WorldWideScience

Sample records for bags

  1. Potential bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Tomio, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, relativistic confining potential models, endowed with bag constants associated to volume energy terms, are investigated. In contrast to the usual bag model, these potential bags are distinguished by having smeared bag surfaces. Based on the dynamical assumptions underlying the fuzzy bag model, these bag constants are derived from the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. Explicit expressions for the single-quark energies and for the nucleon bag constant are obtained by means of an improved analytical version of the saddle-point variational method for the Dirac equation with confining power-law potentials of the scalar plus vector (S + V) or pure scalar (S) type

  2. Soumen Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Soumen Bag. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 133-168. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari scripts · Soumen Bag Gaurav Harit · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The past few decades have witnessed an intensive research on ...

  3. Bag facaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Susanne; Sjøstedt, Lotte Ebsen

    Bag facaden er et task-baseret materiale der går bag om danskerne kulturelt og sprogligt. Det henvender sig til spor 3-learnere på de sidste trin, men kan i nogle klasser godt anvendes tidligere. Teksterne i bogen er autentiske dagbogsnotater skrevet af danskere i alle aldre. Den nærværende og...... eller hun er i sin sprogtilegnelse og i sit behov for viden om dansk kultur og samfund. Derudover forbereder det fint learneren til almenprøve 2 og DUF eksamen, både hvad angår indhold og arbejdsformer. I forløb hvor der stiles mod folkeskolens afgangseksamner er Bag facaden relevant som supplerende...

  4. Sourav Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Sourav Bag. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 128 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 339-347 Regular Articles. On the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene Oxide:Does the nature of nitrogen really control the activity towards oxygen ...

  5. Urine drainage bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leg bag ... the catheter from your bladder into the leg bag. Your leg bag will be attached to you all day. You ... freely with it. You can hide your leg bag under skirts, dresses, or pants. They come in ...

  6. Parameters of Fuzzy Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Mesiar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A revised definition for fuzzy bags is reviewed, developing the concept of bags given by Delgado et al. 2009 from which each bag has two parts, function and summary information. Then, the definitions of fuzzy bag expected value, bag entropy and bag similarity are introduced. By some examples, the new concepts are illustrated.

  7. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  8. Dynamical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results

  9. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  10. Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  11. B P Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. B P Bag. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 1-5. Structural and optical characterization of thick and thin polycrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma activated CVD · S K Pradhan B Satpati B P Bag T Sharda.

  12. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  13. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  14. Gravitating lepton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system

  15. The quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Kuti, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quark bag model is reviewed here with particular emphasis on spectroscopic applications and the discussion of exotic objects as baryonium, gluonium, and the quark phase of matter. The physical vacuum is pictured in the model as a two-phase medium. In normal phase of the vacuum, outside hadrons, the propagation of quark and gluon fields is forbidden. When small bubbles in a second phase are created in the medium of the normal phase with a characteristic size of one fermi, the hadron constituent fields may propagate inside the bubbles in normal manner. The bubble (bag) is stabilized against the pressure of the confined hadron constituent fields by vacuum pressure and surface tension. Inside the bag the colored quarks and gluons are governed by the equations of quantum chromodynamics. (Auth.)

  16. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  17. The cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in the bag model, in which the constraints of chiral symmetry are explicitly included are reviewed. The model leads to a new understanding of the Δ-resonance. The connection of the theory with current algebra is clarified and implications of the model for the structure of the nucleon are discussed

  18. Book Bag Buddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  19. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  20. A bag with soft surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il-Tong Cheon.

    1991-02-01

    The MIT bag has a sharply edged surface. It seems to be unnatural. Taking vector mesons into account, we discuss effects of a smooth surface of the bag constructed by superposition of the MIT bags with various radii on the baryon magnetic moments. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    From chapter III to chapter V properties of U(1) monopole are discussed by calculating radiative capture of an electron by a monopole, the scattering cross section of an electron by a dyon, and the bound state properties of the electron-dyon system. The Lipkin-Weisberger-Peshkin difficulty is overcome by an introduction of a small magnetic moment of the electron. In chapter VI, the linear deformation of the Prasad-Sommerfield solution of the t'Hooft Polyakov monopole is discussed, where we found all the deformed solutions analytically. In chapter VII and VIII, the question of a deformed bag and properties of an excited bag are discussed. The excited D-state is mixed with S-state to give the correct value of g/sub A/. Initially, in chapter II, energy ratios for trimuons produced through a heavy-lepton cascade decay are calculated

  2. Bag model with diffuse surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The constraint of a sharp bag boundary in the bag model is relaxed in the present work. This has been achieved by replacing the square-well potential of the bag model by a smooth scalar potential and introducing a term similar to the bag pressure term. The constraint of the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is used to obtain an expression for the added bag pressure term. The model is then used to determine the static properties of the nucleon. The calculation shows that the rms charge radius and the nucleon magnetic moment are larger than the corresponding bag model values. Also, the axial vector coupling constant and the πNN coupling constant are in better agreement with the experimental values

  3. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Goldflam, R.

    1983-09-01

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  4. The Enhanced Speed Bag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    July–August 2015 Army Sustainment46 The enhanced speed bag sys-tem (ESBS) is a cutting-edge piece of equipment. Its pur- pose is to facilitate...reasonable speed (20 knots). The ESBS enables Sol- diers to conduct quick and accurate resupply operations while avoiding enemy small-arms fire and...Afghanistan, from December 2014 to January 2015. ESBS Specifications The ESBS is composed of the The Enhanced Speed Bag System The enhanced speed bag

  5. Bag pigtråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    2015-01-01

    BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider......BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider...

  6. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  8. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r......The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... return problem. In an empirical application using the data set of Campbell and Thompson (2008), we show that we can improve the forecast performance further by smoothing the restriction through bagging....

  9. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  10. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  11. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ bag is a device that is a flexible plastic bag intended to be used as a temporary receptacle for an...

  12. Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.

    1983-08-01

    This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models

  13. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bags. 201.41 Section 201.41 Agriculture Regulations of... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or less, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six bags...

  14. Quark structure of nucleons: the third bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1983-01-01

    The soliton bag model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is discussed. Unlike the other bag models, it treats the confining bag as a fully dynamical object. A scalar soliton field is introduced to effect confinement. The combined quark-soliton system (plus gluons, Higgs fields, counter terms) is described by a Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The standard bag models do not have a complete Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The resulting bag can undergo oscillations, rotations and dynamical distortions

  15. Quark bag coupling to finite size pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kam, J.; Pirner, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A standard approximation in theories of quark bags coupled to a pion field is to treat the pion as an elementary field ignoring its substructure and finite size. A difficulty associated with these treatments in the lack of stability of the quark bag due to the rapid increase of the pion pressure on the bad as the bag size diminishes. We investigate the effects of the finite size of the qanti q pion on the pion quark bag coupling by means of a simple nonlocal pion quark interaction. With this amendment the pion pressure on the bag vanishes if the bag size goes to zero. No stability problems are encountered in this description. Furthermore, for extended pions, no longer a maximum is set to the bag parameter B. Therefore 'little bag' solutions may be found provided that B is large enough. We also discuss the possibility of a second minimum in the bag energy function. (orig.)

  16. The Multifunctional Protein BAG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie D. Myers, MS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The B-cell lymphoma 2–associated anthanogene (BAG3 protein is expressed most prominently in the heart, the skeletal muscle, and in many forms of cancer. In the heart, it serves as a co-chaperone with heat shock proteins in facilitating autophagy; binds to B-cell lymphoma 2, resulting in inhibition of apoptosis; attaches actin to the Z disk, providing structural support for the sarcomere; and links the α-adrenergic receptor with the L-type Ca2+ channel. When BAG3 is overexpressed in cancer cells, it facilitates prosurvival pathways that lead to insensitivity to chemotherapy, metastasis, cell migration, and invasiveness. In contrast, in the heart, mutations in BAG3 have been associated with a variety of phenotypes, including both hypertrophic/restrictive and dilated cardiomyopathy. In murine skeletal muscle and vasculature, a mutation in BAG3 leads to critical limb ischemia after femoral artery ligation. An understanding of the biology of BAG3 is relevant because it may provide a therapeutic target in patients with both cardiac and skeletal muscle disease.

  17. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  18. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the... the body. The device may include a holder that keeps the bag in place against an external area of the...

  20. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  1. Quantization of bag-like solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breit, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The method of collective coordinates is used to quantize bag-like solitons formed by scalar and spinor fields. This method leads to approximate wave functions for quarks in the bag that are orthogonal to the translational modes. Solutions are given for the MIT bag limit of the fields. (orig.)

  2. Massless quark wavefunction in the deformed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.P.; Park, B.Y.; Koh, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    The quark wavefunctions inside the deformed bag are obtained using a modified linear boundary condition stemming from the MIT bag Lagrangian with an additional term. We propose an exact method to obtain the quark wavefunction even for a spheroidally deformed bag. (Author)

  3. Deformable bag model of hadrons, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich

    1983-05-01

    As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable.

  4. A deformable bag model of hadrons, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich

    1983-01-01

    As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable. (author)

  5. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Cierniak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG. The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD. It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE, assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  6. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Mateusz; Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Bastian, Niels-Uwe

    2018-02-01

    A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG). The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag) improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  7. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  8. Analysis of a classical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, H.

    1985-01-01

    The author studies a classical chiral bag model with a Mexican hat-type potential for the self-coupling of the pion fields. He assumes a static spherical bag of radius R, the hedgehog ansatz for the chiral fields and that the quarks are all in the lowest lying s state. The author has considered three classes of models, the cloudy or pantopionic bags, the little or exopionic bags and the endopionic bags, where the pions are allowed all through space, only outside the bag and only inside the bag respectively. In all cases, the quarks are confined in the interior. He calculates the bag radius R, the bag constant B and the total ground state energy R for wide ranges of the two free parameters of the theory, namely the coupling constant λ and the quark frequency omega. The author focuses the study on the endopionic bags, the least known class, and compares the results with the familiar ones of other classes

  9. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  10. A rotating bag model for hadrons. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    The MIT bag model is modified in order to describe rotational motion of hadrons. It has a kind of 'diatomic molecular' structure; The rotational excitation of the MIT bag is described by the polarized two colored sub-bags which are connected with each other by the gluon flux. One sub-bag contains a quark and the other has an antiquark for mesons. For baryons, the latter sub-bag contains the remaining two quarks instead of the antiquark. The Regge trajectories of hadrons are explained qualitatively by our new model with the usual MIT bag parameters. In particular the Regge slopes are reproduced fairly well. It is also pointed out that the gluon flux plays an important role in the rotational motion of hadrons. (author)

  11. Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)

  12. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  13. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  14. Recent status of the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    In this note, recent status of the chiral bag model is presented. As it combines the MIT quark bag model and the Skyrme model, the chiral bag model interpolates the two models smoothly as a function of the chiral bag radius R. The correct limit of R → ∞ is reproduced by including the higher order terms in the Ω expansion of the cranking method. It resolves the so-called small g A problem in a class of models where the semiclassical method is used. (author)

  15. 19 CFR 148.83 - Diplomatic and consular bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diplomatic and consular bags. 148.83 Section 148... bags. (a) Diplomatic bags. The contents of diplomatic bags are restricted to diplomatic documents and articles intended exclusively for official use and packages constituting the diplomatic bag must bear...

  16. Color anomaly in a hybrid bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Rho, M.; Zahed, I.

    1991-01-01

    We show that color can escape from a QCD bag if we allow for a pseudoscalar singlet coupling at the surface, much like the baryon number in chiral bag models. To enforce total confinement of color an additional boundary term is suggested. (orig.)

  17. potential bag filter for volatile organic amines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VADDYPALLY SHIVAIAH

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... be described as a potential bag filter for volatile organic amines. Keywords. Volatile organic amines; hydrogen ..... this bag filter, which can capture volatile amines to form. Figure 8. Thermal ellipsoid plot of ..... huber H, Baumann M and Amann A 2013 Blood and breath levels of selected volatile organic ...

  18. 15 CFR 740.14 - Baggage (BAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage (BAG). 740.14 Section 740.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... Baggage (BAG). (a) Scope. This License Exception authorizes individuals leaving the United States either...

  19. Nuclear matter as an MIT bag crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Derreth, C.; Schaefer, A.; Greiner, W.

    1986-01-01

    An MIT bag crystal model of nuclear matter is formulated. The energy bands of the quarks are calculated as a function of the overlap between adjacent bags. A clear indication of substantial overlap is found. Accordingly, infinite nuclear matter is more similar to a quark gas than to a nucleonic structure. (author)

  20. Bosonization relations as bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Zahed, I.

    1984-10-01

    The more sophisticated bag models of hadrons become, the less precisely they seem to determine the bag radius. Idealizing this situation leads to the concept of exact bag models - ''Cheshire Cat'' models, CCM'S - where the physics is completely insensitive to changes in the bag radius. CCM's are constructed explitly in 1+1-dimensions, where exact bosonization relations are known. In the formalism of bag models, these relations appear as boundary conditions which ensure that the shifting of the bag wall has no physical effect. Other notable features of 1+1-dimensional CCM's are: (i) Fermion number, though classically confined, can escape the bag via a vector current anomaly at the surface. (ii) Essentially the same boundary action works for a variety of models and its symmetries determine those of the external boson fields. Remarkably enough, this 1+1-dimensional boundary action has precisely the same form as the one used in 3+1-dimensional chiral bag models, lending support to the belief that the latter are indeed approximateCCM's. These 1+1-dimensional results are expected to provide useful guidelines in the attempt to, at least approximately, besonize 3+1-dimensional QCD. (orig.)

  1. Material evaluation for bagging of cantaloupe melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pradi Vendruscolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate different materials for field bagging with respect to the physicochemical changes caused in cantaloupe melon fruits. The study was conducted in a protected environment in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. The experiment consisted of five treatments, with bagging of cantaloupe melon fruits with four materials (newspaper, Kraft paper, NWF, and polyethylene and a control treatment without bagging, in a randomized block design with five replications of one plant with a fruit each. Fruits were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. Number of days from bagging to harvest was also recorded and visual aspects of the fruit were observed. The materials as well as the time interval between the bagging and harvest affect physicochemical characteristics such as accumulation of soluble solids and thickness of the green pulp halo and visual aspects of the fruit. This study recommends bagging cantaloupe melons using white non-woven fabric or to not use the technique at all, under the conditions similar to those used in the study. In addition, using polyethylene for the bagging of fruit is not recommended, because this material has a deleterious effect on the characteristics essential for commercialization of melons.

  2. Nuclear surface vibrations in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio, L.

    1984-01-01

    The main difficulties found in the hadron bag models are reviewed from the original version of the MIT bag model. Following, with the aim to answer two of the main difficulties in bag models, viz., the parity and the divergence illness, a dynamical model is presented. In the model, the confinement surface of the quarks (bag) is treated like a real physical object which interacts with the quarks and is exposed to vibrations. The model is applied to the nucleon, being observed that his spectrum, in the first excited levels, can be reproduced with resonable precision and obeying to the correct parity order. In the same way that in a similar work of Brown et al., it is observed to be instrumental the inclusion of the effect due to pions. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) 2015 Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) hardware and software capabilities, including portable electronic devices (PEDs) used as EFBs, as of July 2015. This document updates and replaces the Volpe Centers previous EFB ind...

  4. Electronic flight bag (EFB) : 2010 industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) systems and capabilities, as of June 2010. This document updates and replaces the April 2007 EFB Industry Review (Yeh and Chandra, 2007). As with the previous industry survey, the focu...

  5. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  6. Multi-monopoles and magnetic bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    By analogy with the multi-vortices, we show that also multi-monopoles become magnetic bags in the large n limit. This simplification allows us to compute the spectrum and the profile functions by requiring the minimization of the energy of the bag. We consider in detail the case of the magnetic bag in the limit of vanishing potential and we find that it saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound and there is an infinite set of different shapes of allowed bags. This is consistent with the existence of a moduli space of solutions for the BPS multi-monopoles. We discuss the string theory interpretation of our result and also the relation between the 't Hooft large n limit of certain supersymmetric gauge theories and the large n limit of multi-monopoles. We then consider multi-monopoles in the cosmological context and provide a mechanism that could lead to their production

  7. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to gasoline...

  8. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  9. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2...

  10. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  11. An alternative approach to heavy quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baacke, J.; Kasperidus, G.

    1980-01-01

    We discuss a formulation of quark bags where the quark wave function depends only on the relative coordinate and the bag boundary is fixed with respect to the center of mass of the quark system. For technical reasons we have to restrict ourselves to a heavy quark-antiquark system in an s-wave with spherical boundary. A phenomenological application to quarkonium states encourages further investigation of the approach. (orig.)

  12. Bag-out material handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  13. Bag-out material handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brak, S.B.

    1982-02-26

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  14. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  15. The quark mass and baryon numbers of empty chiral bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Zalewski, K.

    1984-01-01

    We show that for spherical chiral bags the baryon number of the Dirac vacuum inside the bag does not depend on quark masses. Thus, the sum of the baryon numbers of an empty chiral bag and the skyrmion surrounding the bag is an integer, which depends on the boundary condition on the surface of the bag. This extends the result obtained by Goldstone and Jaffe for massless quarks. (orig.)

  16. The Sydney Contained In Bag Morcellation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Joanne B; Kanade, Trupti; Choi, Sarah; Tsai, Brian P; Rosen, David M; Cario, Gregory M; Chou, Danny

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a modification of the Shibley single-port technique suitable for morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy in a contained environment within the abdominal cavity [1]. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using descriptive text and an educational video. In light of recent concern about the use of power morcellators and increasing the risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous myoma fragments throughout the abdominal cavity, we propose this new technique for management of morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy, to contain the morcellation process and minimize the risk. This technique, which we have coined "Sydney Contained in Bag Morcellation" involves introduction of a sterile plastic bag (Dual Drawstring Bag, 460 × 460 mm; Southern Cross Hospital Supplies, Northmead, NSW, Australia) before introducing an optical port and the power morcellator. Before insertion this bag is modified in several ways to facilitate bag opening and specimen retrieval. The dual drawstring is removed and replaced with a 150-cm length of PDS I (polydioxanone) suture material as the new drawstring, with its exit at the mouth of the bag in the 6 o'clock position. Five stay sutures are placed around the bag mouth, corresponding to the 12, 1, 5, 7, and 11 o'clock positions. This assists with opening the mouth of the bag intraabdominally and enables orientation to be maintained. The bag is then inserted in a McCartney tube (Gates Healthcare, Cheshire, UK). Corresponding slits are made in the tip of the tube to enable the end of the stay sutures to be securely held in place during tube insertion. These ends are then retrieved using atraumatic graspers and exteriorized and clipped alongside their corresponding port sites. After hysterectomy the uterus is placed in the bag, and the stay sutures maintain the mouth opening. The bag is closed and its mouth exteriorized onto the abdominal wall at the site

  17. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  18. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  20. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  1. EMC effect and multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of 9q- and 12q bags in niclei the form factors of light nuclei at large momentum transfers and structure functions of deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei are described. It is shown that the existing experimental data can be described in a unified way provided the momentum distribution of quarks in multiquark bags at k 0 has the exponential form PSIsub(q)sup(2)(k) approximately esup(-k/k 0 ) with the parameter k 0 approximately 50-60 MeV. Theoretical results agree well the EMC experimental data on the ratio of the iron and deuteron structure functions with the 20% admixture of 12q-bags in the Fe nucleus

  2. Zero-point energy in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure

  3. The composition of air in sleeping bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, S. D.; Nolan, R. W.; Cottle, W. H.; Cattroll, S. W.

    1988-03-01

    The effects of sleeping with one's head inside a conventional arctic sleeping bag at -20°C on body temperature and on the composition of air breathed were investigated. There was little effect on body temperature and concentrations of O2 and CO2 levelled off at approximately 16% and 4%, respectively. Changes in the composition of the air breathed by persons using a vapour-barrier sleeping bag and an experimental water-vapour-impermeable liner were also monitored. Concentrations of O2 and CO2 of approximately 11% and 6%, respectively, were observed. The possible effects of breathing such air on sleep and thermoregulation are discussed.

  4. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  5. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  6. Bag formation in three-quark chromostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By constructing explicit projection operators for the irreducible SU(n) representations, we demonstrate in the static quark limit, with the renormalization group improved effective Lagrangian, that bag formation occurs in the color singlet channel of the three-quark system. Non-linear but Abelian field equations are derived which, when solved, will allow the determination of an effective potential in this case

  7. Power morcellation in a specimen bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Miller, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    To show a technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon specimen bag. Step-by-step explanation of the technique. The Food and Drug Administration recently warned against the use of electromechanical power morcellation for hysterectomy and myomectomy because of potential tissue dissemination within the abdomen and pelvis. If the tumor is malignant, this technique increases the staging of the patient and may further warrant re-operation and chemotherapy. If the tumor is benign, the patient is at risk for parasitic myomas that may lead to, but are not limited to, pain and/or bowel obstruction. To reduce the preceding risks, we reviewed the techniques of power morcellation within a specimen bag used by other surgeons across the United States. This technique was modified to incorporate a more durable bag made out of rip-stop nylon. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy during power morcellation was performed, along with an introduction to incorporating power morcellation of multiple myomas during a laparoscopic myomectomy. This technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon bag minimizes the risk of inadvertent tissue spread. This allows the patient an opportunity to undergo minimally invasive surgery for hysterectomy and myomectomy. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  9. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water...

  10. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated with...

  11. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...

  12. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  13. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film...

  14. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology and investigates the possible function of the air bags found on the nestlings of Monteiro's Hornbill Tockus monteiri. These air bags increased in size with age and mass of the nestling until 14 d of age, and then decreased in size. By 20 d of age, the air bags were absent. Histological ...

  15. On the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    We give a rederivation, generalization and interpretation of the result of Goldstone and Jaffe on the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model. Our results are based on considering the bag model as a theory of free quarks, massless inside and infinitely massive outside the bag. (orig.)

  16. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating as a charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (iii) Red... charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (iv) Snappers, combined... a charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. In addition, within...

  17. The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  18. Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena

    2016-02-01

    A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Are there multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Scmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are presented favouring the idea that multiquark bags do eXist in nuclei. Such hypothesis makes possible to reveal the relationship among three different scopes of phenomena: deep inelastic scattering of leptons by nUclei, large q 2 (where q 2 is a square of momentum transfer) behaviour of the form factors of light nuclei and yield of cumulative proton.s

  20. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  1. Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise

  2. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  3. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  4. BAG-1 haplo-insufficiency impairs lung tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero Guadalupe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70 that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signaling pathways. Evidence that BAG-1 expression is frequently altered in human cancers, in particular in breast cancer, relative to normal cells has been put forward but the notion that overexpression of BAG-1 contributes to poor prognosis in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We have evaluated the effect of BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice in a model of non-small-cell lung tumorigenesis with histological and molecular methods. We have generated mice heterozygous for BAG-1, carrying a BAG-1 null allele, that in addition express oncogenic, constitutively active C-Raf kinase (SP-C C-Raf BxB in type II pneumocytes. SP-C C-Raf BxB mice develop multifocal adenomas early in adulthood. Results We show that BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice impairs C-Raf oncogene-induced lung adenoma growth. Lung tumor initiation was reduced by half in BAG-1 heterozygous SP-C C-Raf BxB mice compared to their littermates. Tumor area was reduced by 75% in 4 month lungs of BAG-1 haploinsufficient mice compared to mice with two BAG-1 copies. Whereas BAG-1 heterozygosity did not affect the rate of cell proliferation or signaling through the mitogenic cascade in adenoma cells, it increased the rate of apoptosis. Conclusion Reduced BAG-1 expression specifically targets tumor cells to apoptosis and impairs tumorigenesis. Our data implicate BAG-1 as a key player in oncogenic transformation by Raf and identify it as a potential molecular target for cancer treatment.

  5. Role of blood bag temperature indicators in maintaining patent temperature of the returned unused blood bags in blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurasyikin, Y; Leong, C F; Fadhlullah, T M; Hafiz, W M; Nadiah, Z; Atieqah, A N; Ling, T J; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the temperature chain of red blood cells (RBC) returned unused blood bags using blood temperature indicator and ascertain the factors like transportation time, type, size of coolant box and number of bags per box. A total of 250 blood bags with the indicator were observed for the temperature changes with other factors like transportation time, type and size of coolant box and number of bags per box. The recordings were performed at several checkpoints located between the blood bank and the wards. Out of the 250 bags, 74 (29.6%) showed colour changes in which 64 (86.3%) were returned unused (RU) blood bags. The transportation time for these 74 bags was 818.3 ± 941.643 min, significantly higher than bags without colour changes, (p=0.02). Interestingly, 71.4% of the colour changes occurred within the ward. The 7 litre coolant box with an average of 1-5 blood bags per box had a statistically significant higher percentage of colour change with 59.2% compared to the 5 litre coolant box (p=0.05). This study showed that the temperature chain of blood bags was often not well maintained. These results could be mainly due to the non-adherence to the standard operating procedure (SOP) of blood transfusion and the usage of non-standardized coolant boxes.

  6. Properties of the cloudy bag in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the pion mode softening, the pion field of the clody bag in the nuclear matter increases if the nuclear density increases. This causes in its turn the decreasing of the bag size and at a sufficiently large density of the nuclear matter lead to absolute instability of the cloudy bag-nucleon, which means the transition of the nuclear matter in another nonnucleon phase

  7. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toponium Tests Of Top-Quark Higgs Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, Alick L.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that top quarks, or very massive fourth generation quarks, might surround themselves with a Higgs "bag" of deformation of the Higgs expectation value from its vacuum magnitude. In this paper we address the question of whether such nonlinear Higgs-top interaction effects are subject to experimental test. We first note that if top quarks were necessarily accompanied by Higgs "bags", then top quark weak decay would involve the sudden disruption of the Higgs "bag", ...

  9. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  10. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  11. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  12. Radiative decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A new model of radiative π-meson decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model is proposed. The quark-π-meson interaction has the form of a pseudoscalar coupling and is located on the bag surface. The vector meson decay width depends on the quark masses, the π-meson decay constant, the radius of the bag, and the free parameter Z 2 , which specifies the disappearance of the bag during the decay. The obtained results for the omega- and p-decay widths are in satisfactory agreement with the experiment

  13. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin-incorporated (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deltamethrin-incorporated polypropylene (PP) bag, ZeroFly® Storage Bag, is a new technology to reduce postharvest losses caused by stored-product insect pests. ZeroFly bags filled with untreated maize were compared to PP bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl ...

  14. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  15. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control

  16. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of the... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip...

  17. Storage quality and marketability potential of bagged silage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagged sole maize and maize–cowpea silages in three bag sizes were assessed at 42 and 282 d post-ensiling for sensory and chemical quality. A survey of dairy farmers on silage use and preferences was conducted in the Chikwaka communal area and Marirangwe small-scale commercial farming area. Only silage ...

  18. Behaviour of hadron matter within the bag model: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberson, G.; Savatier, F.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum theory of the vibrating bag developed in I, it is worked out the partition function of a gas of hadronic bags. This is done within the small deformation, Van der Waals approximation. The outcome is in full agreement with a previous, less elaborate model of deconfinement phase transition

  19. On the quantisation of one-dimensional bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairley, G.T.; Squires, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    The quantisation of one-dimensional MIT bags by expanding the fields as a sum of classical modes and truncating the series after the first term is discussed. The lowest states of a bag in a world containing two scalar quark fields are obtained. Problems associated with the zero-point oscillations of the field are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Light hadrons in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A version of the bag model with broken chiral symmetry is proposed. A satisfactory description of the experimental data on light hadrons including the pion is obtained. The estimate of the pion-nucleon σ term is given in the framework of this model. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated. The centre-of-mass motion problem in bag models is discussed

  1. Investigating Comfort Temperatures and Heat Transfer in Sleeping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-01-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton's law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers' claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  2. Chiral bag model with constituent quarks: topological and nontopological decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, I.Yu.; Sveshnikov, K.A.; Fedorov, S.M.; Khalili, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The three-phase modification of the hybrid chiral bag containing along with asymptotic freedom and hadronization phases and also intermediate phase of the constituent quarks is considered. The self-consistent solutions of the equations of the model in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case are determined with an account of the fermion vacuum polarization effects. The bag renormalized complete energy is studied as a function of the parameters characterizing the bag geometry and its topological (baryon) charge. It is shown that for nonzero topological charge there exists the whole series of configurations representing the local minima of the bag complete energy and containing all three phases, whereas the bag energy minimum in the nontopological case corresponds to zero dimensions of the area corresponding to asymptotic freedom phase [ru

  3. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r......The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... by smoothing the restriction through bagging....

  4. Vector meson decays in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Jennings, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Vector meson decays are examined in a model where a confined quark and antiquark annihilate, producing a pair of elementary pseudoscalar mesons. Two versions of the pseudoscalar meson-quark interaction are employed, one where the coupling is restricted to the bag surface and one where it extends throughout the bag volume. Energy conservation is ensured in the model through insertion of exponential factors containing the bag energy at each interaction vertex. To guarantee momentum conservation, a wave-packet description is utilized in which the decay widths are normalized by a factor involving the overlap of the initial bag state with the confined qanti q state of zero momentum. With either interaction, the model yields a value for the p-width that exceeds the empirical width by a factor two. For the Ksup(*) and PHI mesons, the computed widths depend strongly on the interaction employed. Implications of these results for chiral bag models are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Modulation of Huntingtin Toxicity by BAG1 is Dependent on an Intact BAG Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Bähr

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington´s disease, one of the so-called poly-glutamine diseases, is a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by formation of cytosolic and nuclear inclusion bodies and progressive neurodegeneration. Recently, we have shown that Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG1, a multifunctional co-chaperone, modulates toxicity, aggregation, degradation and subcellular distribution in vitro and in vivo of the disease-specific mutant huntingtin protein. Aiming at future small molecule-based therapeutical approaches, we further analysed structural demands for these effects employing the C-terminal deletion mutant BAGDC. We show that disruption of the BAG domain known to eliminate intracellular heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 binding and activation also precludes binding of Siah-1 thereby leaving nuclear huntingtin translocation unaffected. At the same time BAGDC fails to induce increased proteasomal huntingtin turnover and does not inhibit intracellular huntingtin aggregation, a pre-requisite necessary for prevention of huntingtin toxicity.

  6. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  7. Non-topological soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs

  8. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  9. Pion and an improved static bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.F.; Johnson, K.

    1980-04-01

    Quark-model calculations involve an extended static object localized in space. We introduce new methods, involving momentum-space wave packets, which account for this localization. These methods have little effect on heavy states, whose sizes are large compared to their Compton size 1/m, but are very important for light particles such as the pion. In this treatment the pion's mass is naturally very small, and, in order to connect with a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, we require that m/sub ..pi../ vanish when the light quarks are massless. Expanding about this limit (and also readjusting the fit to other hadrons), we obtain m/sub q/=(m-italic/sub u/+m/sub d/)/2=33 MeV. We calculate F/sub ..pi../ approx. = 145 MeV (using a normalization such that F/sub ..pi../ vertical-bar /sub exp/=93 MeV), F/sub K//F/sub ..pi../ approx. = 1, and various corrections to static properties of baryons. In addition we explore the relationship of our methods with chiral perturbation theory, deriving the formula m/sub ..pi../ /sup 2/=(m-italic/sub u/+m/sub d/) < ..pi..(p) vertical-bar q-bar(0)q(0) vertical-bar ..pi..(p) > in the appropriate approximation and commenting on the quark mass obtained from the nucleon's sigma term. Finally we discuss the bag model's use of the scalar density q-barq as an order parameter describing the separation of the spontaneously broken vacuum phase from the perturbative vacuum of the bag's interior.

  10. What do middle school children bring in their bag lunches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F; Pelletier, Robin L; Powers, Holly S; Marshall, Simon J; Zive, Michelle M; Elder, John P

    2002-04-01

    Limited documentation exists on nutritional characteristics of bag lunches, although about 30% of adolescents take them. This study describes: (a) the prevalence of different types of foods in bag lunches, (b) the number of kilocalories, percentage of kilocalories from fat, amount of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sugar, and (c) the differences related to gender and grade. In 24 middle schools, observations were made on 1,381 bag lunches (about 58 per school) during one semester. The most common bag lunch components were beverages and sandwiches. Fruits were more common than vegetables; non-chip snacks and chips were more common than cookies, candy, and cakes/pies. Bag lunches averaged 596.2 kcal (29.7% from fat), 20.8 g of total fat, 6.2 g of saturated fat, 32.6 mg of cholesterol, and 21.3 g of sugar. Boys' bag lunches had significantly more kilocalories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and percentage of energy from fat than girls' lunches. Significant grade differences were found only for total fat and cholesterol, with seventh graders bringing more than sixth graders. More research on the nutritional quality of foods brought to school in bag lunches is important for gaining a better understanding about how to improve students' nutrition. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. Bogota Bag in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome at Kathmandu Model Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bijendra Dhoj; Koirala, Udaya; Upadhyaya, Amit M; Joshi, Arbin; Dhital, Saroj

    2017-09-08

    The gold standard of quick and definitive treatment of Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is surgical decompression by opening the abdomen and leaving it open until intra-abdominal pressure decreases. Temporary abdominal closure techniques are used to postpone definite closure until predisposing factors causing pathologic elevation of intra-abdominal pressure are resolved.This study aim to analyze feasibility of Bogota Bag placement as a way of temporary abdominal closure. Cases admitted in the period of eight years that were diagnosed to have or at risk to develop ACS and managed with 'Bogota Bag', irrespective of primary diagnosis were reviewed retrospectively. Cause of ACS, reasons to place Bogota bag, its complications and final outcome in terms of mortality related or not related with Bogota Bag placement were assessed. Total of ten patients had placement of Bogota Bag in the period of eight years. Laparotomy for bowel perforation with peritonitis was the most common primary condition contributing to ACS. Bogota bag was placed in two cases after emergency decompression as a therapeutic measure whereas others were done as prophylactic measure. There were two mortalities (20%) which were not directly related to abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdomen closure with Bogota Bag for patients with ACS or likely to develop ACS is a feasible technique with minimal procedure related morbidities.

  12. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  13. PICS bags safely store unshelled and shelled groundnuts in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baributsa, D; Baoua, I B; Bakoye, O N; Amadou, L; Murdock, L L

    2017-05-01

    We conducted an experiment in Niger to evaluate the performance of hermetic triple layer (Purdue Improved Crop Storage- PICS) bags for the preservation of shelled and unshelled groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. Naturally-infested groundnut was stored in PICS bags and woven bags for 6.7 months. After storage, the average oxygen level in the PICS bags fell from 21% to 18% (v/v) and 21%-15% (v/v) for unshelled and shelled groundnut, respectively. Identified pests present in the stored groundnuts were Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). After 6.7 months of storage, in the woven bag, there was a large increase in the pest population accompanied by a weight loss of 8.2% for unshelled groundnuts and 28.7% for shelled groundnut. In PICS bags for both shelled and unshelled groundnuts, by contrast, the density of insect pests did not increase, there was no weight loss, and the germination rate was the same compared to that recorded at the beginning of the experiment. Storing shelled groundnuts in PICS bags is the most cost-effective way as it increases the quantity of grain stored.

  14. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy

  15. Connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, M.; Bertrand, P.; Feix, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    The connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models is still under consideration with numerical experiments. For long wavelength, slightly non linear excitations and initial preparations such as the usual adiabatic invariant Pn -3 is space independent, the hydrodynamic model is equivalent to the water bag, and for long wavelengths a nice agreement is found with the full numerical solution of the Vlasov equation. For other initial conditions when the water bag cannot be defined, the hydrodynamic approach does not represent the correct behaviour. (author)

  16. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Wirzba, A.

    1987-05-01

    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  17. Kluster Bag of Word Menggunakan Weka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tari Mardiana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bidang pengolahan bahasa alami dan sistem temu balik informasi, representasi sebuah data teks sangat penting untuk mendukung proses analisis data statistik di dalamnya. Data teks dengan bentuk tidak terstruktur dapat direpresentasikan secara sederhana menggunakan sekumpulan set kata yang disebut bag-of-words dan belum memiliki label atau kelas tertentu. Data unsupervised atau objek-objek yang belum memiliki label dapat dikelompokan menggunakan klustering berdasarkan kemiripan satu objek dengan objek lain. Artikel ini membahas perbandingan hasil pengelompokan unsupervised data menggunakan algoritma kluster yang tersedia pada tools Weka, yaitu SimpleKMeans, X-Means, dan Farthest First. SimpleKMeans dan XMeans digunakan untuk mengolah dataset dan mengelompokan berdasarkan jumlah kluster tetap yang digunakan, sedangkan Farthest First akan meletakan semua pusat kluster pada titik terjauh dari pusat kluster yang sudah ada untuk mengelompokan data. Dataset berasal dari UCI machine learning dengan menggunakan 3 koleksi data, yaitu Enron Email, NIPS Proceedings, dan Daily Kos Blog entries. Performa dataset diuji dengan berbagai masukan parameter yang berbeda meliputi jumlah kluster hingga evaluasi sum squared error (SSE, serta iterasi selama proses pengolahan data. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat dijadikan acuan untuk menentukan algoritma dan parameter yang sesuai untuk melakukan pengelompokan data yang tidak memiliki label.

  18. Bag-like contaminant control work module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.; Jacobson, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A bag-like contaminant control work module is formed from a flexible impervious membrane which is inflated inside of an enclosed workspace to protect workers in the module from contaminants. The workspace, such as in a nuclear power steam generator, has a portal or manway opening into the workspace into which the module is secured by a module passageway. The module includes one or more glove boxes, in which the workers perform their assigned tasks after passing through the passageway and portal. The module includes one or more absolute filters allowing passage of air flow through the module passageway and into the workspace only through the filters. The module may include an auxiliary passageway secured to the outside of the module passageway and also secured in the portal opening and through which items can be passed back and forth to the worker in the glove box from outside the portal. The module is invertible so that it can be pulled out of the workspace trapping all the contaminants therein and disposed of without handling the contaminants

  19. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may transport...

  20. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  1. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.J.; Maslow, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)

  2. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The process known as double bag vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (DBVARTM) was developed by NASA to help deplete by products. To date, the NASA DBVARTM process...

  3. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape......A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape....

  4. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000 system.

  5. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  6. Use of pliable bags in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, G.; Jacquet, M.A.; Sharif, A.; Engler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Pliable plastic bags have been used to replace glass or plastic vials for liquid scintillation counting. The two major advantages of this method are the lower cost of the plastic bags and the fact that, per sample, the radioactive waste is significantly reduced. The following parameters have been checked: the impermeability of the bags to various scintillator mixtures and the fact that neither the irregular shape of the bags nor their position in the counting chamber had any effect on the results of the counting. The latter was also constant with time, at least over a period of 10 days. The technique has been used to count the radioactivity of 3 H-DNA precipitates prepared from bacteria and lymphocytes and deposited on filters impregnated with only 200 μl scintillator. It is a method that can be applied to the counting of any samples deposited on filters and insoluble in scintillator. (author)

  7. Off-gas filtration and releases: bag filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, D.M.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    During high-temperature incineration of radioactive waste, some metal oxides are volatilized and carried out with the off-gases. During cooling those oxides react with acidic components generated by the combustion of the fuel oil or of the waste itself. This results in a submicronic crystalline dust in which cesium isotopes are concentrated. Bag filters have been selected at S.C.K./C.E.N. to carry out the first step of dust separation. Two baghouses equipped with Teflon bags with a total filtering area of 100 m 2 have been installed. The bags are cleaned on line by compressed air backflow. The residual dust content is below 3 mg/m 3 , which is sufficiently low to be removed by HEPA filters. The baghouses were put into operation in October 1981 and since then have been on line for about 3000 hours. Some bags had to be replaced after a fire in mid-1983. (orig.)

  8. Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Tmurbagan; Liu Guangzhou; Zhu Mingfeng

    2009-01-01

    The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(ρ) decreases with baryon density ρ; this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever; which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii. (authors)

  9. The effects of four agrobotanical extracts and three types of bags on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Shaki area of Oyo State, Nigeria and treated with extracts from Azadiractha indica (neem) leaf, Xylopia aethiopica(uda) pod, Occimum graticimum (nche anwu) leaf and Zingiber officinale (ginger) stem tuber. The storage bags were 0.05mm gauge polythene bags, 0.05mm gauge polythene-lined-jute bags and jute bags.

  10. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. The notice did not include the... bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of...

  11. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From... Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags...

  12. C-Bag Consolidation: An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    AND SAFETY STOCK ANALYSIS GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...i.e. pilots, firefighters) was excluded from this research. Any items found in both the A-bag and C-bag (helmet, web belt, canteen , etc.) were also...M8 detector paper booklet, M9 detector paper roll, M258A1 or M291 decontamination kit, M295 decontamination kit, a web belt, canteen , M1 canteen

  13. BoR: Bag-of-Relations for Symbol Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent; Lamiroy , Bart

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we address a new scheme for symbol retrieval based on bag-of-relations (BoRs) which are computed between extracted visual primitives (e.g. circle and corner). Our features consist of pairwise spatial relations from all possible combinations of individual visual primitives. The key characteristic of the overall process is to use topological relation information indexed in bags-of-relations and use this for recognition. As a consequence, directional relati...

  14. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a po...

  15. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  16. Comment on bag models with spontaneously broken color symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A recently suggested field-theoretic bag model, where gluons are confined via a Higgs mechanism, is discussed. It is found that the proposed model creates gluon boundary conditions that break global SU/sub c/(3) invariance. A modified scheme that removes this anomaly is suggested. However, some severe generic problems remain. Examples are the lack of a suppression mechanism for states with open color and the large surface energy of the bag states

  17. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  18. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  19. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  1. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  2. Extended Stability of Epinephrine Hydrochloride Injection in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags Stored in Amber Ultraviolet Light-Blocking Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Edward T; Ho, Kang C; Lyda, Clark; Fullmer, Beth A; Oldland, Alan R; Kiser, Tyree H

    2017-09-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of epinephrine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags for up to 60 days. Methods: Dilutions of epinephrine hydrochloride to concentrations of 16 and 64 µg/mL were performed under aseptic conditions. The bags were then placed into ultraviolet light-blocking bags and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) or under refrigeration (3°C-5°C). Three samples of each preparation and storage environment were analyzed on days 0, 30, 45, and 60. Physical stability was performed by visual examination. The pH was assessed at baseline and upon final degradation evaluation. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of epinephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To determine the stability-indicating nature of the assay, degradation 12 months following preparation was evaluated. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Results: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. At days 30 and 45, all bags had less than 10% degradation. At day 60, all refrigerated bags had less than 10% degradation. Overall, the mean concentration of all measurements demonstrated less than 10% degradation at 60 days at room temperature and under refrigeration. Conclusion: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride bags stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was stable up to 45 days at room temperature and up to 60 days under refrigeration.

  3. A validation study of new cryopreservation bags for implementation in a blood and marrow transplant laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Gregory J; Wilson, Emily; Isom, Scott; Hurd, David D

    2011-06-01

    A new cryopreservation bag for hematopoietic cell transplantation requires validation as a safe alternative to the bag currently being used in the laboratory. The new bag was validated using both laboratory and clinical criteria. Laboratory validation proceeded using paired samples of mononuclear cells processed using standard procedures. Cells cryopreserved in the new and old bags were compared for viability, cell counts, CD34 enumeration, colony-forming unit assays, and bag integrity. After completion of laboratory investigations, engraftment with the new bags was followed and compared to historical engraftment using the old bags. There were no significant differences between the old and new bags detected using laboratory studies. Bag integrity was equivalent. The validation data suggested impaired cell function after cryopreservation in the new bags, but there were no significant differences in engraftment potential using either material. Days to engraftment was longer using the new bags, but statistical analysis revealed an association with CD34 dose and not with cryopreservation bag type. The new bags were noninferior to the old bags. A change in cryopreservation bag type may appear to affect cell function and potentially affect engraftment. Multiple analyses may be needed to understand the effect of cell processing changes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Burns From Hot Wheat Bags: A Public Safety Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Amprayil, Mathew; Solanki, Nicholas S.; Greenwood, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Wheat bags are therapeutic devices that are heated in microwaves and commonly used to provide relief from muscle and joint pain. The Royal Adelaide Hospital Burns Unit has observed a number of patients with significant burn injuries resulting from their use. Despite their dangers, the products come with limited safety information. Methods: Data were collected from the Burns Unit database for all patients admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags from 2004 to 2009. This was analyzed to determine the severity of the burn injury and identify any predisposing factors. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperature of wheat bags when heated to determine their potential for causing thermal injury. Results: 11 patients were admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags. The median age was 52 years and the mean total body surface area was 1.1%. All burns were either deep dermal (45.5%) or full thickness (54.5%). Ten patients required operative management. Predisposing factors (eg, neuropathy) to thermal injury were identified in 7 patients. The experimental study showed that hot wheat bags reached temperatures of 57.3°C (135.1°F) when heated according to instructions, 63.3°C (145.9°F) in a 1000 W microwave and 69.6°C (157.3°F) on reheating. Conclusions: Hot wheat bags cause serious burn injury. When heated improperly, they can reach temperatures high enough to cause epidermal necrosis in a short period of time. Patients with impaired temperature sensation are particularly at risk. There should be greater public awareness of the dangers of wheat bag use and more specific safety warnings on the products. PMID:21915357

  5. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  6. Improved bag models of P-wave baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Wong Chunwa

    1988-01-01

    Problems in two previous bag-model calculations of P-wave baryon states are pointed out. The two-body matrix elements used in one of these models, the Myhrer-Wroldsen bag model, have now been revised and corrected by Myhrer, Umino and Wroldsen. We use their corrected matrix elements to construct simple bag models in which baryon masses are stabilized against collapse by using a finite pion size. We find that baryon masses in both ground and excited states can be fitted with the same model parameters. Models with small-bag baryons of the type proposed by Brown and Rho are then obtained. Typical bag radii are 0.5 fm for N, 0.6 fm for Δ and 0.7 fm for P-wave nonstrange baryons. In these models, the mixing angles are still unsatisfactory, while inadequacy in the treatment of center-of-mass motion found in an earlier paper persists. These results are briefly discussed. especially in connection with skyrmion models. (orig.)

  7. Maximum Mass of Hybrid Stars in the Quark Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdyan, G. B.; Vartanyan, Yu. L.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of model parameters in the equation of state for quark matter on the magnitude of the maximum mass of hybrid stars is examined. Quark matter is described in terms of the extended MIT bag model including corrections for one-gluon exchange. For nucleon matter in the range of densities corresponding to the phase transition, a relativistic equation of state is used that is calculated with two-particle correlations taken into account based on using the Bonn meson-exchange potential. The Maxwell construction is used to calculate the characteristics of the first order phase transition and it is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the baryon concentrations of the coexisting phases grow monotonically as the bag constant B increases. It is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the maximum mass of a hybrid star increases as the bag constant B decreases. For a given value of the bag parameter B, the maximum mass rises as the strong interaction constant αs increases. It is shown that the configurations of hybrid stars with maximum masses equal to or exceeding the mass of the currently known most massive pulsar are possible for values of the strong interaction constant αs > 0.6 and sufficiently low values of the bag constant.

  8. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Sensorineural Hearing Loss due to Air Bag Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ohki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of the air bag in a passenger vehicle accident rarely causes otologic injuries. However, sensorineural hearing loss induced by air bag deployment is extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the English literature. A 38-year-old man involved in a traffic accident while driving his car at 40 km/hour presented with right sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus, without associated vertigo. Pure-tone audiometry demonstrated elevated thresholds of 30 dB and 25 dB at 4 kHz and 8 kHz, respectively, on the right side. Air bag deployment in car accidents is associated with the risk of development of sensorineural hearing loss.

  10. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  11. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  12. Pioneras del punk: el caso de Alice Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya Alonso Alconada; Ángel Chaparro Sainz

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a la música chicana Alice Bag como una de las figuras influyentes en la temprana escena punk de Los Ángeles, California, quien ayudó a abrir el camino a una afluencia mayor de mujeres en la música punk, poniendo así algunos temas feministas en primera línea. De este modo, trataremos de ampliar el ámbito de estudio del punk. Tanto su autobiografía Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011) y su casi recién estrenado LP Alice Bag (2016)...

  13. Punk Pioneers : Chicana Alice Bag as a Case in Point

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Alconada, Soraya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present Chicana punk musician Alice Bag as one of the main female figures who exerted a great influence on the early punk scene of Los Angeles, California, and thus helped to pave the way for a wider influx of female musicians within punk and to put some feminist issues at the forefront. By doing so, we will try to broaden the social and cultural understanding of punk music. Both Bag's autobiography Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011) and her last L...

  14. Pion-nucleon scattering in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Pion-nucleon scattering in the (3.3) resonance region in the framework of chiral bag model(CBM) is considered. The effective Hamiltonian of πNΔ-system in the framework of the CBM contains πNN, πNΔ, πΔΔ interaction terms with the formfactor which is essentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The iteration of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3.3) and (3.1) scattering where the values of the parameters agree with CBM [ru

  15. Pion-nucleon scattering in the Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effective hamiltonian of the πNΔ-system in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model (CBM) contains πNN-, πNΔ-, πΔΔ-interaction terms with a form factor which is esstentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The interation of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3,3) and (3,1) phase shifts [in the (3,3) resonance region] where the values of the paramters agree with the CBM. (orig.)

  16. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  17. WW domain of BAG3 is required for the induction of autophagy in glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabova, Nana; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Saribas, A Sami; Knezevic, Tijana; Gordon, Jennifer; Weaver, Michael; Landry, Jacques; Khalili, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co-chaperone family of proteins that associate with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of environmental changes that cause stress to cells. Our results show that BAG3 overexpression induces autophagy in glioma cells. Interestingly, inhibition of the proteasome caused an increase in BAG3 levels and induced autophagy. Further analysis using specific siRNA against BAG3 suggests that autophagic activation due to proteosomal inhibition is mediated by BAG3. Analyses of BAG3 domain mutants suggest that the WW domain of BAG3 is crucial for the induction of autophagy. BAG3 overexpression also increased the interaction between Bcl2 and Beclin-1, instead of disrupting them, suggesting that BAG3 induced autophagy is Beclin-1 independent. These observations reveal a novel role for the WW domain of BAG3 in the regulation of autophagy. PMID:25204229

  18. Performance of PICS bags under extreme conditions in the sahel zone of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoua, Ibrahim B; Bakoye, Ousmane; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-03-01

    Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4.5 months of storage compared to the initial values. By contrast, woven bags stored inside or outside side by side with PICS bags showed several-fold increases in insects present in or on the grain and significant losses in grain weight. Grain stored inside in PICS bags showed no reduction in germination versus the initial value but there was a small but significant drop in germination of grain in PICS bags held outside (7.6%). Germination rates dropped substantially more in grain stored in woven bags inside (16.1%) and still more in woven bags stored outside (60%). PICS bags held inside and outside retained their ability to maintain internal reduced levels of oxygen and elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions degraded the external polypropylene outer layer of the PICS triple-layer bag. Even so, the internal layers of polyethylene were more slowly degraded. The effects of exposure to sunlight, temperature and humidity variation within the sealed bags are described.

  19. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  20. EXPLORING THE EFFECT OF BAG-OF-WORDS AND BAG-OF-BIGRAM FEATURES ON TURKISH WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION

    OpenAIRE

    İLGEN, Bahar; ADALI, Eşref

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection in Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is as important as the selection of algorithm to remove sense ambiguity. Bag-of-word (BoW) features comprise the information of neighbors around the ambiguous target word without considering any relation between words. In this study, we investigate the effect of BoW features and Bag-of-bigrams (BoB) on Turkish WSD and compare the results with the collocational features. The results suggest that BoW features yield better accuracy for all the...

  1. 76 FR 30102 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners. As a result of changes to the Harmonized Tariff... individual examination. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, et al.: Final Results of Antidumping...

  2. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010... 25685

  3. The hydrodynamics of air-filled bags for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greaves, Deborah; Hann, Martyn; Kurniawan, Adi

    air-filled bag to capture energy from the waves and three different configurations are compared. In each of the three device configurations, expansion and contraction of the bag in waves create a reciprocating air flow via a turbine between the bag and another volume. The bags are all in the form...... of a fabric encased within an array of longitudinal tendons. In the first configuration, the bag is floating and ballasted such that it pierces the free surface. In the second configuration, the bag is completely submerged and connected at its top to a rigid float and at its bottom to a weight. In the third...... configuration, the bag is fixed at its bottom and free at the top. A series of tests at approximately 1:20 scale in the laboratory was conducted to investigate the static behaviour of the bags in still water and their dynamic response in waves. Numerical models are developed for each configuration...

  4. Dynamics of cesium-134 and biomass in treated and untreated turkey oak leaf-litter bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, J.M.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Litter bags were prepared from leaves harvested in late fall from turkey oak trees (Quercus laevis) tagged with 134 Cs. Untreated bags and bags treated by soaking in 1000 ppM HgCl 2 were placed in the field on Dec. 7, 1974. Five bags of each treatment were retrieved at 7-, 14-, and 30-day intervals as the experiment progressed. Treated bags remained free of visible fungal hyphae growth for 12 weeks. Untreated bags had lost more weight but less 134 Cs than treated bags after 14 and 56 days, respectively. After 9 months, untreated bags had lost 33% weight and 90% 134 Cs. Although 134 Cs is rapidly leached from litter (ecological half-life approximately equal to 12 weeks), some is retained by fungal hyphae on leaf-litter surfaces. This mechanism of mineral retention in the litter layer could represent adaptation at the ecosystem level for nutrient conservation

  5. Nonlinear cloudy bag model in the meson mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the cloudy bag model for the nucleon, including the essentially nonlinear interaction of the quarks with the meson field. From the boundary conditions, which guarantee the stability of the bag, we obtain equations for the size R of the bag, for the momentum p of the quarks, and for the mean pion field var-phi. We obtain an expression for the total energy E of the bag nucleon. By taking the appropriate averages of all the relations the calculations reduce to the case of a spherically symmetric bag. We show that in the general nonlinear cloudy bag model in question the equations for R, p, and var-phi have a simultaneous solution which corresponds to the absolute minimum of the bag energy E and, consequently, that there exists a stable equilibrium state of the bag nucleon

  6. Preliminary evaluation of advanced air bag field performance using event data recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-31

    This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the field performance of occupant restraint systems designed with advanced air bag features including those specified in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 for advanced air bags, throug...

  7. Bagged K-means clustering of metabolome data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J. A.; van den Berg, R. A.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering of metabolomics data can be hampered by noise originating from biological variation, physical sampling error and analytical error. Using data analysis methods which are not specially suited for dealing with noisy data will yield sub optimal solutions. Bootstrap aggregating (bagging) is a

  8. Instant Bag-of-Words served on a laptop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.; de Rooij, O.; Odijk, D.; Smeulders, A.; Worring, M.; De Natale, F.G.B.; Del Bimbo, A.

    2011-01-01

    This demo showcases our realtime implementation of concept classification using the Bag-of-Words method embedded within MediaTable, our interactive categorization tool for large multimedia collections. MediaTable allows the users to open images from disk or download these directly from the internet.

  9. Occurrence and recalcitrance of polyethylene bag waste in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recycling of used pure water sachets which yielded useful products such as water seal, polyethylene bags and jerry can covers, appears to be the only option of checking environmental pollution caused by this product as microbial degradation proved ineffective. Key words: Biodegradation, polyethylene, waste, recycling, ...

  10. Gyro-water-bag approach in nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (MHD, gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge computer resource request. An unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically-confined plasmas. The present paper addresses the derivation of the nonlinear gyro-water-bag model, its quasilinear approximation and their numerical approximations by Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes respectively.

  11. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  12. Real-time detection of abandoned bags using CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidyakin, S. V.; Vishnyakov, B. V.

    2017-06-01

    The problem of automatic abandoned bag detection is of the great importance for ensuring security in the public areas. At the same time emergency situations occur rarely in the large-scale video surveillance systems. Therefore it is important to keep false alarms low maintaining high accuracy of detection. The approach that satisfies mentioned requirements for abandoned bag detection in complex environments is proposed. It consists of two blocks. The first block does the preliminary detection of abandoned bags on pixel level by background modelling via Gaussian mixture model. It ensures high speed and precise positioning of the bounding boxes on the objects of interest. The second part performs the bag recognition on a region level via a compact convolutional neural network. Using of the convolutional neural network is a key component to success. All processing happens on a central processing unit. The proposed approach is suitable for systems (microcomputers), which do not have powerful graphical subsystems. The experiments have been conducted on the real-world scenes. Obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is efficient and provides acceptable quality characteristics.

  13. A bagging approach to network intrusion detection | Adetunmbi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presences of these flaws make a secured system a mirage for now, hence the need for intrusion detection system. In this paper, an ensemble approach – Bagging was used on five different machine learning techniques to improve accuracy of classifiers. Machine learning seeks for methods of extracting hidden pattern ...

  14. MIT bag model and the spin structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Afsar (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1989-07-01

    The expressions for the total probabilities of the u and d quarks to have spins parallel or antiparallel to the spin of the parent proton are obtained in the MIT bag model. These are then used to study the spin structure of the nucleon. (author).

  15. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  16. Bag facaden : subjektive og symbolske dynamikker i institutionelle moderniseringsprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    Moderniseringens tale har mange toner. Der høres mange stemmer og ses mange aktører på `moderniseringsarenaen'. Afhandlingen Bag facaden handler om moderniseringen af den offentlige sektor. Eller mere præcist socialpædagogiske institutioner i den sociale sektor. Afhandlingen giver stemmer til...

  17. The neutron electric dipole moment in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Miller, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM), using the cloudy bag model (CBM) shows that two CP-violating effects (a quark mass term and a pion-quark interaction) have contributions that are about equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign. This cancellation allows the upper limit on the θ parameter to increase by about an order of magnitude. (orig.)

  18. Clinical efficacy of a tea-bag formulation of Cryptolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a tea bag formulation of the root of C. sanguinolenta. Design: This is a prospective descriptive open trial. Setting: Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu, Mamprobi and Dansoman Polyclinics. Subjects: Forty-four subjects with uncomplicated malaria were recruited for ...

  19. Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and disposal in Africa. S Rayne. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  20. Market Efficiency of Hessian Cloth and Sacking Bags' Transferable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market Efficiency of Hessian Cloth and Sacking Bags' Transferable Specific Delivery Contract transactions in a Regional Commodity Exchange in West Bengal, India. ... KCA Journal of Business Management ... The price stabilization function of the commodity futures market is conditioned upon the efficiency of the market.

  1. Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollination bags for making controlled crosses between switchgrass plants were made from a polyester micro-mesh fabric with a mesh size of 41 µm which is smaller than the mean reported 43 µm diameter of switchgrass pollen. When used in paired plant crosses between switchgrass plants, the mean amoun...

  2. Review of safety reports involving electronic flight bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) are a relatively new device used by pilots. Even so, 37 safety-related events involving EFBs were identified from the public online Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database as of June 2008. In addition, two accid...

  3. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Case Report | Gandhi | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon phenomenon reported mostly in chronically constipated, institutionalized females on an indwelling catheter. It can often cause tremendous distress among health care providers. Though the condition is generally described as benign, it should draw immediate attention to ...

  4. The Effectiveness of a Collector Bag for Measurement of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of collector bag and its correlation with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) variations. This study, carried on 100 women referred for admission to labor ward of Shohada hospital in Orumeyeh City, Iran, ...

  5. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  6. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand would be likely... Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review). By...

  7. Method of reusably sealing a silicone rubber vacuum bag to a mold for composite manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, John (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A silicone rubber vacuum bag for use in composite article manufacture is reusably sealed to a mold, without mechanical clamping means. The mold-mating portion of the bag is primed with a silicone rubber adhesive, which is cured thereto, and a layer of semiadhesive sealer is applied between the primed mold-mating portion of the bag and the mold.

  8. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...

  9. 77 FR 69927 - Safety Advisory Notice: Safety Advisory for Shippers and Carriers of Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Air Bags AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Safety... (NHTSA) that counterfeit air bags have been sold as replacement parts to consumers and repair... transportation risks when compared to air bags manufactured through legitimate means. Therefore, PHMSA is issuing...

  10. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for... August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual...

  11. 78 FR 65426 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating certified-advanced air bags. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags. DATES: Comments must be received...

  12. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  13. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... Department is issuing a countervailing duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the.... See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3730 - Piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins as components of bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bags. 178.3730 Section 178.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... pyrethrins as components of bags. Piperonyl butoxide in combination with pyrethrins may be safely used for insect control on bags that are intended for use in contact with dried feed in compliance with §§ 561.310...

  15. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004). On August 1, 2011...

  16. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import..., the Department of Commerce (the Department) published Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand... 351.224(c) from the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members, Hilex Poly...

  17. 78 FR 76280 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the... determines that imports of unfinished polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9...

  18. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY... producers and exporters of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... September 4, 2009. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

  19. 75 FR 34699 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part AGENCY: Import... of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from... Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members, Hilex Poly Co., LLC, and Superbag...

  20. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value... Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  1. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122- 34124 (June 18... Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The period of review (POR...

  2. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 14569... Value, 75 FR 16431 (April 1, 2010), and Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of... Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist Republic...

  3. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ...., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value... Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The review covers five...

  4. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The... Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. We gave interested parties an...

  5. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-leptonic hyperon decays and the chiral meson coupling to bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, D.; Tadic, D.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperon nonleptonic decays have been analyzed using a chiral-bag model instead of the MIT-bag model which was used in earlier analyses. The adopted theoretical formalism allows a step by step comparison between the new and the old approaches. The results are in agreement with the calculation which has used chiral model in its cloudy-bag variant. Chiral-bag model based theoretical predictions are not significantly different from the old MIT-bag model based results. Theory can account for overall gross features of the hyperon nonleptonic decays but not for the fine details like the exact, almost vanishing, value of the A(Σsub(+) + ) amplitude. (orig.)

  7. Dimerization Products of Chloroprene are Background Contaminants Emitted from ALTEF (Polyvinylidene Difluoride) Gas Sampling Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Martin, Jennifer A; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2017-01-01

    Gas sampling bags have been used for collecting air samples. Tedlar bags are most commonly used, but bleed background chemicals such as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol. It is often necessary to remove the contaminant by flushing the bags with pure nitrogen or air. In this study, we identified four chloroprene dimerization products as background contaminants emitted from ALTEF bags that are made of a proprietary polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). No monomer chloroprene was detected in the bags analyzed. All of the dimers gradually increased once bags were filled with nitrogen due to diffusion from the bag surface. Flushing the bags with nitrogen reduced their concentrations, but was not effective for removing the contaminants. When the bags that had been flushed with nitrogen 5 times were left for 24 h, they increased again, indicating that the dimers were constantly emitted from the ALTEF bag surface. To our knowledge, these compounds have never been demonstrated in ALTEF or other PVDF bags. Our finding indicates that ALTEF might be incorporated with Neoprene (chloroprene-based polymer) during its manufacturing process.

  8. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  9. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  10. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  11. Comparison of cryopreservation bags for hematopoietic progenitor cells using a WBC-enriched product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Hazelaar, Sandra; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Weggemans, Margienus; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) are stored in cryopreservation bags that are resistant to liquid nitrogen. Since Cryocyte bags of Baxter (B-bags) are no longer available, an alternative bag was sought. Also, the influence of freezing volume was studied. Miltenyi Biotec (MB)- and MacoPharma (MP)-bags passed the integrity tests without failure. Comparing MB- and MP-bags with B-bags, no difference in WBC recovery or viability was found when using a WBC-enriched product as a "dummy" HPC product. Further, a freezing volume of 30 mL resulted in better WBC recovery and viability than 60 mL. Additonal studies using real HPC might be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  13. Pioneras del punk: el caso de Alice Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Alonso Alconada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a la música chicana Alice Bag como una de las figuras influyentes en la temprana escena punk de Los Ángeles, California, quien ayudó a abrir el camino a una afluencia mayor de mujeres en la música punk, poniendo así algunos temas feministas en primera línea. De este modo, trataremos de ampliar el ámbito de estudio del punk. Tanto su autobiografía Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011 y su casi recién estrenado LP Alice Bag (2016 abarcan temas relacionados con la condición de las mujeres chicanas, convirtiendo al punk en una poderosa plataforma de la que se ayuda para articular conceptos feministas y étnicos.

  14. Quantum fluctuations in the bag and nucleon observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Vento, V.

    1982-03-01

    A time-dependent, perturbative formalism is developed to describe the effect of quantum fluctuations of the quark fields inside a hadronic bag on physical observables. This formalism differs from previous ones in that (1) all contributions to second order in the QCD coupling constant are generated systematically and included in the numerical treatment; (2) the intermediate sums are carried out over a full set of states consistent with parity and SU(2) coupling rules. After removing the logarithmic divergences arising from the intermediate state sums in the 1-body terms and applying a finite renormalization, the second order fluctuation corrections to several proton and neutron observables are computed. The results obtained are significantly different from those obtained in earlier calculations. In no case considered are the calculated corrections sufficient to account for existing discrepancies between empirical values and lower order hadronic bag results for nucleon observables

  15. BAG5 regulates PTEN stability in MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome10 (PTEN is a tumor-suppressing lipid phosphatase that isfrequently absent in breast tumors. Thus, the stability of PTENis essential for tumor prevention and therapy. The ubiquitinproteasomepathway has an important role in regulating thefunctions of PTEN. Specifically, carboxyl terminus Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP, the E3 ubiquitin ligase of PTEN, canregulate PTEN levels. In this study, we report that BCL-2-associated athanogene 5 (BAG5, a known inhibitor of CHIPactivity, reduces the degradation of PTEN and maintains itslevels via an ubiquitylation-dependent pathway. BAG5 isidentified as an antagonist of cell tumorigenicity. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 490-494

  16. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Dilraj S; Ward, Joel; Lee, Regent; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  17. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S. Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue and indirubin (red pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  18. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical manifestations due to presence of plastic bags in the rumen of goats were studied. Sixteen (16) one year old male (castrate) small East African goats with an average weight of 24.5kg were used for the study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 4 animals each (n=4). Three of the groups had, 129g, 258g and ...

  19. Quark matter revisited with non-extensive MIT bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro H. G.; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Deppman, Airton; Menezes, Débora P.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed.

  20. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  1. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  2. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  3. Quark matter revisited with non-extensive MIT bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Pedro H.G.; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Menezes, Debora P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed. (orig.)

  4. Bag-of-Temporal-SIFT-Words for Time Series Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly , Adeline; Malinowski , Simon; Tavenard , Romain; Guyet , Thomas; Chapel , Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Time series classification is an application of particular interest with the increase of data to monitor. Classical techniques for time series classification rely on point-to-point distances. Recently, Bag-of-Words approaches have been used in this context. Words are quantized versions of simple features extracted from sliding windows. The SIFT framework has proved efficient for image classification. In this paper, we design a time series classification scheme that bui...

  5. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huffman Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  6. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Emilie

    2018-03-01

    Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  7. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  8. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  9. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiao-yun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pesticide; different portions of the fruit, crop varieties and so on. The way of applying pesticide had great impact on pesticide residue, pesticide application after bagging could largely reduce the pesticide residue, and pesticide application before bagging could increase pesticide residues; The four factors including pesticide appliacation dosage, the type of pesticides and fruit portion and fruit varieties on the effects of pesticide residues, had interaction each other. The pesticide applying several times, bagging could significantly reduce pesticide residues and control within the security level. Different bagging materials could reduce pesticide residues, but the impact on pesticide residues had no significant difference. More bagging layers caused less pesticide residues.

  10. Comparison of bacterial attachment to platelet bags with and without preconditioning with plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Correa, M; Kalab, M; Yi, Q-L; Eltringham-Smith, L J; Sheffield, W P; Ramirez-Arcos, S

    2017-07-01

    Canadian Blood Services produces apheresis and buffy coat pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) stored in bags produced by two different manufacturers (A and B, respectively), both made of polyvinyl chloride-butyryl trihexyl citrate. This study was aimed at comparing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to the inner surface of both bag types in the presence or absence of plasma factors. Sets (N = 2-6) of bags type A and B were left non-coated (control) or preconditioned with platelet-rich, platelet-poor or defibrinated plasma (PRP, PPP and DefibPPP, respectively). Each bag was inoculated with a 200-ml S. epidermidis culture adjusted to 0·5 colony-forming units/ml. Bags were incubated under platelet storage conditions for 7 days. After culture removal, bacteria attached to the plastic surface were either dislodged by sonication for bacterial quantification or examined in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Higher bacterial adhesion was observed to preconditioned PC bags than control containers for both bag types (P 0·05). By contrast, a significant increase in bacterial adherence was observed to type A bags compared with type B bags in the absence of plasma (P platelet collection bags depends on the presence of plasma factors. Future efforts should be focused on reducing plasma proteins' attachment to platelet storage containers to decrease subsequent bacterial adhesion. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of the trunk in malignant tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianxin; Wu Yuqi; Huang Jun; Lin Chengguang; Liu Hui; Huang Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of thorax and pelvis for patients with malignant tumors. Methods: Of 714 patients (fields) chosen randomly, 582(fields) were immobilized with vacuum bag, while the other 132 (fields) used only sand bags, tapes, and other simple immobilizing devices. The field movements were measured and compared before and after the setup, along with 56 patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Results: The variance of movement before and after the setup was 6.7% for patients with vacuum bag , while that was 26.5% for patients without the vacuum bag. It was even 32.1% for patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Conclusions: The variance of movement decreases significantly with vacuum bag immobilization. It should be used as frequently as possible. As the variance of movement rises obviously when vacuum bag is used twice, the semi-soft vacuum bag should be prepared afresh and checked under the simulator before the second use. (authors)

  12. Leachables from saline-containing IV bags can alter therapeutic protein properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Judy Y; Xiao, Nina J; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jennifer; Hoff, Ed; Russell, Stephen J; Katta, Viswanatham; Shire, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the cause of the observed instability of dulanermin in 100 ml polyolefin (PO) infusion bags containing saline. Diluted dulanermin in IV bags was collected and frozen prior to analysis by size exclusion chromatography. The UV absorption profiles of the IV bag solutions were characterized by using spectrophotometry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measured the metal content. Leachables from IV bags were identified by LC-UV-high resolution MS/MS analysis. An elevated loss of dulanermin monomers was observed only in 100 ml PO bags. These IV bag solutions have a compound that contains zinc and has absorbance at 320 nm. This compound was identified to be 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and its zinc salt and was found to come from the stopper used in the 100 ml PO bags. The manufacturer has subsequently corrected this problem by using non-latex components in the 100 ml PO IV bag. End-users need to be aware that IV bags made from a particular polymer by the same manufacturer may contain components or use a manufacturing process that results in a different product. Analysis of samples after freezing and thawing proved to be useful in identifying potential incompatibility of dulanermin in the IV bags.

  13. Warming preterm infants in the delivery room: polyethylene bags, exothermic mattresses or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa K; O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2011-12-01

    To compare the admission temperature of infants treated with polyethylene bags alone to infants treated with exothermic mattresses in addition to bags in the delivery room. We prospectively studied infants born at bags at birth. Some infants were also placed on mattresses. Admission axillary temperatures were measured in all infants on admission to the neonatal intensive care. We compared the temperatures of infants treated with bags alone to those treated with mattresses and bags. We studied 43 infants: 15 were treated with bags while 28 were treated with a bag and mattress. Mean admission temperature was similar between the groups. Hypothermia and hyperthermia occurred more frequently in infants treated with a bag and mattress, and more infants treated with a bag had admission temperatures 36.5-37.5°C. The use of exothermic mattresses in addition to polyethylene bags, particularly in younger, smaller newborns, may result in more hypothermia and hyperthermia on admission. A randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which strategy results in more infants having admission temperatures in the normal range. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Anterior haptic flexing and in-the-bag subluxation of an accommodating intraocular lens due to excessive capsular bag contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory D; Werner, Liliana; Neuhann, Tobias; Tetz, Manfred; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of the hydrophilic acrylic Tetraflex accommodating intraocular lens (IOL), with subsequent development of capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL subluxation. Contraction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis resulted in significant anterior flexing of the lens haptic component. Explantation of the IOL-capsular bag complex was required 7 years after implantation. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated multiple areas of thick anterior subcapsular fibrosis. Pseudoexfoliative material was present throughout the surface of the lens capsule. Intraocular lenses manufactured from hydrophilic acrylic material are highly flexible and may be more susceptible to capsule contraction, even in the absence of predisposing ocular and systemic conditions. This case highlights the importance of developing guidelines regarding patient screening and selection for the appropriate use of accommodating and other highly flexible IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  16. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  17. Impact of storage environment on the efficacy of hermetic storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Brett; Woloshuk, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Small hermetic bags (50 and 100 kg capacities) used by smallholder farmers in several African countries have proven to be a low-cost solution for preventing storage losses due to insects. The complexity of postharvest practices and the need for ideal drying conditions, especially in the Sub-Sahara, has led to questions about the efficacy of the hermetic bags for controlling spoilage by fungi and the potential for mycotoxin accumulation. This study compared the effects of environmental temperature and relative humidity at two locations (Indiana and Arkansas) on dry maize (14% moisture content) in woven polypropylene bags and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) hermetic bags. Temperature and relative humidity data loggers placed in the middle of each bag provided profiles of environmental influences on stored grain at the two locations. The results indicated that the PICS bags prevented moisture penetration over the three-month storage period. In contrast, maize in the woven bags increased in moisture content. For both bag types, no evidence was obtained indicating the spread of Aspergillus flavus from colonized maize to adjacent non-colonized maize. However, other storage fungi did increase during storage. The number of infected kernels did not increase in the PICS bags, but the numbers in the woven bags increased significantly. The warmer environment in Arkansas resulted in significantly higher insect populations in the woven bags than in Indiana. Insects in the PICS bags remained low at both locations. This study demonstrates that the PICS hermetic bags are effective at blocking the effects of external humidity fluctuations as well as the spread of fungi to non-infected kernels.

  18. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziana Maria Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric insertions of nylon bags every 12 hours, and each bag contained 663 mg of feed samples in a proportion of 17 mg DM/cm². Feces and bags were collected directly from the stall floor immediately after excretion. There was no difference between the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates and hydrolysable carbohydrates of coastcross hay estimated with feces collection and mobile bags. Forage peanut showed high nutrients digestibility, with values close to those observed with alfalfa, indicating potential for use in diets for horses.

  19. On relation between the quark-gluon bag surface tension and the colour tube string tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the bag phenomenology of deconfining phase transition aiming to replenish it by introducing systematically the bag surface tension. Comparing the free energies of such bags and the strings confining the static quark-antiquark pair, we express the string tension in terms of the bag surface tension and the bulk pressure in order to estimate the bag characteristics using the lattice QCD (LQCD) data. Our analysis of the bag entropy density demonstrates that the surface tension coefficient is amazingly negative at the cross-over (continuous transition). The approach developed allows us to naturally account for an origin of a pronounced maximum (observed in the LQCD studies) in the behaviour of heavy quark-antiquark pair entropy. The vicinity of the (tri-)critical endpoint is also analyzed to clarify the meaning of vanishing surface tension coefficient.

  20. Psychological interventional approach for reduce resource consumption : Reducing plastic bag usage at supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtomo, Shoji; OHNUMA, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...

  1. The contamination of intravenous fluids by writing on the infusion bag: Fact or fiction?

    OpenAIRE

    James Daniel Langston; William Patrick Monaghan; Mellissa Bush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction -Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether Sharpie® brand black permanent marker ink will permeate through intravenous infusion bags. The practice of writing directly on infusion bags is a frequent yet controversial practice. There are no known written standards that exist which pertain to this practice. Methods – Five types of intravenous bags containing different solutions marked with black ink from a fine point felt tipped Sharpie® marker. Sample extraction oc...

  2. Deformed bags of quarks and spin-isospin properties of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1988-01-01

    Good fits to the magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H are obtained when the nucleonic bags consisting of 3-quarks each are assumed to be deformed. Gamow-Teller strengths as well magnetic dipole strengths residing in the low energy and the ..delta.. - sectors are obtained. If, as manifested in the EMC effect, the bags expand in the nuclear medium, then the net deformation of a bag must also decrease in nuclei.

  3. Pionic corrections to the MIT bag model: The (3,3) resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theberge, S.; Thomas, A.W.; Miller, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    By incorporating chiral invariance in the MIT bag model, we are led to a theory in which the pion field is coupled to the confined quarks only at the bag surface. An equivalent quantized theory of nucleons and Δ's interacting with pions is then obtained. The pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in this model is found to give a good fit to experimental data on the (3,3) resonance, with a bag radius of about 0.72 fm

  4. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  5. Punk Pioneers: Chicana Alice Bag as a Case in Point

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Alconada, Soraya; Chaparro Sainz, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present Chicana punk musician Alice Bag as one of the main female figures who exerted a great influence on the early punk scene of Los Angeles, California, and thus helped to pave the way for a wider influx of female musicians within punk and to put some feminist issues at the forefront. By doing so, we will try to broaden the social and cultural understanding of punk music. Both Bag’s autobiography Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011) and her last L...

  6. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  7. Use of Vacuum Bagging for Fabricating Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christopher L.; Simon, Andrew J.; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features. PMID:25329244

  8. [Purple urine bag syndrome in elderly woman with nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alegría, A R; Vélez Díaz-Pallares, M; Moreno Cobo, Ma A; Arrieta Blanco, F; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity which typically affects elderly women with prolonged urinary catheterization and weakening chronic diseases. Other predisposing factors are previous urologic pathology, immobility syndrome and chronic constipation. The purple color is due to the presence of high loads of bacteria with sulphatase--phosphatase activity which develop in an alkaline environment as well as the presence of other factors. In the case we present the administration of nutritional supplements containing tryptophan conditioned the generation of this syndrome.

  9. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  10. Forex Market Prediction Using NARX Neural Network with Bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new methodfor predicting movements in Forex market based on NARX neural network withtime shifting bagging techniqueand financial indicators, such as relative strength index and stochastic indicators. Neural networks have prominent learning ability but they often exhibit bad and unpredictable performance for noisy data. When compared with the static neural networks, our method significantly reducesthe error rate of the responseandimproves the performance of the prediction. We tested three different types ofarchitecture for predicting the response and determined the best network approach. We applied our method to prediction the hourly foreign exchange rates and found remarkable predictability in comprehensive experiments with 2 different foreign exchange rates (GBPUSD and EURUSD.

  11. Inscription Image Retrieval Using Bag of Visual Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, N.; Indu, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a technique for efficient and veracious retrieval of ancient inscriptions and manuscripts from a large database of images by using the Bag of Visual Words (BoVW) technique. The proposed method can be used to recognize inscription images across the world. SURF (speeded up robust features) is used as an image feature extractor. A visual vocabulary is created by representing the image as a histogram of visual words which helps in the retrieval process. Usage of SURF ensures scalability, faster processing better results with darkened and blurred images. We demonstrate the method on a combination of 300 inscriptions images comprising of several inscription around the world.

  12. Stability of Reconstituted Telavancin Drug Product in Frozen Intravenous Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhengtian; Wong, Anissa; Raquinio, Elvira; Nguyen, Alice

    2015-07-01

    Intravenous (IV) infusions of telavancin for injection are generally administered in-hospital, but in some circumstances they may be administered in an outpatient environment. In that setting, antibiotics may be premixed and frozen. This study determined the chemical stability of nonpreserved telavancin in various commonly used reconstitution diluents stored in IV bags (polyvinyl chloride [PVC] and PVC-free) at -20°C (-4°F) without light. Telavancin (750 mg/vial) was reconstituted with 5% dextrose injection USP (D5W) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP (NS) to obtain drug solutions at approximately 15 mg/mL. Infusion solutions of telavancin at diluted concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL covering the range utilized in clinical practice were prepared in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags using D5W or NS solutions. The infusion solutions were stored under frozen conditions (-20°C ± 5°C [-4°F ± 41°F]) and the chemical stability was evaluated for up to 32 days. Telavancin concentration, purity, and degradant levels were determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Telavancin IV infusion solutions in D5W or NS at 0.6 mg/mL and 8 mg/mL and stored at -20°C (-4°F) met the chemical stability criteria when tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 32. The assayed telavancin concentration at each time point was within 97% to 103% of the initial mean assay value. The total degradants quantified by the HPLC stability-indicating method did not show any significant change over the 32-day study period. Telavancin IV infusion solutions (in D5W or NS) in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags were stable for at least 32 days when stored at -20°C (-4°F) without light. These results provide prolonged frozen stability data further to that previously established for 7 days under refrigerated conditions (2°C-8°C [36°F -46°F]), and for 12 hours at room temperature when diluted into IV bags containing D5W, NS, or lactated Ringer's solution.

  13. [Rhabdomyolysis after lifting IKEA bags in a man using sertraline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummen, Ingvild; Jensen, Thomas Giver

    2016-12-12

    We present a case of a 28-year-old male, using sertraline, who experienced progressive oedema in both upper extremities after having lifted two IKEA bags weighing 20 kg each from his car up to the third floor. Blood creatine kinase (CK) level was measured 5,260 U/l, and the patient was admitted for oral rehydration with the diagnosis rhabdomyolysis. The MRI showed swelling in the triceps muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles resulting in compression of the brachial vein. We discuss the pathomechanism behind the increased CK level and the swelling, and the possible effect sertraline may have had on the development of rhabdomyolysis.

  14. A bag adapted for the handling of a filtering element or filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a transparent, flexible, synthetic plastics bag adapted to contain a filter element or filter unit so that the latter can be inserted into or removed from a filter casing or duct while being contained in the bag. The bag has a neck portion which is capable of being removably secured in an air-tight manner on to a part of the casing, and gloves or glove portions are provided in, or are formed in, the wall of the bag to permit handles on the filter element or unit to be grasped. (author)

  15. Skylab 4 crewmen passing trash bags in to the OWS waste disposal tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Two Skylab 4 crewmen are seen passing trash bags through the trash airlock of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The trash airlock leads to the OWS waste disposal tank. Astronaut William R. Pogue, Skylab 4 pilot, holds onto the OWS crew quarters ceiling as he prepares to jump onto the OWS airlock hatch cover to force another trash bag further down into the airlock. Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, Skylab 4 commander, is assisting. Carr is holding onto the trash bags. A third trash bag is floating in the zero-gravity environment near Pogue's right leg. The wardroom can be seen behind Pogue.

  16. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using small meshed collecting bags on trawls to quantify trawls seabed disturbance of aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    impact on commercial fishing grounds. In this study we develop and test small-meshed collecting bags designed to retain juvenile fish and benthic megafauna. The collecting bags are mounted in the wings and body of the trawl. The catches in the collection bags provide information of the species and size...... in the mechanical effect, such as penetration depth of the ground gear of different trawl designs. Collecting bags are also mounted to the different sections of the trawl in pairs, one to collect the organisms that pass through the trawl meshes and one to collect the population. Standard selectivity analyses...

  18. Evidence for the Role of BAG3 in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrir, Farzaneh G; Knezevic, Tijana; Gupta, Manish K; Gordon, Jennifer; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M; Khalili, Kamel

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities impact the development of myofibrillar myopathies. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria from cells is of great importance toward understanding the molecular events involved in the genesis of cardiomyopathy. Earlier studies have ascribed a role for BAG3 in the development of cardiomyopathy in experimental animals leading to the identification of BAG3 mutations in patients with heart failure which may play a part in the onset of disease development and progression. BAG3 is co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which has been shown to modulate apoptosis and autophagy, in several cell models. In this study, we explore the potential role of BAG3 in mitochondrial quality control. We demonstrate that siRNA mediated suppression of BAG3 production in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs) significantly elevates the level of Parkin, a key component of mitophagy. We found that both BAG3 and Parkin are recruited to depolarized mitochondria and promote mitophagy. Suppression of BAG3 in NRVCs significantly reduces autophagy flux and eliminates clearance of Tom20, an essential import receptor for mitochondria proteins, after induction of mitophagy. These observations suggest that BAG3 is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis under stress conditions, and disruptions in BAG3 expression impact cardiomyocyte function. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 797-805, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cost analysis of premixed multichamber bags versus compounded parenteral nutrition: breakeven point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozat, Erkut; Korubuk, Gamze; Onar, Pelin; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2014-02-01

    Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial.

  20. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  1. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65-85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical emergencies facing general practitioners: Drugs for the doctor's bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General practitioners are frequently facing medical emergencies. In order to react properly and administer therapy on time, a general practitioner needs to prepare and keep with himself the appropriate set of drugs which could be effectively used for treatment of the emergencies. The following drugs should find their place in the doctor's bag: acetaminophen (for mild and moderate pain, and for fever, morphine (for severe pain, naloxone (for heroin poisoning, ceftriaxone (for meningococcal meningitis, albuterol (for bronchial asthma attack, hydrocortisone (for bronchial asthma attack, glucagon (for severe hypoglycemia, dextrose (for mild to moderate hypoglycemia, diazepam (for febrile convulsions or epileptic status, epinephrine (for anaphylaxis and cardiac arrest, atropine (for symptomatic bradicardia, chloropyramine (for acute allergy, aspirin (for acute myocardial infarction, nitroglycerine (for acute coronary syndrome, metoclopramide (for nausea and vomiting, haloperidol (for delirium, methylergometrine (for control of bleeding after delivery or abortion, furosemide (for acute pulmonary edema and flumazenil (for benzodiazepine poisoning. For each of the listed drugs a physician should well know the recommended doses, indications, contraindications and warnings. All of the listed drugs are either registered in Serbia or available through special import, so general practitioners may fill their bags with all necessary drugs and effectively and safely treat medical emergencies.

  3. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  4. Involvement of Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins in the neuroprotection by rasagiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Feng; He, Shuang; Kang, Ji-Feng; Xu, Qian; Hu, Ya-Cen; Zhang, Hai-Nan; Wang, Chun-Yu; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2015-01-01

    Rasagiline, a novel monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, has a mild to moderate effect in relieving Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms as well as unique neuroprotective effects. Previous studies demonstrated rasagiline protect neurons by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins. Our study aimed to study whether Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins, which were reported closely associated with neurodegenerative disease, were involved in the neuroprotective effect of rasagiline. We found that after the administration of 1-methy1-4-phenvl-1,2,3,6-tetrahvdropvridine (MPTP), BAG2 and BAG5 proteins were up-regulated in the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons of PD mouse model. A further increase of BAG2 and BAG5 was detected after intragastric administration of rasagiline to post-MPTP lesioned mice. Thus, the current study proved the association of BAG family proteins with PD, and suggested the involvement and a positive role of BAG2, BAG5 in the neuroprotection of rasagiline. These preliminary results implicate a novel pathway for further study on neuroprotection of rasagiline.

  5. The Dual Codebook : Combining Bags of Visual Words in Image Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Jonathan L.; Okafor, Emmanuel; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two conventional bag of words approaches, using two basic local feature descriptors, to perform image classification. These approaches are compared to a novel design which combines two bags of visual words, using two different feature descriptors. The

  6. The impact of color on bag-of-words based object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojas Vigo, D.A.; Khan, F.S.; van de Weijer, J.; Gevers, T.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years several works have aimed at exploiting color information in order to improve the bag-of-words based image representation. There are two stages in which color information can be applied in the bag-of-words framework. Firstly, feature detection can be improved by choosing highly

  7. 75 FR 33772 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Malaysia. The review covers one... published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on PRCBs from Malaysia. See Antidumping Duty...

  8. 75 FR 61128 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... Department published its preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Malaysia. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter. The period...

  9. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See...

  10. Fatality Reduction by Air Bags: Analyses of Accident Data through Early 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The fatality risk of front-seat occupants of passenger cars and light trucks equipped with air bags is compared to the corresponding risk in similar vehicles without air bags, based on statistical analysis of Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS)dat...

  11. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...

  12. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a plug-in hybrid electric car. The basis of the petition was... developing advanced air bag systems. \\2\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007... air bag system development and testing, it was requesting that the exemption be for ``a period of one...

  13. Management of subluxated capsular bag-fixated intraocular lenses using a capsular anchor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, Yokrat; Naftali, Modi; Lapid Gortzak, Ruth; Assia, Ehud I.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of the capsular anchor (AssiAnchor) to manage a subluxated intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The anchor comprises 2 prongs that hold the anterior lens capsule and a central rod that is sutured to the scleral wall, enabling centration of the IOL-capsular bag complex. Six

  14. Microbiology of feed samples incubated in nylon bags in the rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Nylon bag technique, mesh size, microbiology of feed samples, ruminal bacteria, viable counts, ciliate protozoa lntroduction. The insita nylon bag technique has been used extensively for feed evaluation and estimating rates of degradation of different dietary components in the rumen. Although this technique has ...

  15. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  16. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  17. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  18. Postharvest storage quality of grapefruit placed in polyethylene bags with or without micro-perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washed ‘Marsh’ white grapefruit were placed in polyethylene (PE) bags (1 mil) with or without micro-perforation holes (representing 0.002% of the bag surface) and evaluated for juice quality, firmness, and the development of decay and disorders during storage for 30, 60, or 90 days at 50oF. Each tre...

  19. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  20. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  1. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-821] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  2. Stability of odorants from pig production in sampling bags for olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders P S; Feilberg, Anders; Jonassen, Kristoffer E N

    2011-01-01

    Odor from pig production facilities is typically measured with olfactometry, whereby odor samples are collected in sampling bags and assessed by human panelists within 30 h. In the present study, the storage stability of odorants in two types of sampling bags that are often used for olfactometry was investigated. The bags were made of Tedlar or Nalophan. In a field experiment, humid and dried air samples were collected from a pig production facility with growing-finishing pigs and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with an amperometric sulfur detector at 4, 8, 12, 28, 52, and 76 h after sampling. In a laboratory experiment, the bags were filled with a humid gas mixture containing carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, and sulfur compounds and analyzed with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of carboxylic acids, phenols, and indoles decreased by 50 to >99% during the 24 h of storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased by approximately 30% during the 24 h of storage in Nalophan bags, whereas in Tedlar bags the concentration of sulfur compounds decreased by bags, and the composition changes toward a higher relative presence of sulfur compounds. This can result in underestimation of odor emissions from pig production facilities and of the effect of odor reduction technologies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. The impact of habitual school bag carriage on the health of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School bag carriage represents a considerable daily occupational load for children. The carriage of heavy school bags is a suspected aetiological factor of the daily physical stress of school pupils which negatively impacts on the health of their vertebral column. The objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  4. Recoil of the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and axial form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabucar, D.; Picek, I.

    1984-03-01

    A recent method of boosting the bag is extended to the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and developed for the calculation of low-energy nucleon form factors. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by the induced pseudoscalar form factor where both the inclusion of the pion field and the non-vanishing momentum transfer are necessary. (Auth.)

  5. Bird-resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. Seed loss by bird damage was elimi...

  6. Effect of potassium and potting-bag size on foliar biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar fresh mass was significantly increased by the interaction between K concentration and potting-bag size. Growers may use a 5.3 mmol L−1 K concentration and a 5 L potting bag for optimum production of rose geranium under soil-less cultivation. Keywords: C:G ratio, enzyme activation, oil quality, potassium, rose ...

  7. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags

  8. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY... on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The review covers 11 respondents. The... merchandise has been sold at less than normal value by the companies subject to this review. DATES: Effective...

  9. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...)] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00 of the... Commerce to be sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV).\\3\\ In addition, the Commission...

  10. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Ziad; Boyle, Malcolm J

    2009-02-20

    Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015) and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045). Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  11. Earth bag dome workshop run by Paulina Wojciechowska – director of Earth Hands and Houses [lectures, research] Sussex, UK; 27 May 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.

    2010-01-01

    Construction of a small earth bag wall in south Sussex: constructing the formwork for entrance, preparing and filling earth bags, ramming layers of earth bags, plastering, artistic sculpturing of the exterior and interior.

  12. Commercial liquid bags as a potential source of venous air embolism in shoulder arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Luke; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Tucker, Bradford; Hetrick, Robin; Curry, Patrick; Williams, Gerald

    2010-09-01

    Venous air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of arthroscopy. Fatal venous air embolism has been reported with as little as 100 mL of air entering the venous system. During liquid-only arthroscopy, avenues for air introduction into the joint are limited. Therefore, we hypothesized that commercially prepared 3-L saline-solution bags are a source of potentially fatal amounts of gas that can be introduced into the joint by arthroscopic pumps. Eight 3-L arthroscopic saline-solution bags were obtained and visually inspected for air. The air was aspirated from four bags, and the volume of the air was recorded. A closed-system pump was prepared, and two 3-L bags were connected to it. The pump emptied into an inverted graduated cylinder immersed in a water bath. Both bags were allowed to run dry. Two more bags were then connected and also allowed to run dry. The air was quantified by the downward displacement of water. The experiment was then repeated with the four bags after the air had been aspirated from them. This experiment was performed at three institutions, with utilization of three pump systems and two brands of 3-L saline-solution bags. Air was visualized in all bags, and the bags contained between 34 and 85 mL of air. Arthroscopic pumps can pump air efficiently through the tubing. The total volumes of gas ejected from the tubing after the four 3-L bags had been emptied were 75, 80, and 235 mL. When bags from which the air had been evacuated were used, no air exited the system. Because a saline-solution arthroscopic pump is theoretically a closed system, venous air embolism has not been a concern. However, this study shows that it is possible to pump a fatal amount of air from 3-L saline-solution bags into an environment susceptible to the creation of emboli. Evacuation of air from the 3-L bags prior to use may eliminate this risk.

  13. Odour Samples Degradation During Detention in Tedlar® Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyłak-Szydłowski, Mirosław

    In indirect olfactometry analysis, to avoid condensation or adsorption processes during or storage of the sample, containers made of suitable materials should be used. Also, reaction between the chemicals during transport from the source of the odour to the research laboratory is an important process which can influence on examinations' results. Study included determination of the odour and compound concentrations of six gas mixtures. Gas samples were collected by silicone hoses into Tedlar ® bags and tested by Nasal Ranger, SM-100 olfactometers and Photovac Voyager gas chromatograph. Time of keeping gas in bags was 78 h, and concentration of compounds was measured every hour, eight times per day. For benzene, acetone, 1,1-dichloroethylene, c-1,2-dichloroethylene, t-1,2-dichloroethylene, methyl ethyl ketone and vinyl chloride, 100 % decrease of concentration has been noticed within 78 h of holding in the bag. Average rate of loss of most compounds concentration was from 0.01 to 2.50 % for the first 30 h and from 0.35 to 18.50 % during the last 48 h of examination. Decreasing of odour concentration measured by Nasal Ranger (NR) in all series was between 0.00 and 4.98 % till 30 h, between 1.91 and 100 % in the last 48 h of test and between 1.61 and 100 % in 78 h. In case of odour concentration measured by SM, those values were, respectively, 1.26-4.93 %, 1.39-4.93 % and 2.40-3.18 %. Values of average rate of intensity decreasing were, respectively, 0.77-1.75 %, 2.36-4.67 % and 1.18-2.07 %. Statistically significant correlation coefficients for compound concentrations and intensity, odour concentration obtained by SM-100 as well as NR were, respectively, 0.55-0.97, 0.47-0.99 and 0.37-0.98.

  14. Assessment of the mobile bag method for estimation of in vivo starch digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoorchi, Taghi; Lund, Peter; Larsen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    the mobile bag technique across a broad range of starch sources. Omitting two less conventional starch sources (NaOH wheat and xylose-treated barley) resulted in a high (0.87) correlation between total tract in vivo digestibility and mobile bag disappearance. The use of the mobile bag method for estimation......The objective was to assess the ability of the in situ mobile nylon bag method for predicting small intestinal and total tract starch digestibility. Starch disappearance was measured for 18 samples of different cereals and legumes subjected to different physical and chemical processing methods...... and compared with coherent in vivo digestibility. Starch disappearance was measured both with and without initial ruminal pre-incubation during 4 h. Bags were retrieved from either the ileal cannula or faeces. Two dry Danish Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used for rumen pre-incubations and two...

  15. [Evaluation of Storage Performance of Preserving Bags for Manually Separated Platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Xia; Duan, Lan; Wang, Jie-Xi; Wang, Yan; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Cai, Li-Na; Yi, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Ang, Jian-Wei; Han, Ying

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the storage performance of the domestically made platelet storage bags (experimental group) and the United States Trima set platelet storage bags (control group). The manually separated platelets were divided in two equal parts, which was added to control blood bags and experimental blood bags respectively, all samples were stored at a 22 °C ± 2 °C. The platelet count, mean volume, aggregation activity (ADP, THR), pH, glucose, lactate concentration, lactate dehydrogenase concentration, hypotonic shock reaction, CD62P and phosphatidic acid serine content were detected at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 of storage. There was no significant difference of platelet quality at day 5 after storage between the experimental group and the control group (T-test, P > 0.05). Two kinds of platelet storage bags have the similar storage performance.

  16. Assessment of the permeability properties of cryopreservation outer bags used in NHSBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, P; Rooney, P; Lomas, R; Kearney, J N

    2018-01-12

    This study was carried out to investigate leakage/transport across the bag material of six outer cryopreservation bags in common use within NHS Blood and Transplant. In order to do this two different leak testing procedures; coloured dye and hydrogen tracer gas, were used. The data obtained show that a coloured dye cannot permeate through the materials both at room temperature and following storage at liquid nitrogen temperature (- 196 °C). In addition, when filled with the smallest elemental molecule, hydrogen, in the form of a tracer gas, all of the bags only allowed trace amounts of hydrogen to escape, either through the seal or the bag material. The data indicated that each of the bag materials tested would be capable of preventing bacterial or viral cross-contamination as long as the material remained intact.

  17. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, X.; Jennings, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. The fuzzy bag and baryonic properties with center of mass and recoil corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilotto, F.

    2003-01-01

    The fuzzy bag is a hadronic model which has features both of the bag model (energy-momentum conservation, QCD vacuum energy) and of relativistic potential models (confinement achieved through a potential). It is also a chiral model, with the unique property that the pion field is suppressed in the interior of the bag by means of a scalar potential, and yet chiral symmetry is preserved. This scalar potential allows one to control how far the pion field can penetrate in the interior of the bag. We calculate the masses of the fundamental baryon octet taking into account the center of mass, one-gluon exchange and one-pion exchange corrections. We also calculate the nucleon axial charge, charge radii and magnetic moments including center of mass and recoil corrections. The agreement with experiment is excellent, and the results indicate that the pion field is suppressed only very close to the center of the bag. (orig.)

  20. Multiple, but Concerted Cellular Activities of the Human Protein Hap46/BAG-1M and Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Gehring

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The closely related human and murine proteins Hap46/BAG-1M and BAG-1, respectively, were discovered more than a decade ago by molecular cloning techniques. These and the larger isoform Hap50/BAG-1L, as well as shorter isoforms, have the ability to interact with a seemingly unlimited array of proteins of completely unrelated structures. This problem was partially resolved when it was realized that molecular chaperones of the hsp70 heat shock protein family are major primary association partners, binding being mediated by the carboxy terminal BAG-domain and the ATP-binding domain of hsp70 chaperones. The latter, in turn, can associate with an almost unlimited variety of proteins through their substrate-binding domains, so that ternary complexes may result. The protein folding activity of hsp70 chaperones is affected by interactions with Hap46/BAG-1M or isoforms. However, there also exist several proteins which bind to Hap46/BAG-1M and isoforms independent of hsp70 mediation. Moreover, Hap46/BAG-1M and Hap50/BAG-1L, but not the shorter isoforms, can bind to DNA in a sequence-independent manner by making use of positively charged regions close to their amino terminal ends. This is the molecular basis for their effects on transcription which are of major physiological relevance, as discussed here in terms of a model. The related proteins Hap50/BAG-1L and Hap46/BAG-1M may thus serve as molecular links between such diverse bioactivities as regulation of gene expression and protein quality control. These activities are coordinated and synergize in helping cells to cope with conditions of external stress. Moreover, they recently became markers for the aggressiveness of several cancer types.

  1. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  2. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (pbags, irrespective of the load distribution, may have a stabilising effect during quiet standing. These results should help to alleviate concerns regarding safety of carrying shopping bags and help encourage shopping, both as a social and as a physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and Testing of CPAS Main Deployment Bag Energy Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    During the developmental testing program for CPAS (Capsule Parachute Assembly System), the parachute system for the NASA Orion Crew Module, simulation revealed that high loads may be experienced by the pilot risers during the most devere deployment conditions. As the role of the pilot parachutes is to deploy the main parachutes, these high loads introduced the possibility of main deployment failure. In order to mitigate these high loads, a set of energy modulators was incorporated between the pilot riser and the main deployment bag. An extensive developmental program was implemented to ensure the adequacy of these energy modulators. After initial design comparisons, the energy modulator design was validated through slow-speed joint tests as well as through high-speed bungee tests. This paper documents the design, development, and results of multiple tests completed on the final design.

  4. Different Ways of Carrying Bags in Mental Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh-Sadat Mortazavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available School as an educational and social center is linked with various aspects of child’s growth. The impact of objects, tools, and lifestyle on the development of human performance is not hidden from anyone [1].Tasell Lauri, the head of Cairo Praktive in Australia, in a paper warned parents about bags as a tool that students carry every day, and he is believes that many spinal disorders in adults is caused by childhood trauma. Studies on children and patients with special needs and such as myelomenangocele, cerebral palsy, and neurofibromatosis precisely show abnormal growth of spinal disorders, muscle imbalance, wrong posture [2]. Carrying stationery in an inappropriate tool can cause irreversible effects.

  5. Hands Tied with Bag Full of Books in Suicidal Hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Behera, Chittaranjan; Murty, Om Prakash; Rautji, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Hanging deaths associated with binding of limbs, masking of a face, and gagging are always suspicious. In suicidal hanging, the victim uses these added techniques to prevent him from backing out of his decision and to ensure death. However, binding of limbs and adding extra weight to the suspension in hanging are not reported. Herein, we report a case where the victim tied a bag containing books weighing 7 kg (15.4 lbs) to both his hands during hanging. The forensic specialist must be aware of the unusual presentation of suicidal hanging which may suggest foul play. The manner of death must be established after detailed analysis of circumstantial evidence, information obtained from the witnesses, complete autopsy, and toxicological examination. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  7. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  8. Tea-bag-like polymer nanoreactors filled with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, Fabian; Schmalz, Holger; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2014-05-05

    Gold-containing polymer nanotubes, which showed both catalytic activity and resistance to leaching, were prepared by the "tubes by fiber templates" (TUFT) process. For this purpose, electrospun polymer nonwovens with incorporated poly(L-lactide)-stabilized gold nanoparticles were coated with poly(p-xylylene) by the chemical vapor deposition process, and then the inner fiber templates were removed. The resulting polymer tubes carried encapsulated gold nanoparticles which were shown to be immobilized and featured pronounced catalytic activity towards the hydrolytic oxidation of dimethylphenylsilane and the alcoholysis of dimethylphenylsilane with n-butanol. The macroscopic nonwovens could be used as tea-bag-like catalyst systems and showed excellent reusability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  10. Stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Jennifer; McPherson, Timothy B; Kolling, William M

    2010-06-15

    The stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at 21-24 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C was evaluated. Sodium bicarbonate injection was obtained in 50-mL vials of 8.4% (1 meq/mL). A total of 50, 100, or 150 meq of sodium bicarbonate was added to each 1-L polyolefin bag of either sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection. All solutions were prepared in a laminar-airflow hood using aseptic technique. Bags were punctured once to remove headspace air and once for the addition of each 50 meq of sodium bicarbonate. Six replicates of each test solution were prepared. The solutions were stored at 21-24 degrees C and 2-4 degrees C. Control solutions (50 and 150 meq) were similarly prepared in triplicate. Control solutions were sparged with either nitrogen gas or oxygen gas before storage. Sodium bicarbonate stability was assessed by measuring solution pH. Bicarbonate content was measured utilizing titration. Both pH and bicarbonate concentrations were measured immediately upon preparation and on days 3, 5, and 7 for both test and control solutions. All 95% confidence interval values for sample solution pH remained within 7.0-8.5 for seven days at 2-4 degrees C. Sodium bicarbonate solutions of 50, 100, and 150 meq in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection were stable for up to seven days when refrigerated. The 50-meq solution was stable for up to 48 hours when stored at room temperature, and the 100- and 150-meq solutions were stable for up to 30 hours when stored at room temperature.

  11. UBL/BAG-domain co-chaperones cause cellular stress upon overexpression through constitutive activation of Hsf1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Kampmeyer, Caroline; Kriegenburg, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    of molecular chaperones and other stress-relieving proteins. Here, we show that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe orthologues of human BAG-1, Bag101, and Bag102, are Hsp70 co-chaperones that associate with 26S proteasomes. Only a subgroup of Hsp70-type chaperones, including Ssa1, Ssa2, and Sks2...

  12. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls... Kennedy Half-Dollar bags and rolls, bronze medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal Set and the Birth Set. Product Retail price Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags 139.95 Kennedy Half-Dollar Two-Roll Set 32.95 Large Bronze...

  13. 78 FR 69817 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Court Decision and Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Bags From Thailand: Final Court Decision and Amended Final Results of Administrative Review of the..., which recalculated the weighted-average duty margin for polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from... Packaging at the CIT. \\2\\ See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Final Results and Partial...

  14. Effects of 6q bags in the 1D2 pp scattering amplitude and the problem of dibaryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the short-range NN forces in the quark compound bag method reproduce the energy dependence of the 1 D 2 pp-scattering amplitude predicted by existing phaseshift analyses. The parameters of the six-quark bag wave function obtained by description of the experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the MIT bag model

  15. 78 FR 72628 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of Administrative Review... retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand.\\2\\ Consistent with the decision of the United States Court of... respect to the weighted-average dumping margins calculated for Thai Plastic Bags Industries Company (TPBI...

  16. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of the Antidumping Duty... preliminary results of review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  17. Green Purchasing Behavior Analysis of Government Policy About Paid Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khoiruman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research will be conducted to know: 1 The influence of green perceived value to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 2 The influence of green perceived risk to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 3 The effect of green trust on green purchase behavior of consumers to use plastic bags after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. The study was conducted in modern retail stores (Alfamart, Indomart and Superindo in Surakarta using 200 respondents who shop at the modern retail store. A model that can be used to measure green purchasing behavior in the use of paid plastic bags using four interrelated variables: green perceived value, green perceived risk, green trust and green purchasing. Data analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of analysis and discussion showed that green perceived value have positive and significant effect to green trust, green trust has positive effect on green purchasing, but green perceived risk has no significant effect to green trust.

  18. Evaluation of the environmental impact of portion bag for food packaging: a case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangrit, Chaniporn; Usapein, Parnuwat; Limphitakphong, Nantamol; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2017-05-01

    This study applied life cycle assessment methodology in evaluating environmental impact of portion bag. The objective of this study was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact through life cycle of portion bag. The options were proposed for improving environmental performance of the product. The system boundary was defined as cradle-to-grave which included the ethylene production, LDPE and LLDPE resins production, portion bag production, disposal, and transportation. All materials and emissions were calculated based on 1 piece of portion bag which weighed 2.49 g. IMPACT 2002+ was used for assessing environmental impact on SimaPro V8.2 software. The result found that the most of environmental impact was generated from LDPE and LLDPE resins which was used as raw material for producing portion bag. After normalization, non-renewable energy showed the highest potential to concern. This impact related directly to the natural gas drilling, ethane production, ethylene production, resin productions, and energy in all process. In conclusion, it should be suggested that the selection of bio-material for producing portion bag can play an important role to reduce the environmental impact. The research demonstrates the possible way and benefits in improving cleaner raw material and suitable way of product's end-of-life for producing green portion bag in the future.

  19. [Accuracy, precision and speed of parenteral nutrition admixture bags manufacturing: comparison between automated and manual methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegbeh, H; Pirot, F; Quessada, T; Durand, T; Vételé, F; Rose, A; Bréant, V; Aulagner, G

    2011-01-01

    The parenteral nutrition admixture (PNA) manufacturing in hospital pharmacy is realized by aseptic transfer (AT) or sterilizing filtration (SF). The development of filling systems for PNA manufacturing requires, without standard, an evaluation comparing to traditional methods of SF. The filling accuracy of automated AT and SF was evaluated by mass and physical-chemistry tests in repeatability conditions (identical composition of PNA; n=five bags) and reproducibility conditions (different composition of PNA; n=57 bags). For each manufacturing method, the filling precision and the average time for PNA bags manufacturing were evaluated starting from an identical composition and volume PNA (n=five trials). Both manufacturing methods did not show significant difference of accuracy. Precision of both methods was lower than limits generally admitted for acceptability of mass and physical-chemistry tests. However, the manufacturing time for SF was superior (five different binary admixtures in five bags) or inferior (one identical binary admixture in five bags) to time recorded for automated AT. We show that serial manufacturing of PNA bags by SF with identical composition is faster than automated AT. Nevertheless, automated AT is faster than SF in variable composition of PNA. The manufacturing method choice will be motivate by the nature (i. e., variable composition or not) of the manufactured bags. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Flight Bags as a Cause of Back Injuries Among Commercial Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanumuri, Vamsi S R; Zautke, John L; Dorevitch, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    Pilots of fixed wing commercial aircraft face numerous occupational hazards. Low back pain is among the most common and costly workplace injury, though relatively little is known about causes of back injuries among pilots. The awkward lifting and twisting maneuvers in the flight deck to position flight bags has not been described as a cause of occupational back injury among pilots. A case series of low back injuries among pilots was identified and described by a retrospective review of charts at an airport-based clinic. Circumstances of occupational back injury, initial direct medical costs, treatment, and work status following evaluation were described. Over a 6-yr period, 37 occupational low back injuries among 35 pilots were evaluated and treated. Of these, 24 (65%) involved flight bags. Only 27% of pilots with flight bag-associated injuries were returned to work after initial evaluation; medications with sedating properties were frequently required for treatment. Injuries due to slips, trips, and falls, typically in jet bridges or associated with hotel shuttles, were common among pilots with back injuries not related to flight bags. The majority of occupational low back injuries seen among pilots in an airport based clinic were attributable to use of flight bags. Substituting electronic flight bags for traditional flight bags could contribute to back injury prevention among pilots.

  1. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  3. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  4. Bag3-induced autophagy is associated with degradation of JCV oncoprotein, T-Ag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kudret Sariyer

    Full Text Available JC virus, JCV, is a human neurotropic polyomavirus whose replication in glial cells causes the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. In addition, JCV possesses oncogenic activity and expression of its transforming protein, large T-antigen (T-Ag, in several experimental animals induces tumors of neural origin. Further, the presence of JCV DNA and T-Ag have been repeatedly observed in several human malignant tissues including primitive neuroectodermal tumors and glioblastomas. Earlier studies have demonstrated that Bag3, a member of the Bcl-2-associated athanogene (Bag family of proteins, which is implicated in autophagy and apoptosis, is downregulated upon JCV infection of glial cells and that JCV T-Ag is responsible for suppressing the activity of the BAG3 promoter. Here, we investigated the possible impact of Bag3 on T-Ag expression in JCV-infected human primary glial cells as well as in cells derived from T-Ag-induced medulloblastoma in transgenic animals. Results from these studies revealed that overexpression of Bag3 drastically decreases the level of T-Ag expression by inducing the autophagic degradation of the viral protein. Interestingly, this event leads to the inhibition of JCV infection of glial cells, suggesting that the reduced levels of T-antigen seen upon the overexpression of Bag3 has a biological impact on the viral lytic cycle. Results from protein-protein interaction studies showed that T-Ag and Bag3 physically interact with each other through the zinc-finger of T-Ag and the proline rich domains of Bag3, and this interaction is important for the autophagic degradation of T-Ag. Our observations open a new avenue of research for better understanding of virus-host interaction by investigating the interplay between T-Ag and Bag3, and their impact on the development of JCV-associated diseases.

  5. FibreBags vs. FibreCaps for acid and neutral detergent fibre analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto , Jason

    2003-01-01

    International audience; A new procedure for determining acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (ADF and NDF) was developed to reduce the need for filtration and to allow for batch processing of forage samples. The FibreBag system is an economically necessary evolution of the earlier FibreCap system. The purpose of this enquiry was to determine if the FibreBag is a suitable replacement for the FibreCap. The FibreBag method produced very similar results to the FibreCap system of analy...

  6. Using small meshed collecting bags on trawls to quantify trawls seabed disturbance of aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    activities has been documented by collecting samples before and after the fishing process or by comparing areas of different fishing intensity. These investigations are expensive and labor demanding and are inappropriate for documenting effects of smaller technological changes aimed at reducing trawling...... impact on commercial fishing grounds. In this study we develop and test small-meshed collecting bags designed to retain juvenile fish and benthic megafauna. The collecting bags are mounted in the wings and body of the trawl. The catches in the collection bags provide information of the species and size...

  7. Adsorption of erythropoietin and growth hormone to peritoneal dialysis bags and tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, C H; Swinkels, L M; Reddingius, R E; Sweep, F G; Willems, H L; Monnens, L A

    2001-01-01

    To study the adsorption of erythropoietin and growth hormone to dialysis bags and tubing. In vitro study in which radiolabeled erythropoietin and recombinant human growth hormone were added to small-volume (50- and 250-mL) dialysis bags. Recovery was measured after 15-minute dwells. Experiments were performed in triplicate. University hospital. Adsorption of erythropoietin and growth hormone was less than 7%. Adsorption of erythropoietin and recombinant human growth hormone to dialysis bags and tubing is minimal. This finding provides another argument in favor of intraperitoneal therapy in pediatric peritoneal dialysis.

  8. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlana, David; Sabin, Pilar; Gimeno-Ballester, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Zapata-Rojas, Amalia; Marquez, Esther; Martínez-Cutillas, Julio; Schoenenberger-Arnaiz, Joan Anton

    2013-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions) versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag), both prepared in hospital pharmacies. This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls) in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment) were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16 ± 5.63 € versus 39.69 ± 3.00 € respectively (p system was a mean of 25.9 minutes longer than the three-compartment system. In scenarios using a three-compartment system for 30%, 70% and 90% of PN provision, a cost savings of 4.3%, 10.1% and 12.9% respectively could be achieved. Greatest rates of changing from customized bags (70% and 90%), in a hospital with 1,800 PN bags/year, might reduce the annual budget by 9306 € and 11,964.8 €, respectively. Meanwhile, in a large facility the savings for 8,000 TPN days would be 64,248 € and 82,605 €, respectively. Since seeking cost-reduction of effective treatments

  9. Investigation and Evaluation of the Effect to Environmental Pollution of Plastic Shopping Bags

    OpenAIRE

    DURAK, Sevgi Güneş

    2016-01-01

    Shopping which is related to the level of economic development, except for consumption necessities such as eating-drinking-dressing, is taken up a wide space extremely in today’s conditions. By increasing in the number of shopping, environmental pollution increases, too. Plastic bags (shopping bags) used in shopping have a duration of extinction in the nature 400-1000 years, during this time, plastic bags enter the food web and are toxic for human and other livings as a soil pollutant; cause ...

  10. The small surface oscillations of the gluon tube: The elongated bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laperashvili, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate surface oscillations on a bag tube, inside of which is spanned a longitudinal color electric field, and calculate the masses for such vibrations conceived of as quasi-particles on the string. This represents the bag tube for several suggestive values of the parameters in the bag model. Contrary to similar calculations by Vladimirsky, we consider the case where there is a surface tension and we consider higher than zero angular momentum modes. The nonzero angular momentum modes have zero mass in the case of zero surface tension (when higher quantum corrections are ignored). Our considerations point towards the surface tension not being zero. (orig.)

  11. Effectiveness of oxygen barrier oven bags in low temperature cooking on reduction of warmed-over flavor in beef roasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Keller, W L; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Berg, P T

    2014-03-01

    A 3×3×2 factorial was utilized to determine if roast size (small, medium, large), cooking method (open-pan, oven bag, vacuum bag), and heating process (fresh, reheated) prevented warmed-over flavor (WOF) in beef clod roasts. Fresh vacuum bag and reheated open-pan roasts had higher cardboardy flavor scores compared with fresh open-pan roast scores. Reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags did not differ from fresh roasts for cardboardy flavor. Brothy and fat intensity were increased in reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags compared with fresh roasts in oven and vacuum bags. Differences in TBARS were found in the interaction of heating process and roast size with the fresh and reheated large, and reheated medium roasts having the lowest values. Based on TBARS data, to prevent WOF in reheated beef roasts, a larger size roast in a cooking bag is the most effective method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of cement plant dust emission by bag filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Purnomo, Chandra; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Alfisyah, Muziibu; Triyono

    2018-03-01

    The limestone quarry in PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (ITP) in Cirebon is considered as a complex quarry in terms of chemical composition and material hardness. From the beginning of the plant operation up to the end of 2015, the dust removal was rely on electrostatic precipitator (EP) system. Whenever limestone from specific quarry zones were incorporated into Raw Mill (RM) feed or there was an upset condition, the dust emission increased significantly. Beside higher demand of electricity, an EP system requires lower gas inlet temperature in order to remove the dust effectively which requires larger cooling water in the previous gas conditioning tower to cool down gas from 400 °C to about 100 °C. By considering the drawbacks, the EP system was replaced by a bag filter (BF) system. The BF allows higher temperature of gas inlet and it has higher dust removal efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of the two different dust removal systems is compared. The effect of process variables i.e. RM feed, kiln feed, inlet temperature and pressure, and small size particle fraction to the dust emission are studied by multivariate linier regression analysis. It is observed that the BF system can reduce significantly the dust emission from 30 to 6 mg/m3 and in the same time reducing CO2 emission by 0.24 ton/year from the electricity consumption saving.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  14. Fungal and fumonisins contamination in Argentine maize (Zea mays L.) silo bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacin, Ana M; Ciancio Bovier, Emilia; González, Héctor H L; Whitechurch, Elena M; Martínez, Elena J; Resnik, Silvia L

    2009-04-08

    Fumonisins in maize (Zea mays L.) grain silo bags in the conditions of three Argentine provinces were analyzed to determine how this kind of storage affects contamination and if differential storage durations or times of the year of silo bag closing and opening are factors that could modify it. Moisture content, water activity (a(w)), molds and yeasts present, and fumonisins were analyzed in 163 maize silo bags, at the moment of closing and later at opening. Storage durations ranged from 120 to 226 days. The analysis was centered on fumonisins since most samples were only contaminated with these toxins. Fumonisins, moisture content, and a(w) increased significantly, whereas mold propagules/g and yeasts CFU/g did not present significant differences between silo opening and closing. The date on which silo bags were closed and later opened, however, did affect the level of fumonisin contamination.

  15. Increase the use of the stone dust bagged barrier enhancing its application for differing conditions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available This report summarises the results of work on bagged stone dust barrier for stopping the flame propagation of a coal dust explosion in the 200m GP badenhorst test gallery at the kloppersbos research facility....

  16. Bagged stone dust barrier evaluations in a bord and pillar mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of this report was to evaluate single bag performance at various positions in the gallery when exposed to different explosions. These methane explosions varied in strength and position to generate varied explosion pulses...

  17. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle...... are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste...... requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should...

  18. Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia: a Bag-of-Words Classifier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Belani, Amit

    2010-01-01

    A bag-of-words based probabilistic classifier is trained using regularized logistic regression to detect vandalism in the English Wikipedia. Isotonic regression is used to calibrate the class membership probabilities. Learning curve, reliability, ROC, and cost analysis are performed.

  19. A case report of intraocular lens luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kenji; Bando, Masayasu; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    We experienced a case of intraocular lens (IOL) luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy. The case was a 66-year-old female in whom an IOL was implanted one year after surgery for giant tear retinal detachment using silicone oil. Four years after the implantation surgery, the patient suffered subluxation of the IOL with the capsular bag. Examinations of the luxated IOL with the capsular bag using a stereoscopic microscope confirmed the presence of silicone oil droplets between the capsule and the IOL. Adhesion of vitreous body residues was observed in the capsule. Luxation of the IOL was thought to be connected with chronic inflammation resulting from the use of silicone oil and repeated vitrectomy. In addition to examining pathological findings of luxated IOL, it would also be important in the future to identify the pathology of the capsular bag.

  20. Multipurpose Waste Disposal Bags for Heat Melt Compactor Application, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trash bags from the International Space Station (ISS) are currently stored on-board until they are returned to earth for disposal. Alternate methods are seriously...

  1. An examination of safety reports involving electronic flight bags and portable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a better understanding of safety considerations with the use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) and Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) by examining safety reports from Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS),...

  2. Temperature and baryon-chemical-potential-dependent bag pressure for a deconfining phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, B.K.; Singh, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    We explore the consequences of a bag model developed by Leonidov et al. for the deconfining phase transition in which the bag pressure is made to depend on the temperature and baryon chemical potential in order to ensure the entropy and baryon number conservation at the phase boundary together with the Gibbs construction for an equilibrium phase transition. We show that the bag pressure thus obtained yields an anomalous increasing behavior with the increasing baryon chemical potential at a fixed temperature which defies a physical interpretation. We demonstrate that the inclusion of the perturbative interactions in the QGP phase removes this difficulty. Further consequences of the modified bag pressure are discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinitt, C A M; Wood, J; Lee, S S; Williams, A C; Howarth, J L; Glover, C P; Uney, J B; Hague, A

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  5. Microbial quality of bagged baby spinach and romaine lettuce: effects of top versus bottom sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Julie A; Borenstein, Stacey; Blodgett, Robert J; Feng, Peter C H

    2012-01-01

    Contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have called into question the safety and microbial quality of bagged ready-to-eat leafy greens. This study expands on previous findings that these goods have high total bacteria counts (TBC) and coliform counts, variation in counts among different lots, that Escherichia coli is present, and disparities in counts when bags are top or bottom sampled. Nearly 100 bags of baby spinach and hearts of romaine lettuce from a single brand were subjected to both top and bottom sampling. Product was blended, and a portion serially diluted and plated to obtain TBC. Total coliform and E. coli levels were estimated by the most-probable-number (MPN) technique with ColiComplete discs. Top-sampled TBC from bags of baby spinach (48 bags, 13 different lots) ranged from 3.9 to 8.1 log CFU/g and bottom-sampled TBC ranged from 4.0 to 8.2 log CFU/g, with 52% of the bags (or 39% of the lots) producing TBC higher in bottom samples. For hearts of romaine (47 bags from 19 different lots), top-sampled bags had TBC ranging from 2.4 to 7.0 log, and bottom-sampled bags had TBC from 3.3 to 7.3 log, with 64% of the bags (or 63% of the lots) showing higher TBC in bottom samples. However, we are unable to reject the hypothesis that the top and bottom samples from either commodity contain the same TBC (P ≥ 0.08). No E. coli was detected and total coliform bacteria counts were, with few exceptions, ≥210 MPN/g, irrespective of TBC. In general, lots with the most number of days before the printed "use-by" date had lower TBC. However, the R(2) values for either baby spinach (0.4085) or hearts of romaine (0.2946) suggest that age might not be a very good predictor of higher TBC. TBC varied widely between lots and even more so within same-lot samples, as indicated by the sum of squares results. This finding, along with higher TBC in bottom samples, suggests further consideration when a microbiological sampling scheme of bagged produce is

  6. Implementation of a bag medication reconciliation initiative to decrease posthospitalization medication discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Medication discrepancies occur in 70% of hospital patients, especially during discharge. In community settings, bag medication reconciliation events have demonstrated effectiveness in evaluating current medication use and identifying medication discrepancies. A bag medication reconciliation process was implemented in the hospital setting to decrease medication discrepancies by encouraging evaluation of medication adherence, side effects, and monitoring at posthospitalization follow-up. After implementation, a 7% decrease in reportable errors was noted.

  7. Biodegradable plastic bags on the seafloor: A future threat for seagrass meadows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Menicagli, Virginia; Vallerini, Flavia; Lardicci, Claudio

    2017-12-15

    Marine plastic litter is a global concern. Carrier bags manufactured from non-biodegradable polymers constitute a large component of this litter. Because of their adverse impact on marine life, non-biodegradable bags have recently been replaced by biodegradable ones. However, growing evidence shows that these latter are not readily degradable in marine sediments and can alter benthic assemblages. The potential impact of biodegradable bags on seagrasses inhabiting sandy bottoms, which are the most widespread and productive ecosystems of the coastal zones, has been ignored. Mesocosm experiments were conducted to assess the effect of a commercialized biodegradable bag on a common seagrass species of the Mediterranean, Cymodocea nodosa, both at the level of individual plant (clonal growth) and of plant community (plant-plant relationships), under three culture regimes (plant alone, in combination with a neighbour of the same species or of the co-existing seagrass Zostera noltei) simulating different natural conditions (bare substrate, monospecific meadows or mixed meadows). The bag behaviour in marine sediment and sediment physical/chemical variables were also examined. After six months of sediment exposure, the bag retained considerable mass (85% initial weight) and reduced sediment pore-water oxygen concentration and pH. In the presence of bag, C. nodosa root spread and vegetative recruitment increased compared to controls, both intra- and interspecific interactions shifted from neutral to competitive, and the growth form changed from guerrilla (loosely arranged group of widely spaced ramets) to phalanx form (compact structure of closed spaced ramets) but only with Z. noltei. These findings suggest that biodegradable bags altering sediment geochemistry could promote the spatial segregation of seagrass clones and influence species coexistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valent?n; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-t...

  9. Mechanisms of Loss of Agricultural Odorous Compounds in Sample Bags of Nalophan, Tedlar, and PTFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Pernille Lund; Oxbøl, Arne; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Feilberg, Anders

    2018-03-01

    Alteration of the chemical composition of odor samples during storage in polymer sample bags can significantly impair the accuracy of subsequent odor evaluations. To overcome or minimize this effect, the mechanisms determining compound loss must be more thoroughly understood. The present study examines the storage stability of a selection of key odorants from livestock production in polymer sample bags of Nalophan, Tedlar, and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The compounds included are acetic acid, butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, trimethylamine, and 4-methylphenol. The fate of the unrecovered compound fractions is clarified by means of thermal desorption and concentric double bags, allowing estimation of the magnitude of losses due to adsorption and diffusion, respectively. The degree of recovery was found to be PTFE > Tedlar > Nalophan, and smaller ratios of bag surface area to sample volume improved the recovery significantly. Furthermore, PTFE bags were found far superior for maintaining the original sample humidity and for storing 4-methylphenol. Analysis of sample humidity, partitioning coefficients, and thermal desorption suggested that the loss in PTFE bags was mainly controlled by adsorption, whereas for Nalophan and Tedlar, compound loss is a combined effect of adsorption and diffusion. It is suggested to heat the bags when evacuating the sample for analysis, as this was found to improve the recovery significantly. For a 5-L PTFE bag, all odorants could be found at concentration levels between 71.6 and 98.8% even after 48 h of storage when heated to 57°C prior to analysis. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. The center-of-mass bag model and the Lorentz-boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.M.

    1984-01-01

    A center-of-mass (CM) bag model and its cavity approximation are suggested by introducing a phenomenological four-potential of confinement and the CM four-vector. This model, equivalent to the MIT version on the rest CM-frame, seems to provide a field-theory interpretation of our previous assumptions about the collective motion of bagged quarks and can be readily quantized. (orig.)

  11. Modified bag models for the quark–gluon plasma equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begun, V.V.; Gorenstein, M.I.; Mogilevsky, O.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modified versions of the bag model equation of state (EoS) are considered. They are constructed to satisfy the main qualitative features observed for the quark–gluon plasma EoS in the lattice QCD calculations. A quantitative comparison with the lattice results at high temperatures T are done in the SU(3) gluodynamics and in the full QCD with dynamical quarks. Our analysis advocates a negative value of the bag constant B. (author)

  12. Cloudy bag model calculation of P11 πN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1981-05-01

    πN, πΔ scattering in the cloudy bag model (CBM) is considered using an elementary π field and bare bag states for N, Δ, Nsup(*)(1470). The resulting 2-channel problem is solved neglecting intermediate states with anti-baryons and states with more than a single pion. It is shown that delta 11 may be reproduced for parameters close to their theoretical values. The fit thus provides a test for the CBM. (author)

  13. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Liziana Maria; Almeida, Fernando Queiroz de; Pereira, Marcos Barreto; Miranda, Ana Cláudia Tavares; Guimarães, Andresa; Andrade, Agnaldo Machado de

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross) with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa), peanut (Arachis pintoi) and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric i...

  14. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Results Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015 and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045. Conclusion Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  15. Some Insights into Analytical Bias Involved in the Application of Grab Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds: A Case Study against Used Tedlar Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches. PMID:22235175

  16. Measuring the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of sleeping bags using a supine sweating fabric manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y S; Fan, Jintu

    2009-01-01

    For testing the thermal insulation of sleeping bags, standard test methods and procedures using heated manikins are provided in ASTM F1720-06 and EN 13537:2002. However, with regard to the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, no instrument or test method has so far been established to give a direct measurement. In this paper, we report on a novel supine sweating fabric manikin system for directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags. Eleven sleeping bags were tested using the manikin under the isothermal condition, namely, both the mean skin temperature of the manikin and that of the environment were controlled to be the same at 35 °C, with the wind speed and ambient relative humidity at 0.3 m s −1 and 50%, respectively. The results showed that the novel supine sweating fabric manikin is reproducible and accurate in directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, and the measured evaporative resistance can be combined with thermal insulation to calculate the moisture permeability index of sleeping bags

  17. Disinfection of the Peritoneal Dialysis Bag Medication Port: Comparison of Disinfectant Agent and Disinfection Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adriana; Katzap, Roberta Monteiro; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; Pagnussatti, Vany; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth

    2017-07-13

    To compare different disinfection techniques for the peritoneal dialysis bag medication port (MP). An experimental study was conducted testing different cleaning agents (70% alcohol vs 2% chlorhexidine) and time periods (5, 10 and 60 seconds) for disinfection of the MP. Five microorganisms (S. aureus, E.coli, A. baumannii and C. parapsilosis, CNS) were prepared for use as contaminants of the MP. MP were incubated in Tryptic soy broth at 36 °C for 24 h, after which, they were seeded on a Biomérieux® blood agar plate and incubated for 24 h at 36 °C. 300 peritoneal dialysis bags were analyzed regarding the time expose to the disinfectant showed a statistically significant difference in the number of culture positive (7/100) p = 0.001; Gram positive (6/100) p = 0.006 for five seconds, one positive culture and turbid bag with ten seconds, while friction for 60 seconds showed all negative results. The comparison between disinfectant, alcohol or chlorhexidine, 150 bag in each group, showed that the ones disinfected with alcohol had 5 turbid bags, 8 positive cultures and 7 germs identified, while all bags disinfected with chlorhexidine were negative for all parameters, with a difference statistically significant (p = 0.004). Our results suggest that the MP should be scrubbed with 2% chlorhexidine for at least 5 seconds; if alcohol 70% is used the length of friction should not be inferior to 10 seconds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Bag-model analyses of proton-antiproton scattering and atomic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberg, M.A.; Freedman, R.A.; Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.P.; Seckel, D.; Wilets, L.

    1983-01-01

    We study proton-antiproton (pp-bar ) scattering using the static real potential of Bryan and Phillips outside a cutoff radius rsub0 and two different shapes for the imaginary potential inside a radius R*. These forms, motivated by bag models, are a one-gluon-annihilation potential and a simple geometric-overlap form. In both cases there are three adjustable parameters: the effective bag radius R*, the effective strong coupling constant αsubssup*, and rsub0. There is also a choice for the form of the real potential inside the cutoff radius rsub0. Analysis of the pp-bar scattering data in the laboratory-momentum region 0.4--0.7 GeV/c yields an effective nucleon bag radius R* in the range 0.6--1.1 fm, with the best fit obtained for R* = 0.86 fm. Arguments are presented that the deduced value of R* is likely to be an upper bound on the isolated nucleon bag radius. The present results are consistent with the range of bag radii in current bag models. We have also used the resultant optical potential to calculate the shifts and widths of the sup3Ssub1 and sup1Ssub0 atomic bound states of the pp-bar system. For both states we find upward (repulsive) shifts and widths of about 1 keV. We find no evidence for narrow, strongly bound pp-bar states in our potential model

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsyina, H R; Nguhiu-Mwangi, J; Mogoa, E G M; Mbuthia, P G; Ogara, W O

    2018-02-08

    The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in the Nairobi and Kajiado Counties, Kenya, on the usage, disposal, and effect of plastic waste on sheep and goats (shoats). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 384 respondents in four communities in the two counties. Most of the people irrespective of their age, occupation, and educational status used plastic bags of some type on a daily basis. A high proportion of the respondents (37.0%, 142) used plastic bags because of the low cost. Approximately, 79.1% (304) disposed used plastic bags in open dumps. A total of 147 (38.3%) households kept shoats. Out of these, 38.1% (56) purchased feed and also allowed their animals to roam. Most of them (45.3%, 174) thought that lack of feed for the animals was the main reason why shoats roam and scavenge at refuse dump sites and road sides. A large proportion of the respondents (44.5%, 143) mentioned death of animals as the ultimate consequence of ingestion of waste plastic bags. Though, the respondents were aware that indiscriminate disposal of used plastic bags could result in death of the animals from which they derive their livelihoods, they nevertheless continued with the practice. There is a need for a paradigm shift in the way and manner plastic bags are used and disposed.

  20. Quark compound Bag model for NN scattering up to 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, C.; Lee, T.S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A Quark Compound Bag model has been constructed to describe NN s-wave scattering up to 1 GeV. The model contains a vertex interaction H/sub D/leftrightarrow/NN/ for describing the excitation of a confined six-quark Bag state, and a meson-exchange interaction obtained from modifying the phenomenological core of the Paris potential. Explicit formalisms and numerical results are presented to reveal the role of the Bag excitation mechanism in determining the relative wave function, P- and S-matrix of NN scattering. We explore the merit as well as the shortcoming of the Quark Compound Bag model developed by the ITEP group. It is shown that the parameters of the vertex interaction H/sub D/leftrightarrow/NN/ can be more rigorously determined from the data if the notation of the Chiral/Cloudy Bag model is used to allow the presence of the background meson-exchange interaction inside Bag excitation region. The application of the model in the study of quark degrees of freedom in nuclei is discussed. 41 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation - Case carrier bags; Liiketoiminnan sopeuttaminen ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnaen vaatimuksiin (OPTIKASSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Mattila, T.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Soukka, R. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Department of Energy and Environmental Technology (Finland)); Kujanpaeae, M. (KCL Science and Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Shopping bags have been a prominent topic of debate lately. Many countries have banned disposable bags or imposed a tax on them. The motives have been to avoid littering, reduce reliance on oil, and curb climate change. Restrictions are also justified by the accumulation of plastic garbage in the oceans, and by the damage to marine organisms. The environmental effects of production, use, and disposal of shopping bags are small compared with other consumption. However, the choice of a shopping bag is repeated every week, and the consumer is not sure about the consequences of each alternative. To reduce this uncertainty the OPTIKASSI study was made. The study called 'Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation . case shopping bags, OPTIKASSI project' was implemented to study shopping bag alternatives in Finnish grocery stores, and the effects of the bags on climate change and the possibilities to mitigate them. Finnish Environment Institute and Lappeenranta University of Technology were responsible for the study, funded by Tekes ClimBus Programme, and the bag producers Suominen Flexible Packaging Ltd, Plastiroll Oy (Ltd), UPM-Kymmene LtdWisapaper and CabassiOy. The goal of the OPTIKASSI project was to compile lifecycle based information about the climate effects of the most typical shopping bags. It was also desirable to find the best consumption and waste management solutions for bags made of various materials. Products compared were plastic bags of virgin material, and of recycled material, paper bags, canvas bags, and shopping bags of biodegradable plastic. According to the results the shopping bags are an insignificant part of the climate effects of a Finnish household, but negligent use of bags may multiply the effects. Based on scenario, sensitivity, and ambiguity studies: garbage bags should be replaced by plastic bags, and the bins packed full and tight, incineration is not sensible; paper bags should be

  3. Ensacamento de frutos de pereira cv. Housui Bagging of nashi pear cv. Housui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dagoberto Faoro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de frutos de pêra japonesa cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta ensacados com diferentes tipos de sacos de papel e em duas épocas: 34 e 83 dias após a florada. O ensacamento não influenciou na firmeza, no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e no peso médio dos frutos. Sacos vermelhos não induziram aumento do pH da polpa, mas o uso de sacos duplos, sacos marrons, sacos de papel kraft marrons e sacos de pipoca brancos aumentaram significativamente o pH. Ao buscar-se maior precocidade de colheita, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de sacos pequenos de papel manteiga aos 34 dias após a floração e o uso de sacos grandes duplos ou sacos grandes marrons, 83 dias após a plena floração. O ensacamento 34 dias após a plena floração, com sacos grandes de papel duplo de cor marrom ou sacos de papel kraft marrons, ou ainda o uso de sacos pequenos parafinados transparentes de papel manteiga, aos 34 dias, seguidos pela colocação, aos 83 dias, dos dois tipos de sacos grandes citados anteriormente, resultaram em frutos de melhor qualidade externa (película de coloração homogênea e mais clara, lisa e com lenticelas pouco salientes. O uso de sacos vermelhos de papel manteiga e de sacos de pipoca brancos, com ou sem ensacamento prévio com sacos pequenos de papel manteiga parafinado, não resultaram em melhoria substancial da qualidade externa do fruto.The fruit quality of Nashi pears cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta have been evaluated after bagging with different paper bags at two bagging dates: 34 and 83 days after full bloom. The bagging did not affect the fruit firmness, the total soluble solids and the average fruit weight. Red bags did not affect the pH of the fruit flesh. However the fruit bagged with double bags of brown color, brown kraft paper and white popcorn paper increased the pH. In order to harvest precociously, the use of small transparent paraffin paper bags 34 days after full bloom

  4. Protection against head injuries should not be optional: a case for mandatory installation of side-curtain air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Lance E; Nirula, Raminder; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2010-10-01

    More than 9,000 vehicle occupants die each year in side-impact vehicle collisions, primarily from head injuries. The authors hypothesized that side-curtain air bags significantly improve head and neck safety in side-impact crash testing. Side-impact crash-test data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which ranks occupant protection as good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. Vehicles of the same make and model that underwent side-impact crash testing both with and without side-curtain air bags were compared, as well as the protective effect of these air bags on occupants' risk for head and neck injury. Of all the passenger vehicles, 25 models have undergone side-impact crash testing with and without side-curtain air bags by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Only 3 models without side-curtain air bags (12%) provided good head and neck protection for drivers, while 21 cars with side-curtain air bags (84%) provided good protection (P bags was less dramatic but significant (84% without vs 100% with side-curtain air bags, P = .04). Side-curtain air bags significantly improve vehicle occupant safety in side-impact crash tests. Installation of these air bags should be federally mandated in all passenger vehicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Agronomical indicators and incidence of insect borers of tomato fruits protected with non-woven fabric bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenya Michely Cintra Filgueiras

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fruit bagging is an efficient mechanical control technique used in fruit growing. However, to date, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of bagging in the cultivation of vegetables, including tomato crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bagging of tomato flowers and/or fruits using a non-woven fabric (NWF for the control of Helicoverpa spp., Neoleucinodes elegantalis, and Tuta absoluta, to evaluate the effect of this technique on the final yield, and determine the optimal period for bagging. Tests were conducted in a commercial crop of staked ‘Valerin’ tomato plants located in the municipality of Ubajara, Ceará State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 2x4 factorial design (sprayed versus unsprayed plants, and both plant groups were bagged with NWF bags at different growth stages [flowers bagging, bagging of bunches of fruits with a diameter of 1.5cm, bagging of bunches of fruits with a diameter of 3.0cm, and unbagged bunches (control], with five repetitions. We evaluated the number of fruits per bunch, number of bunches per plant, weight of each fruit, longitudinal and transverse diameter, percentage of bored fruits, yield loss caused by insect infestation, and final yield. Bagging of ‘Valerin’ tomato bunches with NWF bags was effective for the control of N. elegantalis, and productivity increased by 21.5% when bagging was done in bunches of fruits with a diameter of 1.5cm compared with unbagged fruits; therefore, this growth period was the most suitable for bagging.

  6. ADHD classification using bag of words approach on network features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Dey, Soumyabrata; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Shah, Mubarak

    2012-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is receiving lots of attention nowadays mainly because it is one of the common brain disorders among children and not much information is known about the cause of this disorder. In this study, we propose to use a novel approach for automatic classification of ADHD conditioned subjects and control subjects using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of resting state brains. For this purpose, we compute the correlation between every possible voxel pairs within a subject and over the time frame of the experimental protocol. A network of voxels is constructed by representing a high correlation value between any two voxels as an edge. A Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach is used to represent each subject as a histogram of network features; such as the number of degrees per voxel. The classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We also investigate the use of raw intensity values in the time series for each voxel. Here, every subject is represented as a combined histogram of network and raw intensity features. Experimental results verified that the classification accuracy improves when the combined histogram is used. We tested our approach on a highly challenging dataset released by NITRC for ADHD-200 competition and obtained promising results. The dataset not only has a large size but also includes subjects from different demography and edge groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose BoW approach in any functional brain disorder classification and we believe that this approach will be useful in analysis of many brain related conditions.

  7. Preliminary enviromagnetic comparison of the moss, lichen, and filter fabric bags to air pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Salo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.

  8. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  9. BAG3-related myopathy, polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy with long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Suszek, Małgorzata; Płoski, Rafał; Franaszczyk, Maria; Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Sadurska, Elżbieta; Karolczak, Justyna; Kamińska, Anna M; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    BAG3 belongs to BAG family of molecular chaperone regulators interacting with HSP70 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. It is ubiquitously expressed with strong expression in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and is involved in a panoply of cellular processes. Mutations in BAG3 and aberrations in its expression cause fulminant myopathies, presenting with progressive limb and axial muscle weakness, and respiratory insufficiency and neuropathy. Herein, we report a sporadic case of a 15-years old girl with symptoms of myopathy, demyelinating polyneuropathy and asymptomatic long QT syndrome. Genetic testing demonstrated heterozygous mutation Pro209Leu (c.626C > T) in exon 3 of BAG3 gene causing severe myopathy and neuropathy, often associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy. We did not find a mutation in any known LQT syndrome genes. Analysis of muscle biopsy revealed profound disintegration of Z-discs with extensive accumulation of granular debris and large inclusions within fibers. We demonstrated profound alterations in BAG3 distribution as the protein localized to long filamentous structures present across the fibers that were positively stained not only for α-actinin but also for desmin and filamin indicating that those disintegrated Z-disc regions contained also other sarcomeric proteins. The mutation caused a decrease in the content of BAG3 and HSP70, and also of α-actinin desmin, filamin and fast myosin heavy chain, confirming its severe effect on the muscle fiber morphology and thus function. We provide further evidence that BAG3 is associated with Z-disc maintenance, and the Pro209Leu mutation may occur worldwide. We also provide a summary of cases associated with this mutation reported so far.

  10. Safety and durability of low-density polyethylene bags in solar water disinfection applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danwittayakul, Supamas; Songngam, Supachai; Fhulua, Tipawan; Muangkasem, Panida; Sukkasi, Sittha

    2017-08-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings. This work investigated the degradation of LDPE bags used in the new design in actual SODIS conditions over a period of 12 weeks. The degradation of the LDPE bags was investigated weekly using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and tensile strength tester. It was found that the LDPE bags gradually degraded under the sunlight due to photo-oxidation reactions, especially in the outer bags, which were directly exposed to the sun and surroundings, leading to the reduction of light transmittance (by 11% at 300 nm) and tensile strength (by 33%). In addition, possible leaching of organic compounds into the water contained in the inner bags was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was found in some SODIS water samples as well as the as-received water samples, in the concentration range of 1-4 μg/L, which passes the Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Guidance on Disinfection By-Products.

  11. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer

  14. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia eMendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e. 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag and display condition (single vs. motion imaging. There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others, the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view. In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening.

  15. Late anterior traumatic subluxation of a circular in-the-bag intraocular lens associated with lack of posterior capsule opacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billotte, Christian; Stéfani, Pierre; Lecoq, Pierre

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of traumatic subluxation of a circular poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens (IOL) 5 years after surgery. Slitlamp examination revealed the lack of epithelial cells or fibrosis in the intact capsule bag. Trauma was minor, and no other complication was found in the eye and orbit. The subluxated IOL was easily relocated in the bag with a hook, revealing the poor capsule sealing. Among the factors ensuring the fixation of IOLs placed in the bag after continuous curvilinear capsulotomy are sealing of the anterior and posterior capsules and proliferation of epithelial cells from the equator of the bag.

  16. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian; Michel, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e., 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence) was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag) and display condition (single vs. motion imaging). There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others), the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop) and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view). In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening.

  17. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos; Jesús Jarillo-Rodríguez; Ismael Cortes-Salazar; Braulio Valles-De la Mora; Eliazar Ocaña-Zavaleta

    2012-01-01

    The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum) dry matter (DMD %) were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc) and bags (Vb) per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE) of mean DMD. The ...

  18. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  19. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  20. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2. The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD.

  1. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  2. The Practicalities of Crowdsourcing: Lessons from the Tea Bag Index - UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddigan, Sarah; Alexander, Paul; Shaw, Liz; Collins, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The Tea Bag Index -UK is a collaborative project between the University of Reading and the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), working with members of the gardening community as citizen scientists. This project aims to quantify how decomposition varies across the country, and whether decomposition is influenced by how gardeners manage their soil, particularly with respect to the application of compost. Launched in 2015 as part of a PhD project, the Tea Bag Index- UK project asks willing volunteers to bury tea bags in their gardens, as part of a large scale, litter bag style decomposition rate study. Over 450 sets of tea bags have been dispatched to participants, across the length and breadth of the UK. The group was largely recruited via social media, magazine articles and public engagement events and active discourse was undertaken with these citizen scientists using Facebook, Twitter and regular email communication. In order to run a successful crowdsourcing citizen science project there are number of stages that need to be considered including (but not limited to): planning; launch and recruitment; communications; and feedback. Throughout a project of this nature an understanding of the motivations of your volunteers is vital. Reflecting on these motivations while publicising the project, and communicating regularly with its participants is incredibly important for a successful project.

  3. Bag bioreactor based on wave-induced motion: characteristics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Regine; Werner, Sören; Eibl, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Today wave-mixed bag bioreactors are common devices in modern biotechnological processes where simple, safe and flexible production has top priority. Numerous studies that have been published on ex vivo generation of cells, viruses and therapeutic agents during the last 10 years have confirmed their suitability and even superiority to stirred bioreactors made from glass or stainless steel for animal as well as plant cell cultivations. In these studies the wave-mixed bag bioreactors enabled middle to high cell density and adequate productivity in laboratory and pilot scale. This mainly results from low-shear conditions and highly efficient oxygen transfer for cell cultures, as demonstrated for the widely used BioWave((R)).Starting with an overview of wave-mixed bag bioreactors and their common operation strategies, this chapter delineates engineering aspects of BioWave((R)), which like Wave Reactor and BIOSTAT((R))CultiBag RM originates from the prototype of a wave-mixed bag bioreactor introduced in 1998. Subsequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on reported BioWave((R)) applications. Conditions and results from cultivations with animal cells, plant cells, microbial cells and nematodes are presented and discussed.

  4. Quantitative analysis of insulin in total parenteral nutrition bag in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Hua; Tsao, Hui-Liang; Lin, Shun-Jin; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Regular insulin can reduce hyperglycemia when directly added to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions. Insulin is not routinely added to all TPN solutions. For patients who require insulin prior to the initiation of TPN supplement, one-third to one-half of the usual total daily dose can be added to the TPN bag as regular human insulin. However, an incorrect dose or an interaction between insulin and the TPN bag material may affect blood sugar control in clinical practice. Therefore, it is important to quantitatively determine the final dose of insulin in the TPN bag. High performance liquid chromatography is a very powerful technique for determining the purity of proteins. The goal of this study was to use high-performance liquid chromatography to perform quantitative analysis of insulin in a TPN bag. The analysis was performed under different light conditions (UV, fluorescent, and darkness) and different temperatures (25°C and 2-8°C). The results show that adsorption of insulin on an ethylene vinyl acetate TPN bag is significantly higher than that on glass. Based on the results, it is evident that regular insulin should be administered separately from TPN to reduce cost and eliminate wasteful disposal of TPN solutions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Quantitative analysis of insulin in total parenteral nutrition bag in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hua Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular insulin can reduce hyperglycemia when directly added to total parenteral nutrition (TPN solutions. Insulin is not routinely added to all TPN solutions. For patients who require insulin prior to the initiation of TPN supplement, one-third to one-half of the usual total daily dose can be added to the TPN bag as regular human insulin. However, an incorrect dose or an interaction between insulin and the TPN bag material may affect blood sugar control in clinical practice. Therefore, it is important to quantitatively determine the final dose of insulin in the TPN bag. High performance liquid chromatography is a very powerful technique for determining the purity of proteins. The goal of this study was to use high-performance liquid chromatography to perform quantitative analysis of insulin in a TPN bag. The analysis was performed under different light conditions (UV, fluorescent, and darkness and different temperatures (25°C and 2–8°C. The results show that adsorption of insulin on an ethylene vinyl acetate TPN bag is significantly higher than that on glass. Based on the results, it is evident that regular insulin should be administered separately from TPN to reduce cost and eliminate wasteful disposal of TPN solutions.

  6. Management of subluxated capsular bag-fixated intraocular lenses using a capsular anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Yokrat; Naftali, Modi; Gortzak, Ruth Lapid; Assia, Ehud I

    2016-05-01

    We describe the use of the capsular anchor (AssiAnchor) to manage a subluxated intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The anchor comprises 2 prongs that hold the anterior lens capsule and a central rod that is sutured to the scleral wall, enabling centration of the IOL-capsular bag complex. Six pseudophakic patients presenting with subluxated posterior chamber IOLs in the capsular bag were operated on using the device. The anchor was used successfully in all cases, although in 2 cases only 1 prong was placed under the capsulorhexis edge. In 1 eye, 2 anchors were used 1 month apart following repeated traumatic zonular injury. The capsular bag holding the IOL remained centered and stable throughout the follow-up period. The anchoring device, which was originally designed to preserve the lens capsule and stabilize subluxated crystalline lenses, can also be used to treat subluxation of a capsular bag-fixated IOL. Dr. Assia is the inventor of the AssiAnchor, has a licensed patent of the anchor, and is consultant to Hanita Lenses. Dr. Lapid-Gortzak is a consultant to and speaker for Alcon Surgical, Inc., Hanita Lenses, Orca Surgical, and Sanoculis Ltd.; a speaker for Santen; and a consultant to Icon. Drs. Ton and Naftali have no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing sterile bag rubbing and paint on technique in skin preparation of the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Justin; Choudhary, Anwar; Dhillon, Raminder S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two techniques for surgical site skin preparation in hand surgery. We compared the standard sponge paint technique versus a plastic bag immersion technique using a 10% povidone-iodine with alcohol solution (Betadine, ORION Laboratories Pty Ltd, Balcatta,WA,Australia) to prepare surgical site skin for hand surgery. This sterile bag rubbing technique involves using a sterile plastic bag filled with 60 mL of Betadine solution to immerse the subjects' hand. Samples were taken from 10 subjects for bacteria colony-forming unit (CFU) counts before and 3 min after surgical site preparation in each group. Outcome measures were preparation time and CFU reduction with a plate impression test using commercially available agar slides. The sterile bag rubbing technique significantly reduced (P technique (86 s). Both techniques were found to have similar efficacy in the reduction of CFU. The sterile bag rubbing technique is a quicker alternative method for surgical site preparation in hand surgery and has comparable efficacy to the widely practised standard paint-on technique.

  8. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C; Ubeda, J L; Alfaro, P; Dahmani, Y; Aznar, M; Canellas, E; Ausejo, R

    2014-05-09

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  9. Bag Bioreactor Based on Wave-Induced Motion: Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Regine; Werner, Sören; Eibl, Dieter

    Today wave-mixed bag bioreactors are common devices in modern biotechnological processes where simple, safe and flexible production has top priority. Numerous studies that have been published on ex vivo generation of cells, viruses and therapeutic agents during the last 10 years have confirmed their suitability and even superiority to stirred bioreactors made from glass or stainless steel for animal as well as plant cell cultivations. In these studies the wave-mixed bag bioreactors enabled middle to high cell density and adequate productivity in laboratory and pilot scale. This mainly results from low-shear conditions and highly efficient oxygen transfer for cell cultures, as demonstrated for the widely used BioWave®.Starting with an overview of wave-mixed bag bioreactors and their common operation strategies, this chapter delineates engineering aspects of BioWave®, which like Wave Reactor™ and BIOSTAT®CultiBag RM originates from the prototype of a wave-mixed bag bioreactor introduced in 1998. Subsequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on reported BioWave® applications. Conditions and results from cultivations with animal cells, plant cells, microbial cells and nematodes are presented and discussed.

  10. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  11. A Numerical Estimation of a RFID Reader Field and SAR inside a Blood Bag at UHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Fanti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of UHF electromagnetic fields produced by a RFID reader on a blood bag are evaluated numerically in several configurations. The results of the simulation, field level and distribution, specific absorption rate (SAR, and heating time show that an exposure to a typical reader field leads to a temperature increase smaller than 0.1 C and to a SAR smaller than 1 W/kg. As a consequence, no adverse biological effects occur during a typical UHF RFID reading cycle on a blood bag. Therefore, the blood contained in a bag traced using UHF-RFID is as safe as those traced using barcodes. The proposed analysis supports the use of UHF RFID in the blood transfusion supply chain.

  12. Nosocomial epidemic of Serratia marcescens septicemia ascribed to contaminated blood transfusion bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Ole; Skov, F; Gerner-Smidt, P

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of transfusion-related Serratia marcescens bacteremia prompted extensive epidemiologic investigations in three independent hospitals. Test tubes and plasma from donors whose blood was drawn into bags from a single production batch were cultured. Analysis of the ribotype of S. marcescens...... was identified. The clinical isolates from three patients, the three units of blood transfused, and the plant-derived strain shared a unique ribotype. The incident is interpreted as a sporadic, bacterial contamination of blood bags with the S. marcescens epidemic strain, occurring during the manufacturing...... or packaging. A similar incident has not previously been reported. Attention is drawn to the possibility of significant contamination during the complex production of multiple-bag blood collection systems. Guidelines for improved registration and handling of transfusion complications in wards are suggested...

  13. Enhanced bag of words using multilevel k-means for human activity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasem Elshourbagy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to enhance the bag of features in order to improve the accuracy of human activity recognition. In this paper, human activity recognition process consists of four stages: local space time features detection, feature description, bag of features representation, and SVMs classification. The k-means step in the bag of features is enhanced by applying three levels of clustering: clustering per video, clustering per action class, and clustering for the final code book. The experimental results show that the proposed method of enhancement reduces the time and memory requirements, and enables the use of all training data in the k-means clustering algorithm. The evaluation of accuracy of action classification on two popular datasets (KTH and Weizmann has been performed. In addition, the proposed method improves the human activity recognition accuracy by 5.57% on the KTH dataset using the same detector, descriptor, and classifier.

  14. Calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y. N.; Hua, Y.

    A mathematical model of the geometry formation of an ACV bag-finger skirt is developed to determine skirt shape and its deflection for varying cushion pressures, and calculations for the reactions of supports of the rigid structure on the skirt at the inner and outer attachment points are obtained. The model assumption that the finger triangle of the two-dimensional bag-finger skirt turns around the inner attachment point with changing ratio of cushion pressure to bag pressure is confirmed by experiments using skirt rigs. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results, and it is shown that when the cushion pressure is changing, the pressure ratio is the essential dimensionless parameter for the skirt geometry formation and its deflection, and for the forces acting on it.

  15. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  16. Best practices for the safe use of parenteral nutrition multi-chamber bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sirvent

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient security is one of the key aspects of the Health-System. Parenteral Nutrition is included in the ISMP’s list of high-alert medication, being its appropiate use an essential element in maximizing effectiviness while minimizing the potential risk of errors associated with its use. Multi-chamber bags offer several advantages versus pharmacy bespoke bags. However, their apparent simplicity may induce to misuse, asuming their use requires limited consideration, thus increasing the risk of potential errors. For this reason, the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacist’s Clinical Nutrition Group considered it essential to develop a list of safety practices regarding the use of parenteral nutrition multi-chamber bags. These recommendations are based on practices globally accepted to diminish errors in PN therapy

  17. Purple urine bag syndrome: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yaqub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is an infrequent condition, seen mostly in elderly female patients, characterized by an intense purple discoloration of contents of urine bag following long-term indwelling urinary catheterization. The purple discoloration is most often due to the presence of indigo and indirubin pigments which are metabolites of tryptophan. Urinary bacteria with indoxyl sulphatase activity metabolize indoxyl sulphate to produce indigo and indirubin, particularly in alkaline urine. We report an elderly woman with a urinary tract infection and constipation who presented with PUBS. The purple urine disappeared after antibiotic therapy and change of the urine bag. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PUBS reported from this region.

  18. A safe technique for in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation in pediatric cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Sharma, Reetika; Patil, Bharat; Sinha, Gautam; Nayak, Bhagabat; Kinkhabwala, Ravish Akhilkumar

    2015-01-01

    To describe a safe technique for in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in pediatric cataract patients who undergo lens aspiration with primary posterior capsulorhexis and anterior vitrectomy. Sixty eyes of 45 consecutive patients with congenital/developmental cataract underwent lens aspiration with primary posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (PCCC) with anterior vitrectomy and in-the-bag IOL implantation using the described technique of IOL implantation using anterior capsule as support. All eyes had stable IOL at the end of surgery and none of the eyes had lens decentration/dislocation in posterior vitreous. Implantation of in-the-bag IOL is difficult in children who undergo primary PCCC with anterior vitrectomy. Our technique of implanting IOL by pushing it against the back surface of anterior capsule is a safe method and results in no complications related to faulty IOL implantation.

  19. P11 πN scattering in a potential model and in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss P 11 πN scattering in a model where the π is coupled to quark bags for baryons N, R, Δ. From the underlying qqπ couplings we derive B'Bπ vertices which are used in a solution of a πN, πΔ two-channel scattering problem. Using one bag radius from a fit to P 33 πN data, we are unable to reproduce delta 11 . A fit requires a Roper radius Rsub(R) > Rsub(N). We discuss the sensitivity of the fit to small variations in other bag parameters. The theory is compared with a simple potential model and with field theories employing baryons instead of quark fields. (orig.)

  20. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.

  1. Urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites for detecting transfusion of autologous blood stored in plasticizer-free bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) efficiently increases sport performance and is the most challenging doping method to detect. Current methods for detecting this practice center on the plasticizer di(2-ethlyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which enters the stored blood from blood bags. Quantification of this plasticizer and its metabolites in urine can detect the transfusion of autologous blood stored in these bags. However, DEHP-free blood bags are available on the market, including n-butyryl-tri-(n-hexyl)-citrate (BTHC) blood bags. Athletes may shift to using such bags to avoid the detection of urinary DEHP metabolites. A clinical randomized double-blinded two-phase study was conducted of healthy male volunteers who underwent ABT using DEHP-containing or BTHC blood bags. All subjects received a saline injection for the control phase and a blood donation followed by ABT 36 days later. Kinetic excretion of five urinary DEHP metabolites was quantified with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, considerable levels of urinary DEHP metabolites were observed up to 1 day after blood transfusion with BTHC blood bags. The long-term metabolites mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl) phthalate were the most sensitive biomarkers to detect ABT with BTHC blood bags. Levels of DEHP were high in BTHC bags (6.6%), the tubing in the transfusion kit (25.2%), and the white blood cell filter (22.3%). The BTHC bag contained DEHP, despite being labeled DEHP-free. Urinary DEHP metabolite measurement is a cost-effective way to detect ABT in the antidoping field even when BTHC bags are used for blood storage. © 2015 AABB.

  2. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride Tedlar® bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jo, Sang-Hee; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Parker, David B

    2012-01-27

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar(®)) bags for gaseous VOC sampling. Eight VOC standards (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, and isobutyl alcohol) were placed into each bag at storage times of 0, 2, and 3 days prior to analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From each bag representing each storage day, samples of 3 different mass loadings were withdrawn and analyzed to derive response factors (RF) of each chemical between the slope of the GC response (y-axis) vs. loaded mass (x-axis). The relative recoveries (RR) of VOC, if derived by dividing RF value of a given storage day by that of 0 day, varied by time, bag type, and VOC type. If the RR values after three days are compared, those of methyl isobutyl ketone were the highest with 96 (PVF) and 99% (PEA); however, the results of isobutyl alcohol were highly contrasting between the two bags with 31 and 94%, respectively. Differences in RR values between the two bag types increased with storage time, such that RR of PEA bags (88±10%) were superior to those of PVF bags (73±22%) after three days, demonstrating that VOC in PEA bags were more stable than in PVF bags. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Stinchfield

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the initial reliability, validity and classification accuracy of a new brief screen for adolescent problem gambling. The three-item Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS was derived from the nine-item Gambling Problem Severity Subscale (GPSS of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI using a secondary analysis of existing CAGI data. The sample of 105 adolescents included 49 females and 56 males from Canada who completed the CAGI, a self-administered measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling, and a clinician-administered diagnostic interview including the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling (both of which were adapted to yield DSM-5 Gambling Disorder diagnosis. A stepwise multivariate discriminant function analysis selected three GPSS items as the best predictors of a diagnosis of Gambling Disorder. The BAGS demonstrated satisfactory estimates of reliability, validity and classification accuracy and was equivalent to the nine-item GPSS of the CAGI and the BAGS was more accurate than the SOGS-RA. The BAGS estimates of classification accuracy include hit rate = 0.95, sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.98, false positive rate = 0.02, and false negative rate = 0.12. Since these classification estimates are preliminary, derived from a relatively small sample size, and based upon the same sample from which the items were selected, it will be important to cross-validate the BAGS with larger and more diverse samples. The BAGS should be evaluated for use as a screening tool in both clinical and school settings as well as epidemiological surveys.

  5. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy; Wynne, Harold; Wiebe, Jamie; Tremblay, Joel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the initial reliability, validity and classification accuracy of a new brief screen for adolescent problem gambling. The three-item Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS) was derived from the nine-item Gambling Problem Severity Subscale (GPSS) of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI) using a secondary analysis of existing CAGI data. The sample of 105 adolescents included 49 females and 56 males from Canada who completed the CAGI, a self-administered measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling, and a clinician-administered diagnostic interview including the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling (both of which were adapted to yield DSM-5 Gambling Disorder diagnosis). A stepwise multivariate discriminant function analysis selected three GPSS items as the best predictors of a diagnosis of Gambling Disorder. The BAGS demonstrated satisfactory estimates of reliability, validity and classification accuracy and was equivalent to the nine-item GPSS of the CAGI and the BAGS was more accurate than the SOGS-RA. The BAGS estimates of classification accuracy include hit rate = 0.95, sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.98, false positive rate = 0.02, and false negative rate = 0.12. Since these classification estimates are preliminary, derived from a relatively small sample size, and based upon the same sample from which the items were selected, it will be important to cross-validate the BAGS with larger and more diverse samples. The BAGS should be evaluated for use as a screening tool in both clinical and school settings as well as epidemiological surveys. PMID:29312064

  6. Introduction of vincristine mini-bags and an assessment of the subsequent risk of extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgat, Z A; Smythe, M; Al-Jedai, A; Ewing, S; Rasheed, W; Belgaumi, A; Ahmed, S O; Ashour, M; Al Agil, A; Siddiqui, K; Aljurf, M

    2015-10-01

    Numerous international organisations have advocated the preparation of vincristine in small volume intravenous bags in order to eliminate inadvertent intrathecal administration. However, the risk of extravasation is a significant deterrent, and adoption of this practice has been variable and only hesitantly accepted in the clinical setting. We carried out a study with the aims of establishing the incidence of reported extravasation of vincristine administration to paediatric and adult patients in mini-bags; here we describe motivating factors and barriers faced by clinical staff. The secondary aim was to support the need for change and implementation of the international recommendations. Chemotherapy-certified nurses completed a survey spanning August 2009 to August 2011, to ascertain the incidence of extravasation associated with the administration of vincristine in mini-bags. This period captured 421 occasions of vincristine administration in 25-ml or 50-ml mini-bags (in 0.9% sodium chloride). The median age of patients was 13 years (range 2.5 months to 99 years). Vincristine was administered through peripheral lines (26.4%), portacath (52.0%), PICC line (15.9%) and Hickman line (5.7%). The majority of infusions were over at least 10 minutes (50.1%). There were no cases of extravasation reported. The administration of vincristine in small volume intravenous bags was safe, practical, and feasible in all patient groups. The successful implementation of the international recommendations for vincristine administration in mini-bags to eliminate potential inadvertent intrathecal administration was dependent on stakeholder buy-in. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Randy; Wynne, Harold; Wiebe, Jamie; Tremblay, Joel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the initial reliability, validity and classification accuracy of a new brief screen for adolescent problem gambling. The three-item Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS) was derived from the nine-item Gambling Problem Severity Subscale (GPSS) of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI) using a secondary analysis of existing CAGI data. The sample of 105 adolescents included 49 females and 56 males from Canada who completed the CAGI, a self-administered measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling, and a clinician-administered diagnostic interview including the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling (both of which were adapted to yield DSM-5 Gambling Disorder diagnosis). A stepwise multivariate discriminant function analysis selected three GPSS items as the best predictors of a diagnosis of Gambling Disorder. The BAGS demonstrated satisfactory estimates of reliability, validity and classification accuracy and was equivalent to the nine-item GPSS of the CAGI and the BAGS was more accurate than the SOGS-RA. The BAGS estimates of classification accuracy include hit rate = 0.95, sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.98, false positive rate = 0.02, and false negative rate = 0.12. Since these classification estimates are preliminary, derived from a relatively small sample size, and based upon the same sample from which the items were selected, it will be important to cross-validate the BAGS with larger and more diverse samples. The BAGS should be evaluated for use as a screening tool in both clinical and school settings as well as epidemiological surveys.

  8. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  9. Stability of 2 mg/mL Adenosine Solution in Polyvinyl Chloride and Polyolefin Infusion Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Michael; Ferrara, Alexander; Gregory, Kaleigh; Zammit, Kimberly; Zhao, Fang

    2018-04-01

    Adenosine is a potent endogenous mediator of vasodilation. Compounded sterile solutions of adenosine are used in cardiac catheterization lab to perform stress tests on the heart. These tests are used to determine the fractional flow reserve (FFR) and are commonly used in the management and diagnosis of cardiovascular conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical and chemical stability of 2 mg/mL adenosine in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP in polyvinyl chloride [PVC]) and polyolefin infusion bags stored at room temperature (20°C-25°C) and under refrigeration (2°C-8°C). The compounding and analytical methods used in this study were very similar to those described in the prior publications from the authors' laboratory. To ensure a uniform starting concentration of all stability samples, a batch of 2 mg/mL adenosine solution was prepared and then packaged into empty PVC and polyolefin infusion bags. These stability samples were prepared in triplicate for each bag type and storage temperature (a total of 12 samples). The infusion bag samples were assessed for stability immediately after preparation and after 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days. At each time point, the infusion bags were first visually inspected against a light background for color change, clarity, and particulates. Aliquots were drawn from each sample at each time point for pH analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Over 14 days of storage at room temperature or refrigeration, no considerable change in visual appearance or pH was observed in any bags. All samples retained 90% to 110% of the initial drug concentration. No significant degradation peaks were observed in the HPLC chromatograms.

  10. Zero-point motion in the bag description of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Durso, J.W.; Johnson, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    In the bag model, confinement of quarks is accomplished by introduction of a boundary condition at some definite radius R, where the energy of the total system is a minimum. This minimum is, however, relatively shallow and energies for substantially different bag radii are not much larger than this minimum value. This indicates that the zero-point motion of the bag surface may be important. In this paper, quantization of the bag surface motion is carried out in a somewhat ad hoc fashion, modelled after the generator coordinate theory in nuclear physics. This procedure unifies a number of ideas previously in the literature; it stresses the anharmonicity of the collective motion. As in earlier treatments, the Roper resonance emerges as a breathing-mode type of excitation of the nucleon. The one- and two-pion decays of the Roper resonance are calculated and the widths are found to fall short of the empirical ones. It is pointed out, however, that decays involving intermediate states containing virtual rho-mesons will enhance the widths. Pion-nucleon scattering in the P 11 channel is constructed in our model and found to agree roughly with experiment. A crucial term in the driving force involves the pion coupling to the nucleon through a virtual rho-meson. With introduction of zero-point motion of the bag surface, the motion of 'bag radius' becomes dependent on precisely which moment of the radius is measured. Our development gives a model for cutting off smoothly the pion-exchange term in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. (orig.)

  11. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  12. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  13. Bagging system, soil stabilization mat, and tent frame for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Georgia Tech's School of Textile and Fiber Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering participated in four cooperative design efforts this year. Each of two interdisciplinary teams designed a system consisting of a lunar regolith bag and an apparatus for filling this bag. The third group designed a mat for stabilization of lunar soil during takeoff and landing, and a method for packaging and deploying this mat. Finally, the fourth group designed a sunlight diffusing tent to be used as a lunar worksite. Summaries of these projects are given.

  14. Parity violating NN forcES in the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    Parity violation (PV) in the interaction is considered as due to the Weinberg-Salam quark-quark interaction inside the six-quark bag. The initial and final strong interaction is described within the same quark compound bag (QCB) model, where the NN coupling to the six quark QCB is defined from the NN experimental data. The resulting PV amplitude contains no free parameters and allows therefore an unambiguous test of the QCB model. An estimate of the 1 S 0 → 3 P 0 contribution to the proton-proton asymmetry is in a rough agreement with experimental data [ru

  15. Quantitative analysis of insulin in total parenteral nutrition bag in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Kuo-Hua; Tsao, Hui-Liang; Lin, Shun-Jin; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Regular insulin can reduce hyperglycemia when directly added to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions. Insulin is not routinely added to all TPN solutions. For patients who require insulin prior to the initiation of TPN supplement, one-third to one-half of the usual total daily dose can be added to the TPN bag as regular human insulin. However, an incorrect dose or an interaction between insulin and the TPN bag material may affect blood sugar control in clinical practice. Therefore, it i...

  16. S1 x S2 as a bag membrane and its Einstein-Weyl geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, H.

    1992-10-01

    In the hybrid skyrmion in which an anti-de Sitter bag is embedded into the skyrmion configuration a S 1 x S 2 membrane is lying on the compactified spatial infinity of the bag. The connection between the quark degrees of freedom and the mesonic ones is made through the membrane. This 3-dimensional manifold is at the same time Weyl-Einstein space. We present what is known until the present time to people working in the differential geometry of these spaces. (author). 11 refs

  17. Effect of hot bag application on the extremities in angiography of patients with Raynaud's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Je Hwan; Han, Kyong Lim; Kim, Chan

    2004-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to evaluate the angiographic findings pertaining to spasm of the arteries in the hands and feet in patients with Raynaud's syndrome. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of applying a hot bag to the hands and/or feet for the control of vasospasm in patients with Raynaud's syndrome during angiography. Forty five cases (hands: feet=15:30) in forty patients (M:F=9:31, mean age; 39 years) with Raynaud's syndrome whose conventional angiography demonstrated the presence of vasospasm were included. First, digital subtraction angiography of the extremities was performed at room temperature (20 to 21 degrees Celsius). Then a hot bag was applied for 5 minutes on the hand or foot, and a post-hot bag angiography of the extremity was performed. The angiographic findings were classified into 6 grades in the case of the feet (0; anterior/posterior tibial artery, 1; dorsalis pedis /lateral plantar artery, 2; arcuate artery/plantar arch, 3; metatarsal artery, 4; digital artery, 5; blushing of toe tip) and 5 grades in the case of the hands (0; ulnar/radial artery, 1; palmar arch, 2; common palmar artery, 3; proper palmar artery, 4; blushing of finger tip) according to the level of the visualized vessels on the angiography. The time and the time difference to maximal visualization of the vessels between the measurements taken at room temperature and those taken after the hot bag application were calculated. In all cases, more. vessels were visualized after the hot bag application than at room temperature. After the application of the hot bag, the grade of vessel visualization was increased in both the feet (range; 1-4, mean; 2.3) and hands (range; 1-2, mean; 1.4). The time to the maximal visualization of the vessels was faster after the hot bag application than at room temperature. The time difference between the two groups ranged from 1 to 33 seconds (mean; 12.3 seconds) in the feet and 2 to 26 seconds (mean; 11.8 seconds) in the

  18. Kink-antikink, trapping bags and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity, with one warped extra-dimension, allows classes of solutions where two scalar fields combine either in a kink-antikink system or in a trapping bag configuration. While the kink-antikink system can be interpreted as a pair of gravitating domain walls with opposite topological charges, the trapping bag solution consists of a domain wall supplemented by a non-topological defect. In both classes of solutions, for large absolute values of the bulk coordinate (i.e. far from the core of the defects), the geometry is given by five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  19. Kink-antikink, trapping bags and five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity, with one warped extra-dimension, allows classes of solutions where two scalar fields combine either in a kink-antikink system or in a trapping bag configuration. While the kink-antikink system can be interpreted as a pair of gravitating domain walls with opposite topological charges, the trapping bag solution consists of a domain wall supplemented by a non-topological defect. In both classes of solutions, for large absolute values of the bulk coordinate ...

  20. Investigating the properties of six-quark bag by means of P-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Veselov, A.I.; Konyukhova, N.B.; Shmatikov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    The P-matrix for NN states with definite orbital momenta P 1 S 0 , 1 1 , 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 , 1 D 2 , 3 D 2 is calculated. The position of P-matrix poles determined from the results of phase shift analysis with the account of inelastic channels are compared to the predictions of the bag models for masses of six-quark states. The possible use of the low-energy behaviour of the P-matrix for the determination of the six-quark-bag radius is discussed

  1. Probing the six - quark bag in the low - energy np→Dγ capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1985-01-01

    The circular polarization P γ of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized thermal neutrons by protons is discussed. The contributions to P γ coming form radiation of nucleons, meson-exchange currents and quarks in a six-quark bag are calculated. The value of P γ proves to be rapidly varying function of the radius r 0 of the six-quark bag. Comparison to the experimental value of P γ yields r 0 ≅ 1.0+1.3 F

  2. An investigation of red blood cell concentrate quality during storage in paediatric-sized polyvinylchloride bags plasticized with alternatives to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, K; Levin, E; Chen, D; Hansen, A; Turner, T R; Kurach, J; Reidel, A; Boecker, W F; Acker, J P; Devine, D V

    2016-04-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a blood bag plasticizer. It is also a toxin, raising concerns for vulnerable populations, for example, neonates and infants. Here, the in vitro quality of red cell concentrates (RCC) stored in paediatric bags formulated with alternative plasticizers to DEHP was compared. RCC were pooled and split into polyvinylchloride (PVC)/DEHP, PVC/1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) or PVC/butyryl trihexyl citrate (BTHC) bags. Quality was assessed on storage days 5, 21, 35 and 43. Metabolism differed among the bags: pCO2 levels were lowest and pO2 were highest in BTHC bags. Glucose consumption and lactate production suggested higher metabolic rates in BTHC bags. ATP levels were best maintained in DINCH bags (day 43 mean level: 2·86 ± 0·29 μmol/g Hb). RCC in BTHC bags had the greatest potassium release (54·6 ± 3·0 mm on day 43). From day 21, haemolysis was higher in BTHC bags (P bags showed more microparticle formation than RCC in DEHP or DINCH bags. The results suggest that the BTHC formulation used was detrimental to RBC quality. DINCH bags could be a viable alternative to DEHP: they outperformed DEHP bags energetically, with better maintenance of ATP levels. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  3. Triple bag hermetic technology for controlling a bruchid (Spermophagus sp.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) in stored Hibiscus sabdariffa grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, L; Baoua, I B; Baributsa, D; Williams, S B; Murdock, L L

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the performance of hermetic triple layer Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags for protecting Hibiscus sabdariffa grain against storage insects. The major storage pest in the grain was a bruchid, Spermophagus sp.. When we stored infested H. sabdariffa grain for six months in the woven polypropylene bags typically used by farmers, the Spermophagus population increased 33-fold over that initially present. The mean number of emergence holes per 100 seeds increased from 3.3 holes to 35.4 holes during this time period, while grain held for the same length of time in PICS bags experienced no increase in the numbers of holes. Grain weight loss in the woven control bags was 8.6% while no weight loss was observed in the PICS bags. Seed germination rates of grain held in woven bags for six months dropped significantly while germination of grain held in PICS bags did not change from the initial value. PICS bags can be used to safely store Hibiscus grain after harvest to protect against a major insect pest.

  4. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for...

  5. The effects of operator position, pallet orientation, and palletizing condition on low back loads in manual bag palletizing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sean; Heberger, John R

    2015-05-01

    Many mining commodities are packaged and shipped using bags. Small bags are typically loaded onto pallets for transport and require a significant amount of manual handling by workers. This specific task of manual bag handling has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), especially low back disorders. This study evaluates the biomechanical demands of different work layouts when performing manual palletizing of small bags, and evaluates the biomechanical stresses associated with different stacking techniques. Results indicate that peak forward bending moments as well as spinal compression and shear forces are higher when the pallet is situated at the side of the conveyor as opposed to the end of the conveyor. At low levels of the pallet, controlled bag placement results in higher peak forward bending moments than stacking at higher levels and when dropping the bag to lower levels. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of an audit tool for bagging operations in the mining industry. In many cases for workers loading small bags, compression forces exceed the NIOSH criterion of 3400 N. Orientation of the pallet has a significant impact on spinal compression, and positioning the pallet at the end of the conveyor reduces the estimated compressive loading on the lumbar spine by approximately 800 N.

  6. 75 FR 16431 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bags From Indonesia: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration... are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (LFTV) as provided in section 735... Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

  7. [Effects of Two Placement Ways for Storage of Blood Bag on Biochemical Indexes of Leukodepleted Red Blood Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Duan, Bing-Zheng; Ju, Chun-Mei; Sui, Su-Qin; Bai, Yan; Cao, Huan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of 2 different ways of storage bag placement on some biochemical indexes of leukodepleted red blood cells (LD-RBC) to as to ensure the efficacy and safety of clinical blood transfusion. The whole blood samples of 20 donors (400 ml/donor) were selected for preparating the LP-RBC, which were divided evenly into 10 bags. The 10 bags were randomly divided into 2 groups; the bags in 1 group were placed uprightly, while the bags in another group were placed horizontally. The bags of 2 groups were stored in the same conditions. One storage bag from each group was taken randomly on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 respectively, and then the biochemical indexes of samples were detected and analyzed. The values of K(+) and LAC on day 14, the value of LDH on day 28 in the uprightly placed group were higher than those in the horizontally placed group (P value of Na(+) on day 28, and the value of Glu on day 35 in the uprightly placed group were lower than those in horizontally placed group (P 0.05). The storage bags placed by different ways during the storage show different influence on some biochemical indexes of LD-RBC in the storage period.

  8. In-the-Bag Intraocular Lens Placement via Secondary Capsulorhexis with Radiofrequency Diathermy in Pediatric Aphakic Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xinyu; Tang, Xiangchen; Liu, Jianping; Congdon, Nathan; Chen, Jingjing; Lin, Zhuoling; Liu, Yizhi

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric ophthalmologists increasingly recognize that the ideal site for intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is in the bag for aphakic eyes, but it is always very difficult via conventional technique. We conducted a prospective case series study to investigate the success rate and clinical outcomes of capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation via secondary capsulorhexis with radiofrequency diathermy (RFD) in pediatric aphakic eyes, in which twenty-two consecutive aphakic pediatric patients (43 aphakic eyes) enrolled in the Childhood Cataract Program of the Chinese Ministry of Health were included. The included children underwent either our novel technique for secondary IOL implantation (with RFD) or the conventional technique (with a bent needle or forceps), depending on the type of preoperative proliferative capsular bag present. In total, secondary capsulorhexis with RFD was successfully applied in 32 eyes (32/43, 74.4%, age 5.6±2.3 years), of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved in 30 eyes (30/43, 70.0%), but in the remaining 2 eyes (2/32, 6.2%) the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus with a capsular bag that was too small. Secondary capsulorhexis with conventional technique was applied in the other 11 eyes (11/43, 25.6%, age 6.9±2.3 years), of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved only in 3 eyes(3/43, 7.0%), and the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus in the remaining 8 eyes. A doughnut-like proliferative capsular bag with an extensive Soemmering ring (32/43, 74.4%) was the main success factor for secondary capsulorhexis with RFD, and a sufficient capsular bag size (33/43, 76.7%) was an additional factor in successful in-the-bag IOL implantation. In conclusion, RFD secondary capsulorhexis technique has 70% success rate in the capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation in pediatric aphakic eyes, particularly effective in cases with

  9. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-05-15

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous dislocation of lens bag with acrylic lens after uneventful cataract surgery - unusual complication of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mehul A; Shah, Shreya M; Mehta, Ruchir; Shah, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous dislocation of intraocular lens with bag is rare. We report a case of a 56-year-old male who presented with spontaneous anterior dislocation of an in-the-bag intraocular lens 3 years after manual small incision cataract surgery. He had undergone manual small incision cataract surgery with foldable acrylic intraocular lens implantation, and 18 months after cataract surgery ND: YAG capsulotomy with uneventful post capsulotomy follow-up. 17 months after capsulotomy, the patient presented with sudden decrease of vision. On anterior segment examination, the intraocular lens with bag was dislocated into the anterior chamber. It was managed with intraocular lens explantation with bag, anterior vitrectomy and sclera fixated intraocular lens. Spontaneous intraocular lens dislocation with bag is possible after 1.5 years of uneventful surgery which may be managed using different techniques.

  11. Cough Augmentation in Subjects With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Comparison of Air Stacking via a Resuscitator Bag Versus Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Michel; Pernet, Kurt; Steens, Marc; Haan, Jurn; Sheers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Air stacking improves cough effectiveness in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and respiratory muscle weakness. However, it is not known whether air stacking is more effective via a resuscitator bag or a home ventilator. This prospective randomized study investigated the effect of air stacking via a volume-cycled home ventilator versus via a resuscitator bag in participants with DMD. Maximum insufflation capacity and peak expiratory flow during spontaneous (cough peak flow) and air stacking-assisted cough maneuvers (air stacking-assisted cough peak flow) were measured. Fifty-two adult DMD subjects receiving noninvasive ventilation were included in the study: 27 participants performed air stacking via their home ventilator (home-ventilator group; age = 25.3 ± 5.1 y; forced vital capacity (FVC) = 809 ± 555 mL), and 25 participants used a resuscitator bag (resuscitator-bag group; age = 24.7 ± 5.7 y, FVC = 807 ± 495 mL). Following a single training session, air stacking could be performed successfully by 89% (home ventilator) and 88% (resuscitator bag) of participants. There were comparable maximum insufflation capacities (1,481 mL for the home-ventilator group vs 1,344 mL for the resuscitator-bag group, P = .33) and mean air stacking-assisted cough peak flow values (199 L/min for the home-ventilator group vs 186 L/min for the resuscitator-bag group, P = .33) between techniques. Air stacking-assisted cough peak flow increased significantly compared with baseline in both groups (mean increase: +51% [home ventilator] vs +49% [resuscitator bag], P bag. Both methods achieved mean air stacking-assisted cough peak flow values of >160 L/min. Provision of an inexpensive resuscitator bag can effectively improve cough capacity, and it is simple to use, which may improve access to respiratory care in people with DMD. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 78 FR 28194 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anticircumvention Inquiry on Antidumping Duty... initiating an anticircumvention inquiry pursuant to section 781(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the... typically provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery...

  14. Valorisation of waste plastic bags in cement-mortar composites as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasingly high quantities of waste plastics cause major environmental problems in Benin due both to the non-biodegradability of such by-products of the petroleum industry and to a lack of appropriate means of treatment. An option to valorise waste plastic bags is to use these in construction processes. This article studies ...

  15. Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consideration is made of the early stages of trust in a tiny political economy. The article presents an embedded account of the social status and economic position of plastic bag sellers of Soko Kuu market in Mwanza, Tanzania, to demonstrate the dilemmas of trust faced and the solutions that are found. Evidence is taken ...

  16. Development of north sea coastal plankton communities in separate plastic bags under identical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1977-01-01

    In two experiments lasting 4 to 6 weeks, communities of North Sea coastal plankton kept in separate plastic bags (of about 1400 l) and exposed to the same environmental conditions showed very similar patterns of growth and decline. This result means that the method is suitable for the evaluation of

  17. Nondestructive Measurement of Hemoglobin in Blood Bags Based on Multi-Pathlength VIS-NIR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhao; Li, Gang; Wang, Jiexi; Wang, Donggen; Han, Ying; Cao, Hui; Lin, Ling

    2018-02-02

    Hemoglobin concentration is an indicator for assessing blood product quality. To measure hemoglobin concentration in blood products without damaging blood bags, we proposed a method based on visible-near infrared transmission spectroscopy. Complex optical properties of blood bag walls result in measurement irregularities. Analyses showed that the slope of the light intensity-pathlength curve was more robust to the influence of the blood bag wall. In this study, the transmission spectra of red blood cell suspensions at multiple optical pathlengths were obtained, and the slopes of logarithmic light intensity-pathlength curves were calculated through curve fitting. A nondestructive measurement of hemoglobin content was achieved by using a regression model correlating slope spectra and hemoglobin concentration. Sixty samples with hemoglobin concentrations ranging from 72 to 161 g/L were prepared. Among them, 40 samples were used as a calibration set, and the remaining 20 samples were used as a prediction set. The determination coefficient of the prediction set was 0.97, with a mean square error of 2.78 g/L. This result demonstrates that a non-destructive measurement of hemoglobin levels in blood bags can be achieved by multiple-pathlength transmission spectroscopy.

  18. Self-consistent treatment of quark-quark interaction in MIT bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Simonis, V

    1997-01-01

    Some features of the MlT bag model are discussed with particular emphasis on static, spherical cavity approximation to the model. A self-consistent procedure for obtaining wave functions and calculating gluon exchange effects is proposed. The equations derived are similar to state-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock equations. (author)

  19. [Preparation and application of cooling bag for heat stroke in wild field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailing; Lu, Qing; Wang, Hongping; Li, Lujia

    2017-05-01

    Cooling bag for heat stroke in wild field was invented in order to fulfill rapid cooling for heat stroke in field environment. The cooling bag is composed of the hood, the body cover (which is made up of the anterior portion, the linking, and the posterior portion), the fixed straps, the handles. The length is 200 cm, the regulative width is 60-70 cm, the folding volume is 26 cm × 20 cm × 9 cm, and the weight is 1.4 kg. There are a number of pockets for the cold sources in the hood and the body cover. Fixed straps are set in the upper, middle and lower of the bag. The handles are set in the hood and the body covers. Usage: put the activated cold sources in the pockets, then put off the patient's clothes, stretch his/her arms into the linking, zipper up and wrapped up by the fixed straps; the amount of cold sources can be adjusted or changed according to the temperature. The patient's temperature, blood pressure, intravenous infusion can be monitored during the cooling course. The handles in the hood and the body cover allow the patient to be easily moved and be transferred in rescue. The cooling bag for heat stroke in field has good cooling effect, and are reusable and easy to be carried, operate, monitor and move, with low cost, which make it popularization and application.

  20. Influence of weather factors on population dynamics of two lagomorph species based on hunting bag records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rödel, H.; Dekker, J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Weather conditions can have a significant influence on short-term fluctuations of animal populations. In our study, which is based on time series of hunting bag records of up to 28 years from 26 counties of The Netherlands and Germany, we investigated the impact of different weather variables on

  1. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  2. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... instituted sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on PRCBs from the PRC, Malaysia, and Thailand \\1... Carrier Bags From Malaysia, 69 FR 48203 (August 9, 2004); Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail... Department determined that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on PRCBs from the PRC, Malaysia, and...

  3. On the MIT Bag Model in the Non-relativistic Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, N.; Le Treust, L.; Raymond, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the spectral investigation of the MIT bag model, that is, the Dirac operator on a smooth and bounded domain of R^3 with certain boundary conditions. When the mass m goes to {±∞}, we provide spectral asymptotic results.

  4. String-like solutions and Regge trajectories in a cylindrically deformed quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, R.; Vasak, D.; Warke, C.S.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, B.

    1983-01-01

    With the string picture in mind, we study quark bags of a simple fixed geometry: cylindrical. It is shown that the Dirac boundary value problem of the M.I.T. bag model has no solutions, if this quark confinement condition is applied simultaneously on the radial walls as well as on the edges of the cylinder. By introducing a cruder condition, anti psipsi=0, instead, but now only on the side walls, we calculate properties of non-strange baryons. A justification for the use of this cruder condition, anti wpsi=0, on the side walls, instead of the proper M.I.T. condition, is then provided by showing that the M.I.T. ''cylindrical'' bag with smooth rounded corners gives essentially the same results, while being computationally more involved. Notwithstanding this departure from the M.I.T. confinement condition on the side walls, we find the following curious results: for high excitations, this bag attains string-like shapes. The sequence of baryonic states corresponding to pure single quark excitations fall on a linear Regge trajectory with a slope of proportional0.85 GeV - 2 . These trajectories hold at low-angular momenta. (orig.)

  5. 78 FR 46319 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Taiwan: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Bags From Taiwan: Initiation of Anti- Circumvention Inquiry on Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import... petitioners), the Department of Commerce (the Department) is initiating an anti- circumvention inquiry... requested that the Department issue an affirmative anti-circumvention determination, pursuant to section 781...

  6. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  7. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ascaso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

  8. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

  9. Evaluation of ruminal degradation profiles of forages using bags made from different textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Neves Pereira Valente

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ degradation profiles of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of different forages using nylon (50 µm, F57 (Ankom® and non-woven textile (NWT - 100 g/m² bags. Eight forage samples were used: sugarcane, corn silage, elephant grass cut at 50 and 250 days of regrowth, corn straw, signal grass hay, coast cross hay, and fresh alfalfa. Samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 312 hours. Two bags of each textile were used at each incubation time, totaling 768 bags, using two crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers fitted with ruminal canullae. There was difference in the common rate of lag and degradation (λ of DM for all forages, except for sugarcane. In general, higher λ estimates were obtained using nylon, followed by NWT and F57. Concerning NDF degradation profiles, differences in λ were observed for all forages. Greater estimates were obtained using nylon. Degradation profiles of DM and NDF must not be evaluated using F57 and NWT. These textiles underestimate the degradation rate due to constraints regarding exchange between bags' content and rumen environment.

  10. Analysis of HDAC6 and BAG3-Aggresome Pathways in African Swine Fever Viral Factory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Muñoz-Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a double-stranded DNA virus causing a hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality rates and severe economic losses in pigs worldwide. ASFV replicates in perinuclear sites called viral factories (VFs that are morphologically similar to cellular aggresomes. This fact raises the possibility that both VFs and aggresomes may be the same structure. However, little is known about the process involved in the formation of these viral replication platforms. In order to expand our knowledge on the assembly of ASFV replication sites, we have analyzed the involvement of both canonical aggresome pathways in the formation of ASFV VFs: HDAC6 and BAG3. HDAC6 interacts with a component of the dynein motor complex (dynactin/p150Glued and ubiquitinated proteins, transporting them to the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC and leading to aggresome formation, while BAG3 is mediating the recruitment of non-ubiquitinated proteins through a similar mechanism. Tubacin-mediated HDAC6 inhibition and silencing of BAG3 pathways, individually or simultaneously, did not prevent ASFV VF formation. These findings show that HDAC6 and Bag3 are not required for VFs formation suggesting that aggresomes and VFs are not the same structures. However, alternative unexplored pathways may be involved in the formation of aggresomes.

  11. Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bragança de Matos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavior in a general way from a reduced set of antecedent variables, we developed an intersectional survey consisting of 226 interviews. Data were processed by equations modeling and treated in Amos 16.0 software. The measurement model considered the mental constructions forming TCP. It was possible to identify as a major contribution of this study that the perceived behavioral control is the most influential factor on the intended not use of plastic bags, hindering the adoption of the behavior of not using plastic bags. Perhaps the fact that it is a settled habit, which involves several routine actions, such as the habit of going to the grocery store and have to plan in advance to take the alternative shopping bag or cart for packaging purchased products, or to count on ecological alternatives offered by commercial establishments, is a major and determining impediment for behavioral change.

  12. Rumen escape protein in concentrate ingredients determined with the nylon bag and enzymatic techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Kamman, A.A.; Gelder, A.H. van; Hindle, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for 26 concentrate feed ingredients using the nylon bag technique and in vitro using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation was observed between percentage

  13. Comparative study between deep learning and bag of visual words for wild-animal recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambert; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 IEEE.Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed

  14. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  15. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  16. Surface modification of platelet concentrate bags to reduce biofilm formation and transfusion sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Nieuwenhuis, Joels S T; Dempsey-Hibbert, Nina; Liauw, Christopher M; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products poses a major risk in transfusion medicine, including transfusions involving platelet products. Although testing systems are in place for routine screening of platelet units, the formation of bacterial biofilms in such units may decrease the likelihood that bacteria will be detected. This work determined the surface properties of p-PVC platelet concentrate bags and investigated how these characteristics influenced biofilm formation. Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two species commonly implicated in platelet contamination, were used to study biofilm growth. The platelet concentrate bags were physically flattened to determine if reducing the surface roughness altered biofilm formation. The results demonstrated that the flattening process of the platelet bags affected the chemistry of the surface and reduced the surface hydrophobicity. Flattening of the surfaces resulted in a reduction in biofilm formation for both species after 5 days, with S. marcescens demonstrating a greater reduction. However, there was no significant difference between the smooth and flat surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. marcescens and no significant differences between any of the surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. epidermidis. The results suggest that flattening the p-PVC surfaces may limit potential biofilm formation for the current duration of platelet storage time of 5 days. It is hoped that this work will enhance the understanding of how surface properties influence the development of microbial biofilms in platelet concentrate bags in order to devise a solution to discourage biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that consisted of saturated aliphatic paraffins (96.8%), aliphatic olefins (2.6%), and aromatics (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 182–2...

  18. A trouser bag experiment that quantify by-catch species escaping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea fishing trials were conducted to quantify by-catch species escaping from a modified shrimp trawl codend and retained in a trouser bag. Modification was by inserting a rectangular aluminum frame excluder device with bar spacing of 20mm at the anterior bunt. Thirty replicate landings showed that; Drepane africana have ...

  19. Equation of state for neutron matter in the Quark Compound Bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The equation of state for neutron matter is derived in the framework of the Quark Compound Bag model, in which the nucleon-nucleon interaction is generated by the s-channel exchange of six-quark Jaffe-Low primitives.

  20. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value... are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section...: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 74 FR...

  1. Trust Creation in the Informal Economy: The Case of Plastic Bag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... in turn come to distinguish between good and bad plastic bag sellers. Trust anchors are the posi- tive opposite to ... habit maturation and inter-generational formation has come at the peril of theories of human conduct. Hursthouse,. R., On Virtue Ethics ..... and quit the tea selling: You know, when he started, ...

  2. Manual for computing bed load transport using BAGS (Bedload Assessment for Gravel-bed Streams) Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Pitlick; Yantao Cui; Peter Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides background information and instructions on the use of a spreadsheet-based program for Bedload Assessment in Gravel-bed Streams (BAGS). The program implements six bed load transport equations developed specifically for gravel-bed rivers. Transport capacities are calculated on the basis of field measurements of channel geometry, reach-average slope,...

  3. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Hvem sidder dér bag skærmen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Schaumburg-Müller, Peer

    2009-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i nutidens daytrader, der sidder ´"bag skærmen" og foretager talrige daglige køb og salg af børsnoterede aktier mv., analyseres det i artiklen, hvornår en sådan lovlig daytrading udarter til strafbar kursmanipulation. Nogle daytradere har ment, at hvis en ikke-professionel invest...

  5. On the nonuniversality of the bag constant B and stability of dilambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Krivoruchenko, M.I.; Shchepkin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that in the quark bag model with nonuniversal constant B the H dihyperon is above the ΛΛ threshold and therefore is not stable. Estimates of the magnitude of B for 6-quark systems are made using the data on the deuteron magnetic moment

  6. Estimation of admixture of twelve quark bag state in sup 4 He nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Mosallem, A M

    2002-01-01

    The p sup 4 He elastic scattering at the energy range from 0.695 to 393 GeV is analyzed in the framework of the Glauber theory. The Glauber amplitudes were evaluated using isospin-averaged nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and the sup 4 He wave function as a superposition of the Gaussian functions. The values of the calculated differential cross sections usually exceed the experimental ones. In order to overcome the discrepancy, it is assumed following to the paper by L. G. Dakno and N. N. Nikolaev that the ground state wave function of sup 4 He has an admixture of a twelve quark bag. Neglecting all transition amplitudes, the p - 12q bag scattering amplitude was chosen in a simple Gaussian form.The inclusion of the 12q bag leads to decreasing the p sup 4 He differential cross section and to a shift of the dip position to a large values of t what is needed for a successful description of the experimental data. While fitting the data it is found that the weight of the 12q bag state in the ground state of the sup 4 He ...

  7. Description of a nucleon in nuclear matter using the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The chiral bag (cloudy bag) model, which contains an essentially nonlinear interaction of quarks with both the classical and quantum pion field, is extended for description of a nucleon in nuclear matter. The dependence on the density and temperature of the medium is studied. The pion field in nuclear matter differs considerably from the free field, and this leads to a modification of the nucleon bag. Increase of the density ρ and temperature T causes strengthening of the pion field and growth of its thermodynamic fluctuations. At sufficiently high densities ρ approx-gt ρ CB and temperatures T≥T cr this leads to instability of the three-quark nucleon bag. Under such conditions nuclear matter cannot be composed only of nucleons, and one should expect the appearance of a different, non-nucleon, phase. Estimates of the critical density and temperature are obtained: ρ CB ∼ (1.5-2)ρ 0 and T cr ∼ 200 MeV (where ρ 0 is the conventional nuclear density)

  8. Comparative Study Between Deep Learning and Bag of Visual Words for Wild-Animal Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed two variants

  9. Comparing Local Descriptors and Bags of Visual Words to Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Plant Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The use of machine learning and computer vision methods for recognizing different plants from images has attracted lots of attention from the community. This paper aims at comparing local feature descriptors and bags of visual words with different classifiers to deep convolutional neural networks

  10. Pathologic evidence of pseudoexfoliation in cases of in-the-bag intraocular lens subluxation or dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Erica; Cole, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Hengerer, Fritz; Mamalis, Nick; Kohnen, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    To provide complete histopathologic evaluation of explanted capsular bags that spontaneously dislocated in the late postoperative period, with the main objective being to assess the presence of pseudoexfoliation (PXF) material. Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, and John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Retrospective case series. Standard gross and light microscopy and complete histopathology were performed on explanted subluxated and dislocated capsular bags containing an intraocular lens (IOL) or a capsular tension ring (CTR) and an IOL. Questionnaires were sent to explanting surgeons, and a patient chart review was performed, when available. The specimens were represented by capsular bags containing an IOL (n = 37) or an IOL-CTR (n = 3). The IOLs included 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic (n = 13), 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic (n = 7), 3-piece silicone (n = 6), 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic (n = 6), 3-piece hydrophilic acrylic (n = 2), and 1-piece poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (n = 6) designs; all CTRs were PMMA. Soemmering ring formation was mild in 8 specimens, moderate in 18 specimens, and severe in 14 specimens. Excessive contraction of the capsular bag with capsulorhexis phimosis was observed in 24 specimens. Twenty-six specimens had histopathologic evidence of PXF; 13 had a clinical history or evidence of PXF. Pseudoexfoliation might be implicated in a larger proportion of late in-the-bag IOL subluxations and dislocations than previously thought as a result of significant clinical underdiagnosis. This might indicate a need for new considerations during the preoperative and postoperative cataract surgery assessments and follow-up. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja; Hartmann, Nanna B; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-05-01

    Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste Framework Directive and the Directive on the Landfill of Waste. The main gaps identified relate to lack of clear definitions of categories of polymers, unambitious recycling rates and lack of consideration of macro- and microplastics in key pieces of legislation. We recommend that polymers are categorized according to whether they are polymers with the same monomer constituents (homopolymers) or with different monomer constituents (copolymers) and that polymers are no longer exempt from registration and evaluation under REACH. Plastics should furthermore have the same high level of monitoring and reporting requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should also apply to heavyweight plastic carrier bags. Last, the Marine and Water Framework Directives should specifically address plastic waste affecting water quality

  12. Controle de pragas do pessegueiro através do ensacamento dos frutos Control peach crop pests by fruits bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no trabalho, buscar opções ao ensacamento de pêssegos, visando o controle eficiente das principais pragas do pessegueiro. Para isso, instalou-se um experimento em um pomar comercial de pêssego do cultivar Aurora 2, conduzido em sistema de vaso e espaçamento de 6 x 4 m. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1 - Sacolas de TNT branco (45 g/m² fechado, T2 - Sacolas de TNT branco (45 g/m² aberto, T3 - Sacolas de TNT branco (20 g/m² fechado; T4 - Sacolas de TNT branco (20 g/m² aberto; T5 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 1mm fechado; T6 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 1mm aberto; T7 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 2mm fechado; T8 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 2mm aberto; T9 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 1mm fechado; T10 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 1mm aberto; T11 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 2mm fechado; T12 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 2mm aberto; T13 - Sacolas de papel impermeável fechado; T14 - Sacolas de papel impermeável aberto; T15 - Testemunha (sem ensacamento. De acordo com os resultados concluiu-se que todas as embalagens foram eficientes no controle de moscas-das-frutas e pássaros, porém não para mariposa oriental. As sacolas com abertura no fundo podem ser utilizadas como opção ao ensacamento de pêssegos.Aiming to look for new options of peach bagging in the control of peach insect pests, an experiment was carried out in a treeyear-old peach crop. The cultivar Aurora 2 was accomplished in vase system with 6 m among rows and 4 m among plants. The treatments were: T1 - white and closed TNT (tissue non-tissue bag (45g/m², T2 - white and opened TNT bag (45g/m², T3 - white and closed TNT bag (20g/m², T4 - white and opened TNT bag (20g/m², T5 - transparent polypropelene

  13. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: Collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. ATP hydrolysis is essential for Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the glucocorticoid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wei, E-mail: hongwei@tijmu.edu.cn [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, 300203 Tianjin (China); Chen, Linfeng [Department of Medical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, 02115 MA (United States); Liu, Yunde; Gao, Weizhen [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, 300203 Tianjin (China)

    2009-12-04

    The 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) is involved in providing the appropriate conformation of various nuclear hormone receptors, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The Bcl-2 associated athanogene 1M (Bag-1M) is known to downregulate the DNA binding by the GR. Also, Bag-1M interacts with the ATPase domain of Hsp70 to modulate the release of the substrate from Hsp70. In this study, we demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis enhances Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the GR. However, the inhibitory effect of Bag-1M was abolished when the intracellular ATP was depleted. In addition, a Bag-1M mutant lacking the interaction with Hsp70 did not influence the GR to bind DNA, suggesting the interaction of Bag-1M with Hsp70 in needed for its negative effect. These results indicate that ATP hydrolysis is essential for Bag-1M-mediated inhibition of the DNA binding by the GR and Hsp70 is a mediator for this process.

  15. Building the nucleus from quarks: The cloudy bag model and the quark description of the nucleon-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties

  16. Photoproduction of pions on nuclear in chiral bag model with account of motion effects of recoil nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kanokov, Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.; Rakhimov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Pion production on a nucleon is studied in the chiral bag model (CBM). A CBM version is investigated in which the pions get into the bag and interact with quarks in a pseudovector way in the entire volume. Charged pion photoproduction amplitudes are found taking into account the recoil nucleon motion effects. Angular and energy distributions of charged pions, polarization of the recoil nucleon, multipoles are calculated. The recoil effects are shon to give an additional contribution to the static approximation of order of 10-20%. At bag radius value R=1 in the calculations are consistent with the experimental data

  17. Limitations of the bowel bag contouring technique in the definitive treatment of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominello, Michael M; Nalichowski, Adrian; Paximadis, Peter; Kaufman, Isaac; McSpadden, Erin; Joiner, Michael; Miller, Steven; Konski, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of acute grade 3 and 4 small bowel toxicity in the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is approximately 15%. Given uncertainties in position of the bowel at time of treatment, techniques including the contouring of a bowel bag have been suggested. The purpose of this study is to describe interfraction variability in bowel location for the female pelvis with intact reproductive organs and to characterize the ability of the bowel bag technique, as described in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group pelvic normal tissue contouring guidelines, to account for organ motion in this specific clinical setting. Bowel position was assessed for 45 computed tomographic scans used in treatment planning for 9 consecutive cervical cancer patients. After a single operator contoured bowel loops, most superior, anterior, posterior, and inferior positions of bowel were recorded. Mixed effects models were used to assess significance of interfraction variability. Frequency of bowel loop migration outside of the bowel bag was then considered for each patient given all potential bowel bag volumes. Standardized scoring was used to determine additional margins that would be required to account for 95%, 90%, and 85% of significant bowel motion. Interfraction variability in the inferior-most bowel position was significant (P = .002). Median maximum variation in the inferior bowel position was 2.1 cm (range, 0.9 cm-4.8 cm). When applying the bowel bag technique, 100% of bowel motion was accounted for as the bowel translated laterally, anteriorly, posteriorly, and superiorly, though accounted for just 70.3% of motion in the inferior direction. A 4-cm inferior margin was required to account for 90% of motion in the inferior direction. In the intact female pelvis, the bowel bag technique is successful in accounting for most interfraction variability in bowel position but underestimates inferior motion. Until an improved approach to predicting small bowel motion can be routinely

  18. Stability of Dexmedetomidine in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Two Types of Intravenous Infusion Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Kathleen; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Szumita, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a frequently used sedative in the critical care setting. It is commercially available as a 4-mg/mL premixed compound or as 200-mcg/2-mL vials that must be further diluted prior to administration. However, limited data exist regarding the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures compounded from the 200-mcg/2-mL vials, particularly for durations greater than 48 hours. Therefore, we performed stability testing on compounded dexmedetomidine prepared in two types of intravenous infusion bags for 14 days. Dexmedetomidine is available as 200-mcg/2-mL vials for dilution, 80-mcg/20-mL single-dose vials, and as 200-mcg/50-mL and 400-mcg/100-mL glass bottles. The stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures has previously been tested for 48 hours. The purpose of this analysis was to test the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures for 14 days. Six dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were compounded in polyvinyl chloride and non-polyvinyl chloride bags, three of which were stored under refrigeration and three of which were kept at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography testing was performed to determine the concentration at Days 1 through 14. Stability was determined by taking the mean concentration of samples taken from each bag. All samples were tested in duplicate. A sample was considered stable if the concentration was greater than 90% of the original concentration. All samples retained over 90% of the drug under their respective storage conditions for the duration of the study. At time 0, the concentration of dexmedetomidine was between 3.99 mcg/mL and 4.01 mcg/mL. On Day 14, the mean concentration was between 95.8% and 98.9%, depending on the bag type and storage condition. The pH remained between 4.7 and 5.8 during the study period as has previously been reported in the literature. Dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were stable in both polyvinyl chloride bags and non-polyvinyl chloride bags for 14 days under refrigeration

  19. Clinical, Ergonomic, and Economic Outcomes With Multichamber Bags Compared With (Hospital) Pharmacy Compounded Bags and Multibottle Systems: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Jorge Emilio; Berlana, David; Ukleja, Andrew; Boullata, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Multichamber bags (MCBs) may offer potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic advantages compared with (hospital) pharmacy compounded bags (COBs) and multibottle systems (MBSs). A systematic literature review was performed to identify and assess the available evidence regarding advantages of MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Databases, and EconLit were searched for articles reporting clinical, ergonomic, and economic outcomes for MCBs compared with COBs or MBSs. The search was limited to studies conducted in hospitalized patients >2 years of age that were published in English between January 1990 and November 2014. The Population Intervention Comparison Outcomes Study Design (PICOS) framework was used for the analysis. From 1307 unique citations, 74 potentially relevant publications were identified; review of references identified 2 additional publications. Among the 76 publications, 18 published studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were retrospective in design. Ten studies reported clinical outcomes, including 1 prospective randomized trial and multiple retrospective analyses that reported a lower risk of bloodstream infection for MCBs compared with other delivery systems. Sixteen studies reported ergonomic and/or economic outcomes; most reported a potential cost benefit for MCBs, with consistent reports of reduced time and labor compared with other systems. The largest cost benefit was observed in studies evaluating total hospitalization costs. The systematic literature review identified evidence of potential clinical, ergonomic, and economic benefits for MCBs compared with COBs and MBSs; however, methodological factors limited evidence quality. More prospective studies are required to corroborate existing evidence.

  20. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2 concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.