganic and reared under different environmental temperatures were evaluated. A total of 980 one-day-old broilers were reared until 42 days of age. Three climatic chambers (high, neutral and low temperatures and twenty chickens per pen, distributed in a 3x2 + 1 factorial arrangement with three breeding temperatures, two mineral sources and a control treatment that provided neutral temperature without mineral supplementation, with seven replicates each were used. The thermal stressed broilers showed lower results for feed intake, weight gain and viability, mainly under high temperature. The organic mineral utilization provided a better feed conversion ratio when high temperature was

  19. The influence of sport education model on middle school students during extracurricular football studies on cognitive- psychomotor and game performance levels1 İlköğretim II. kademe ders dışı futbol çalışmasında uygulanan spor eğitimi modelinin öğrencilerin bilişsel, psikomotor ve oyun performansı erişi düzeylerine etkisi

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    İbrahim Doydu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to find out the influence of Sport Education Model (SEM on cognitive, psychomotor and game performance levels of students during 16 week extrarurricular football education. Both experimental and control group consist of 24 male students with a total of 48. To measure cognitive learning level of students success test, to measure psychomotor learning level Mor-Christian Football General Test and to measure game performance Game Performance Assessment Scale were used. As a result of this study, there was no significant difference between control and experimental group on the basis of SEM in cognitive learning levels (p>0,05. In psychomotor area, there is significant difference between two group on shoting and passing skills (p<0,001. Also there was a significant difference in achievements between skill performance, support and game performance components which were the components of game performance (p<0,05 but there was no significant difference in decision-making compenent(p>0,05. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı, spor eğitimi modelinin (SEM 16 haftalık ders dışı futbol eğitim (egzersiz çalışmalarına katılan öğrencilerin bilişsel, psikomotor ve oyun performansı alanlardaki gelişimine etkililiğini incelemektir. Çalışma, deney grubunda 24 (SEM kontrol grubunda 24 (Geleneksel Öğretim Modeli olmak üzere toplam 48 erkek öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Bilişsel alandaki öğrenmeleri ölçmek için futbola ait başarı testi, psikomotor becerilerini ölçmek için Mor-Christian Futbol Genel Yetenek Testi ve oyun performansı erişilerini belirlemek için Oyun Performansı Değerlendirme Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Bilişsel alan erişi düzeyleri karşılaştırıldığında deney grubu lehine istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmamıştır (p>0,05. Psikomotor alanı oluşturan top sürme becerisi dışındaki şut ve pas becerisi erişi düzeyleri arasında deney grubu lehine

  20. Apoptosis Sel Fibroblas Jaringan Pulpa Akibat Paparan Radiasi Ionisasi

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    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In vivo apoptosis of fibroblast pulp cells by ionizing radiation from radiotherapy of the head and neck area has not yet been demonstrated. The study aimed to show in vivo the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on apoptosis of fibroblast pulp cells. The sample group consisted of 24 health male Wistar rats that were 3-4 months old and 150-200 g in weight. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats that were subjected to Cobalt 60 radiation to the head at the levels of 0, 100, 200 or 400 rad. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after radiation exposure, and the lower incisivus were taken for histopathological processing. Apoptosis was detected by using the TUNEL Assay method. The apoptotc fibroblast pulp cells were counted under light microscope by multiple observers using the blind test approach. The fraction of apoptotic cells was counted as mean of labial and palatal sides of the teeth below odontogenic and free-cell zone. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way anova. The results showed the percentage of apoptotic of fibroblast pulp cells was 6.4, 23.7, 34.5 and 17.8% after , 100, 200, and 400 rad doses, respectively. There were significant differences in the apoptotic percentages between the four groups (p<0.05. In conclusion, the highest fraction of apoptotic fibroblast pulp cells was found after a single 200 rad dose, and this fraction decreased after a single dose of 400 rad.

  1. Kaheksas ehtenäitus sel hooajal / Kai Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-

    1999-01-01

    18. VI-8. VIII Tarbekunstimuuseumis rahvusvaheline ehtekunstinäitus "Meele Avaldus/Mind Seduction". Osalema on kutsutud 30 noort ehtekunstnikku seitsmest Euroopa riigist. Kuraator ja kujundaja Ketli Tiitsar. Eestit esindavad rühmituse F.F.F.F. liikmed, Mari ja Adolfas Shaulys

  2. Morfogenesis dan Diferensiasi Sel dalam Perkembangan Gigi (Tinjauan Molekuler

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    Yani Corvianindya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development provides a dynamic process that has recently been studied at molecular level. There has been much progress toward the understanding of epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling in tooth germ formation, morphogenesis and cell differentiation. The epithelial-mesenchym interaction is suggested to be the most important mechanism in organogenesis that stimulate mitosis and prevent apoptosis adjacent to the tissue surface. Moreover it affects cell formation and cell differentiation. Enamel knot is assumed to act as a signaling center in the tooth germ epithelial in organizing the tooth pattern as well as controlling the tooth growth. The genes involved in this mechanism are p21, Fgf-4, Shh, Bmp-2, bmp-4, Msx-1 and Lef-1 which are expressed in the enamel knot during the bud stage and cap stage. At the further step of differentiation, epithelial ameloblast and mesenchymal odontoblast will deposit organic matrix in enamel and dentin. This article reviews the molecular morphogenesis of tooth development.

  3. Oxidative stress profile in goats supplemented or not with selenium and vitamin E and submitted to scrotal insulationPerfil de marcadores do estresse oxidativo em caprinos suplementados ou não com selênio e vitamina E e submetidos à insulação escrotal

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    Maria Madalena Pessoa Guerra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of supplementation with selenium and vitamin E in the diet of goats induced to scrotal insulation (SI on the profile of biochemical markers of systemic oxidative metabolism 12 animals were randomly divided into two groups: G1 - no supplementation G2 - supplemented with selenium (0.1 mg / kg body weight of sodium selenite and vitamin E (0.3 IU / kg body weight. At the end of the adjustment period of 30 days, the scrotal insulation (SI was performed with the placement of plastic bags in the testes for 18 days. Supplementation with Se + vitamin E began 60 days before induction of SI and maintained for 42 days after the end of SI, corresponding to post-insulation (PSI. Blood samples were obtained by jugular venipuncture to obtain total blood for analysis of reduced glutathione (GSH and plasma for analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and determination of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. No effect of dietary supplementation with Se + vitamin E on the profile of all the variables studied, but there was systemic oxidative action understood by a significant decrease of GSH during the SI, with a gradual increase in the PSI period, as well as lower average of FRAP observed during the SI and the highest average in the period from PSI. It was concluded that analysis of the activity of reduced glutathione (GSH and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP are recommended laboratory methods to evaluate the systemic response to oxidative damage caused by thermal stress testis in goats.Para avaliar o efeito da suplementação com selênio e vitamina E na dieta de caprinos induzidos à insulação escrotal (IE sobre o perfil de indicadores bioquímicos do metabolismo oxidativo sistêmico foram utilizados 12 animais, os quais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G1 - sem suplementação; G2 - suplementados com selênio (0,1 mg/Kg de

  4. The Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire: A study of validity and reliabilityBilişsel Davranışçı Fiziksel Aktivite Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması

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    Ersin Eskiler

    2016-05-01

    ncelikle gençlerin düzenli egzersiz katılımına yönelik tutum ve davranışlarını belirlemek ve anlamak hayati bir öneme sahiptir. Açıklamalar ışığında, bu araştırma; Bilişsel Davranışçı Fiziksel Aktivite Ölçeğini (Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire; CBPAQ Türkçe’ ye ve Türk popülasyonuna uyarlanmak amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmaya Bursa ilinde öğrenim gören 13-17 yaş aralığında 590 (297 erkek ve 293 kadın kişi katılmış ve örnek kütle kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Verilerin analizinde, betimsel analizler, temel bileşenler faktör analizi (AFA ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA kullanılmıştır. Bulgular ışığında ölçeğin orijinal formunda yer alan 15 ifade ve 5 boyutlu yapının istatistiksel olarak doğrulandığı belirlenmiştir. Nihai olarak, Bilişsel Davranışçı Fiziksel Aktivite Ölçeği’nin ilgili örneklem grubu için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olarak kullanılabileceği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

  5. Modifikasi Metode Isolasi Sel Endotel Pembuluh Darah Otak (EPDO Tikus: Teknik Dasar Kultur Sel Primer di Bidang Neurosains

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    Ahmad Faried

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation method to obtain pure BMVECs is hard to be done consistently and remains a challenge. In this study, we isolated BMVECs from Wistar rat and C57/Bl6 mouse from Japan SLC. All procedures performed according to guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals of Gunma University, Japan. The modification of isolation method was using bovine serum albumin (BSA gradation, not Dextran-70 in which generally used, to separate clusters of BMVECs into single cell. This study was done at Universitas Padjadjaran, in colaboration with Gunma University, Japan, January 2008–June 2009. Further,characteristic and purification results were proven by imunofluorescene staining. The results showed that staining of tight junction, ZO-1, formed a monolayer, tightly packed, non-overlapping and contact-inhibited BMVECs, as expected for a vessel wall endothelial. ECs phenotype confirmed by acethylated LDL, von Willebrand and CD31. The digestion of capillaries generated contaminating pericytes. Contamination was purified using puromycin and the results considered satisfactory (98.3%. In conclusion, our modification procedure allows the isolation of primary rat and mouse BMVECs, which form an endothelial-like monolayer in few days. Puromycin can be used for purification of primary rat and mouse BMVECs

  6. Rancang Bangun Mesin Pendingin Ruangan Dengan Menggunakan Energi Surya Dan Campuran Air, Garam,Dan Es Sebagai Media Pendingin

    OpenAIRE

    Wangsa, Stefanus

    2015-01-01

    The usage of cooling machine is to condition and cools the air of the room (air conditioning). There are other types of room cooling machine using electric and refrigerant. The room cooling machine that will be discussed is the one which can cool the room using solar energy as well as a mixture of water, salt, and ice as an friendly coolant. The mixture of water, salt, and ice can lower the freezing point of the liquid so that the absorption of heat will be more effective. The ...

  7. Pengujian Mesin Pendingin Ruangan Dengan Menggunakan Energi Surya Dan Campuran Air, Garam, Dan Es Sebagai Media Pendingin

    OpenAIRE

    Surya, Wunardi

    2015-01-01

    The usage of cooling machine is to condition and cools the air of the room (air conditioning). There are other types of room cooling machine using electric and refrigerant. The room cooling machine that will be discussed is the one which can cool the room using solar energy as well as a mixture of water, salt, and ice as an friendly coolant. The mixture of water, salt, and ice can lower the freezing point of the liquid so that the absorption of heat will be more effective. The ...

  8. SIMULASI SISTEM KONTROL OPERASI ON GRID SERTA ISLANDING PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SURYA DI JURUSAN TEKNIK ELEKTRO UNIVERSITAS UDAYANA

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    Pande K. B. Sutawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An on-grid solar power plant will distribute electric power to the grid in normal conditions. But when the supply of grid outages (islanding, on-grid solar power plant also can’t operate because the loss of the reference signal that is used as a reference for the inverter in the synchronization process. So there is potential loss of power when solar power plant can be used as a substitute source of electrical energy while PLN can’t serve consumers. In this research developed a simulation model that refers to the off grid solar power plant 500 Wp in the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Udayana and can operate on-grid and off grid when islanding in matlab simulink. In this model made operation scenario where solar power plant operates on grid at the beginning of the simulation and after that operate off-grid (not connected to the grid and supply the local load. The simulation results show the model off grid solar power plant has been able to generate a voltage of 220 V and a frequency of 50 Hz in accordance with the solar power plant at the research site. The simulation results also show model of on grid solar power plant has been able to synchronize to the low voltage grid of PLN not loaded and loaded. On/off grid solar power plant model can operate on-grid or off-grid that corresponds to the operation scenario and produce the same output. Thus solar power plant can supply.

  9. KARAKTERISTIK PENGERINGAN CHIPS MANGGA MENGGUNAKAN KOLEKTOR SURYA KACA GANDA [Characteristics of Mango Chips Drying Using a Double Plated Solar Collector

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    Safrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the characteristics of mango chips drying using a double plated solar collector. The materials used were sliced mangoes with the thickness of 3, 6, and 8 mm. The equipments used for this research were double plated solar collector, thermocouple, digital balance, thermometer, vacuum oven, and desiccators. The research parameters included the rate of heat energy absorbed by the double plated solar collector, the heat energy losses, the efficiency of the double plated solar collector and the moisture content of the chips. The results of this study suggested that the use of double plated solar collector could increase the temperature and the amount of heat energy, thus speed up the drying process of the mango chips. The energy needed to evaporate the moisture content in mango decreased in proportion to the increase in drying time. The difference in mango chips’ thickness resulted in different decrease rate in water content until it reached a constant state. The efficiency of the double plated solar collector was 77.82%.

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of 1:1 Salt Aqueous Solutions with the Electrolattice Equation of State Propriétés thermophysiques des solutions aqueuses de sels 1:1 avec l’équation d’état de réseau pour électrolytes

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    Zuber A.

    2013-05-01

    moyenne pour des solutions aqueuses simples contenant du LiC1, LiBr, LiI, NaC1, NaBr, NaI, KC1, KBr, KI, CsCl, CsBr, CsI, ou du RbC1. Deux méthodes pour obtenir les paramètres du modèle sont présentées et mises en contraste : une méthode spécifique pour le sel en question et une autre basée sur les ions. Par conséquent, l’objectif de ce travail est de calculer les propriétés thermophysiques qui sont largement utilisées pour la conception, l���exploitation et l’optimisation de nombreux procédés industriels, parmi eux le dessalement de l’eau.

  11. Biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of injectable bone xenograft, hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-chitosan on osteoblast culture

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    Bachtiar EW

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone graft in the form of injectable paste gives several advantages over the powder form as it could be placed in the defect area that has limited accessibility. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of an injectable bone xenograft (IBX, injectable hydroxyapatite (IHA and injectable hydroxyapatite-chitosan (IHA-C on osteoblastic cell line (MG-63. Methods: Three concentrations (0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0% of IBX, IHA and IHA-C were supplemented with DMEM culture medium. The viability cells were measured by MTT assay 4 hour after incubation. ALP activity was measured at day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Calcium deposition was tested at day 3 and day 7 by means of Von Kossa staining. Results: MTT assay showed that the viability cells of all the test groups were above 100% compared to the control group. The cell viability of the 0.25% IHA paste was significantly higher (115.02% ± 4.37%, p < 0.05 compared with IBX paste and IHA-C in all concentrations tested. The highest level of ALP secretion of all test groups was found on the fifth day of exposure. The highest level of ALP in the IBX paste group was 0.25% concentration while the highest level of ALP in the IHA-C and IHA paste group was 1% and 0.25%, respectively. In addition, the highest calcium deposition was shown on IHA 1% at day 7 (p > 0.05. Conclusion: It was suggested that adequate biocompatibility and osteoconductivity was evident for all injectable pastes tested.Latar belakang: Bahan tandur tulang dalam bentuk pasta injeksi memiliki kelebihan dibandingkan bila bahan tersebut berupa bubuk, karena lebih mudah diaplikasikan pada daerah yang sulit dijangkau. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati sifat biokompatibilitas dan osteokonduktifitas biomaterial tandur tulang dalam bentuk injectable bone xenograft (IBX, injectable hydroxyapatite (IHA dan injectable hydroxyapatite-chitosan (IHA-C pada galur sel osteoblas (MG-63. Metode: Bahan tandur

  12. An Analysis of Mathematics and Geometry Questions in OSS, YGS and LYS According to the Revised Bloom Taxonomy Between 2006-2012 Years [2006-2012 Yılları Arasında Yapılan ÖSS, YGS ve LYS Matematik ve Geometri Sorularının Bloom Taksonomisinin Bilişsel Süreç Boyutuna Göre İncelenmesi

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    Taliha Keleş

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to classify the Mathematics and Geometry questions which had been asked university entrance examinations carried out between 2006 and 2012 in OSS/MAT1, OSS/MAT2, YGS/MAT, LYS/MAT and LYS/GEO according to the revised Bloom taxonomy in the dimensions of cognitive process. In the study, document analysis method was used. The data gathered for the purpose of the research was analyzed according to the frequency and percentage of the SPSS 20.0 software package. The study findings revealed that, the Mathematics and Geometry questions asked in the university exams are mostly at the level of apply and analyze of the cognitive process dimension in the revised Bloom Taxonomy. It has been determined that there is no remember of the cognitive process. The comparative statistical analyses showed that there wasn’t a significant difference between the years according to the dimensions of cognitive process of Mathematics and Geometry questions asked in the university entrance exams. To reveal the reflection of the curriculum changes made in 2013 on the exam questions, similar studies can be conducted in the future and the results can compared. [Bu çalışmanın amacı, 2006-2012 yılları arasında yapılan ÖSS/MAT1, ÖSS/MAT2, YGS/MAT, LYS/MAT ve LYS/GEO üniversiteye giriş sınavlarındaki sayısal bölümde yer alan matematik ve geometri sorularını Yeniden Yapılandırılan Bloom Taksonomisine göre bilişsel süreç boyutlarında sınıflandırmaktır. Araştırmanın amacı doğrultusunda çalışmada doküman analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Toplanan veriler, SPSS 20.0 paket programı kullanılarak frekans ve yüzde değerlerine göre analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmada elde edilen verilere göre; Bloom Taksonomisinin bilişsel süreç boyutunda matematik ve geometri üniversite sınav soruların yarısından fazlasının uygulama basamağında ardından ikinci ağırlıklı olarak analiz basamağında yer alırken hat

  13. Avaliação da qualidade protéica de dois formulados em pó, à base de soja enriquecidos com zinco, selênio e magnésio para utilização em nutrição enteral Evaluation of protein quality from two powder formulas, soybean based, enriched with zinc, selenium and magnesium to be used in enteral nutrition

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    Josefina Bressan Resende Monteiro

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de extrato solúvel de soja e extrato solúvel de soja desengordurado, foram desenvolvidos dois formulados em pó, os quais foram denominados: FPSA-formulado com extrato solúvel de soja (PSA e FPS60-formulado com extrato solúvel de soja desengordurado (PS60. Além do PSA e PS60, outros produtos foram utilizados na elaboração dos formulados: clara de ovo desidratada, maltodextrina, óleo de soja, óleo de canola, gordura-de-coco, "mix" de vitaminas e minerais e estabilizante. Zinco, selênio e magnésio foram adicionados para atender a 200% das recomendações diárias sugeridas pela RDA. A avaliação da qualidade protéica foi conduzida por meio de ensaio biológico com animais experimentais, no qual foram analisados NPR, NPU e digestibilidade. Não houve diferença significativa entre o FPSA e FPS60, quanto ao NPR e NPU (p > 0,05, e o mesmo ocorreu em comparação com a caseína. Quanto à digestibilidade, os formulados apresentaram resultados semelhantes, porém inferiores aos da caseína. Os formulados mostraram bom valor biológico, pois apresentaram índices de qualidade protéica próximos aos da caseína.It was developed two powder formulas, soybean based, zinc, selenium and magnesium enriched, from soy milk and fat-free soy milk. They were named FPSA -soybean milk formula and FPS60 - fat -free soybean milk formula. Besides soybean, the two formulas were added dehydrated yolk egg, maltodextrin, soybean oil, canola oil, coconut oil, vitamin and mineral mix and stabilizer. Zinc, Selenium and Magnesium were added to attend 200% of RDA. Protein quality was carried out by experimental design with male Wistar rats, and it was analyzed NPR, NPU and digestibility. There was no significant difference (p > 0,05 between FPSA and FPSA60 and between the two formulas and casein, related to NPR and NPU. Both formulas showed similar results on digestibility, but lower than casein. It was concluded that the formulas tested had good biologic

  14. Feeding different levels of vitamin E and selenium has no effect on serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY production by layers vaccinated against Escherichia coli and avian encephalomyelitis virus Alimentação com diferentes níveis de vitamina E e selênio não influencia a produção de imunoglobulina Y (IgY no soro de poedeiras leves vacinadas contra Escherichia coli e encefalomielite aviária

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    Giselle Kindlein

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vitamin E and selenium (Se supplementation on the immunity of hens vaccinated against a mixture of six swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (EC and avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV were studied. Antibody production (AbP was evaluated in ninety 49 to 57-week-old H&N Nick Chick hens fed diets containing 14IU Vitamin E kg-1 (basal diet, 27, 59, 111, or 111IU vitamin E kg-1 + 0.56ppm Se supplementation. At 51 wks of age, half of the hens were vaccinated against EC, and all birds were vaccinated against AEV. At 53-weeks of age, the birds received a second dose of EC vaccine. Blood samples were collected weekly and serum was analyzed by ELISA for anti-EC IgY and was expressed as optical density (OD. Vaccinated hens had higher serum OD than the non-vaccinated hens (P£0.05. Vaccinated hens fed 27 and 59IU of vitamin E/kg had a higher (POs efeitos da suplementação de vitamina E e Selênio (Se na imunidade de galinhas vacinadas contra uma mistura de 6 sorotipos patogênicos de Escherichia coli (EC e o vírus da encefalomielite aviária (VEA foram estudados. A produção de anticorpos foi avaliada em galinhas H&N Nick Chick durante a 49a e 57a semanas de vida. As aves foram alimentadas com dietas contendo 14UI de Vitamina E kg-1 (dieta basal, 27, 59, 111 e 111UI de Vitamina E kg-1 + 0,56ppm Se suplementar. Às 51 semanas de idade, metade das galinhas foi vacinada contra EC, e todas as aves foram vacinadas contra VEA. Às 53 semanas, as aves receberam a segunda vacina contra EC. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas semanalmente e o soro foi analisado por ELISA para anti-EC IgY e expresso como densidade óptica (DO. Galinhas vacinadas tiveram maior DO do que as não-vacinadas (P<0,05. Aves vacinadas que receberam 27 e 59 UI de vitamina E/kg tiveram maior DO do soro (P<0,05 do que as alimentadas com 111 UI + Se. Os antígenos utilizados mostraram não ser modelos satisfatórios para estudar a influência de micronutrientes na resposta imune de

  15. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

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    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  16. GenBank blastx search result: AK242831 [KOME

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  20. Kajian Bahan Ajar Mata Kuliah Teori Mesin Listrik dan Relevansinya dengan Kurikulum 2009

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    Ahmad Sujadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: (1 to examine the relevance of the teaching materials applied in the subject of Electrical Machines Theories related to the 2009 curriculum syllabus; (2 to reorganize thematerials delivered to the students based on the time management. The approach utilized in this study was content analysis. In this study, the explicit description of the study process was crucial. To assess the teaching materials that had been arranged and would be rearranged based on the time management the data resulted from documentation, observation, and interviews was required. It was carried out to complete the data for the handbook of Electrical Engineering Theories. The results revealed that the materials in the handbook are mostly relevant to the 2009 curriculum, but the time management needs to be reviewed. Theeliminated materials will be included in independent assignments or other relevant subjects.

  1. PENGUJIAN NETRALISASI SIFAT REAKTIF BUMBU DALAM GARAM BERYODIUM DENGAN BAHAN TAMBAHAN MAKANAN

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    Suryana Purawisastra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available THE NEUTRALIZE EXAMINATION OF THE SPICES REACTIVITY IN THE IODIZED SALT BY THE ADDITIVE OF THE FOOD ADDITIVES.Background: The potassiumiodate of the iodized salt in the mixture with some spices is bind in the form of the compounds, which are not available for the determination of the iodine by the chemical method. This is due to the reactivity of susbtances contained inspices, such as capsaicin in the chilli, and piperine in the paprika, which are responsible for the spiciness of the spices. Although ithasn't been studied, the configuration of the potassiumiodate in the spices is probably also not available for the human consumption. Where as the supplementation of iodized salt to recover the iodine deficiency is effective. The food additives mostly are the chemical substances, which have properties to keep or increase the quality of food.Objectives: The study was performed to investigate the effect of food additives to the reactivity of spices to the potassiumiodate of iodized salt.Material and Methods: The food additive was added to the iodized salt, and then mixed with the spice. Dissolved by the water incertain volume, filtered, and then determined the potassiumiodate content of the filtrate by the Yodometric method. The potassiumiodate content of the filtrate was compared with the potassiumiodate content of the salt. The result of percent comparisonis the recovery of potassiumiodate when mixed with food additive and spice. The recovery of potassiumiodate was done for the different potassiumiodate content of iodized salt. The study was using CaCO3, KH2P04, MgS04, Na2C03, NaHP04, K-citrate, benzoat acid, dan Na-benzoat as food additives, and the red chilli, hot chilli, pepper and coriander.Results: The reactivity of the pepper and coriander to the potassiumiodate of the iodized salt could be netralized by the addition of CaCO3, KH2P04, MgS04, Na2CO3, NaHP04, K-citrate, benzoic acid, dan Na-benzoic. But for the red chilli and hot chilli were not allof them, these were for CaC03 K-citrate, and benzoic acid. It was shown by the value of recovery of potassiumiodate contents of the iodized salt. The netralization properties of food addives were increased by the increasing of the potassiumiodate content of the iodized salt.Conclusions: The addition of some food additives into the iodized salt is able to prevent the iodate content of the salt from there activity of subtances in the spice. The addition of food additives also can pick up moisture of salt resulting preventation of the salt particles clumping together and so keep the product free flowing.Keywords: potassiumiodate, spices, iodized salt

  2. MODEL PERAMALAN KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR JENIS PREMIUM DI INDONESIA DENGAN REGRESI LINIER BERGANDA

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    Farizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption forecasting, especially premium, is an integral part of energy management. Premium is a type of energy that receives government subsidy. Unfortunately, premium forecastings being performed have considerable high error resulting difficulties on reaching planned subsidy target and exploding the amount. In this study forecasting was conducted using multilinear regression (MLR method with ten candidate predictor variables. The result shows that only four variables which are inflation, selling price disparity between pertamanx and premium, economic growth rate, and the number of car, dictate premium consumption. Analsys on the MLR model indicates that the model has a considerable low error with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 5.18%. The model has been used to predict 2013 primium consumption with 1.05% of error. The model predicted that 2013 premium consumption was 29.56 million kiloliter, while the reality was 29.26 million kiloliter.

  3. PENGARUH PERENCANAAN PEMBELIAN BAHAN BAKU DENGAN MODEL EOQ UNTUK MULTIITEM DENGAN ALL UNIT DISCOUNT

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    Much. Djunaidi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Perusahaan kebanyakan, pada kenyataannya didapati memesan secara simultan pada satu supplier dari pada memesan per item. Salah satu dari perusahaan tersebut adalah PT. Sari Warna Asli IV Karanganyar. Pemesanan yang terdiri dari beberapa item sekaligus dikenal dengan joint replenishment order. Pada dasarnya sistem ini mempunyai prinsip bahwa biaya marginal dari menambah suatu pesanan item kedalam pesanan item-item lain yang sudah ada lebih murah daripada mengirim dalam lot yang lebih kecil beberapa kali. Dalam kasus persediaan di perusahaan ini supplier memberikan discount berdasar pada jumlah atau nilai item yang dibeli. Model dasar EOQ tidak membahas adanya permintaan multi-item dan adanya potongan harga yang diberikan oleh supplier. Jadi pada penelitian ini akan dikembangkan model persediaan dengan mempertimbangkan permintaan multi-item dengan unit discount. Sehingga didapatkan total biaya persediaan yang minimal. Untuk mendapatkan model matematis EOQ multi-item dengan all unit discount didapat dengan cara menurunkan ongkos total terhadap periode antar pemesanan (t dan menyamakannya dengan nol untuk mendapatkan jarak pemesanan optimal (t*dan ukuran pemesanan optimal yang menyebabkan ongkos total menjadi minimum. Pada penerapan model di PT. Sari Warna Asli IV, diperoleh hasil bahwa periode pesan dilakukan setiap 0,0146 (4 hari dengan kuantitas pesan optimal Q1*(Cotton 100% = 315.864 yard/pesan, Q2*(Polyester 100% = 298.864  yard/pesan dan Q3*(Tetron= 290.976 yard/pesan. Maka akan diperoleh biaya total persediaan yang minimum sebesar Rp. 174.457.515.100.

  4. Pengaruh teknik dan waktu pencampuran pada pembuatan lembaran cocodust berkaret untuk bahan peredam suara

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    Arum Yuniari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research about cocodust rubber sheet production for sounds absorbent material was determined to improve mixing technology between cocodust and latex compound so there can be gained effective mixing technology. There are 2 methods regarding to mixing technology which were A method and B method with time variation method between 2, 3 until 4 minute respectively time. A method was cocodust with sieved by 50 mesh siefter mixed with water (ratio time between cocodust and water 1:3 and subsequently cocodust was mixed with latex compound. While B method was mixing latex compound and water (the mixture consisting of 3 part of water and 1 part of latex and the final product was blended. The result show that A method with time variation of 2 – 3 minutes was the best effective mixing method. The result of a method can be easily implemented, having homogeny compound and good product performance, which was characterized by mass density 0,40 g/cm3, water content 7,29 – 7,57%, flexibility strength 2,87 – 4,05 kg/cm2, vertical tensile strength 1,97 – 3,12 kg/cm2, ability to be nailed 4,95 – 5,92 kg, thickness grows 7,5 – 8,28% and sound absorption coefficient at the frequency 500 Hz was 0,70.

  5. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing (BIPA berdasarkan Hasil Analisis Kebutuhan Belajar

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    Imam Suyitno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Indonesian for Foreign Learners or Indonesian as a Foreign Language (IFL is different from teaching Indonesian as a first language. The differences are due to the characteristics of the learners. IFL learners generally are adults who have language and cultural background and learning style different from those Indonesian learners have. These differences demand IFL teachers and instructors to prepare teaching-learning materials and the activities of the teaching-learning process in the classroom that are relevant to the learners’ needs. Understanding the entry level behavior of the learners, the teaching materials, the teaching-learning approach, and the evalution process is of crucial importance in order to fulfill their needs. Learning needs analysis of IFL learners is also a prerequisite to developing adequate teaching-learning materials of IFL.

  6. PERPADUAN ANTARA PROPELLER DAN DAUN KEMUDI GUNA MENGOPTIMALKAN PROLPULSI DAN MANUVER KAPAL SERTA EFFISIENSI BAHAN BAKAR

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    Mohd Ridwan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Operational of ship influences the running cost. A old ship, day by day cash cost are higher with ageing machinery requiring constant maintenance, a rusty hull requiring regular steel replacement and high fuel oil consumption. Fuel cost are 30-45 % all of running cost. with integrated between propeller and rudder to optimum ship propulsion and manoeuvering to reduce 4-9% vessel’s fuel oil consumption and energy efficiency

  7. Determinasi Energi Metabolis dan Kandungan Nutrisi Hasil Samping Pasar Sebagai Potensi Bahan Pakan Lokal Ternak Unggas

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    Sugiyono Sugiyono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Determination of metabolic energy and nutrient market by product for local poultry feed ingredients ABSTRACT. This study aims to examine the metabolic energy (ME  and proximate analysis of the coconut husk, garlic skin, heart of young jackfruit, in order to see its potential as a local feed ingredients for poultry, especially chicken. The study was conducted in 3 stages include feed preparation stage, treatment stage and retrieval of data. Stage of treatment involves measurement of metabolic energy to "force feeding" the appropriate method of Sibbald (1976. The results of the proximate analysis and gross energy (GE  are  water content ranged from 6.28 to 13.60%, from 5.09 to 12.34% crude protein, crude fat from 0.57 to 48.72%, crude fiber 31.33 to 51.66 %, from 2.38 to 8.39% ash, extract materials without nitrogen from 3.19 to 27.11% and GE  3387.21 to 6491.17 (kcal/kg. The results of ME research is mathematical and biological ME each feed ingredient is coconut husk 4492.84 kcal/kg; 4025.59 kcal /kg, the heart of young jackfruit 1533.44 kcal/kg ; 1625.39 kcal/kg , garlic skins 1388.76 kcal/kg; 1327.65 kcal/kg, leather bean sprouts in 1392.48 kcal/kg; 1089 .33 kcal/kg . Conclusion The study is based on the results of the proximate analysis, the content of GE and EM biological byproduct feedstuffs markets that have potential for use in poultry rations are coconut husk being able to supply the highest energy.

  8. PENGGUNAAN BAHAN AJAR TEMATIK PEMBAGIAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR DI KELAS IIA MI AHLIYAH II PALEMBANG

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    Luvi Antari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to look at improving student learning outcomes in the materials division using a thematic approach based teaching materials. This research is a classroom action research (Claassroom Action Research with a research subject graders IIA MI Ahliyah 2 Palembang, the second semester of 2014/2015 the number of students 28 people, consisting of 14 male students and 14 female students. This study was conducted by two cycles following the model of a Class Action Research & McTaggart Kemmis models which consists of four stages: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The process of collecting data by using observation and tests. Based on this research, the data obtained in the first cycle who scored ≥ 70 there were 17 students with learning completeness percentage amounted to 60.71% of students had reached the indicators of success and the second cycle there are 23 students who reached a value ≥ 70 on the percentage of students learning completeness by 82 , 14% had reached an indicator of success. With the student response rate reached 76.56% in the first cycle and the second cycle reaches 81.25%. It can be concluded that learning by using a thematic approach based teaching materials division performed in this research was effective, because it can improve student learning outcomes in the distribution of matter in class IIA MI Ahliyah II Palembang Keywords: a thematic approach, materials division

  9. PENGEMBANGAN MINUMAN FORMULA IBU HAMIL DAN MENETEKI BERBASIS BAHAN LOKAL NON SUSU

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    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Non-Milk Based Formulated Drinks For Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women.Background: The pregnant and breastfeeding women need a greater nutrition intake compared to normal women. At second and third trimester of pregnancy, and during breastfeeding, a woman should have additional nutrient for approximately 300 Kcal energy and 17 grams protein per day. Recently, various formula drinks for pregnant and breastfeeding women are available in the market, however most of these formulas are expensive.Objectives: To develop non-milk based formula drinks for pregnant and breastfeeding women which contained adequate amount of additional macro and micro nutrients had good sensory quality and had long self life.Methods: Initially, 13 kinds of drinks were formulated. The drinks contained aproximately 300 Kcal energy and 17grams protein. They were analyzed for nutrient contain, microbiology and sensory quality in order to vote the best 5 formulas at the laboratory scale. The formulated drinks were packaged and sealed in 150 mL plastic cups. To know the self life of the drinks, storage was carry out in the room, incubator and refrigerator temperature during 12 months.Results: From sensory test, it was concluded that the best five drinks were kweni formula, chocholate formula, ginger formula, guava-orange formula and red bean formula. One cup of 150 ml formulated drink, had 140-150 Kcal energy and 8 grams protein. Therefore, to fulfill additional requirements for pregnant and breastfeeding women, the drinks should be consumed 2 cups a day.Conclusions: The formula drink developed could provide additional energy, protein, vitamin and mineral needed by pregnant and breast feeding women. There was no side effect reported by the panelist because of consuming the formula.Keywords: formulated drinks, pregnant women, breastfeeding women, acceptance.

  10. PENGARUH NILAI OKTAN BAHAN BAKAR DAN PUTARAN MESIN PADA KENDARAAN BERMOTOR TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK EMISI GAS BUANG

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    I P Sastra Negara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution that is occurring currently is main by caused by the use of motor vehicle that consequently it lead to the increasing fuel consumptions as the main source enrgy for transportation equipment. The fuel that is used in the vehicle comes in several types. In the market its differences show by the octane numbers that can contribute different effect to the environment due to their combustion processes. The road conditions through which the vehicles move are the major factors that can trigger the growth of pollution to the surrounding. It is predicted that about 70% of the air pollutions is caused by the motor vehicle emissions.This research was fully conducted in the laboratorium. Three types of fuel with different octane numbers were used in this research. Premium with octane number 88, Pertamax with octane number 92, and Biopertamax with octane number 91. The engine speeds were also varied from 500 rpm, 1000 rpm, 1500 rpm, 2000 rpm, 2500 rpm, 3000 rpm, 3500 rpm, to 4000 rpm. For every type of fuel, the engine was run five times for every engine speed in order to obtain the exhausted gas characteristics from the vehicles to the environment.The result of the research shows that at engine speed of 2500 rpm the CO emission for each type of fuel : Premium with octane number 88 is 0,415%, Pertamax with octane number 92 is 0,556%, and Biopertamax with octane number 91 is 0,273%. The octane number also effects the CO2, HC, and NOx emissions in small quantities. Statistical analysis shows both the engine speed and the octane number contribute significant effects on the exhaust emissions, the CO and HC emissions provided negative effects, while the CO2 and NOx emissions get positive effects. In comparisan to with the vehicle speed on the road from secondary data to represent the engine speed in the laboratorium, and assuming that the traffic density is identical to a factor that determining engine speed, it can be concluded that the air pollution by CO emission due to the characteristics of the road has negative influence.The octane number of the fuel and the engine speed gives a significant effect. The traffic density and the road conditions can trigger the level of the concentration of CO gas as pollutants to the surrounding air.

  11. Respons Pulp Gigi Tikus terhadap Propolis Sebagai Bahan Kaping Pulpa Langsung

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    Ardo Sabir, Dr.drg. M.Kes

    2016-01-01

    The present result suggest that direct pulp capping with EEP in rats may delay dental pulp inflammatory process and fail to stimulate reparative dentin. The aim of the present study was to assess the response of rat dental pulp to direct pulp caping with ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP)

  12. Mutu Keju Putih Rendah Lemak Diproduksi Dengan Bahan Baku Susu Modifikasi

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    abubakar abubakar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate the quality of low-fat white cheese produced using raw material of modified milk. Five treatments applied were (A1 Using reduced fat (60% milk, (A2 Using emulsion of corn oil in skim milk (replacing milk fat with corn oil, (A3 Using emulsion of corn oil in skim milk and addition of whey protein concentrate (replacing milk fat with corn oil and the addition of whey protein concentrate=WPC, (A4 Using skim milk and water emulsion oil in water, and (A5 replacing milk fat with corn oil and the addition of probiotic (Lactobacillus casei. Each treatment was replicated three times. The selected that skim milk in corn oil emulsion with the addition of probiotics, the results showed had cheese quality characteristics as follow: yield 12.94±0.16%, hardnes 48.07±10.12 g, softness 8.51±0.54 kg/s, moisture content 50.37±1.60%, ash content 7.38±1.75% (dry matter, fat content 41.06±6.07% (dry matter, protein content 37.85±3.25% (dry matter, phosphorus content 346.62±25.61 mg/100g (dry matter, calcium content 860.78±87.91 mg/100g (dry matter, white color, regular texture, not flavorfull, salty taste, soft texture, elastic, ordinary preference acceptance.

  13. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENGOLAHAN DAN KOMPOSISI BAHAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI CITARASA "OFF FLAVOUR" FORMULA TEMPE

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    Nelis Imanningsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PROCESSING FACTORS AND INGREDIENTS CONTRIBUTED IN TEMPE FORMULA'S OFF FLAVOUR.Background: Tempe Formula is processed food with tempe as the main ingredient. was previously formulated as infant formula and under five years children formula who have diarrhea problem. In later researches, tempe Fromula was found to be efective to increase nutritional satatus of severe malnourished children, to cure gastrointestinal infection of 6-24 months children, and had benefit to repair dislipldemia in adults and bone reformation of pre and post menopause women. However, this formula had off flavour that limit Its utilization. Methods: The design is laboratory experiment. The type of research is explorative. The panelist is trained panelist.Results: The result shows that off flavour component identified were beany odour, moldy odour, tangy taste and bitter taste. Tempe processing with half boiled of soybean and steam sterilization with traditional starter of mixed innoculum gave the best sensori quality. Less intensity of beany flavour and bitter taste were gained by improving the composition of palm oil and sesame oil with composition 1:1. The additon of mocca and milk flavours also reduced the beany odour of the formula. Conclusion: Improved tempe formula was determined to have higher intensity of sweetness, less intensity of saltyness, bitemess and tangy taste, and less beany, rancid, and moldy odours than original formula.Keywords: tempe formula, off flavour, processing

  14. Pengaruh Berat Arang Cangkang Kemiri (Aleurites Moluccana) Sebagai Bahan Pengisi Terhadap Mutu Karet

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    Januarman, Sinaga

    2011-01-01

    The research about on using charcoal candlenuts shell (aleurites moluccana) as fillers on latex of estate with added the variety weight of charcoal candlenuts shell 18 gram; 19 gram; 20 gram ; 21 gram and 22 gram (b/v rubber) with acetid acid as coagulant and a controlled has used latex which coagulated with acetid acid without added filler. The result of next coagulated have been done by tested the quality of rubber such as early Plasticity (Po), Index of Plasticity Retention ...

  15. Kajian Terhadap Faktor – Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Indonesia

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    Putu Ari Mulyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out and to analyze the factors that affecting the fuel subsidy (BBM which written in the state budget. The data has been used in this study as follows secondary data obtained from the records and reports from various agencies such as statistic bureau (BPS, Ministry of Finance, Indonesia bank, the US. Energy Information Administration (EIA, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of oil and Gas, previous journals and the results of studies. Variables has been analyzed by using path analysis to find out direct and indirect effect as well as Sobel test to find out the level of significance of intervening variable as moderator variable. Test of model validity by using the coefficient of total determination and trimming theory to find out the variation of fuel subsidy (BBM in Indonesia that it can be explained by the exogen variable. Based on the regression results found the coefficient of total determination 0.998 its means 99.8 percent explained by the model while the remaining 0.2 percent explained by other variables outside of the model. Variable of dollar rate is the dominant variable which directly affects on the fuel subsidy. While the fuel subsidized consumption variable is the dominant variable which indirect effect on fuel subsidies through fuel import. To reduce the burden of fuel subsidy in the future state budget hence the government needs to increase oil lifting to reduce fuel imports by way of exploring new wells to replace the old wells which its lifting is declining and increasing investment in the construction of oil refineries in Indonesia to maintain national energy security as well as trying to develop renewable energy instead of oil as fuel because someday oil as a source of un-renewable energy surely be depleted in number while the man and all their needs would increase from year to year. The government should provide adequate public transportation, thereby reducing private vehicle mobility and most importantly is the government more serious in the implementation of the program of conversion fule to liquid gas for vehicles both in terms of conversion technology and security guarantees for each user of liquid gas.

  16. Evaluasi Kinerja Tarik Traktor Tangan dengan Bahan Bakar Minyak Kelapa Murni

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    Desrial

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Past research shown that coconut oil can be used directly in Diesel engine by adding a heating element in the fuel delivery system. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a hand tractor pull using pure coconut oil fuel. The Diesel engine of the tractor was equipped with a fuel heater installed on the mufler. Traction performance parameters tested were wheel slippage, drawbar pull, forward speed and drawbar power on the path of concrete and soil. Besides, the tractor was also tested on plowing using a moldboard plow. The test results on the concrete track showed that the maximum drawbar pull was 1.21 kN generated at a speed of 0.92 m/s, with a maximum drawbar power of 1.21 kW at the wheel slip of 10.87%. While the drawbar pull on the soil track was 1.37 kN at a speed of 0.79 m/s, with a maximum value of 0.71 kW drawbar power when wheels slip 22.25%. The results of tillage test showed that field efficiency was 84.66%, which was not much different from the test result using Diesel fuel.

  17. KUALITAS EGGURT KERING DENGAN BAHAN DASAR SUSU DAN BERBAGAI MACAM BIJI-BIJIAN

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    Indratiningsih (Indratiningsih

    2012-06-01

    concentration, pH and acidity levels. It can be concluded that eggurt-sesame has the best sensory and microbiological quality, while the best chemical quality was obtained from eggurt-black soybeans. (Keywords: Quality, Dried eggurt, Milk, Sesame, Green beans, Black soybeans

  18. Daya Antibakteri Bahan Tumpat Amalgam dan Resin Komposit Berfluor Terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus Mutans Serotipe KPSK2

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    Dewa Ayu Nyoman Putri Artiningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the difference in the antibacterial capacity of two kinds of filling materials, namely amalgam and composite resin, on S. mutans KPSK2 bacteria with different times of treatment. In total, 48 amalgam and composite resin samples each were prepared and then divided into four groups of treatment. Of each group, 6 samples were used to count the number of bacterial colonies and 6 samples to count the right obstacle zone. The results show that the best antibacterial capacity of composite resin occurred within one week, while for amalgam the best performance appears within one day. The antibacterial capacity of fluorine containing composites is stronger than that of amalgam for a time of 1 to 2 weeks.

  19. Pemanfaatan Biji Buah Nyamplung (Callophylum Inophylum Sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Biodisel

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    Bayu Biru Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan dengan garis pantai terpanjang keempat di dunia. Sepanjang sekitar 95000 Km merupakan habitat penting bagi vegetasi mangrove dan biota nya. Sebuah survei tahun 2007 menunjukkan bahwa 20% dari garis pantai rusak, dan tanah aktif terancam oleh erosi. Reboisasi penanaman vegetasi pantai dilakukan oleh pemerintah daerah. Salah satunya adalah Calophyllum Inophyllum. Potensi penggunaan benih C.Inophyllum tidak jelas sampai sekarang. Oleh karena itu, komposisi dan analisia C. Inophyllum dan minyak akan diselidiki. Dari hasil, ditemukan bahwa biji buah C. inophyllum mengandung lemak kasar (63,1%, serat kasar (16,64%, abu (3,22%, protein (3,42%, kelembaban (4,15%, dan ekstrak nitrogen bebas (13.62%. Itu juga memiliki nilai kalori 6092 kal / g. Its lipid asam lemak bebas yang terkandung (8,23%, monogliserida (3,93%, digliserida (3,37%, trigliserida (81.06% dan bioactive (3,4%.

  20. PRINSIP PENULISAN BAHAN AJAR BAHASA MANDARIN YANG EFEKTIF UNTUK JURUSAN KOMUNIKASI PEMASARAN UNIVERSITAS BINA NUSANTARA

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    Kelly Rosalin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Article discussed the writing principles that must be considered in compiling Chinese language teaching material specifically used for Marketing Communication students regarding the interest and target of Marketing Communication of Bina Nusantara University. The methodologies used are descriptive quantitative for distributing questionnaires and qualitative approach through observation and interview. Research found the appropriate and effective Chinese language teaching material would enhance the standard of Chinese language learning. At present, Chinese language teaching material used by Marketing Communication students has not been able to fulfill their requirements. In addition, the target learners of the teaching material are universal.

  1. Prinsip Penulisan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Mandarin yang Efektif untuk Jurusan Komunikasi Pemasaran Universitas Bina Nusantara

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    Kelly Rosalin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article discussed the writing principles that must be considered in compiling Chinese language teaching material specifically used for Marketing Communication students regarding the interest and target of Marketing Communication of Bina Nusantara University. The methodologies used are descriptive quantitative for distributing questionnaires and qualitative approach through observation and interview. Research found the appropriate and effective Chinese language teaching material would enhance the standard of Chinese language learning. At present, Chinese language teaching material used by Marketing Communication students has not been able to fulfill their requirements. In addition, the target learners of the teaching material are universal.

  2. Pengelolaan Limbah Padat Sabut Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Bahan Untuk Mengelola Limbah Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Alfius Manusawai, Herman

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Kelapa sawit merupakan tanaman dengan nilai ekonomis yang cukup tinggi karena merupakan salah satu tanaman penghasil minyak nabati. Produksi minyak kelapa sawit Indonesia saat ini mencapai 6,5 juta ton pertahun dan diperkirakan pada tahun 2012 akan meningkat menjadi 15 juta ton pertahun, kerena terjadinya pengembangan lahan. Pemakaian sabut kelapa sawit dapat digunakan sebagai mediator pertumbuhan mikrobiologi, dimana mikrobiologi yang sangat berperan aktif dalam penurunan kadar BO...

  3. IMPLEMENTASI DISTRIBUSI REQUIREMENT PLANNING DAN SAVING MATRIX UNTUK MEMINIMASI TOTAL BIAYA DISTRIBUSI DI INDUSTRI BAHAN KIMIA

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    Johan Oscar Ong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning and scheduling of the distribution of goods in PT. Senatama Laboranusa are not well coordinated, so the demand for each product is out of control, which results in deficiency or excess of inventories in both of the factories and each warehouse. This problem will affect the distribution cost incurred by the company. In this study, the distribution data process is done by using Distribution Requirement Planning method and route distribution processing by using Saving Matrix, in which both of these methods can group the delivery schedule and flow of distribution route regularly. PO Release, which contains time, order amount of each area, and lot size EOQ (Economic Order Quantity method used; will be generated from the calculation of DRP. From the calculation of Saving Matrix, route order sequence is applied by using Nearest Neighbor method. After the implementation of Distribution Requirement Planning, the cost reduction resulted is 29.75% and the difference in distance after the application of Saving Matrix is 983.3 Km. With a good distribution activity planning and scheduling, the success rate in meeting the customer demand would be more optimal, while sales performance increases in fulfilling orders in a timely manner and appropriate amount, hence the distribution costs can be kept as minimum as possible.

  4. IMPLEMENTASI DISTRIBUSI REQUIREMENT PLANNING DAN SAVING MATRIX UNTUK MEMINIMASI TOTAL BIAYA DISTRIBUSI DI INDUSTRI BAHAN KIMIA

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    Johan Oscar Ong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning and scheduling of the distribution of goods in PT. Senatama Laboranusa are not well coordinated, so the demand for each product is out of control, which results in deficiency or excess of inventories in both of the factories and each warehouse. This problem will affect the distribution cost incurred by the company. In this study, the distribution data process is done by using Distribution Requirement Planning method and route distribution processing by using Saving Matrix, in which both of these methods can group the delivery schedule and flow of distribution route regularly. PO Release, which contains time, order amount of each area, and lot size EOQ (Economic Order Quantity method used; will be generated from the calculation of DRP. From the calculation of Saving Matrix, route order sequence is applied by using Nearest Neighbor method. After the implementation of Distribution Requirement Planning, the cost reduction resulted is 29.75% and the difference in distance after the application of Saving Matrix is 983.3 Km. With a good distribution activity planning and scheduling, the success rate in meeting the customer demand would be more optimal, while sales performance increases in fulfilling orders in a timely manner and  appropriate amount, hence the distribution costs can be kept as minimum as possible.

  5. Penelitian penggunaan minarex sebagai bahan pelunak dalam pembuatan kompon karet sol karet cetak

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    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to use Minarex oil as a softener in making rubber sole compound and to know the optimal of formulation. The research applied Minarex type 3 with four kinds of A, B, C, D and with variation 5 parts, 6 parts, and 7 parts. Data analysed using Statistic Method with Compleetely Randomized Design and Split Plot Design. The result of this study showed that all kind of Minarex oils could be used to softener in making rubber sole compound and fullfilled the spesification of SNI 0778-89-A, "Sol Karet Cetak". The optimal of formulation to Minarex type 3 was Minarex C with application 7 parts.

  6. Modifikasi dan Uji Kinerja Kompos Spiral dengan Bahan Bakar Minyak Jarak Pagar

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    Gatot S.A Fatah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis in Indonesia is still a problem that has not been fully resolved. Kerosene as the primary fuel for cooking, the price is very expensive (at Rp 8000.-/liter. Until now, the pressure cooker kerosene is still used by cake makers, bread, and noodle. By modifying the part of the cup rubbing alcohol and add a protective piping hot, the stove can be used with pressurized fuel Jatropha oil. Tobacco industry, ceramic and asphalt still use the stove. The purpose of this study is to obtain a prototype pressure cooker spiral type, fueled with jatropha oil by modifying the part of the reservoir cup rubbing alcohol, pipe and nozzle heat shield oil expenses. Modified pressure cooker and test performance using Jatropha oil is obtained as follows: the fuel consumption of 935 ml / hour; pre-heating 17 minutes; time required to boil 2 liters of water was 5 minutes; noise level of 83.3 dB and the reddish color of blue flame.

  7. KARAKTERISTIK AUS MATA PISAU TERLAPISI BAHAN PENGERAS PADA PEMOTONGAN KAYU MERSAWA DAN PAPAN PARTIKEL

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    Fauzan Fahrussiam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of mersawa wood and particleboard as a materials has been increasing for building constructions and decorative purpose. In previous study reported that, these materials provide a high rate of wear caused by abrasion (high silica and resin content. This article presents the characteristics of wear on the clearance face of newly multilayer-coated K10 cutting tools when milling mersawa wood and particleboard. The K10 cutting tools were coated with monolayer titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN, multilayer TiAlN/titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN, and TiAlN/titanium boron nitride (TiBN. Mersawa wood with density of 0.80 g/cm3 and particleboard with a density of 0.61 g/cm3 were cut using the coated tools and uncoated K10. Cutting tests were performed on computer numeric control router at a high cutting speed of 17 m/s and a feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev to investigate the wear characteristics on the clearance face of these coated tools. Result of research shown that the coated tools experienced a smaller amount of wear than the uncoated tool when cutting the mersawa and particleboard. The best coating among other coated in this study was multilayer TiAlN/TiBN. The high hardness, low coefficient of friction, high resistance to oxidation, and high resistance to delamination wear of the multilayer-coated TiAlN/TiBN tool indicate a very promising applicability of this coating for high-speed cutting of abrasive woods and wood based materials.

  8. Pelatihan Penyusunan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Indonesia bagi Guru Smp/Mts di Surakarta

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    Miftakhul Huda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This training has several goals, namely to open insights, and observers of Indonesian teachers about gender equality in everyday life, giving insight to analyze the value of inequality/ gender equality, and compile teaching materials Indonesian perspective of gender equality. Implementation of this training method is applied in two stages: the preparation stage and implementation stage. Preparation stage includes internal coordination (: preparatory concepts, preparation of materials and the coordination of external (: contacting a speaker, contact the PDM Surakarta, Surakarta Dikspora contacted, and invited the school. Implementation stage is the stage of core training employed by interactive lectures, questions and answers, and tutorials. Training lasted for one day and 13 participants attended junior secondary school teachers. Based on analysis of implementation of teacher understand the preparation of teaching materials Indonesian gender perspective. This is evident from the responses of the material, examples, and instructional materials containing ilutrasi gender inequality.

  9. Upaya Optimalisasi Penghematan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Agar Tepat Sasaran

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    Janita Sembiring Meliala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsidized fuel consumption continues to increase from year to year also put pressure on the state budget so that it becomes increasingly severe. This is caused by the government's energy policy tends to be adaptive and short-term oriented (myopic, so the government pays little attention to aspects of long-term autonomy of the Indonesian economy. Subsidy in the 2011 budget amounted to 33.42% of the total expenditure budget, 86% subsidy is used for energy subsidies and 64.6% the largest share of subsidies. The biggest users of fuel subsidy, is land transportation, with the classification of private vehicles, so it can be said that the subsidy is not received by the appropriate require. Related to this, the challenges that must be faced is the obligation to make a breakthrough in order to encourage domestic savings in fuel consumption and diversification in the use of non-fuel energy sources. There are three policy options as an effort to optimize the fuel subsidy savings. First, restrictions on the use of the fuel subsidy program, unfortunately the prospects of success of this policy is not good considering unprepared infrastructure and the emerging moral hazard. Second, the increase in fuel prices, the authors recommend the price increase to Rp 2000, - taking into account the effects of inflation, and financial savings, for the welfare of the people. Third, the use of CNG and new products from the fuel, this policy option can be run in the long run because it requires a longer preparation in building infrastructure.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR FISIKA MATEMATIKA BERBASIS SELF REGULATED LEARNING SEBAGAI UPAYA PENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN BELAJAR MANDIRI

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    Ellianawati -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan motivasi belajar Fisika Matematika dengan memberi keleluasaan kepada mahasiswa dalam memilih tipe belajar yang diminati agar dapat memacu mahasiswa mampu belajar secara mandiri. Model Self Regulated Learning (SRL dipilih karena dinilai memuat uraian tugas dan kewajiban dosen dan mahasiswa untuk mencapai tujuan ini. Sampel penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa semester genap 2010/2011 yang mengambil mata kuliah Fisika Matematika 1. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang menggunakan metode penelitian research and development ini menunjukkan adanya peningkatan pemahaman dan capaian prestasi belajar yang cukup signifikan. Peningkatan persepsi diri mahasiswa tentang pemahaman materi Fisika Matematika 1 serta capaian rata-rata yang masuk dalam kategori B menggambarkan keefektifan metode ini. Masih ada beberapa mahasiswa yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dengan perbaikan yang berkelanjutan baik dari segi konten, sajian, maupun proses pembelajaran.The research aimed to increase the students’ motivation in learning Mathematical Physics by choosing their own type of study in order to challenge them to study autonomy. Self Regulated Learning (SRL model is chosen since the model provides the role for teacher and learner to reach the learning goal. This research has been done to the students who taken Mathematical Physics 1 in even semester of academic year of 2010/2011. Based on the result using research and development methodology, it can be concluded that there is a quite significant gain of students’ understanding of Mathematical Physics 1 concepts. The increase of students’ self perception of material understanding of Mathematical Physics 1 and the average of achievement categorized as B shows the effectiveness of the method.  There are some students who still need to be concerned by continuing their improvement in learning content as well as the learning process.

  11. Upaya Optimalisasi Penghematan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Agar Tepat Sasaran

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    Janita S. Meliala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Subsidized fuel consumption continues to increase from year to year also put pressure on the state budget so that it becomes increasingly severe. This is caused by the government's energy policy tends to be adaptive and short-term oriented (myopic, so the government pays little attention to aspects of long-term autonomy of the Indonesian economy. Subsidy in the 2011 budget amounted to 33.42% of the total expenditure budget, 86% subsidy is used for energy subsidies and 64.6% the largest share of subsidies. The biggest users of fuel subsidy, is land transportation, with the classification of private vehicles, so it can be said that the subsidy is not received by the appropriate require. Related to this, the challenges that must be faced is the obligation to make a breakthrough in order to encourage domestic savings in fuel consumption and diversification in the use of non-fuel energy sources. There are three policy options as an effort to optimize the fuel subsidy savings. First, restrictions on the use of the fuel subsidy program, unfortunately the prospects of success of this policy is not good considering unprepared infrastructure and the emerging moral hazard. Second, the increase in fuel prices, the authors recommend the price increase to Rp 2000, - taking into account the effects of inflation, and financial savings, for the welfare of the people. Third, the use of CNG and new products from the fuel, this policy option can be run in the long run because it requires a longer preparation in building infrastructure.

  12. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH PLASTIK SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF BAHAN PELAPIS (UPHOLSTERY PADA PRODUK INTERIOR

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    Yunida Sofiana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Environment pollution which is caused by garbage, especially plastic products, is one undeniable thing nowadays. Environment pollution by non-degradable materials could be decreased in 3Rs that are recycling, reusing, reducing. Recycle method is one of creative methods; the plastic waste could be recycled into matting materials that substitute natural material (pandanus and also to be alternative upholstery in interior products. Plastic waste treatment process until disposable is easier than natural material which has to go through several stages like drying and staining. What could be gained from pandanus could also be gained from plastic waste, so there are many things probable products could be designed. The product image is assumed to be modern, one trend nowadays.

  13. Kajian komposit plastik daur ulang dengan serbuk kayu untuk bahan bangunan

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    Arum Yuniari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The require problem were wood as building material either for material, decoration, or furniture increases along with the raise of population. Composite is a material which is formed by two or more distinctive components united. The manufacturing of composite made of recycle plastic and wood flour is aimed to lower environmental encumbering and produce a kind of product for building material. Composite of recycle plastic and wood flour is that made of recycle plastic as the matrix and wood flour as the filler, and expected being able to adopt both properties. The process of composite manufacturing was carried-out through the phase of preparation for filler, plastic recycle, mixing, pelletizing, and product manufacturing. It can be concluded from the review that the quantity, type of wood selected, size of wood flour prepared, water content, and quantity of compatibilizer affect very much upon the quality of composite produced. Composite produced of plastic recycle and wood flour by applying certain technology can be used for material building.

  14. Kajian komposit plastik daur ulang dengan serbuk kayu untuk bahan bangunan

    OpenAIRE

    Arum Yuniari

    2007-01-01

    The require problem were wood as building material either for material, decoration, or furniture increases along with the raise of population. Composite is a material which is formed by two or more distinctive components united. The manufacturing of composite made of recycle plastic and wood flour is aimed to lower environmental encumbering and produce a kind of product for building material. Composite of recycle plastic and wood flour is that made of recycle plastic as the matrix and wood fl...

  15. PERPADUAN ANTARA PROPELLER DAN DAUN KEMUDI GUNA MENGOPTIMALKAN PROLPULSI DAN MANUVER KAPAL SERTA EFFISIENSI BAHAN BAKAR

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Ridwan

    2012-01-01

    Operational of ship influences the running cost. A old ship, day by day cash cost are higher with ageing machinery requiring constant maintenance, a rusty hull requiring regular steel replacement and high fuel oil consumption. Fuel cost are 30-45 % all of running cost. with integrated between propeller and rudder to optimum ship propulsion and manoeuvering to reduce 4-9% vessel’s fuel oil consumption and energy efficiency

  16. Metode Irigasi Tetes dan Perlakuan Komposisi Bahan Organik dalam Budidaya Stroberi

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    Afik Hardanto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a commercial fruit. It’s Growth and quality is influenced by soil condition, climate, and its self. Irrigation influences soil characteristic, such as: physical, chemical, and microbiological than influence an environment of its growth. this research used drip irrigation method with debit variation and organic matter composition. RCBD was used in this research. Variation of irrigation debit and organic matter composition are the independent variables, whereas dependent variables are C-Organic, N-available, characteristic of soil, and quality of strawberry fruit. Variation of debit irrigation did not significant influence to C-Organic, whereas organic matter composition had significant influence to C-Organic in 63th, 84th, and 105th day of planting. The highest C-Organic content on D3P3 treatment that is 17.92% and the lowest on D2P2 treatment that is 5.19%. Debit of irrigation influence to N-available content in 105th day of planting. The highest N-available content in D3P1 treatment that is 0.88 ppm, whereas the lowest N-available content in D2P3 treatment that is 0.67 ppm. Result of analysis, debit irrigation had significant influence and could increase fruit weight and reduction sugar-content. Organic matter composition had significant influence to increase fruit weight, vitamin C, total of soluble-solid, and reduction sugar-content. Combination of irrigation debit and organic matter composition had significant influence to fruit weight. In the treatment, debit of irrigation that make good influence to fruit quality is 300 ml/day/polybag and 1:2 ratio of organic matter composition.

  17. Uji Organoleptik Hasil Jadi Kue Menggunakan Bahan Non Instant dan Instant

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    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of making a cake in the modern era, demanding speed because of the time more valuable and more widely distribution coverage, which means greater production capacity. Then the process is made as efficient as possible. Busyness is high enough to make parents and family also eventually follow the diet and no hassle instant preparation. Now was enough just to buy one box of instant cake mix that is usually already included in the package, plus live eggs, and butter cake be desired. The process is also very clear instructions printed on the packaging of instant flour. From the results of analysis of Material Differences between Normal and Instant Ingredients (Paired Samples Correlations then we can see the differences, views of significant value. If sig is smaller than 0:05, the materials A and B materials are different, but if the sig is greater than 0:05, the materials A and B, have same material. From the above table can be viewed texture and flavor of the cake A and B are different, while for the smell, taste, and colors have in common. So it can be concluded that between the two cakes A and B are same.

  18. Uji Organoleptik Hasil Jadi Kue Menggunakan Bahan Non Instant dan Instant

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    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of making a cake in the modern era, demanding speed because of the time more valuable and more widely distribution coverage, which means greater production capacity. Then the process is made as efficient as possible. Busyness is high enough to make parents and family also eventually follow the diet and no hassle instant preparation. Now was enough just to buy one box of instant cake mix that is usually already included in the package, plus live eggs, and butter cake be desired. The process is also very clear instructions printed on the packaging of instant flour. From the results of analysis of Material Differences between Normal and Instant Ingredients (Paired Samples Correlations then we can see the differences, views of significant value. If sig is smaller than 0:05, the materials A and B materials are different, but if the sig is greater than 0:05, the materials A and B, have same material. From the above table can be viewed texture and flavor of the cake A and B are different, while for the smell, taste, and colors have in common. So it can be concluded that between the two cakes A and B are same. 

  19. Uji Coba Penggunaan Limbah Air Kelapa Tua sebagai Bahan Dasar Media Isolasi

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    Hanna Yolanda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available he culture media commonly used for isolation are imported and expensive. Many organic materials are naturally decomposed from complex organic compounds to simple ones by microbes. Based on this principles, this study wants to make isolation media with ripe coconut waste-water as based substance, so it can be considered as economical culture media. The method was laboratoric experimental by isolating tested bacteria with ripe coconut waste-water as based substance. The composition of the media were adjusted with MacConkey agar and blood agar base. Standard media were MacConkey agar and blood agar base. Control media were agar 15 g/L media and ripe coconut waste-water agar media. Tested bacteria were a number species of Enterobacteriaceae and positive gram cocci. The evaluated variables were macroscopic and microscopic images. Data was analized by Wilcoxon matched pairs test and sign test methods. This study did not find a significant differences (p>0.05 between standard media and ripe coconut waste-water media. Specific characteristics of tested bacteria, such as red colonies, mucoid, and hemolitic zone, were similar between standard media and ripe coconut waste-water media. The conclusion is ripe coconut waste-water can be used as base for isolation media substance of Enterobacteriaceae and gram positive cocci.

  20. Perkembangan Semen Tulang Sebagai Bahan Fiksasi pada Perawatan Bedah Tulang di Bidang Kedokteran Gigi

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    Bambang Irawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The first bone cement developed by Charnley in the 1960s using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA remains the most widely used material for fixation of orthopaedic joint replacement. In the field of dentistry, polycarboxylate and glass ionomer cements first came to prominence as dental cements in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although biocompatible, the zinc component results in the formation of fibrous collagen capsule around the zinc polycarboxylate cement in vivo, which compromises the strength of the intermediate region between the bone and cement. Glass ionomer cements were anticipated to have potential in orthopaedic applications. The discovery of a well integrated intermediate layer between bone and many bioactive ceramic phases from the calcium-phosphate systems, such as hydroxyapatite (HA, resulted in the development of new cements incorporating such phases. Investigations into bioglass and apatite/wollastonite glass-ceramics prompted the development of off-the-shelf bone graft substitute materials. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is commercially available and serves primarily as a scaffold in order to facilitate the bone regeneration process. Many investigations have ranged from the development of castable bioactive materials to modified bioactive composites. This article attempts to give a broad overview of the different types of cements.

  1. PERIKANAN TONGKOL DAN DAYA DUKUNGNYA TERHADAP PENYEDIAAN BAHAN BAKU INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN DI PALABUHANRATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijopriono Wijopriono

    2015-03-01

    penghematan biaya operasi. Palabuhanratu, as one of the main fish landing ports of bonito in the south coast of west Java Province, was promoted to be the center area for industrialization development. Research on bonito fishery was conducted with aim to determine the bonito fishery status and their capacity in supplying the fish necessary for raw material of local processing industries. The results show that bonito fishing was done by variety of fleets which mostly constitute of small scale category (< 10 GT with multi-species fishing target. There were three main species of bonito landed in Palabuhanratu, i.e., Auxis rochei, Euthynnus affinis and Auxis thazard. The annual production was in average of 520.18 tons/year, 65.37% of this value is contributed by Danish seine fleet. Production of bonito fishing in Palabuhanratu is only able to cover 50-60% of the raw material necessary for the local industries. One of the alternatives for increasing bonito production should be to develop troll line with appropriate vessel sizes and engine powers, employing cluster fishing system by using mother boats for saving operational costs.

  2. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SILIKON TERHADAP SUDUT KONTAK HIDROPOBIK DAN KARAKTERISTIK ARUS BOCOR PERMUKAAN BAHAN RESIN EPOKSI

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    Abdul Syakur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, polymer materials such as epoxy resin have been used as an insulator in the distribution andtransmission line. Some advantages of using this epoxy resin material having the dielectric properties are betterthan porcelain and glass insulators. On the other side, epoxy resins are also disadvantage the surface ishygroscopic. For the repair was done by adding the surface properties of silicone rubber materialThis paper describes the effect of adding silicone rubber against contact angle of hidrophobicity and surfaceleakage current characteristics of epoxy resin materials ( Di-Glycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA andMethaphenilene Diamine (MPDA. The study was conducted in the laboratory using the electrode method IEC587:1984 with NH4Cl contaminants. The voltage applied to the epoxy resin sample at 3.5 kV and 50 HzfrequencyThe experimental results showed that the addition of silicon rubber in epoxy resin makes the surface materialcontact angle increases. The higher percentage of silicone rubber, the greater the contact angle and the longertime required for the occurrence of surface discharge.

  3. PERENCANAAN PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN JAGUNG SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU INDUSTRI PAKAN DI KABUPATEN CIAMIS

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    Mustika Gusnia Sari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry development sector in Ciamis has effected an increasing in maize production as a raw material for feed. In period 2008-2012, the production of maize in Ciamis Region is 45.883 tons, meanwhile, the demand is 17.000 tons, consequently  the Ciamis District supposed to be able to fulfill the demand; however, but currently the feed industry in Ciamis are still importing the maize. Cluster development might be one of solution for this problem. The aims of this research are: (1 Analyzing land availability for maize development in Ciamis District, (2 Analyzing maize cluster type can  be developed in Ciamis District, 3 Analyzing strategies in development of maize cluster. The results showed that land availability for maize development in Ciamis Regency is 28.176 ha. There are three maize cluster types that can be developed in Ciamis as follows: pertumbuhan cluster (15.671 ha, pengembangan cluster (12.217 ha and pemantapan cluster (288 ha. Considering the region development strategy, the priority in pertumbuhan cluster type is an optimization of  natural resources (land factor, in development type is human resources development with focused to the education and training of field staff, and in the pemantapan type is an institution empowerment with focused on the partnerships. Keywords: maize, cluster, development

  4. Composite Flowable Fabricated (CFF Sebagai Alternatif Bahan Pasak Gigi Paska Endodontik

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    Dwi Warna Aju Fatmawati

    2014-12-01

    for 20 seconds. Treatment of NiTi post group was same with CCF post group, the different NiTi post was inserted using glass ionomer luting type 1. Furthermore all of tooth sample, prefabricated and fabricated, was tested by threebending point with ISO10477. The result showed that mean of NiTi post (stiffness= 115,30 N/mm; modulus elastisitas = 9,31 Gpa; flexural= 812 Gpa was higher than CFF post (stiffness = 35 N/mm; modulus elastisitas = 3,45 Gpa; flexural= 475,8 GPa; and there was significant different between prefabricated (NiTi dengan fabricated(CFF post statistically. Although composite flowable can be used as alternative of post endodontic and needs further research that is suitable with standard of post materials.

  5. KAJIAN PENINGKATAN PATI RESISTEN YANG TERKANDUNG DALAM BAHAN PANGAN SEBAGAI SUMBER PREBIOTIK

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    Raden Haryo Bimo Setiarto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria in the colon. Resistant starch (RS is the starch that can not be digested by digestive enzymes and resistant to gastric acid so it can reach the colon to be fermented by probiotic bacteria. There are treatments to increase the content of RS such as: autoclaving-cooling cycling, combination of lintnerized with autoclaving-cooling, and combination of debranching pullulanase with autoclaving-cooling. The results of techno-economical study showed that the combination of fermentation followed by autoclaving-cooling can be used as an alternative technique to increase the content of resistant starch in food more effectively and efficiently.

  6. Resin poliurethan sebagai bahan pelapisan aksesoris logam untuk mengurangi cacat produk barang kulit

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    Sri Mulati

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the research is to aquire an appropriate plating technique on leather product accessories made from metal without lessening the wonderful appearance of the accessories, to maintain the shade and to keep the rust away from the accessories that avoid or diminish defects on the leather. The plating was carried out by spraying using spraying-gun one, two, and three times, and repeated three times for each treatment to chrome plating metal, gold plating metal and roasted metal. The samples were then pinned on a piece of chrome tanned leather and vegetable tanned leather, whereas the tests carried out was wet and dry rub fastness. Data analysed using completely randomized design with factorial pattern according to Gasperz (1991 showed that there was not significant effect on plating neither metal plated using chrome, gold, nor roasted metal pinned on chrome and vegetable tanned leather having been stored yet. However there was significant difference on accessories having been do treated as the stated above and set on a piece of vegetable tanned leather stored for three months. Conclusion could be drawn from the research that the use of polyurethane using spray system for plating metal accessories was able to maintain its beautiful appearance, keep the rust away, that was not create defects neither on chrome of vegetable tanned leather.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR KETERAMPILAN BERBICARA BAHASA JEPANG BERORIENTASI BUDAYA MATA KULIAH KAIWA TINGKAT MENENGAH

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    Sri Wahyu Widiati

    2015-10-01

    DEVELOPING A CULTURE-ORIENTED JAPANESE LANGUAGE LEARNING MATERIALS FOR SPEAKING SKILL OF INTERMEDIATE KAIWA LESSON Abstract This study aims to: (1 develop appropriate learning materials for intermediate Japanese Language speaking skill by adapting Japanese and Indonesian culture themes, which integrate four language skills focusing on the speaking skill; (2 reveal the properness level of the learning materials. This is a research and development study. The steps of conducting the study were (1 collecting the data on needs analysis, (2 planning, (3 developing the product, (4 validating (expert judgment, preliminary field testing, main field testing and revising, (5 writing the final draft of the learning materials. The learning materials consist of five units accompanied with a VCD. The result of the expert judgment shows that the material is in the average score of 4.76 which is in the very good category. The result of the expert judgment on the media is in the average score of 4.31 which is in the very good category. The conclusion of this study is that the learning materials are appropriate to be implemented in the learning activities. Keywords: culture-oriented learning materials, speaking skills, kaiwa, intermediate Japanese language

  8. Pengaruh Pakan dan Bahan Peluruh Serisin terhadap Filamen Terurai Kokon Ulat Sutera Emas Cricula trifenestrata Helf

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    Terry M Frans

    2015-10-01

    The research aim was to obtain the effect of fodder and sericin degumming agents on asunder filament of golden silkworm cocoon of Cricula trifenestrata Helf. This study expected to find an asunder filament technology in the yarn spinning phase, as the material of silk textile. The complete random design was used to find the interaction between two treatment factors of fodder types and sericin degumming agents. The length of asunder filament per cocoon (cm, the amount of pieces of asunder filament per cocoon (sheet, and the length of filament per piece (cm/sheet were evaluated. The combination between avocado leaf and soap sericin degumming agent with wood ashes treatment showed the best results on the average of the length of sericin emitec filament asunder per cocoon, the average amount of filament pieces per cocoon, and the average filament length per piece. Therefore, the treatment combination is recommended on the cocoon asunder process.

  9. Pengaruh penggunaan bahan pewarna alam dari ekstrak kayu terhadap sifat fisis kulit ikan kakap merah

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    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to identify the effect of some natural dye of wood extract to the physical properties (tensile strength, elongation and rub fastness resistance of kakap (Lutjanidae fish skin leather. Fifteen pieces of dry preserved kakap fish skin were used in this research, and tanned using syntan and alum. The dyeing process was done using natural dyes of wood extract of Caesalpinia sappan L, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ, Maclura cochinensis, and Ceriops tagal. The result of research indicated that the kind of applied natural dyes were not affect the physical properties of Kakap fish skins. The fish skins dyed using the such natural dyes was able be utilised as material in leather goods manufacturing. One of the five types of natural dye used in this research, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ wood extract produced the best dyed leather having good tensile strength, elongation/flexibility and the colour fastness. The tensile strength was 213,15 kg/cm2, flexibility 56% and colour fastness with wet white cloth 3/4 (grey scale value and with dry white cloth 4/5 (grey scale value, respectively

  10. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

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    Khalil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR BERBASIS KONTEKSTUAL PADA MATERI HIMPUNAN BERBANTU VIDEO PEMBELAJARAN

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    Yulis Purwanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the feasibility of mathematics contextual-based learning materials on the material set using video-assisted learning. This research was a research and development (R & D. Models were used to adapt the model developed by Sugiyono, but not to stage a mass product. Subjects tested in this study was seventh grade Junior high school 1 Batanghari academic year 2014/2015. Results of the validation of teaching materials to obtain an average value of 82.14%. Learning outcomes of the pilot study of  small-scale was 84 and learning outcomes of large-scale was 84.33, so the contextual-based learning materials on the material set using video-assisted learning was very feasible used in learning

  12. EFISIENSI ENERGI BAHAN BAKAR SEKAM DAN KAYU PADA PROSES STERILISASI MEDIA TUMBUH JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH

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    Abdul Djamil Husin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the sterilization at media pleurotus otreatus using rice husk fuel and wood in various 6, 8 and 10 hours. We carried out efficiency energy for pleurotus otreatus medium sterilization at 8 hours using rice husk fuel is 14.28%, whereas efficiency energy for pleurotus otreatus medium sterilization using wood is 17.35%. The results show that cooking stove from rice husk are suitable for use as renewable energy technology applications to support E3i village (Energy, Economics and Environment.

  13. Pemanfaatan zeolit sebagai bahan pengisi dalam pembuatan karet sponge untuk tatakan sepatu

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    Herminiwati Herminiwati

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of zeolite as filler in the preparation of sponge rubber for shoe insocks. During wearing period of shoes, unpleasant odor often smell for the result of sweat accumulation and their decomposition by microorganism. Besides as rubber filler, zeolit has odor adsorption function. The formula of rbber sponge could be as the following : crepe rubber 100 phr, paraffinic oil 20 phr, ZnO 10 phr, stearic acid 5 phr, MBTS 1 phr, TMTD 0.25 phr, anti-oxidant 1 phr and sulphur 2 phr. To obtain the best sponge rubber formula, some experiment was done by formulating variation of zeolite and blowing agent AZDM in the amount of 25, 50, 75 phr and 5, 10, 15 phr respectively. The vulcanization process was carried-out at temperature 140oC for minutes by compression moulding. The research showed that the best formula with high odor absorption was consist of zeolite 50 phr and blowing agent AZDM 5 phr. The sponge rubber had odor adsorption 93,47%, and the physical properties were as follow: tensile strength 2.018 N/mm2, elongation at break 251%, tear strength 1.029 N/mm2, density 0.717 g/cm3, and compression set 36.38%. Odor absorption was tested by using gas chromatography.

  14. Pemesinan Laju Tinggi dan Pemesinan Kering Menggunakan Pahat Karbida pada Bahan Aluminium 6061

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    Bobby Umroh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of high speed machining and dry machining use for the best cutting conditions on the roughness aluminum 6061 material surface using a carbide tool. Collection machining test data is performed 4 times trial with 3 main variable is the rate of cutting (V, Ingestion rate (f and depth of cut (a at three levels of scale. The best surface roughness conditions is determined by the rate of the cemetery, where the rate of feeding is recommended at f = 0.12 mm/rev or < 0:17 mm/rev. Effect of cutting force is inversely proportional to the value of rate of cuts. At the greater of the cutting force so the surface roughness also getting smaller. Depth of cut and rate cuts also affects on the surface roughness but not in any condition determined. At the lowest state with V = 1000 m/min f = 0:12 mm/rev and a = 1 mm, surface defects (surface defect. Possibly, this is caused by the vibration of the tool due to lack of dynamic balance in the cutting process.

  15. EVALUASI SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI PEMBELIAN DAN PERSEDIAAN BAHAN BAKU PADA PT SUMBER BAHAGIA METALINDO

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    Siti Elda Hiererra

    2012-05-01

    the companies assets can be well cared for. Several methodologies are implemented in this research, which are literature study, field study, such as: interviews, observation, checklists, and documentation review followed by data analysis. Audit is implemented using audit around the computer. The results obtained are in the form of data analysis presented as problem findings, the impacts and recommendations for remedial action. It can be concluded from the results of this study that PT. Sumber Bahagia Metalindo owns sufficient information system control, but still there are some weaknesses to be improved in order to improve control process to the better objective.

  16. EVALUASI PENGENDALIAN INTERN TERHADAP SISTEM AKUNTANSI PEMBELIAN DAN PERSEDIAAN BAHAN BAKU PADA PT FUYINDO MULTI PERDANA

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    Vini Mariani

    2010-05-01

    run well and the management can give a decision based on the reports of evaluation results, it can be suggested that companies should do in the internal control system purchase accounting and inventory of raw materials

  17. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Biologi Berbasis Contextual Teaching Learning untuk Mengefektifkan Pembelajaran bagi Siswa SMA

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    Fatma Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are: (1 to know the need of teaching materials for the senior high school teachers and the students, (2 to know the procedures of Biology teaching materials development of contextual teaching learning-based teaching, (3 to develop Biology teaching materials of contextual teaching learning-based teaching. The research method of this study is research and development. This study found: firstly, the need of teaching materials for the senior high school teachers and the students considers some elements, they are a situational context, b fits to curriculum, c exercises/tasks enable to activate the students’ achievement, d practical based implementation, and e interesting, clear, and easy to understand. Secondly, the model of development is adapted from Borg and Gall, they are: data collection, planning, drafting a model, experimenting the model, revision the draft, field experiment, revising the final draft, and implementation. Thirdly, the score of post test shows 66.9 (control class and 79.6 (experimental class, t-value of f value is 2.67 > 1.67 of f table. It can be concluded that the use of Biology CTL based-teaching materials enables to improve the students’ achievement in learning Biology.

  18. PEMANFAATAN UMBI TALAS SEBAGAI BAHAN SUBTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU DALAM PEMBUATAN COOKIES YANG DISUPLEMENTASI DENGAN KACANG HIJAU

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    Welli Yuliatmoko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Taro flour can be used as a wheat flour substitution in cookies making, although its quality is still relatively low, especially in terms of taste and nutritional composition. An alternative way to improve its nutritional composition is by the addition of green beans, as a protein source. This study was aimed to obtain the cookies formulation that use Lampung Taro flour enriched with green beans flour as a wheat flour substitution. The cookies were tested organoleptically by panelists using hedonic scale including color, aroma, taste, texture and general appearance. The acceptable cookies were analyzed their chemical characteristics. The results showed that Taro flour cookies with the content of 30%, 50%, and 60% Lampung Taro flour have received the best judgment from panelists. From the nutritional point these cookies were considered meet the nutritional value specified by SNI 1992 but the protein content was still below standard. The addition of 10% green beans flour was not able to improve the nutritional value of protein in the cookies. Taro flour can be used as a wheat flour substitution in cookies making, although its quality is still relatively low, especially in terms of taste and nutritional composition. An alternative way to improve its nutritional composition is by the addition of green beans, as a protein source. This study was aimed to obtain the cookies formulation that use Lampung Taro flour enriched with green beans flour as a wheat flour substitution. The cookies were tested organoleptically by panelists using hedonic scale including color, aroma, taste, texture and general appearance. The acceptable cookies were analyzed their chemical characteristics. The results showed that Taro flour cookies with the content of 30%, 50%, and 60% Lampung Taro flour have received the best judgment from panelists. From the nutritional point these cookies were considered meet the nutritional value specified by SNI 1992 but the protein content was still below standard. The addition of 10% green beans flour was not able to improve the nutritional value of protein in the cookies.

  19. Penggunaan Limbah Kopi Sebagai Bahan Penyusun Ransum Itik Peking dalam Bentuk Wafer Ransum Komplit

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    Muhammad Daud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of coffee waste as component of compiler ration peking duck in the form of wafer complete ration ABSTRACT. Coffee waste is a by-product of coffee processing that potential to be used as feed stuff for peking duck. The weakness of this coffee waste, among others, is perishable, voluminous (bulky and the availability was fluctuated so the processing technology is needed to make this vegetable waste to be durable, easy to stored and to be given to livestock. To solve this problem vegetable waste could be formed as wafer. This research was conducted to study effectiveness of coffee waste as component of compiler ration peking duck in the form of wafer complete ration This experiment was run in completely randomized design which consist of 4 feed treatment and 3 replications.  Ration used was consisted of  P0 = wafer complete ration 0% coffee waste (control, P1 = wafer complete ration 2,5% coffee waste, P2 = wafer complete ration 5% coffee waste, and P3 = Wafer complete ration 7,5% coffee waste. The Variables observed were: physical characteristic (aroma, color, and wafer density and palatability of wafer complete ration. Data collected was analyzed with ANOVA and Duncan Range Test would be used if the result was significantly different. The result showed that the density of wafer complete ration coffee waste was significantly (P< 0.05 differences between of treatment. Mean density wafer complete ration equal to: P0= 0,52±0,03, P1 =0,67±0,04, P2 =0,72±0,03, and P3 = 0,76±0.05 g/cm3. Wafer complete ration coffee waste palatability was significantly (P< 0.05 differences between of treatment. It is concluded that of wafer complete ration composition 5 and 7,5% coffee waste was significantly wafer palatability and gave a highest wafer density. The ration P0 was the most palatable compare to other treatments for the experimental peking duck.

  20. Analisis Cost Volume Profit sebagai Alat Bantu Manajemen dalam Rangka Perencanaan Laba dengan Penerapan Teori Kendala pada PT Skylite Surya Internusa

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    Holly Deviarti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available PT Skylite Solar Internusa is an industrial company that produces the houses lights and panel box. The purpose of this study is to help companies classify costs according to the behavior of costs, determine the calculation of the break event point of multiproduct, profit planning, and to overcome the constraints that occured in the company. The authors obtained data directly to the company's research and interviews with relevant parties, such as the production and the accounting department. The increase in profit in the fiscal year period 2009 due to demand for homes increased light and panel box. It can be concluded that the application of Cost-Volume-Profit analysis by using the break event point multiproduct can help management to determine how much sales volume may decline from the volume of sales is budgeted by the company and the company can make profit plan in 2010.

  1. Penerapan Pengering Surya-Tungku Termodifikasi Dalam Peningkatan Produktivitas dan Higienitas Produksi Ikan Asin Tanpa Formalin Nelayan Pantai Congot, Kulonprogo, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Devi Yuni; Nugraheni, Prihati Sih; Hermawan, Anang

    2015-01-01

    Salted fish is a fish product with simple preservation method as a solution to increase value added, extend shelf life and expand the distribution chain, and provide convenience and distinctive taste to be consumed. The groups of small industries and marketer “POKLAHSAR SRIKANDI” and “BOGOWONTO” have produced 10-50 kg salted fish per day. The fish is taken from Congot coastal areas, to increase its value added when it was in low price because it was abundant and to maintain the stability of P...

  2. Perencanaan Sistem Jaringan Mikro (Microgrid Dengan Supply dari Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS dan Generator Set di Jurusan Teknik Elektro Universitas Udayana

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    I. P. Krisna Darma Putra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Network design Micro Electrical Engineering  Department of the University of Udayana aims to harness solar power contained in the Department of Electrical Engineering are still stand alone system, namely, its use is still limited area of internet corner, has not been used as one of the suppliers of electrical power for the building - a building in the Department of Electrical Engineering. Based on simulation results show PLTS only able to serve load in an on-grid of 0.66% of the total production of electrical energy generated while the condition of the off-grid solar power can only serve load building DJs and building DH (load lighting and socket at 3:21% and generator sets were installed in the Department of Electrical Engineering serve at 96.79%. Solar power capacity to be installed to meet the entire load of the building in the Department of Electrical Engineering is equal to the number of 211.814 Watt PV Module is needed as much as 26.267 pieces. This amount is influenced by the size of the capacity and efficiency of PV Module installed at this time.

  3. Optimal Design Of Renewable Energy Systemusing Genetic Algorithm Case Study In Parangtritis

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    SRI UTAMI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Andil pariwisata terhadap perkembangan regional sangat besar begitu juga andilnya terhadap permasalahan lingkungan.Untuk mengurangi aspek negatif terhadap lingkungan serta meningkatkan penghematan, sistem energi terbarukan menempati prioritas penting dalam bidang pariwisata. Konfigurasi optimal sistem energi terbarukan direncanakan menggunakan Algoritma Genetika. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengoptimasi sistem energi terbarukan di Parangtritis, Kretek, Bantul, Jawa Tengah. Sistem yang dirancang terdiri dari sel surya dan turbin angin, sedangkan sistem penyimpanannya menggunakan baterai dan fuel cell. Algoritma ini meminimisasi fungsi objektif biaya total yang terdiri dari biaya investasi, biaya penggantian serta biaya operasi dan perawatan. Kehandalan sistem dievaluasi menggunakan indeks Equivalent Loss Factor (. Indeks ini memberikan informasi jumlah energi yang tidak dapat dipasok oleh sistem energi terbarukan. Hasil simulasi memperlihatkan jumlah optimal sistem energi terbarukan dicapai dengan jumlah sel surya sebanyak 3, baterai 48,turbin angin sebanyak 36, elektroliser sebanyak 3, tangki hidrogen 2 dan fuel cell sebanyak 8. Nilai ELF yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 0.01.  Abstract  Tourism has a massive contribution to regional development and shares environmental issues. Reducing reliances on fossil fuel, it is not still adequating energy consumption yet to cause development of renewable energy in crucial position for tourism desicition. An optimal configuration of renewable energy system was planned by Genetic Algorithm in this work. This research conducted to optimize renewable  energy system in Parangtritis, Kretek, Bantul Central Java. The system consisted of solar cells and wind turbines, andthe batteries and fuel cells were as storage system. The algorithm minimize objective function of total cost consisted of investment, replacement as well as operating and maintenance costs. A reability evaluation of the

  4. Perubahan Sel Imun Pulpitis Akibat Biomodulasi Laser GaA1As

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    Nugrohowati Nugrohowati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to disclose the effect of GaA1As laser biomodulation on pulpitis immune response. The use of laser is still disputable, because of the biomodulation effect of laser remains unclear, particularly on immune response of pulpitis. Laser is  astressor because it produces stress wave that may cause stress on pulp. Modulation of immune system occurred in each variable of immune system component was considred to be GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome. The applied design of this research was experimental clinical trial that involved laser application on those reversible pulpitis and irreversible pulpitis. Each group consist of 10 samples. To identify biomodulation effect of 2 minutes, 5 minutes laser exposure in reversible and irreversible pulpitis, manova test was done. The different result of biomodulation effect on the control group was only indicated by the exposure of GaAIAs laser for 5 minute in reversible pulpitis on decreasing macrophage, T helper, T cytotoxic, IgM and increasing IgG.

  5. USDA's Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL): Global leadership and innovation in insect systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A longstanding agreement between the USDA and the Smithsonian Institution created the National Insect Collection, one of the premiere entomological resources on the planet. Since its inception, USDA scientists associated with the National Insect Collection have been at the forefront of documenting i...

  6. Täna öösel me ei maga / Andrus Villem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villem, Andrus

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, 4. märts 2004, lk. 4; Meie Maa, 4. märts 2004, lk. 2; Sakala, 5. märts 2004, lk. 2; Elva Postipoiss, 6. märts 2004, lk. 4; Koit, 6. märts 2004, lk. 6; Vooremaa, 6. märts 2004, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 9. märts 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 13. märts 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 19. märts 2004, lk. 11. Arutlus poliitikuks olemise üle. Carmen Kassi poliitikasse pürgimisse

  7. Booklists for the Teaching of Mathematics in Schools: Selections from the Recommended Books (Ref: SEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical Association, Leicester (England).

    Presented is a listing of general books on mathematics which are highly recommended by the Mathematical Association of the United Kingdom. The following information on each book is provided: author; title; publisher; cost to the nearest pound; categories of use; and a code that indicates if the book is out of print, reprinted, and/or highly…

  8. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  9. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  10. Pengaruh variansi konsentrasi ekstrak kulit batang jambu mete terhadap sitotoksikitas sel fibroblas

    OpenAIRE

    H. Harsini; Febri, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The influence of cashew stembark extract on citotoxicity fibroblast. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of variation in the concentration of cashew stem bark extract as the base material of mouthwash of the cytotoxic effect on fibroblast cells. The material used in this study was cashew stem bark extracted by maceration method using 70% of ethanol. A total of 15 samples were grouped into 5, each of which consisted of 3 samples (ISO 10993-5). Concentrations used were 1.6%, 0.8%,...

  11. Deteksi Natrium/Iodide Symporter (NIS pada Galur Sel Kanker Payudara SKBR3 dengan Imunositofluoresens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Elliyanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available SKBR-3 cell line is a breast cancer model for human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2 positive. Only 50% of patients of this type have fully responded to chemotherapy. Natrium iodide symporter expression correlates with the uptake and ability of cells to accumulate radioiodine. The aim of this study was to examine natrium/iodide symporter (NIS expression and its distribution with and without epidermal growth factor (EGF treatment using immunocytofluoresence (ICF. This study was conducted at the Cell Culture Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran from September 2013 to April 2014. SKBR3 cells were cultured until 70% confluent. Cells were then divided into two groups: treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated with EGF 50 ng/mL. Cells were incubated with primary antibody rabbit polyclonal antibody anti-NIS, and then were followed with secondary-antibody goat polyclonal antibody to rabbit. Data from the observation were then assessed semi-quantitatively. Natrium/iodide symporter was seen to be expressed and distributed in the cytoplasm. Cells induced by EGF showed significant increase in NIS expression in cytoplasm and its distribution in cell membrane. It is concluded that the SKBR3 cells express NIS in cytoplasm and that EGF induction increases NIS expression and distribution in cell membrane. This finding leads to a potential ability of breast cancer cells to uptake and accumulate radioiodine.

  12. UJI AKTIFITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK ETANOL KULIT BATANG Bruguiera gymnorhiza TERHADAP SEL MEYLOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsinah

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove vegetation especially tanjang (Bruguiera gymnorhiza known as a kind of plant that used as an ingredients for traditional medicine. Bioactive compound in tanjang bark has potential medical. Although there is no previous experiment about tanjang bark, few compounds from Bruguiera genus has been experimented and has an activity as an anti-cancer and anti-tumor. The purpose of this experiment is to conduct sitotoxicity tanjang bark against Meyloma cell. Tanjang bark sample that used obtained from Tritih beach at Cilacap. Tanjang bark that has been cleaned and dried is cut and then crused until it obtain powder. The powder is been maceration with 96% ethanol and been evaporation. The extract that obtain is used in sitotoxicity test using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazoil-2-il-2,5-diphenil tetrazolium bromide method toward Meyloma cell after 24 hour of incubation using several concentration variation. Tanjang bark extract in ethanol has LC50 value 508.19 mg/ml. Morphology analyze and nuclear staining shows that there is apoptosis activity even in small amount. The result shows that tanjang bark extract has a potency as an anti-cancer toward Meyloma cell.

  13. Seks Vaalas ehk Täna öösel me ei maga / Maarin Ektermann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ektermann, Maarin

    2006-01-01

    Noorte kunstnike näitus "Sex" Vaal-galeriis 2.-20. V. Kuraator Andres Lõo. Loetletud 23 osalejat. Arutelud: 3. V "Kunstnik vs kuraator", inspireerituna Jaan Toomiku maalist "Oodates kuraatorit", kõnelesid Karolin Tampere, Rael Artel, Andres Lõo jt.; 19. V "Kes tellib kunsti?", inspireerituna Kumust, Ku-Ku'st ja kunstist, kõnelesid Raoul Kurvitz, Anders Härm jt.

  14. Moesõber, sel nädalal riisu koor Eesti rõivakunstilt! / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    3. Tallinna moenädala üritustest. Tallinn Fashion Week'i korraldab Eesti Moedisaini Liit. Näitus "Uus Eesti moejoonistus" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis. Filippo Caroti ja Oksana Tanditi moefotonäitus Tallinnas Galeriis M. Meesteehete väljapanek ja Anu Hindi moefotonäitus "Aeg maha 3" Iida galeriis. "Eesti moepiibel 2010" esitlus. Rahvusvaheline seminar Veerenni 24. Ülevaade eesti moekunstnike loomingu esitlustest

  15. Tartu visuaalse kultuuri festivalil näeb sel nädalal maailmafilme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    02.-08. maini toimub Tartus Eesti Rahva Muuseumi näitusemajas teist korda rahvusvaheline visuaalse kunsti festival, seekord nime all "Maailmafilm". Festivali avafilmiks on Philip Coxi "Me oleme indiaanlased" Argentiina guarani indiaanlastest

  16. DETEKSI DINI PENYAKIT TUMOR SEL DARAH MYELOSIT LEUKOSIS MELALUI PEMERIKSAAN ULAS DARAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ratih Agungpriyono

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Myelocytes blood cell tumor in chicken is a disease caused by retrovirus, avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J. The virus has the same group as human retrovirus (HIV which caused AIDS, but the avian type possesses oncogenic properties, that could induce cell transformation and tumor formation. ALV-J stimulates the bone marrow's myelocytes and transforms them into tumor cell myelocytoma. The tumor cells then metastasis through the circulatory system causing myeloid leukosis and tumor cells accumulation in various internal organs or myelocytomatosis. This study was done on the base of the leukosis behavior of the tumor. The finding of the metastasis tumor cell in the blood smear examination is thought could be use as the diagnostic clue of the disease. Blood smear from sick chickens are collected and stained with some chemical staining substance such as may grunwald-giemsa, hematoxyllin eosin, periodic acid Schiff, congo red, toluidine blue, and sudan black B. Cytochemistry character of the blood cells was observed using light microscope. The result showed that myelocytes granules were best observed using hematoxyllin eosin, periodic acid Schiff, congo red and toluidine blue while may grunwald-giemsa, and sudan black B could not differentiate the granules. By this method, the field veterinarian will able to screen the suspected chicken flock for myeloid leukosis earlier than the occurrence of tumor formation.

  17. EFEK PEMBERIAN ANTIOKSIDAN TOKOFEROL ALFA TERHADAP MEMBRAN SEL DARAH MERAH TALASEMIA

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    Ferry P Gultom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Talasemia is blood disorder which is characterized by anemia due to inherited haemoglobine disorder. The anemia is caused by a decreased flexibility of the erythrocyte results in decreased capability of required deformability to be able to across through capillary blood vessels. Free radicals with one or more unpaired electron on potential in destroying all the molecule exist in the body of living things like protein, carbohydrate and fat. Tocoferol or vitamin E is an antioxidant essential in eliminating free radicals in the cell membrane by inhibiting the peroxidation process of the cell membrane lipid. The objective of this study is to investigate the severity of the erythrocyte destruction either those with or without oxidative load from the environment. The results of this study showed that the level of malondialdehid in the control of erythrocyte was 1.85 ± 1.37 nmol in talasemia and 1.02 ± 0.64 nmol in normal (p<0.05. The addition of 2mM t-BHP resulted in increased malondialdehid level up to 19.59 ± 6.82 nmol in talasemia and 11.42 ± 3.49 nmol in normal erythrocytes (P<0.05. Oxidated erythrocyte with vitamin E supplement beforehand showed lower level of malondialdehid composed to those without vitamin E supplement (p<0.05. Conclusion: Additional vitamin E (tocoferol leads to decreased level of malondialdehid both in the normal and thalasemia erythrocytes.

  18. A study of the portability of an Ada system in the software engineering laboratory (SEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Linda O.; Valett, Susan Ray

    1990-01-01

    A particular porting effort is discussed, and various statistics on analyzing the portability of Ada and the total staff months (overall and by phase) required to accomplish the rehost, are given. This effort is compared to past experiments on the rehosting of FORTRAN systems. The discussion includes an analysis of the types of errors encountered during the rehosting, the changes required to rehost the system, experiences with the Alsys IBM Ada compiler, the impediments encountered, and the lessons learned during this study.

  19. Uurimus : valimisaktiivsus võib sel aastal tulla mõnevõrra suurem / Urmet Kook

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kook, Urmet, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe tellitud ja Turu-uuringute AS-i läbiviidud omnibuss-uuringu kohaselt lubas valima minna 71% küsitletutest. Uuringujuhi Tõnis Ormissoni sõnul on varasemate uuringute ja valimiskäitumise võrdlus näidanud, et neist, kes kavatsevad valima minna, jätab kümmekond protsenti mingil põhjusel minemata

  20. As proteínas núcleares nos seláceos

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    Humberto T. Cardoso

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudadas as reações químicas e fisico-químocas de uma proteina extraida do esperma de peixes dos gêneros Carcharias, Raf. e Galeocerdo, Ranz. Parece tratar-se de histonas, tendo em vista os resultados obtidos.

  1. Tartu maantee läheb sel kevadel kindlasti remonti / Uwe Gnadenteich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gnadenteich, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Tartu maantee rekonstrueerimise esimesest etapist. Tallinna abilinnapead Vladimir Maslov ja Peep Aaviksoo teelaiendusele ette jäävate kinnisvaraobjektide ostmise hetkeseisust, selleks ettenähtud summast

  2. Efektivitas kurkumin sebagai antioksidan dan inhibitor melanin pada kultur sel B16F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Sugiharto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanin inhibitors have become increasingly important ingredients in medication and cosmetics for the prevention ofhyperpigmentation. In the last few years, a huge number of natural herbal extracts have been tested as inhibitors of melanin synthesisand some of these effects are related to the antioxidant properties. The objectives of this study were to determine of curcumin propertiesas antioxidant activity and melanin inhibitors. In this study, our data indicated that antioxidant assay with DPPH showed IC50 was16,05 μg/ml. In the absence of α-MSH (α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, melanin content assay in cell B16-F1 indicated thatthe highest activity of curcumin to reduce melanin content of 45,67% at 25 μg/ml. Meanwhile, in the presence of α-MSH at the sameconcentration indicated that the highest activity was 53,87%. Based on the data, curcumin has potential properties as antioxidantactivity and melanin inhibitor.

  3. Hubungan antara pH Susu dengan Jumlah Sel Somatik Sebagai Parameter Mastitis Subklinik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sudarwanto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to measure the relationship of the pH value to the somatic cell count as a parameter of sub clinical mastitis detection. Two hundreds quarter milk samples were used in this research and the test (the pH value, IPB-1 mastitis test and Breed method was done in parallel way. The results showed that 152 samples from 200 samples (76% tested with Breed method came from the herds which suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and with IPB-1 test showed that 145 (72.5% of the samples had positive reaction. Using pH meter, it showed that 44 samples (22 % had pH > 6.75, presumed suffered from sub-clinical mastitis and 2 samples (1% showed pH < 6.30 (6.25 and 6.28. At the same time, these two samples showed a negative reaction with IPB-1 test and had somatic cell count of 360,000/ml and 280,000/ml, each. It also showed that there was a close relationship between pH value and IPB-1 test. The conclusion of this research was that the measurement of pH value was not a sensitive method for detecting sub-clinical mastitis.

  4. PENGARUH MEMBRAN AMNION TERHADAP JUMLAH SEL FIBROBLAS PADA PROSES PENYEMBUHAN LUKA (Kajian Histologis pada Gingiva Kelinci

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    Margareta Rinastiti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation phase is the second of the three phases in wound healing. IN this phase, fibroblast is a pivotal component. The migration and proliferation of fibroblast are influenced by FGF, TGF-β and FGF. Amniotic membrane (AM which consists of  several growth factors that play an important role in wound healing can be used as transplantation materials. This study investigated the influence of AM on the number of fibroblast cells in the process of wound healing on rabbit’s gingiva. Thirty six rabbits were divided into 2 groups, one is the control group (C and the other is the treatment group (T. Each of the groups were divided into 6 groups, composed of 3 rabbits based on the date of termination, i.e. 1st, 3rd. 5th. 7th, 10th, and 14th day after wounded. Five layers of AM were applicated on T group wounding and C group wounding were let open. Histological evaluation was done to calculate the number of fibroblast cells. Data analysis was done by using MANOVA. The results showed there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in the number of fibroblast cells between T and C groups among the groups of termination dates. The one having the highest number of fibroblast cell was in T 10 group. It can be concluded that AM enhanced the number of fibroblast cells in the process of wound healing on rabbit’s gingival.

  5. Adsorção de selênio em latossolos Selenium adsorption in oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rinaldi Mouta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A retenção de Se pelos colóides do solo constitui importante processo para a manutenção da sanidade ambiental. A informação sobre a adsorção de Se em solos altamente intemperizados é restrita e existem poucos padrões quantitativos disponíveis para a definição de estratégias de remediação de áreas contaminadas. Quantidades crescentes de Se (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 250 mg L-1, na forma de Na2SeO3, foram adicionadas a amostras de dez Latossolos brasileiros [três Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos (LVA-1, LVA-2 e LVA-3, dois Latossolos Vermelhos (LV-1 e LV-2, um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (LVef, um Latossolo Vermelho acriférrico (LVwf, dois Latossolos Amarelos (LA-1 e LA-2 e um Latossolo Amarelo acriférrico (LAwf]. Isotermas de adsorção foram construídas e foi verificado o ajuste dos resultados experimentais aos modelos de Langmuir e de Freundlich. A equação de Langmuir ajustou melhor os resultados de adsorção de Se do que a isoterma de Freundlich. Todas as isotermas apresentaram o formato tipo-L (exponencial, com exceção daquelas obtidas para o LVA-1 e para o LVA-2, que apresentaram comportamento tipo-C (linear. Valores de adsorção máxima (Ads máx, estimada pelo modelo de Langmuir, variaram de 135 (LVA-3 a 2.245 mg kg-1 (LA-1, enquanto os coeficientes de afinidade (K L estiveram entre 0,002 (LVA-2 e 0,326 (LVA-3. A constante de afinidade estimada pelo modelo de Freundlich (Kf variou de 13,7 (LVA-2 a 180,1 (LAwf. A adsorção máxima de Se foi mais elevada no LVef e nos Latossolos ácricos (LAwf e LVwf, enquanto os maiores valores de Kf foram encontrados no LV-2, LVef, LVA-3 e LVwf. Não houve correlação entre os atributos dos solos e as constantes de Langmuir. Valores de Kf correlacionaram-se com os teores de argila (r = 0,42* e com a capacidade de troca de ânions (r = 0,64*.Selenium (Se retention by soil colloids is an important process to maintain the environmental quality. Little information is available on Se adsorption in highly weathered tropical soils, and there are few numerical parameters that can be used as references to aid on adoption management strategies in contaminated areas. Increasing amounts of Se (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg L-1, added as Na2SeO3, were equilibrated with samples of ten Brazilian Oxisols [three Typic Hapludoxes (TH-1, TH-2 and TH-3, two Rhodic Eutrudoxes (RE-1 and RE-2, two Xanthic Hapludoxes (XH-1 and XH-2, one Rhodic Hapludox (RH, one Rhodic Acrudox (RA and one Anionic Acrudox (AA]. Adsorption isotherms were obtained and the experimental results fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir equation fitted better to the experimental data than the Freundlich model. All isotherms had an L-type (exponential shape, except for TH-1 and TH-2, which had a C-type (linear shape. Selenium Ads max varied between 135 mg kg-1 (TH-3 and 2.245 mg kg-1 (XH-1 and the affinity constant (K L varied from 0.002 (TH-2 to 0.326 L kg-1 (TH-3. Affinity constant (Kf values between 13.7 (TH-2 and 180.1 L kg-1 (AA were obtained from the Freundlich model. A high Se retention potential was observed on RH and on acric Oxisols (AA and RA, while qualitative parameters indicated RE-2, RH, TH-3 and RA as Oxisols with high Se affinity. No correlations were observed between soil attributes and Langmuir parameters. The Freundlich coefficient (Kf correlated with clay content (r = 0.42* and with anion exchange capacity (AEC (r = 0.64*.

  6. (Electro-biorremediación de suelos contaminados con diésel)

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Ramírez, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    Soil pollution is a topic of the major significance all around the World. This environmental problem has increased in the last two centuries, because the Industrial Revolution marked the starting point for the development and intensification of the different industrial activities. Many of them involves the manipulation of multitude substances, hazardous for the environment and, consequently, also for the human health. Among the most widely extended pollutants, heavy metals, fossil fuels and p...

  7. Efek Kombinasi Ekstrak Anamirta cocculus dan Artemisin terhadap Penurunan Jumlah Sel Apoptosis Jaringan Paru Mencit Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Plasmodium in erythrocytes will induce immune responses, including the production of free radicals which can lead to lung tissue cells damage. Combination therapy of Anamirta cocculus extract and artemisin is expected to prevent complications caused by free radicals produced by immune cells and artemisin. This experimental study which using post test control group design only was done in Laboratory of Parasitology and Biomedic Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University on June–October 2010 to prove the effect of combination therapy of A. cocculus extract and artemisin towards the number of apoptotic lung tissue cells of Balb/C mice infected by Plasmodium berghei. Mice were divided into 6 groups, the first normal Balb/C mice, the second mice infected by P. berghei without treatment, the third mice infected by P. berghei and treated with artemisin 0.04 mg/g BW, and 3 combination contains mice infected by P. berghei and treated with a combination of artemisin 0.04 mg/ gBW and A.cocculus extract 0.01 mg/gBW, 0.1 mg/gBW, 1 mg/ gBW respectively. The apoptotic cells of lung tissue were counted from the expression of caspase-3 in immunohistochemical staining. In day 3 combination A. cocculus extract dose 0.01 mg/gBW, 0.1 mg/gBW, 1 mg/ gBW and artemisin reduced the number of apoptotic cells significantly compared to the artemisin monotherapy (p=0.00, 0.026, 0.000. There was a positive corelation between the length of treatment and the expression of caspase-3 (p=0.013 on group that treated with combination of A. cocculus extract 0.01 mg/gBW and artemisin 0,04 mg/gBB. In conclusion, the short treatment of combination A. cocculus extract and artemisin has a better effect than artemisin monotherapy in decreasing number of apoptotic lung tissue cells.

  8. Tootjad prognoosivad sel aastal suvetoodetele 30% müügikasvu / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Rakvere Lihatööstuse, AS-i Wõro Kommerts, Valga Lihatööstuse ning AS-i Tallegg müügiprognoosid. Kommenteerib Kristel Kindsigo. Lisa: Suurimat kasvu ootab Filee LT. Vt. samas: Kanaliha tarbimine on kahekordistunud

  9. 6 näitust, mida sel kuul vaadata / Kristel Schwede

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schwede, Kristel, 1963-

    2016-01-01

    Kärt Ojavee ja Johanna Ulfsaki "Live Streams" HOP galeriis, Juhan Kuusi "Inimlikkuse mõõt. 45 aastat dokumentaalfotograafiat Lõuna-Aafrikas" Adamson-Ericu muuseumis, Vilniuse Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuse nüüdiskunsti näitus "Südamepekslemine" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja selle galeriides, "Tunne Eesti disaini" Tartu Kunstimuuseumis, Valli Lember-Bogatkina mälestusnäitus Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus, Juta Soans-Laanpere ja Jana Soansi "Meelerahu" Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus

  10. Kultuuripealinn kutsub sel nädalal tundmatuid katuseid käima / Heidi Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukk, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Tallinn 2011 ootussarja "52 üllatust ja ideed" raames 12. ja 13. augustil toimuvast projektist "Katustele", mille eestvedajateks on Eesti Kunstiakadeemia üliõpilased Helen Melesk ja Hello Upan. Järgmisena on kavas tantsu- ja laululine performance Anneli Leinbergi juhendamisel ja Tallinna merepiiri kasutule olekule pühendatud kunstiprojekt "Bassein"

  11. Sõrve metsakorraldus Saaremaal = Die Forsteinrichtung Sworbes (Sõrve) in Ösel (Saaremaa) / Toivo Meikar ; EPMÜ metsandusteaduskond

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meikar, Toivo, 1947-

    1998-01-01

    Lisatud: Protokoll Sõrve riigimetsades rakendatud metsakorralduse ja metsakasutuses kehtestavate määruste kohta (koostatud aastal 1796), lk. 25-35 ; Protocoll über die in den publ[iken]Sworbeschen Wäldern getroffene Forst-Einrichtungen und die zur Forst-Nutzung festzusetzende Anordnungen (geführt im Jahre 1796)

  12. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  13. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN Rhizopora mucronata TERHADAP SEL MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Diastuti

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove plant have been long used the people for traditional medicine to cure various diseases, one of them to cancer therapy. Investigation the anticancer potent of R. mucronata has not been carried yet. This research was aimed to toxicity test of R. mucronta leaves extracts againts Artemia salina Leach, then cytotoxicity test of R. mucronata leave extracts againts Myeloma cancer cells. The extraction of R. mucronata leaves was peformed by maseration with ethanol. The ethanol extracts was partitioned with chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol. The ethanol extracts of R. mucronata leaves respectively was examined their toxicity againts A. salina Leach larv. The toxic exctracts was examined their citotoxicity againts Myeloma cells. The ethanol extract of R. mucronata leaves has toxic character because has LC50 < 1000 mg/mL. Citotoxicity test againts Myeloma cells showed that the chloroform fraction of ethanol extract of R. mucronata leaves have a high activity against Myeloma cell, LC50 value equal to 28,72 mg/mL. Phytochemical study showed that the active fractions contained terpenoid and alkaloid.

  14. Kus on võimalik õppida raamatute kirjastamist? / Gerli Köösel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Köösel, Gerli

    2016-01-01

    Artikli autor kaitses Tallinna Ülikooli digitehnoloogiate instituudis seminaritöö "Raamatukirjastamises vajalike pädevuste omandamise võimalused Eestis". Vaatluse all oli nelja Eesti kõrgkooli kümme õppekava

  15. Fenomen nimega Laibach - sel korral Bachi fuugasid ette kandmas / Helen Sildna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildna, Helen

    2009-01-01

    17. veebruaril Tallinnas Rock Cafes esinevast Sloveenia ansamblist, kes esineb J.S. Bachi fuugadel põhineva eksperimentaalteosega "LaibachKunstDerFuge"; kommenteerinud Tõnu Kaalep, Anders Melts, Mart Kalvet

  16. Peran p53 Sebagai Jalur Kritis pada Mekanisme Kontrol Siklus Sel Sebagai Pencegah Terjadinya Kanker Mulut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlia Nur Istindiah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In cell cycle control, p53 acts as an emergency brake, where its important checkpoint function is to maintain the genome integrity by preventing the formation and proliferation of mutant cells. P53 activity is increased by DNA damage occurs caused by agents (such as radioation, UV light or drugs or oncogenes. Mdm2 protein can inhibit the p53 activation, but oncogenes can inhibit Mdm2 or activate p53. If DNA damage occurs, then p53 prevents the cells from replicating their DNA by arresting the cell cycle, so that the cells can repair the damage. Alternatively, p53 instructs the cells to undergo apoptosis by inducing bax gene expression, so that irregular cell growth, and cancer can be avoided. Cancer, including oral cancer, oftenthuolved cells with altered p53. Exogenous factors, such as tobacco and alcohol, presumably plays a role in triggering p53 mutations. Several techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and PCR can be used to investigation their etiology and development of oral cancer. The results hopefully be applied clinically in early detection, prevention and prediction of cancer. This paper discusses the role on p53 in preventing the occurrence and proliferation of mutated cells that lead to cancer, including oral cancer.

  17. Loomad räägivad sel korral eesti keeles / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    Arvutiga animeeritud USA koguperefilmist "Madagaskar 2" (Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa), mis jõuab Eesti kinodesse erinevalt filmisarja esimesest osast eesti keelde dubleerituna (loomtegelastele on oma hääle laenanud Karol Kuntsel, Andero Ermel, Evelin Pang, Mait Malmsten, Raivo E. Tamm, Andrus Vaarik jt)

  18. Sel'skie rajony Kaliningradskoj oblasti (ocenka social'nogo blagopoluchija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova E. A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the social wellbeing of rural municipalities of the Kaliningrad region. The degree of social wellbeing is assessed on the basis of an analysis of statistical data and expert evaluations. Rural districts were identified in the Kaliningrad region on the basis of the following criteria: the share of population residing in the rural areas (threshold value of 50 %; the share of non-residential areas (threshold value of 75 %, the share of agricultural lands (threshold value of 50 %. Further analysis was based on the indices of geodemographic situation, investment potential, and production development. Rural municipalities were ranked according to these indices. The study showed that the best performing area are the suburban districts of Guryevsk and Bagrationovsk and the agricultural districts of Nesterov and Pravdinsk, whereas the worst performing ones are those of Gvardeisk, Krasnoznamensk, Ozersk, and Chernykhovsk. A comparison with the other constituent entities of the Northwestern federal district proved that the level of social wellbeing of Kaliningrad rural municipalities is rather high and most of them have made the transition from depression to sustainable development.

  19. Biorremediación acelerada de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos tipo diésel

    OpenAIRE

    Moliterni Merlo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    La biorremediación es una tecnología biológica para la descontaminación de suelos basada en la conversión o metabolización de los contaminantes por microorganismos; es decir, requiere una cepa o consorcio microbiano eficiente que degrade la mayor cantidad de contaminante hasta un nivel mínimo. Los procesos de biorremediación de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos (HC) pueden desarrollarse mediante un gran abanico de estrategias. Este hecho permite acoplarse a distintos episodios de contamin...

  20. Enhanced Cancer Cell (HeLa Killing Efficacy of Mixed Αlpha and Gamma Iron Oxide Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles under Combined AC (Alternating Current Magnetic-Field and Photoexcitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shariful Islam, Yoshihumi Kusumoto, Md. Abdulla Al-Mamun and Yuji Horie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized mixed α and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and investigated their toxic effects against HeLa cells under induced AC (alternating current magnetic-fields and photoexcited conditions at room temperature. The findings revealed that the cell-killing percentage was increased with increasing dose for all types of treatments. Finally, 99% cancer cells were destructed at 1.2 mL dose when exposed to combined AC magnetic-field and photoexcited conditions (T3 whereas 89 and 83 % of HeLa cells were killed under only AC magnetic-field induced (T1 or only photoexcited (T2 condition at the same dose.ABSTRAK: Campuran α dan zarah γ-Fe2O3 bersaiz nano disintesiskan dan kesan toksidnya terhadap sel HeLa dikaji dibawah aruhan medan magnet arus ulang-alik (alternating current (AC dan keadaan photoexcited (proses ransangan atom atau molekul suatu bahan dengan penyerapan tenaga sinaran pada suhu bilik. Penemuan mendedahkan bahawa peratusan sel yang musnah bertambah dengan pertambahan dos untuk semua jenis rawatan. Akhirnya, 99% sel kanser dimusnahkan pada kadar dos 1.2mL setelah didedahkan terhadap kombinasi medan magnet AC dan keadaan photoexcited (T3 dimana 89% dan 83% sel HeLa dimusnahkan dengan hanya di bawah aruhan medan magnet AC (T1 atau hanya pada keadaan photoexcited (T2 pada kadar dos yang sama.KEY WORDS : Cancer, Hyperthermia, Iron oxide nanoparticles, Heat dissipation,    Cytotoxicity, HeLa cell.

  1. OPTIMALISASI FERMENTOR UNTUK PRODUKSI ETANOL DAN ANALISIS HASIL FERMENTASI MENGGUNAKAN GAS CHROMATOGRAFI

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    Muhammad Khak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Produksi etanol dilakukan dengan beberapa perlakuan antara lain pengenceran larutan stok menjadi 4 variasi konsentrasi, penambahan nutrisi, pengaturan pH, sterilisasi bahan, pendinginan, penambahan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengoptimalisasi pemanfaatan fermentor dan Gas Chromatography untuk fermentasi etanol dan analisis hasilnya. Fermentasi dilakukan selama 96 jam dan pengambilan sampel dilakukan setiap 24 jam. Pengujian hasil fermentasi dilakukan dengan cara melakukan uji kadar alkohol metode conway, uji kadar alkohol metode GC setelah dilakukan pemekatan 5 kali dengan cara destilasi, uji gula dengan metode DNS untuk mengetahui sisa gula yang digunakan dalam fermentasi, uji TPC dan kekeruhan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan sel Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hasil uji dibuat grafik dan dianalisis menggunakan SPSS untuk mengetahui penambahan kadar alkohol tiap jam fermentasi, untuk mengetahui apakah data dianggap linier secara statistik dan untuk mengetahui berapa waktu optimal produksi etanol dengan kadar tertinggi. Hasil menunjukkan waktu optimal pemanfaatan fermentor adalah 72 jam dengan kemurnian etanol tertinggi 43,44%.

  2. UJI EFEKTIVITAS THEMEPHOS TERHADAP LARVA AEDES AEGYPTI PADA BERBAGAI SUMBER AIR DAN JENIS BAHAN TEMPAT PENAMPUNGAN AIR

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    Jarohman Raharjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Larvaside usage (themephos/abate in eradication vector program is often conducted because assumed safe, easy, and cheap. Temephos mechanism is removing mobile ingredient inch by inch and sticking to pore-wall pore half in from water relocation place. Various watch fulness has been done to test effectiveness larvasida in various treatment condition Research was conducted in February-September 2006 in Loka Litbang P2B2 Banjarnegara. This research was an elementary research with observational design. Result of observation showed that themephos/abate was still effective to kill larva aedes aegypti with death percentage 95-100% in each container and water source.

  3. STUDI PERBANDINGAN PERLAKUAN BAHAN BAKU DAN METODE DISTILASI TERHADAP RENDEMEN DAN KUALITAS MINYAK ATSIRI SEREH DAPUR (Cymbopogon citratus)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia is rich in plant biodiversity. Indonesia volatile oil development efforts through increased development of one plant of lemon grass, which is one of the essential oil producing plants known as Cymbopogon citratus. Lemongrass essential oil in the chemical industry used as raw materials in the manufacture of cosmetics, perfume, deodorant, deodorant soap, floor cleaners and detergents.The purpose of this study was to determine the highest yield of lemongrass essential oil distillation ...

  4. Efektivitas Isolat Bakteri Yang Berasal Dari Berbagai Rhizosfer dan Bahan Organik Terhadap Patogen Penyakit Layu Secara In vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik; Baharuddin; Sukmawati

    2013-01-01

    As the new regional development of potato, Tana Toraja District has the different climate, and types of soil compared with other regions. Rhizosphere is an ideal area for growth and development of microbial antagonists, caused of rhizosphere function as providers of nutrition. Some nutrients that secreted in the rhizosphere are influenced by many environmental factors. Based on these facts, the research were aimed to explore the diversity of bacteria from the rhizosphere of plants and organ...

  5. Penelitian pemanfaatan Minarex-B yang merupakan hasil samping pengilangan minyak sebagai bahan pemlastis sekunder dalam pembuatan kulit imitasi PVC

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    Sri Nadilah

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Application research of Minarex B type 2 and 3 as secondary plasticizer material in making PVC imitation leather is carried out through some stages, i.e. : 1. Making imitation leather sheet, 2. Physical testing of PVC imitation leather sheet, 3. Data analyzing from physical testing result. In making PVC compound for imitation leather lining is used to kinds of formulation, i.e : formula I (standard, without Minarex B, and formula II (with Minarex B. PVC imitation leather in this research consists of plastic lining and fabric lining, plastic lining consist of three linings, i.e : top coat, middle coat and base coat. Total Minarex B applicated is varieted, i.e : 4 part, 5 part and 6 part from subtitution result total DOP in PVC compound formulation. Physical testing data is evaluated to determine total and type of optimal Minarex B, so that it can be taken the conclusion that Minarex B can be used/applicated as secondary plasticize material in making PVC imitation leather with optimum limit 4 part. Optimum result Minarex B type 2 is not significance different from type 3.

  6. Kandungan Mikrob Daging Kelelawar yang Diolah sebagai Bahan Pangan Tradisional MICROBIAL CONTENT IN THE PROCESSED MEAT BATS AS TRADITIONAL FOOD

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    Tiltje Andretha Ransaleleh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the microbial characteristics of bats meat which were cooked askari and rica-rica, and were stored up to 14 days.The study was divided into two stages, the first stage usedthree types of bat meat that were cooked as rica-rica and kari 14 days after being stored in the refrigerator.The second stage used meat of a species of bat that was cooked as rica-rica and kari a few hours afterslaughtering. The result of the meat analysis at the 1st showd that thetotal count of microbials i.e;Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliform, and Salmonella sp from three species of bats that werecooked rica-rica  and  kari  were above the maximum limit of microbial contaminant occording to BSN(2009. The analysed made on the rica-rica showed that bat meat rica-rica stored up to 14 days containedtotal microbial count of 3,1 x 104 - 6,0 x 104Cfu/mL, Staphylococcus aureus 7,7 x 101- 7,6 x 103 Cfu / mL,Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp was negative. The total microbial count  of bat meat kari was  6,8 x 105-9,7 x 105Cfu/mL,  Staphylococcus aureus  was 4,3 x 101-1 x 104 Cfu /mL.  Escherichia  coli <3 / mL, andSalmonella sp was negative. Based on the result abtained, it was concluded that the bat meat rica-ricaand kari which were cooked in a few hours after cutting and stored until 14 days were suitable for humanconsumption.

  7. Analisa Keasaman dan Total Bakteri Asam Laktat Yogurt Akibat Bahan Baku dan Persentase Lactobacillus casei yang Berbeda

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    Yusdar Zakaria

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyze of acidity and amount of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt made from different milk types and lactobacillus casei percentage ABSTRACT. The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of milk types and percentages of Lactobacillus casei as a starter to the amount of Lactic Acid Bacteria in yogurt and its pH value and Lactic Acid value.  Factorial Completely Randomized Design with two factors and three replications was applied.  The A factor was the milk types that were a1 = Powder Milk, a2 = Fresh Milk and a3 = UHT milk.  The B factor was the percentages of Lactobacillus casei  (b1 = 5% and b2 = 10%.  Parameters observed were the level of lactic acid, the pH value of yogurt and the amount of lactic acid bacteria.  The result showed  significantly difference (P<0.01 from the use of milk types and Lactobacillus casei percentages on the lactic acid level, and there are no interaction between factors.  There was also significant different (P<0.01 showed from pH value and an interaction between both factors was presented.  In addition there was significant difference (P<0.05 showed by the amount of lactic acid bacteria, and an interaction between both factors was also existed.  The research concluded that the higher the percentage of starter, the higher the level of lactic acid and the amount of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt that made from all milk types.  On the contrary, the higher the percentage of starter, the lower the pH value of yogurt.

  8. DERMATITIS KONTAK PADA PEKERJA YANG TERPAJAN DENGAN BAHAN KIMIA DI PERUSAHAAN INDUSTRI OTOMOTIF KAWASAN INDUSTRI CIBITUNG JAWA BARAT

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    L. Meily Kurniawidjaja

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors Related to Occupational Contact Dermatitis on Workers Exposed to Chemicals used at Industrial Automotive Company. Occupational contact dermatitis is one of skin disease in industrial settings which may reduce worker productivities. The occupational contact dermatitis occurs when workers are come into contact with chemicals at part of the worker’s body. This chemical contact could lead to an occupational contact dermatitis. The objective of this research is to investigate factors related to the occupational contact dermatitis at the worker who come into contact with chemicals used in industrial automotive company in Indonesia, Cibitung Jawa Barat. The study design is a descriptive research. The research subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling, and the total subjects were 54 person. The data were collected based on physical examination by a medical doctor, and the research questionnaire. Result from this study indicated that 74% (40 workers experience dermatitis contact: acute dermatitis contact 26% (14 workers, sub acute 39% (21 workers, and chronic 9% (5 workers. Furthermore, data analysis using a multivariate statistical analysis indicated that there are three major factors related to the occurence of contact dermatitis: duration of contact, frequency of contact and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE particularly gloves. In conclusion, incidence rate of occupational dermatitis contact at industrial setting is 65%/100 worker, and prevalence rate of occupational dermatitis contact at industrial setting is 74%/100 worker. In order to minimize the occupational contact dermatitis it is recommended to raise the workers awareness, the correct type of gloves used specifically to the type of chemicals, as well as improving the workers knowledge.

  9. KARAKTERISASI GAMBUT DENGAN BERBAGAI BAHAN AMELIORAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA GUNA MENDUKUNG PRODUKTIVITAS LAHAN GAMBUT

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Sasli

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain information about physical and chemical characteristics of the peat due to addition of ash ameliorant with different dosage to get the best growth media. Ameliorant materials are litter ash / vegetation result of peatlands clearance, rice husk ash and palm bunch ash. This study used split plot design consists of two factors, ameliorant factor (A) as main plots, with 4 levels (a1 = litter ash / vegetation result of peatlands clearance, a2 = rice husk ash, a3 = trapal...

  10. KARAKTERISASI GAMBUT DENGAN BERBAGAI BAHAN AMELIORAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA GUNA MENDUKUNG PRODUKTIVITAS LAHAN GAMBUT

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    Iwan Sasli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain information about physical and chemical characteristics of the peat due to addition of ash ameliorant with different dosage to get the best growth media. Ameliorant materials are litter ash / vegetation result of peatlands clearance, rice husk ash and palm bunch ash. This study used split plot design consists of two factors, ameliorant factor (A as main plots, with 4 levels (a1 = litter ash / vegetation result of peatlands clearance, a2 = rice husk ash, a3 = trapalm bunch ash, and ameliorant dose (D with 5 levels (d0 = no ameliorant / control, d1 = 50 g ameliorant, d2 = 100 g ameliorant, d3 = 150 g ameliorant, D4 = 200 g ameliorant / tube of peat, treatment was repeated three times and consisted of two samples, so there are 90 units of treatment. Observations were done on the weight of the content (bulk density, density of type (particle density, total soil pore space, nutrient levels of N-total, P, K, Mg, and pH of soil. The results showed that the addition of ameliorant material significantly improve the availability of P, K, Mg, and pH of the soil, but decrease N concentration of peat. Peat soil treated palm bunch ash has a greater density lindak with total soil pore space smaller than the peat treated litter ash/ vegetation peat and rice husk ash.

  11. Pembuatan Bahan Bakar Biodisel dari Minyak Jarak; Pengaruh Suhu dan Konsentrasi KOH pada Reaksi Transesterifikasi Berbasis Katalis Basa

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    RAGIL SARYOSO

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Making biodiesel from jatropha oil have been made through transesteri-fication reaction. This study aims to determine the optimum catalyst temperature and KOH concentration on the transesterification reaction of castor oil to produce a product with maximum unsaturated fatty acid content; as well as to study the properties of jatropha oil ester based diesel fuel specifications. Transesterification was performed by reaction of jatropha oil and methanol in ratio of 1: 2 for 2 hours according to variations in temperature and KOH concentration. Temperature variations performed at room temperature, 55°C, and 65°C. KOH variations performed at concentration of 0.2 g, 0.3 g, 0.4 g, 0.5 g, 0.6 g, 0.7 g, 0.8 g and 0.9 g. The research indicated that jatropha oil saponification number was 180.455. Analysis by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS were obtained oleic methyl ester (Rt 15.45 min and SI 88, linoleic acid methyl ester (Rt 13.250 min and SI 89, 11-octadecanoic methyl ester (Rt 13.333 min and 94 SI and risinoleic methyl ester (Rt 11.383 min and SI 91 as dominant unsaturated fatty acid ester in jatropha oil. Transesterification reaction of jatropha oil in methanol have maximum unsaturated fatty acid content at temperature of 65oC and optimum catalyst concentration of KOH at 0.178 M (0.4 g. Analysis using the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM method generated pour point value was 8oF, kinematic viscosity was 16.324 cSt, water content was 0.015 %vol, conradson carbon residue was 0.204 %wt. The properties are very closely to diesel oil specifications that can be used as biodiesel.

  12. PENGERTING SUHU RENDAH UNTUK MENJAGA MUTU BAHAN PERTANIAN [Low Temperature Drying to Maintain the Quality of Agricultural Products

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    R Sarwono

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Drying equipment is an important unit operation in industrial processes. Reducing moisture content in order to prolog the storage time is very commonly used. There are many agricultural product which are very heat sensitive. To maintain the essential ingredient in those product, drying process should be applied at low temperature drying process gave lower drying rate, is time consuming and in general costly. Increasing drying rate by reducing the absolute humidity is this recommended. There are many ways to dry the air, firstly moisture is condensed in evaporator and then dried air is heated in condenser. Is conducted if the drying system in connected with heat pump system. Secondly, moisture is absorbed by hygroscopic materials such as CaO. Water absorbed and reacted with CaO become Ca(OH2 in exothermic reaction, and simultaneously dried air is heated.

  13. Penelitian pengaruh variasi bahan pelunak naphtenic oil terhadap sifat fisis tegangan putus dan perpanjangan putus kompon karet untuk alas sapi

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    Luciawati Sunarjo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know influence of plasticizer naphtenic oil to the physical properties of tensile strength and elongation at break of rubber compound for cowmats. It makes from Rubber Smoke Sheet (RSS and Styrene Butadiene Rubber 1502 (SBR as raw material with addition ingredients are Calcium Carbonate, FEF black, Stearic Acid, Zinc Oxide, Plasticizer Naphtenic Oil, Paraffine Wax, TMT, CBS, AOSP and Sulphur as Vulcanizing agent. Rubber compound for cowmats, formed to slab by hydraulic press at 1500C and 150 Kg/cm2. Than tested tensile strength and elongation at break. The result of this research indicated that platicizer naphtenic oil (x and tensile strength have regression equation as Y1 = 24.168 – 0.634 X (r = 0.87, while naphtenic oil and elongation at break have regression equation as Y2 = 236.32 + 21 X (r = 0.88.

  14. Evaluasi Pemberian Bahan Allograft dan Alloplast pada Penderita Periodontitis Agresif Menyeluruh dengan Genotipe Positif Alel 2 (+3954 Interleukin-1 Beta

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    Andrena Andrena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized aggressive periodontitis is a disease or a disorder of periodontium that occurs in people below 30 years old. These patients usually have several immune response disorders, such as defects in chemotaxis, phagocytic of neturophils and monocytes, and genetic defect. Clinically, there are generalized losses of tissue attachment with extensive, rapid and progressive alveolar bone resorption. In order to repair bone destruction, treatment that produce bone regeneration is needed, i.e. full thickness flap with bone grafting. In these cases, allograft and alloplast bone grafts were used. Allograft is derived from subjects within the same species but different individuals, whereas alloplast is foreign body embedded into the tissue (e.g. hydroxylapatite. In this report, pocket depth, papillae bleeding index (PBI, and clinical attachment were evaluated. Six month after surgery and bone grafting, there were + 4 mm decrease of pocket depths, bleeding on probing index and 3-4 mm increase of clinical attachment. Unstimulated wholes saliva were also collected for DNA isolation. The IL-1beta(+3954 genotypes were performed by Polymerase chain reaction, digested with TagI restriction enzyme and separated by gel electrophoresis. Results showed both patients bearing allele 2 homozygous of IL-1B+3954 genotype. This genotype has been identified as the one of immunogenetic factor that could affect the severity of periodontal disease. Successful treatment depends on the adequacy of oral hygiene. Patients were advised to maintain optimal oral hygiene and to do periodic check every 2-3 months.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.70

  15. Perbedaan khasiat antibakteri bahan irigasi antara hidrogen peroksida 3% dan infusum daun Sirih 20% terhadap bakteri mix

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    Dian Agustin W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle folium was Indonesian’s traditional medicinal herb. The most important element in its was phenol with has antibacterial effect. H2O2 3% was commonly used because readily available, can lift up debris from root canal preparation. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of two solutions: hydrogen peroxide 3% and piper betle folium infusum 20% to bacterial mix invitro. The twenty specimens are divided into two groups. The result is statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon man whitney test. This study showed that piper betle folium infusum 20% had greater antibacterial effect than H2O2 3% solution.

  16. HASIL ANALISIS VITAMIN A DAN β-KAROTEN BAHAN MAKANAN SUMBER VITAMIN A DAN KAROTEN DENGAN METODE HPLC

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    Yuniar Rosmalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis vitamin A DAN β-Karoten terhadap beberapa jenis pangan dengan menggunakan metode HPLC. Analisis dilakukan terhadap 9 jenis serealia dan umbi-umbian, 3 jenis kacang-kacangan, 40 jenis sayuran, 11 jenis daging dan hasilnya, 7 jenis telur dan hasilnya, 8 jenis ikan, 12 jenis buah-buahaan, dan 7 jenis kelompok lain-lain. Hasilnya menunjukkan sumber β-Karoten yang tinggi pada kelompok serealia dan umbi-umbian adalah umbi jalar, pada kelompok sayuran adalah daun katuk, daun pepaya, daun singkong, daun melinjo, daun talas dan daun sintrong, pada kelompok telur adalah telur bebek, pada kelompok buah-buahan adalah mangga golek dan mangga gedong. Sedangkan kelompok kacang-kacangan dan kelompok daging kandungan β-Karotennya rendah. Hati ayam, hati bebek, dan hati kambing merupakan sumber vitamin A yang tinggi, sedangkan pada kelompok ikan didapati ikan lele mempunyai kandungan vitamin A yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan jenis ikan lainnya.

  17. HASIL ANALISIS VITAMIN A DAN β-KAROTEN BAHAN MAKANAN SUMBER VITAMIN A DAN KAROTEN DENGAN METODE HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniar Rosmalina; Dewi Permaesih

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisis vitamin A DAN β-Karoten terhadap beberapa jenis pangan dengan menggunakan metode HPLC. Analisis dilakukan terhadap 9 jenis serealia dan umbi-umbian, 3 jenis kacang-kacangan, 40 jenis sayuran, 11 jenis daging dan hasilnya, 7 jenis telur dan hasilnya, 8 jenis ikan, 12 jenis buah-buahaan, dan 7 jenis kelompok lain-lain. Hasilnya menunjukkan sumber β-Karoten yang tinggi pada kelompok serealia dan umbi-umbian adalah umbi jalar, pada kelompok sayuran adalah daun katuk, daun...

  18. Perbedaan Perubahan Dimensi pada Gipsum Tipe III Komersial Dengan Gipsum Tipe III Daur Ulang Sebagai Bahan Model Kerja Gigitiruan

    OpenAIRE

    Hutasoit, Sri Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Gipsum dalam kedokteran gigi dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi lima tipe sesuai dengan spesifikasi ADA (American Dental Association) No. 25 yaitu tipe I Impression Plaster, tipe II Model Plaster, tipe III Dental Stone, tipe IV Die Stone: High Strength, dan tipe V Die Stone: High Strength, High Expansion.6,7 Pada dasarnya semua jenis gipsum yang digunakan memiliki senyawa dasar yang sama yaitu kalsium sulfat hemihidrat (CaSO4.½ H2O) yang membedakannya adalah metode yang dilakuka...

  19. ANALISIS TREN PENELITIAN PANGAN FUNGSIONAL: KATEGORI BAHAN SERAT PANGAN [Functional Food Research Trend Analysis: Dietary Fiber Category

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    Diah Anggraeni Jatraningrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional food, such as probiotic, prebiotic, dietary fiber, vitamin, flavonoid etc, is one of the convergent products between foods and pharmaceutical industry. Dietary fiber, as a part of functional food, is showing a rapid increment in publications and patents. This review will try to give more information about the current advancement in dietary fiber research in Indonesia versus global research trend and also to compare patentability of research in dietary fiber. There are five technology in dietary fiber that will be highlighted; formulation-process-fortification, extraction-isolation-purification, fermentation, metabolic and biotechnology. Research evaluation between dietary fiber research data in the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI and global publications and patents show that dietary fiber have chance to be developed become new product with a convergent category in functional food. Dietary fiber with probiotic or prebiotic for is as an example.

  20. Pemanfaatan limbah kulit singkong termodifikasi alkanolamida sebagai bahan pengisi dalam produk lateks karet alam: Pengaruh waktu vulkanisasi

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    Hamidah Harahap

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of drying time on the mechanical properties of natural rubber latex filled with cassava peel waste modified alkanolamide. Cassava peel is a waste, containing cellulose which is potential as fillers in natural rubber latex products. Cassava peel waste was dried and milled until the size of 100 mesh. Alkanolamide is one type of non-ionic surfactant which is synthesized from RBDPS (Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin and diethanolamine. Alkanolamide has polar group which can modified cassava peel waste and make strong chemical bonding with natural rubber latex. The production of natural rubber latex products was started from pre-vulcanization at 70°C until the system was cured and the chloroform number has reached number 3. Natural rubber latex was formed into films by coagulant dipping and drying method at 120°C for 10 minutes and 20 minutes. Results show that longer drying time will improve the crosslink density and tensile strength of natural rubber latex products until the addition of 15 phr cassava peel waste powder

  1. FORMULASI PASTA GIGI INFUSA DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajavaLinn. DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI Na. CMC SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGIKAT

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    Nur Sa’adah Daud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaves (Psidium guajava Linn. has been shown inhibiting effect against dental caries causing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. In order to facilitate its activity in overcoming dental caries,formulation into dosage toothpaste was needed. The purpose of this study was to formulate toothpaste from infuse of guava leaves with variations concentration of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulosa as a binder to obtain the best toothpaste formula. The concentration of infuse of guava leaves was 5% and 4%, 6% and 8%for Sodium carbxymethylcellulose respectively for formula each formula. Other additives have been used, they were calcium carbonate, glycerin, sodium lauryl sulfate, α-tocopherol, propyl paraben, methyl paraben, Oleum Menthae Piperatae (OMP and distilled water.The results showed that three toothpaste formula from the organoleptic testwere white coloured, mint flavored with soft and lumpy of textur, with the mean of pH value of 6,9 to 8,3 were eligible, and the foam height value of 3,5 to 5,5 cm. Theviscosity values were increased with the increasing concentration ofSodium carbxymethylcellulose. While the preference test showedthat toothpaste formula C was the most preferred.

  2. Produk Fermentasi Rumen dan Produksi Protein Mikroba Sapi Lokal yang Diberi Pakan Jerami Amoniasi dan Beberapa Bahan Pakan Sumber Energi

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    Novita Hindratiningrum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Products of rumen fermentation and protein microbial of dairy cattle feed with rice bran ammonization and some feedstuffs as an energy sources ABSTRACT. This study aims to examine the energy sources of feed ingredients that can increase the production of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA, N-NH3, microbial protein synthesis, total gas production and metabolic energy. The material used is as a source of rumen fluid inoculum from Frisian Holstein cows (FH females, amoniasi rice straw, salt, mineral mix brand "Ultra Minerals' production Eka Farma Semarang, onggok wet and dry, corn, and rice bran. Observed variable is the concentration of (VFA, N-NH3, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and total gas production. Based on the analysis of diversity seen any significant effect (P0.05 on microbial protein synthesis. Conclusion of research is the provision of energy sources with rice bran treatment, onggok wet and dry corn flour can be used as fermentable carbohydrates on feed hay amoniasi in vitro.

  3. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KARET SILIKON TERHADAP SUDUT KONTAK HIDROPOBIK DAN KARAKTERISTIK ARUS BOCOR PERMUKAAN PADA BAHAN RESIN EPOKSI

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    Abdul Syakur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, polymer materials such as epoxy resin have been used as an insulator in the distribution andtransmission line. Some advantages of using this epoxy resin material having the dielectric properties are better thanporcelain and glass insulators. On the other side, epoxy resins are also disadvantage the surface is hygroscopic. Forthe repair was done by adding the surface properties of silicone rubber materialThis paper describes the effect of adding silicone rubber against contact angle of hidrophobicity and surfaceleakage current characteristics of epoxy resin materials ( Di-Glycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA andMethaphenylene-Diamine (MPDA. The study was conducted in the laboratory using the electrode method IEC587:1984 with NH4Cl contaminants. The voltage applied to the epoxy resin sample at 3.5 kV and 50 Hz frequencyThe experimental results showed that the addition of silicon rubber in epoxy resin makes the surface materialcontact angle increases. The higher percentage of silicone rubber, the greater the contact angle and the longer timerequired for the occurrence of surface discharge.

  4. Pemberian Tepung Daun Salam (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. dalam Ransum Sebagai Bahan Antibakteri Escherichia coli terhadap Organ Dalam Ayam Broiler

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    W. Hermana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the utilization of bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. in the diets as antibacterial agent and its effect on the weight viscera organ of broilers. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. One hundred and eighty birds of five week-old broiler were used in the present experiment, and thirty six birds were decapitated to measure the weight of viscera. On day four, experimental animals were divided into six group of treatments and were provided standard diet. The treatments were as follows, Escherichia coli (E.coli-uninfected broiler without bay leaf (R0/positive control goup, E. coli-infected broiler without bay leaf (R1/negative control group, R1 + 1% bay leaf (R2, R1 + 2% bay leaf (R3, R1 + 3% bay leaf (R4, and R1 + 0.02% tetracycline (R5. The results showed that weight percentage of liver, spleen, heart, pancrease, bile and intestine were not affected by the addition of 1, 2 and 3% bay leaf (R2,R3 and R4 as compared to those of R0, R1 and R5. However, gizzard percentage of broiler given 3% bay leaf (R4 increased (P<0.01 to the value same as that of R0 (2.31 vs 2.71%. The highly significant (P<0.01 increased in weight percentage of kidney was also found due to the treatments, and the increase was significant (P<0.05 when R5 compared to R2 and R4. The addition of 2% (R3 and 3% (R4 bay leaf and 0.02% tetracycline (R5, as compared to R0, R1 and R2, could depress the number of E. coli in the excreta. In conclusion, the addition of bay leaf up to 3% was able to minimize the number of E. coli in excreta without negatively affecting weight of viscera of broiler chickens.

  5. Penggunaan Poliester Amida Pada Bioplastik Protein Kedelai Dari Limbah Padat Industri Tahu dengan Gliserol sebagai Bahan Pemlastis

    OpenAIRE

    Novayanty, Rena

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research was to find out the characteristics bio-plastic film of soy protein – glycerol and bio-plastic film of soy protein– glycerol - polyester amide, and optimum comparison of soy protein – glycerol and polyester amide which are used in bio-plastic film from solid waste of tofu industry. The research includes the process of extraction of soy protein from tofu waste, the formation of bio-plastic film by using solution casting method with the variation of glycerol and ...

  6. Reologi, sifat aging, termal, dan swelling dari campuran EPDM/NR dengan bahan pengisi carbon black N220

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    Arum Yuniari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blends of EPDM and NR are immiscible in nature and incompatible. Introducing maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer into the blends was expected to produce compatible blends with balanced mechanical properties. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of EPDM/NR ratio on the rheological, aging, thermal and swelling properties of the blends. The variation of EPDM/NR ratio were 100/0, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, and 40/60 phr. The blends were mixed using two roll mill. The results showed that the addition of NR affects the maximum torque, scorch time, and optimum vulcanization time. In the blends, EPDM plays an important role in improving aging, swelling, thermal properties.

  7. Pengaruh Waktu Tinggal Dan Komposisi Bahan Baku Pada Proses Fermentasi Limbah Cair Industri Tahu Terhadap Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Siallagan, Nurmay Siska Rosilawati

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of tofu waste water industry raw material and retention time fermentation process in make biogas from tofu waste water industry. The main raw material in this research is tofu waste water industry (whey) and the used apparatus is biodigester (batch reactor) in volume of 14 liter. The research variable ratio of tofu waste water industry (without or after coagulation process by coagulant of tamarind) and water are 1:0, 1:0.25 and 1:0.5, fermentati...

  8. Pemodelan Lokasi-Alokasi Terminal Bahan Baku untuk Meminimasi Total Biaya Rantai Pasok pada Industri Produk Jadi Rotan

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    Yuniaristanto .

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Surakarta and its surroundings (Solo Raya, there exists more than 400 Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs that produce finished products of rattan. Due to the high procurement cost as total operational cost of raw rattan distribution network from the sources, e.g. Borneo and Celebes to the rattan industries, the competitiveness of their products is lower than products from other countries. Therefore, to overcome the problem, those costs should be reduced for example by aggregating the demand of rattan industries. This police needs to be supported by the warehouse for storing and distributing raw rattan. Hence, this research aims to develop a facility location-allocation model so that total supply chain costs, including raw rattan procurement costs as well as facilities opening and closing costs can be minimized. The location-allocation model will be presented in a mixed integer non-linear programming model and solved using MS-Excel Solver. The results are number and location of the warehouse along with the raw rattan allocation in the warehouse to ensure raw rattan supply for rattan industries.

  9. Penelitian pembuatan komponen PVC untuk bahan bangunan (enternit PVC dengan variasi filler serat batang pisang dan CaCO3

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    Siti Rochani

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is an experiment which use plastic material for making enternit. The plastic material is made of PVC resin 100 phr. by adding ingredients DOP 35 phr., EPO 5 phr., BaCdZn 3.5 phr., Stearic Acid 0.75 phr., CaCO3 varied 50-90 phr., and fibre of banana stem 20-40 phr. The experiment result proved that the PVC plastic material can made enternit sheet. The optimum value of physical properties is achiven by the PVC compound which using CaCO3 90 phr. and banana stem 40 phr.

  10. PERBAIKAN MUTU PRODUK GENTENG MELALUI PERBAIKAN BAHAN BAKU (Studi Kasus Di Perusahaan Genteng UD.Tanah Mas Jepara

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    Purnawan Adi W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available By there is complaint from a part of customer of Jepara roof tile user this time, that is about the product ofless good Jepara roof tile, like the roof tile is mossy easily, fragile, leaky, low compressive strength or it isbroken when it is trampling, the case is back grounded by the raw material and technology are not advanceyet and also process of making roof tile is less perfect.By neglecting available process and technology, the writers try to improve the quality product of Jepara rooftile through the improvement of raw material. By adding the sand to the raw material with composition ofweight comparison 10:1, 5:1, 3:1 (clay : sand and make an experiment directly by definite plasticity, dryand fire shrinkage, compressive strength, porosity and with analysis of variable cost calculation, so it can beconcluded that by adding sand to the raw material with weight comparison 5:1 (clay : sand, it is provenmost exactly in improve or increase the quality product of Jepara roof tile.

  11. JENIS - JENIS TUMBUHAN YANG DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PERAWATAN KECANTIKAN DI PURI DAMAI DESA SINGAKERTA, KECAMATAN UBUD, KABUPATEN GIANYAR

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    Anak Agung Istri Ratih Gayatri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has many variaties of plant which give a benefit for house, clath, meals,medicine even for beauty treatment. A beauty treatment made from chemical agent causing anegative effect, so searching for an alternative agent for beauty treatment without giving anegative side effect was needed. The goal of has research is to know find species of plants,methods of process also how to process the plants become a herbal beauty treatment agent atPuri Damai which located in Singakerta village, district of ubud, Gianyar region. They takedirect observation, description and identification methods. According to the result of theresearch were found 25 species, 19 suku of plants 3 euphorbiaceae, 2 asteraceae, 2araliaceae, 2 zingiberaceae, pandanaceae, asphodelaceae, poaceae, fabaceae, anonaceae,magnoliaceae, arecaceae, laminaceae, malvaceae, cactaceae, oleaceae, apocynaceae,agavaceae, melastomataceae, rutaceae. Hair vertilizer oil mostly was made from the leaf ofthe plant takes around 56% and for massage oil take the flowers around 53 %. The methodswas taken to produce hair vertilizer oil and ingredients was fried in 1 liter frying oil between6 – 8 hours long in little fire. Direction of use for hair vertilizer oil is rubbing the oil on thecalp and hair before is after washing the hair. The use of massage oil the oli to the body andgive a massage.Keywords : Etnobotany, Beauty treatment, Observation.

  12. Pengaruh Level HBA1C Terhadap Fungsi Fagositosis Neutrofil (PMN pada Penderita Periodontitis Diabetika

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    Ahmad Syaify

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Diabetes Melitus (DM merupakan penyakit sistemik yang sangat terkait dengan meningkatnya keparahan penyakit periodontal. Pada penderita DM diduga kuat bahwa keparahan periodontitis disebabkan oleh gangguan fungsi leukosit. Sel neutrofil (PMN diketahui berperan besar di dalam system pertahanan jaringan periodontal. Kontrol glikemik pada penderita DM dapat diketahui dengan pemeriksaan level HbA1c. Tujuan. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh level HbA1c pada penderita periodontitis diabetika terhadap fungsi fagositosis sel PMN. Bahan dan Cara. Sel PMN dari darah tepi 15 pasien periodontitis terdiri 5 periodontitis tana DM, 5 periodontitis diabetika terkontrol (HbA1c7 diuji aktivitas fagositosinya dengan partikel lateks. Fungsi fagositosis dihitung dengan rumus indeks fagositosis (IF. Hasil. Terdapat perbedaan significant IF sel PMN subyek periodontitis diabetika tidak terkontrol (HbA1c>7 dengan periodontitis non DM. IF tertinggi pada subyek periodontitis non DM dan tertinggi pada periodontitis diabetika tidak terkontrol (HbA1c>7. Kesimpulan. Level HbA1c berpengaruh terhadap fungsi fagositosis sel PMN yang dilihat dari indeks fagositosis (IF.    Background. Diabetes mellitus is a systemic condition that has long been associated with an increased and severity of periodontal disease. The severity of periodontitis in diabetic patients was thought caused by decreation of leukocytes function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN play a key role in the maintenance of gingival (HbA1c level. Aims. The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of HbA1C level to fagositosis index on diabetic periodontitis patients. Material and Methods. PMN were taken from peripheral blood of 15 periodontitis patients consisted of 5 subject with uncontrolled DM (HbA1c>7, 5 subject with controlled DM (HbA1c7 and periodontitis non diabetic subjects. The higest PI was on diabetic periodontitis with HbA1c level >7 and the lowest PI was on non

  13. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

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    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    -tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Pada masa sekarang, banyak dilakukan penelitian-penelitian untuk menemukan bahan-bahan alami yang dapat mendukung dan meningkatkan proses remodeling tulang untuk mengembangkan perawatan penyakit osteoporosis dan juga untuk mengembangkan penyembuhan tulang pasca trauma dan pasca pembedahan. Salah satu bahan alami yang banyak diteliti adalah ekstrak kedelai yang mengandung fitoestrogen, suatu senyawa non-steroid yang terdapat dalam tumbuhan, yang dapat berikatan dengan reseptor estrogen dan memiliki bioaktivitas yang sejenis dengan hormon estrogen. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti pengaruh ekstrak kedelai yang mengandung fitoestrogen terhadap jumlah sel osteoblas pada tulang alveolar pasca pencabutan gigi. Metode: Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tikus wistar jantan. Tujuh belas ekor tikus dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok sampel dalam penelitian ini. Kelompok sampel tersebut mendapatkan perlakuan yang berbeda-beda. Kelompok 1 dilakukan feeding larutan CMC 0,2% selama tujuh hari, kemudian dilakukan pencabutan satu gigi insisivus sentral kiri rahang bawah, kelompok 2 dilakukan feeding ekstrak kedelai selama tujuh hari, kemudian dilakukan pencabutan satu gigi insisivus sentral kiri rahang bawah, kelompok 3 kelompok yang dilakukan pencabutan satu gigi insisivus sentral kiri rahang bawah, kemudian diberikan feeding ekstrak kedelai selama tujuh hari pasca pencabutan gigi. Semua kelompok dikorbankan pada hari ketujuh pasca pencabutan gigi, dan soket bekas pencabutan gigi tersebut diambil untuk dibuat sediaan histopatologis. Jaringan tersebut diproses dan dilakukan pengecatan dengan hematoxylin and eosin untuk melihat sel osteoblas. Setiap preparat diperiksa di bawah mikroskop cahaya dan sel osteoblas dihitung dengan menggunakan program Image Tool. Data hasil penelitian kemudian dianalisa dengan uji statistik One-Way ANOVA. Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada jumlah sel osteoblas pada tulang alveolar pasca pencabutan gigi, antara

  14. GenBank blastx search result: AK058950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , psbK, tgt, sys, end3, pur6, dpdX, dxs, leu1, sek0003, sek0005, sek0006, sek0007, sek0008, sek0009, sek0010, sek0011, sek0012, sel...0013, sek0016, sel0017, sek0018, sel0019, sek0020, sek0022, sek0024, sek0025, sek0026, sek0027, sel...0028, sek0030, sek0031, sel0032, sel0033, sel0034, sel0035, sel0036, sel0037, sel...0039, sek0041, sek0043, sek0044, sek0045, psba-I gene, sek0047 and sel0048 (partial) genes.|BCT BCT 2e-44 +1 ...

  15. GenBank blastx search result: AK059522 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. GenBank blastx search result: AK061930 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , psbK, tgt, sys, end3, pur6, dpdX, dxs, leu1, sek0003, sek0005, sek0006, sek0007, sek0008, sek0009, sek0010, sek0011, sek0012, sel...0013, sek0016, sel0017, sek0018, sel0019, sek0020, sek0022, sek0024, sek0025, sek0026, sek0027, sel...0028, sek0030, sek0031, sel0032, sel0033, sel0034, sel0035, sel0036, sel0037, sel...0039, sek0041, sek0043, sek0044, sek0045, psba-I gene, sek0047 and sel0048 (partial) genes.|BCT BCT 5e-52 +2 ...

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK060074 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , psbK, tgt, sys, end3, pur6, dpdX, dxs, leu1, sek0003, sek0005, sek0006, sek0007, sek0008, sek0009, sek0010, sek0011, sek0012, sel...0013, sek0016, sel0017, sek0018, sel0019, sek0020, sek0022, sek0024, sek0025, sek0026, sek0027, sel...0028, sek0030, sek0031, sel0032, sel0033, sel0034, sel0035, sel0036, sel0037, sel...0039, sek0041, sek0043, sek0044, sek0045, psba-I gene, sek0047 and sel0048 (partial) genes.|BCT BCT 6e-22 +2 ...

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK061586 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , psbK, tgt, sys, end3, pur6, dpdX, dxs, leu1, sek0003, sek0005, sek0006, sek0007, sek0008, sek0009, sek0010, sek0011, sek0012, sel...0013, sek0016, sel0017, sek0018, sel0019, sek0020, sek0022, sek0024, sek0025, sek0026, sek0027, sel...0028, sek0030, sek0031, sel0032, sel0033, sel0034, sel0035, sel0036, sel0037, sel...0039, sek0041, sek0043, sek0044, sek0045, psba-I gene, sek0047 and sel0048 (partial) genes.|BCT BCT 9e-48 +2 ...

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK104851 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , psbK, tgt, sys, end3, pur6, dpdX, dxs, leu1, sek0003, sek0005, sek0006, sek0007, sek0008, sek0009, sek0010, sek0011, sek0012, sel...0013, sek0016, sel0017, sek0018, sel0019, sek0020, sek0022, sek0024, sek0025, sek0026, sek0027, sel...0028, sek0030, sek0031, sel0032, sel0033, sel0034, sel0035, sel0036, sel0037, sel...0039, sek0041, sek0043, sek0044, sek0045, psba-I gene, sek0047 and sel0048 (partial) genes.|BCT BCT 1e-148 +3 ...

  20. GenBank blastx search result: AK061863 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , psbK, tgt, sys, end3, pur6, dpdX, dxs, leu1, sek0003, sek0005, sek0006, sek0007, sek0008, sek0009, sek0010, sek0011, sek0012, sel...0013, sek0016, sel0017, sek0018, sel0019, sek0020, sek0022, sek0024, sek0025, sek0026, sek0027, sel...0028, sek0030, sek0031, sel0032, sel0033, sel0034, sel0035, sel0036, sel0037, sel...0039, sek0041, sek0043, sek0044, sek0045, psba-I gene, sek0047 and sel0048 (partial) genes.|BCT BCT 8e-18 +2 ...