WorldWideScience

Sample records for bags

  1. It's in the Bag!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen ideas for using paper bags for class art activities are given. Directions for making bag barracudas, bionic bags, bigfoot bags, bag sculptures, bag beads, and body bag superstars are included. (PP)

  2. Out of the Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Restricting the use of plastic shopping bags is China’s latest step to curb pollution While environment-conscious people identify themselves as non-users of plastic bags, Guo Geng,working at a nature reserve of deers in Beijing’s suburbs,stands out as a fighter against plastic bags. Since he started to work in 1998,Guo has seen David’s deer in his care dying from devouring waste plastic bags blown over

  3. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  4. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.

  5. BAG4/SODD Protein Contains a Short BAG Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briknarova, Klara; Takayama, Shinichi; Homma, Sachiko; Baker, Kelly; Cabezas, Edelmira; Hoyt, David W.; Li, Zhen; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2002-08-23

    BAG proteins are molecular chaperone regulators that affect diverse cellular pathways. All members share a conserved motif, called the ''BAG domain'' (BD), which binds to Hsp70/Hsc70 family proteins and modulates their activity. We have determined the solution structure of BD from BAG4/SODD (Bcl-2 ? Associated Athanogene / Silencer of Death Domains) by multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods and compared it to the corresponding domain in BAG1 (Briknarova et al., Nature Struct. Biol. 8:349-352). The difference between BDs from these two BAG proteins is striking and the structural comparison defines two subfamilies of mammalian BD-containing proteins. One subfamily includes the closely related BAG3, BAG4 and BAG5 proteins, and the other is represented by BAG1 which contains a structurally and evolutionarily distinct BD. BDs from both BAG1 and BAG4 are three-helix bundles; however, in BAG4, each helix in this bundle is three to four turns shorter than its counterpart in BAG1, which reduces the length of the domain by one-third. BAG4 BD thus represents a prototype of the minimal functional fragment that is capable of binding to Hsc70 and modulating its chaperone activity.

  6. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, A., E-mail: burinskii@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  7. Gravitating lepton bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As is known, the gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of the Dirac electron is described by an over-extremal Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution which has the naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This space is regulated by the formation of a regular source based on the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. This source shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC-bag models, but has the important advantage, of being in accordance with gravitational and electromagnetic field of the external KN solution. The KN bag model is flexible. At rotations, it takes the shape of a thin disk, and similar to other bag models, under deformations it creates a string-like structure which is positioned along the sharp border of the disk.

  8. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  9. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  10. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  11. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and...

  12. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  13. A gravitating electroweak bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.

  14. The Enhanced Speed Bag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    system for helicopter resupply is a crucial development in aerial sustainment .  By Capt. Jude G.B. Coe Three enhanced speed bag systems are rigged on...NI NG & ED UC AT IO N 47 Army Sustainment July–August 2015 multipurpose cargo bag with pad- ding, one speed line assembly with a cable grip that...understand- ing of how to set up and rig the ESBS inside a Black Hawk. Validation Exercise After two joint in-progress reviews , Task Force Talon and the Iron

  15. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  16. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  17. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can enda

  18. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  19. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  20. Test bases for shutoff bags and pipe bagging systems; Pruefgrundlagen fuer Absperrblasen und Blasensetzgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, H. [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf AG (Germany); Halter, O. [Technische Werke Schussental GmbH and Co. KG, Ravensburg (Germany); Seemann, A. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Gas-, Fernwaerme- und Wasserwirtschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Today for shut off gas pipelines in the field of gas distribution during repair gas bags and pipe bagging systems are widely in use. The occurence of explosive atmospheres at the place of employment can be eleminated when pipe bagging systems are applied. Until now three test basis' are issued: VP 620-1 ''Pipe bagging systems in the field of gas distribution - Type A'', VP 621-1 ''Gas bags for bagging systems - Type A'' and VP 621-2 ''Gas bags for bagging systems - Type B''. The standards are valid for gas pipes within a diameter-range from 80 to 400 millimetre and a operating pressure up to 1 bar. They comprise requirements for design and a safe operation and were created by a BGFW/DVGW-team. The standards are addressed to the manufacturer of gas bags and bagging systems. (orig.)

  1. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  2. Cooling Properties of Cloudy Bag Strange Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ng Cheuk Liu; Chu, M C

    2003-01-01

    As the chiral symmetry is widely recognized as an important driver of the strong interaction dynamics, current strange stars models based on MIT bag models do not obey such symmetry. We investigate properties of bare strange stars using the Cloudy Bag Model, in which a pion cloud coupled to the quark-confining bag is introduced such that chiral symmetry is conserved. We find that in this model the decay of pions is a very efficient cooling way. In fact it can carry out most the thermal energy in a few milliseconds and directly convert them into 100MeV photons via pion decay. This may be a very efficient $\\gamma$-ray burst mechanism. Furthermore, the cooling behavior may provide a possible way to distinguish a compact object between a neutron star, MIT strange star and Cloudy Bag strange star in observations.

  3. Bags in relativistic quantum field theory with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadati, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Umezawa, H.

    1978-08-15

    Presented is a microscopic derivation of bags from a relativistic quantum theory with spontaneously broken symmetry. The static energy of a bag whose singularity is the surface of a sphere coincides with the volume tension in the MIT bag theory. A similarity between the bags and the point defects in crystals is pointed out.

  4. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  5. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  6. The generalized fermion-bag approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to some four-fermion lattice field theories which we call the generalized fermion bag approach. The basic idea is to identify unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom that cause sign problems and collect them in a bag. Paired fermions usually act like bosons and do not lead to sign problems. A resummation of all unpaired fermion degrees of freedom inside the bag is sufficient to solve the fermion sign problem in a variety of interesting cases. Using a concept of duality we then argue that the size of the fermion bags is small both at strong and weak couplings. This allows us to construct efficient algorithms in both these limits. Using the fermion bag approach, we study the quantum phase transition of the 3D massless lattice Thirrring model which is of interest in the context of Graphene. Using our method we are able to solve the model on lattices as large as $40^3$ with moderate computational resources. We obtain the precise location of the quantum critical point and the values of the ...

  7. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  8. Crossover transition in bag-like models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Lorenzo; Koch, Volker

    2009-03-13

    We formulate a simple model for a gas of extended hadrons at zero chemical potential by taking inspiration from the compressible bag model. We show that a crossover transition qualitatively similar to lattice QCD can be reproduced by such a system by including some appropriate additional dynamics. Under certain conditions, at high temperature, the system consist of a finite number of infinitely extended bags,which occupy the entire space. In this situation the system behaves as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons.

  9. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  10. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  11. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  12. Jute:Change From Bags to Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Many people may be unfamiliar with jute,but everyone knows jute bag and hemp rope.For a long time,jute fiber only could be made into rough packing materials;it is difficult to be used widely for its characteristics.

  13. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  14. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★☆☆词数:406建议阅读时间:10分钟Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  15. Real-time bag of words, approximately

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.R.R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Scha, R.J.H.; Marchand-Maillet, S.; Kompatsiaris, I.

    2009-01-01

    We start from the state-of-the-art Bag of Words pipeline that in the 2008 benchmarks of TRECvid and PASCAL yielded the best performance scores. We have contributed to that pipeline, which now forms the basis to compare various fast alternatives for all of its components: (i) For descriptor extractio

  16. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  18. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  19. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  20. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  1. QUALITY OF PITAIA FRUITS SUBMITTED TO FIELD BAGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CLAUDIA COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, with the change in consumer profile, the demand for foods with low levels or even without pesticides has increased. Bagging fruits in the field is considered one of the oldest and effective phytosanitary practices, being an alternative to chemical control. The aim of the present work was to test some types of packaging in the bagging of pitaia fruits during their development in the plant in order to maintain quality. Red pitaia plant fruits [Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose] five years post-planting were used. The experimental design used was random blocks, with 5 treatments, 4 repetitions and 10 fruits per plot. Treatments consisted of control (without bagging, newspaper bag, Kraft paper bag, waxed paper bag and Non-woven bag (NW. The following characteristics were evaluated: percentage of remaining fruits up to harvest; percentage of damaged fruits; fruit mass; longitudinal and transverse diameter; pulp yield; peel thickness; soluble solids content (SS; pH; titratable acidity (TA and SS/TA ratio. There was no difference among treatments for most of the characteristics analyzed, except for percentage of remaining fruits on the plant and percentage of damaged fruits. Bagging does not alter the physical and chemical characteristics of red pitaia fruits. NW and newspaper bags are more effective in bagging pitaia fruits due to greater permanence in the fruit during its development in the plant.

  2. BAG-1 haplo-insufficiency impairs lung tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero Guadalupe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70 that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signaling pathways. Evidence that BAG-1 expression is frequently altered in human cancers, in particular in breast cancer, relative to normal cells has been put forward but the notion that overexpression of BAG-1 contributes to poor prognosis in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We have evaluated the effect of BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice in a model of non-small-cell lung tumorigenesis with histological and molecular methods. We have generated mice heterozygous for BAG-1, carrying a BAG-1 null allele, that in addition express oncogenic, constitutively active C-Raf kinase (SP-C C-Raf BxB in type II pneumocytes. SP-C C-Raf BxB mice develop multifocal adenomas early in adulthood. Results We show that BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice impairs C-Raf oncogene-induced lung adenoma growth. Lung tumor initiation was reduced by half in BAG-1 heterozygous SP-C C-Raf BxB mice compared to their littermates. Tumor area was reduced by 75% in 4 month lungs of BAG-1 haploinsufficient mice compared to mice with two BAG-1 copies. Whereas BAG-1 heterozygosity did not affect the rate of cell proliferation or signaling through the mitogenic cascade in adenoma cells, it increased the rate of apoptosis. Conclusion Reduced BAG-1 expression specifically targets tumor cells to apoptosis and impairs tumorigenesis. Our data implicate BAG-1 as a key player in oncogenic transformation by Raf and identify it as a potential molecular target for cancer treatment.

  3. Consumption of Plastic bags and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The research was done on the consumption of plastic bags and its possible impact on environment. We considered the consumption of plastic bags as recycling, alternatives and disposal, and to be specific we defined environment impact on drainage and street waste. The respondents’ were the 20 years of age and older without any gender discrimination, and assumed to be users of plastic bags. The data was collected from the crowded shopping centers of city. Correlation and regression techniques we...

  4. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  5. Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32

  6. Computer Forensic Using Lazy Local Bagging Predictors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Wei-dong; BAO Cheng-yi; ZHU Xing-quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of employ ensemble learning for computer forensic. We propose a Lazy Local Learning based bagging (L3B) approach, where base learners are trained from a small instance subset surrounding each test instance. More specifically, given a test instance x, L3B first discovers x's k nearest neighbours, and then applies progressive sampling to the selected neighbours to train a set of base classifiers, by using a given very weak (VW) learner. At the last stage, x is labeled as the most frequently voted class of all base classifiers. Finally, we apply the proposed L3B to computer forensic.

  7. The Kaon Bag Parameter at Physical Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Frison, Julien; Christ, Norman H; Garron, Nicolas; Mawhinney, Robert; Sachrajda, Chris T; Yin, Hantao

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results for the calculation of the Kaon Bag parameter $B_K$ in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD, using M\\"obius Domain Wall Fermion ensembles generated by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration. This computation is done directly at physical meson masses, so that we do not have to rely on chiral perturbation theory or any other mass extrapolation. In parallel, the four-quark operator is renormalised through the Rome-Southampton technique. Finally, we compare our value with previous results and draw some conclusions about the remaining dominant contributions in our error budget.

  8. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  9. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  10. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape...

  11. Drugs for the doctor's bag: 2--children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    In September 2005, we published Drugs for the doctor's bag: 1--Adults, recognising the fact that there is still a need for most GPs to carry well-equipped bags, even though many have given up responsibility for out-of-hours services. Here we suggest medicines that a GP might want to have available for use in an emergency or for the acute treatment of children and adolescents, updatingour previous advice. As with adults, it is not our intention to imply that every GP must carry every drug mentioned. Some of the drugs will probably only be used by rural GPs who do not have access to immediate emergency care. Whenever a medicine is first mentioned, our suggested formulation is included in brackets. Unless otherwise stated, the doses given are all from the BNF for Children. We enclose with this issue a card summarising parenteral doses (for adults and children) of drugs for medical emergencies; this card includes the BNF table of ideal weight for age.

  12. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  13. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  14. Temperature dependence of bag pressure from quasiparticle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N.; Singh, C. P.

    2001-03-01

    A quasiparticle model with effective thermal gluon and quark masses is used to derive a temperature /T- and baryon chemical potential /μ-dependent bag constant /B(μ,T). Consequences of such a bag constant are obtained on the equation of state (EOS) for a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP).

  15. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  16. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  17. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control sup

  18. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  19. Drugs for the doctor's bag revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The choice of drugs to include in the GP's bag depends on the medical conditions likely to be met, the shelf-life of the products and their costs, the availability of ambulance paramedic cover and the proximity of the nearest hospital. Here, we update previous advice and suggest a list of medicines that GPs may wish to take with them on home visits for use in an emergency or other acute treatment. We include paediatric doses where appropriate and, whenever a medicine is first mentioned, our suggested formulation is given italicised and in brackets. We also enclose with this issue a card summarising parenteral doses of drugs for medical emergencies, which includes a table of mean weight for age.

  20. The Role of Bag Surface Tension in Color Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Bugaev, K A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss here the novel view at the color confinement which, on the one hand, allows us to find out the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags and, under a plausible assumption, to determine the endpoint temperature of the QCD phase diagram, on the other hand. The present model considers the confining color tube as the cylindrical quark gluon bag with non-zero surface tension. A close inspection of the free energies of elongated cylindrical bag and the confining color tube that connects the static quark-antiquark pair allows us to find out the string tension in terms of the surface tension, thermal pressure and the bag radius. Using the derived relation it is possible to estimate the bag surface tension at zero temperature directly from the lattice QCD data and to estimate the (tri)critical endpoint temperature. In the present analysis the topological free energy of the cylindrical bag is accounted for the first time. The requirement of positive entropy density of such bags leads to negative values...

  1. Biochemical lesions of platelets stored as concentrates in PVC bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, L K; Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Jacob, J; Sivakumar, R

    1997-02-01

    Acid-base status of platelet suspension during storage is a measure of the gas permeability of the bag material. To assess the efficacy of the bags available in our market to store platelets, we compared biochemical lesions of platelets stored in an Indian polyvinyl chloride (PVC) triple bag against a Japanese PVC bag standardized for 5 days platelet storage. Platelet concentrates prepared in both control and test PVC bags were stored for 72 h. Two ml samples were drawn 1 h after preparation, and then at 24 h intervals, for analysis. Our data show that the mean pH value in the test bags was maintained above 6.5. However, the CO2 tension was high and O2 tension was low. We also analyzed malondialdehyde (MDA) formation which is a measure of arachidonic acid metabolism, and seemed to be unaffected in stored platelets. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was not released into the plasma excessively and hence significant platelet lysis was absent during storage. Hypotonic shock response (HSR) of platelets stored in both test and control bags was comparable, indicating the possibility of satisfactory post-transfusion recovery.

  2. Development of Biodegradable Plastic as Mango Fruit Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres M Tuates jr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have achieved a dominant position in agriculture because of their transparency, lightness in weight, impermeability to water and their resistance to microbial attack. It is use as food and fruits packaging, fruit bag, food container, seedling bag, mulching film, protective for greenhouse, dryer shed and among others. However, this generates higher quantity of wastes that are difficult to dispose by farmers. The plastic residues remain on the soil for some years as large pieces and they are impediment to plant growth and also a potential hazard to animals if the land is subsequently put down to grass. To address these problems, the project aim to develop and evaluate the biodegradable film for mango fruit bag during development. Cassava starch and polybutylene succinate (PBS was used in the development biodegradable film. The PBS and starch was melt-blended in a twin-screw extruder and then blown into film extrusion machine. The physic-chemical-mechanical properties of biodegradable fruit bag were done following standard methods of test. Field testing of fruit bag was also conducted to evaluate its durability and efficiency field condition.  The PHilMech-FiC fruit bag is made of biodegradable material measuring 6 x 8 inches with a thickness of 150 microns. The tensile strength is within the range of LDPE while the elongation is within the range of HDPE. However, it has higher density, thickness swelling and absorbed more water. It is projected that after thirty six (36 weeks, the film will be totally degraded. Results of field testing shows that the quality of harvested fruits using PHilMech-FiC biodegradable fruit bag in terms of percent marketable, non-marketable and export, peel color at ripe stage, flesh color, TSS, oBrix, percent edible portion is comparable with the existing bagging materials such as Chinese brown paper bag  and old newspaper.  

  3. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  4. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The process known as double bag vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (DBVARTM) was developed by NASA to help deplete by products. To date, the NASA DBVARTM process...

  5. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, A; Greaves, D M; Hann, M; Farley, F J M

    2016-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  6. Bagged Salads May Be Fertile Ground for Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Bagged Salads May Be Fertile Ground for Bacteria Study found juices released from damaged leaves encouraged ... Prepackaged salads may promote the growth of salmonella bacteria, researchers report. They found that even slight damage ...

  7. Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

  8. In vitro digestibility of lucerne hay using bag method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin gavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A filter bag method was used for estimating apparent dry matter (DM digestibility, apparent digestible organic matter in DM, true DM digestibility, true digestible organic matter in DM and Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The forage sample analysed comprised tree plant parts (whole, leaf and stem of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, one degree of particle breakdown (1 mm sieve size at miliing and two field replicates at Agricultural Research and Developement Station (ARDS Șimnic-Craiova. Rumen fluid was used from two cannulated dairy cows.The use of filter bags can give acceptable results for the in vitro digestibility of forages. The escape of soluble matter from bags with samples high in solubles could influence the microbial population and hence increase cell wall degradation in bags with samples low in soluble matter, if  all are in the same incubation vessel.

  9. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  10. Toxigenic fungi in corn (maize stored in hermetic plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellari, C.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, 35 million tonnes are stored in hermetic plastic bags. Inside the bags, the modified atmosphere has an effect on stored grains, insects and fungi. Fungi taxa and species typically isolated from stored grains consist of species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and xerophilic fungi, some of which are potential producers of mycotoxins. The province of Entre Rios, Argentina, is an important area of study because much of the production of maize stored in bags is supplying the poultry industry demand. The objective of this study was to identify mycotoxigenic fungi species in maize stored in hermetic plastic bags, located in three Departments of Entre Rios province. A total of 176 samples of maize were analyzed, stored in 23 bags located in the Departments of Paraná (west region, La Paz (northern region and Tala (central region. Two potential producers of aflatoxins (A. flavus and A. parasiticus and a potential producer of fumonisins (F. verticillioides were identified in all the plastics bags evaluated. In La Paz Department, Aspergillus spp. and F. verticillioides were detected in 66.7% and 54% of samples, respectively. In Tala Department, Aspergillus spp. were detected in 63.3% and F. verticillioides in 43.6%, while in Parana, Aspergillus spp. was detected in 88.2% of the evaluated samples and F. verticillioides in 41.4% of the samples. The results revealed that mycotoxigenic fungi can develop in maize stored in hermetic plastic bags. This implies a potential risk of contamination with aflatoxins and /or fumonisins in the grain lots stored inside these bags.

  11. Encouraging creative reuse of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation shows how to encourage reuse of different types of shopping carrier bags in kindergarten. In the theoretical part I have introduced the concepts of creativity, divergent thinking and the meaning of reuse. I have outlined the problems concerning shopping bags and named the most common types, from which we made creative products. I outlined the motoric development in a child wherein I focused on eye-hand coordination, which is very important for a child's complete development....

  12. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  13. Bagged material palletizing robot system; Fukuromono paretaizu robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    This paper introduces a case of delivery of an industrial automation machinery fabricated by Meidensha, Inc. A robot was delivered as a robot system to automate the work of palletizing craft paper bags containing cement. While bags filled with cement and sewn on the openings with a sewing machine in the previous process are transported to the robot, a shaping machine makes the bag height aligned, and a bleeder machine pushes out unnecessary air in the bags. The robot stacks the bags on a pallet sequentially one by one. A pallet magazine supplies automatically a next pallet when stacking by the robot has been completed. Introduction of this system has achieved such effects as elimination of labor shortage, release from simple muscle work, and stabilization of palletizing accuracy. Major constituting devices include: a palletizing robot (VTR-1000Y), a bag transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer, a shaping machine, and a bleeding device), and a pallet transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer and an empty pallet magazine). (NEDO)

  14. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  15. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  16. Application of Geotextile Bag Dehydrated Soil to Dike Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平; 闫澍旺; 刘润

    2004-01-01

    Using geotextile bag dehydrated soil to construct dikes for land reclamation to substitute conventional straw bags is an urgent need in Tianjin New Harbor, China. This paper introduces the method to build a dike for hydraulic filling. The soil for filling the geotextile bags was tested in wave trench; the stress developed during construction was calculated by establishing a numerical model and compared with the tensile strength of the geotextile; the stability and settlement of the dike were estimated by performing centrifuge tests. Through this study, the following information was obtained: 1) The cohesionless silt with plasticity index less than 10 is suitable for filling the geotextile bags. The geotextile bag dehydrated soil consolidated very quickly even under the action of wave force. 2) A numerical model was devised to find the limit injection height and to calculate the tensile stress developed in the geotextile bags when they were piled up to form the dike. The calculated stress was compared with the strength of the geotextile, showing that the design is reasonably safe. 3) Centrifuge test results show that the designed dike will be stable and the settlement of dike will be less than the design requirement.

  17. AdBagging:自适应抽样参数在线装袋算法%AdBagging: adaptive sampling parameters online bagging algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小斌; 李世银

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the concept drift problem in data stream classification, a new algorithm based on online bagging algorithm named adaptive lambda bagging algorithm (AdBagging) is introduced. The new algorithm dynamically adjusts the sampling parameters of Poisson distribution in online bagging algorithm based on the number of misclassified samples in data stream classification. Through this procedure the new algorithm could give more attention to the misclassified samples and give little attention to the right classified samples. At the same time the learning weight of samples for algorithm can be adjusted according to the temporal order. So the algorithm could solve the concept drift problem in data stream classification. Experiments on synthesize and real data sets prove that the algorithm is effective.%通过对数据流分类中的概念漂移问题的研究,提出了一种在线装袋(Online Bagging)算法的改进算法——自适应抽样参数的在线装袋算法AdBagging(adaptive lambda bagging).利用在分类过程中出现的误分样本数量来调整Online Bagging算法中的泊松(Poisson)分布的抽样参数,从而可以动态调整新样本在学习器中的权重,即对于数据流中的误分类样本给予较高的学习权重因子,而对于正确分类的样本给予较低的学习权重因子,同时结合样本出现的时间顺序调整权重因子,使得集成分类器可以动态调整其多样性(adversity).该算法具有Online Bagging算法的高效简洁优点,并能解决数据流中具有概念漂移的问题,人工数据集和实际数据集上的实验结果表明了该算法的有效性.

  18. Vector interaction enhanced bag model for astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klahn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For quark matter studies in astrophysics the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG) has been widely used. Despite its success it fails to account for various phenomena expected from Quantum-Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). We suggest a straightforward extension of tdBAG in order to take the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry and the influence of vector interactions explicitly into account. As for tdBAG the model mimics confinement in a phenomenological approach. It is based on an analysis of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density. Furthermore, we demonstrate how NJL and bag models in this regime follow from the more general and QCD based framework of Dyson-Schwinger (DS) equations in medium by assuming a simple gluon contact interaction. Based on our simple and novel model, we construct quark hadron hybrid equations of state (EoS) and study systematically chiral and deconfinement phase transitions, the appearance of $s$-quarks and the role of vector interaction. We further study these aspects for matter in b...

  19. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  1. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  2. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Bagged RBF Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with radial basis function classifier as the base learner. The proposed bagged radial basis function is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  4. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  5. Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Efremov, A. V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Schweitzer, P. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Yuan, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN Research Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  6. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  7. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from...

  8. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  9. Instant Bag-of-Words served on a laptop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.; de Rooij, O.; Odijk, D.; Smeulders, A.; Worring, M.; De Natale, F.G.B.; Del Bimbo, A.

    2011-01-01

    This demo showcases our realtime implementation of concept classification using the Bag-of-Words method embedded within MediaTable, our interactive categorization tool for large multimedia collections. MediaTable allows the users to open images from disk or download these directly from the internet.

  10. Emulsification in novel ultrasonic cavitation intensifying bag reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van Ralph; Verhaagen, Bram; Schroën, Karin; Fernández Rivas, David

    2017-01-01

    Cavitation Intensifying Bags (CIBs), a novel reactor type for use with ultrasound, have been recently proposed as a scaled-up microreactor with increased energy efficiencies. We now report on the use of the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions out of hexadecane and an SDS aqueous solution. The C

  11. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  12. Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollination bags for making controlled crosses between switchgrass plants were made from a polyester micro-mesh fabric with a mesh size of 41 µm which is smaller than the mean reported 43 µm diameter of switchgrass pollen. When used in paired plant crosses between switchgrass plants, the mean amoun...

  13. Recombinant erythropoietin found in seized blood bags from sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí, Joaquim; Segura, Jordi; de Bolòs, Carme; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Pascual, Jose A

    2008-02-01

    During an anti-doping investigation, the Spanish Guardia Civil confiscated blood bags from elite sportsmen. A novel immuno-purification method demonstrated that plasma samples with elevated erythropoietin (EPO) contained recombinant material (rEPO). This shows that rEPO is used before autologous blood transfusions and that rEPO analysis in plasma can be reliably addressed.

  14. Spontaneous low-pressure headache complicating bag-piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alasdair; McAuley, David; Roxburgh, Richard

    2007-04-01

    We describe an interesting case of a 40-year-old lady who developed a spontaneous low-pressure headache whilst playing the bag-pipes. Playing wind instruments requires the generation of significant intra-thoracic pressure, which may have contributed to this musician's condition.

  15. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  16. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  17. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See Notice of Final...

  18. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice...

  19. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9,...

  20. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with respect to Dongguan... PRCBs from the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the...

  1. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. As a... retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  2. Estimating Willingness to Pay for Continued Use of Plastic Grocery Bags and Willingness to Accept for Switching Completely to Reusable Bags

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a theoretical framework for a dichotomous-choice contingent valuation survey for plastic and reusable shopping bags and consequential analysis of that data. By using interval regression analysis, a mean willingness to pay for continued use of plastic grocery bags and a mean willingness to accept to use reusable bags for all grocery shopping trips are estimated. The subsidy level was statistically robust while the tax level was not; this led us to the conclusion as ci...

  3. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...... is mandatory – about every third hunter neglected the bag report, but there were no sanctions. Connecting the game bag report to renewal of the hunting licence lead to a sharp increase in the reporting rate, i.e. from ca. 60 % to ca. 90 %. The feature of hunting statistics most often used in wildlife...

  4. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction.

  5. FUNGAL POPULATION, AFLATOXIN AND FREE FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF PEANUTS PACKED IN DIFFERENT BAG TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA S.P. BULAONG

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shelled peanuts of Gajah var. with initial moisture content of 7% were stored at 11 kg/bag in four bag types namely: jute bag, polypropylene bag, jute bag doubled with thin polyethylene (PE, and jute bag doubled with thick PE. Storage was done for six months under warehouse conditions with monitoring of relative humidity and temperature. Samples taken at the be ginning of storage and every month thereafter were analyzed for moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents. Statistical analyses showed that moisture content, fungal population, and free fatty acid contents were signifi cantly higher in jute and polypropylene bags than in PE-dou,bled jute bags. No significant differences were obtained in aflatoxin contents among bag types but at the end of six months storage, toxin level in jute bag exceeded the 30 ppb limit. Polypropylene had second highest toxin level at 23 ppb. The PE-doubled bags ha d 17 and 19 ppb total aflatoxins for thin and thick films, respectively. The results indicated that the immediate packag ing of dried shelled peanuts at safe moisture level in plastic films with water vapor transmission rated of 1 g/m2/24 hr or lower is recommended. This p ackaging will delay critical increases in moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents of peanut kernels at ambient storage conditions.

  6. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  7. Reduction of plastic carrier bag use: An analysis of alternatives in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Ofira; Goldrath, Tal; Rosenthal, Gad; Grossman, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the public and politicians. Different policy measures to reduce the environmental burden of these bags have been implemented and more are planned. The research analyzed the actual environmental aspects of consumption and use of plastic carrier bags and assessed the effectiveness of the proposed regulation in Israel. Since plastic bags are provided free of charge, people have a tendency to use these bags excessively, therefore a rigorous educational program should address this trend. However, the environmental load imposed by the bags is more a politically correct issue than an actual environmental hazard, and therefore the means for reducing their use should not include a high levy or total elimination of these bags.

  8. An Empirical Comparison of Boosting and Bagging Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalaichelvi Chandrahasan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Classification is one of the data mining techniques that analyses a given data set and induces a model for each class based on their features present in the data. Bagging and boosting are heuristic approaches to develop classification models. These techniques generate a diverse ensemble of classifiers by manipulating the training data given to a base learning algorithm. They are very successful in improving the accuracy of some algorithms in artificial and real world datasets. We review the algorithms such as AdaBoost, Bagging, ADTree, and Random Forest in conjunction with the Meta classifier and the Decision Tree classifier. Also we describe a large empirical study by comparing several variants. The algorithms are analyzed on Accuracy, Precision, Error Rate and Execution Time.

  9. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  10. Empirical Analysis of Bagged SVM Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with as the base learner. The proposed is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  11. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    OpenAIRE

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retro...

  12. Bag model for DNA migration during pulsed-field electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, G

    1991-01-01

    A model for pulsed-field electrophoresis was developed by picturing large DNA as a deformable "bag" that (i) moves with limiting mobility in a continuous electric field, (ii) adopts an orientation aligned with the field direction, and (iii) reorients after a change in field direction in a size-dependent manner. The model correctly predicted the resolution of large DNA in a pulsed field including the surprising phenomena of mobility inversion, lateral band spreading, and improved resolution fo...

  13. Digital Artery Occlusion Secondary to Plastic Shopping Bag Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, R; Isaacs, JL; McCarthy, RJ

    2007-01-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:18201465

  14. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand within the 120- day time limit due...

  15. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    Courtoy, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for the Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution related to quark Orbital Angular Momentum, {\\it i.e.} $F_{14}$, in the MIT bag model. This model has been modified to include the Peierls--Yoccoz projection to restore translational invariance. Such a modification allows to fulfill more satisfactorily basic sum rules, that would otherwise be less elegantly carried out with the original version. Using the same model, we have calculated the twist-$3$ GPD that corresponds to Orbital Angular Momentum \\`a la Ji, through the Penttinen--Polyakov--Shuvaev--Strikman sum rule. Recently, a new relation between the two definitions of the quark Orbital Angular Momentum at the density level has been proposed, which we illustrate here within the model. The sum rule is fulfilled. Still within the framework of the MIT bag model, we analyze the Wandzura--Wilczek expression for the GPD of interest. The genuine quark-gluon contribution is evaluated directly thanks to the equation of motion of the bag, wh...

  16. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  17. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveic, Sanja; Pigazzi, Martina; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  18. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Aveic

    Full Text Available BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1 is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  19. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  20. The hydrodynamics of air-filled bags for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greaves, Deborah; Hann, Martyn; Kurniawan, Adi

    The search for an economic means to harness energy from ocean waves continues. This paper aims to summarise the findings from our recent studies of novel wave energy devices in which flexible, deformable structures are used in place of conventional rigid structures. The devices utilise a flexible...... air-filled bag to capture energy from the waves and three different configurations are compared. In each of the three device configurations, expansion and contraction of the bag in waves create a reciprocating air flow via a turbine between the bag and another volume. The bags are all in the form...... of a fabric encased within an array of longitudinal tendons. In the first configuration, the bag is floating and ballasted such that it pierces the free surface. In the second configuration, the bag is completely submerged and connected at its top to a rigid float and at its bottom to a weight. In the third...

  1. The result of bagged Pyrinuron baits for control rodent pest of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 邓刚; 张蕊

    2000-01-01

    Bagged and dispersed Pyrinuron (a self-formulated rodenticide) were tested for control of Clethrionomus rutilus and Clethrionomus rufocanus in larch plantation, Pingshan area, Heilongjiang Province from Oct. 1998 to Apr. 1999. The results showed that the bagged Pyrinuron has good result for control of the two rodent pests. The density of rodents was reduced by 90.5% after application of bagged Pyrinuron. This application method has characteristics of long residual period, bait not going mould and saving labour force.

  2. The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles (BoTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) by Charith Ranawake ARL-CR-0761 February 2015...Ground, MD 22105 ARL-CR-0761 February 2015 The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) Charith...and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  3. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages ( i.e. , activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design ( N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message cond...

  4. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H; Sturgeon, Raymond M; Magoski, Neil S

    2016-06-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K(+) with Cs(+) Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K(+) channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K(+) current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K(+) current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K(+) channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time.

  5. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  6. Multielectrode machine for making the cages of bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, F.I.; Arkov, V.G.; Boldyrev, A.F.; Sharenko, D.G.; Zhidkov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic multielectrode machine for making wire cages with an internal spiral. The machine automatically produces an endless cage from wire, joins the wires by multiple spot contact welding, and cuts it into pieces of desired length. The machine is illustrated and the method of making wire cages is demonstrated. The cages are used in bag filters of gas-cleaning systems. The machine can be used to form cages of 130-mm diameter from wires of 3-mm diameter. It is easy to operate and has a high output rate of 90m/h.

  7. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  8. Tea-bag-like polymer nanoreactors filled with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, Fabian; Schmalz, Holger; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2014-05-05

    Gold-containing polymer nanotubes, which showed both catalytic activity and resistance to leaching, were prepared by the "tubes by fiber templates" (TUFT) process. For this purpose, electrospun polymer nonwovens with incorporated poly(L-lactide)-stabilized gold nanoparticles were coated with poly(p-xylylene) by the chemical vapor deposition process, and then the inner fiber templates were removed. The resulting polymer tubes carried encapsulated gold nanoparticles which were shown to be immobilized and featured pronounced catalytic activity towards the hydrolytic oxidation of dimethylphenylsilane and the alcoholysis of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol. The macroscopic nonwovens could be used as tea-bag-like catalyst systems and showed excellent reusability.

  9. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retrofit performance is the same as the original machine. Due to the flexibility of microcontrollers, other operation and diagnostic features can easily be added.

  10. Forex Market Prediction Using NARX Neural Network with Bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new methodfor predicting movements in Forex market based on NARX neural network withtime shifting bagging techniqueand financial indicators, such as relative strength index and stochastic indicators. Neural networks have prominent learning ability but they often exhibit bad and unpredictable performance for noisy data. When compared with the static neural networks, our method significantly reducesthe error rate of the responseandimproves the performance of the prediction. We tested three different types ofarchitecture for predicting the response and determined the best network approach. We applied our method to prediction the hourly foreign exchange rates and found remarkable predictability in comprehensive experiments with 2 different foreign exchange rates (GBPUSD and EURUSD.

  11. Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further...

  12. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (psocial and as a physical activity.

  13. Weight-Selected Attribute Bagging for Credit Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of credit risk is of great importance in financial risk management. In this paper, we propose an improved attribute bagging method, weight-selected attribute bagging (WSAB, to evaluate credit risk. Weights of attributes are first computed using attribute evaluation method such as linear support vector machine (LSVM and principal component analysis (PCA. Subsets of attributes are then constructed according to weights of attributes. For each of attribute subsets, the larger the weights of the attributes the larger the probabilities by which they are selected into the attribute subset. Next, training samples and test samples are projected onto each attribute subset, respectively. A scoring model is then constructed based on each set of newly produced training samples. Finally, all scoring models are used to vote for test instances. An individual model that only uses selected attributes will be more accurate because of elimination of some of redundant and uninformative attributes. Besides, the way of selecting attributes by probability can also guarantee the diversity of scoring models. Experimental results based on two credit benchmark databases show that the proposed method, WSAB, is outstanding in both prediction accuracy and stability, as compared to analogous methods.

  14. Laplacian forests: semantic image segmentation by guided bagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, Herve; Zikic, Darko; Criminisi, Antonio; Ayache, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new, efficient and accurate technique for the semantic segmentation of medical images. The paper builds upon the successful random decision forests model and improves on it by modifying the way in which randomness is injected into the tree training process. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. First, we replace the conventional bagging procedure (the uniform sampling of training images) with a guided bagging approach, which exploits the inherent structure and organization of the training image set. This allows the creation of decision trees that are specialized to a specific sub-type of images in the training set. Second, the segmentation of a previously unseen image happens via selection and application of only the trees that are relevant to the given test image. Tree selection is done automatically, via the learned image embedding, with more precisely a Laplacian eigenmap. We, therefore, call the proposed approach Laplacian Forests. We validate Laplacian Forests on a dataset of 256, manually segmented 3D CT scans of patients showing high variability in scanning protocols, resolution, body shape and anomalies. Compared with conventional decision forests, Laplacian Forests yield both higher training efficiency, due to the local analysis of the training image space, as well as higher segmentation accuracy, due to the specialization of the forest to image sub-types.

  15. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  16. Gene cloning and characterization of the protein encoded by the Neospora caninum bradyzoite-specific antigen gene BAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Narabu, S; Yanai, Y; Hatano, Y; Ito, A; Imai, S; Ike, K

    2013-06-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexan parasite that causes repeated abortion and stillbirth in cattle. The aim of this study was to clone the gene encoding the N. caninum orthologue (NcBAG1) of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific protein TgBAG1 and characterize its expression pattern in the parasite. Isolation of the full-length 684-bp gene revealed that it shared 78.3% sequence similarity with TgBAG1. NcBAG1 encodes a predicted protein of 227 amino acids with 80.3% similarity to TgBAG1. A putative signal peptide sequence and an invariant GVL motif characteristic of small heat-shock proteins were identified in the predicted N. caninum amino acid sequence. We expressed the NcBAG1 gene as a recombinant glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (rNcBAG1) in Escherichia coli and used the purified 60 kDa protein to obtain a monoclonal antibody (Mab). rNcBAG1 reacted to Mabs specific for NcBAG1 and TgBAG1. No reaction between the NcBAG1 Mab and N. caninum tachyzoites was observed. Although the predicted molecular mass of NcBAG1 is 25 kDa, Western blot analysis of parasite lysates using the NcBAG1 Mab revealed a cross-reactive protein of approximately 30 kDa. Additionally, immunofluorescence assays using the tachyzoite-specific Mab for NcSAG1 and the bradyzoite-specific Mab for TgBAG1 or NcSAG4 revealed NcBAG1-specific expression in bradyzoites in cultures exposed to sodium nitroprusside, a reagent that increases the frequency of bradyzoites. Interestingly, the NcBAG1 protein was identified in the cytoplasm of the bradyzoite-stage parasites. This preliminary analysis of the NcBAG1 gene will assist investigations into the role of this protein in N. caninum .

  17. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00 of... Commerce (Commerce) to be subsidized by the Government of Vietnam.\\2\\ The Commission further...

  18. Effects of Density-Dependent Bag Constant and Strange Star Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-Er; GUO Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the emphasis on the effects of the density-dependent bag constant and the rotation of strange star the limiting mass of strange star is calculated. The obtained results show that the limiting mass and the corresponding radius of strange star increase as the rotation frequency increases, and tend to be lowered when the density-dependent bag constant is considered.

  19. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  20. Clinicopathologic significance of BAG1 and TIMP3 expression in colon carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of BAG1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in colon carcinoma and their correlation and clinicopathologic significance.METHODS: SABC immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 in 80 colon carcinoma tissues and 20 normal colonic mucosa.RESULTS: Positive rate of BAG1 in colon carcinoma tissue (80%) was notably higher compared to normal colonic mucosa (10%) (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in positive rate of TIMP3 in colon carcinoma tissue (43.75%) as compared with normal colonic mucosa (60%) (P > 0.05).Expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 was strongly associated with colon carcinoma differentiation, Duke's staging,lymph node metastasis and survival rate (P < 0.05), but not associated with gender and age. Moreover, BAG1 expression was not correlated with TIMP3.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that over-expression of BAG1 or attenuated expression of TIMP3 may play an important role in genesis and development of colon carcinoma. The protein expression levels of BAG1 and TIMP3 are related to the malignant degree, infiltration and metastasis of colon carcinoma. BAG1 and TIMP3 might be new biological parameters in predicting invasion and metastasis of colon carcinoma.

  1. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  2. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  3. The Dual Codebook : Combining Bags of Visual Words in Image Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Jonathan L.; Okafor, Emmanuel; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two conventional bag of words approaches, using two basic local feature descriptors, to perform image classification. These approaches are compared to a novel design which combines two bags of visual words, using two different feature descriptors. The sy

  4. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine...

  5. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags wit

  6. Dynamic vs. fixed bag filling: impact on cardiac output rebreathing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Beck, Kenneth C; Cass, Lauren M; Artal, Raul; Wagner, Peter D

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatability (2.77 multiplied by the within-subject SD)between two different rebreathing protocols on cardiac output ( ˙Q ), pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc). This study compared two bag volume protocols [Fixed Bag Volume (FBV) = bag volume fixed at 60% of forced vital capacity; Dynamic Bag Volume (DBV) = bag volume matched to tidal volume at each stage of exercise].Ten females (age = 27±8 yrs; ˙VO2, (peak)=2.5±0.6 L/min had measurements at rest (12%), 52%, 88%, and 100% of ˙VO2, (peak) on two study days. Neither the slope nor intercept of ˙Q vs. ˙VO2 were different between either bag volume protocols. The slope of DLCO vs. ˙Q was the same but the intercept was higher for the FBV protocol. The bag volume affected the slope and the intercept between DLNO vs. ˙Q (p DLNO (p ≤ 0.06). Measurement error was lower for Vc when using the FBV protocol (p = 0.02). Also, the pattern of bag volume used during rebreathing maneuvers affected the relation between DLNO vs. ˙Q more than it affected DLCO vs. ˙Q , or Vc vs. ˙Q. Additionally, the FBV protocol provided less measurement error for Vc compared to the DBV protocol [corrected].

  7. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  8. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China... rescinding its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs..., through July 31, 2012.\\1\\ On August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier...

  9. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010....

  10. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for...

  11. Bag-of-steps : Predicting lower-limb fracture rehabilitation length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pla, Albert; López, Beatriz; Nogueira, Cristofor; Mordvaniuk, Natalia; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Holtslag, Herman R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents bag-of-steps, a new methodology to predict the rehabilitation length of a patient by monitoring the weight he is bearing in his injured leg and using a predictive model based on the bag-of-words technique. A force sensor is used to monitor and characterize the patient's gait, obt

  12. The association of BAG6 with SGTA and tail-anchored proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Leznicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BAG6 protein is a subunit of a heterotrimeric complex that binds a range of membrane and secretory protein precursors localized to the cytosol, enforcing quality control and influencing their subsequent fate. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BAG6 has an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, and a C-terminal Bcl-2-associated athanogene domain, separated by a large central proline-rich region. We have used in vitro binding approaches to identify regions of BAG6 important for its interactions with: i the small-glutamine rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA and ii two model tail-anchored membrane proteins as a paradigm for its hydrophobic substrates. We show that the BAG6-UBL is essential for binding to SGTA, and find that the UBL of a second subunit of the BAG6-complex, ubiquitin-like protein 4A (UBL4A, competes for SGTA binding. Our data show that this binding is selective, and suggest that SGTA can bind either BAG6, or UBL4A, but not both at the same time. We adapted our in vitro binding assay to study the association of BAG6 with an immobilized tail-anchored protein, Sec61β, and find both the UBL and BAG domains are dispensable for binding this substrate. This conclusion was further supported using a heterologous subcellular localization assay in yeast, where the BAG6-dependent nuclear relocalization of a second tail-anchored protein, GFP-Sed5, also required neither the UBL, nor the BAG domain of BAG6. SIGNIFICANCE: On the basis of these findings, we propose a working model where the large central region of the BAG6 protein provides a binding site for a diverse group of substrates, many of which expose a hydrophobic stretch of polypeptide. This arrangement would enable the BAG6 complex to bring together its substrates with potential effectors including those recruited via its N-terminal UBL. Such effectors may include SGTA, and the resulting assemblies influence the subsequent fate of the hydrophobic BAG6

  13. The fuzzy bag and baryonic properties with center of mass and recoil corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Pilotto, F

    2003-01-01

    The fuzzy bag is a hadronic model which has features both of the bag model (energy-momentum conservation, QCD vacuum energy) and of relativistic potential models (confinement achieved through a potential). It is also a chiral model, with the unique property that the pion field is suppressed in the interior of the bag by means of a scalar potential, and yet chiral symmetry is preserved. This scalar potential allows one to control how far the pion field can penetrate in the interior of the bag. We calculate the masses of the fundamental baryon octet taking into account the center of mass, one-gluon exchange and one-pion exchange corrections. We also calculate the nucleon axial charge, charge radii and magnetic moments including center of mass and recoil corrections. The agreement with experiment is excellent, and the results indicate that the pion field is suppressed only very close to the center of the bag. (orig.)

  14. Anoxic incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags: a method for biogeochemical process studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JW; Thamdrup, B.; Jørgensen, BB

    2000-01-01

    Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head......-space. Consequently, bag incubations of sediment combine the advantage of low heterogeneity in slurry incubations with the more natural conditions in jar and whole-core incubations. The bag material is a transparent laminated plastic comprised of Nylon, ethylenevinyl alcohol, and polyethylene with a low permeability...... for the studied gases: O-2, CO2, H2S, CH4, N-2, H-2, and He. Estimated fluxes of biologically active gases through the plastic bag during sediment incubation were insignificant compared to rates of microbial processes and to gas concentrations in coastal sediments. An exception was CH4, for which process...

  15. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages (i.e., activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design (N = 200 at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message condition than in the condition where only an environmental message was present. The combined normative message did result in the smallest uptake of free plastic bags compared to the injunctive and personal normative-only message, although these differences were not significant. Our findings imply that re-wording the supermarket’s environmental message by including normative information could be a promising way to reduce the use of free plastic bags, which will ultimately benefit the environment.

  16. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law.

  17. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  18. Multiple, but Concerted Cellular Activities of the Human Protein Hap46/BAG-1M and Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Gehring

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The closely related human and murine proteins Hap46/BAG-1M and BAG-1, respectively, were discovered more than a decade ago by molecular cloning techniques. These and the larger isoform Hap50/BAG-1L, as well as shorter isoforms, have the ability to interact with a seemingly unlimited array of proteins of completely unrelated structures. This problem was partially resolved when it was realized that molecular chaperones of the hsp70 heat shock protein family are major primary association partners, binding being mediated by the carboxy terminal BAG-domain and the ATP-binding domain of hsp70 chaperones. The latter, in turn, can associate with an almost unlimited variety of proteins through their substrate-binding domains, so that ternary complexes may result. The protein folding activity of hsp70 chaperones is affected by interactions with Hap46/BAG-1M or isoforms. However, there also exist several proteins which bind to Hap46/BAG-1M and isoforms independent of hsp70 mediation. Moreover, Hap46/BAG-1M and Hap50/BAG-1L, but not the shorter isoforms, can bind to DNA in a sequence-independent manner by making use of positively charged regions close to their amino terminal ends. This is the molecular basis for their effects on transcription which are of major physiological relevance, as discussed here in terms of a model. The related proteins Hap50/BAG-1L and Hap46/BAG-1M may thus serve as molecular links between such diverse bioactivities as regulation of gene expression and protein quality control. These activities are coordinated and synergize in helping cells to cope with conditions of external stress. Moreover, they recently became markers for the aggressiveness of several cancer types.

  19. Promoting fertilizer use via controlled release of a bacteria-encapsulated film bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2010-05-26

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( Burkholderia cepacia isolate) encapsulated in maleic anhydride (MA) grafted onto poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA) and then combined with starch as film bag material (PBSA-g-MA/starch) incubated in a saline solution required approximately 20 days to deplete the starch in the film bags. Thereafter, the cell concentration in the saline solution increased significantly because of the release of cells from the severely destroyed film bags and also their growth by use of depolymerized PBSA-g-MA fragments as a substrate. The incubation proceeded for 60 days, by which time the PBSA-g-MA/starch composite had suffered a >80% weight loss. For practical application, effectiveness of the above-mentioned film bags was demonstrated because it could improve the absorbability of a fertilizer for plants and promote the growth of plants. As a result, it can avoid the accumulation of the phosphate in excess fertilizer that lead to the phenomenon of poor soils. These results demonstrate that PBSA-g-MA/starch can be used to encapsulate cells of an indigenous phosphate-solubilizing bacterium ( B. cepacia isolate) to form a controlled release of bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB). The B. cepacia isolate was able to degrade the film bags material, causing cell release. Biodegradability of the film bags depended upon the type of material used, because the PBSA film bags were also degraded but to a lesser degree. The addition of starch made the film bags more biodegradable. The decrease in intrinsic viscosity was also higher for the starch composite, suggesting a strong connection between the biodegradability and these characteristics. The results suggest that the release of fertilizer-promoted bacteria might be controllable via a suitable film bag material formulation. In addition, this work adopted live bacteria to promote the absorption of phosphate, which is superior to the phosphate used in the traditional way.

  20. Different Ways of Carrying Bags in Mental Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh-Sadat Mortazavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available School as an educational and social center is linked with various aspects of child’s growth. The impact of objects, tools, and lifestyle on the development of human performance is not hidden from anyone [1].Tasell Lauri, the head of Cairo Praktive in Australia, in a paper warned parents about bags as a tool that students carry every day, and he is believes that many spinal disorders in adults is caused by childhood trauma. Studies on children and patients with special needs and such as myelomenangocele, cerebral palsy, and neurofibromatosis precisely show abnormal growth of spinal disorders, muscle imbalance, wrong posture [2]. Carrying stationery in an inappropriate tool can cause irreversible effects.

  1. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  2. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs.

  3. Semantics-preserving bag-of-words models and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Hoi, Steven C H; Yu, Nenghai

    2010-07-01

    The Bag-of-Words (BoW) model is a promising image representation technique for image categorization and annotation tasks. One critical limitation of existing BoW models is that much semantic information is lost during the codebook generation process, an important step of BoW. This is because the codebook generated by BoW is often obtained via building the codebook simply by clustering visual features in Euclidian space. However, visual features related to the same semantics may not distribute in clusters in the Euclidian space, which is primarily due to the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantics. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to learn optimized BoW models, which aims to map semantically related features to the same visual words. In particular, we consider the distance between semantically identical features as a measurement of the semantic gap, and attempt to learn an optimized codebook by minimizing this gap, aiming to achieve the minimal loss of the semantics. We refer to such kind of novel codebook as semantics-preserving codebook (SPC) and the corresponding model as the Semantics-Preserving Bag-of-Words (SPBoW) model. Extensive experiments on image annotation and object detection tasks with public testbeds from MIT's Labelme and PASCAL VOC challenge databases show that the proposed SPC learning scheme is effective for optimizing the codebook generation process, and the SPBoW model is able to greatly enhance the performance of the existing BoW model.

  4. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  5. 78 FR 72628 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Industries Company (TPBI) and Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (Landblue). \\1\\ See Results of Redetermination Pursuant to Court Remand Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., v. United.... Court No. 11-00408, dated July 10, 2013 (Remand Results). \\2\\ See Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co.,...

  6. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berlana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective: To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag, both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting: This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method: We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results: 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16 ± 5.63 € versus 39.69 ± 3.00 € respectively (p < 0.01. Manpower costs were responsible for the majority of the differences found (70%. The time to complete an adult bag for the hospital compounded system was a mean of 25.9 minutes longer than the three-compartment system. In scenarios using a three-compartment system for 30%, 70% and 90% of PN provision, a cost savings of 4.3%, 10.1% and 12.9% respectively could be achieved. Greatest rates of changing from customized bags (70% and 90%, in a hospital with 1,800 PN bags/year, might reduce the annual

  7. Automatic Bagging Machine for Cigarette%自动重袋包装机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮; 郭爱华; 孔晨曲; 李怀刚; 丁科; 李全华

    2011-01-01

    自动重袋包装机具有自动取袋、自动开袋、自动夹袋、自动充填等主要功能以及其他辅助功能,整个工序模仿人工套袋过程制定,并配套整形袋口装置使其在装袋完毕后能无缝对接折边机进入缝包机缝包.其中取袋及开袋等关键动作均由吸盘完成.%Automatic bagging machine has main function of fetching, opening, clipping and filling bag automatically and other functions, and the process of putting bag manually is imitated. E-quipped with flattening device for the mouth of bag, automatic bagging machine can make the filled bag going smoothly to folding machine and sewing machine. Actions of fetching, opening bags etc. are all finished by suckers.

  8. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  9. Gravitating bag as a coherent system of the point-like and dressed electron

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron correspond to over-rotating Kerr-Newman (KN) solution, which has a naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This solution is regularized by a solitonic source, in which singular interior is replaced by a vacuum bubble filled by the Higgs field in a false-vacuum state. Field model of this KN bubble has much in common with the famous MIT and SLAC bag models, but the geometry is "dual" (turned inside out), leading to consistency of the KN bag model with gravity. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is compliant to deformations, and under rotations it takes an oblate ellipsoidal form, creating a circular string along the border. Electromagnetic excitations of the KN bag generate stringy traveling waves which deform the bag, creating a traveling singular pole, included in a general bag-string-quark complex. The dressed electron may be considered in this model as a coherent excitation of this system, confining the point-like electron (as a quark) in st...

  10. Twin Support Vector Machine for Multiple Instance Learning Based on Bag Dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Tomar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In multiple instance learning (MIL framework, an object is represented by a set of instances referred to as bag. A positive class label is assigned to a bag if it contains at least one positive instance; otherwise a bag is labeled with negative class label. Therefore, the task of MIL is to learn a classifier at bag level rather than at instance level. Traditional supervised learning approaches cannot be applied directly in such kind of situation. In this study, we represent each bag by a vector of its dissimilarities to the other existing bags in the training dataset and propose a multiple instance learning based Twin Support Vector Machine (MIL-TWSVM classifier. We have used different ways to represent the dissimilarity between two bags and performed a comparative analysis of them. The experimental results on ten benchmark MIL datasets demonstrate that the proposed MIL-TWSVM classifier is computationally inexpensive and competitive with state-of-the-art approaches. The significance of the experimental results has been tested by using Friedman statistic and Nemenyi post hoc tests.

  11. Thioflavin S (NSC71948) interferes with Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG-1)-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam; Crabb, Simon J; Johnson, Peter W M; Hague, Angela; Cutress, Ramsey; Townsend, Paul A; Ganesan, A; Packham, Graham

    2009-11-01

    The C-terminal BAG domain is thought to play a key role in BAG-1-induced survival and proliferation by mediating protein-protein interactions, for example, with heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70, and with RAF-1 kinase. Here, we have identified thioflavin S (NSC71948) as a potential small-molecule chemical inhibitor of these interactions. NSC71948 inhibited the interaction of BAG-1 and HSC70 in vitro and decreased BAG-1:HSC70 and BAG-1:HSP70 binding in intact cells. NSC71948 also reduced binding between BAG-1 and RAF-1, but had no effect on the interaction between two unrelated proteins, BIM and MCL-1. NSC71948 functionally reversed the ability of BAG-1 to promote vitamin D3 receptor-mediated transactivation, an activity of BAG-1 that depends on HSC70/HSP70 binding, and reduced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activate protein kinase. NSC71948 can be used to stain amyloid fibrils; however, structurally related compounds, thioflavin T and BTA-1, had no effect on BAG-1:HSC70 binding, suggesting that structural features important for amyloid fibril binding and inhibition of BAG-1:HSC70 binding may be separable. We demonstrated that NSC71948 inhibited the growth of BAG-1 expressing human ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells and wild-type, but not BAG-1-deficient, mouse embryo fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that NSC71948 may be a useful molecule to investigate the functional significance of BAG-1 C-terminal protein interactions. However, it is important to recognize that NSC71948 may exert additional "off-target" effects. Inhibition of BAG-1 function may be an attractive strategy to inhibit the growth of BAG-1-overexpressing cancers, and further screens of additional compound collections may be warranted.

  12. Monolateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a constellation of findings resulting in purple discoloration of the urine and/or urine drainage bag(s) occurring in patients with long-term urinary indwelling catheters. Other causative factors may include constipation, female gender, the presence of bacteria containing sulphatase and phosphatase enzymes, and alkaline urine. While the contributing factors for PUBS are linked with high morbidity, PUBS itself is a benign condition. A case study of monolateral PUBS in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NTs) is presented.

  13. Odor Control Test Report of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Stephanie; Williams, Nichole M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the conclusions for the odor control test of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB), P/N SDD46107234-306 in an environment simulating a space craft capsule. JSC 65891, Odor Control Test Plan of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization, documents the test plan. The details of the test set-up and data reduction are detailed in the WSTF test report for this test WSTF #10-44500, Odor Control Test Plan of the Urine Containment Bag (UCB) for Orion Utilization,. This document outlines the project conclusions and forward plans with regard to trash containment for Constellation.

  14. Using small meshed collecting bags on trawls to quantify trawls seabed disturbance of aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    activities has been documented by collecting samples before and after the fishing process or by comparing areas of different fishing intensity. These investigations are expensive and labor demanding and are inappropriate for documenting effects of smaller technological changes aimed at reducing trawling...... impact on commercial fishing grounds. In this study we develop and test small-meshed collecting bags designed to retain juvenile fish and benthic megafauna. The collecting bags are mounted in the wings and body of the trawl. The catches in the collection bags provide information of the species and size...

  15. Constraining the MIT Bag Model of Quark Matter with Gravitational Wave Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Benhar, O; Gualtieri, L; Marassi, S; Benhar, Omar; Ferrari, Valeria; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Marassi, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Most theoretical studies of strange stars are based on the MIT bag model of quark matter, whose main parameter, the bag constant B, is only loosely constrained by phenomenology. We discuss the possibility that detection of gravitational waves emitted by a compact star may provide information on both the nature of the source and the value of B. Our results show that the combined knowledge of the frequency of the emitted gravitational wave and of the mass or the radiation radius of the source allows one to discriminate between strange stars and neutron stars and set stringent bounds on the bag constants.

  16. BAG1: The Guardian of Anti-Apoptotic Proteins in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Aveic; Martina Pigazzi; Giuseppe Basso

    2011-01-01

    BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, M...

  17. Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Harmonie; Fu, Shanlin; Stuart, Barbara; Shimmon, Ronald; Raymond, Tony; Crandell, Tony; Roux, Claude

    2017-04-01

    In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

  18. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  19. Online object tracking via bag-of-local-patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Bo, Chunjuan; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most important tasks in computer vision, online object tracking plays a critical role in numerous lines of research, which has drawn a lot of researchers' attention and be of many realistic applications. This paper develops a novel tracking algorithm based on the bag-of-local-patches representation with the discriminative learning scheme. In the first frame, a codebook is learned by applying the Kmeans algorithm to a set of densely sampled local patches of the tracked object, and then used to represent the template and candidate samples. During the tracking process, the similarities between the coding coefficients of the candidates and template are chosen as the likelihood values of these candidates. In addition, we propose effective model updating and discriminative learning schemes to capture the appearance change of the tracked object and incorporate the discriminative information to achieve a robust matching. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on some challenging image sequences demonstrate that the proposed tracker performs better than other state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  20. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... standard. Exempted manufacturers seeking renewal must bear in mind that the agency is directed to consider... permanently affixed ``sun visor air bag warning label'' and a removable ``warning label on the...

  1. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use.

  2. Dry aging of beef in a bag highly permeable to water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Seyfert, Mark; Hunt, Melvin C; Johnson, Dallas E

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare traditional dry aging of beef with a novel technique of dry aging in a highly moisture-permeable bag. Four equal-sized sections from paired beef strip loins were dry aged traditionally, unpackaged, or packaged in the experimental bag for 14 or 21d at 3°C. No differences (P>0.05) were noted for pH, moisture, fat, total plate counts, cook loss, shear force, or any measured sensory attribute between the two aging treatments after either aging period. After 21d, however, dry aging in the bag (versus traditional dry aging) decreased (PDry aging in a highly moisture-permeable bag is feasible, will positively impact yields and reduce microbial spoilage, and will have no negative impact on product quality.

  3. [Self-image of clients with colostomy related to the collecting bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maria do Rosário de Fátima Franco; Rocha, Francisca Cecília Viana; da Silva, Danillo Maia Guedes; Júnior, Fernando José Guedes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the perception of patients with colostomy in the use of the collection bag. It was conducted a descriptive qualitative approach, on the Center for Integrated Health Lineu Araujo, Teresina-PI, Brazil. Ten clients with colostomy bag participated in the survey. Data were generated through semi-structured interviews. Content analysis has revealed the feelings, the changes and how the process of adaptation of the person with the colostomy bag occurs. It was found that the relationship between the collection bag and the person with a colostomy is filled with negative feelings, significant changes in physical, psychological and sexual order, and in the web of his/her social relationships.

  4. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential. PMID:26522614

  5. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, A; Hann, M R; Greaves, D M; Farley, F J M

    2016-01-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are generally in good agreement with numerical predictions. Both show that the trajectory of possible combinations of pressure and elevation at which the device is in static equilibrium takes the shape of an S. This implies that statically the device can have three different draughts, and correspondingly three different bag shapes, for the same pressure. The behaviour in waves depends on where the mean pressure-elevation condition is on the static trajectory. The captured power is highest for a mean condition on the middle section.

  6. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle...... are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste...... requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should...

  7. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature.

  8. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  9. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Results Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015 and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045. Conclusion Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  10. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources.

  11. Structural Analysis of BAG1 Cochaperone and Its Interactions With Hsc70 Heat Shock Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briknarova, Klara; Takayama, Shinichi; Brive, Lars; Havert, Marnie L.; Knee, Deborah A.; Velasco, Jesus; Homma, Sachiko; Cabezas, Edelmira; Stuart, Joan; Hoyt, David W.; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Llinas, Miguel; Reed , John C.; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2001-04-01

    BAG-family proteins share an evolutionary conserved protein interaction domain, called the''BAG domain''1, which binds and regulates the ATPase domain of Hsp70/Hsc70 molecular chaperones2-5. This family of co-chaperones functionally regulate several signal transducing proteins and transcription factors important for cell stress responses, apoptosis, proliferation, cell migration and hormone regulation.

  12. Direct interaction between BAG5 protein and Parkin protein%BAG5蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪晶; 郭纪锋; 江泓; 沈璐; 唐北沙

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨BAG5(BCL2-associated athanogene 5)蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin之间是否存在相互作用,以及BAG5对Parkin蛋白水平的调控机制.方法:本研究首先运用GST pull-down技术及免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白在体内及体外是否存在相互作用;进一步构建BAG5的不同截短型,运用GST pull-down技术验证BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域;进而运用chase time技术验证BAG5对Parkin蛋白降解水平的调控;最后运用免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5对Parkin降解水平的调控是通过何种机制进行的.结果:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白体内及体外均可以相互结合,且BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域存在于全长的4段BAG区域内;BAG5可以通过减少Parkin的降解而稳定细胞内Parkin蛋白的水平,且BAG5是通过减少Parkin通过泛素蛋白酶体降解系统(ubiquitin proteasome system,UPS)的降解从而增加Parkin蛋白的稳定性.结论:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白可以相互结合,且BAG5蛋白可以通过UPS对Parkin的水平进行调节.

  13. BAG2 Interferes with CHIP-Mediated Ubiquitination of HSP72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbühler, Bianca; Schmitt, Verena; Huesmann, Heike; Kern, Andreas; Gamerdinger, Martin; Behl, Christian

    2016-12-30

    The maintenance of cellular proteostasis is dependent on molecular chaperones and protein degradation pathways. Chaperones facilitate protein folding, maturation, and degradation, and the particular fate of a misfolded protein is determined by the interaction of chaperones with co-chaperones. The co-factor CHIP (C-terminus of HSP70-inteacting protein, STUB1) ubiquitinates chaperone substrates and directs proteins to the cellular degradation systems. The activity of CHIP is regulated by two co-chaperones, BAG2 and HSPBP1, which are potent inhibitors of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we examined the functional correlation of HSP72, CHIP, and BAG2, employing human primary fibroblasts. We showed that HSP72 is a substrate of CHIP and that BAG2 efficiently prevented the ubiquitination of HSP72 in young cells as well as aged cells. Aging is associated with a decline in proteostasis and we observed increased protein levels of CHIP as well as BAG2 in senescent cells. Interestingly, the ubiquitination of HSP72 was strongly reduced during aging, which revealed that BAG2 functionally counteracted the increased levels of CHIP. Interestingly, HSPBP1 protein levels were down-regulated during aging. The data presented here demonstrates that the co-chaperone BAG2 influences HSP72 protein levels and is an important modulator of the ubiquitination activity of CHIP in young as well as aged cells.

  14. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues.

  15. Source of Kerr-Newman solution as supersymmetric bag model: 50 years of the problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    The ultra extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) solution(a = J/m >> m) produces the gravitational and EM fields of the electron. It has a naked singular ring - a topological defect which may be regularized by a solitonic source forming the pseudo-vacuum bubble filled by Higgs condensate in a supersymmetric superconducting state. Structure and stability of this source is determined by Bogomolnyi equations as a BPS-saturated soliton. The Principal Null Congruences of the KN solution determine consistent embedding of the Dirac equation, which acquires the mass from the Higgs condensate inside the soliton, indicating that this soliton forms a bag model. Shape of this bag is unambiguously determined by BPS-bound. The bag turns out to be flexible and takes the form of a very thin disk, which is completed by a ring-string along its sharp boundary. The ring-string traveling waves generate extra deformations of the bag creating a circulating singular pole. Bag model of the KN source integrates the dressed and pointlike electron in a bag-string-quark system, which removes the conflict between gravity and the point-like electron of the Dirac theory.

  16. Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation - Case carrier bags; Liiketoiminnan sopeuttaminen ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnaen vaatimuksiin (OPTIKASSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Mattila, T.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Soukka, R. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Department of Energy and Environmental Technology (Finland)); Kujanpaeae, M. (KCL Science and Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Shopping bags have been a prominent topic of debate lately. Many countries have banned disposable bags or imposed a tax on them. The motives have been to avoid littering, reduce reliance on oil, and curb climate change. Restrictions are also justified by the accumulation of plastic garbage in the oceans, and by the damage to marine organisms. The environmental effects of production, use, and disposal of shopping bags are small compared with other consumption. However, the choice of a shopping bag is repeated every week, and the consumer is not sure about the consequences of each alternative. To reduce this uncertainty the OPTIKASSI study was made. The study called 'Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation . case shopping bags, OPTIKASSI project' was implemented to study shopping bag alternatives in Finnish grocery stores, and the effects of the bags on climate change and the possibilities to mitigate them. Finnish Environment Institute and Lappeenranta University of Technology were responsible for the study, funded by Tekes ClimBus Programme, and the bag producers Suominen Flexible Packaging Ltd, Plastiroll Oy (Ltd), UPM-Kymmene LtdWisapaper and CabassiOy. The goal of the OPTIKASSI project was to compile lifecycle based information about the climate effects of the most typical shopping bags. It was also desirable to find the best consumption and waste management solutions for bags made of various materials. Products compared were plastic bags of virgin material, and of recycled material, paper bags, canvas bags, and shopping bags of biodegradable plastic. According to the results the shopping bags are an insignificant part of the climate effects of a Finnish household, but negligent use of bags may multiply the effects. Based on scenario, sensitivity, and ambiguity studies: garbage bags should be replaced by plastic bags, and the bins packed full and tight, incineration is not sensible; paper bags should be

  17. ADHD classification using bag of words approach on network features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Dey, Soumyabrata; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Shah, Mubarak

    2012-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is receiving lots of attention nowadays mainly because it is one of the common brain disorders among children and not much information is known about the cause of this disorder. In this study, we propose to use a novel approach for automatic classification of ADHD conditioned subjects and control subjects using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of resting state brains. For this purpose, we compute the correlation between every possible voxel pairs within a subject and over the time frame of the experimental protocol. A network of voxels is constructed by representing a high correlation value between any two voxels as an edge. A Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach is used to represent each subject as a histogram of network features; such as the number of degrees per voxel. The classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We also investigate the use of raw intensity values in the time series for each voxel. Here, every subject is represented as a combined histogram of network and raw intensity features. Experimental results verified that the classification accuracy improves when the combined histogram is used. We tested our approach on a highly challenging dataset released by NITRC for ADHD-200 competition and obtained promising results. The dataset not only has a large size but also includes subjects from different demography and edge groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose BoW approach in any functional brain disorder classification and we believe that this approach will be useful in analysis of many brain related conditions.

  18. 袋型与套袋时间对日面红梨果实及贮藏品质的影响%Effects of Bags Types and Bagging Time on the Mantianhong Pears Fruit Quality and Storage Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊炜; 阮班录; 刘建海; 冯月秀; 君广仁; 程琪; 刘海龙

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为提高红皮梨的品质提供理论依据,以促进红皮梨推广工作健康发展.[方法]以红皮梨品种日面红为试验树,以5种育果袋分3个不同时期对日面红进行套袋试验.[结果]套袋可减少果锈,其中以双黑袋和条黑袋效果最好,套袋晚者好;套袋后绿色减退、表色鲜艳.套袋过早日烧增加,以膜+纸袋最严重.套袋后裂果增加,以塑膜袋最重,套袋晚的三色袋和膜+纸袋较轻.套袋后果实黑点病增加,塑膜袋最严重,套袋越晚越严重.除双黑袋和三色袋外,套袋后着色下降.套袋早的,采收后失水严重,以三色袋、膜+纸袋最严重.[结论]综合比较,以5月下旬(盛花后40~45 d)套双黑袋和条黑袋的日面红果实贮藏品质最优.%[Objective]This research aimed to provide theoretical basis for the improvement of Mantianhong pears fruit quality,and to promote the extension service of red skin pear development in a healthy way.[Method]Taken red skin pear Mantianhong for materials to carry out bagging experiment in three stages with five kinds of fruits cultivating bags.[Result]Bagging could reduce the arising of fruit rust, therein the best measure were dual-black bagging and the strip-black bagging.When bagging time was later,the arising of fruit rust was least. Meanwhile the green color of the fruit faded away after bagging and the surface color turned bright. The sunburn turned seriously when the bagging time was too early, especially the membrane-paper bagging.The number of cracking fruits increased after bagging, the plastic bag treatment was worst and the three-color bagging,the membrane-paper bagging were lighter.The black-dot disease turned seriously after bagging, therein the plastic bagging was seriously.The later the bagging, the serious the disease.The fruit staining decreased after bagging expect the dual-black bagging and the three color bagging treatments. For the early bagging treatments,the lost of water was serious

  19. BAG3-related myopathy, polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy with long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Suszek, Małgorzata; Płoski, Rafał; Franaszczyk, Maria; Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Sadurska, Elżbieta; Karolczak, Justyna; Kamińska, Anna M; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    BAG3 belongs to BAG family of molecular chaperone regulators interacting with HSP70 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. It is ubiquitously expressed with strong expression in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and is involved in a panoply of cellular processes. Mutations in BAG3 and aberrations in its expression cause fulminant myopathies, presenting with progressive limb and axial muscle weakness, and respiratory insufficiency and neuropathy. Herein, we report a sporadic case of a 15-years old girl with symptoms of myopathy, demyelinating polyneuropathy and asymptomatic long QT syndrome. Genetic testing demonstrated heterozygous mutation Pro209Leu (c.626C > T) in exon 3 of BAG3 gene causing severe myopathy and neuropathy, often associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy. We did not find a mutation in any known LQT syndrome genes. Analysis of muscle biopsy revealed profound disintegration of Z-discs with extensive accumulation of granular debris and large inclusions within fibers. We demonstrated profound alterations in BAG3 distribution as the protein localized to long filamentous structures present across the fibers that were positively stained not only for α-actinin but also for desmin and filamin indicating that those disintegrated Z-disc regions contained also other sarcomeric proteins. The mutation caused a decrease in the content of BAG3 and HSP70, and also of α-actinin desmin, filamin and fast myosin heavy chain, confirming its severe effect on the muscle fiber morphology and thus function. We provide further evidence that BAG3 is associated with Z-disc maintenance, and the Pro209Leu mutation may occur worldwide. We also provide a summary of cases associated with this mutation reported so far.

  20. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Sagum, Cari A.; Bedford, Mark T.; Sudol, Marius; Han, Ziying

    2017-01-01

    Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs), as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles. PMID:28076420

  1. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  2. Using nudges to reduce waste? The case of Toronto's plastic bag levy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nicholas; Shenstone-Harris, Sarah; Young, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    The overuse of disposable plastic bags is a major environmental problem across the globe. In recent years, numerous jurisdictions have sought to curb disposable bag use by implementing a levy or fee at the point of purchase. These levies are typically small and symbolic (around $0.05 per bag), but serve as a highly-visible and continuous reminder to consumers. As such, they are consistent with nudging policies that seek to encourage broad changes in behaviour through small, non-coercive measures that influence people's thinking about an issue. While existing empirical evidence suggests that nudges are highly effective in reducing disposable bag use, we argue that many of these studies are flawed because they lack adequate temporal and geographic controls. We use longitudinal data from four waves of a major Canadian survey to analyze the effect of a disposable bag levy in the City of Toronto. Controlling for demographics and changes in social norms over time, we find that the levy increased the use of reusable shopping bags by 3.4 percentage points. Moreover, we find that the impact of the policy was highly variable across behavioural and demographic groups. The levy was highly effective in encouraging people who already used reusable bags to use them more frequently, while having no effect on infrequent users. We also find that the effects are limited to households with high socio-economic status (as measured by income, educational attainment, and housing situation). This suggests important limitations for nudging policy more generally, as people with lower socio-economic status appear to have been unaffected by this behavioural prompt.

  3. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material.

  4. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer

  5. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia eMendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e. 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag and display condition (single vs. motion imaging. There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others, the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view. In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening.

  6. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  7. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  8. The storage stability of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the sorptive loss properties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags were investigated as a function of storage duration. To this end, the relative recovery of gas phase standards of BVOCs, obtained via vaporization of liquid phase standards, was computed by calibrating their standards (response factors: RF) represnting each phase. Accordingly, the results indicated either slight loss (-5.59% (isoprene), -2.39% (camphene), -1.69% ((R)-(+)-limonene), -0.88% (p-cymene)) or gain (1.47% (γ-terpinene), 2.27% (α-terpinene), 2.63% (α-phellandrene), 2.73% ((+)-3-carene), 3.93% ((+)-β-pinene), and 5.98% ((+)-α-pinene)). Through comparison of the calibration results across storage time, the temporal stability of BVOCs was assessed. Longer BVOC storage time in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags lowered the relative recovery of BVOCs. The relative loss of BVOCs, if calculated in terms of mean bag standard RF ratios (relative to liquid standard) across elapsed time, decreased systematically: 0.99 ± 0.05 (0 h), 0.88 ± 0.06 (24 h), 0.66 ± 0.11 (72 h), and 0.62 ± 0.14 (120 h). It is thus recommended to complete the analysis of BVOC in PEA bags within 24 h of sample acquisition. As such, it is important to apply appropriate sampling approaches with a proper storage plan when measuring ambient BVOCs collected by bag sampling methods.

  9. Contributions from Goldstone-boson-exchange to baryon spectra in the MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    He, D H; Li, X Q; Shen, P N; He, Da-Heng; Ding, Yi-Bing; Li, Xue-Qian; Shen, Peng-Nian

    2005-01-01

    We discuss contributions of chiral bosons to baryon spectra in the MIT bag model. It is believed that within hadrons, chiral bosons are degrees of freedom which are independent of gluons to provide strong interactions between quarks. In the original MIT bag model, only interaction mediated by gluon exchanges was considered, by contrast, in this work we take into account the interaction mediated by the exchanges of chiral bosons $\\sigma$ and $\\pi^{(\\pm,0)}$. Then following the standard approach, we minimize the effective hamiltonian which includes both the contributions from gluon and chiral-boson exchanges with respect to the bag radius to obtain the effective radius. By re-fitting the spectra of baryons, we find that the contributions from the boson-exchange may be 40% of that from gluon-exchanges and meanwhile the bag constant $B$, the zero-point energy $z_0$ almost do not change. It indicates that in the original version of the MIT bag model, the intermediate-distance interaction due to the chiral-boson ex...

  10. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  11. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  12. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.

  13. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  14. Calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y. N.; Hua, Y.

    A mathematical model of the geometry formation of an ACV bag-finger skirt is developed to determine skirt shape and its deflection for varying cushion pressures, and calculations for the reactions of supports of the rigid structure on the skirt at the inner and outer attachment points are obtained. The model assumption that the finger triangle of the two-dimensional bag-finger skirt turns around the inner attachment point with changing ratio of cushion pressure to bag pressure is confirmed by experiments using skirt rigs. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results, and it is shown that when the cushion pressure is changing, the pressure ratio is the essential dimensionless parameter for the skirt geometry formation and its deflection, and for the forces acting on it.

  15. A Numerical Estimation of a RFID Reader Field and SAR inside a Blood Bag at UHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fanti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of UHF electromagnetic fields produced by a RFID reader on a blood bag are evaluated numerically in several configurations. The results of the simulation, field level and distribution, specific absorption rate (SAR, and heating time show that an exposure to a typical reader field leads to a temperature increase smaller than 0.1 C and to a SAR smaller than 1 W/kg. As a consequence, no adverse biological effects occur during a typical UHF RFID reading cycle on a blood bag. Therefore, the blood contained in a bag traced using UHF-RFID is as safe as those traced using barcodes. The proposed analysis supports the use of UHF RFID in the blood transfusion supply chain.

  16. [In vitro study of platelet preservation during 5 days in reduced-thickness bags].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Babault, C; Desbois, I; Degenne, M; Binet, C; Garnier, C; Chassaigne, M

    1989-02-01

    An in vitro study of platelet concentrates storage for 5 days was performed in PVC bags. Modification of the original three-day containers were introduced by thickness reduction. The results at fifth day were comparable to those at third day in standard plastic bags. During storage, variations of platelet counts were very slight with a low LDH release. PH was stable with a good maintenance of phase microscope platelet morphology. PCO2 and PO2 measurements showed a satisfactory gas permeability which could explain a limited lactate production. If in vivo studies of transfusion recovery confirm these data, platelet concentrates storage could be extended up to 5 days by such modifications of standard three-day PVC bags.

  17. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  18. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance.

  19. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  20. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  1. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  2. Bagging system, soil stabilization mat, and tent frame for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Georgia Tech's School of Textile and Fiber Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering participated in four cooperative design efforts this year. Each of two interdisciplinary teams designed a system consisting of a lunar regolith bag and an apparatus for filling this bag. The third group designed a mat for stabilization of lunar soil during takeoff and landing, and a method for packaging and deploying this mat. Finally, the fourth group designed a sunlight diffusing tent to be used as a lunar worksite. Summaries of these projects are given.

  3. Production of Soy Sauce Koji Mold Spore Inoculum in Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Lotong, N.; Suwanarit, P.

    1983-01-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 109 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50°C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decr...

  4. 消化道肿瘤组织芯片中BAG-1的表达及意义分析%Expression and Significance of Apoptosis Related Gene BAG-1 in Digestive Tract Cancer by Tissue Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雨冬; 师建国; 闫庆国; 王明元; 王星

    2006-01-01

    目的检测抗凋亡基因BAG-1在多种消化道肿瘤中的表达,并讨论其意义.方法利用组织芯片,采用免疫组化DA-KO Envision法检测食道癌、胃癌、直肠癌及正常组织中BAG-1的表达.结果食道癌、胃癌及直肠癌组织中BAG-1的表达比其对应的正常组织为高(P<0.01).结论BAG-1在消化道肿瘤组织中表达高于正常组织,提示BAG1表达可能与消化道恶性肿瘤的发生有关.

  5. 77 FR 3035 - Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters® Bags & Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters Bags & Rolls AGENCY... announcing 2012 pricing for annual sets and the America the Beautiful Quarters Bags and Rolls. Please see...

  6. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse.... SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for Kennedy Half-Dollar bags and rolls,...

  7. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Request for and Use of Low/Non-Fat Foods in Bag Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, LaShanda R.; Sallis, James F.; Conway, Terry L.; Marshall, Simon J.; Pelletier, Robin L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated ethnic and gender differences in frequency of use and healthfulness of bag lunches at school. Surveys of middle school students and their parents indicated that one-half of students brought bag lunches, with boys doing so more often than girls. There were ethnic differences in the use of seven foods and whether foods were regular or…

  8. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and...

  9. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 185... Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession...

  10. Bagging Treatment Influences Production of C6 Aldehydes and Biosynthesis-Related Gene Expression in Peach Fruit Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Shen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bagging is a useful method to improve fruit quality by altering its exposure to light, whereas its effect on fruit volatiles production is inconsistent, and the genes responsible for the observed changes remain unknown. In the present study, single-layer yellow paper bags were used to study the effects of bagging treatment on the formation of C6 aldehydes in peach fruit (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. Yulu over two succeeding seasons. Higher concentrations of n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, which are characteristic aroma volatiles of peach fruit, were induced by bagging treatment. After bagging treatment, peach fruit had significantly higher LOX and HPL enzyme activities, accompanying increased contents of C6 aldehydes. The gene expression data obtained through real-time PCR showed that no consistent significant differences in transcript levels of LOX genes were observed over the two seasons, but significantly up-regulated expression was found for PpHPL1 after bagging treatment In addition, bagging-treated fruit produced more (E-2-hexenal and had higher expression levels of PpHPL1 during postharvest ripening at room temperature. The regulatory role of the LOX-HPL pathway on the biosynthesis of n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal in response to bagging treatment during peach fruit development is discussed in the text.

  11. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day; and...

  12. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day; and...

  13. In-the-bag intraocular lens placement via secondary capsulorhexis with radiofrequency diathermy in pediatric aphakic eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Luo

    Full Text Available Pediatric ophthalmologists increasingly recognize that the ideal site for intraocular lens (IOL implantation is in the bag for aphakic eyes, but it is always very difficult via conventional technique. We conducted a prospective case series study to investigate the success rate and clinical outcomes of capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation via secondary capsulorhexis with radiofrequency diathermy (RFD in pediatric aphakic eyes, in which twenty-two consecutive aphakic pediatric patients (43 aphakic eyes enrolled in the Childhood Cataract Program of the Chinese Ministry of Health were included. The included children underwent either our novel technique for secondary IOL implantation (with RFD or the conventional technique (with a bent needle or forceps, depending on the type of preoperative proliferative capsular bag present. In total, secondary capsulorhexis with RFD was successfully applied in 32 eyes (32/43, 74.4%, age 5.6±2.3 years, of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved in 30 eyes (30/43, 70.0%, but in the remaining 2 eyes (2/32, 6.2% the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus with a capsular bag that was too small. Secondary capsulorhexis with conventional technique was applied in the other 11 eyes (11/43, 25.6%, age 6.9±2.3 years, of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved only in 3 eyes(3/43, 7.0%, and the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus in the remaining 8 eyes. A doughnut-like proliferative capsular bag with an extensive Soemmering ring (32/43, 74.4% was the main success factor for secondary capsulorhexis with RFD, and a sufficient capsular bag size (33/43, 76.7% was an additional factor in successful in-the-bag IOL implantation. In conclusion, RFD secondary capsulorhexis technique has 70% success rate in the capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation in pediatric aphakic eyes, particularly effective in

  14. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-02-18

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.

  15. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus.

  16. Multidimensional counting grids: Inferring word order from disordered bags of words

    CERN Document Server

    Jojic, Nebojsa

    2012-01-01

    Models of bags of words typically assume topic mixing so that the words in a single bag come from a limited number of topics. We show here that many sets of bag of words exhibit a very different pattern of variation than the patterns that are efficiently captured by topic mixing. In many cases, from one bag of words to the next, the words disappear and new ones appear as if the theme slowly and smoothly shifted across documents (providing that the documents are somehow ordered). Examples of latent structure that describe such ordering are easily imagined. For example, the advancement of the date of the news stories is reflected in a smooth change over the theme of the day as certain evolving news stories fall out of favor and new events create new stories. Overlaps among the stories of consecutive days can be modeled by using windows over linearly arranged tight distributions over words. We show here that such strategy can be extended to multiple dimensions and cases where the ordering of data is not readily ...

  17. Optical in-situ measurement of filter cake height during bag filter plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood Saleem; Gernot Krammer [Graz University of Technology (Austria). Institute for Apparatus Design, Particle Technology, and Combustion

    2007-04-15

    A pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter test facility is operated at conditions similar to those of the industrial bag filters. The facility is equipped with a stereo vision based optical system for in-situ cake height distribution measurements on the bag filter surface. Experimental data are presented and data evaluation procedures are discussed to elaborate the features of the measuring system. The results show that the cake height distribution becomes narrower towards the end of filtration cycles. A steep pressure drop rise is observed at the start of a filtration cycle in the absence of re-attachment and a non-uniform bag cleaning, which may be attributed to different cake properties. The specific cake resistance remains constant over the linear part of the pressure drop curve indicating a non-compressible cake formation. The analysis of residual cake patches shows a large number of small sized cake patches and a few large sized cake patches on the filter surface. The cake patch size increases with the cake formation. The fractal analysis of patches boundary indicates preferential cake formation at the boundary of the residual cake patches shortly after regeneration.

  18. Comparative Study Between Deep Learning and Bag of Visual Words for Wild-Animal Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed two variants

  19. Evaluation of ruminal degradation profiles of forages using bags made from different textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Neves Pereira Valente

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ degradation profiles of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of different forages using nylon (50 µm, F57 (Ankom® and non-woven textile (NWT - 100 g/m² bags. Eight forage samples were used: sugarcane, corn silage, elephant grass cut at 50 and 250 days of regrowth, corn straw, signal grass hay, coast cross hay, and fresh alfalfa. Samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 312 hours. Two bags of each textile were used at each incubation time, totaling 768 bags, using two crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers fitted with ruminal canullae. There was difference in the common rate of lag and degradation (λ of DM for all forages, except for sugarcane. In general, higher λ estimates were obtained using nylon, followed by NWT and F57. Concerning NDF degradation profiles, differences in λ were observed for all forages. Greater estimates were obtained using nylon. Degradation profiles of DM and NDF must not be evaluated using F57 and NWT. These textiles underestimate the degradation rate due to constraints regarding exchange between bags' content and rumen environment.

  20. 40 CFR 89.421 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust... for analyzing CVS bag samples from compression- ignition engines. Since various configurations can... as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional...

  1. Quark-Gluon Plasma in a Bag Model with a Soft Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rafael B.; Marranghello, Guilherme F.; Vasconcellos, César A. Z.; Mesquita, Alexandre

    We analyze the implications of quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to model, respectively, two distinct phases of nuclear matter, a baryon-meson phase and a quark-gluon phase. We develop an equation of state (EoS) in the framework of a quark-meson coupling model for the hadron-meson phase using a new version of the fuzzy bag model with scalar-isoscalar, vector-isoscalar and vector-isovector meson-quark couplings and leptonic degrees of freedom as well as the constrains from chemical equilibrium, baryon number and electric charge conservation. We model the EoS for the QGP phase for asymptotically free massless quarks and gluons using the MIT approach and a temperature and baryon chemical potential dependent bag constant, B(T,μ), which allows an isentropic equilibrium phase transition from a QGP to a hadron gas as determined by thermodynamics. Our predictions yield the EoS and static global properties of neutron stars and protoneutron stars at low and moderate values of temperature. Our results are slightly modified in comparison to predictions based on the standard MIT bag model with a constant bag pressure B.

  2. Ranking Bale Bagging Materials for Cotton Bales on the Rate of Bale Weight Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universal Density cotton bales were formed with relatively dry lint, covered with different types of cotton bale bagging materials, and the bales stored in a humid environment for more than 3 months. The bale coverings included coated woven polypropylene with and without holes, linear low density p...

  3. Comparing Local Descriptors and Bags of Visual Words to Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Plant Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The use of machine learning and computer vision methods for recognizing different plants from images has attracted lots of attention from the community. This paper aims at comparing local feature descriptors and bags of visual words with different classifiers to deep convolutional neural networks (C

  4. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... agency. This regulation is only available for motor vehicles manufactured before September 1, 2012. In..., osteoporosis/arthritis; driver because of achondroplasia; or passenger because of Down syndrome and... vehicles. There have been two confirmed air-bag- related adult fatalities in model year 2004 or...

  5. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... instituted these reviews on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31750, July 2, 2009) and determined on October 5, 2009 that it would conduct full reviews (74 FR 54069, October 21, 2009). Notice of the scheduling of the... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the...

  6. Polylactide-based renewable composites from natural products residues by encapsulated film bag: characterization and biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the biodegradability, morphology, and mechanical properties of composite materials consisting of acrylic acid-grafted polylactide (PLA-g-AA) and natural products residues (corn starch, CS) were evaluated. Composites containing acrylic acid-grafted PLA (PLA-g-AA/CS) exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties due to their greater compatibility with CS compared with PLA/CS. The feasibility of using PLA-g-AA/CS as a film bag material to facilitate the controlled release of an encapsulated phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) Burkholderia cepacia as a fertilizer use promoter was then evaluated. For purposes of comparison and accurate characterization, a PLA film bag was also assessed. The results showed that the bacterium completely degraded both the PLA and the PLA-g-AA/CS composite film bags, resulting in cell release. The PLA-g-AA/CS (20 wt%) film bags were more biodegradable than those made of PLA, and displayed a higher loss of molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity, indicating a strong connection between these characteristics and biodegradability.

  7. Measurement of the postruminal digestibility of crude protein by the bag technique in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J; Piatkowski, B; Engelmann, H; Rudolph, E

    1985-08-01

    A new method has been developed which permits the crude protein digestibility of feedstuffs in the intestine of cattle to be measured with little effort in terms of samples and experimental work. It consists of welding 0.4 ... 0.8 g of the feedstuff (particle size: 125 ... 1000 micron) into polyamide fabric bags (25 X 40 mm) which are inserted via cannulae into the digestive tracts of fistulated cows from the abomasum/duodenum to the ileum or from the abomasum/duodenum to the faeces. The mean retention time of the bags in the animal was 8.5 +/- 2.7 h from the abomasum to the end of the ileum and (13.3 +/- 1.9 h from the abomasum to the faeces. Up to 15 bags per day and cow may be used. The random error of the method is 1.3% (absolute) when the measurements are performed on two animals using two bags each. Intestinal digestibilities of over 90% were measured for concentrate proteins (except linseed meal) and of 72 ... 95% for forage proteins. Post-ruminal digestion was virtually finished at the end of the small intestine.

  8. The impact of environmental parameters on microcystin production in dialysis bag experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liqiang; Rediske, Richard R.; Gillett, Nadia D.; O’Keefe, James P.; Scull, Brian; Xue, Qingju

    2016-12-01

    It is important to understand what environmental parameters may regulate microcystin (MC) production and congener type. To determine if environmental conditions in two hydraulically connected lakes can influence MC production and congener ratios, we incubated dialysis bags containing phytoplankton from mesotrophic/eutrophic Muskegon Lake into hypereutrophic Bear Lake (Michigan, USA) and vice versa. Strong cyanobacteria growth was observed in all dialysis bags with Bear Lake phytoplankton in July and August. Phytoplankton communities were dominated by Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides, Microcystis wesenbergii, Limnothrix redekei. MC concentrations were correlated with M. wesenbergii and A. aphanizomenoides biovolume. MC concentrations in bags incubated in the Muskegon Lake with Bear Lake water were significantly higher than the other bags. The higher light intensity and total nitrogen concentration may have caused the increase of MC production. The MC-LR/MC-RR ratios varied with sample origin but not with lake of incubation, indicating that physical environmental factors (water temperature and turbidity) were not the reasons for different toxin production ratios. Differences in total phosphorus concentrations might be one reason for the dissimilarity of the MC-LR/MC-RR ratio between the two lakes. The higher light intensity and NO3-N concentration in Muskegon Lake are two factors contributing to an increase of MC production.

  9. Analysis of HDAC6 and BAG3-Aggresome Pathways in African Swine Fever Viral Factory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Muñoz-Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a double-stranded DNA virus causing a hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality rates and severe economic losses in pigs worldwide. ASFV replicates in perinuclear sites called viral factories (VFs that are morphologically similar to cellular aggresomes. This fact raises the possibility that both VFs and aggresomes may be the same structure. However, little is known about the process involved in the formation of these viral replication platforms. In order to expand our knowledge on the assembly of ASFV replication sites, we have analyzed the involvement of both canonical aggresome pathways in the formation of ASFV VFs: HDAC6 and BAG3. HDAC6 interacts with a component of the dynein motor complex (dynactin/p150Glued and ubiquitinated proteins, transporting them to the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC and leading to aggresome formation, while BAG3 is mediating the recruitment of non-ubiquitinated proteins through a similar mechanism. Tubacin-mediated HDAC6 inhibition and silencing of BAG3 pathways, individually or simultaneously, did not prevent ASFV VF formation. These findings show that HDAC6 and Bag3 are not required for VFs formation suggesting that aggresomes and VFs are not the same structures. However, alternative unexplored pathways may be involved in the formation of aggresomes.

  10. Hvem sidder dér bag skærmen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Schaumburg-Müller, Peer

    2009-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i nutidens daytrader, der sidder ´"bag skærmen" og foretager talrige daglige køb og salg af børsnoterede aktier mv., analyseres det i artiklen, hvornår en sådan lovlig daytrading udarter til strafbar kursmanipulation. Nogle daytradere har ment, at hvis en ikke-professionel invest...

  11. The integral form of APS boundary conditions in the Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    Abrikosov, A A; Wipf, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We propose an integral form of Atiah-Patodi-Singer spectral boundary conditions (SBC) and find explicitly the integral projector onto SBC for the 3-dimensional spherical cavity. After discussion of a simple example we argue that the relation between the projector and fermion propagator is universal and stays valid independently of the bag form and space dimension.

  12. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  13. Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bragança de Matos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavior in a general way from a reduced set of antecedent variables, we developed an intersectional survey consisting of 226 interviews. Data were processed by equations modeling and treated in Amos 16.0 software. The measurement model considered the mental constructions forming TCP. It was possible to identify as a major contribution of this study that the perceived behavioral control is the most influential factor on the intended not use of plastic bags, hindering the adoption of the behavior of not using plastic bags. Perhaps the fact that it is a settled habit, which involves several routine actions, such as the habit of going to the grocery store and have to plan in advance to take the alternative shopping bag or cart for packaging purchased products, or to count on ecological alternatives offered by commercial establishments, is a major and determining impediment for behavioral change.

  14. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  15. Impacts of Daily Bag Limit Reductions on Angler Effort in Wisconsin Walleye Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T.D.; Cox, S.P.; Carpenter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Angler effort is an important factor affecting recreational fisheries. However, angler responses are rarely incorporated into recreational fisheries regulations or predictions. Few have attempted to examine how daily bag limit regulations affect total angling pressure and subsequent stock densities. Our paper develops a theoretical basis for predicting angler effort and harvest rate based on stock densities and bag limit regulations. We examined data from a management system that controls the total exploitation of walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) in northern Wisconsin lakes and compared these empirical results with the predictions from a theoretical effort and harvest rate response model. The data indicated that higher general angler effort occurs on lakes regulated with a 5-walleye daily limit than on lakes regulated with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. General walleye catch rates were lower on lakes with a 5-walleye limit than on lakes with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. An effort response model predicted a logarithmic relationship between angler effort and adult walleye density and that an index of attractiveness would be greater on lakes with high bag limits. Predictions from the harvest rate model with constant walleye catchability indicated that harvest rates increased nonlinearly with increasing density. When the effort model was fitted to data from northern Wisconsin, we found higher lake attractiveness at 5-walleye-limit lakes. We conclude that different groups of anglers respond differently to bag limit changes and that reliance on daily bag limits may not be sufficient to maintain high walleye densities in some lakes in this region.

  16. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja; Hartmann, Nanna B; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-05-01

    Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste Framework Directive and the Directive on the Landfill of Waste. The main gaps identified relate to lack of clear definitions of categories of polymers, unambitious recycling rates and lack of consideration of macro- and microplastics in key pieces of legislation. We recommend that polymers are categorized according to whether they are polymers with the same monomer constituents (homopolymers) or with different monomer constituents (copolymers) and that polymers are no longer exempt from registration and evaluation under REACH. Plastics should furthermore have the same high level of monitoring and reporting requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should also apply to heavyweight plastic carrier bags. Last, the Marine and Water Framework Directives should specifically address plastic waste affecting water quality.

  17. Effect of Bagging Time and Bag Type on the Quality of Yunhongli 1%不同套袋时期和果袋类型对云红梨1号果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 苏俊; 陈霞; 舒群

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to make sure the suitable bagging time and bag type of red skinned pear in Yunnan province. [Method] Taken red skin pear Yunhongli 1 for materials, bagging experiment was carried out in two stages with four kinds of fruits bags. [Result] The suitable bagging time in Yunnan province was the 25th of April. The coloration index and the soluble solid content of fruit were significantly improved with external grey and internal black double-plastic bag. Bagging with external yellow and internal black dual-smooth wax bag reduced the arising of fruit rust and improved the coloration index of fruit significantly. The suitable bag type was external yellow and internal black dualsmooth wax bag. [Conclusion] The suitable bagging time and bag type were beneficial to improve the fruit quality.%【目的】明确云南地区红色砂梨适宜的套袋时间和果袋类型。【方法】以红色砂梨品种云红梨1号为试材,以4种果袋分2个时期对云红梨1号进行套袋试验.【结果]云红梨1号在云南地区适宜的套袋时间为4月25日。用外灰内黑薄膜双层袋套袋可显著提高梨果的着色指数和果实可溶性固形物,用外黄内黑双光蜡袋套袋能减少果锈的形成,显著提高梨果的着色指数。适宜的纸袋类型为外黄内黑双光蜡袋。【结论】适宜的套袋时期和果袋类型有利于果品质量的提高。

  18. Attached segment has higher CD34+ cells and CFU-GM than the main bag after thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup; Kim, Byoung Jae

    2015-01-01

    A contiguous segment attached to the cord blood unit (CBU) is required for verifying HLA types, cell viability, and, possibly, potency before transplantation since such a segment is considered to be representative of the CBU. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of contiguous segments in comparison to main bag units due to the difficulty experienced in accessing a large number of cryopreserved CBUs. In this study, we used 245 nonconforming CBUs for allogeneic transplantation. After thawing the cryopreserved CBU, the number of total nucleated cells (TNCs), CD34(+) cells, and CFUs in CB from main bags and segments, as well as cell viability and apoptosis, were examined. The comparative analysis showed that the number of TNCs was significantly higher in CB from main bags, whereas the numbers of CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM were significantly higher in CB from segments. While the cell viability of TNCs in segments was higher, the proportion of apoptotic TNCs was also higher. In contrast, no difference was observed between the proportion of apoptotic CD34(+) cells in main bags and segments. In the correlation analysis, the numbers of TNCs, CD34(+) cells, and CFU-GM in main bags were highly correlated with those in segments, indicating that CB from segments is indeed representative of CB in main bags. Taken together, we conclude that segments have higher CD34(+) cells and CFU-GM and lower TNCs than the main cryopreserved bag, although the two compartments are highly correlated with each other.

  19. The effects of operator position, pallet orientation, and palletizing condition on low back loads in manual bag palletizing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R

    2015-05-01

    Many mining commodities are packaged and shipped using bags. Small bags are typically loaded onto pallets for transport and require a significant amount of manual handling by workers. This specific task of manual bag handling has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially low back disorders. This study evaluates the biomechanical demands of different work layouts when performing manual palletizing of small bags, and evaluates the biomechanical stresses associated with different stacking techniques. Results indicate that peak forward bending moments as well as spinal compression and shear forces are higher when the pallet is situated at the side of the conveyor as opposed to the end of the conveyor. At low levels of the pallet, controlled bag placement results in higher peak forward bending moments than stacking at higher levels and when dropping the bag to lower levels. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of an audit tool for bagging operations in the mining industry.

  20. Comparison between Fermion Bag Approach and Complex Langevin Dynamics for Massive Thirring Model at Finite Density in 0 + 1 Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daming

    2016-01-01

    We consider the massive Thirring model at finite density in 0+1 dimension. The fermion bag approach, Langevin dynamics and complex Langevin dynamics are adopted to attack the sign problem for this model. Compared with the complex Langevin dynamics, both fermion bag approach and Langvin dynamics avoid the sign problem. The fermion density and chiral condensate, which are obtained by these numerical methods, are compared with the exact results. The advantages of the fermion bag approach over the other numerical methods are also discussed.

  1. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  2. 危化品双层包装袋内袋扎口装置的设计%Design on Inside Bag Enlaceing Device of Hazardous Chemicals in Double Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帆; 黎厚斌; 张国全; 王娈; 王北海

    2016-01-01

    为提高危化品双层包装袋封装的自动化程度,分析双层包装袋扎口装置的工作原理,建立双层包装袋扎口装置主要部件的设计思路和结构模型,并对关键参数进行优化处理。最终得出双层包装袋扎口装置设计方案。%In order to improve the automation level of double bag packaging for hazardous chemicals,the working theory of enlaceing device of double bags was analyzed,Design ideas and structural model of main components were established to double bag enlaceing device,and the key parameters were optimized.Finally, the design of double bags enlaceing device was gained.

  3. Stimulation of protein kinase C recruits covert calcium channels in Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, J A; Fox, A P; Tsien, R W; Kaczmarek, L K

    The modulation of voltage-activated calcium currents by protein kinases provides excitable cells with a mechanism for regulating their electrical behaviour. At the single channel level, modulation of calcium current has, to date, been characterized only in cardiac muscle, where beta-adrenergic agonists, acting through cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, enhance the calcium current by increasing channel availability and opening. We now report that enhancement of calcium current in the peptidergic bag cell neurons of Aplysia by protein kinase C occurs through a different mechanism, the recruitment of a previously covert class of calcium channel. Under control conditions, bag cell neurons contain only one class of voltage-activated calcium channel with a conductance of approximately 12 pS. After exposure to agents that activate protein kinase C, these neurons also express a second class of calcium channel with a different unitary conductance (approximately 24 pS) that is never seen in untreated cells.

  4. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively.

  5. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2 concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  6. A six-quark dressed-bag description of np -> d \\gamma radiative capture

    CERN Document Server

    Kaskulov, M M; Grabmayr, P

    2003-01-01

    The radiative capture process $n p \\to d \\gamma$ is considered within the framework of a recently developed six-quark dressed-bag model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The calculations presented here include both the nucleon current and the meson-exchange current contributions. The latter uses short-range hadronic form factors for the pion exchange currents consistent with the soft cut-off parameter $\\Lambda_{\\pi NN}$ from the $NN$-potential. Contributions of the pion exchange current and $\\Delta$-isobar current to the total cross section still cannot explain the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental cross sections. Possibilities for new types of meson exchange currents associated with chiral fields inside multi-quark dressed-bag states in nuclei are discussed.

  7. Rapid identification of phthalates in blood bags and food packaging using ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Yuan; Ghule, Anil Vithal; Chen, Wen Yin; Wang, Chiung Chi; Chiang, Yi Shin; Ling, Yong Chien

    2004-06-01

    ToF-SIMS with Ga + ion as primary source is used to analyze plasticizers like bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from the inner surface of the blood bags and their migration into the blood. Food packing materials were also analyzed for the presence of DEHP. The simplicity of using ToF-SIMS with high mass resolution as an aid in the identification and analysis are discussed. The ToF-SIMS results, the fragmentation pattern, and the ratio of ions were comparable to those obtained from traditional GC-MS analysis. This indicates that ToF-SIMS could be a promising technique for direct detection of DEHP (and phthalates in general) in blood bags and food packaging polymeric materials.

  8. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  9. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  10. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  11. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape.

  12. Production of soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotong, N; Suwanarit, P

    1983-11-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 10 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50 degrees C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decreased from 35.22 to 6.32% with no significant effect on spore viability. The dry spores could be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature for at least 3 months.

  13. 纸塑复合包装袋自动套装生产线的研制%Development of Automatic Bagging Assembly Line for Paper-Plastic Compound Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡罡

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the technical parameters and technological process of the paper-plastic compound bag automatic bag-ging assembly line are introduced, and its structural features and working principle are also described in detail. The function of automatic bagging production line is to launching, bracing, bagging and transmission for bags by using the servo drive and vacuum suction technology instead of the traditional manual operation. Practice has proved that this equipment has the advan-tages of high efficiency, lower cost, easy operation etc, which could meet requirements of the users.%介绍纸塑复合包装袋自动套装生产线的技术指标和工艺流程,并对其结构特点及工作原理进行详细说明.该生产线设备取代了传统的人工上下料和手工套袋的生产过程,通过伺服驱动和真空吸盘技术实现了外袋上线、张开袋口、套袋与输送的自动化控制. 实践证明该生产线具有高效率、低成本、易操作等优点,满足用户的生产需求.

  14. Determination of thermal contact conductance in vacuum-bagged thermoplastic prepreg stacks using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Théo; De Almeida, Olivier; Menary, Gary; Le Maoult, Yannick; Schmidt, Fabrice; Bikard, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The infrared heating of a vacuum-bagged, thermoplastic prepreg stack of glass/PA66 was studied to investigate the influence of vacuum level on thermal contact resistance between plies. A higher vacuum level was shown experimentally to decrease the transverse heat transfer efficiency, indicating that considering only the effect of heat conduction at the plies interfaces is not sufficient to predict the temperature distribution. An inverse analysis was used to retrieve the contact resistance coefficients as a function of vacuum pressure.

  15. Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed from I.V. Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    i D-153 652 RAPID DRINKING DEVICES CONSTRUCTED FROM IY BAS AND 1/1 I PLASTIC SQUEEZE BOTTLES (U) A MY RESEARCH INST OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREDLf Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed Fram I.V. ( Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles 6...running. The primary problem with using a plastic water bottle during a race is that it ~ must be held upright and squeezed tightly while the runner

  16. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  17. Biomedical literature classification using encyclopedic knowledge: a Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño García, Marcos Antonio; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido Rifón, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of text documents into a set of categories has a lot of applications. Among those applications, the automatic classification of biomedical literature stands out as an important application for automatic document classification strategies. Biomedical staff and researchers have to deal with a lot of literature in their daily activities, so it would be useful a system that allows for accessing to documents of interest in a simple and effective way; thus, it is necessary that these documents are sorted based on some criteria-that is to say, they have to be classified. Documents to classify are usually represented following the bag-of-words (BoW) paradigm. Features are words in the text-thus suffering from synonymy and polysemy-and their weights are just based on their frequency of occurrence. This paper presents an empirical study of the efficiency of a classifier that leverages encyclopedic background knowledge-concretely Wikipedia-in order to create bag-of-concepts (BoC) representations of documents, understanding concept as "unit of meaning", and thus tackling synonymy and polysemy. Besides, the weighting of concepts is based on their semantic relevance in the text. For the evaluation of the proposal, empirical experiments have been conducted with one of the commonly used corpora for evaluating classification and retrieval of biomedical information, OHSUMED, and also with a purpose-built corpus of MEDLINE biomedical abstracts, UVigoMED. Results obtained show that the Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts representation outperforms the classical bag-of-words representation up to 157% in the single-label classification problem and up to 100% in the multi-label problem for OHSUMED corpus, and up to 122% in the single-label classification problem and up to 155% in the multi-label problem for UVigoMED corpus.

  18. Biomedical literature classification using encyclopedic knowledge: a Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Mouriño García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic classification of text documents into a set of categories has a lot of applications. Among those applications, the automatic classification of biomedical literature stands out as an important application for automatic document classification strategies. Biomedical staff and researchers have to deal with a lot of literature in their daily activities, so it would be useful a system that allows for accessing to documents of interest in a simple and effective way; thus, it is necessary that these documents are sorted based on some criteria—that is to say, they have to be classified. Documents to classify are usually represented following the bag-of-words (BoW paradigm. Features are words in the text—thus suffering from synonymy and polysemy—and their weights are just based on their frequency of occurrence. This paper presents an empirical study of the efficiency of a classifier that leverages encyclopedic background knowledge—concretely Wikipedia—in order to create bag-of-concepts (BoC representations of documents, understanding concept as “unit of meaning”, and thus tackling synonymy and polysemy. Besides, the weighting of concepts is based on their semantic relevance in the text. For the evaluation of the proposal, empirical experiments have been conducted with one of the commonly used corpora for evaluating classification and retrieval of biomedical information, OHSUMED, and also with a purpose-built corpus of MEDLINE biomedical abstracts, UVigoMED. Results obtained show that the Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts representation outperforms the classical bag-of-words representation up to 157% in the single-label classification problem and up to 100% in the multi-label problem for OHSUMED corpus, and up to 122% in the single-label classification problem and up to 155% in the multi-label problem for UVigoMED corpus.

  19. GriMa: a Grid Mining Algorithm for Bag-of-Grid-Based Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Romain; Fromont, Elisa; Jeudy, Baptiste; Solnon, Christine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; General-purpose exhaustive graph mining algorithms have seldom been used in real life contexts due to the high complexity of the process that is mostly based on costly isomorphism tests and countless expansion possibilities. In this paper, we explain how to exploit grid-based representations of problems to efficiently extract frequent grid subgraphs and create Bag-of-Grids which can be used as new features for classification purposes. We provide an efficient grid minin...

  20. Surgical management of spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens and capsular tension ring complex dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Gunenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique to manage late spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL and capsular tension ring (CTR dislocation within the intact capsular bag. The subluxated IOL and CTR complex can be positioned in a closed chamber and fixed to the pars plana at both 3 and 9 o′clock quadrants with the presented ab externo direct scleral suturation technique which provides an easy, safe and effective surgical option for such cases.

  1. Two-Dimensional, Two-Phase Modeling of Multi-Increment Bagged Artillery Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    flowing gas, and the deposition of copper on the tube wall by the rotating band of the projectile. We also illustrate a bag of flash sup- pressant sewn...RESFUN Purpose: Function to compute bore resistance exerted on projectile due to interference of rotating band with tube rifling. Calls; None... FLOSS FR C27 C42 Local value of FLOIG. Plotting parameter. 143 Variable Common B FRES FILL FS C20 FZ C42 G C04 GAFACl C53 Definition GAM

  2. Treatment of invasive fungal infections: stability of voriconazole infusion solutions in PVC bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa I.H. Adams

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Voriconazole is a novel broad-spectrum antifungal drug, employed in the treatment of invasive fungal infections, and represents an alternative to amphotericin B treatment. The manufacturer recommends that any unused reconstituted product should be stored at 2ºC to 8ºC, for no more than 24 h, but no recommendations about i.v. infusion solutions are given. Previous works have reported on the stability of voriconazole in polyolefin bags and just one in 5% dextrose polyvinyl chloride (PVC bags, at a 4 mg.mL-1 concentration. In this work, the stability of voriconazole as an i.v. infusion solution in 0.9% sodium chloride and in 5% dextrose, in PVC bags, at 0.5 mg.mL-1, stored at 4 ºC and at room temperature, protected from light, was evaluated. These infusion solutions were analyzed for a 21-day period. Chemical stability was evaluated by HPLC assay. Visual inspection was performed and pH of the solutions was measured. No color change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. The drug content remained above 90% for 11 days in 0.9% sodium chloride and for 9 days in 5% dextrose solutions. The i.v. infusion solutions stored at room temperature were not stable. At room temperature, the voriconazole content dropped down to 88.3 and 86.6%, in 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose solutions, respectively, two days after admixture. Assays performed at the end of the study suggest the sorption of voriconazole by the PVC bags. The results of this study allow cost-effective batch production in the hospital pharmacy.

  3. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa K

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  4. Hamiltonian fluid closures of the Vlasov-Amp{\\`e}re equations: from water-bags to N moment models

    CERN Document Server

    Perin, M; Morrison, P J; Tassi, E

    2015-01-01

    Moment closures of the Vlasov-Amp{\\`e}re system, whereby higher moments are represented as functions of lower moments with the constraint that the resulting fluid system remains Hamiltonian, are investigated by using water-bag theory. The link between the water-bag formalism and fluid models that involve density, fluid velocity, pressure and higher moments is established by introducing suitable thermodynamic variables. The cases of one, two and three water-bags are treated and their Hamiltonian structures are provided. In each case, we give the associated fluid closures and we discuss their Casimir invariants. We show how the method can be extended to an arbitrary number of fields, i.e., an arbitrary number of water-bags and associated moments. The thermodynamic interpretation of the resulting models is discussed. Finally, a general procedure to derive Hamiltonian N-field fluid models is proposed.

  5. Google Sets, Google Suggest, and Google Search History: Three More Tools for the Reference Librarian's Bag of Tricks

    OpenAIRE

    Cirasella, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the features, quirks, and uses of Google Sets, Google Suggest, and Google Search History and argues that these three lesser-known Google tools warrant inclusion in the resourceful reference librarian’s bag of tricks.

  6. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Olivato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more desirable, with an optimal formulation being obtained which contained (55:45 starch/PBAT (88.2 wt. (%, glycerol (11.0 wt. (% and TA (0.8 wt. (%. Biodegradable plastic bags were produced using the film with this formulation, and analysed according to the standard method of the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT. The bags exhibited a 45% failure rate in free-falling dart impact tests, a 10% of failure rate in dynamic load tests and no failure in static load tests. These results meet the specifications set by the standard. Thus, the biodegradable plastic bags fabricated with an optimised formulation could be useful as an alternative to those made from non-biodegradable materials if the nominal capacity declared for this material is considered.

  7. Weak turbulence theory and simulation of the gyro-water-bag model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre; Morel, Pierre; Gravier, Etienne

    2008-05-01

    The thermal confinement time of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. To achieve the study of turbulent thermal diffusivities, Vlasov gyrokinetic description of the magnetically confined plasmas is now commonly adopted, and offers the advantage over fluid models (MHD, gyrofluid) to take into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions which may impact significantly the predicted turbulent transport. Nevertheless kinetic codes require a huge amount of computer resources and this constitutes the main drawback of this approach. A unifying approach is to consider the water-bag representation of the statistical distribution function because it allows us to keep the underlying kinetic features of the problem, while reducing the Vlasov kinetic model into a set of hydrodynamic equations, resulting in a numerical cost comparable to that needed for solving multifluid models. The present paper addresses the gyro-water-bag model derived as a water-bag-like weak solution of the Vlasov gyrokinetic models. We propose a quasilinear analysis of this model to retrieve transport coefficients allowing us to estimate turbulent thermal diffusivities without computing the full fluctuations. We next derive another self-consistent quasilinear model, suitable for numerical simulation, that we approximate by means of discontinuous Galerkin methods.

  8. Equation of State for a Quark Gluon Plasma in the Fuzzy Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. B.; Vasconcellos, C. A. Z.; Bodmann, Bardo E. J.; Dillig, Manfred

    2004-12-01

    We study two distinct phases of nuclear matter, a baryon-meson phase and a quark-gluon phase (QGP). For the baryon-meson phase we develop an equation of state (EoS) using a quark-meson formulation based on a new version of the fuzzy bag model with scalar-isoscalar, vector-isoscalar and vector-isovector meson-quark couplings and leptonic degrees of freedom as well as the constraints of chemical equilibrium, baryon number and electric charge conservation. For the QGP phase we model an EoS for asymptotically free massless quarks and gluons using the MIT approach and a temperature and baryon chemical potential dependent bag constant, B(T,μ), which allows an isentropic equilibrium phase transition from a QGP to a hadron gas. Our main results indicate the EoS and static global properties of neutron stars and protoneutron stars at low and moderate values of temperature are slightly modified in comparison to the predictions based on the MIT bag model with a constant B.

  9. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  10. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-05

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide.

  11. Bag model of hadrons, dual QCD thermodynamics and Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Chandola, H C; Dehnen, H

    2015-01-01

    Using the grand canonical ensemble formulation of a multi-particle statistical system, the thermodynamical description of the dual QCD has been presented in terms of the bag model of hadrons and analyzed for the quark-gluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. The dual QCD bag construction has been shown to lead to the radial pressure on the bag surface in terms of the vector glueball masses of the magnetically condensed QCD vacuum. Constructing the grand canonical partition function to deal with the quark-gluon plasma phase of the non-strange hadrons, the energy density and the plasma pressure have been derived and used to understand the dynamics of the associated phase transition. The critical temperature for QGP-hadron phase transition has been derived and numerically estimated by using various thermodynamic considerations. A comparison of the values of the critical temperatures for QGP-hadron phase transition with those obtained for the deconfinement-phase transition, has been shown to lead to the relaxation ...

  12. Bagged ensemble of Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for nuclear transient identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraldi, Piero; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.zio@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ecole Centrale Paris-Supelec, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > A bagged ensemble of classifiers is applied for nuclear transient identification. > Fuzzy C-Means classifiers are used as base classifiers of the ensemble. > Transients are simulated in the feedwater system of a boiling water reactor. > Ensemble is compared with a supervised, evolutionary-optimized FCM classifier. > Ensemble improves classification accuracy in cases of large or very small sizes data. - Abstract: This paper presents an ensemble-based scheme for nuclear transient identification. The approach adopted to construct the ensemble of classifiers is bagging; the novelty consists in using supervised fuzzy C-means (FCM) classifiers as base classifiers of the ensemble. The performance of the proposed classification scheme has been verified by comparison with a single supervised, evolutionary-optimized FCM classifier with respect of the task of classifying artificial datasets. The results obtained indicate that in the cases of datasets of large or very small sizes and/or complex decision boundaries, the bagging ensembles can improve classification accuracy. Then, the approach has been applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a boiling water reactor (BWR).

  13. EFFECT OF ICE BAG, DYNAMIC STRETCHING AND COMBINED TREATMENTS ON THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DELAY ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Warin Krityakiarana; Jariya Budworn; Chatchawan Khajohnanan; Nutchanad Suramas; Watcharaporn Puritasang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of ice bag, dynamic stretching, combined ice and dynamic stretching, and control (non-treated) on the prevention and treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in biceps muscle. Subjects: Fifty-five participants (aged 18 to 25 years) were engaged in this study and randomly assigned into four groups (control group (non-treated) (CG), n = 13; ice bag, n = 14; dynamic stretching, n = 14; and combined treatment, n = 14). Method: Before inducing D...

  14. Determination of PAEs in Tomato Bagged with Plastic Film Bag by GC-MS%GCMS法测定番茄中的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝峰; 左一鸣; 王超; 聂梅

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the pollution levels of PAEs in Tomato bagged with plastic film bag , Tomato samples bagged with different plastic bags were chosen as subjects. By using GC-MS , 11 PAEs compounds in peel and pulp were determined. Results showed that 6 PAEs were detected in tomato peel bagged with single plastic bag , the contents were 0-2.70 mg/kg;4 PAEs were detected in pulp, which between 0-0.04 mg/kg. The contents of 5 PAEs in tomato peel bagged with paper-film composite bag were 0-5.17 mg/kg , while the 2 PAEs in pulp were 0-0.07 mg/kg. It was concluded that PAEs do exist in tomato bagged with plastic film bag ,which mainly enriched in the part of the tomato peel, with lower concentrations in the pulp.%为了解塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄的污染程度。以套塑膜袋番茄为试材,采用GC-MS法测定番茄皮和番茄肉中的11种PAEs化合物。结果表明,套塑膜袋番茄皮中检出6种PAEs,浓度在0~2.70 mg/kg范围内;茄肉中含有4种PAEs,浓度在0~0.04 mg/kg之间。套纸膜复合袋番茄皮中检出5种PAEs,含量在0~5.17 mg/kg之间;茄肉中检出2种PAEs,浓度为0~0.07 mg/kg。可见塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄有一定污染,主要富集于番茄皮部分,番茄肉中PAEs浓度较低。

  15. Design and experiment on opening bag mechanism of sleeving machine for potted flowers%盆花包装机开袋机构设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜松; 张青; 李恺; 杨艳丽; 刘凯

    2014-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living standard in China, the demand for flowers has been increasing annually, and further the sleeving requirement of potted flowers is also rising. The sleeving requirement is indicated to sleeve transparent packing bags for potted flowers. Packing bags are designed to beautify and protect potted flowers during transportation. In order to improve productivity, many large-scale enterprises producing potted flowers in Europe are using sleeving machine to sleeve potted flowers. But there are some problems due to the differences of bag type and producing process when foreign sleeving machine is used in China, along with the high price of foreign machines being 5-10 million Yuan. Now the automated production technology of greenhouse horticultural production in Netherland has reached the leading position in the world. The Netherlands has been developing automated sleeving machine for potted flowers. However, the sleeving machines have a problem, i.e., their opening bag mechanisms occasionally unsuccessfully make bag opening, because there is not a unit to keep bag from falling. According to the requirements of the domestic market and the instability problems of opening bag for small-size sleeving machines whose productivity are 1 200 pots/h, it is proposed to develop a hooking bag unit based on the above opening bag mechanism. The hooking bag unit can prevent the bag falling from the suckers during opening period, which will improve sleeving success ratio. The hooking bag unit is mainly constituted with push cylinder, hooking bag claw, link and synchronized shaft, etc. In this paper, based on the overall design of the opening bag mechanism, the main structural parameters of the sucker, moving unit to open bags and hooking bag unit were determined. First, according to the characteristics of packing bags, we chose the sucker type. Second, based on external diameter of the biggest pot and fixed hole spacing, the sucker spacing has been

  16. Effect of Bagging Treatments on Coloration Ratio of Aoguanhong Pear%套袋技术对奥冠红梨着色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秋萍; 吕福堂; 王贵余; 朱法作

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of bagging treatments were processed on the Aoguanhong pear fruits, including plastic bag, plastic bag plus double-layer paper bag and double-layer paper bag. The results showed that the double-layer paper bags effect was the best, the fruits coloration ratio was the highest, and the quality was the best. In the double-layer paper bag processing set, picked-bagging during different periods was processed on the Aoguanhong pear fruits. And the results showed that on August 28 should be selected on or about the maturity (September 15) before 12-15 d to pick bags, then the fruits coloration ratio was the highest, and the coloration rate was the quickest after picked-bagging. When picked-bagging was earlier, the fruits coloration ratio became worse, and the coloration rate became slower after picked-bagging.%对奥冠红梨进行套塑膜袋、塑膜袋加双层纸袋和双层纸袋三种套袋处理,发现套双层纸袋的效果最好,果实着色率最高且品质最好.在套双层纸袋处理中,对奥冠红梨进行不同时期的摘袋处理,发现应选择在8月28日左右即成熟期(9月15日)之前12—15天进行摘袋,果实着色率最高,且摘袋后着色速度最快;提前摘袋则着色差,且摘袋后着色速度慢.

  17. Inactivation and injury assessment of Escherichia coli during solar and photocatalytic disinfection in LDPE bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P S M; Ciavola, M; Rizzo, L; Byrne, J A

    2011-11-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli suspensions in low-density polyethylene bag reactors was investigated as a low-cost disinfection method suitable for application in developing countries. The efficiency of a range of SODIS reactor configurations was examined (single skin (SS), double skin, black-backed single skin, silver-backed single skin (SBSS) and composite-backed single skin) using E. coli suspended in model and real surface water. Titanium dioxide was added to the reactors to improve the efficiency of the SODIS process. The effect of turbidity was also assessed. In addition to viable counts, E. coli injury was characterised through spread-plate analysis using selective and non-selective media. The optimal reactor configuration was determined to be the SBSS bag (t(50)=9.0min) demonstrating the importance of UVA photons, as opposed to infrared in the SODIS disinfection mechanism. Complete inactivation (6.5-log) was achieved in the presence of turbidity (50NTU) using the SBSS bag within 180min simulated solar exposure. The addition of titanium dioxide (0.025gL(-1)) significantly enhanced E. coli inactivation in the SS reactor, with 6-log inactivation observed within 90min simulated solar exposure. During the early stages of both SODIS and photocatalytic disinfection, injured E. coli were detected; however, irreversible injury was caused and re-growth was not observed. Experiments under solar conditions were undertaken with total inactivation (6.5-log) observed in the SS reactor within 240min, incomplete inactivation (4-log) was observed in SODIS bottles exposed to the same solar conditions.

  18. Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M Fisher

    Full Text Available Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens.

  19. Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edward M; Williams, Jessica L; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-04-15

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens.

  20. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  1. Bag facaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    . The Darwin Industry is alive and well and includes more historians than ever. But historians are small fry by comparison to what constitute the bulk of the "real" Darwin Industry that since the 1870s until present day has grown into a multimillion franchise including a wealth of products from postcards, mugs...

  2. A Comparison of Three Voting Methods for Bagging with the MLEM2 Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton Cohagan; Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse; Zdzislaw S. Hippe

    2010-03-17

    This paper presents results of experiments on some data sets using bagging on the MLEM2 rule induction algorithm. Three different methods of ensemble voting, based on support (a non-democratic voting in which ensembles vote with their strengths), strength only (an ensemble with the largest strength decides to which concept a case belongs) and democratic voting (each ensemble has at most one vote) were used. Our conclusions are that though in most cases democratic voting was the best, it is not significantly better than voting based on support. The strength voting was the worst voting method.

  3. Cultural identity, contrast and displacement: the "Analyst of Bagé" in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Ramos Schweig

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes some elements for the analysis of one of the main characters of Luis Fernando Veríssimo: The Analyst of Bagé. It focuses, fundamentally, on the questions implicated in the humor of the text, which makes reference to the dilemma of gaucho’s identity constitution. Using theoretical references from Literary Theory and specially Social Anthropology, I aim to develop some interpretative hypotheses, as well as to map the questions that surround this peculiar character of Brazilian literature.

  4. Deconfinement in the presence of a strong magnetic background: an exercise within the MIT bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Eduardo S

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of a very strong homogeneous magnetic field B on the thermal deconfinement transition within the simplest phenomenological approach: the MIT bag pressure for the quark-gluon plasma and a gas of pions for the hadronic sector. Even though the model is known to be crude in numerical precision and misses the correct nature of the (crossover) transition, it provides a simple setup for the discussion of some subtleties of vacuum and thermal contributions in each phase, and should provide a reasonable qualitative description of the critical temperature in the presence of B. We find that the critical temperature decreases.

  5. Deconfinement in the presence of a strong magnetic background: An exercise within the MIT bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Palhares, Letícia F.

    2012-07-01

    We study the effect of a very strong homogeneous magnetic field B on the thermal deconfinement transition within the simplest phenomenological approach: the MIT bag pressure for the quark-gluon plasma and a gas of pions for the hadronic sector. Even though the model is known to be crude in numerical precision and misses the correct nature of the (crossover) transition, it provides a simple setup for the discussion of some subtleties of vacuum and thermal contributions in each phase, and should provide a reasonable qualitative description of the critical temperature in the presence of B. We find that the critical temperature decreases, saturating for very large fields.

  6. Children's Influence -Regarding Home Delivery Grocery Bags with Familyfood Optima AB in Focus.

    OpenAIRE

    Haglund, Josefin; Stenberg, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background Children are influencing the family’s decision making process regarding food products. The children’s spending power is increasing and they become consumers in an early age. By influencing the parents, the children make them buy products that they had not planned to buy or make the parents avoid products that they usually would have bought. Online food shopping is increasing in Sweden and the home delivery grocery bag is the category of online food that has increased the most from ...

  7. Use of chorioamniotic membrane instead of bogota bag in open abdomen:How I Do It?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakir Tekin; Ahmet Tekin; Tevfik Kücükkartallar; Murat Cakir; Adil Kartal

    2008-01-01

    It is one of the most important problems for general surgeons to decide which operation should be undertaken on patients with intra-abdominal infection,especially those with concomitant abdominal hypertension.Recentlly,closure techniques using prosthetic meshes in order to retain abdominal tension and to control sepsis have become very popular for patients with abdominal sepsis and hypertension.We used chorioamniotic membrane instead of plastic material to cover the open abdomen.We conclude that human chorioamniotic membrane prepared under sterile conditions may be an alternative to conventional plastic bags in daily practice,for preventing serosal erosion and fistulas in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery.

  8. Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Wallby, Anna; Lundström, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated meat quality and consumer preference after ageing beef gluteus medius in a water vapour-permeable dry-ageing bag or in vacuum for 14 days. Higher ageing and trim losses but lower thawing loss, cooking loss and water content were found in samples aged in dry ageing bags compared to those aged in vacuum. Samples aged in dry ageing bags had higher total bacteria and yeast counts but lower lactic acid bacteria counts than those aged in vacuum, both before and after trimming. Meat aged in dry ageing bag was more tender and juicier and overall preferred by consumers compared with samples aged in vacuum. Female participants outperformed the males in detecting differences in palatability. No differences were found in pH, smell, shear force, colour, Enterobacteriaceae, and mould counts. Thus, by using a dry ageing bag, it is possible to produce dry-aged meat in a more controlled condition without negative effects on sensory or other quality attributes.

  9. Imbalanced Data Classification Method for Bagging Combination%Bagging组合的不平衡数据分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦姣龙; 王蔚

    2011-01-01

    CombineBagging is designed as a new classification method based on bagging combination for imbalanced data. The main points are as follows: using three different base classifiers learning algorithms, such as C-SVM, Radial Basis Function(RBF) neural network and random forests,to carry out bagging ensemble learning respectively, integrating the three different learning results above into one as the final result by applying voting rule. Experimental results show that CombineBagging method can enhance the minority data's classification accuracy rate on the five different regions imbalanced data. It is proved that the method can deal with the problem of imbalanced data.%提出一种基于Bagging组合的不平衡数据分类方法CombineBagging,采用少数类过抽样算法SMOTE进行数据预处理,在此基础上利用C-SVM、径向基函数神经网络、Random Forests 3种不同的基分类器学习算法,分别对采样后的数据样本进行Bagging集成学习,通过投票规则集成学习结果.实验结果表明,该方法能够提高少数类的分类准确率,有效处理不平衡数据分类问题.

  10. Effects of bagging with different paper bags on fruit growth and quality of pineapple%不同纸质果袋套袋对菠萝果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆新华; 孙德权; 吴青松; 刘胜辉; 张秀梅; 孙光明

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fruit bagging on fruit growth and quality were studied in pineapple fruit [A nanas comosus (L.) cv. Smooth Cayenne] with three different types of paper bags (oneilayer white paper bag,two-layer yellow-out-dark-in paper bag and kraft paper bag).The results showed that bagging could promote the color and luster,and prevent pineapple fruits from sunburn.However,bagging significantly decreased the growth rate of fresh fruit weight and single fruit weight.At the same time,bagging affected the nutritive quality of pineapple fruit to some extent and decreased the fruit taste.Soluble protein,chlorophyll and carotenoid contents sighificantly decreased after fruit bagging.Additionally,titratable acidity,togal soluble sugars and Vitamin C content significantly decreased in fruits with one-layer white paper bag,while total soluble sugars significantly decreased but Vitamin C content significantly increased in fruit with two-layer yellow-out-dark-in paper bag,yet total soluble solid significantly decreased but total soluble sugars and Vitamin C content significantly increased in fruit with kraft paper bag.In comprehensive consideration,white paper bag should be recommended according to fruit quality and marketability of pineapple.%以菠萝品种无刺卡因为试材,研究了白色单层纸袋、外黄内黑双层纸袋、牛皮纸袋3种纸质果袋套袋对果实品质的影响。结果表明,套袋能提高果实的外观色泽,防止日灼的发生,但显著降低了果实的鲜质量增长率和单果质量。同时,套袋在一定程度上影响了菠萝果实的营养品质,降低了果实风味。套袋后,菠萝果实的可溶性蛋白、叶绿素、类胡萝卜糖含量显著降低,维生素C含量显著升高;牛皮纸袋处理的固形物含量显著降低,可溶性糖和维生素C含量显著提高。综合套袋对果实品质和和商品性的影响,无刺卡因菠萝推荐使用透光性好的白色单层纸袋。

  11. 乳腺癌发生及其5年生存率与 bag-1基因的表达%Effect of bag-1 expression on the occurrence of breast cancer and its 5-year survival rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贠军; 王岭; 王廷; 凌瑞; 易军

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bag-1 is a multifunctional and anti-apoptotic gene. Its anti-apoptotic ability is enhanced when binding to bcl-2 to form a complex.Now it is considered as a predictive biomarker for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. However, whether it is useful in the assessment of the prognosis of breast cancer is still elusive.OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of bag-1 in breast cancer and its role for prognosis.DESIGN: A controlled study with breast cancer, benign breast tumor and normal breast tissues as subjects.SETTING: The Vascular and Endocrine Surgery Department of Xijing Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS:Totally 100 breast cancer specimens were obtained form May 1995 to May 2000. Ten benign breast tumor and 10 normal breast tissues were used as control. All the specimens were paraffin-embedded and came from the Pathological Department of Xijing Hospital Affiliated to Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.METHODS: Immunohostochemical strept avidin-biotin complex(SABC) method was adopted to detect bag-1 expression in these specimens.pression levels of bag-1.RESULTS: The positive expression rate of bag-1 in breast cancer (85%) was significantly different form those of benign breast tumor (10%) and normal breast (10%) (χ2= 29.98, P = 0.00). While the positive expression rates in breast cancer of different stages (stage Ⅰ, stage Ⅱ and stage Ⅲ ) were 88%, 82% and 88%, respectively, which has no significant difference (χ2 = 0. 61, P = 0.75) . In duct carcinoma, lobular carcinoma and special carcinoma, bag-1 positive expression rate was 86%, 85% and 80%,which was also no significantly different (χ2 =0.16, P =0.95). In the 94followed patients, the 5-year survival rate of positive bag-1 expression was 79% and that of negative bag-1 expression was just 9%. The difference was significant (χ2 = 0. 07, P = 0.04).CONCLUSION: High bag-1 expression exists in breast cancer and its level is not associated

  12. Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Novel Frameshift in the BAG3 Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Toro

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy, a major cause of chronic heart failure and cardiac transplantation, is characterized by left ventricular or biventricular heart dilatation. In nearly 50% of cases the pathology is inherited, and more than 60 genes have been reported as disease-causing. However, in 30% of familial cases the mutation remains unidentified even after comprehensive genetic analysis. This study clinically and genetically assessed a large Spanish family affected by dilated cardiomyopathy to search for novel variations.Our study included a total of 100 family members. Clinical assessment was performed in alive, and genetic analysis was also performed in alive and 1 deceased relative. Genetic screening included resequencing of 55 genes associated with sudden cardiac death, and Sanger sequencing of main disease-associated genes. Genetic analysis identified a frame-shift variation in BAG3 (p.H243Tfr*64 in 32 patients. Genotype-phenotype correlation identified substantial heterogeneity in disease expression. Of 32 genetic carriers (one deceased, 21 relatives were clinically affected, and 10 were asymptomatic. Seventeen of the symptomatic genetic carriers exhibited proto-diastolic septal knock by echocardiographic assessment.We report p.H243Tfr*64_BAG3 as a novel pathogenic variation responsible for familial dilated cardiomyopathy. This variation correlates with a more severe phenotype of the disease, mainly in younger individuals. Genetic analysis in families, even asymptomatic individuals, enables early identification of individuals at risk and allows implementation of preventive measures.

  13. The use of cellulase and filter bag technique to predict digestibility of forages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Z. M.; Ludwin, J.; Górka, P.;

    2014-01-01

    Corporation). The data for all sets were used to find the best single and multiple regression equations to predict OMD. For each set the linear regressions were calculated in which OMD was the dependent variable (Y) whereas IVDMD determined by CEL48-ND was the predictor X1 and contents of nutrients (g/kg DM...... of equations was also done based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Mean R2 for the regression equations of OMD by CEL48-ND was 0.468 (set A), 0.581 (set B) and 0.539 (set A + B). Including the next predictor (X2, X3, X4 or X5) increased R2, and decreased RSD, MSPE and AIC, especially in the equations...... between laboratories. Further, using filter bags and Daisy Incubator decreases labour costs and use of animals. Abbreviations AIC, akaike information criterion; ADF, acid detergent fibre; aNDF, neutral detergent fibre; AFBT, ANKOM filter bag technique; CP, crude protein; CS, subset ‘clover silages’; DK...

  14. Suffocation using plastic bags: a retrospective study of suicides in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, M J; Diniz, D

    2000-05-01

    One hundred and ten cases of suicidal suffocation using a plastic bag were identified in the files of the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, Canada, between 1993 and 1997. The records were reviewed to determine the demographic characteristics of this group compared with all cases of suicide in Ontario, the scene information, autopsy findings and toxicology results. Most suicides occurred in people over 60 years of age, with older women making up a considerable proportion of cases as compared with other methods of suicide. In 40% of cases the deceased was suffering from a serious illness. Autopsy findings were usually minimal, with facial, conjunctival and visceral petechiae present in a minority of cases. One or more drugs were detected in the blood in 92.6% of cases where toxicologic testing was performed. Benzodiazepines, diphenhydramine and antidepressants were the most common drugs found, with diphenhydramine the most common drug present at an elevated concentration. Information at the scene from "right to die" societies was uncommon. One quarter of decedents took additional measures, besides the use of drugs or alcohol, to ensure the rapidity, certainty or comfort of their death. This study further elucidates the characteristics of this uncommon method of suicide. It emphasizes additional scene findings, such as the presence of dust masks, physical restraints and modification of the plastic bag that may be of use to death investigators in determining the correct manner of death.

  15. Beyond bag of latent topics:spatial pyramid matching for scene category recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-xiang LU; Jun HUANG

    2015-01-01

    We propose a heterogeneous, mid-level feature based method for recognizing natural scene categories. The proposed feature introduces spatial information among the latent topics by means of spatial pyramid, while the latent topics are obtained by using probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA) based on the bag-of-words representation. The proposed feature always performs better than standard pLSA because the performance of pLSA is adversely affected in many cases due to the loss of spatial information. By combining various interest point detectors and local region descriptors used in the bag-of-words model, the proposed feature can make further improvement for diverse scene category recognition tasks. We also propose a two-stage framework for multi-class classifi cation. In the fi rst stage, for each of possible detector/descriptor pairs, adaptive boosting classifi ers are employed to select the most discriminative topics and further compute posterior probabilities of an unknown image from those selected topics. The second stage uses the prod-max rule to combine information coming from multiple sources and assigns the unknown image to the scene category with the highest'fi nal' posterior probability. Experimental results on three benchmark scene datasets show that the proposed method exceeds most state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Joint learning and weighting of visual vocabulary for bag-of-feature based tissue classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Automated classification of tissue types of Region of Interest (ROI) in medical images has been an important application in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Recently, bag-of-feature methods which treat each ROI as a set of local features have shown their power in this field. Two important issues of bag-of-feature strategy for tissue classification are investigated in this paper: the visual vocabulary learning and weighting, which are always considered independently in traditional methods by neglecting the inner relationship between the visual words and their weights. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel algorithm, Joint-ViVo, which learns the vocabulary and visual word weights jointly. A unified objective function based on large margin is defined for learning of both visual vocabulary and visual word weights, and optimized alternately in the iterative algorithm. We test our algorithm on three tissue classification tasks: classifying breast tissue density in mammograms, classifying lung tissue in High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images, and identifying brain tissue type in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The results show that Joint-ViVo outperforms the state-of-art methods on tissue classification problems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  18. A compact 3D VLSI classifier using bagging threshold network ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermak, A; Martinez, D

    2003-01-01

    A bagging ensemble consists of a set of classifiers trained independently and combined by a majority vote. Such a combination improves generalization performance but can require large amounts of memory and computation, a serious drawback for addressing portable real-time pattern recognition applications. We report here a compact three-dimensional (3D) multiprecision very large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a bagging ensemble. In our circuit, individual classifiers are decision trees implemented as threshold networks - one layer of threshold logic units (TLUs) followed by combinatorial logic functions. The hardware was fabricated using 0.7-/spl mu/m CMOS technology and packaged using MCM-V micro-packaging technology. The 3D chip implements up to 192 TLUs operating at a speed of up to 48 GCPPS and implemented in a volume of (/spl omega/ /spl times/ L /spl times/ h) = (2 /spl times/ 2 /spl times/ 0.7) cm/sup 3/. The 3D circuit features a high level of programmability and flexibility offering the possibility to make an efficient use of the hardware resources in order to reduce the power consumption. Successful operation of the 3D chip for various precisions and ensemble sizes is demonstrated through an electronic nose application.

  19. MSEBAG: a dynamic classifier ensemble generation based on `minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kamel, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic classifier system, MSEBAG, which is characterised by searching for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging at the ensemble level. It adopts an 'over-generation and selection' strategy and aims to achieve a good bias-variance trade-off. In the training phase, MSEBAG first searches for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', which maximises the in-sample fitness with the minimal number of base classifiers. Then, starting from the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', a backward stepwise algorithm is employed to generate a collection of ensembles. The objective is to create a collection of ensembles with a descending fitness on the data, as well as a descending complexity in the structure. MSEBAG dynamically selects the ensembles from the collection for the decision aggregation. The extended adaptive aggregation (EAA) approach, a bagging-style algorithm performed at the ensemble level, is employed for this task. EAA searches for the competent ensembles using a score function, which takes into consideration both the in-sample fitness and the confidence of the statistical inference, and averages the decisions of the selected ensembles to label the test pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed MSEBAG outperforms the benchmarks on average.

  20. Is Bagging Effective in the Classification of Small-Sample Genomic and Proteomic Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu TT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest recently in the application of bagging in the classification of both gene-expression data and protein-abundance mass spectrometry data. The approach is often justified by the improvement it produces on the performance of unstable, overfitting classification rules under small-sample situations. However, the question of real practical interest is whether the ensemble scheme will improve performance of those classifiers sufficiently to beat the performance of single stable, nonoverfitting classifiers, in the case of small-sample genomic and proteomic data sets. To investigate that question, we conducted a detailed empirical study, using publicly-available data sets from published genomic and proteomic studies. We observed that, under t-test and RELIEF filter-based feature selection, bagging generally does a good job of improving the performance of unstable, overfitting classifiers, such as CART decision trees and neural networks, but that improvement was not sufficient to beat the performance of single stable, nonoverfitting classifiers, such as diagonal and plain linear discriminant analysis, or 3-nearest neighbors. Furthermore, as expected, the ensemble method did not improve the performance of these classifiers significantly. Representative experimental results are presented and discussed in this work.

  1. In-line filtration of SAG-M red cell concentrates prepared in top/bottom or conventional bag systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-01-01

    SAG-M RCCs were prepared in triple conventional or quadruple top/bottom bag systems and filtered at +4 degrees C using the in-line filter system Leucoflex LCR 4 Macopharma after 16-24-30 h of storage. Postfiltration WBC content was determined by Nageotte hemocytometer counting. The mean WBC content of the units prepared in conventional bag systems and filtered was higher than that of the units prepared in T/B bag systems. The best results could be obtained in T/B RCCs stored for 24 h; potassium and hemolysis levels were also improved. The Leucoflex LCR 4 in-line filter T/B system can be recommended for application in the clinical routine by virtue of the effective leukocyte elimination.

  2. Retrieval of specimens in laparoscopy using reclosable zipper-type plastic bags: a simple, cheap, and useful method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A; Vázquez, J A; Valencia, S; Cueto, J

    1998-12-01

    Surgical specimens must often be extracted during laparoscopic surgery. Although the technologic advances in this field are amazing, simple measures may sometimes work even better than very sophisticated instruments. This is true of the reclosable plastic bags with zipper-type closure that we use for retrieving surgical specimens from the abdominal cavity in order to protect it as well as the abdominal wall. The bags are cheap, offer no problems for sterilization, are easy to obtain, and are available in many sizes. They are very simple to handle, making it easy to slip in the specimen and then extract it from the abdominal cavity. We describe our experience with these bags and a technique for manipulating them.

  3. Errors in the Bag Model of Strings, and Regge Trajectories Represent the Conservation of Angular Momentum in Hyperbolic Space

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, B H

    2011-01-01

    The MIT bag model is shown to be wrong because the bag pressure cannot be held constant, and the volume can be fixed in terms of it. The bag derivation of Regge's trajectories is invalidated by an integration of the energy and angular momentum over all values of the radius up to $r_0=c/\\omega$. This gives the absurd result that "total" angular momentum decreases as the frequency increases. The correct expression for the angular momentum is obtained from hyperbolic geometry of constant negative curvature $r_0$. When the square of the relativistic mass is introduced, it gives a negative intercept which is the Euclidean value of the angular momentum. Regge trajectories are simply statements of the conservation of angular momentum in hyperbolic space. The frequencies and values of the angular momentum are in remarkable agreement with experiment.

  4. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  5. PLASTIC BAGS – THREAT TO ENVIRONMENT AND CATTLE HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM GONDAR CITY OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10 to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangled on the trees and shrubs create nuisance. During rainy season, the blockage of drains and overflowing of water was observed in some areas of the city. During study period, out of 711 rumenotomies done, in 111 (15.61% and 600 (84.39% animals, emergency rumenotomy and elective rumenotomy was performed, respectively. The quantity of the foreign bodies (FB’s collected from the rumen was ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 kg in 28 animals (3.94%; 2.0 to 5.0 kg in 116 animals (16.32%; 5.0 to 9.0 kg in 217 animals (30.52% and above 9.0 kg in 350 animals (49.23%. Due to absence of plastic recycling unit in the Gondar city or in nearby areas, there is no practice of collecting and selling these products to junk dealers. Use of reusable bags made of cloths, jute and other natural fibers must be encouraged. In order to save the life of animals, residents should not pack and throw the food items in plastic bags. The cattle owners may be advised not to allow their cattle to freely wander in streets especially in the cities. They should see that the grazing lands are not polluted with the polythene and other wastes. Awareness may be created on careless disposal of plastic bags and as well as the periodical cleaning of these wastes in the grazing area.

  6. Comparison of Visual Quality after Implantation of Big Bag and Akreos Adapt Intraocular Lenses in Patients with High Myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengsheng Ma; Dongjian Zheng; Ling Lin; Fanjian Meng; Yonggang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare vision quality following phacoemulsifi-cation cataract extraction and implantation of a Big Bag or Akreos Adapt intraocular lens (IOL) in patients diagnosed with high myopia complicated with cataract. Methods:.This was a randomized prospective control study. The patients with high myopia complicated with cataract , with axial length ≥28 mm,.and corneal astigmatism ≤1D were enrolled and randomly divided into the Big Bag and Akreos Adapt IOL groups. All patients underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction and lens implantation..At 3 months after surgery,.intraocular high-order aberration was measured by a Tracey-iTrace wavefront aberrometer at a pupil diameter of 5 mm in an absolutely dark room and statistically compared be-tween two groups. The images of the anterior segment of eyes were photographed with a Scheimpflug camera using Penta-cam three-dimensional anterior segment analyzer..The tilt and decentration of the IOL were calculated by Image-pro plus 6.0 imaging analysis software and statistically compared between two groups. Results:.In total,.127 patients (127 eyes),..including 52 males and 75 females, were enrolled in this study. The total high-or-der aberration and coma in the Akreos Adapt group (59 eyes) were significantly higher compared with those in the Big Bag (P0.05). The horizontal and vertical decentration were significantly smaller in the Big Bag lens group than in the Akreos Adapt group (both P0.05). Conclusion:.Both Big Bag and Akreos Adapt IOLs possess relatively good intraocular stability implanted in patients with high myopia. Compared with the Akreos Adapt IOL, the Big Bag IOL presents with smaller intraocular high-order aberra-tion. Coma is the major difference between the two groups.

  7. 乳腺癌BAG-1基因表达与表皮生长因子受体表达的相关性%Correlation of BAG-1 gene expression and EGFR expression in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 徐笑红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the correlation of BAG-1 gene expression and EGFR expression in breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer cell lines were cultured, BAG-1 mRNA expression was detected by PCR in EGFR (+) and EGFR (-) cell lines. BAG-1 protein expression was detected by West blot. Correlation of BAG-1 gene expression and EGFR expression in breast cancer was analyzed. Results EGFR mRNA and EGFR protein were positive expression in EGFR MDA-MB-231 and T47D cell lines, and negative expression in MCF-7 and SLBP3 cell lines. BAG-1 mRNA expres-sion was highest in T47D cell line [(29.6±0.4)í10-4], followed by MDA-MB-231 cell line [(6.9±0.3)í10-4]. Both expres-sion levels were significantly higher than that of MCF-7 cell line [(4.3±0.5)í10-4] and SKBR3 cell line [(0.3±0.1)í10-4], the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Expression of BAG-1 shows correlation with EGFR, which can be used as a potential targets for targeted therapy of breast cancer.%目的:探讨乳腺癌BAG-1基因表达与表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)表达的相关性。方法培养乳腺癌细胞株,采用实时聚合酶链反应技术检测EGFR(+)和EGFR(-)细胞株中BAG-1 mRNA的表达情况,West blot法检测其蛋白水平。分析BAG-1基因表达与EGFR表达的相关性。结果 MDA-MB-231、T47D细胞株EGFR mRNA和EGFR蛋白阳性表达,MCF-7、SLBP3细胞株EGFR mRNA和EGFR蛋白阴性表达。T47D细胞株BAG-1 mRNA的表达水平最高[(29.6±0.4)×10-4],其次为MDA-MB-231细胞株[(6.9±0.3)×10-4],两者的表达水平均显著高于MCF-7细胞株[(4.3±0.5)×10-4]、SKBR3细胞株[(0.3±0.1)×10-4],差异的有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论 BAG-1表达与EGFR存在相关性,可作为乳腺癌靶向治疗的潜在靶点。

  8. Salient factors in the low utilization of PICS bags (triple-bagging in Nasarawa local government area of Kano state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Adegbola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thepaper asserts that cowpea is a major nutritional legume in West Africa and thatthe grain experiences great losses at postharvest stages especially at storage.It posits that hermetic storage which the PICS is one of have proved to be avery successful storage option for cowpea storage without the use of agrochemicals but that there are daunting problems with its utilization. The studyrevealed among others that having outlets where the PICS can be bought(29%,making the PICS cheaper (45%, convince grain merchants that the PICS is more effective than regular storagebags(19%, and lastly forcing it on grain merchants by government would lead to more usage of the PICS (7%. Basedon the opinion of the cowpea merchants it was recommended that the sellingprice of the PICS be reviewed downwards, and that there should be a massiveenlightenment campaign for the use of the PICS; advantages of the PICS overregular bags and how to use the PICS should be demonstrated in all grainmarkets in the region by extension bodies both public and private.

  9. Measuring the Long-Term Effectiveness of a Compulsory Approach to Behaviour Change: Analysis of the "Say No to Plastic Bag" Campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Hasrina; Yusoff, Ronzi Mohd

    2011-01-01

    This research looked into the effectiveness of a campaign at the Universiti Sains Malaysia for a compulsory ban on disposable plastics. Although there was high awareness of the "Say No to Plastic Bags" bags campaign, and moderate compliance on campus, we wondered whether a compulsory approach would maintain the desired behaviours off…

  10. The Expression of Stathmin and BAG-1 mRNA and Their Clinical Significance in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer%Stathmin和BAG-1在非小细胞肺癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 李建鹏; 哈敏文

    2009-01-01

    目的 检测Stathmin基因和BAG-1基因在非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer,NSCLC)与癌旁组织中的差异表达.方法 应用RT-PCR法检测85例NSCLC及癌旁组织中Stathmin mRNA和BAG-1mRNA的表达情况.结果 非小细胞肺癌中Stathmin与BAG-1的表达阳性率分别为68.34%和71.76%,与癌旁组织相比均有显著性差异(P<0.05);且与癌细胞的分化程度相关.结论 Stathmin与BAG-1基因在NSCLC的发生发展过程中起了重要作用,可能成为预测NSCLC恶性程度的新的生物学及个体化治疗的敏感指标.

  11. Stedim 6 and Clearflex, two new multilayer materials for infusion containers. Comparative study of their compatibility with five drugs versus glass flasks and polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiakpé, L; Airaudo, C B; Abdelmalik, O M; Gayte-Sorbier, A; Verdier, M; Guerri, J

    1995-01-01

    Stedim 6 and Clearflex, two new polyethylene-lined materials for infusion bags, were studied for their compatibility with disodium clodronate, chlorpromazine and maprotiline hydrochlorides, diazepam, and clorazepate dipotassium salt, comparatively with borosilicate glass flasks and polyvinyl chloride bags. Diazepam, the only drug to exhibit a marked sorption in PVC bags (the loss reached 25% of the initial concentration after a contact duration of 72 h), showed lower sorption in Stedim 6 bags (loss about 11% under the same conditions) and none in Clearflex bags. No significant difference was observed between the infusion solutions used as vehicles of the drugs (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride isotonic solutions). The results are discussed in terms of lipophilicity of the drugs and crystallinity of the polymers.

  12. Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field raises the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Anna; Zeppa, Rosario; Pasquino, Nicola; Arra, Claudio; Ammirante, Massimo; Festa, Michelina; Barbieri, Antonio; Giudice, Aldo; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2011-11-01

    The expression of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 is induced in several cell types by exposure to high temperature, oxidants, and other stressful agents. We investigated whether exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields raised BAG3 levels in the human melanoma cell line M14, in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Exposure of cultured cells or xenografts for 6 h or 4 weeks, respectively, produced a significant (P < 0.01) increase in BAG3 protein amounts. Interestingly, at the same times, we could not detect any significant variation in the levels of HSP70/72 protein or cell apoptosis. These results confirm the stressful effect of exposure to ELF in human cells, by identifying BAG3 protein as a marker of ELF-induced stress. Furthermore, they suggest that BAG3 induction by ELF may contribute to melanoma cell survival and/or resistance to therapy.

  13. Morphological and spectroscopic measurements of plastic bags for the purpose of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Howitt, David G; Land, Donald P; Tulleners, Frederic A; Springer, Faye A; Wang, Shunlin

    2007-09-01

    The discrimination of noncolored transparent polyethylene bags was studied by several nondestructive and semidestructive analytical methods. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and optical microscopy (differential interference contrast microscopy and phase contrast microscopy) were applied to polyethylene films. X-ray diffraction was used to distinguish variations in the crystalline phase, infrared spectroscopy was used to distinguish variations in the molecular components, and optical microscopy was used to distinguish the different surface morphologies. The results show that X-ray diffraction classifies the crystalline phase of the film depending on whether it is made from low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, or high-density polyethylene; that infrared spectroscopy is useful to distinguish the molecular components and it is the most discriminating technique; and that optical microscopy discriminate films easily by their morphological differences.

  14. Corrections to the bag factor in B- anti B-mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozin, Andrey G. [BINP, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Klein, Rebecca; Mannel, Thomas; Pivovarov, Alexei A. [Universitaet Siegen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    B- anti B-Mixing is parameterized by the matrix elements of local operators O{sub i}. For the computation of these matrix elements a bag factor B{sub i} can be introduced left angle anti B vertical stroke O{sub i} vertical stroke B right angle =B{sub i} left angle anti B vertical stroke O{sub i} vertical stroke B right angle {sup fac}, which is unity in naive factorization. Any deviation from unity describes the accuracy of the naive factorization prescription. Corrections to B{sub i} emerge from QCD radiative corrections and from nonperturbative contributions at order 1/m{sub b}. We present the current status of these corrections to B{sub i}.

  15. Automated classification of histopathology images of prostate cancer using a Bag-of-Words approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Foram M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this paper are (1) test the Computer Aided Classification of the prostate cancer histopathology images based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach (2) evaluate the performance of the classification grade 3 and 4 of the proposed method using the results of the approach proposed by the authors Khurd et al. in [9] and (3) classify the different grades of cancer namely, grade 0, 3, 4, and 5 using the proposed approach. The system performance is assessed using 132 prostate cancer histopathology of different grades. The system performance of the SURF features are also analyzed by comparing the results with SIFT features using different cluster sizes. The results show 90.15% accuracy in detection of prostate cancer images using SURF features with 75 clusters for k-mean clustering. The results showed higher sensitivity for SURF based BoW classification compared to SIFT based BoW.

  16. REAL PROFIT VERSUS ESTIMATE PROFIT: A CASE STUDYFORAN INDUSTRY OFPAPER BAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Bernardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyse the less costly taxation for an industry of paper bags, which was called by the fictitious name of Company X. The case study was conducted with the company's financial data in the years 2008-2012. A bibliographical study of taxation scheme of Real Profit and Estimated Profit was used and with these data, a comparison between the taxes IRPJ e CSLL was made. The results showed that the scheme of Real Profit was the most advantageous in all five years of the study. However, it is advisable to choose the tax regime at the beginning of each year because one scheme may not always be the best for the following year. The manager must do a tax planning considering the particularities of the business and taxation schemes available.

  17. Strange Stars in $f(T)$ Gravity With MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, G; Jawad, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with existence of strange stars in $f\\left(T\\right) $ modified gravity. For this purpose, we have taken the diagonal tetrad field of static spacetime with charged anisotropic fluid and MIT bag model, which provide the linear relation between radial pressure and density of the matter. Further, the analysis of the resulting equations have been done by assuming the parametric form of the metric functions in term of the radial profiles with some unknown constant (introduced by Krori and Barua). By the matching of two metrices, unknown constant of the metric functions appear in terms of mass, radius and charge of the stars, the observed values of these quantities have been used for the detail analysis of the the derived model. We have discuss the regularity, anisotropy, energy conditions, stability and surface redshift of the model.

  18. Towards a Light-weight Bag-of-tasks Grid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bašičević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of SIP protocol in the context of bag-of-tasks grid architecture. The SIP protocol has been used in the realization of the execution management service. The main idea is the use of stateful SIP proxy as a request broker. The paper provides a description of the concept, and the prototype system that has been built, as well as the calculation of estimated performance level and its relation to maximum RTT of grid system. The main advantage of this light-weight grid architecture is the reuse of a mature infrastructure. A short overview of some approaches to the mathematical modeling of computer grids is included.

  19. Analysis of plasticiser migration to meat roasted in plastic bags by SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miriany Avelino; André, Leiliane Coelho; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes

    2015-07-01

    Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some of these compounds cause endocrine dysfunction in humans and animals by interfering with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding or elimination of natural hormones in the body and are therefore recognised as endocrine disruptors. This paper describes cold-fibre solid-phase microextraction as a sampling technique to analyse eight plasticisers in spices and roasted chicken meat stored in plastic bags by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for this method ranged from 0.01 to 0.18 μg kg(-)(1). Diisobutyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were found in the samples of spices and roasted chicken meat. The highest concentrations of plasticisers were found in the spices used to cook the chicken meat.

  20. Purple urine bag syndrome in end-stage chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When faced with violet, purple or purplish-blue urine, clinicians should consider urinary tract infection in their differential diagnosis. Case report: A 60-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease and non-adherence to renal replacement therapy was admitted to our hospital for placement of hemodialysis catheter. During her hospitalization she had purple urine, and purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS was diagnosed. She was effectively treated with antibiotics and her urine returned to a dark yellow color. Discussion: Although this condition is often easily treated, diagnosing PUBS in chronic renal patients probably means an increased serum concentration of indoxyl sulfate, metabolite that is involved in the progression of both CKD and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Hence, in the context of our renal patients, perhaps PUBS is not as benign as supposed.

  1. Special object extraction from medieval books using superpixels and bag-of-features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rushmeier, Holly

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to extract special objects in images of medieval books, which generally represent, for example, figures and capital letters. Instead of working on the single-pixel level, we consider superpixels as the basic classification units for improved time efficiency. More specifically, we classify superpixels into different categories/objects by using a bag-of-features approach, where a superpixel category classifier is trained with the local features of the superpixels of the training images. With the trained classifier, we are able to assign the category labels to the superpixels of a historical document image under test. Finally, special objects can easily be identified and extracted after analyzing the categorization results. Experimental results demonstrate that, as compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms, our method provides comparable performance for some historical books but greatly outperforms them in terms of generality and computational time.

  2. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons...

  3. 78 FR 69817 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Court Decision and Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Court Decision and... Commerce. SUMMARY: On January 18, 2012, the Court of International Trade (CIT) entered judgment in KYD Inc. v. United States, 807 F. Supp. 2d 1372 (CIT January 18, 2012) (KYD v. United States) affirming...

  4. 76 FR 47641 - Pagani Automobili SpA; Denial of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... address the adverse effects of some air bag designs. This plan also included an extensive consumer... has been producing a small number of luxury sports cars since 1999. Pagani currently produces one... that if an exemption is not granted, U.S. consumer choice would be adversely affected. \\10\\ In...

  5. A nylon membrane bag assay for determination of the effect of chemicals on soilborne plant pathogens in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new nylon membrane bag assay was developed that can rapidly and effectively determine the impact of chemicals added to soil on soilborne plant pathogens for which there are no selective media or for which a selective medium is expensive or difficult to prepare. This assay consists of placing patho...

  6. Frequent postoperative gas expansion of the abdominal drain bag for a case of idiopathic neonatal pneumoperitoneum: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Magdy Abdelmohsen

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrated that laparotomy is not a true routine in neonates with idiopathic pneumoperitoneum if a timely diagnosis is established. Future research is still necessary to understand the source of the free gas in the abdomen, as well as the underlying causes of delayed postoperative gas underdiaphragm and postoperative abdominal drain bag gas expansion.

  7. Investigating the Combination of Bag of Words and Named Entities Approach in Tracking and Detection Tasks among Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd, Masnizah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of many interactive Topic Detection and Tracking (iTDT systems has motivated researchers to design systems that can track and detect news better. iTDT focuses on user interaction, user evaluation, and user interfaces. Recently, increasing effort has been devoted to user interfaces to improve TDT systems by investigating not just the user interaction aspect but also user and task oriented evaluation. This study investigates the combination of the bag of words and named entities approaches implemented in the iTDT interface, called Interactive Event Tracking (iEvent, including what TDT tasks these approaches facilitate. iEvent is composed of three components, which are Cluster View (CV, Document View (DV, and Term View (TV. User experiments have been carried out amongst journalists to compare three settings of iEvent: Setup 1 and Setup 2 (baseline setups, and Setup 3 (experimental setup. Setup 1 used bag of words and Setup 2 used named entities, while Setup 3 used a combination of bag of words and named entities. Journalists were asked to perform TDT tasks: Tracking and Detection. Findings revealed that the combination of bag of words and named entities approaches generally facilitated the journalists to perform well in the TDT tasks. This study has confirmed that the combination approach in iTDT is useful and enhanced the effectiveness of users' performance in performing the TDT tasks. It gives suggestions on the features with their approaches which facilitated the journalists in performing the TDT tasks.

  8. In-the-bag decentration of a hydrophilic radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens secondary to capsule contraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, I.J. van der; Mourits, M.P.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of in-the-bag decentration and tilt of a hydrophilic rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) of the M Plus type secondary to capsule contraction. After uneventful surgery and follow-up for 3 months, progressive decentering and tilting of the IOL secondary to capsul

  9. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... selection. Taking of migratory birds is prohibited unless specifically provided for by annual...

  10. EFFECT OF ICE BAG, DYNAMIC STRETCHING AND COMBINED TREATMENTS ON THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DELAY ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warin Krityakiarana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of ice bag, dynamic stretching, combined ice and dynamic stretching, and control (non-treated on the prevention and treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS in biceps muscle. Subjects: Fifty-five participants (aged 18 to 25 years were engaged in this study and randomly assigned into four groups (control group (non-treated (CG, n = 13; ice bag, n = 14; dynamic stretching, n = 14; and combined treatment, n = 14. Method: Before inducing DOMS, the range of motion (ROM and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC were measured. The dynamic stretching was performed before inducing DOMS. Subjects performed biceps eccentric exercise at 110% of the predicted one-repetition maximum (1-RM, for each subject, to induce muscle soreness. Pain, ROM and MVC were assessed at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after induction of DOMS. Results: These non-significant results for mode of treatment and time interaction showed that combined treatment, ice bag, or dynamic stretching alone is not effective at significantly reducing the symptoms of DOMS. Conclusion: These results are non-significant, the pattern of the data showed that the combined treatment may be contraindicated in the prevention of DOMS and ice bag or dynamic stretching might be the best choice of treatment. Further investigation is strongly recommended.

  11. 77 FR 39564 - Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption... Crash Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc has... went into effect, low volume manufacturers now have access to advanced air bag technology....

  12. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  13. Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mooventhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.

  14. Progress in the removal of di-[2-ethylhexyl]-phthalate as plasticizer in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is used in blood component containers as well as in many other medical devices because it shows optimal inertness, durability, and resistance to heat and chemicals. However, the polymer itself does not provide good handling characteristics or the necessary properties for red blood cell (RBC) survival. PVC thus needs to be plasticized, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has been the most common plasticizer to produce the required flexibility to PVC. However, DEHP has been found to leach out from the containers, causing toxic effects, as demonstrated mainly in rodents. It is considered to be a possible carcinogen and suspected to also produce endocrine effects especially in young males. Although controversial, it is commonly accepted that in vulnerable patients such as newborns, trauma patients, or pregnant women, high exposure to DEHP should be avoided. The replacement of the common PVC + DEHP blood bags poses technical challenges due to the positive influence of the DEHP molecules on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane, and thus it has been shown to affect RBC storage and survival after transfusion. Different approaches are thus being taken to find a suitable alternative to DEHP for blood components bags. Environmentalists even favor the substitution of the PVC to avoid not only the plasticizers but even the other residues contained in the polymer material. Consequently, whereas the simplest solution is the substitution of the DEHP by other plasticizers, alternative plasticizer-free materials are becoming explored. Even modifications of existing materials are being presented by some research groups, ranging from covering of the DEHP-containing materials to alloys or special additive solutions. Different strategies as well as the most promising approaches are presented in this review. In any case, the degree of stabilization of RBCs undergoing prolonged storage will dictate the final acceptance for such alternatives.

  15. Anterior chamber depth and refractive change in late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyu Yang

    Full Text Available To assess the characteristic findings and effects of laser capsulotomy in patients with late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS.Twenty patients diagnosed with late postoperative CBDS between July 2010 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Before and 1 week after capsulotomy, changes in the anterior chamber depth (ACD were assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Changes in the refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA were also measured 1 week and 1 month after capsulotomy. For patients who received bilateral cataract surgery, preoperative ACD and axial length measured by IOLMaster were compared between the two eyes.Twenty-two eyes from 20 patients who had undergone laser capsulotomy showed a mean UCVA improvement of 0.27 ± 0.24 logMAR (range, 0.00-0.90. ACD was increased by an average of +0.04 mm (95% confidence interval, +0.01 to +0.06 mm, p = 0.034, equivalent to predicted refractive change of +0.10 D. The discrepancy between actual (+1.33 D and predicted refractive change after capsulotomy suggests that refractive change may not be generated from IOL displacement in late postoperative CBDS. Preoperative ACD was deeper in the eye with late postoperative CBDS in all bilaterally pseudophakic patients (mean, 3.68 mm vs. 3.44 mm in the fellow eye, p = 0.068.Late postoperative CBDS showed refractive changes that were resolved successfully after laser capsulotomy. The convex lens effects of opalescent material in the distended capsular bag may play a major role in myopic shift. A larger preoperative ACD is possibly associated with the development of late postoperative CBDS.

  16. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, V., E-mail: vkulkarn@purdue.edu; Sojka, P. E. [Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  17. Bag-of-features based medical image retrieval via multiple assignment and visual words weighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingyan

    2011-11-01

    Bag-of-features based approaches have become prominent for image retrieval and image classification tasks in the past decade. Such methods represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patches and key points with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors. To improve the bag-of-features methods, we first model the assignments of local descriptors as contribution functions, and then propose a novel multiple assignment strategy. Assuming the local features can be reconstructed by their neighboring visual words in a vocabulary, reconstruction weights can be solved by quadratic programming. The weights are then used to build contribution functions, resulting in a novel assignment method, called quadratic programming (QP) assignment. We further propose a novel visual word weighting method. The discriminative power of each visual word is analyzed by the sub-similarity function in the bin that corresponds to the visual word. Each sub-similarity function is then treated as a weak classifier. A strong classifier is learned by boosting methods that combine those weak classifiers. The weighting factors of the visual words are learned accordingly. We evaluate the proposed methods on medical image retrieval tasks. The methods are tested on three well-known data sets, i.e., the ImageCLEFmed data set, the 304 CT Set, and the basal-cell carcinoma image set. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed QP assignment outperforms the traditional nearest neighbor assignment, the multiple assignment, and the soft assignment, whereas the proposed boosting based weighting strategy outperforms the state-of-the-art weighting methods, such as the term frequency weights and the term frequency-inverse document frequency weights. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, V.; Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-01

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ˜12 < We < ˜16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We = 12( {1 + 2/3 Oh^2 } ), is found to match well with experimental data {[L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545-560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, "Formation of drops and bubbles," in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]}. An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  19. Explicit Allocation Strategy with Deadline and Budget Constraint Algorithm in Bag of Tasks Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Purusothaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is for effective scheduling of grid jobs based on economy for space shared resources in Bag of tasks grid. Grid Computing aims in combining the power of heterogeneous, geographically distributed, multi-domain computational resources to provide high performance or high throughput. Approach: Space shared resources are parallel supercomputers and clusters of workstations that provides a great amount of computational power. These resources require jobs to be specified formally in terms of the amount of time (tr and number of processors (p needed for execution. Bag-of-Tasks (BoT is an application consists of several uniprocessor and independent tasks that have no inter-task communications or task-dependencies. BoT is highly suitable for execution in grids. It is capable of tolerating network delays or faults and does not require formal job submission. The Explicit allocation strategy assigns the formal job parameters (p, tr to the job requests, minimizing the overhead on the grid users to provide a formal job specification. This strategy uses adaptive heuristics to determine the parameters based on certain heuristics, in order to improve throughput. In the proposed system, explicit allocation strategy combined with Deadline and Budget Constraint (DBC Cost Time optimization algorithm performs effective scheduling of the jobs based on the user’s quality of service (QoS requirements such as deadline, budget and optimization strategy. Results: The cost-time optimization scheduling allocates the cheapest resources to ensure that the deadline can be met and computation is minimized. In case if there are two resources with the same cost, scheduling is done in any affordable resource so that the job gets executed as early as possible. Conclusion: The performance of this scheme against the existing system is evaluated using cost factor (Cfactor and speed up ratio (Tspeedup and this scheme is more effective than the existing

  20. Temperature variations around medication cassette and carry bag in routine use of epoprostenol administration in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Tamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to several treatment guidelines, epoprostenol is an important treatment option for pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics and poor stability of epoprostenol at room temperature make its administration challenging. We therefore studied temperature fluctuations between the drug administration cassette and atmosphere to promote the safe use of epoprostenol. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Five healthy volunteers carried a portable intravenous infusion pump attached to a medication cassette containing saline in a bag during their ordinary activities over 16 days during which the mean atmospheric temperature was 29.6 ± 1.5°C. The temperature around the medication cassette was not less than 25°C on any occasion, and the mean period over 24 h during which the temperature around the cassette exceeded 35°C and 40°C was 96.9 ± 156.4 min and 24.4 ± 77.3 min, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the temperatures outside the bag and around the cassette, as well as between temperatures around the cassette and of the saline solution in the cassette (r = 0.9258 and 0.8276, respectively. There were no differences in the temperatures outside the bag or around the cassette with respect to the bag material. CONCLUSIONS: Temperatures around a medication cassette and outside the bag containing the medication increase with sunlight exposure. The temperature around cassettes used for administering epoprostenol must therefore be kept low for as long as possible during hot summer conditions to maintain the drug stability.

  1. Effects of Bagging on Fruit Qualities of Citrus reticulata cv. Unshiu%套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义; 王雪芳

    2011-01-01

    22 years old Citrs reticulata Blanco cv. Unshiu plants were used as experimental material. The fruit bagging tests were carried out with different color of bags (with red, yellow, blue, white film bags; Bagged on July 1, bags removed on Sept 25), different removal dates of bag (on Sept 5, Sept 20 and October 5 with bag non-removal as the check; Bagging on July 1; All bags made from yellow craft papers) and different bagging dates (on July 2, Aug 4 and Sept 9; Bag removed on Sept 27; All bags made from yellow craft papers) to study the effects of bagging on fruit qualities. The results showed all the fruit bagging treatments could improve fruit surface, enhance coloration, reduce very significantly Vc content and titratable acid content, increase very significantly solid-acid ratio, increase significantly or very significantly soluble solid contents in most of the treatments, and didn't show an inconsistent effects on fruit qualities among the treatments. By comprehensive analysis on fruit qualities, the blue and red bags were the best and the white ones were the worst. The best bag removing date was Sept 20 and the best bagging dates were July 2 and Aug 4, bagging too late was bad.%以22年生温州蜜柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Unshiu)植株为试材,分别进行了果袋颜色(分别是红、黄、蓝、白色,套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期9月25日)、摘袋时期(套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期分别为9月5日、9月20日、10月5日,以不摘袋为对照,黄色牛皮纸袋)和套袋时期(套袋时期分别为7月2日、8月4日、9月9日;摘袋时期在9月27日,黄色牛皮纸袋)试验,研究套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的影响.结果表明,在3个试验中,套袋处理均能提高果面的光洁度,增进着色,极显著地降低了果实中可滴定酸和维生素C的含量,极显著地提高了固酸比和糖酸比,大多数能极显著地提高可溶性固形物的含量,但对可溶性糖含量影响不太一致.综合来

  2. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system.

  3. Effect of Different Bags on Quality of Cuiguan Pear Fruits%不同果袋对翠冠梨果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 魏树伟; 冉昆; 王宏伟

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects of bagging with different bags on appearance and internal quality of Cuiguan pear fruits,7 different kinds of fruit bags were used in growth period.The results showed that bag-ging could improve the appearance quality of Cuiguan pear significantly,but reduced the internal quality,es-pecially with the plastic film bags,which decreased the content of soluble solids significantly.In conclusion, the double paper bags Xiaolin 1 -W and Xiaolin 1 -KK were suitable for Cuiguan pear.%为了明确不同果袋对翠冠梨果实外观和内在品质的影响,本研究采用7种果袋对翠冠梨进行了生长期套袋试验。结果表明,翠冠梨经不同果袋套袋处理后,其外观品质均得到明显改善,但其果实内在品质降低,尤其是套塑膜袋果实的可溶性固形物显著降低。适宜翠冠梨套袋处理的果袋类型为双层纸袋(小林1-W)和双层纸袋(小林1-KK)。

  4. Design of a New Cold and Hot Therapy Bag%一种新型冷热疗袋的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静美; 王云燕

    2015-01-01

    As a commonly-used clinical nursing technique, the hot and cold therapy is intended for hemostatic and analgesic and anti-inlfammatory purposes. The author developed a kind of hot and cold therapy bag, which consisted of the outside bag, the inner bag as well as a temperature adjustment bag inside the inner bag. The outside, inner and temperature adjustment bags were removable. The multiple airbags were iflled between the outside and inner bag. One side of the outside bag was made of cotton and another side was made of plastic materials. The hot and cold therapy bag could not only be used for appropriate mitigation of hot and cold temperature as well as the treatment time setting, but also for selection of dry dressing and wet dressing, which demonstrated its effectiveness of clinical application.%在临床工作中,冷热疗法是很常见的护理技术,具有止血、止痛和消炎等目的。笔者研制了一种冷热疗袋,主要由外袋、内袋和设于内袋中的温度调节袋构成,其外袋、内袋和温度调节袋均可拆卸;外袋与内袋之间填有多个气囊;外袋一面为棉质,另一面为塑料材质。该冷热疗袋既能适当缓和敷袋的冷热温度、设定治疗时间,又能选择性进行干、湿敷等,具有较好的临床应用价值。

  5. The Co-chaperone BAG2 Mediates Cold-Induced Accumulation of Phosphorylated Tau in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Cesar Augusto Dias; Santiago, Fernando Enrique; de Oliveira, Adriele Silva Alves; Oliveira, Fernando Augusto; Almeida, Maria Camila; Carrettiero, Daniel Carneiro

    2016-05-01

    Inclusions of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders classified as "tauopathy," of which Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent form. Dysregulation of tau phosphorylation disrupts neuron structure and function, and hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates to form neurotoxic inclusions. The abundance of ubiquitin in tau inclusions suggests a defect in ubiquitin-mediated tau protein degradation by the proteasome. Under the temperature of 37 °C, the co-chaperone BAG2 protein targets phosphorylated tau for degradation via by a more-efficient, ubiquitin-independent pathway. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, cold exposure induces the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein. The SH-SY5Y cell line differentiates into neuron-like cells on treatment with retinoic acid and is an established model for research on the effects of cold on tau phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether BAG2 mediates the cold-induced accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein. Our findings show that cold exposure causes a decrease in BAG2 expression in undifferentiated cells. Conversely, BAG2 expression is increased in differentiated cells exposed to cold. Further, undifferentiated cells exposed to cold had an increased proportion of p-tau to total tau, suggesting an accumulation of p-tau that is consistent with decreased levels of BAG2. Overexpression of BAG2 in cold-exposed undifferentiated cells restored levels of p-tau to those of 37 °C undifferentiated control. Interestingly, although BAG2 expression increased in differentiated cells, this increase was not accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of p-tau to total tau. Further, overexpression of BAG2 in cold exposed differentiated cells showed no significant difference in p-tau levels compared to 37 °C controls. Taken together, these data show that expression of BAG2 is differently regulated in a differentiation-dependent context. Our results suggest that

  6. Armazenamento de soja em silos tipo bolsa Soybean storage in bag type silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda R. A. Faroni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as principais alterações qualitativas de soja armazenada em silos tipo bolsa e do óleo bruto extraído de soja com teores de água de 17,4% e 13,3%, armazenada em dois silos tipo bolsa, por 180 dias. Realizaram-se amostragens no dia do enchimento das bolsas, aos 30; 90 e 180 dias de armazenamento. Analisaram-se o teor de água, a condutividade elétrica, o percentual de germinação, a massa específica aparente da soja, além do teor de ácidos graxos livres e o índice de peróxido do óleo bruto extraído dela. Os teores de água da soja armazenada úmida e seca mantiveram-se próximos dos valores obtidos no início do período de armazenamento. Observou-se tendência de elevação da condutividade elétrica e decréscimo do percentual de germinação somente na soja úmida, principalmente após 90 dias de armazenamento. Não foi verificado decréscimo da massa específica aparente do material armazenado úmido e seco. Com relação aos parâmetros qualitativos do óleo bruto, observou-se que os valores obtidos se mantiveram abaixo do limite máximo exigido pela legislação para a comercialização de óleo bruto de soja. Pode-se concluir que os silos tipo bolsa representam alternativa viável do ponto de vista qualitativo para armazenagem de soja, e esse tipo de estrutura não ocasiona alterações qualitativas significativas no óleo bruto obtido desse material, em condições similares àquelas deste estudo.This study reports major qualitative changes in the soybean grains and the extracted crude oil when stored in bag type silos. Grains with moisture content of 17.4 or 13.3% were stored in two bag type silos. Samples were taken 30, 90 and 180 days of storage , to determine moisture content, electric conductivity of the grain leachate, germination percentage, apparent specific grain mass, and free fatty acid content, and peroxide index of the crude oil extracted from these grains. The wet and dry grains remained with

  7. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  8. Flight Testing of the Forward Osmosis Bag for Water Recovery on STS-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael S.; Soler, Monica; Mortenson, Todd; McCoy, LaShelle; Woodward, Spencer; Levine, Howard G.

    2011-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Bag (FOB) is a personal water purification device for recovery of potable liquid from almost any non-potable water source. The FOB experiment was flown as a sortie mission on STS-135/ULF7 using flight-certified materials and a design based on the X-Pack(TradeMark) from Hydration Technology Innovations (Albany, OR). The primary objective was to validate the technology for use under microgravity conditions. The FOB utilizes a difference in solute concentration across a selectively permeable membrane to draw water molecules from the non-potable water while rejecting most chemical and all microbial contaminants contained within. Six FOB devices were tested on STS-135 for their ability to produce a potable liquid permeate from a feed solution containing 500 mL potassium chloride (15 g/L) amended with 0.1% methyl blue dye (w:v) tracer against an osmotic gradient created by addition of 60 mL of concentrate containing the osmolytes fructose and glucose, and 0.01% sodium fluorescein (w:v) tracer. Three FOB devices were physically mixed by hand for 2 minutes by a crewmember after loading to augment membrane wetting for comparison with three unmixed FOB devices. Hydraulic flux rate and rejection of salt and dye in microgravity were determined from a 60-mL sample collected by the crew on orbit after 6 hours. Post-flight analysis of samples collected on orbit demonstrated that the Forward Osmosis Bag achieved expected design specifications in microgravity. The hydraulic flux rate of water across the membrane was reduced approximately 50% in microgravity relative to ground controls that generated an average of 50 mL per hour using the same water and osmolyte solutions. The membrane rejected both potassium and chloride at >92% and methyl blue dye at >99.9%. Physical mixing of the FOB during water recovery did not have any significant effect on either flux rate or rejection of solutes from the water solution. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection in

  9. Studying DEHP migration in plasticized PVC used for blood bags by coupling Raman confocal microscopy to UV spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Tfayli, A; Yagoubi, N

    2016-04-01

    Plasticized PVC is widely used to make medical devices such as tubing, perfusion bags and blood bags. By using confocal Raman microscopy on a PVC sheet plasticized with around 40% of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), we propose a simple and sensitive approach to studying and understanding the diffusion of plasticizers from polymers into the surrounding media. Moreover, we sought to correlate our findings to standard measurements conducted by UV spectroscopy. This study showed differences in the concentration gradient observed due to the diffusion of the plasticizer inside a PVC sheet. We can thus follow the critical DEHP ratios that can impact the diffusion process. Water and ethanol were chosen as storage media: in ethanol, the lowest concentration of DEHP was observed at the surface resulting in the formation of a less plasticized layer near the interface; unlike ethanol, PVC sheets stored in water showed a greater concentration of DEHP on the film surface as an exudation of DEHP onto the surface.

  10. Bluish Discolouration of Urine Drainage Tube and Bag in a Female Patient with Spina Bifida, Paraplegia, and Suprapubic Cystostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a female patient with spina bifida, paraplegia, suprapubic cystostomy, and chronic constipation, who became anxious when she noticed a bluish discolouration of her urine drainage system. Urine microbiology revealed growth of Providencia stuartii and Staphylococcus aureus. There were no systemic features of infection and, therefore, antibiotics were not prescribed for asymptomatic bacteriuria. This patient was advised to change the urine bag every day, and was prescribed senna to facilitate bowel evacuation. She was reassured that bluish discolouration of the urine drainage tube and bag was a transient, benign phenomenon and not indicative of any underlying pathology. Over the next 7 days, the bluish discolouration gradually faded away. Clinical characteristics of patients who are likely to develop this phenomenon and the underlying biochemical mechanism for bluish discolouration of the urine drainage system are discussed in brief.

  11. Vortices and magnetic bags in Abelian models with extended scalar sectors and some of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Forgács, Péter

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of vortices is presented in Ginzburg-Landau (or Abelian Higgs) models with two complex scalars (order parameters) assuming a general U(1)$\\times$U(1) symmetric potential. Particular emphasis is given to the case, when only one of the scalars obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV). It is found that for a significantly large domain in parameter space vortices with a scalar field condensate in their core (condensate core, CC) coexist with Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices. Importantly CC vortices are stable and have lower energy than the ANO ones. Magnetic bags or giant vortices of the order of 1000 flux quanta are favoured to form for the range of parameters ("strong couplings") appearing for the superconducting state of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). Furthermore, it is argued that finite energy/unit length 1VEV vortices are smoothly connected to fractional flux 2VEV ones. Stable, finite energy CC-type vortices are also exhibited in the case when one of the scalar fields is neutral.

  12. Content-Based Image Retrieval using Local Features Descriptors and Bag-of-Visual Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alkhawlani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval is still an active research topic in the computer vision field. There are existing several techniques to retrieve visual data from large databases. Bag-of-Visual Word (BoVW is a visual feature descriptor that can be used successfully in Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR applications. In this paper, we present an image retrieval system that uses local feature descriptors and BoVW model to retrieve efficiently and accurately similar images from standard databases. The proposed system uses SIFT and SURF techniques as local descriptors to produce image signatures that are invariant to rotation and scale. As well as, it uses K-Means as a clustering algorithm to build visual vocabulary for the features descriptors that obtained of local descriptors techniques. To efficiently retrieve much more images relevant to the query, SVM algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated by calculating both precision and recall. The experimental results reveal that this system performs well on two different standard datasets.

  13. Plastic Bag Derived-Microplastics as a Vector for Metal Exposure in Terrestrial Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Mark E; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A; Clark, Andy; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T; Thorpe, Karen L

    2017-04-05

    Microplastics are widespread contaminants in terrestrial environments but comparatively little is known about interactions between microplastics and common terrestrial contaminants such as zinc (Zn). In adsorption experiments fragmented HDPE bags c. one mm(2) in size showed similar sorption characteristics to soil. However, when present in combination with soil, concentrations of adsorbed Zn on a per mass basis were over an order of magnitude lower on microplastics. Desorption of the Zn was minimal from both microplastics and soil in synthetic soil solution (0.01 M CaCl2), but in synthetic earthworm guts desorption was higher from microplastics (40-60%) than soil (2-15%), suggesting microplastics could increase Zn bioavailability. Individual Lumbricus terrestris earthworms exposed for 28 days in mesocosms of 260 g moist soil containing 0.35 wt % of Zn-bearing microplastic (236-4505 mg kg(-1)) ingested the microplastics, but there was no evidence of Zn accumulation, mortality, or weight change. Digestion of the earthworms showed that they did not retain microplastics in their gut. These findings indicate that microplastics could act as vectors to increase metal exposure in earthworms, but that the associated risk is unlikely to be significant for essential metals such as Zn that are well regulated by metabolic processes.

  14. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum straw using nylon bag technique in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Straw a by-product from grain legume crops is produced in large quantities in Iran. Straw is constant component of ruminant diets on small holder farms; however, there is little information about its nutritive value. Accordingly experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP degradability of chickpea straw using nylon bags (in situ technique. Replicated samples were incubated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in three rumen canulated Ghezel rams with 50±3 kg body weight. Dry matter (DM, CP, ether extract (EE, OM, crude fiber (CF and nitrogen free extract (NFE content of chickpea straws were 92.2, 6.1, 5.5, 92.0, 34.3 and 46.2%, respectively. The soluble fraction (a of the OM and CP of chickpea straw was 17.5 and 40.8% and potential degradability (a+b of OM and CP was 56.7 and 72.0%, respectively. Effective degradability at different passage rates (2, 5 and 8% per hours for OM was 51.0 44.9 and 40.7% and for CP were 68.4, 64.3 and 61.3%, respectively. In conclusion, based on chemical composition and degradation characteristics, chickpea straw could have moderate nutritive value for ruminants.

  15. USING A BAG OF WORDS FOR AUTOMATIC MEDICAL IMAGE ANNOTATION WITH A LATENT SEMANTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Bouslimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a new approach for the automatic annotation of medical images, using the approach of "bag-of-words" to represent the visual content of the medical image combined with text descriptors based approach tf.idf and reduced by latent semantic to extract the co-occurrence between terms and visual terms. A medical report is composed of a text describing a medical image. First, we are interested to index the text and extract all relevant terms using a thesaurus containing MeSH medical concepts. In a second phase, the medical image is indexed while recovering areas of interest which are invariant to change in scale, light and tilt. To annotate a new medical image, we use the approach of "bagof-words" to recover the feature vector. Indeed, we use the vector space model to retrieve similar medical image from the database training. The calculation of the relevance value of an image to the query image is based on the cosine function. We conclude with an experiment carried out on five types of radiological imaging to evaluate the performance of our system of medical annotation. The results showed that our approach works better with more images from the radiology of the skull.

  16. The sand bag model of the dispersion of the cosmic body in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teterev, A. V.; Nemchinov, I. V.

    1993-01-01

    The strength of the extraterrestrial bodies depends on their structure, composition, dimensions, and the history of this body. The fragmentation of the body due to aerodynamic stresses begins at sufficiently large heights above the surface of the Earth. The process of fragmentation and dispersion of the fragments usually is studied by the hydrodynamic or even gasdynamic models. If the fragmentation process begins due to the initial cracks and faults of the body, or this body consists of large boulders glued by ice, the strength of these boulders after fragmentation remains higher than the aerodynamic stresses exerted at the remaining part of the body. It is supposed that fragmentation occurs at initial moment t = 0 at some height z(sub o) above the surface of the air, these fragments remain solid. The possibility of further fragmentation during the remaining part of the trajectory is not taken into account. If the number of these parts is large enough and their size is small in comparison to the initial radius of the body than we can use the sand bag model proposed in qualitative form.

  17. Vortices and magnetic bags in Abelian models with extended scalar sectors and some of their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád

    2016-12-01

    A detailed study of vortices is presented in Ginzburg-Landau (or Abelian Higgs) models with two complex scalars (order parameters) assuming a general U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetric potential. Particular emphasis is given to the case in which only one of the scalars obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV). It is found that for a significantly large domain in parameter space vortices with a scalar field condensate in their core [condensate core (CC)] coexist with Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices. Importantly, CC vortices are stable and have lower energy than the ANO ones. Magnetic bags or giant vortices of the order of 1000 flux quanta are favored to form for the range of parameters ("strong couplings") appearing for the superconducting state of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). Furthermore, it is argued that finite energy/unit length 1VEV vortices are smoothly connected to fractional flux 2VEV ones. Stable, finite energy CC-type vortices are also exhibited in the case when one of the scalar fields is neutral.

  18. BAGGING TECHNIQUE: WATER CATCHMENT SYSTEM FOR RESIDUAL MOISTURE CROPS USED BY PRODUCERS MASIACA, SONORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Sánchez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the southeast of Sonora as in most of the State, land is unproductive due to its arid and semi-arid land, if it does not have small or large irrigation facilities. Where economic conditions are reduced, producers need to develop techniques that help to overcome the erraticity in the availability of water, especially for irrigation. That's why Mays Indian and Masiaca community private producers from Sonora have developed a technique for harvesting from water of avenues of the intermittent streams near their plots, and once the ground has the adequate humidity conditions they can establish crops of their interest, so it is possible to obtain acceptable harvest in corn, peas, sorghum and safflower. However, these producers face a series of problems related primarily to the lack of rain; lack of credit support for the construction or maintenance of the required facilities; lack of profitability of crops established there, the abandonment of agricultural land, erosion of knowledge, etc. The analysis of this study can draw the following conclusions: The bagging technique is feasible if there are heavy rains, with the presence of cyclones, in October; the acceptable harvest obtained in established crops is largely due to the contribution of organic matter derived from the Avenues; the organizational levels observed are simple and operational.

  19. From pixels to patches: a cloud classification method based on bag of micro-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cloud classification has attracted more and more attention with the increasing development of whole sky imagers, but it is still in progress for ground-based cloud observation. This paper proposes a new cloud classification method, named bag of micro-structures (BoMS. This method treats an all-sky image as a collection of micro-structures mapped from image patches, rather than a collection of pixels. And then it constructs an image representation with a weighted histogram of micro-structures. Lastly, a support vector machine (SVM classifier is applied on the image representation because SVM is appealing for sparse and high dimensional feature space. Five different sky conditions are identified: cirriform, cumuliform, stratiform, clear sky and mixed cloudiness that often appears in all-sky images but is seldom addressed in literature. BoMS is evaluated on a large dataset, which contains 5000 all-sky images that are captured by a total-sky cloud imager located in Tibet (29.25° N, 88.88° E. BoMS achieves an accuracy of 90.9 % for 10 fold cross-validation, and it outperforms the state-of-the-art method with an increase of about 19 %. Furthermore, influence of key parameters in BoMS are investigated to verify their robustness.

  20. Feature selection and classification of multiparametric medical images using bagging and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for brain classification based on multi-parametric medical images. This method takes advantage of multi-parametric imaging to provide a set of discriminative features for classifier construction by using a regional feature extraction method which takes into account joint correlations among different image parameters; in the experiments herein, MRI and PET images of the brain are used. Support vector machine classifiers are then trained based on the most discriminative features selected from the feature set. To facilitate robust classification and optimal selection of parameters involved in classification, in view of the well-known "curse of dimensionality", base classifiers are constructed in a bagging (bootstrap aggregating) framework for building an ensemble classifier and the classification parameters of these base classifiers are optimized by means of maximizing the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve estimated from their prediction performance on left-out samples of bootstrap sampling. This classification system is tested on a sex classification problem, where it yields over 90% classification rates for unseen subjects. The proposed classification method is also compared with other commonly used classification algorithms, with favorable results. These results illustrate that the methods built upon information jointly extracted from multi-parametric images have the potential to perform individual classification with high sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Effects of cold therapy in the treatment of mandibular angle fractures: hilotherm system vs ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Ida; Colangeli, Walter; Cristofaro, Maria Giulia; Giudice, Amerigo; Giofrè, Elio; Varano, Anna; Giudice, Mario

    2016-06-18

    La crioterapia dopo interventi di chirurgia maxillo-facciale è una metodica comunemente utilizzata sia a fini analgesici che di riduzione dell’edema e dell’ecchimosi dei tessuti molli. Hilotherapy è costituito da un’unità mobile elettrica refrigerante dotata di un termostato digitale regolabile e da un circuito chiuso di acqua distillata refrigerata che scorre all’interno di collettori e di maschere in gomma specificatamente conformate per i distretti anatomici del massiccio facciale. Abbiamo selezionato 40 pz affetti da frattura unifocale di angolo mandibolare e suddivisi in 2 gruppi, crioterapia con ice-bag (gruppo A) e Hiloterapy System (Gruppo B); entrambi sottoposti a medesimo trattamento farmacologico di base (antibiotico-antiedemigeno-antidolorifico). L’analisi dei dati ha dimostrato come l’utilizzo dell’Hiloterapy System nel post-operatorio per 48 ore a temperatura modulata ha garantito un più rapido decremento dell’edema dei tessuti molli e un miglior controllo del dolore, con conseguente minor richiesta di farmaci anti-infiammatori ed anti-dolorifici, rispetto al gruppo A.

  2. Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing growth with digestate from biogas plant in outdoor bag photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F; Venditti, A; Bianco, A; Guarcini, L; Bottari, E; Festa, M R; Cogliani, E; Pignatelli, V

    2016-01-01

    Digestate coming from an Anaerobic Digestion unit in a Biogas Plant, feeded on cow manure and vegetable waste from markets, has been used. About 8-35 L polyethylene transparent bags have been employed as cultivation container, outdoor. Different aliquots of digestate, alone or mixed with commercial liquid fertiliser, were employed to cultivate in batch Scenedesus dimorphus, a freshwater green microalga, in the ENEA facilities of Casaccia Research Center, near Rome, Italy. The cultivation period was June-July 2013. The average daily yields of dry microalgae biomass varied from 20 mg/L/d to 60 mg/L/d, mean 38.2 mg/L/d. Final dry biomass concentration varied from 0.18 to 1.29 g/L, mean 0.55 g/L. S. dimorphus proved to be very efficient in removing N and P from the culture medium. Another fact emerged from these trials is that S. dimorphus inner composition resulted to be variable in response to the tested different culture conditions.

  3. Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Survival Rates of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings Transported in Plastic Bags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ibrahim AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmers in Sudan obtain their seed stocks mainly not from their farms and as such rely heavily on good packing conditions covering sometimes 8–12 hours transportation time to maximize fish survival and quality the study here required main objective to identified the optimum loading for the success during transporting. closed oxygenated plastic bag which was carried three densities for each one with tow replicate for every treatment for the lower loading is 75 fingerlings /l the medium is, 100 fingerlings and last density is the larger one 140 fingerlings the duration factors was 10 hours, 11 hours and 18 hours. The fingerlings was sex reversed, their size is (5g ± 0.5. The collecting data analyze used SPSS computer software version- 16.0. Analysis result shown the factor of density in the tow treatments (75 fingerlings + 100 fingerlings was the best according to the survivor rate depending to type of the periods parameter. 10 hour=94% and 11 hours = 92% and here was N.S otherwise the comparative between those and the density 140 was high significant. Variation between loading and durations is NS at P<0.05, so the conclusions is found the optimum loading during transporting period was 100/l/18 (hundred fish per litter in 18 hours period according to analysis details.

  4. Considering the Spatial Layout Information of Bag of Features (BoF) Framework for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guangyu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pooling method such as spatial pyramid matching (SPM) is very crucial in the bag of features model used in image classification. SPM partitions the image into a set of regular grids and assumes that the spatial layout of all visual words obey the uniform distribution over these regular grids. However, in practice, we consider that different visual words should obey different spatial layout distributions. To improve SPM, we develop a novel spatial pooling method, namely spatial distribution pooling (SDP). The proposed SDP method uses an extension model of Gauss mixture model to estimate the spatial layout distributions of the visual vocabulary. For each visual word type, SDP can generate a set of flexible grids rather than the regular grids from the traditional SPM. Furthermore, we can compute the grid weights for visual word tokens according to their spatial coordinates. The experimental results demonstrate that SDP outperforms the traditional spatial pooling methods, and is competitive with the state-of-the-art classification accuracy on several challenging image datasets.

  5. Alleviating the toxicity of heavy metals by combined amendments in cultivated bag of Pleurotus cornucopiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jia, Zhilei; Han, Yue; He, Qi; Xu, Heng

    2015-11-01

    The substrate of mushroom can be polluted with heavy metals and subsequently contaminate mushroom, which requires alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental and human health risks. The effects of amendment application on alleviating Cu and Cd toxicities to Pleurotus cornucopiae were investigated in a cultivated bag experiment conducted with the naturally contaminated substrate. Addition of combined amendments (sodium bentonite, silicon fertilizer, activated carbon, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate) increased the P. cornucopiae biomass and substrate pH. Cu and Cd concentration in P. cornucopiae as well as the available Cu and Cd in substrate reduced for the presence of amendments, and the silicon fertilizer had the biggest inhibition on metal uptake. The smallest amount of Cu and Cd in P. cornucopiae was only 30.8 and 5.51% of control, respectively. Moreover, application of amendments also decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level in metal-stressed mushroom by 4.38-53.74 and 8.90-58.42% relative to control, respectively. The decreased oxidative stress could well contribute to the growth of P. cornucopiae, and the elevated substrate pH might lead to the lower metal availability, thus resulting in the reduction of metal accumulation in mushroom. These above results suggest that application of combined amendments in mushroom substrate could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling metal content in P. cornucopiae.

  6. 一种多功能电脑包的设计%Design of a Multi-functional Laptop Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石王阳; 吴林林

    2015-01-01

    A multi-functional laptop bag is designed, including bag body, upper cover, bottom plate, support plate, U-type struc⁃ture, pressure lever, support device and other parts, and provides a specific technical design plan for multi-functional laptop bag. Compared with current laptop bags, except carrying the laptop, this multi-functional one can fix the laptop, and can also be unfold⁃ed to form a small computer desk for using the laptop outdoor, which is reasonably designed, has favorable performance in support, laptop safety and shock proof, and has certain practical significance and economic value.%设计了一种多功能电脑包,主要包括电脑包体、上盖板、下底板、支撑板、U形结构、压杆和支撑装置等部件,给出了具体的多功能电脑包的技术设计方案。与现有电脑包相比,此多功能电脑包,除了可以携带笔记本电脑外,还可以对笔记本电脑起到固定作用;同时还能展开成一个小型电脑桌,便于笔记本电脑在室外使用,设计合理,支撑效果好,安全防震,具有一定的实际意义和经济价值。

  7. Torsional Behaviour and Finite Element Analysis of the Hybrid Laminated Composite Shafts: Comparison of VARTM with Vacuum Bagging Manufacturing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Emin Taşdelen; Mehmet Halidun Keleştemur; Ercan Şevkat

    2016-01-01

    Braided sleeve composite shafts are produced and their torsional behavior is investigated. The braided sleeves are slid over an Al tube to create very strong and rigid tubular form shafts and they are in the form of 2/2 twill biaxial fiber fabric that has been woven into a continuous sleeve. Carbon and glass fibers braided sleeves are used for the fabrication of the composite shafts. VARTM (vacuum assisted resin transfer molding) and Vacuum Bagging are the two different types of manufacturing...

  8. "Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch" method for solid-phase synthesis of small molecular diverse compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suo-De; Liu, Gang; Xia, Shu-Quan; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Liang

    2002-01-01

    A new "Meshed-Bag Gathered-Bunch" technology for the solid-phase synthesis of chemical libraries was developed. Using such technology, we synthesized muramyl dipeptide mimetics including derivatives at the N- and C-terminus, cyclic muramyl dipeptide mimetics, muramyl dipeptide and Tuftsin's analogue conjugates. The advantages of such a method include ease of manufacture, low unit cost of production, the physical encoding method, and the compatibility with both parallel and "split-mix" approaches.

  9. Experimental degradation of polymer shopping bags (standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable) in the gastrointestinal fluids of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christin; Townsend, Kathy; Matschullat, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    The persistence of marine debris such as discarded polymer bags has become globally an increasing hazard to marine life. To date, over 177 marine species have been recorded to ingest man-made polymers that cause life-threatening complications such as gut impaction and perforation. This study set out to test the decay characteristics of three common types of shopping bag polymers in sea turtle gastrointestinal fluids (GIF): standard and degradable plastic, and biodegradable. Fluids were obtained from the stomachs, small intestines and large intestines of a freshly dead Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and a Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Controls were carried out with salt and freshwater. The degradation rate was measured over 49 days, based on mass loss. Degradation rates of the standard and the degradable plastic bags after 49 days across all treatments and controls were negligible. The biodegradable bags showed mass losses between 3 and 9%. This was a much slower rate than reported by the manufacturers in an industrial composting situation (100% in 49 days). The GIF of the herbivorous Green turtle showed an increased capacity to break down the biodegradable polymer relative to the carnivorous Loggerhead, but at a much lower rate than digestion of natural vegetative matter. While the breakdown rate of biodegradable polymers in the intestinal fluids of sea turtles is greater than standard and degradable plastics, it is proposed that this is not rapid enough to prevent morbidity. Further study is recommended to investigate the speed at which biodegradable polymers decompose outside of industrial composting situations, and their durability in marine and freshwater systems.

  10. Illumination correction of dyed fabrics approach using Bagging-based ensemble particle swarm optimization-extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyu; Xu, Rui; Wu, Dichong; Zhu, Zefei; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Changes in illumination will result in serious color difference evaluation errors during the dyeing process. A Bagging-based ensemble extreme learning machine (ELM) mechanism hybridized with particle swarm optimization (PSO), namely Bagging-PSO-ELM, is proposed to develop an accurate illumination correction model for dyed fabrics. The model adopts PSO algorithm to optimize the input weights and hidden biases for the ELM neural network called PSO-ELM, which enhances the performance of ELM. Meanwhile, to further increase the prediction accuracy, a Bagging ensemble scheme is used to construct an independent PSO-ELM learning machine by taking bootstrap replicates of the training set. Then, the obtained multiple different PSO-ELM learners are aggregated to establish the prediction model. The proposed prediction model is evaluated with real dyed fabric images and discussed in comparison with several related methods. Experimental results show that the ensemble color constancy method is able to generate a more robust illuminant estimation model with better generalization performance.

  11. Peak Bagging of red giant stars observed by Kepler: first results with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsaro Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars’ power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars observed by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of observed oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Efficiency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we show the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noise red giant stars by exploiting recent Kepler datasets and a new criterion for the detection of an oscillation mode based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence. Preliminary results for frequencies and lifetimes for single oscillation modes, together with acoustic glitches, are therefore presented.

  12. Fruit Coloration and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis after Bag Removal in Non-Red and Red Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, evolution of apple color (L* and a/b, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the activity of the related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, dihydroflavonol4-reductase (DFR and UDP-Glucose: flavonoid-3-O-galactosyl transferase (UFGT, were investigated in bagged non-red apple cultivars (‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ and red apple cultivars (‘Starkrimon’ and ‘Pink Lady’. Young fruits were bagged 40–45 days after flowering (DAF, and fruits of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Starkrimon’ were uncovered and exposed to light 120 DAF, while those of ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Pink Lady’ were exposed for 160 DAF. Results showed that cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal was the most abundant anthocyanin in both non-red and red cultivars. Level of anthocyanins was higher in ‘Granny Smith’ than in ‘Golden Delicious’, indicating that red color was easier to develop in green cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ than in yellow cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ after bag removal. The cy3-gal accumulation of non-red cultivars tested was not significantly correlated with PAL, CHI and DFR activity, but was significantly correlated with UFGT activity. During the reddening of non-red apples, UFGT may be the more important factor in the anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome May Not Be Benign: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Bhattarai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a rare condition in which there is purple discoloration of the urine with its collecting bag and associated tubing occurs. It is considered a benign condition. We report an unusual case of PUBS in an 87-year-old female from nursing home who had a history of recurrent UTI. She also had a history of ureteral obstruction requiring left nephrostomy tube. She was brought to emergency department with altered mental status which developed five days after the occurrence of purple discoloration of the urinary bag. Her urine culture grew vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. She died within three days of hospitalization despite intensive care in tertiary center. This case highlights that PUBS may not always be benign and should be approached on a case-by-case basis because it may signal the underlying UTI which might be very difficult to treat. Failure of recognition of this peculiar color early could delay the appropriate intervention leading to fatal complication. This case also represents the rare occurrence of PUBS in the setting of nephrostomy tube.

  14. As práticas de velamento na cidade de Bagé-RS-Brasil. Cultura material e visual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Tonini Bastianello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Examinar o ritual de velamento e o aparato de adornos funerários na cidade de Bagé[1] significa contar parte de sua história. Sob a perspectiva da cultura material e visual, buscaremos compreender as atitudes cotidianas dessa sociedade, suas transformações, seus valores religiosos, morais, como tantos outros, revelando importantes aspectos de sua memória. Esta prática nos relata a forma desta sociedade se portar e se enfeitar diante da morte nos primórdios do século XX. [1]. “Ao examinar a história de Bagé, percebemos que sua formação se confunde com a do exército brasileiro. O surgimento desta cidade está ligado à instalação de um acampamento militar, na encosta do cerro à margem do Arroio Bagé, em 1811. Nessa época, os seus campos já eram ocupados por estancieiros para a criação de gado. Esta região, por ser de fronteira, sempre ocupou posição estratégica na política e na defesa do território nacional. Por essa razão, desencadeou-se muita afinidade entre os militares e seus habitantes”. (BASTIANELLO, 2010.

  15. PRESENT CONDITION AND MEASURES TO EXPAND OF VOLUNTARY AGREEMENT ON PLASTIC SHOPPING BAGS REDUCTION AT THE PREFECTURAL LEVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mayuka; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition and measures to expand of voluntary agreement on plastic shopping bags reduction at the prefectural level. Methods of this research are questionnaire survey to prefectures implementing the agreement and survey by i town page to the number of stores of companies and the number of companies in the prefectures. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. The refusal rate of plastic shopping bags was 10-40% before the implementation of voluntary agreements. And the rate is approximately 70-90% after the implementation. Therefore, before and after the implementation of voluntary agreements, the refusal rate of plastic shopping bags is approximately 40-70% less. 2. It is suggested that the time and number of meetings from proposal to conclusion of the agreement are related in some way, to the ratio of stores participating. On the participation of administration, the ratio of stores participating in the case in which prefecture and cities participate is higher than in the case in which prefecture participates.

  16. Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebouyeh, Farzaneh; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Ziarati, Parisa; Heshmati, Masoomeh; Qomi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (≤ 1-1.6) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.

  17. Object classification of SAR image based on improved Bag of Visual Words algorithm%基于改进的Bag of Visual Words算法的SAR图像目标分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃; 薄华

    2013-01-01

    “视觉词袋”(Bag of Visual Words,BOV)算法是一种有效的基于语义特征表达的物体识别算法.针对传统BOV模型存在的不足,综合利用SAR图像的灰度和纹理特征,提出基于感兴趣目标(Target of Interest,TOI)的“视觉词袋”算法.首先,对训练图像进行TOI选取,用灰度共生矩阵模型提取TOI的纹理特征,再结合灰度特征,组成多维特征向量集,以簇内相似度最高、数据分布密度最大为准则,生成“视觉词袋”.其次,对测试图像,依据已生成的“视觉词袋”,采用支持向量机(Support Vector Machine,SVM)分类器,实现SAR图像感兴趣目标的有效分类.实验结果表明,与传统的“视觉词袋”构建算法相比,该算法在分类正确率提高的同时,能够在训练图像较少的情况下达到良好的分类效果.%Bag of Visual Words (BOV) algorithm is an efficient object recognition algorithm based on semantic features representation,which derives from text-based search algorithm based on semantic.To optimize the construction of the traditional Bag of Visual Words,this paper,comprehensively utilizing the model of gray and texture information,presents an optimized algorithm for the construction of Bag of Visual Words based on Target of Interest (TOI).Firstly,the TOI is extracted from training images.Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is introduced to the extraction of texture features that produce a multi-dimensional feature vectors set with gray information.With the highest similarity inside clusters and the maximum data density taken as the cluster criterion,the cluster centers are produced.Namely,Bag of Visual Words is constructed.Secondly,according to the produced BOV,using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Classifier realizes object classification of SAR image.Experimental results show the algorithm proposed in the paper can obtain high classification accuracy in the case of a few training images comparing with the traditional BOV.

  18. Solution structure of the SGTA dimerisation domain and investigation of its interactions with the ubiquitin-like domains of BAG6 and UBL4A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Darby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BAG6 complex resides in the cytosol and acts as a sorting point to target diverse hydrophobic protein substrates along their appropriate paths, including proteasomal degradation and ER membrane insertion. Composed of a trimeric complex of BAG6, TRC35 and UBL4A, the BAG6 complex is closely associated with SGTA, a co-chaperone from which it can obtain hydrophobic substrates. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SGTA consists of an N-terminal dimerisation domain (SGTA_NT, a central tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain, and a glutamine rich region towards the C-terminus. Here we solve a solution structure of the SGTA dimerisation domain and use biophysical techniques to investigate its interaction with two different UBL domains from the BAG6 complex. The SGTA_NT structure is a dimer with a tight hydrophobic interface connecting two sets of four alpha helices. Using a combination of NMR chemical shift perturbation, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC and microscale thermophoresis (MST experiments we have biochemically characterised the interactions of SGTA with components of the BAG6 complex, the ubiquitin-like domain (UBL containing proteins UBL4A and BAG6. We demonstrate that the UBL domains from UBL4A and BAG6 directly compete for binding to SGTA at the same site. Using a combination of structural and interaction data we have implemented the HADDOCK protein-protein interaction docking tool to generate models of the SGTA-UBL complexes. SIGNIFICANCE: This atomic level information contributes to our understanding of the way in which hydrophobic proteins have their fate decided by the collaboration between SGTA and the BAG6 complex.

  19. A quantitative differentiation method for plastic bags by wide angle X-ray diffraction for tracing the source of illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Carresi, Pietro; Schiavone, Sergio; Marigo, Antonio

    2007-05-03

    Thirty-three shopping bags, commonly encountered in the packaging of drug doses, were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Using this single technique, without sample preparation, nearly all the considered samples could be differentiated, achieving a discriminating power of 0.992. The rather large degree of variability existing in grocery bags, even though they are mass produced, was shown, confirming that these items can be useful in tracing the source of illicit drug doses.

  20. Enhancement of bioactivity of pulsed magnetron sputtered TiC{sub x}N{sub y} with bioactive glass (BAG) incorporated polycaprolactone (PCL) composite scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anusha Thampi, V.V.; Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Titanium carbonitride (TiC{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films were fabricated on SS 316 L by pulsed reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium and graphite targets. The sputtered film was characterized microstructurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern revealed that the film was preferentially oriented along (200) axis with a grain size of 20 nm. A globular morphology was observed from electron micrograph while Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the compositional purity of the film. To improve the bioactivity, bioactive glass (BAG) nanopowders of size 60 nm, synthesized by sol–gel method, was incorporated into a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold (BAG-PCL), which was applied over TiC{sub x}N{sub y}/SS (BAG-PCL/TiCN/SS). In-vitro bioactivity studies of BAG-PCL showed the apatite formation, which was confirmed from fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and SEM. In-vitro corrosion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution showed that the coated specimen had a higher charge transfer resistance than stainless steel (SS) bare. The enhancement of bioactivity was monitored by hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility, where an improved cell attachment and lower thrombus formation was observed for the coatings with BAG-PCL. - Highlights: • Fabrication of TiC{sub x}N{sub y} thin films on SS 316 L (TiCN/SS) by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. • Synthesis of BAG nanopowders (45S5) by sol–gel method. • Incorporation of BAG nanopowders into PCL matrix to form polymer composite scaffold. • BAG-PCL scaffold was coated on TiCN/SS to enhance the bioactivity.

  1. Potentiation of antileukemic therapies by the dual PI3K/PDK-1 inhibitor, BAG956: effects on BCR-ABL– and mutant FLT3-expressing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Ellen; Banerji, Lolita; Wright, Renee D.; Barrett, Rosemary; Ray, Arghya; Moreno, Daisy; Catley, Laurence; Jiang, Jingrui; Hall-Meyers, Elizabeth; Sauveur-Michel, Maira; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Fox, Edward; Kung, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Mediators of PI3K/AKT signaling have been implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies have shown that inhibitors of PI3K/AKT signaling, such as wortmannin and LY294002, are able to inhibit CML and AML cell proliferation and synergize with targeted tyrosine kinase inhi-bitors. We investigated the ability of BAG956, a dual PI3K/PDK-1 inhibitor, to be used in combination with inhibitors of BCR-ABL and mutant FLT3, as well as with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, and the rapamycin derivative, RAD001. BAG956 was shown to block AKT phosphorylation induced by BCR-ABL–, and induce apoptosis of BCR-ABL–expressing cell lines and patient bone marrow cells at concentrations that also inhibit PI3K signaling. Enhancement of the inhibitory effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and nilotinib, by BAG956 was demonstrated against BCR-ABL expressing cells both in vitro and in vivo. We have also shown that BAG956 is effective against mutant FLT3-expressing cell lines and AML patient bone marrow cells. Enhancement of the inhibitory effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PKC412, by BAG956 was demonstrated against mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Finally, BAG956 and rapamycin/RAD001 were shown to combine in a nonantagonistic fashion against BCR-ABL– and mutant FLT3-expressing cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18184863

  2. Out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation: outcomes of posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange, risk factors, and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dan-ying; CHEN Li-na; SUN Yi; SHAO Ying-feng; LIANG Jing-li; LIU Yi-zhi

    2010-01-01

    Background Dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens is one of the most common complications of intraocular lens implantation. Lens exchange is an effective solution to this unsatisfactory status. This study was conducted to analyze the possible predisposing factors for out-of-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens dislocation and to study the outcomes of lens exchange surgery.Methods Thirty-six consecutive patients (36 eyes) with out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation who underwent posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangdong,China) from January 2003 to October 2009 were included. A 6-month follow-up was completed. The causes for out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation and visual outcomes of posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange were analyzed. The out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation was diagnosed on the basis of the findings from slit-lamp microscope and B-ultrasound. The dislocated intraocular lens was explanted. Reimplantation of a new posterior chamber intraocular lens was performed in each case using standardized surgical procedures.Results In this study, a total of thirty-six consecutive patients (36 eyes) with out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation underwent posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange surgery. Causes for out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation included posterior capsule rupture during the initial cataract extraction procedure (23 eyes, 63.8%), trauma (5 eyes,13.9%), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser-induced dislocation (2 eyes, 5.6%), the status after vitrectomy (2 eyes, 5.6%) and unidentifiable etiology (4 eyes, 11.1%). Symptoms of these patients mainly included decrease in visual acuity (17 cases, 47.2%), blurred vision (16 cases, 44.4%), glare (1 case, 2.8%), diplopia (1 case,2.8%), and halo (1 case, 2.8%). Intraocular lens dislocation into the posterior vitreous cavity (29 eyes, 80.5%), anterior chamber (1

  3. Effects of decreasing inspiratory times during simulated bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Goedecke, Achim; Bowden, Kevin; Wenzel, Volker; Keller, Christian; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2005-03-01

    During CPR, an inspiratory time of 2 s is recommended when the airway is unprotected; indicating that approximately 30% of the resuscitation attempt is spent on ventilation, but not on chest compressions. Since survival rates may not decrease when ventilation levels are relatively low, and uninterrupted chest compressions with a constant rate of approximately 100/min have been shown to be lifesaving, it may be beneficial to cut down the time spent on ventilation, and instead, increase the time for chest compressions. In an established bench model of a simulated unprotected airway, we evaluated if inspiratory time can be decreased from 2 to 1 s at different lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (LOSP) levels during ventilation with a bag-valve-mask device. In comparison with an inspiratory time of 2 s, 1 s resulted in significantly (p rate, while lung tidal volumes at all LOSP levels were clinically comparable. Neither ventilation strategy produced stomach inflation at 20 cmH2O LOSP, and 1 s versus 2 s inspiratory time did not produce significantly higher (mean +/- S.D.) stomach inflation at 15 (8 +/-9 ml versus 0 +/- 0 ml; p inflation at 5 cmH2O LOSP (219 +/- 16 ml versus 308 +/- 21 ml; p inflation volume over constantly decreasing LOSP levels with an inspiratory time of 2 s versus 1 s was higher (6820 ml versus 5920 ml). In conclusion, in this model of a simulated unprotected airway, a reduction of inspiratory time from 2 to 1 s resulted in a significant increase of peak airway pressure and peak inspiratory flow rate, while lung tidal volumes remained clinically comparable (up to approximately 15% difference), but statistically different due to the precise measurements. Theoretically, this may increase the time available for, and consequently the actual number of, chest compressions during CPR by approximately 25% without risking an excessive increase in stomach inflation.

  4. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  5. High-temperature high-pressure gas cleanup with ceramic bag filters. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, M.; Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Kuby, W.; Turner-Tamiyasu, E.

    1982-12-06

    Advanced processes designed for the efficient use of coal in the production of energy will benefit from, or even depend upon, highly efficient, economical, high-temperature removal systems for fine particulates. In the case of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), the hot gas cleanup device must operate at approximately 1600/sup 0/F. Existing commercial filter systems are temperature limited due to the filter material, but ceramic fibers intended for refractory insulation offer the promise of a practical high-temperature filter media if they can be incorporated into a design which combines filter performance with acceptable durability. The current work was initiated to further develop and demonstrate on a larger-scale basis, a ceramic fiber filtration system for application to coal-fired PFBC's. The development effort centered around the need to replace the knit metal wire scrim, used in earlier designs as support for the fine fiber ceramic mat filtration medium, with a corrosion-resistant material. This led to the selection of woven ceramic cloth for support of the mat layer. Because of the substantial difference in strength and other material properties between the metal and ceramic cloth, tests were necessary to optimize the filter; pulse parameters such as pulse duration, pulse pressure, and pulse injection orifice size; woven cloth mesh configuration; the technique for clamping the bag to the support; and similar structural, fluid, and control parameters. The demonstration effort included both tests to prove this concept in a real application and a systems analysis to show commercial feasibility of the ceramic filtration approach for hot gas cleanup in PFBC's. 12 references, 57 figures, 23 tables.

  6. Performance of phosphine in fumigation of bagged paddy rice in indoor and outdoor stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, S; Muralidharan, N

    2001-10-01

    Phosphine fumigation trials were carried out on bag-stacks of paddy rice to study the differences in gas loss rates and concentration-time (Ct) products achieved during the treatment of indoor and outdoor stacks. Stacks (89-132t) were fumigated singly under 250&mgr;m thick polyethylene sheeting, which was sealed with a double layer of sand-snakes to the concrete floor. Phosphine was applied as an aluminium phosphide formulation and the fumigations continued for 7 days. In the first experiment, stacks of paddy rice with moisture contents ranging from 12.2 to 13.7% were held in either indoor or in outdoor storage and subjected to fumigation at the rate of 2, 3 or 4g of phosphine/tonne. The outdoor stacks held relatively low levels of phosphine with Ct products for the indoor stacks of 135, 171 and 294gh/m(3), respectively, whilst the corresponding values for the outdoor stacks were 70, 85 and 166gh/m(3) only. The average gas loss rate was 14.5% per day for the indoor stacks and 29.5% for the outdoor stacks. In the second experiment, old stacks of paddy rice inside a godown, one each with grains at 8.8 and 9.8% moisture content, were fumigated at 3g phosphine/tonne. Release of phosphine was delayed and fumigant sorption was less and therefore higher Ct products of 204 and 216gh/m(3) were achieved. In the stacks built outdoors, the resident infestations of Rhyzopertha dominica, Cryptolestes sp. and Oryzaephilus surinamensis were completely controlled despite lower Ct products. On the other hand, in the stacks of old paddy, R. dominica survived the treatment. Subsequent testing showed that the population had a degree of resistance to phosphine.

  7. Bagging Experiments of Korla Fragrant Pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)%库尔勒香梨果实套袋试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠; 李春江; 亚合甫·木沙; 李林

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] This study aimed to explore the technical bagging method for the production of high quality Korla fragrant pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) under suitable production region conditions . [Method] Special translucent Kobayashi bag ( NK - 15), transparent plastic bag (yellow, purple, and white) , double paper bag ( black inside) and double paper bag ( red inside) were used in this experiment, and a comparative analysis of the fruits quality of different treatments were conducted. [ Result ] All the bagging treatments taken in this paper can improve the appearance quality of Korla fragrant pear to varying degrees, while only the plastic bag NK - 15 showed a better comprehensive effect on improving of the quality of Korla fragrant pear. [ Conclusion ] Comparative analysis of bagged fruits and control showed that the NK -15 Kobayashi translucent pear bag has a better comprehensive effect. This bag can obviously improve the appearance quality of the Korla pears and produce green skin fruit with high quality but without a bad effect on the quality of fruits.%[目的]探索适应库尔勒香梨的产地环境条件下,生产优质库尔勒香梨的果实套袋技术.[方法]对库尔勒香梨果实采用半透明的NK - 15小林香梨专用袋、黄色透明膜袋、紫色透明膜袋、无色透明膜袋、内黑双层纸袋、内红双层纸袋进行套袋试验,对不同套袋试验处理果实的品质进行比较分析.[结果]不同套袋处理,均能在不同方面对香梨果品内、外在品质有影响.只有NK - 15小林香梨专用袋在综合方面对香梨品质的提高效果较好.[结论]半透明的NK - 15小林香梨专用袋的综合使用效果较好,即:在不降低库尔勒香梨果实的内在品质的前提下,明显改善库尔勒香梨的外观质量,可以生产出优质绿色的香梨果实.

  8. Fruit quality of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon fruits bagged with different types of packings/ Qualidade de frutos de caqui ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes embalagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Larissa May de Mio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The bagging technique of fruits comes being used by many producers, aiming at the fruit quality, reduction of application of agro toxics and reduction of the damages caused by insects and diseases. The present work evaluated the quality of bagging fruits of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon with different types of bags. The experiment was lead in the orchard of Japanese persimmon of the Experimental Farm of the Canguiri of the UFPR, located in Pinhais-PR. The fertilization and the management of the orchard were entirely organic. The treatments had been: microperforated plastic bag, brown kraft paper bag, butter-like paper bag, newspaper bag and without bagging. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with five replicates, being each plant considered a block. Each parcel was composed by 20 fruits. The bagging was made after the physiological fall of the young fruits, distributing the types of bags aleatorely inside each plant. The evaluation was 77 days after bagging, verifying the number of fruits harvested, mass of the fruits, diameter of the fruits, number of fruits in each category of maturation, number of fruits attacked with Schyzothyrium pomi and soluble solids content. The results were significant only in the incidence of S. pomi and in the percentage of coloration of the fruits. The bagging with newspaper and brown kraft bags reduced the incidence of S. Pomi and the color of fruits. The size and the soluble solids content were not affected by bagging.A técnica de ensacamento de frutos vem sendo utilizadas por muitos produtores, visando a melhor qualidade de frutos, redução de aplicação de agrotóxicos e diminuição dos danos provocados por pragas e doenças. O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade de frutos de caquizeiro ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes tipos de embalagens. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar de caquizeiro da Fazenda Experimental do Canguiri da UFPR, localizada em Pinhais-PR. A adubação e o manejo do

  9. Aplicabilidade das técnicas de bag squeezing e manobra zeep em pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica Applicability of bag squeezing and zeep maneuvers in mechanically ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Moreira Lima Lobo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a aplicabilidade das manobras de bag squeezing e zeep em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica invasiva. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados vinte pacientes sob ventilação mecânica invasiva e hemodinamicamente estáveis. Os pacientes foram randomizados e alocados em uma das duas sequências de tratamento (bag squeezing ou manobra zeep. A ordem de aplicação da sequência foi invertida após quatro horas. Foram avaliadas frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio e pressão arterial, antes, durante e após a execução de cada técnica. A secreção aspirada foi coletada e mensurada. Os dados foram avaliados utilizando análise estatística pareada para comparação entre os dois grupos e ANOVA para comparar os resultados obtidos em cada grupo nas avaliações. RESULTADOS: Houve um aumento significativo na frequência cardíaca, de 92,6 ± 18,3 bpm para 99,8 ± 18,5 bpm e uma redução significativa na saturação periférica de oxigênio, de 96,9 ± 3,0% para 94,5 ± 4,3% durante a aplicação da técnica bag squeezing, embora os valores tenham se mantido dentro da normalidade. Não houve alterações durante a manobra zeep. Quando comparadas as duas técnicas foi encontrado diferença na saturação periférica de oxigênio durante a aplicação das mesmas. Não houve diferença na quantidade de secreção removida. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que ambas as técnicas são viáveis no tocante a sua aplicação, pois causam poucas alterações hemodinâmicas, e ambas as técnicas são eficazes na remoção de secreção brônquica.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability of the bag squeezing and zeep maneuvers in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: Twenty stable mechanically ventilated patients were studied. All patients were randomly allocated to either bag squeezing techinique followed by zeep maneuver, or the reversed sequence. Each group crossed to the other sequence four

  10. Research on Hyperspectral Image Classification Based on Bagged CART and Boosted CART%基于Bagged CART和Boosted CART的高光谱影像分类技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫霄; 余旭初; 王善秀

    2011-01-01

    本文针对高光谱影像数据光谱分辨率高,数据量大的特点,采用以CART决策树为弱分类器的Bagging和Boosting集成学习算法对该影像进行分类,通过实验分析比较,体现出了Bagged CART和Boosted CART算法用于分类时的有效性和准确性.

  11. Transportation of perishable and refrigerated foods in mylar foil bags and insulated containers: a time-temperature study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Schrade, John P; Su, Haiyan; Specchio, John J

    2014-08-01

    Data are lacking on the temperature changes of food during transport without the use of refrigerated trucks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of several insulated and noninsulated containers with or without frozen gel packs to keep perishable and refrigerated foods within the temperature safe zone in relationship to duration of transport. The study was designed to duplicate the practices exhibited by customers purchasing perishable food products from a cash-and-carry business. Approximately 40 perishable food items were evaluated. Four types of containers were tested: a mylar foil bag, a commercial insulated bag, a generic insulated bag, and a commercial insulated blanket. Mixed foods were placed into these containers with or without frozen gel packs, transported in unrefrigerated vehicles, and monitored for 4 h for temperature changes. Two environmental temperatures, room temperature of 21.1°C and a stress temperature of 37.8°C, were evaluated. The internal temperature and surface temperature of the food products in these containers increased slowly but remained well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code requirements. The various containers were similar in their ability to retain coolness. The presence of frozen gel packs dramatically enhanced the cold-holding capacity of the containers. The temperature of foods increased more rapidly when stressed in a heated environment. The containers tested used with the frozen gel packs can keep the surface and internal temperatures of various perishable foods (starting at 4.4°C or less) within the Food Code recommendation of under 21.1°C for 4 h. Cash-and-carry businesses should strongly encourage their retail customers to utilize these containers with frozen gel packs to safely transport perishable foods.

  12. Tea bag filter paper as a novel protective membrane for micro-solid phase extraction of butachlor in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelden, Tshering; Thammaknet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    An innovative, cost-effective, simple, and environmental friendly tea bag filter paper protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique was developed for the first time with the aim to miniaturize and minimize the use of organic solvents for the extraction and determination of butachlor in aqueous samples. The μ-SPE device was produced by packing 3.0 mg of an easily synthesized new sorbent, hydroxyl-functionalized polypyrrole (OH-PPY), inside a small tea bag filter paper sachet (1.0 cm × 0.5 cm) that served as a protective envelope. Both the extraction and desorption procedures were facilitated by sonication. Due to the high porosity and the fast water absorption of the tea bag filter paper, the analyte could easily diffuse through and enhance the interaction with the sorbent. Under the optimized conditions for the GC-ECD and the μ-SPE, the limit of detection (S/N ≥ 3) was 2.0 μg L(-1) while the limit of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) was 10.0 μg L(-1). The recoveries of the butachlor spiked at 0.050, 0.10, and 0.50 μg mL(-1) ranged from 77.9 ± 3.0 to 112.5 ± 2.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of butachlor in water samples from paddy cultivation sites. The levels found were from non-detectable to 24.71 ± 0.37 μg L(-1).

  13. New theropod, thyreophoran, and small sauropod tracks from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Three new dinosaur tracks are described from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation of Bornholm, Denmark. The tracks are all preserved as natural casts on the underside of fluvial sandstone blocks originating from the old Hasle Klinkefabrik’s clay pit, now called Pyritsøen. The new tracks are from...... a medium-sized theropod, a thyreophoran, and a small sauropod. Together with a hyreophoran track and large sauropod tracks described in 2005, the Middle Jurassic dinosaur fauna of Bornholm now comprises theropods, two sizes of sauropods and at least one type of thyreophoran dinosaur. This is important...

  14. The improvement of the manufacturing process of a company by the Sigma level: the case of the company BAG (Batna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmane MECHENENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This modest work aims to evaluate the performance of the manufacturing process of the company by a new measurement tool, namely the sigma level whose purpose is to quantify the costs inherent in each production process, measure the levels of six Sigma in adjacent processes, to achieve weight calculate DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunity and thus assess the overall competitiveness of the company. This new tool for measuring the performance of the manufacturing process (sigma level is applied to manufacturing gas cylinders (BAG - Batna.

  15. Development of a Stigma Maydis Sanitarian Tea Bag%玉米须保健袋泡茶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿颖; 蒋立勤; 李喜; 张舟艺; 姜宇翔; 丁力

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a kind of sanitarian tea bag using Stigma Maydis as well as green tea, liquorice, hawthorn and lotus leaf. The antioxidative ability of the tea bag was also analyzed. The Stigma Maydis Sanitarian tea bag was prepared by decotion, extraction,spraying and malaxating. The optimum technology parameters were obtained through orthogonal analysis as well as sensory perception analysis.Total content of flavone was determined by aluminum colorimetry assay. For antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the product were evaluated. The optimum compositions was as following: 69% Stigma Maydis, 20% green tea, 7.0% hawthorn, 3.7%lotus leaf and 0.7% liquorice. High level of total flavone content and strong antioxidation ability was found in the product. The Stigma Maydis tea bag contains functional contents including flavone and suggests good health effects.%开发以玉米须和绿茶为主料,以甘草、山楂、荷叶为辅料的玉米须保健袋泡荼,并评价其抗氧化能力.采用煎煮、提取、喷揉法制备玉米须袋泡茶,采用正交法、感官评价法得到袋泡茶最佳工艺参数,采用铝比色法测定总黄酮含量,采用DPPH自由基清除法和总还原力法测定产品的抗氧化能力.最佳配料配方中每份含玉米须69%,绿茶20%、山楂7.0%、荷叶3.7%、甘草0.7%,产品总黄酮含量较高并且具有良好的抗氧化能力.玉米须袋泡荼中含有黄酮等功效成分具有较好保健效果.

  16. A Cloudy Quark Bag Model of S, P, and D wave interactions for the coupled channel antikaon-nucleon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guangliang.

    1992-05-15

    The Cloudy Quark Bag Model is extended from S-wave to P- and D-wave. The parameters of the model are determined by K{sup {minus}}p scattering cross section data, K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Sigma}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data, K{sup {minus}}p threshold branching ratio data, and K{sup {minus}}p {yields}{Lambda}{pi}{pi}{pi} production data. The resonance structure of the {Lambda}(1405), {Sigma}(1385), and {Lambda}(1520) are studied in the model. The shift and width of kaonic hydrogen are calculated using the model.

  17. Application of high-performance, thin-layer chromatography to quality control of antimetabolite analogue infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perello, L; Demirdjian, S; Dory, A; Bourget, P

    2001-01-01

    A global postproduction quality program was developed to secure chemotherapy infusion at the Gustave Roussy Institute. Despite rigorous procedures and computerized prescriptions, an analytical check was necessary to improve the quality of ready-to-use solutions of cytotoxic drugs in our Centralized Antineoplastics Reconstitution Unit. High-performance, thin-layer chromatography was selected as the analytical tool to assay 12 anticancer drugs. One of the analytical methods can separate 4 antimetabolite substances, i.e., fludarabine (FDB), cytarabine (CTB), gemcitabine (GTB), and fluorouracil (5 FU). For all infusion bags manufactured, up to 26 samples could be assayed per series using a double standard calibration (GTB and 5 FU).

  18. Purple urine bag syndrome: Case report from a nursing home resident with a false alarm of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Faisal, A H; Shathiskumar, G; Nurul Izah, A

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS), as the name implies produces purplish discoloration of the urine. It is commonly observed among elderly women with constipation, and individuals with long term catheter in the setting of urinary tract infection (UTI). From the literature research, there were no publications on PUBS in Malaysia; however we believe that it is underreported. We present a unique case of this rare condition occurring in a 68-year-old man, a nursing home resident on long term urinary catheter. The urine cleared after hydration, antibiotic therapy and replacement of the catheter.

  19. SGTA Recognizes a Noncanonical Ubiquitin-like Domain in the Bag6-Ubl4A-Trc35 Complex to Promote Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of aberrantly folded polypeptides from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD system promotes cell survival under stress conditions. This quality control mechanism requires movement of misfolded proteins across the ER membrane for targeting to the cytosolic proteasome, a process facilitated by a “holdase” complex, consisting of Bag6 and the cofactors Ubl4A and Trc35. This multiprotein complex also participates in several other protein quality control processes. Here, we report SGTA as a component of the Bag6 system, which cooperates with Bag6 to channel dislocated ERAD substrates that are prone to aggregation. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical assays, we demonstrate that SGTA contains a noncanonical ubiquitin-like-binding domain that interacts specifically with an unconventional ubiquitin-like protein/domain in Ubl4A at least in part via electrostatics. This interaction helps recruit SGTA to Bag6, enhances substrate loading to Bag6, and thus prevents the formation of nondegradable protein aggregates in ERAD.

  20. Source of the Kerr-Newman solution as a gravitating bag model: 50 years of the problem of the source of the Kerr solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    It is known that gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron are described by the ultra-extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with extremely high spin/mass ratio. This solution is singular and has a topological defect, the Kerr singular ring, which may be regularized by introducing the solitonic source based on the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking. The source represents a domain wall bubble interpolating between the flat region inside the bubble and external KN solution. It was shown recently that the source represents a supersymmetric bag model, and its structure is unambiguously determined by Bogomolnyi equations. The Dirac equation is embedded inside the bag consistently with twistor structure of the Kerr geometry, and acquires the mass from the Yukawa coupling with Higgs field. The KN bag turns out to be flexible, and for parameters of an electron, it takes the form of very thin disk with a circular string placed along sharp boundary of the disk. Excitation of this string by a traveling wave creates a circulating singular pole, indicating that the bag-like source of KN solution unifies the dressed and point-like electron in a single bag-string-quark system.

  1. Active joint mechanism driven by multiple actuators made of flexible bags: a proposal of dual structural actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hitoshi; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Kataoka, Mokutaro; Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input.

  2. Bayesian peak bagging analysis of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Corsaro, E; García, R A

    2015-01-01

    The currently available Kepler light curves contain an outstanding amount of information but a detailed analysis of the individual oscillation modes in the observed power spectra, also known as peak bagging, is computationally demanding and challenging to perform on a large number of targets. Our intent is to perform for the first time a peak bagging analysis on a sample of 19 low-mass low-luminosity red giants observed by Kepler for more than four years. This allows us to provide high-quality asteroseismic measurements that can be exploited for an intensive testing of the physics used in stellar structure models, stellar evolution and pulsation codes, as well as for refining existing asteroseismic scaling relations in the red giant branch regime. For this purpose, powerful and sophisticated analysis tools are needed. We exploit the Bayesian code Diamonds, using an efficient nested sampling Monte Carlo algorithm, to perform both a fast fitting of the individual oscillation modes and a peak detection test base...

  3. Long-term Stability of Vancomycin Hydrochloride in Glucose 5% Polyolefin Bags: The Brand Name Versus a Generic Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvelle, Sophie; Godet, Marie; Hecq, Jean-Daniel; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the preparation of vancomycin hydrochloride in advance of infusion could improve the quality of the drug, time management of drug delivery, cost savings of drug delivery, and to investigate the long-term stability of vancomycin hydrochloride (brand name Vancocin®) infusion in glucose 5% polyolefin bags versus the generic (Vancomycine®) at 5°C ± 3°C. Five bags of each infusion 1 g/100 mL vancomycin hydrochloride in 5% glucose (Vancocin ® and Vancomycine®) were stored up to 57 days at 5°C ± 3°C. A visual inspection and pH measurement were performed periodically during the storage, and the concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. No color change or precipitation in the solution was observed throughout the study period. As recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the lower confidence limit at 95% of the concentration for the solutions remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration up to 43 days for the brand vancomycin (Vancocin®) infusion (96% ± 2%) and up to 57 days for the generic (Vancomycine®) (95% ± 4%). The solutions prepared either from brand or generic vancomycin hydrochloride were chemically stable more than one month (43 days for the brand and 57 days for the generic solution) and could be prepared in advance in a centralized intravenous additive service facility.

  4. Minerals disappearance rate of leaves of some acacia trees after digestion in goats’ rumen using nylon bags technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al shafei N. K

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The browse plants, including acacia species, provide excellent forage with high nutritive value for ruminants especially in dry areas of Africa. In this study, some minerals (P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined in leaves of browse plants (Acacia albida, Acacia nubica, Acacia sieberiana, Balanites aegyptiaca and Ziziphus spina- christi collected from different areas of Sudan before and after digestion of the sample in goat’s rumen by using nylon bag technique. Nylon bags containing the samples were inserted through the rumen fistula into the goat’s rumen, and were incubated for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. After incubation periods, it was found that there were a high loss of minerals and this is attributed to the rumen digestion and solubility of minerals in rumen liquor. The results indicate that the time of incubation and the type of mineral likely had a significant effect on the loss of minerals in the rumen. It can be observed from these figures that the disappearance rates (slope of the curves vary across mineral types and species of acacia trees. Disappearance rates suggest that the rumen microorganisms have a significant role in the digestion of minerals and their disappearance rates are due to the solubility of minerals in the rumen liquor and the loss of minerals due to utilization of microorganisms to a certain amount for their maintenance.

  5. Cryopreservation in Closed Bag Systems as an Alternative to Clean Rooms for Preparations of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, Silvia; Peter, Robert; Krackhardt, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents a therapeutic option widely used for hematopoietic malignancies. One important milestone in the development of this treatment strategy was the development of effective cryopreservation technologies resulting in a high quality with respect to cell viability as well as lack of contamination of the graft.Stem cell preparations have been initially performed within standard laboratories as it is routinely still the case in many countries. With the emergence of cleanrooms, manufacturing of stem cell preparations within these facilities has become a new standard mandatory in Europe. However, due to high costs and laborious procedures, novel developments recently emerged using closed bag systems as reliable alternatives to conventional cleanrooms. Several hurdles needed to be overcome including the addition of the cryoprotectant dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a relevant manipulation. As a result of the development, closed bag systems proved to be comparable in terms of product quality and patient outcome to cleanroom products. They also comply with the strict regulations of good manufacturing practice.With closed systems being available, costs and efforts of a cleanroom facility may be substantially reduced in the future. The process can be easily extended for other cell preparations requiring minor modifications as donor lymphocyte preparations. Moreover, novel developments may provide solutions for the production of advanced-therapy medicinal products in closed systems.

  6. Temporal trends over the past two decades in asphyxial deaths in South Australia involving plastic bags or wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Simpson, Ellie; Gilbert, John D

    2006-01-01

    Asphyxial deaths utilising plastic bags or wrappings occurring over a 20-year period from March 1984 to February 2004 were reviewed at Forensic Science SA, Australia. A total of 45 cases were identified, with three occurring in infants and children (one accidental asphyxia; two homicides). Of the remaining 42 adults the male to female ratio was approximately 1:1 (23 and 19 cases, respectively), with all deaths attributed to suicide. The 42 adult cases represented 1.2% of the 3569 suicides autopsied at the centre over the time period of the study. The age ranges of the adult victims were 19-88 years (mean=47.1 years) for the males, and 32-89 years (mean=60.5 years) for the females. The adult female victims were significantly older than the males (pPlastic bag asphyxial deaths were rare and in adults were due to suicide involving either older females or younger males. A significant increase in cases in South Australia in recent years was demonstrated, possibly related to publicity surrounding assisted suicides, and the ready availability of suicide manuals and information on suicide techniques from the internet.

  7. Comparative studies of indoor radon concentration levels in Jordan using CR-39 based bag and cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Matiullah; Khatibeh, A J

    1998-07-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels have been measured in 9 major cities of Jordan using CR(-3)9 detectors placed in punched polyethylene bags to measure both radon and thoron, and in cups to measure radon only. The average value of indoor radon and thoron concentration levels measured with bag dosimeters vary from 32 to 107 Bq m(-3) and the indoor radon concentration levels measured with cup dosimeters vary from 27 to 88 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration levels in Irbid and Zaraka are comparable to the world average of 27 Bq m(-3). In Ajloun, Jerash, Salt, Tafilah and Amman, the indoor radon levels are greater than the world average by a factor of up to 2, and in Madaba and Karak these levels are greater than the world average by a factor of more than 3. The large variation in the measured radon levels may be attributed to the large variation in the 226Ra activity in the soil of the region.

  8. Cryopreserved red blood cells for pediatric transfusion. Frozen storage of small aliquots in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, C R; Valeri, D A; Gray, A; Melaragno, A J; Vecchione, J J; Dennis, R C; Emerson, C P

    1981-01-01

    Human nonrejuvenated and rejuvenated red bood cells were prepared for cryopreservation and subsequent pediatric transfusion. Glycerol was added to the red blood cells in the primary polyvinyl chloride plastic collection bag to achieve a concentration of 40 per cent W/V. The red blood cells were concentrated by centrifugation, and the supernatant glycerol was discarded. Each glycerolized unit was divided into four equal aliquots in the individual 600-ml bags of a dry quadruple polyvinyl chloride plastic system, and each aliquot was frozen and stored at -80 C. After thawing, sodium chloride solutions were used to wash the aliquots in the IBM Blood Processor 2991-1 or 2991-2 or the Haemonetics Blood Processor 115, and the washed aliquots were stored in a sodium chloride-glucose-phosphate solution at 4 C for 24 hours. Freeze-thaw recovery of the red blood cells was about 97 per cent, and freeze-thaw-wash recovery was about 84 per cent. Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion survival values were about 92 per cent for both nonrejuvenated and indated-rejuvenated red blood cells. Nonrejuvenated red blood cells, those frozen within three to five days of collection without biochemical modification, had normal oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion; rejuvenated red blood cells, those biochemically treated with PIGPA Solution A after three to five days of storage at 4 C, had improved oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion.

  9. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference.

  10. Qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados em silos bolsa Quality of corn grain stored in silo bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de bolsas seladas hermeticamente é uma alternativa aos métodos tradicionais de armazenagem de grãos em nível de fazenda. Em vista disso, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade de milho armazenado hermeticamente em silos bolsa. O produto, com teores de água de 14,5 e 18,0% b.u, foi acondicionado em mini-bolsas devidamente seladas nas temperaturas de 25; 30 e 35 ºC. Foram realizadas análises de teor de água, de classificação dos grãos, de massa específica aparente, de percentual de germinação e de condutividade elétrica, no início do armazenamento e após 30; 60; 90; 135 e 180 dias. Verificou-se que não houve variação do teor de água dos grãos de milho armazenados nos silos bolsa. Os grãos de milho foram classificados como Tipo 1 ao longo do período de armazenamento, exceto para os com 18,0% (b.u. de teor de água na temperatura de 35 ºC. Não houve decréscimo significativo da massa especifica aparente do produto ao longo do armazenamento. Em geral, ocorreu decréscimo do percentual de germinação dos grãos de milho armazenados úmidos e secos e acréscimo da condutividade elétrica da solução que continha os grãos, exceto para os armazenados com 14,5% nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC. Conclui-se que é possível armazenar milho em silos bolsa, durante 180 dias, grãos com teor de água de 14,5% (b.u. nas temperaturas de 25; 30 e 35 ºC e grãos com teor de água de 18,0% por 180 dias nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC.Airtight storage in sealed bags provides an alternative to traditional methods for on-farm grain storage. The objective of this work was therefore to evaluate the quality of corn stored in airtight sealed bags. Grain with moisture content (m.c. of about 14.5 and 18.0% (w.b. was properly stored in sealed mini-bags at 25; 30; and 35 ºC. Analyses included moisture content, grain classification, apparent specific mass, percentage of germination and electrical conductivity at the

  11. Ethylene antagonizes salt-induced growth retardation and cell death process via transcriptional controlling of ethylene-, BAG- and senescence-associated genes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaJie ePan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing question whether ethylene is involved in the modulation of salt-induced cell death to mediate plant salt tolerance is important for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. Here, we employed Arabidopsis plants to study the possible role of ethylene in salt-induced growth inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD profiles. The root length, DNA ladder and cell death indicated by Evan’s blue detection were measured by compared to the control or salt-stressed seedlings. Secondly, the protoplasts isolated from plant leaves and dyed with Annexin V-FITC were subjected to flow cytometric (FCM assay. Our results showed that ethylene works effectively in seedling protoplasts, antagonizing salt-included root retardation and restraining cell death both in seedlings or protoplasts. Due to salinity, the entire or partial insensitivity of ethylene signaling resulted in an elevated levels of cell death in ein2-5 and ein3-1 plants and the event were amended in ctr1-1 plants after salt treatment. The subsequent experiment with exogenous ACC further corroborated that ethylene could modulate salt-induced PCD process actively. Plant Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG family genes are recently identified to play an extensive role in plant PCD processes ranging from growth, development to stress responses and even cell death. Our result showed that salinity alone significantly suppressed the transcripts of BAG6, BAG7 and addition of ACC in the saline solution could obviously re-activate BAG6 and BAG7 expressions, which might play a key role to inhibit the salt-induced cell death. In summary, our research implies that ethylene and salinity antagonistically control BAG family-, ethylene-, and senescence-related genes to alleviate the salt-induced cell death.

  12. Formation of mono(ethylhexyl)phthalate from di(ethylhexyl)phthalate in human plasma stored in PVC bags and its presence in fractionated plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessman, J; Rietz, G

    1978-01-01

    The formation of mono(ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) from di(ethylhexyl)phthalate in human plasma stored in bags of polyvinylchloride has been studied. Substantial amounts were formed and in ten bags from 4 to 56microgram/ml were found. After 2 weeks at room temperature the concentration of MEHP had increased to values between 27 and 79 microgram/ml. However, MEHP was also disappearing as shown in a recovery experiment. Of the fractionated proteins albumin contained MEHP in amounts from less than 3 to 290 microgram/g.

  13. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel;

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate thr...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...

  14. Técnica e custo para o ensacamento de frutos de pêra japonesa Technique and bagging cost of nashi fruit pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dagoberto Faoro

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de ensacamento da pêra japonesa, além de evitar a poluição ambiental causada por defensivos agrícolas, ainda proporciona melhoria na qualidade organoléptica dos frutos, reduzindo os danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas e grafolita. No presente trabalho, utilizaram-se as cultivares Hosui e Nijisseiki, cujos frutos foram ensacados logo após o raleio para evitar-se o desenvolvimento do "russeting" e o contato com insetos. Para a 'Housui', foi necessário um só ensacamento, ao custo de R$ 4.075,00/ha, considerando 110.000 frutos/ha. Já para a 'Nijisseiki', são necessários dois ensacamentos, resultando um custo de R$ 4.118,00/ha, considerando-se 73.370 frutos/ha. O custo aproximado do ensacamento em 'Housui' foi de R$ 0,04/fruto e em 'Nijisseiki', R$ 0,06/fruto. Mesmo sendo maior o custo do ensacamento para a 'Nijisseiki', esta cultivar obteve preços comerciais inferiores ao da 'Housui' no mercado brasileiro. O aumento do custo de produção devido ao ensacamento é passível de ser assimilado pelo produtor, desde que obtenha frutos de maior qualidade para, assim, vender os frutos ensacados com preços superiores.The bagging technique of Nashi pears not only insures good environmental effects by avoiding inseticide use, but also improves the flavor of fruits by decreasing the damages caused by fruit-fly and oriental fruit moth. This study was carried out with the cultivars Housui and Nijisseiki. The fruits were bagged just after thinning in order to avoid the development of russeting and to protect them against insects attack. For cv. Housui a single bag was enough. The total cost of bagging was R$ 4,075.00/ha, considering 110.000 fruits/ha. For cv. Nijisseiki it was necessary to use a double bagging, with a total cost of R$ 4,188.00/ha to protect 73.370 fruits/ha. The estimated bagging cost per fruit was R$ 0.04 for cv. Housui and R$ 0.06 for cv. Nijisseiki. Not only the bagging cost of 'Nijisseiki' fruits was higher compared

  15. A quantitative differentiation method for plastic bags by infrared spectroscopy, thickness measurement and differential scanning calorimetry for tracing the source of illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Carresi, Pietro; Schiavone, Sergio; Marigo, Antonio

    2006-12-20

    Fifty shopping bags, commonly encountered in the packaging of drug doses, were characterized by thickness measurements, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. By these very straightforward and inexpensive techniques, without sample preparation, nearly all the considered samples could be discriminated. Ninety-seven percent of the possible pairs of white, apparently similar dull polymer films were differentiated. The rather large degree of variability existing in grocery bags, even though they are mass produced, was shown, confirming that these items can be useful in tracing the source of illicit drug doses.

  16. Diluting ferric carboxymaltose in sodium chloride infusion solution (0.9% w/v) in polypropylene bottles and bags: effects on chemical stability

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, Erik; Braitsch, Michaela; Bichsel, Tobias; Mühlebach, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to assess the physicochemical stability of colloidal ferric carboxymaltose solution (Ferinject) when diluted and stored in polypropylene (PP) bottles and bags for infusion. Methods Two batches of ferric carboxymaltose solution (Ferinject) were diluted (500 mg, 200 mg and 100 mg iron in 100 mL saline) in PP bottles or bags under aseptic conditions. The diluted solutions were stored at 30°C and 75%±5% relative humidity (rH) for 72 h, and samples were withdrawn...

  17. 七种果袋对‘红里’肥城桃果实品质的影响%Effect of Seven Types of Bags on Fruit Quality of Feicheng Peach Cultivar Hongli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂祥; 王长君; 刘伟; 张毅; 张安宁

    2015-01-01

    以‘红里’肥城桃为试材,研究了7种不同类型果袋套袋对其品质的影响。结果表明,套袋能够提高果实的单果重、果实表面亮度L、黄蓝色差b,降低果实的病虫果率、硬度、可溶性固形物含量。综合各指标,无纺布袋中单层黑色无纺布袋效果最好,纸袋中单层外黄内黑纸袋效果最好,所有袋型中单层黑色无纺布袋的效果最好。%Taking Feicheng peach variety Hongli as material , the effects of 7 different bag types on peach quality were studied .The results showed that bagging could improve the single fruit weight , fruit surface brightness L ,yellow and blue chromatic aberration b , and decrease the ratio of fruits suffered pests and disea-ses, firmness and soluble solid content .Comprehensively considering each index , the effect of black non -woven bag was the best in single -layer non-woven bags , while that of single layer yellow outside and black inside bag was the best in paper bags .The single black non -woven bag was the best in all the bag types .

  18. 不同内衬袋对片烟醇化质量的影响%Effects of Different Lining Bag on Aging Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩仁

    2009-01-01

    研究了不同包装材料对片烟醇化质量的影响.结果表明,加衬塑料袋的片烟外观质量和感官质量明显优于牛皮纸袋和不加内衬袋处理,加衬激光微孔塑料袋的处理片烟质量最好;加衬内衬袋片烟的还原糖含量明显高于不加内衬袋片烟;加衬牛皮纸袋的片烟烟碱含量最低.%The effects of different lining bags on aging quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina were studied. TheResults showed that the appearance quality and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with plastic lining bag were better than those in treatments with kraft bag and without lining bag. The quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with laser microporous plastic bag was the best. The reducing sugar content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with lining bag was higher than that in treatments without lining bag. The nicotine content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with kraft bag was the lowest.

  19. Effects of Bagging on the Pericarpial Coloration of ‘Irwin' Mango During Fruit Development%套袋对Irwin芒果果实发育过程中果皮着色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小卫; 邢姗姗; 王松标; 姚全胜; 詹儒林; 武红霞; 马蔚红

    2011-01-01

    Irwin mango was used to study the effects of bagging on the peel pigment and peel color during fruit growth and development. The results showed that the content of the pericarp chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin and flavonoid of mango bagged with composite paper bags (yellow outside and black inside) were significantly lower than that of no bagged fruits and white single bagged fruits. The peel lightness of fruits with composite bags (yellow outside and black inside) was significantly higher than that of no bagged fruits, while chroma was significantly lower than that of no bagged fruits.%研究套袋对Irwin芒果果实发育过程中果皮色素与果皮色泽的影响.结果表明,套袋(外黄内黑复合纸袋)显著降低了 Irwin芒果果实发育过程中果皮叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、花青苷和类黄酮含量,套袋处理(外黄内黑复合纸袋)的果皮亮度显著高于未套袋果,色彩浓度显著低于未套袋果.

  20. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on surface charge and wettability of PVC blood bag-In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorasani, M.T. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: M.Khorasani@ippi.ac.ir; Mirzadeh, H. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface charge of PVC blood bag samples and evaluate the effect of these properties on fibroblast cells growth. The surface properties of PVC and plasma treated PVC were compared by water drop contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Light microscopy was used to study the behavior of cell attachment and growth on these surfaces. Water drop contact angle measurement shows that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic and wettability increased. Zeta potential and in vitro cell culture measurements noticed that the plasma treated PVC surface is more negatively charge and consequently attachment of the L929 fibroblast cells decreased on this surface.

  1. Urinary microRNA can be concentrated, dried on membranes and stored at room temperature in vacuum bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanshuang Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urine accumulates traces of changes that occur in the body and can potentially serve as a better biomarker source. Urinary microRNA is a promising class of non-invasive disease biomarkers. However, long-term frozen human urine samples are not a good source for the extraction of urinary microRNA. In this paper, we demonstrate that urinary microRNA can be concentrated, dried on membranes and stored in vacuum bags at room temperature for several months. The amount of total RNA on the membranes after storage at room temperature for three months was unchanged. The levels of miR-16 and miR-21 exhibited no significant differences (P = 0.564, 0.386. This simple and economical method makes the large-scale storage of clinical samples of urinary microRNA or other nucleic acids possible.

  2. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  3. Development of new biomass-based furan/glass composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses the development of new biomass-based furan resin/glass fibre composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique using a two-stage cure cycle to allow removal of water from the resin. The volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites...... of conventional thermosetting/glass composites, but with lower strength. The findings of the present study show that a more efficient water removal during manufacturing, a lower porosity content and a less brittle stress–strain behaviour of the furan matrix are to be addressed to further improve the properties...... are measured and analysed with focus on the porosity content. The so-called matrix correlated porosity factor is determined to be 0.096, meaning that the furan matrix itself contains 8.8% porosity. In the optimal case of no matrix porosity, stiffness of the composites compares well with the stiffness...

  4. Retratos em (re)vista: do estúdio à imprensa ilustrada em Bagé, 1890-1921

    OpenAIRE

    Brasil, Luísa Kuhl

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho discute a construção de papéis sociais por meio dos retratos produzidos por José Greco no início do século XX na cidade de Bagé, RS. Através dos conceitos de cultura visual e cultura material, procura-se analisar os retratos de estúdio e os retratos publicados na revista ilustrada Phenix no ano de 1921. Partindo da noção de que a fotografia foi um instrumento de mediação visual entre as esferas pública e privada, busca-se analisar as imagens a partir do seu caráter de cons...

  5. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques.

  6. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    (100 g/m(2)). Each filter was weighed at the beginning of the soiling period and after 3 and 6 months of service. Additionally, up- and down-stream ozone concentrations and filter pressure drops were measured monthly. Following 6 months of service, the air downstream of each of the combination filters......As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...

  7. Modular method of detection, localization, and counting of multiple-taxon pollen apertures using bag-of-words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Vega, Gildardo; Benezeth, Yannick; Marzani, Franck; Boochs, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Accurate recognition of airborne pollen taxa is crucial for understanding and treating allergic diseases which affect an important proportion of the world population. Modern computer vision techniques enable the detection of discriminant characteristics. Apertures are among the important characteristics which have not been adequately explored until now. A flexible method of detection, localization, and counting of apertures of different pollen taxa with varying appearances is proposed. Aperture description is based on primitive images following the bag-of-words strategy. A confidence map is estimated based on the classification of sampled regions. The method is designed to be extended modularly to new aperture types employing the same algorithm by building individual classifiers. The method was evaluated on the top five allergenic pollen taxa in Germany, and its robustness to unseen particles was verified.

  8. Determination of phthalate esters in polyvinyl chloride infusion bag by stir bar sorptive extraction combined with GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Dai, Jinna; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2012-12-01

    A novel, efficient, and sensitive stir bar sorptive extraction method coupled with GC for the detection of four kinds of phthalate esters in plasticized polyvinyl chloride infusion bag has been developed and validated. Some experimental parameters including stirring speed, stirring time, pH value, salt concentration, desorption mode, desorption solvents, and desorption time were investigated and optimized. Under optimum condition, the validated assay was found to be linear (r > 0.9945) and LODs were between 1.07 and 2.67 ng for the four analytes. The method exhibited excellent precision with RSD varied from 4.5 to 6.1% (n = 5). The recoveries of the four phthalate esters at two different concentrations ranged from 80.5 to 93.4%. The results showed that the validated method could meet the need of determination of targets and was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters in real samples.

  9. Financial technical indicator based on chaotic bagging predictors for adaptive stock selection in Japanese and American markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Ohkura, Yuushi

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the predictability and profitability of financial markets, we introduce three ideas to improve the traditional technical analysis to detect investment timings more quickly. Firstly, a nonlinear prediction model is considered as an effective way to enhance this detection power by learning complex behavioral patterns hidden in financial markets. Secondly, the bagging algorithm can be applied to quantify the confidence in predictions and compose new technical indicators. Thirdly, we also introduce how to select more profitable stocks to improve investment performance by the two-step selection: the first step selects more predictable stocks during the learning period, and then the second step adaptively and dynamically selects the most confident stock showing the most significant technical signal in each investment. Finally, some investment simulations based on real financial data show that these ideas are successful in overcoming complex financial markets.

  10. Adaptation of the rumen microbial population to native potato starch degradation determined with the gas production technique and the nylon bag technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of the adaptation of rumen micro-organisms on the degradation of native potato starch (PS) in the rumen. Cows were fed with rations used for gas production (GP) analysis (dry cows, 1.6% starch) and for the nylon bag (NB) technique (lactating co

  11. Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Andersen, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed...... introduced in recent years....

  12. 喷射泵排尘袋式除尘器设计%Bag Type Duster Design withSpraying Pump for Dust Exhausting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴车

    2000-01-01

    The bag type duster which uses spraying pump principle for dust exhausting and applies to domestic and import asphalt mixing plant has got ideal result .Economic benifit is obvious. It can replace the duster of import asphalt mixing plant to reduce the investment.

  13. A Chiral-Bag Approach to Static Interaction between Two Baryons ---A Numerical Study with Use of the Finite Element Method---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, S.; Tamagaki, R.; Tatsumi, T.; Yoro, S.

    1990-12-01

    Static interaction between two spherical chiral bags is studied in a numerical way. In order to get the solutions of the confined quark states and the outside chiral-field which should satisfy the boundary conditions at both bag surfaces in the chiral bag model, the finite element method is utilized as numerical procedure. We extract the static interaction by calculating the energy change as the two bags approach from large separation to contact distance. Results obtained for three typical configurations indicate that such an approach is workable: We can see that the asymptotic behavior gives the OPEP-tail, and some nonperturbative effects are noticeable in the intermediate region. Although the deviation of the interaction energy from the OPEP value is not so remarkable beyond the pion Compton wavelength due to the cancellation between the energy change of the quark system and that of the chiral field, there arises a significant deviation of the quark wave function and the chiral field from those of the hedgehog solution in the single-baryon case. The procedure in numerical calculations adopted in this paper is explained in detail.

  14. A comparative study of beef quality after ageing longissimus muscle using a dry ageing bag, traditional dry ageing or vacuum package ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Bredie, Wender L P; Nielsen, Belinda; Tománková, Jana; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate beef quality of longissimus muscle after ageing in dry ageing bags, traditional dry ageing or vacuum for 8 or 19 days. Lower ageing weight loss, odour score and microbial growth were found in meat aged in dry ageing bags than after traditional dry ageing. The sensory panel detected no differences for most of the sensory attributes between samples using the two dry ageing methods, except for the odour of the cutting surface. The dry-aged steaks had more umami and butter fried meat taste compared with vacuum-aged steaks. Ageing time affected most of the sensory traits in this study, which improved as ageing time increased from 8 to 19 days. In a consumer test, meat aged for 21 days in dry ageing bags was preferred than the samples aged in vacuum. This may be due to the higher tenderness and juiciness obtained during storage in dry ageing bags than meat aged in vacuum.

  15. Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U; Sauer, W C;

    2011-01-01

    /l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from...

  16. Dust extraction from gas in cement kilns, using bag filters; Depoussierage des gaz de four cimentier par les filtres a manches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmegnies, M. [CALCIA, 78 - Guerville (France). Direction Technique

    1996-12-31

    After a review of regulations concerning cement plant emissions, the two main cement production techniques (dry and semi-dry processes) are described and the electrostatic and bag filter de-dusting techniques are compared. Examples of pilot applications of these techniques in two French cement plants are presented and operating results (performances, transient procedures, costs) are discussed

  17. Indigenous children nearby plantations with chlorpyrifos-treated bags have elevated 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) urinary concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, van B.; Barraza-Ruiz, D.A.; Ruepert, C.; Mora, A.M.; Córdoba, L.; Öberg, M.; Wesseling, C.; Mergler, D.; Lindh, C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary phased-out residential use of chlorpyrifos in 2001. In contrast, in Costa Rica, chlorpyrifos-treated bags are increasingly used to protect banana and plantain fruits from insects and to fulfill product standards, even in populated areas. O

  18. Oxygenation with T-piece versus self-inflating bag for ventilation of extremely preterm infants at birth: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dawson, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    To investigate whether infants < 29 weeks gestation who receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) immediately after birth with a T-piece have higher oxygen saturation (SpO₂) measurements at 5 minutes than infants ventilated with a self inflating bag (SIB).

  19. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  20. Evaluation of Lumicyano™ cyanoacrylate fuming process for the development of latent fingermarks on plastic carrier bags by means of a pseudo operational comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Deacon, Paul; Fraser, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    There are a number of studies discussing recent developments of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process. This study is a pseudo operational trial to compare an example of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate product, Lumicyano™, with the two recommended techniques for plastic carrier bags; cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 (BY40) dyeing and powder suspensions. 100 plastic carrier bags were collected from the place of work and the items were treated as found without any additional fingermark deposition. The bags were split into three and after treatment with the three techniques a comparable number of fingermarks were detected by each technique (average of 300 fingermarks). The items treated with Lumicyano™ were sequentially processed with BY40 and an additional 43 new fingermarks were detected. Lumicyano™ appears to be a suitable technique for the development of fingermarks on plastic carrier bags and it can help save lab space and time as it does not require dyeing or drying procedures. Furthermore, contrary to other one-step cyanoacrylate products, existing cyanoacrylate cabinets do not require any modification for the treatment of articles with Lumicyano™. To date, there is little peer reviewed articles in the literature on trials related to Lumicyano™ and this study aims to contribute to fill this gap.

  1. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  2. Lunch is in the bag: increasing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches of preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Harrist, Ronald B; Staskel, Deanna M; Almansour, Fawaz D

    2010-07-01

    Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are important sources of nutrients for healthy growth and development of young children. Recent evidence suggests that sack lunches packed by parents for children to consume at child-care centers do not regularly meet the goal of one serving of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Lunch Is In The Bag is a child-care center-based nutrition education program targeted at parents of preschool-aged children to increase the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches sent from home that was pilot tested in fall 2008. In a quasiexperimental design, six child-care centers were paired by size before being randomly assigned to intervention (n=3) and comparison (n=3) groups. The parents of caregivers with primary responsibility for preparing the sack lunches of the 3- to 5-year-old children attending the centers were enrolled as parent-child dyads. The intervention included parent handouts, classroom activities, education stations, and teacher training. The contents of the lunch sacks for both the intervention group and comparison group were recorded for 3 nonconsecutive days before and immediately after the intervention period to measure the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. A total of 132 parent-child dyads completed the study, 81 in the intervention group and 51 in the comparison group. Direct observation of children's lunches from the intervention group showed an increase in predicted mean number of servings of vegetables, from 0.41 to 0.65 (Pwhole grains, from 0.54 to 1.06 (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the mean number of servings of fruit. Lunch Is In The Bag, which is designed to fit in the child-care environment and targets parents of 3- to 5-year-old children, is a feasible intervention for improving the nutritional quality of sack lunches.

  3. 浅析水泥包装袋的质量%Analysis of the Quality of the Cement Packaging Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2013-01-01

    With economic development in recent years, the construction industry has also made good benefits. The prosperity of construction industry also played a role in promoting the development of cement and other related industries. At the same time, the quality issues of cement industry are also concerned, especially the cement packaging quality problems. There are a lot of cement packaging bags that do not meet national standards inn the market. Fundamentally speaking, it is related to the business ideas of cement production enterprises. This paper analyzed the quality problems of cement packaging bags and other related issues in the cement industry and found solutions.%  近几年随着经济的发展,建筑行业也取得了良好的效益。建筑行业的繁荣对水泥等相关产业的发展也起到了推动作用。但与此同时,水泥行业的产品质量问题也倍受关注。特别是水泥包装的质量问题尤为突出。市场上出现了大量不符合国家标准的水泥包装袋,从根本上讲,这与水泥生产企业的经营思想不无关系。本文主要就水泥包装袋方面的质量问题及水泥行业的其他相关问题进行分析,并寻求解决办法。

  4. A Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management Protocol Incorporating a Two-Bag Intravenous Fluid System Decreases Duration of Intravenous Insulin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverka, Megan; Marsh, Kourtney; Norman, Susan; Brock, Michael Alan; Peng, Monica; Shenk, Jennifer; Chen, Jerome Gene

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes. We implemented a standardized DKA management protocol by using a 2-bag intravenous (IV) fluid system. The purpose of the study was to examine if the protocol improved clinical outcomes and process efficiency. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who did and did not undergo the protocol. Patients were included if they were 18 years of age or younger, were diagnosed with DKA, admitted to an intensive care unit or stepdown unit, and received continuous IV insulin. RESULTS: Of 119 encounters evaluated, 46 (38.7%) received treatment with the protocol and 73 (61.3%) did not. The median time to normalization of ketoacidosis was 9 hours (IQR 5-12) and 9 hours (IQR 6.5-13) for protocol and non-protocol groups, respectively (p = 0.14). The median duration of IV insulin therapy was 16.9 hours (IQR 13.7-21.5) vs. 21 hours (IQR 15.3-26) for protocol and non-protocol groups (p = 0.03). The median number of adjustments to insulin drip rate was 0 (IQR 0-1) and 2 (IQR 0-3) for protocol and non-protocol groups (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, or cerebral edema. CONCLUSIONS: The protocol did not change time to normalization of ketoacidosis but did decrease the duration of insulin therapy, number of adjustments to insulin drip rate, and number of wasted IV fluid bags without increasing the incidence of adverse events.

  5. Socio-Demographic Determinants and Morbidity Profile of People Engaged in Bag Making Occupation in an Urban Slum of Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam A Giri, Pawan V Meshram, Abhiram M Kasbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bag making is a kind of occupation which comes under unorganized sector. An occupation is always associated with some risk which can account to health hazard. Bag makers are also not an exception to this rule. Objectives: A present study was conducted to assess the socio-demographic determinants and morbidity profile among bag makers. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the field practice area (cheetah camp urban health centre of the T. N. Medical College, Mumbai during the period of March 2008 to August 2009. A total 800 bag makers from cheetah camp area were interviewed and examined. A pre-tested interview tool was used to collect necessary information such as clinical history, socio-demographic profile, clinical examination findings and investigations performed. Results were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version -17.0. Results: In the present study, out of the 800 study participants taken in to consideration, 95.9% were males and 4.1% were females. Musculoskeletal problems were most predominant, seen in 76.3% participants followed by skin problems (40.9%, while 30.3% participants presented with gastrointestinal and 17.3% with respiratory ailment. Thirty three percent workers had ocular morbidity and injuries were observed in 26.3% workers including minor injuries such as cuts and abrasions. Conclusion: In this study, large proportion of workers suffered from work related symptomatic morbidities mainly of musculoskeletal problems, followed by skin, eye, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems. Bag makers should be educated regarding their work related health hazards so that they are detected at the earliest and proper treatment can be initiated.

  6. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardie Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents.

  7. An efficient large-scale retroviral transduction method involving preloading the vector into a RetroNectin-coated bag with low-temperature shaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Katsuyuki; Chono, Hideto; Saito, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Tahara, Kenichi; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method). In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4(+) T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥ 10(10)) and 100-fold (≥ 5 × 10(9)) expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols.

  8. An efficient large-scale retroviral transduction method involving preloading the vector into a RetroNectin-coated bag with low-temperature shaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Dodo

    Full Text Available In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method. In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4(+ T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥ 10(10 and 100-fold (≥ 5 × 10(9 expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols.

  9. Effect of bagging on quality of Jinlinghuanglu peach%套袋对金陵黄露桃果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞娟; 张斌斌; 张春华; 蔡志翔; 严娟

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of bagging on the quality of yellow flesh peach for fresh market, the peach variety Jinlinghuanglu was bagged with white single layer bag and yellow single layer bag the external quality, internal quality and antioxidant capacity were detected. The sorbitol and malic acid contents of bagged peaches were much lower than those in non-bagged ones, while chroma, peel flavonoids and total phenol were much higher. No significant difference was observed in single fruit weight, sugar acid ratio, firmness without skin, peel chlorophyll content, total sugar, sucrose, quinic acid and citric acid content between bagged peaches and non-bagged. Fruit bagged with white single layer bag showed greater a value, glucose content, fructose content and lower peel carotenoid content and soluble solid content. Skin brightness, b val-ue and hue angle of peaches with yellow single layer bag treatment were higher than control while a/b, firmness with skin, peel anthocyanin content and total acid content were lower. There was no obvious difference in a value, peel carotenoid content, soluble solid content, glucose content and fructose content between yellow single layer bag treatment and control. It was indicated that white single layer bag could improve fruit red color by reducing carotenoid content while yellow single layer bag reduced red color and incresed yellow color. In addition, bagging enhanced antioxidant capacity by changing sugar and acid components.%为探明套袋对鲜食黄肉桃果实品质的影响,以金陵黄露为试验材料,研究了白色单层袋和黄色单层袋对果实外观品质、内在品质及抗氧化能力的影响。结果表明:与不套袋(对照)相比,套袋处理显著降低了果实山梨醇和苹果酸含量,显著提高了色饱和度、果皮类黄酮、总酚含量,而单果质量、糖酸比、去皮硬度、果皮叶绿素含量、总糖、蔗糖、奎尼酸、柠檬酸含量均无显著变化;套白色单

  10. Forureneren bag forureneren og skadevolderen bag skadevolderen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, i hvilket omfang et moderselskab eller et søsterselskab eller en hovedaktionær kan blive ansvarlig på objektivt grundlag, såkaldt hæftelsesgennembrud, for skade forvoldt af et andet selskab, herunder i tilfælde af miljøskader. De kriterier, der skal være opfyldt, for at der k...

  11. The bagging of Annona crassiflora fruits to control fruit borers=Ensacamento de frutos de Annona crassiflora contra broqueadores de frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Michelle Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of plastic bags to protect the fruits of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae against Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. As protection against this fruit-boring insect, 100 fruits were enclosed in plastic bags. Another 100 fruits were not bagged. The fruits were selected from the following five ranges of diameters: 1 = 0.5 – 1.99; 2 = 2.00 – 3.99; 3 = 4.00 – 7.90; 4 = 8.00 – 11.90; and 5 = 12.00 – 16.00 cm. The bagged fruits of various diameters were attacked less frequently by the pest. The bagged fruits with a diameter of less than two cm were not attacked. The percentage of fruits attacked and the number of larvae/fruit increased as the diameter of fruits increased in both treatments. The bagged fruits initially less than two cm in diameter showed the greatest final diameter and height.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae no controle de Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. 100 frutos foram ensacados com saco plástico e 100 não ensacados em cada uma das cinco categorias de diâmetro: 1 = 0,5 – 1,99; 2 = 2,00 – 3,99; 3 = 4,00 – 7,90; 4 = 8,00 – 11,90 e 5 = 12,00 – 16,00 cm. Os frutos ensacados com sacos plásticos, nos diferentes diâmetros, apresentaram-se menos broqueados. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro não foram broqueados. Observou-se aumento na percentagem de frutos broqueados bem como no número de brocas/fruto broqueado com o aumento na categoria do diâmetro de frutos nos diferentes tratamentos. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro apresentaram maiores diâmetros e alturas de frutos.

  12. Stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen FC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fu-chao Chen,1 Jun Zhu,1 Bin Li,1 Fang-jun Yuan,1 Lin-hai Wang2 1Department of Pharmacy, Dongfeng Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Background: Mixing 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3 receptor antagonists with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA solutions of tramadol has been shown to decrease the incidence of nausea and vomiting associated with the use of tramadol PCA for postoperative pain. However, such mixtures are not commercially available, and the stability of the drug combinations has not been duly studied. The study aimed to evaluate the stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA administration.Materials and methods: Test samples were prepared by adding 1,000 mg tramadol hydrochloride, 8 mg ondansetron hydrochloride, and 6 mg granisetron hydrochloride or 5 mg tropisetron hydrochloride to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags. The samples were prepared in triplicates, stored at either 25°C or 4°C for 14 days, and assessed using the following compatibility parameters: precipitation, cloudiness, discoloration, and pH. Chemical stability was also determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method.Results: All of the mixtures were clear and colorless throughout the initial observation period. No change in the concentration of tramadol hydrochloride occurred with any of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists during the 14 days. Similarly, little or no loss of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists occurred over the 14-day period.Conclusion: Our results suggest that mixtures of tramadol hydrochloride, ondansetron hydrochloride, granisetron hydrochloride, or tropisetron hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were physically and chemically stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at both 4°C and 25°C. Keywords: tramadol, ondansetron, granisetron

  13. Qualidade de frutos ensacados em diferentes genótipos de macieira The quality of bagged fruit of different apple genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    constituted a repetition. All the fruits of each repetition were bagged. The treatments were composed by three different periods of unbagging (15 and seven days before harvest and at harvest; two different bag materials (paraffinated butter white paper bags and transparent polypropylene microperfurated bags; and the control (unbagged fruits. They were evaluated in size, weight, maturation through the ground color, russeting and burning by the sun. It was verified that the bagging can influence the size and the weight of the fruits in relation to the unbagged fruits (control. The type of the packing and the longest time of permanence of these packings in the fruits can affect the maturation. It was not observed any effect of the bagging or of the type of the packing and the packing time on the russeting. The transparent polypropylene microperfurated bag propiated in some genotypes more burns of fruits in relation to paraffinated butter white paper bag and the treatment control.

  14. 一种基于差异思想的选择性Bagging Trees集成算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 朱钰; 王征

    2008-01-01

    本文通过对鸢尾花数据的研究,提出了一种基于分类器的分类效果差异而进行快速选择的一种改进的Bagging Trees集成算法。并通过同其他统计机器学习方法,如:CART、Bagging Trees、Random Forest以及目前流行的基于遗传算法的选择性集成算法GASEN等比较得出,该算法对于分类问题而言,具有较高的准确率,而且与GASEN算法相比,运行的效率也得到了较大的提高。

  15. End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during bag valve ventilation: the use of a new portable device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Veronica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For healthcare providers in the prehospital setting, bag-valve mask (BVM ventilation could be as efficacious and safe as endotracheal intubation. To facilitate the evaluation of efficacious ventilation, capnographs have been further developed into small and convenient devices able to provide end- tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new portable device (EMMA™ attached to a ventilation mask would provide ETCO2 values accurate enough to confirm proper BVM ventilation. Methods A prospective observational trial was conducted in a single level-2 centre. Twenty-two patients under general anaesthesia were manually ventilated. ETCO2 was measured every five minutes with the study device and venous PCO2 (PvCO2 was simultaneously measured for comparison. Bland- Altman plots were used to compare ETCO2, and PvCO2. Results The patients were all hemodynamically and respiratory stable during anaesthesia. End-tidal carbon dioxide values were corresponding to venous gases during BVM ventilation under optimal conditions. The bias, the mean of the differences between the two methods (device versus venous blood gases, for time points 1-4 ranges from -1.37 to -1.62. Conclusion The portable device, EMMA™ is suitable for determining carbon dioxide in expired air (kPa as compared to simultaneous samples of PvCO2. It could therefore, be a supportive tool to asses the BVM ventilation in the demanding prehospital and emergency setting.

  16. Torsional Behaviour and Finite Element Analysis of the Hybrid Laminated Composite Shafts: Comparison of VARTM with Vacuum Bagging Manufacturing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Taşdelen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Braided sleeve composite shafts are produced and their torsional behavior is investigated. The braided sleeves are slid over an Al tube to create very strong and rigid tubular form shafts and they are in the form of 2/2 twill biaxial fiber fabric that has been woven into a continuous sleeve. Carbon and glass fibers braided sleeves are used for the fabrication of the composite shafts. VARTM (vacuum assisted resin transfer molding and Vacuum Bagging are the two different types of manufacturing methods used in the study. Torsional behaviors of the shafts are investigated experimentally in terms of fabrication methods and various composite materials parameters such as fiber types, layer thickness, and ply angles. Comparing the two methods in terms of the torque forces and strain angles, the shafts producing entirely carbon fiber show the highest torque capacities; however, considering the cost and performance criteria, the hybrid shaft made up of carbon and glass fibers is the optimum solution for average demanded properties. Additionally, FE (finite element model of the shafts was created and analyzed by using ANSYS workbench environment. Results of finite element analysis are compared with the values of twisting angle and torque obtained by experimental tests.

  17. 一种辨别暗袋曝光的方法%Method to Distinguish the Exposed Camera Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 吴凯; 陈海英; 肖俊

    2015-01-01

    在射线检测的暗袋表面加装少量磷光物质,则在暗袋曝光过程中,磷光物质吸收高能射线,其电子受到激发会跃迁至不稳定的高能态,在退激的过程中会持续释放可见光。通过在黑暗状态下观察磷光物质是否发光来判断该暗袋是否已使用过,从而避免对已使用过的暗袋进行重复曝光,节省了胶片和工时。%A small amount of phosphorescent powder was added to the camera bag′s surface,and then the phosphorescent powder began to absorb high-energy rays during the exposure process.In the exposure process, electrons would be excited to a higher unstable energy state,and should continue to release visible light in the subsequent de-excitation process.People could distinguish whether the camera bag was exposed or not by observing the visible light in dark state,thus double-exposure could be avoided effectively,saving both films and man-hours. This low-cost method is simple,convenient,and worth spreading.

  18. Analysis of data from gold spheres imbedded in a gas bag, illuminated by the URLLE Omega laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mordecai; Ross, J. S.; Swadling, G.; Hinkel, D. E.; Thomas, C.; Callahan, D.; Jones, O.; Zimmerman, G. B.

    2016-10-01

    In order to make data from an open Au sphere (previously shot in 2006 and 2013) more ``hohlraum relevant'', we embedded the sphere in a ``gas bag'', comprised of a thin membrane filled with varying amounts of gas. The Thomson Scattering (TS) data from this new campaign gave clear signatures of when the Au expanded out within this surrounding gas to a given radial point at a given time. We analyze this data via radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include a post-processor that directly mimics the TS spectra vs. time. Within these simulations, we test various non-LTE atomic physics models, as well as electron transport models. One model that appears to fit this new data is a restrictive flux limiter, mimicking the ``Return-Current-Instability''(RCI) which, when operative, is effectively f =0.015. The same ion acoustic turbulence (an outgrowth of the RCI), that enhances scattering, and thus inhibits transport, can also increase absorption. This increase in absorption, applied (speculatively) close by the critical surface, is part of the computational model. This same model showed some success with the bare Au sphere data as well, as reported at APS/DPP last year. We also discuss ion diffusion effects. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Isolation of human monocytes by double gradient centrifugation and their differentiation to macrophages in teflon-coated cell culture bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menck, Kerstin; Behme, Daniel; Pantke, Mathias; Reiling, Norbert; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias; Klemm, Florian

    2014-09-09

    Human macrophages are involved in a plethora of pathologic processes ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. Thus they pose a valuable tool to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases. We therefore present a straightforward protocol for the isolation of human monocytes from buffy coats, followed by a differentiation procedure which results in high macrophage yields. The technique relies mostly on commonly available lab equipment and thus provides a cost and time effective way to obtain large quantities of human macrophages. Briefly, buffy coats from healthy blood donors are subjected to a double density gradient centrifugation to harvest monocytes from the peripheral blood. These monocytes are then cultured in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon-coated cell culture bags in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The differentiated macrophages can be easily harvested and used for subsequent studies and functional assays. Important methods for quality control and validation of the isolation and differentiation steps will be highlighted within the protocol. In summary, the protocol described here enables scientists to routinely and reproducibly isolate human macrophages without the need for cost intensive tools. Furthermore, disease models can be studied in a syngeneic human system circumventing the use of murine macrophages.

  20. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  1. 育果袋纸的添加工艺%Chemicals Adding Technology of the Fruit-Bagged Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗英; 张美云; 王东

    2011-01-01

    对育果袋纸化学品的添加工艺进行了研究。结果表明:选用阴离子分散松香胶施胶,聚酰胺环氧氯丙烷作为湿强剂,阳离子淀粉和阴离子聚丙烯酰胺作为双元助留体系,成纸的施胶度84s,透气度1336肛m/(Pa·s)^-1,干裂断长4542m,湿裂断长1634m。%The chemicals adding technology of the fruit-bagged paper was researched. The results showed thatanionic dispersion rosin size was picked out for internal sizing, PAE was chosen as wet-strength agent, retention system was constituted by cationic starch and anionic polyacrylamide, sizing degree 84s, porosity degree 13.36om'(Pa-s)^-1, dry breaking length 4 542m, wet breaking length 1 634m.

  2. Comparative study of cost-benefit integrated system of water spary with industrial ventilation and bag filters in a minerals processing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Babaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Control of fugitative dust from mining process and application of an appropriate and economical system for dust collecting is essential. The goal of this study was cost-benefit analysis of an integrated systems and compare to bag filter in a crushing plant of a mining company. Methods: A local exhaust ventilation system for capture of emitted particlees, a water spray for dust suppresion at sources and parallel Stairmand model cyclones as dust colletor were designed and installed based on the standards and guidelines. Then, efficiency of wetting and industrial ventilation system for control of ambient dust personal exposure and environmental emission have evaluated as integrated and alone. Finally, cost-benefit analysis of this system was compared to bag filter. Results: The efficiency of this system for control personal exposure repairable particles and emitted dust to ambient air was 87% and 95% for plant 1 and 88% and 95% for plant 2, respectively. The concentration of emitted emitted dust from stack to environment were 121.28 mg/m3 and 112/68 mg/m3 for plant 1 and 2, respectively. The capital, operational and maintence costs of this option was 217 and 0.992 billion rials lower than bag filter. Also, annuall collected dust by cyclones was worth 518 million rial. Conclusion: According to results, integrated system had a significant impact on emitted dust in workplace and environment. The economical analysis domonstrated 73% and 80% savings in capital and operational costs compared to bag filter. Total costs of implented project will be compensated at 220 day with recovered dusts, therefore, in the same condition, it can be suggested as the favourable and economical solution.

  3. 火腿肠破袋率控制方法浅析%Discuss on controlling methods to bag breaking rate of ham sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦栓; 王素梅; 翟海港

    2015-01-01

    概述了火腿肠破袋的原因,并介绍破袋率的控制方法,对于提高火腿肠的品质具有一定的参考意义。%The reason of bag breaking rate of sausage was summarized. And the controlling methods were introduced. It has reference meaning to enhance the quality of sausage.

  4. Subcellular sites of processing of precursors to neurosecretory peptides in the bag cells of Aplysia: inferences from the effects of monensin, FCCP, and chloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, M E; Berry, R W

    1984-03-01

    The effects of the sodium ionophore monensin were examined in the bag cells of Aplysia californica in order to identify the subcellular sites of processing of precursors to their neurosecretory products. Incubation of bag cells in media containing 10 microM monensin led to a marked disruption of the morphology of the Golgi apparatus without affecting that of other organelles. Exposure of bag cells to monensin led to a significant impairment of processing of the largest precursor and of an intermediate protein which gives rise to the immediate precursors to the final secreted products, the egg-laying hormone (ELH) and the acidic peptide (AP). Furthermore, ELH and AP were never produced in the presence of monensin during the time course of these experiments. When axonal transport was allowed to proceed, the contents of bag-cell terminals indicated that the intermediate protein is the first to be packaged in Golgi-derived vesicles, and in monensin-treated cells may be transported without being processed further. In contrast to these results, the protonophore FCCP-impaired precursor and intermediate cleavage equally, indicating that monensin and FCCP have different effects on intracellular transport and precursor processing. These data are interpreted to indicate that the largest ELH-AP precursor is normally processed within the Golgi apparatus, and that the disruption of this organelle induced by monensin produces the impairment seen in its processing. The impairment of cleavage of the intermediate species, and the blockade of production of AP and ELH, are probably the result of monensin-induced impairment of production of proteolytically competent secretory granules by the Golgi apparatus.

  5. Tissue engineering intrafusal fibers: dose- and time-dependent differentiation of nuclear bag fibers in a defined in vitro system using neuregulin 1-beta-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, John W; Das, Mainak; Kang, Jung-Fong; Wagner, Robert; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2008-03-01

    While much is known about muscle spindle structure, innervation and function, relatively few factors have been identified that regulate intrafusal fiber differentiation and spindle development. Identification of these factors will be a crucial step in tissue engineering functional muscle systems. In this study, we investigated the role of the growth factor, neuregulin 1-beta-1 (Nrg 1-beta-1) EGF, for its ability to influence myotube fate specification in a defined culture system utilizing the non-biological substrate N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-diethylenetriamine (DETA). Based on morphological and immunocytochemical criteria, Nrg 1-beta-1 treatment of developing myotubes increases the ratio of nuclear bag fibers to total myotubes from 0.019 to 0.100, approximately a five-fold increase. The myotube cultures were evaluated for expression of the intrafusal fiber-specific alpha cardiac-like myosin heavy chain and for the expression of the non-specific slow myosin heavy chain. Additionally, the expression of ErbB2 receptors on all myotubes was observed, while phosphorylated ErbB2 receptors were only observed in Nrg 1-beta-1-treated intrafusal fibers. After Nrg 1-beta-1 treatment, we were able to observe the expression of the intrafusal fiber-specific transcription factor Egr3 only in fibers exhibiting the nuclear bag phenotype. Finally, nuclear bag fibers were characterized electrophysiologically for the first time in vitro. This data shows conclusively, in a serum-free system, that Nrg 1-beta-1 is necessary to drive specification of forming myotubes to the nuclear bag phenotype.

  6. Mortality of a Wild King Cobra,Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836 (Serpentes:Elapidae) from Northeast Thailand after Ingesting a Plastic Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin Thomas STRINE; Ins SILVA; Matthew CRANE; Bartosz NADOLSKI; Taksin ARTCHAWAKOM; Matt GOODE; Pongthep SUWANWAREE

    2014-01-01

    Wild King Cobras,Ophiophagus hannah, are known to prey almost exclusively on snakes. We observed opportunistic ingestion of a plastic bag by a radio-tracked adult male O. hannah, which was detrimental to the health of the individual and likely lead to its death. Our observation demonstrates that improper disposal of food and plastic waste can be a threat to snakes, highlighting the need to maintain a waste-free environment, especially in areas inhabited by vulnerable species.

  7. AAV-mediated expression of BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA promote neuronal survival and axonal sprouting in a rat model of rubrospinal tract injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challagundla, Malleswari; Koch, Jan Christoph; Ribas, Vinicius Toledo; Michel, Uwe; Kügler, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Thomas; Bradke, Frank; Müller, Hans Werner; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

    2015-07-01

    A lesion to the rat rubrospinal tract is a model for traumatic spinal cord lesions and results in atrophy of the red nucleus neurons, axonal dieback, and locomotor deficits. In this study, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated over-expression of BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA in the red nucleus to trace [by co-expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)] and treat the rubrospinal tract after unilateral dorsal hemisection. We investigated the effects of targeted gene therapy on neuronal survival, axonal sprouting of the rubrospinal tract, and motor recovery 12 weeks after unilateral dorsal hemisection at Th8 in rats. In addition to the evaluation of BAG1 and ROCK2 as therapeutic targets in spinal cord injury, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and the limits of an AAV-mediated protein over-expression versus AAV.shRNA-mediated down-regulation in this traumatic CNS lesion model. Our results demonstrate that BAG1 and ROCK2-shRNA both promote neuronal survival of red nucleus neurons and enhance axonal sprouting proximal to the lesion.

  8. Investigation of the relationship between carrying school bags (handbags and backpacks) and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among 12-15 year old students in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arghavani, Farshad; Zamanian, Zahra; Ghanbary, Ali; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-04-01

    Inappropriate school bags put students at risk of musculoskeletal problems and early fatigue. Heavy bags can change the body posture and the musculoskeletal system must react appropriately in order to compensate for this stress. It is recommended that the weight of a school bag must not be more than 10% of the student's body weight and the weight must be placed on both shoulders. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders by comparing the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among the students. The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in different educational districts of Shiraz. The study samples were selected using cluster sampling method. In this study, 800 students marked their painful areas on body maps and the SPSS statistical software (v. 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The results showed that among the students who used backpacks, 48.9% carried the weight on both shoulders, 40.4% carried the weight on their right shoulders, and 10.6% used their left shoulders. Besides, 68.02% of the students carrying handbags often used their right shoulders, while 31.98% used their left shoulders. The study results showed that similar to other countries, Iranian students also mostly made use of backpacks. Moreover, the musculoskeletal pains were most prevalent in the shoulders, which is in line with many other studies conducted on the issue.

  9. 立体多向眼袋整形术%The stereoscopic multi-directional plastic operction of secondary lower eyelid bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝润泽; 刘卫民

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the cause of secondary lower eyelid bag and try to find a better plastic operation. Methods On sagital plane: the skin and muscular layers were resected and fastened separately. Then herniated orbital fat was partially removed or released. On coronary plane: the skin was resected and fastened on horizontal and vertical directions. The orbiculus muscle was resected radially. Results The results of 63 cases were satisfactory. Conclusion The stereoscopic multi-directional plastic operation of lower eyelid bag is a good procedure for secondary lower eyelid bag.%目的 探讨继发性眼袋的病因并寻找更为有效合理的手术方法。方法 矢状面上将皮肤、眼轮匝肌分层切除、提紧,疝出的眶脂部分切除或眶缘释放;冠状面上将皮肤纵横双向提紧,肌层星形切除缝合,双向提紧。结果 64例中 63 例效果满意。结论 立体多向眼袋整形术是针对眼袋的发生机理而设计,可获良好效果。

  10. Talk about the technology of masson pine movable seedbed nutrition bag%浅谈马尾松可移动苗床营养袋育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝强

    2013-01-01

    马尾松良种是马尾松育苗质量的基础,采用营养袋育苗可节约种子,提高育苗质量。马尾松营养袋育苗方法有营养袋点播和苗床催芽、移芽入袋两种,使用可移动苗床培育马尾松芽苗,然后移载营养袋的育苗技术,其更有效提高芽苗的移栽成活率,提高苗木产量与质量。%Talk about the technology of masson pine movable seedbed nutrition bag, using nutrition bag can save the seed nursery, improves seedling quality. There are two kinds of masson pine seedling nutrition bag method. Nutrition bag demand and seedbed germination, move into the bag bud. Using removable seedbed cultivation masson pine shoots. Then transfer the bag nursery nutrition technology. It is more effective to improve the survival rate of transplant shoots improve the yield and quality seedlings.

  11. The Development of High Efficiency and Energy Saving Three-row-middle-envelope Plastic Bag Making Machine%高效节能三列中封全自动制袋机开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭杭; 张建桃; 张铁民; 辛少荣; 彭泽光

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase productivity of flexible packaging plastic bag making machine ,save energy and reduce emission ,a three-row bag making technical method is proposed .According the optimized design of the institutions and electrical control ,a high efficiency and energy saving three-row-middle-envelope plastic bag making machine is developed in this paper , which running speed reaches 36 000 p/h and yield exceed 99 .6%.Compared with the double-row-middle-envelope plastic bag making machine ,the three-row-middle-en-velope plastic bag making machine not only increases the bag making efficiency 50%,but also reduces energy consumption by 33 %.%针对塑料软包装袋制袋机需不断提高制袋效率、节能减排的要求,提出采用三列制袋模式提高制袋效率和降低产品能耗的技术方案,通过机构和电气控制优化设计,研制出三列中封全自动制袋机,其制袋能力达36000袋/h,成品率超过99.6%,与双列中封制袋机相比,制袋速率提高50%,单位产品能耗降低33%。

  12. Effects of Bagging on the Nutritional Quality of Mango%套袋对芒果营养品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胤均; 谢德芳

    2015-01-01

    选择具有代表性的台农、紫花、凯特3个品种芒果为实验材料,探究套袋对芒果的维生素C、可溶性固形物、粗纤维、β-胡萝卜素等4个主要理化指标的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,套袋台农、紫花、凯特3种芒果果肉中维生素C的含量分别降低了19%、10%和18%;果肉中β-胡萝卜素含量降低了19.4%、23.4%和28%;可溶性固形物有显著性差异,套袋处理的芒果可溶性固形物含量高于对照组;台农和紫花2种芒果果肉的套袋组与对照组的粗纤维含量无显著性差异,凯特芒果肉套袋组粗纤维含量大于对照组。%With Tainong, Zihua, Kaite, three kinds of mango as experimental material. Explore the impact of bagging on three varieties of mango peel and pulp of vitamin C, soluble solids, crude fiber, β-carotene four indicators.Bagging changed the mango growing microenvironment. This study was the determination of different varieties of mangoes of the four nutrients. Effect of bagging on the quality of different varieties of mango. The results showed a significant reduction bagging mango vitamin C and content. Bagging decreased vitamin C and β-carotene of three kind of mango. A small amount of reduced crude fiber content, increase in soluble solids content, increase in soluble solids content.

  13. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2012-10-15

    This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 °C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD ~7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large scale through a batch process in alleviating the plactics waste management issue.

  14. A comparison between over-the-head and lateral cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a single rescuer by bag-valve mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: mask fixation in the lateral position is difficult during CPR. Aim: the aim of this study is to compare the lateral CPR for the use of bag-valve mask by single paramedic rescuer as well as over-the-head CPR on the chest compression and ventilation on the manikin. Settings and Design: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The design of this study was a randomized cross-over trial. Methods: participants learned a standardized theoretical introduction CPR according to the 2010 guidelines. The total number of chest compressions per two minutes was measured. Total number of correct and wrong ventilation per two minutes was evaluated. Statistical Analysis: we used Wilcoxon signed-rank test to analyze the non-normally distributed data in dependence groups A. P-value of more than 0.05 was considered to show statistical significance. Results: there were 100 participants (45 women and 55 men who participated in the study from September to March, 2011. The compression and ventilation rate in lateral CPR was lower than OTH CPR. Around 51% of participants had correct chest compression rate more than 90 beats per minute in lateral CPR and 65% of them had equal or more than ten correct ventilations per minute. Conclusions: in conclusion, this study confirmed that in a simulated CPR model over-the-head position CPR led to a better BLS than the lateral position CPR by a single paramedic student with a BVM device. We also concluded that by this new BVM fixation method on the face of the patients in the lateral position CPR can be a good alternative over-the-head mask fixation by a single trained rescuer.

  15. Application of metagenomic sequencing to food safety: detection of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli on fresh bagged spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Susan R; Mammel, Mark K; Lacher, David W; Elkins, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Culture-independent diagnostics reduce the reliance on traditional (and slower) culture-based methodologies. Here we capitalize on advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) to apply this approach to food pathogen detection utilizing NGS as an analytical tool. In this study, spiking spinach with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) following an established FDA culture-based protocol was used in conjunction with shotgun metagenomic sequencing to determine the limits of detection, sensitivity, and specificity levels and to obtain information on the microbiology of the protocol. We show that an expected level of contamination (∼10 CFU/100 g) could be adequately detected (including key virulence determinants and strain-level specificity) within 8 h of enrichment at a sequencing depth of 10,000,000 reads. We also rationalize the relative benefit of static versus shaking culture conditions and the addition of selected antimicrobial agents, thereby validating the long-standing culture-based parameters behind such protocols. Moreover, the shotgun metagenomic approach was informative regarding the dynamics of microbial communities during the enrichment process, including initial surveys of the microbial loads associated with bagged spinach; the microbes found included key genera such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Exiguobacterium. Collectively, our metagenomic study highlights and considers various parameters required for transitioning to such sequencing-based diagnostics for food safety and the potential to develop better enrichment processes in a high-throughput manner not previously possible. Future studies will investigate new species-specific DNA signature target regimens, rational design of medium components in concert with judicious use of additives, such as antibiotics, and alterations in the sample processing protocol to enhance detection.

  16. Identification of Structurally Damaged Areas in Airborne Oblique Images Using a Visual-Bag-of-Words Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vetrivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic post-disaster mapping of building damage using remote sensing images is an important and time-critical element of disaster management. The characteristics of remote sensing images available immediately after the disaster are not certain, since they may vary in terms of capturing platform, sensor-view, image scale, and scene complexity. Therefore, a generalized method for damage detection that is impervious to the mentioned image characteristics is desirable. This study aims to develop a method to perform grid-level damage classification of remote sensing images by detecting the damage corresponding to debris, rubble piles, and heavy spalling within a defined grid, regardless of the aforementioned image characteristics. The Visual-Bag-of-Words (BoW is one of the most widely used and proven frameworks for image classification in the field of computer vision. The framework adopts a kind of feature representation strategy that has been shown to be more efficient for image classification—regardless of the scale and clutter—than conventional global feature representations. In this study supervised models using various radiometric descriptors (histogram of gradient orientations (HoG and Gabor wavelets and classifiers (SVM, Random Forests, and Adaboost were developed for damage classification based on both BoW and conventional global feature representations, and tested with four datasets. Those vary according to the aforementioned image characteristics. The BoW framework outperformed conventional global feature representation approaches in all scenarios (i.e., for all combinations of feature descriptors, classifiers, and datasets, and produced an average accuracy of approximately 90%. Particularly encouraging was an accuracy improvement by 14% (from 77% to 91% produced by BoW over global representation for the most complex dataset, which was used to test the generalization capability.

  17. Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with gaseous or liquid ammonia trough nylon bag and in vitro gas production techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Sadeghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed shortage is the most important characteristic of Iranian animal industry. Increased costs of livestock production have caused the Iranian producers to reduce feed costs mainly by inclusion low quality crop residues into ruminants diets. It is estimated that around 20 million tons wheat straw produced in Iran every year. Both the digestibility and crude protein content of wheat straw are typically low. Since 1900, a wide variety of chemical treatments have been tested for their potential to improve the feeding value of wheat straw. Upgrading of wheat straw by ammoniation has been known for a long time, but application of this method of wheat straw treatment has received the least attention in the area (Khorasan Province, Iran. Therefore, the object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gaseous and liquid ammonia on nutritive value of wheat straw through in vitro techniques. Material and Methods One kg dry wheat straw was placed into the plastic cylinders with dimension of 1 m (diameter and 1.8 m (height and 0.8 mm (thickness. Gaseous and liquid commercial ammonia was injected or added to the wrapped straw at the rate of 2, 4 and 6 percent. The treatment time was 1 month at room temperature (20-25 ºC. At the end of treatment period the cylinders were opened and the ammoniated straw exposed to the air for 4 days. The treated straws were sampled for the subsequent analyses. Dry matter degradability of the samples was done by using nylon bags (10x20 cm with pore size of 40 micron. About 2 g ground samples (2 mm were placed into the nylon bags and incubated in rumen of 4 permanently fistulated steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. The experimental steers were fed by the ordinary diet containing 65% forage and 35% concentrate twice daily. The Menke and Steingass method was followed for the in vitro gas production method. Result and discussion Crude protein (CP content of the treated wheat straw samples

  18. Technical optimization of termite-killing bait bag application by orthogonal experiment%用正交试验优化白蚁诱饵包使用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世璋; 陈立志; 张岚; 董勇; 陈冰勇; 陈静; 康勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To look for a solution to the problem of rotting baits buried in soil in the areas with high temperature and moist climate before they are found by subterraneous termites. Methods Four woodlands seriously damaged by subterraneous termites in the Cinnamomun camphora forest in Nanshan Forestry Center in Nan' an District of Chongqing City were selected as the experimental sites. Based on the requirements for the design of the orthogonal experiment in L9 (34), nine treatments were implemented in each experimental site. The interval distance between treatments was 5 meters with four bail bags used in each treatment area. Put in place, every bait bag was checked every 7 days. Four consecutive checks were done during the period of experiment, the amount of baits in each bag fed by termites and the rotten degree of the baits estimated. Results Field experiment results indicated that when the bait bags were applied in the mode of AiB3C3, which meant that dry branches of C. camphora were used to enwrap the bait bag, which was buried 2 cm under soil and the plastic membrane and soil were covered on the bait bag, the bait bags fed by termites amounted to more than 75% with no bait bag decay at 4 weeks after application. The bait bags fed by termites was less than 75% with the bait bags having varying degrees of putrefaction when the bait bags were applied in other modes in this experiment. Conclusion The technique for application of bait bags can be optimized by orthogonal experiment. This optimization is expected to greatly decrease the risk of rotting bait bags and significantly enhance the amount of bait bags fed by termites. It is suggested that this new application technique deserve to be promoted for termite control.%目的 解决高温、潮湿地区埋在地下的诱饵在黑翅土白蚁工蚁未发现前就腐烂变质的问题.方法 在重庆市南岸区南山林场的樟树林内,选择4个白蚁危害严重的区域作为试验

  19. Gaseous distension of the urinary bag during CO2 laparoscopy in the usual operative settings:Does the CO2 diffuse into the urinary bladder or is it a sign of urinary tract injury?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kahramanlker; Tuncay Ok; smail Temur; rfettin Hseyinolu; Kemal Kl; Barlas Sl

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare the amounts of any clinically detectable gas passage into the urinary bag in laparoscopic and open surgeries.Methods:Seventy-nine women were allocated into two surgical groups;Group1: carbon dioxide(CO2) laparoscopy(n=37) andGroup2: gasless laparoscopy or laparotomy(n=42).All patients had urinary catheter during the surgeries.After checking the tightness of the connection of the urinary catheter and bag operations were performed.At the end of each surgery the urine volumes were recorded.The bags were immersed into a water containing container with a volume scale.The volume rise of the container was recorded.The valve of the outlet of the bag was turned on under the water and any leakage of air bubbles was observed.The final volume of the container was recorded once again while the bag was still in the water.The two groups were compared by using theStudent’storMannWhitney U tests.Results:We did not observe and hence measure any gas accumulation in the urine bags of both groups.The women’s ages, total intraoperative urine volume, urine production rate and total operative times of the groups were not significantly different.The mean operative time was (82.98±62.14) min in open surgeries and(73.46±52.74) minutes inCO2 laparoscopic surgeries.The difference between the groups was not significant(P=0.468).Conclusions:Any gas accumulation in the urine bag duringCO2 laparoscopic surgery should raise the suspicion of urinary tract injury.Urinary catheterization helps to diagnose the unnoticed bladder injuries.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of 22 volatile organic compounds in cigarette smoke using gas sampling bags for high-throughput solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Maureen M; Chambers, David M; Pazo, Daniel Y; Moliere, Fallon; Blount, Benjamin C; Watson, Clifford H

    2014-07-15

    Quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke is necessary to establish smoke-related exposure estimates and evaluate emerging products and potential reduced-exposure products. In response to this need, we developed an automated, multi-VOC quantification method for machine-generated, mainstream cigarette smoke using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). This method was developed to simultaneously quantify a broad range of smoke VOCs (i.e., carbonyls and volatiles, which historically have been measured by separate assays) for large exposure assessment studies. Our approach collects and maintains vapor-phase smoke in a gas sampling bag, where it is homogenized with isotopically labeled analogue internal standards and sampled using gas-phase SPME. High throughput is achieved by SPME automation using a CTC Analytics platform and custom bag tray. This method has successfully quantified 22 structurally diverse VOCs (e.g., benzene and associated monoaromatics, aldehydes and ketones, furans, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, vinyl chloride, and nitromethane) in the microgram range in mainstream smoke from 1R5F and 3R4F research cigarettes smoked under ISO (Cambridge Filter or FTC) and Intense (Health Canada or Canadian Intense) conditions. Our results are comparable to previous studies with few exceptions. Method accuracy was evaluated with third-party reference samples (≤15% error). Short-term diffusion losses from the gas sampling bag were minimal, with a 10% decrease in absolute response after 24 h. For most analytes, research cigarette inter- and intrarun precisions were ≤20% relative standard deviation (RSD). This method provides an accurate and robust means to quantify VOCs in cigarette smoke spanning a range of yields that is sufficient to characterize smoke exposure estimates.