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Sample records for bagasse

  1. Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunsoye, J. O.; Aigbodion, V. S.

    Bagasse filled recycled polyethylene bio-composites were produced by the compounding and compressive molding method. Two sets of composites were produced using uncarbonized (UBp) and carbonized (CBp) bagasse particles by varying the bagasse particles from 10 to 50 wt%. The surface morphology and the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The results showed that the uniform distribution of the bagasse particles in the microstructure of the polymer composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement of the mechanical properties. The bagasse particles added to the RLDPE polymer improved its rigidity and the hardness values of the composites. The tensile and bending strengths of the composite increased with increasing percentage of the bagasse to a maximum of 20 wt%UBp and 30 wt%CBp. The impact energy and fracture toughness decreases with wt% bagasse particles. The developed composites have the best properties in the ranges of 30 wt% bagasse particle additions and for optimum service condition, carbonized bagasse particles addition should not exceed 30 wt%.

  2. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  3. Electricity from bagasse in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbabwe has suffered electrical power shortages resulting in electrical energy imports rising to between 40% and 50% of total energy needs. Electricity generation capacity has stagnated at around 2000 Megawatts (MWe) since 1985, when two thermal units totaling 440 MWe were completed at Hwange. The effective capacity is 1.75 GWe. The current plan is to increase capacity by installing 600 MWe at Hwange at a cost of at least US $ 600 million. Raising this level of capital is difficult hence over the last 15 years there has been a failure to increase capacity. This article is based on a study of bagasse cogeneration in Zimbabwe and Mauritius conducted over a two-year period. It discusses technology improvements that can be made in the sugar sector to improve process and energy efficiency for the purposes of becoming an independent power producer that supplies power to the grid continuously throughout the year. Power plant investment in the sugar industry offers a bridging and realizable alternative for electricity generation in Zimbabwe. Investment in a 35 MWe bagasse (moisturized fiber left when sugar has been extracted from sugarcane) system would require a capital of about US$ 35 million using modern technology based on experiences in Mauritius and Reunion. A technical and economic evaluation and analysis reveals that bagasse power development is technically and economically feasible if electricity is priced at the long-term marginal cost. At current import prices, financial assistance from the global environment facility and/or the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol would be necessary. The solving of the current political and economic problems in the country would pave the way for attracting a technical partner and development, of bagasse power using domestic and international financing

  4. Chemical structures and thermochemical properties of bagasse lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shu-bin; Guo Yi-li; Wang Shao-guang; Li Meng-shi

    2006-01-01

    The chemical structures of bagasse EMAL (enzymatic hydrolysis/mild acidolysis lignin) were revealed quantitatively with 31P-NMR, DFRC (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage). The thermochemical characteristics of bagasse and bagasse EMAL were evaluated with thermogravimetry. The results show that bagasse EMAL is mainly formed by the phenolic hydroxyl group of guaiacyl and syringyl units. The DBDO content in bagasse EMAL was found to be 0.180 mmol·g-1. The decomposition characteristics of bagasse EMAL under elevated temperature were much different from that of bagasse.

  5. Ion exchange properties of carboxylate bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagasse fibers were chemically modified using three different reactions: esterification using monochloro acetic acid, esterification using succinic anhydride, and oxidation using sodium periodate and sodium chlorite to prepare cation exchanger bearing carboxylic groups. Bagasse was crosslinked using epichlorohydrin before chemical modification to avoid loss of its constituents during the chemical modification. The structure of the prepared derivatives was proved using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical methods. The ability of the prepared bagasse cation exchangers to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cu+2, Ni+2, Cr+3, Fe+3), on a separate basis or in a mixture of them, at different metal ion concentration was tested. Thermal stability of the different bagasse derivative was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  6. Experimental determination of bagasse stiffness coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Arzola de la Peña

    2010-01-01

    The experimentally determined stiffness coefficient of bagasse is described in this paper. This property defines the behaviour of the reaction forces exerted upon the bagasse layer when being compressed during juice-extraction in a sugar-cane mill. This information is important for correctly analysing sugar-cane mill operation and design. An experimental device was used for obtaining the stiffness coefficient; it consisted of a piston, a piston-skirt, a hydraulic press and instrumentation for...

  7. Oil spill sorption using carbonized pith bagasse. Part 1. Preparation and characterization of carbonized pith bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of oil spills remains a challenge to environmental scientists and technologists. Among all the existing techniques used for oil treatment, sorption is a popular technique because it is cheap, simple and effective. Among the various sorbents used pith bagasse appears to be the most attractive material in terms of cost, versatility and abundance. In the present work, the efficiency of surface modification of pith bagasse by carbonization is demonstrated. Pith bagasse was carbonized in a stainless steel tube for different temperatures ranging from 200 to 600C and for different heating periods from 1 to 3 h. The carbonized pith bagasse was tested using gas oil; 1- and 7-day weathered heavy Arabian crude oil. It was found that carbonization of pith bagasse improves the oleophilic and hydrophobic properties. The best carbonization conditions were established at 300 C for 2 h. (author)

  8. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  9. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion. PMID:19000863

  10. Experimental determination of bagasse stiffness coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arzola de la Peña

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimentally determined stiffness coefficient of bagasse is described in this paper. This property defines the behaviour of the reaction forces exerted upon the bagasse layer when being compressed during juice-extraction in a sugar-cane mill. This information is important for correctly analysing sugar-cane mill operation and design. An experimental device was used for obtaining the stiffness coefficient; it consisted of a piston, a piston-skirt, a hydraulic press and instrumentation for measuring the pressures so produced and piston position at different times. Compression rate, humidity level and degree of bagasse fragmentation were the experimental factors taken into account in the experimental design. The investigation was carried out with 40%-80% humidity level and up to 0.06 compression rates. All experimental factors proved statistically significant in the bagasse stiffness coefficient experimental model so obtained. Bagasse was seen to behave as a very rigid elastic material under normal sugar-mill pressure operating conditions, having 50 MPa to 20,000 MPa stiffness coefficient values.

  11. Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman; Syverud, Kristin; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Ghasemain, Ali; Resalati, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of using bagasse microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in bagasse paper. Two different types of MFC were produced from DED bleached soda bagasse pulp. The MFC was added to soda bagasse pulp furnishes in different amounts. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) was selected as retention aid. The results show that addition of MFC increased the strength of paper as expected. Interestingly, 1% MFC in combination with 0.1% C-PAM yielded similar drainage time as the reference pulp, which did not contain MFC. In addition, the samples containing 1% MFC and 0.1% C-PAM yielded (i) a significant increment of the tensile index, (ii) a minor decrease of opacity and (iii) preserved Gurley porosity. Hence, this study proves that small fractions of MFC in combination with adequate retention aids can have positive effects with respect to paper properties, which is most interesting from an industrial point of view. PMID:24274512

  12. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  13. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    OpenAIRE

    D. Abril; Medina, M.; A. Abril

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental desig...

  14. Fluoride Removal from Water By Adsorption using Bagasse, Modified Bagasse and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Alaei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Objectives: Fluoride is widely used in industries such as manufacture of semiconductors, power plants, glass production etc and release to the environment via their effluents. The purpose of this sturdy was to compare the efficiency of low price adsorbents in fluoride removal from water."nMaterials and Methods: The optimum values of pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage were determined and different concentrations of fluoride were experimented in lab scale conditions for bagasse, modified bagasse and chitosan. Then Langmuir and Freundlich coefficient were determined based on optimum conditions."nResults: The pH value of 7, contact time of 60 min and adsorbent dosage of 2 g/L were determined as optimum conditions for all three adsorbents. The most fluoride removal efficiency of 91% was obtained for modified bagasse in optimum conditions."nConclusion: Based on data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that adsorption by modified bagasse is an efficient and reliable method for fluoride removal from liquid solutions.

  15. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  16. Pembuatan dan Karakteristik Komposit Polimer Berpenguat Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqitha Dea Clareyna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse memiliki kandungan serat yang cukup besar dan berpotensi digunakan sebagai bahan penguat dalam pembuatan komposit karena sifatnya yang kuat dan ringan. Dalam penelitian tugas akhir ini telah dibuat bahan komposit berpenguat bagasse dengan empat macam ukuran penguat yaitu serat chopped serta partikel berukuran 100 mesh, 140 mesh, dan 200 mesh. Pembuatan komposit menggunakan metode hand lay-up dan fraksi volume penguat divariasi dari 2,5% hingga 15%. Hasil karakterisasi yang telah dilakukan, menunjukkan bahwa kekuatan tarik dan densitas terbaik dimiliki oleh sampel komposit dengan penguat berukuran 200 mesh sebanyak 7,5% volume. Kekuatan tarik sampel tersebut adalah  28,83  MPa dan densitasnya adalah 1,15 gr/cm3. Adapun kekuatan impak terbesar dimiliki oleh sampel komposit dengan 2,5% volume sebesar 0,00271 J/mm2. Dengan demikian sampel komposit yang telah dibuat dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif bahan baku industri menggantikan tiang penyangga (scantlings pada struktur kayu (timber structure sesuai standar AS 1720.1.

  17. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant β- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good β-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  18. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  19. Preparation and physical properties of grafted bagasse pulp metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grafting on the electrical properties of bleached bagasse pulp has been investigated over a frequency range 1-200 Khz. The conductivity increases upon grafting with acrylic acid or acrylonitrile. Grafted bleached bagasse pulp with acrylic acid showed an increase in the dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss ε. The bagasse/acrylic acid copolymer metal complexes have shown further increase in the conductivity. The conductivity decreases as the degree of grafting increased from 25% to 215%, indicating slower rate of complexation at higher grafting percentage

  20. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.;

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...... economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  1. Cuban mill set to produce quality bagasse newsprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matics, D.

    1981-10-01

    It is reported that a pilot plant has been constructed at Quivican, Cuba which is capable of producing up to 35 tons of mechanical pulp and approximately 35 tons of newsprint daily from bagasse. In addition to the experimental bagasse newspaper plant, the Cuban government is constructing a large bleached bagasse pulp and paper mill for production of 250 tons of bleached bagasse pulp and paper daily. The installation is scheduled to go into operation in early 1982. The United Nations Development Programme hopes that newsprint and other products which can be produced from the sugar cane stalk will lessen third world nations dependecy on an uncertain world sugar market and help stabilize their economy.

  2. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    İnaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  3. ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PESSOA JR.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

  4. EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF EUCALYPTUS, SWEET SORGHUM BAGASSE, AND SUGARCANE BAGASSE AFTER LIQUID HOT WATER PRETREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Wang; Xinshu Zhuang,; Zhenhong Yuan; Qiang Yu; Wei Qi; Qiong Wang; Xuesong Tan

    2012-01-01

    A woody (eucalyptus (Eu)) and two herbaceous materials (sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB)) were used to evaluate the effect of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of various lignocelluloses. The results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of pretreated materials was SCB>SSB>Eu at 5% solids loading, while SSB>SCB>Eu was at 10% and 20% solids loadings. This indicated the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of SCB could be influenced by solids co...

  5. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  6. Two proposals to determine the efficiency of bagasse boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Arnao, Juan Harold; Modesto, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: jhsosa@fem.unicamp.br; Nebra, Silvia A. [State University of Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Interdisciplinary Center of Energy Planning], e-mail: silvia.nebra@pesquisador.cnpq

    2006-07-01

    This work analyzes and compares two proposals for determination of the bagasse boiler efficiency, one of it based on bagasse higher heating value (HHV), the other one based on bagasse lower heating value (LHV). The methodology of calculation, for both proposals, uses the heat loss method. The results, obtained through the two proposal's, presented important differences; the boiler efficiency determined through the proposal of code ASME PTC 4.1, based on HHV, highlights the effect of bagasse moisture content upon boiler efficiency. This effect, in the Beaton and Lora proposal, is hidden, because the energy required to evaporate the bagasse moisture content and the water vapour from hydrogen contained in the fuel are discounted in the LHV calculation. Three types of boilers, with different capacity and leaving steam properties were analysed. Considering the boiler constituted by a sequential arrangement of a steam generator, an air heater and an economizer, a simulation was made determining the influence of the variation of the air heater exit gases temperature upon theirs performances. The performance analysis was based on the second law of thermodynamics. (author)

  7. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  8. Micro-analytical studies on sugar cane bagasse ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Jagadesh; A Ramachandramurthy; R Murugesan; K Sarayu

    2015-08-01

    The worldwide production of sugar generates large volumes of bagasse wastes, which are burnt in uncontrolled manner for heating boiler, which are deposited in landfills, which create negative effects in the environment. The ash obtained by burning bagasse is generally used as Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM) in concrete production without proper knowledge of pozzolanic material characterization. This paper summarizes the results obtained from the various techniques to determine pozzolanic mineral profiles in sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA). Techniques employed in the present study include X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) spectrometer, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermal Analysis [Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Derivative Thermo-Gravimetric (DTG)] in order to understand the type, form, nature, morphology, concentration, etc. of pozzolanic minerals.

  9. Organosolv liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengjian; Long, Jinxing

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly process is proposed for sugarcane bagasse liquefaction under mild condition using IL catalyst and environmental friendly solvent of ethanol/H2O. The relationship between IL acidic strength and its catalytic performance is investigated. The effects of reaction condition parameters such as catalyst dosage, temperature, time and solvent are also intensively studied. The results show that ethanol/H2O has a significant promotion effect on the simultaneous liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse carbohydrate and lignin. 97.5% of the bagasse can be liquefied with 66.46% of volatile product yield at 200°C for 30min. Furthermore, the IL catalyst shows good recyclability where no significant loss of the catalytic activity is exhibited even after five runs. PMID:27115746

  10. SUGARCANE BAGASSE PULPING AND BLEACHING: THERMAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse in three stages. Initially sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a pre-treatment process with hydrolyzed acid to eliminate hemicellulose. Whole cellulosic fibers thus obtained were then subjected to a two-stage delignification process and finally to a bleaching process. The chemical structure of the resulting cellulose fibers was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the effects of hydrolysis, delignification, and bleaching on the structure of the fibers. Two different thermal analysis techniques were used to study the bleaching cellulose fibers. These techniques confirmed that cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse. A future goal is to use these fibers as reinforcement elements in composites, organic-inorganic hybrid, and membranes for nanofiltration.

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acid or alkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Cristina Pietrobon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid or alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse for the production of fermentable sugars. The first step consisted of selection of commercial enzymes presenting the highest cellulolytic activities. After selection of four enzymes: HPL, CL, P1 and P4, their performances were tested in the bagasse pretreated with acid and alkali. The sugar content of the hydrolysates was analyzed by anion exchange liquid chromatography. Data showed that the joint action of 0.5% acid pretreatment, 121ºC, 30 minutes and enzyme CL provides the best results, 67.25 g of hexose and 148.13g of pentose per kg of dry bagasse.

  12. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  13. Potential Uses of Bagasse for Ethanol Production Versus Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumalacárregui-De Cárdenas Lourdes Margarita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The procedure to carry out the energy balance for ethanol production by bagasse’s hydrolysis is presented. The loss of potentialities for electric power generation when bagasse is used to produce ethanol instead of electricity directly is calculated. Potential losses are 45-64% according to the efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol production. The relationship that exists between the volume of ethanol and the efficiency of Otto and Rankine cycles is analyzed. Those cycles are used to produce electricity from ethanol and bagasse, respectively.

  14. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio, E-mail: rosolen@ffclrp.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g{sup -1}. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  15. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g-1. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  16. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Y C; V. Sanggari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast) also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples w...

  17. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  18. Effect of Bagasse ash reinforcement on the wear behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg/Bagasse ash particulate composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.S.; Aigbodion; S.B.; Hassan; G.B.; Nyior; T.; Ause

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Bagasse ash(BAp) particle reinforcement on the wear behavior of Al-CuMg alloy has been studied.Bagasse ash particles were varied from 0 wt pct-10 wt pct with interval of 2 wt pct.Unlubricated pin-on disc tests were conducted to examine the wear behaviour of the aluminium alloy/Bagasse ash particulate composites.The tests were conducted at varying loads,from 5 to 20 N and sliding speeds of 1.26 m/s,2.51 m/s,3.77 m/s and 5.02 m/s for a constant sliding distance of 5000 m.The results showed that ...

  19. Determination of moisture in bagasse by neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time in Cuba organic samples were analyzed by neutron reflection method. The feasibility of this method to determinate the moisture grade in sugar cane bagasse is fixed. From 0 to 50w% moisture grade with 2-3% relative accuracy can be determinated using 10m. measuring time. 7 refs

  20. Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  1. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was investigated in pilot-scale with the aim of obtaining the highest possible sugar yield after pretreatment. The temperatures used were 155, 170, 185 and 200 C with or without addition of oxygen (0.6 MPa pressure). Enzymatic hydrolysis of washed...

  2. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  3. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, ...

  4. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  5. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez-Jaquez, R. E.; J. E. Buelna-Rodríguez; C. P. Barrios-Durstewitz; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Almeraya-Calderón, F.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar ...

  6. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Daniela A; Júnio Cota; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Fernanda Brüchli; Juliano Bragato; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; George Jackson; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Mario T Murakami; Marli Camassola; Roberto Ruller; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of p...

  7. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to char

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  9. Total condensable effluents yield in slow pyrolysis of bagasse briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, L.E.; Penedo, M. [Universidade de Oriente, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Cortez, L.A.B.; Bezzon, G.; Olivares, E. [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Interdisciplinary Energy Planning Center (NIPE), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A full 2{sup 3} experimental factorial design approach was applied to obtain a mathematical model relating the total condensable effluents in slow pyrolysis of bagasse briquettes to three independent variables. These were apparent density of pressed bagasse briquettes (231 and 371 kg/m{sup 3}), highest pyrolysis temperature (400 and 450degC) and residence time at highest pyrolysis temperature (0 and 30 min). Detailed data processing to obtain a model as well as the model's statistical evaluation are shown. The conclusions are that the studied response depends on all three factors, although it is believed that the particular conditions of the pyrolysis installation used could be the cause of the significant result found for the residence time variable. It is inferred that measurable amounts of very low boiling organic compounds are present in the bagasse's liquid effluents. These volatile substances should require effluents' cooling devices working at temperatures well below 0degC. (Author)

  10. Physicochemical study of bagasse and bagasse ash from the sugar industries of NWFP, pakistan and its recycling in cement manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagasse and bagasse ash, obtained from the local sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, were analyzed for both physical and chemical parameters. Among the physical parameters, the moisture, ash contents, volatile matter, loss on ignition, and calorific value have been determined while the chemical constituents such as SiO/sub 2/, AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/O, K/sub 2/O, carbon and sulfur were also determined in both baggase and baggase ash. The physicochemical characterization of baggase ash suggests that it can be used as a part of the cement admixture, which could be cost effective and environmentally sustainable. (author)

  11. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, flexural modulus, and pressure in bagasse fiber was apparently different from that of bamboo due to the differences in the cross-sectional structure. In bagasse, the flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with the increase in pressure, whereas in bamboo those properties decreased. In bagasse, an increase in pressure made the fibers into a more compressed structure, increasing their flexural properties. In rigid bamboo, an increase in pressure caused the resin to extrude between fibers, and this resulted in lower flexural properties. At temperatures above 170 oC, the resin depolymerized thermally and the degree of polymerization decreased. Thus, the flexural modulus and strength decreased gradually with increase in holding temperature in both bagasse and bamboo composites. Furthermore, a maximum fiber volume fraction existed for both bagasse and bamboo plastic composites in the approximate range of 75% to 80%.

  12. The Recovery of Used Palm Cooking Oil Using Bagasse as Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Wannahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use and reduce cooking oil is a common phenomena in our society. While some of this cooking oil is further refine most of it however and not subject to any filtration in the refining process medium such as carbon active, silica are commonly use. Approach: The used of bagasse as adsorbent is not common. This is odd especially when structural component of bagasse which is made up of carbon material is suitable as adsorbent and the fact that, adsorbent bagasse further reduce solid waste disposal and hence reducing one source of environmental pollution. Results: This study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using bagasse as adsorbent. Specifically, bagasse is being experimented to reduce the harmful content such as Free Fatty Acid (FFA and color density in used cooking oil. The variation of adsorbent weight and contact time are used in this research as parameters to determine the effective time and the amount of adsorbent that should be used in the oil refining process. From the experiment conducted, it can be established that bagasse when use as an adsorbent can reduce FFA to 82.14% which is lower the harmful limit. Conclusion/Recommendations: This result is obtained when using 7.5 gr of bagasse for 60 m contact time. Similarly, the color of oil is reduced to 75.67% which is significant and this is base on 10 gr of bagasse with 60 m of contact time.

  13. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  14. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). PMID:26210150

  15. EVALUATION OF COMPOSITION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF PRETREATED SUGAR CANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Guilherme

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose production from sugarcane bagasse was investigated. Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by four different methods: combined acid and alkaline, combined hydrothermal and alkaline, alkaline, and peroxide pretreatment. The raw material and the solid fraction of the pretreated bagasse were characterized according to the composition, SEM, X-ray and FTIR analysis. Glucose production after enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated bagasse was also evaluated. All these results were used to develop relationships between these parameters to understand better and improve this process. The results showed that the alkaline pretreatment, using sodium hydroxide, was able to reduce the amount of lignin in the sugarcane bagasse, leading to a better performance in glucose production after the pretreatment process and enzymatic hydrolysis. A good xylose production was also observed.

  16. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg−1 was obtained in a 50 g kg−1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g−1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg−1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m3 tonne−1 or 33 m3 ha−1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  17. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  18. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Gurgel; S.A. FURLAN; S.E.R. MARTINEZ; I.M. MANCILHA

    1998-01-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improv...

  19. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  20. Milk production and economic assessment of cassava bagasse in the feed of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pereira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 0; 5; 10 and 15% cassava bagasse, based on the dry matter of the total diet of crossbred Holstein v. Zebu cows, was evaluated on milk production and composition and on the impacts of diet costs. The animals, weighing an average of 478.5 kg, were in the middle third lactation period. Diet with 15% cassava bagasse provided a 13.2% increase in production when compared to control. Feed conversion had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 4.2% of cassava bagasse inclusion. Crude protein, the only milk component that changed, increased linearly with the inclusion of cassava bagasse levels. Treatment with 15% cassava bagasse caused a more effective operational cost (42.8% higher when compared to control and the highest leveling point for milk production and price. The lowest leveling points were treatments with 5 and 10% inclusion of cassava bagasse, which had the best economic results. Concentrates caused cost increase, particularly when roughage : concentrate ratio decreased due to higher cassava bagasse inclusion levels.

  1. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings for the conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol. • Ethanosolv-pretreatment variables were statistically adjusted. • 91% of total sugars found in agave bagasse were recovered. • 225 g/L glucose from 30%-consistency hydrolysis using mini-reactors with peg-mixers. • 0.25 g of ethanol per g of dry agave bagasse was obtained. - Abstract: Agave bagasse is the lignocellulosic residue accumulated during the production of alcoholic beverages in Mexico and is a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. A factorial design was used to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and concentrations of acid and ethanol on ethanosolv pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of agave bagasse. This method and the use of a stirred in-house-made mini-reactor increased the digestibility of agave bagasse from 30% observed with the dilute-acid method to 98%; also allowed reducing the quantity of enzymes used to hydrolyze samples with solid loadings of 30% w/w and glucose concentrations up to 225 g/L were obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysates. Overall this process allows the recovery of 91% of the total fermentable sugars contained in the agave bagasse (0.51 g/g) and 69% of total lignin as co-product (0.11 g/g). The maximum ethanol yield under optimal conditions using an industrial yeast strain for the fermentation was 0.25 g/g of dry agave bagasse, which is 86% of the maximum theoretical (0.29 g/g). The effect of the glucose concentration and solid loading on the conversion of cellulose to glucose is discussed, in addition to prospective production of about 50 million liters of fuel ethanol using agave bagasse residues from the tequila industry as a potential solution to the disposal problems

  3. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

  4. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  5. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  6. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases. Glycoside hydrolase (GH family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated.

  7. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  8. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  9. Highly improved chromium (III uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves Dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbonyl groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III maximum adsorption capacity (MAC value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1 giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1 than for raw sugarcane bagasse.

  10. Supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) spawn production

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Ivan Henrique; Monteiro Antonio Carlos; Machado José Octavio; Barbosa José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the myceliation rate, mycelial vigor and "estimated biomass" of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, grown on a sugarcane bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses for spawn production. The proportions of rice bran used were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse) and the sugarcane molasses concentrations tested were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran). The mycel...

  11. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining...

  12. SINTESIS SILIKA AEROGEL DENGAN BAHAN DASAR ABU BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazriati Nazriati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SILICA AEROGEL FROM BAGASSE ASH. Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid (SA. Silicic acid solution was then added with TMCS and HMDS as surface modifier agent. In order to form gel pH must be adjusted to final pH of 8-9 by addition of NH4OH solution. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. Characterization of products was done by measuring its pore volume, surface area, and hydrophobisity (contact angle. TMCS serves as water expeller from the pores and subsequently surface was modified by HMDS and TMCS. HMDS content will linearly increase surface area, pore volume, and the contact angle of the resulting silica aerogel. Characteristics of silica aerogel was generated by varying the composition of the SA:TMCS:HMDS resulting has a surface area of 50-488 m2/g, pore volume from 0.2 to 0.9 m3 /g, the contact angle of 48-119 and pore diameter ranging from 5.7-22.56 nm. Based on the resulting pore diameter, the synthesized of silica aerogel categorized as mesoporous.      Abstrak   Sintesis silika aerogel dari bahan dasar abu bagasse dilakukan dengan ekstraksi basa dan diikuti dengan sol-gel. Abu bagasse diekstrak dengan NaOH pada suhu didihnya sambil diaduk selama satu jam, menghasilkan sodium silikat. Selanjutnya, sodium silikat dilewatkan resin penukar ion, menghasilkan asam silicic (SA. Larutan asam silicic kemudian ditambahkan trimethy­l­chlorosilane (TMCS dan hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS sebagai agen pemodifikasi permukaan. Untuk terjadinya gel pH diatur hingga mencapai 8-9 dengan penambahan larutan NH4OH. Gel yang dihasilkan kemudian di-aging dan dikeringkan pada tekanan ambien pada suhu dan

  13. The use of sugarcane bagasse ash as an alternative local pozzolanic material: study of chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugarcane bagasse ash is used as fuel in the boilers of the Kinana sugar factory in Sudan. The field observation and qualitative study of the ash revealed that it consisted of major amounts of carbon and organic materials; this is due to the incomplete combustion of bagasse fibers in boilers. Therefore, it became necessary to recondition the samples for use as pozzolana by re-ashing it. The study of chemical composition of the ash revealed that such byproducts are likely to be pozzolanic. Comparison between chemical compositions of Kinana sugarcane bagasse ash and the pulverized coal fly ashes (ASTM C 618 1999) shows that the composition of bagasse resembles that of Class F Coal Fly Ash, as the total of alumina, silica, and ferric oxide content is about 72 %. It may, behave like Class F Fly Ash, in its engineering properties. (author)

  14. Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. (paper)

  16. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from aqueous solution using sugarcane bagasse as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the adsorption ability of sugarcane bagasse to remove oil by-products from aqueous solution was evaluated. The objective was treating the contaminated wastewater while enriching the bagasse for its later use as fuel in boilers. Adsorption experiments were carried out in an agitated reactor at room temperature to obtain kinetic curves and adsorption isotherms of gasoline and n-heptane on sugarcane bagasse. The results showed the great potential of bagasse as an adsorbent, since it was able to adsorb up to 99% of gasoline and 90% of n-heptane in solutions containing about 5% of these contaminants. In the adsorption kinetics of gasoline, the equilibrium was reached after just 5 min. This result shows that the adsorption is very favorable. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R models did not describe well the adsorption behavior obtained for these systems.

  17. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  18. Microbiological Saccharification and Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naureen Chaudhary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of Bacillus cereus were grown in 5% sugarcane bagasse soaked in water (MI and 2% bagasse, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4 and 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comparing of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI (M-II. The bacteria showed good growth in both the media. Then these bacteria were optimized for growth conditions in M-III medium comprising of 2% sucrose, 0.6% yeast, 0.1% (NH42SO4, 0.075% MgSO4, 0.35% KH2PO4 and 0.2 mL of trace element solution comprising of 1.5% EDTA, 0.45% ZnSO4, 0.1% MnCl2, 0.45% CaCl2, 0.3% FeSO4.7H2O and 0.01% KI. All the four strains grew best at pH 7 and 37°C. Aeration was not required for these bacterial strains. 5% inocula sizes were found optimum for the bacterial isolates except strain No. 23, which yielded best growth with 10% inoculum. After 2nd day of incubation in M-IV medium the bacteria liberated upto 8033 mg/100 mL of total sugar content, which showed reduction in subsequent sampling periods. On the other hand glucose content showed variable response to incubation periods. The strain 11a expressed 1411 mg/100 mL of glucose at 10th day while isolate No. 23 yielded 808 mg/100 mL glucose at 18th day of incubation. Fermentation by ethanologenic yeast of culture fluids saccharification by the isolate 194 and 23 expressed about 0.2 and 1.2% ethanol on 3rd and 7th days, respectively. The bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus cereus based upon their chemical characterization. These isolates appear potential candidates for saccharifying the sugarcane bagasse and production of ethanol employing ethanologenic yeast.

  19. THE SOLUBILITY OF LIGNIN FROM BAGASSE IN A 1,4-BUTANEDIOL/WATER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Wang; Kefu Chen; Jun Li; Guihua Yang,; Shanshan Liu; Jun Xu

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of lignin from bagasse in a 1,4-butanediol/water mixed solution was investigated and explained by the solubility parameter (δ-value). To explore the lignin solubility, enzymatic hydrolysis/mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) isolated from bagasse was used as the starting material to prepare lignin solution by ultrasonic treatment. The lignin content in solution was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy at a wavelength of 280 nm. The results showed that 240 minutes of ultrasonic treatment...

  20. Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Rolz, C.; Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; Cabrera, S. (Sonia)

    1986-01-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berk...

  1. COMPARATIVE EXTRACTION OF PECTIC AND POLYPHENOLS FROM MEXICAN LIME POMACE AND BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Sanchez-Aldana; Cristobal Noe Aguilar; Guadalupe Virginia Nevarez-Moorillon; Juan Carlos Contreras Esquivel

    2013-01-01

    Mexican lime bagasse and pomace are rich in pectin and they also represent an important source of value-added compounds such as polyphenols. Two different options for the combined recovery of pectin and phenolic compounds from Mexican lime bagasse and pomace, two byproducts of industrial lime processing, were developed. Conventional and microwave-assisted extraction methods were used. All pectic extracts presented a degree of esterification in the range of 70%. Pomace extracts had the higher ...

  2. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KáTIA N. MATSUI; FáBIO D. S. LAROTONDA; Alfredo T. N. Pires; JOãO B. LAURINDO

    2009-01-01

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were imp...

  3. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda; Rafael Ramires Almeida; Ivo Mottin Demiate; Marco Aurélio Silva Carvalho Filho; Eliane Carvalho Vasconcelos; Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski; Gilbert Bannach; Egon Schnitzler; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2009-01-01

    Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were...

  4. Comparison between wet oxidation and steam explosion as pretreatment methods for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Carlos Martín; Marcet, M.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation and steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse were compared with regard to biomass fractionation, formation of by-products, and enzymatic convertibility of the pretreated material. Wet oxidation led to the solubilisation of 82% of xylan and 50% of lignin, and to a...... significantly in steam explosion. This investigation demonstrates the potential of wet oxidation as a promising pretreatment method for enzyme-based bagasse-to-ethanol processes....

  5. Depithers for Efficient Preparation of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fibers in Pulp and Paper Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lois-Correa J.A

    2012-01-01

    Among the by-products originated in the agro-industrial process of sugar cane, bagasse is one of the most relevant (Paturau, 1989). The negative influence of signifi cant amount of pith, or parenchymatous tissue, present in sugarcane bagasse is discussed. Since this non-fi brous material does not give any desired properties in the pulp and paper, agglomerated boards and polymer productions, it is remarked the importance of its maximum removal. A brief historical review in the development of b...

  6. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Kumar Saw; Chandan Datta

    2009-01-01

    Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA) to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy comp...

  7. Substitution of sugar cane bagasse in the chicken diet and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, R A; el-Faramawy, A A

    2001-10-01

    Total proteins and protein electrophoresis were made in the sera of broiler chicken (Arber Acres) to evaluate the effect of substitution of basal diet for 4 weeks by either 8% sugar cane bagasse +2% wheat germ or 16% sugar cane bagasse +4% wheat germ whether untreated or incubated with rumen liquor for 72 h and then sterilized with 2 Mrad gamma-irradiation (treated). Both levels of untreated sugar can bagasse (8 and 16%) showed significant decrease in gamma globulins but this decrease had no effect on broiler chicken (45 days) while there was significant increase in total proteins in treated sugar cane bagasse 8% with concomitant increase in alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma globulins. These results denoted that addition of rumen liquor to 8% sugar cane bagasse diet have resulted in an improvement in the transportation of micro nutrients and immune response most probably due to its high content of microorganisms constituting high quality animal protein; also more vaccines were recommended in feeding of chicken with sugar cane bagasse for a longer period e.g. laying hens to overcome its suppressive effect on the gamma globulins. PMID:11715352

  8. Effect of Acidic Environment (HCL on Concrete With Sugarcane Bagasse Ash As Pozzolona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Rambabu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demand and consumption of cement, researchers and scientist are in search of developing alternate binders that are eco friendly and contribute towards waste management. The utilization of industrial and agricultural waste produced by industrial processes has been the focus on waste reduction. One of the agro waste sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA which is a fibrous waste product obtained from sugar mills as byproduct is taken for study area. This experimental and analytical study investigates the durability of M35 concrete mix using Ordinary Portland Cement and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as partial replacement in Ordinary Portland Cement. Sugarcane Bagasse Ash was obtained by burning of Sugarcane at 700 to 800 degree Centigrade in sugar refining industry, Bagasse Ash obtained from burning was grounded until the particles passing the 90 micron sieve. The disposal of this material is already causing environmental problems around the sugar factories. In this project objective is to study the influence of partial replacement of Portland cement with sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete subjected to different acidic Environments. The variable factors considered in this study were concrete grade of M35 & curing periods of 28, 60, 90 days of the concrete specimens in 1%, 3%, and 5% of hydrochloric acid in water for curing the specimens. Bagasse ash has been partially replaced in the ratio of 0%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, and 10% by weight.

  9. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molding Composites Reinforced by Bagasse Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Fukumoto, Isao

    BMC (Bulk Molding Compound) is composed of UP (Unsaturated Polyester) resin, glass fibers, and bagasse fibers which have been obtained after squeezing sugar cane. Our purpose is to use the bagasse fibers as reinforcement and filler in BMC to fabricate composites by injection molding and injection compression molding. The mechanical properties of injection molding composites were improved after adding the bagasse fibers. Observing the fracture surface of the tensile test specimen through SEM, we could notice the glass fibers were penetrated into the bagasse fibers longitudinally. Along with UP resin solidifying, the glass fibers were firmly fixed in the bagasse fibers and finally united with them. This phenomenon could bring on the same effect as the glass fibers length was prolonged, so that the adhesion interface between fiber and matrix resin became larger, which leads to the increase in the mechanical properties. Otherwise, it was observed that UP resin sufficiently permeated the bagasse fibers and solidified. This also contributes to enhancing the mechanical properties drastically.

  10. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  11. Evaluation of Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse Characterization: An Interlaboratory Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluiter, Justin B.; Chum, Helena; Gomes, Absai C.; Tavares, Renata P.A.; Azevedo, Vinicius; Pimenta, Maria T.B.; Rabelo, Sarita C.; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.; Alves, Aparecido R.; Garcia, Wokimar T.; Carvalho, Walter; Esteves, Paula J.; Mendonca, Simone; Oliveira, Patricia A.; Ribeiro, Jose A.A.; Mendes, Thais D.; Vicentin, Marcos P.; Duarte, Celina L.; Mori, Manoel N.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the variability of measured composition for a single bulk sugarcane bagasse conducted across eight laboratories using similar analytical methods, with the purpose of determining the expected variation for compositional analysis performed by different laboratories. The results show good agreement of measured composition within a single laboratory, but greater variability when results are compared among laboratories. These interlaboratory variabilities do not seem to be associated with a specific method or technique or any single piece of instrumentation. The summary censored statistics provide mean values and pooled standard deviations as follows: total extractives 6.7% (0.6%), whole ash 1.5% (0.2%), glucan 42.3% (1.2%), xylan 22.3% (0.5%), total lignin 21.3% (0.4%), and total mass closure 99.4% (2.9%).

  12. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  13. Microwave pretreatment for enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) through microwave radiation was evaluated at four lime doses (0, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 g/g SSB), two water content of 10 or 20 ml/g SSB, and three exposure times as 2, 4, and 6 min. Optimal pretreatment condition was identified as 0.1 g lime and 10 ml water per g SSB in 4 min. Under this condition, sugar yield of 32.2 g/100 g SSB (equivalent to 52.6% of maximal potential sugars) was achieved. With the same water content and exposure time, but without lime, sugar yield of 39.8 g/100 g SSB (equivalent to 65.1% of maximal total sugars) was observed. The higher sugar recovery without lime was mainly due to high sugar release during pretreatment. But with lime, sugar degradation took place, which resulted in less sugar yield though lime did make cellulose more accessible to enzymes as evidenced by higher percentage of increase of total reducing sugars during enzymatic hydrolysis. Results from this study were strongly supported by FTIR and SEM images. Overall, in a very short time and simple setup, microwave radiation shows great promise to be a leading pretreatment technique for SSB. -- Highlights: ► Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) through microwave irradiation was evaluated. ► Optimal pretreatment was identified as 0.1 g lime and 10 ml water per g SSB in 4 min. ► Optimal sugar yield of 32.2 g/100 g SSB (equivalent to 52.6% of maximal potential sugars) was achieved. ► Results from this study were strongly supported by FTIR and SEM images. ► Microwave radiation shows great promise to be a leading pretreatment technique for SSB.

  14. Investigating the possibility of chemi-mechanical pulping of bagasse

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    Alireza Khakifirooz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemi-mechanical pulping was evaluated as a potential way to prepare sugarcane bagasse fibers for papermaking. Cellulose, lignin, ash, and extractives soluble in alcohol-acetone were measured as 55.75%, 20.5%, 1.85%, and 3.25%, respectively. Fiber length, diameter, lumen cavity, and cell wall thickness were measured as 1.59 mm, 20.96, 9.72, and 5.64 µm. The chemi-mechanical pulping conditions were selected as follows: three charging levels of 10, 15, and 20% sodium sulphite, and three pulping times of 20, 30, and 40 minutes after reaching the pulping temperature. Pulping temperature was held constant at 165 C. Different pulping conditions resulted in pulp yields between 65.38 and 84.28%. The highest yield (84.28% was obtained using a treatment combination of 20 minutes pulping time and 10% sodium sulphite. The lowest yield (65.38% was related to 40 minutes pulping time and 20% sodium sulphite. Pulps were refined to 300 ± 25 mL CSF, 60 gm-2 handsheets were made, and then strength indices and optical properties of the handsheets were measured. The results showed that 20% sodium sulphite, 40 minutes pulping time, at 165 ºC can be considered as the optimum pulping conditions for bagasse CMP pulping. Tensile, tear, and burst strength indices, as well as the opacity of this pulp were measured as 39.59 Nmg-1, 6.66 mNm2g-1, 2.1 KPa m2g-1, and 95.35%, respectively.

  15. Hydrolysis characteristics of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid solution in a microwave irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse via dilute sulfuric acid is studied. ► The concentration of the dilute sulfuric acid is in the range of 0–0.02 M. ► Around 40–44 wt% of bagasse is degraded from the pretreatment. ► Around 80–98% of hemicellulose in bagasse is hydrolyzed. ► The optimal operation of the pretreatment occurs at 0.005 M. - Abstract: Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is of the utmost importance for the development of bioethanol because of the abundance and low cost of lignocelluloses. To figure out the hydrolysis characteristics of sugarcane bagasse in a microwave irradiation environment, the biomass is pretreated by a dilute sulfuric acid solution at 180 °C for 30 min, with the concentration ranging from 0 to 0.02 M. A variety of analyses, including fiber analysis, TGA, XRD, FTIR and HPLC, are employed to aid in understanding the physical and chemical characteristics of residual solid particles and solutions. A higher concentration is conducive to destroying bagasse; however, the buffering capacity possessed by the biomass is also observed in the pretreatment. The experimental results indicate that around 40–44 wt% of bagasse is degraded from the pretreatment in which around 80–98% of hemicellulose is hydrolyzed. In contrast, crystalline cellulose and lignin are hardly affected by the pretreatment. The maximum yields of xylose and glucose as well as the minimum furfural selectivity occur at the acid concentration of 0.005 M. Consequently, the aforementioned concentration is recommended for bagasse pretreatment and bioethanol production.

  16. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  17. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  18. Mechanical property and gas permeability property of polyethylene film mixed with bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattapon Sangsup

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of variables on the property of low density polyethylene (LDPE/bagasse film. Two variables are focused and studied. These two variables are the bagasse content and the stretching ratio during the film forming. The proportion of bagasse in the range of 0-20% (by weight was mixed with LDPE, and then it was processed to be a thin film by blowing film extruder with various stretching ratio (i.e. 100, 135, 150 and 170%. Properties of these films such as mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeation rate and fractured surface of the film under scanning electron microscope (SEM were determined and analyzed. The results showed that as the bagasse content is increased, both the tensile strength and elongation at break of the film decreased. An increase in stretching ratio during the film forming caused an increase in tensile strength but it caused a decrease of elongation at break of the film. Increasing of both stretching ratio during the film forming and the bagasse content enhanced the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR and oxygen transmission rate (OTR of the film.

  19. Mathematical modeling of thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Zabot, Giovani; Boni, Gabriela; Skovronski, Aline; de Oliveira, Debora; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Treichel, Helen [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, P.O. Box 743, CEP 99700-000, Erechim - RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Maugeri, Francisco [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, CEP 13083-862, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    This work reports hot-air convective drying of thin-layer fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale dryer assessing the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on the drying kinetics of the processing material. The fermented sugarcane bagasse in SSF was obtained with the use of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Drying experiments were carried out at 30, 35, 40 and 45 C, at volumetric air flow rates of 2 and 3 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}. The ability of ten different thin-layer mathematical models was evaluated towards representing the experimental drying profiles obtained. Results showed that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presents a distinct, faster drying, behavior from that verified for the non-fermented material at the same conditions of temperature and volumetric air flow rate. It is shown that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presented effective diffusion coefficient values of about 1.3 times higher than the non-fermented material. A satisfactory agreement between experimental data and model results of the thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse was achieved at the evaluated experimental conditions. (author)

  20. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  1. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

  2. Optimum Parameters for the Formulation of Charcoal Briquettes Using Bagasse and Clay as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya generates about 1.6 million tones of sugarcane bagasse which has enormouspotential for exploitation in modern commercial applications. Due to rising fossilfuel prices, availability in large quantity and rapidly growing interest in bio-energyas well as technological advances and environmental concerns , bagasse could beutilized for the formulation of charcoal briquettes for household use tosupplement wood charcoal. In this study briquettes were formulated usingcarbonized bagasse, clay as a binder and molasses as a filler. Bagasse was obtainedfrom sugar factories for carbonization. Carbonization was carried out using abrick-built kiln while blending used a manually operated drum mixer. A piston typebriquetting press fitted onto a universal strength testing machine was used for theproduction of briquettes. The most optimum parameters that produced briquetteswhich complied to current charcoal specifications for household use were in theratio of 1:1:40 for molasses, clay and carbonized bagasse respectively at0.50N/mm2 pressure. At this formulation, briquettes were produced whose ashcontent, volatile matter and calorific energy were 36.4%, 27.2% and 4.390 Kca/grespectively. The briquettes produced burnt without sparks and were smokeless,producing no irritating smell. They ignited easily and took relatively long beforethey extinguished. They were recommended for household use in Kenya.

  3. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  4. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  5. Catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: TiO2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabasingh, S Anuradha; Lalith, D; Prabhu, M Arun; Yimam, Abubekker; Zewdu, Taye

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized TiO2 coupled nanocellulose (NC-TiO2) as catalyst. Aspergillus nidulans AJSU04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. NC-TiO2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. Complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, NC-TiO2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. A mathematical model was developed to describe the hydrolysis reaction. Ethanol production from enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse catalyzed with NC-TiO2 was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 20602. The glucose release rates and ethanol concentrations were determined. Ethanol produced was found to be strongly dependent on pretreatment given, hydrolysis and fermentation conditions. The study confirmed the promising accessibility of NC-TiO2, for enhanced glucose production rates and improved ethanol yield. PMID:26572403

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to research the catalytic effects on the microwave pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and thus to discuss the reaction performance, product distribution, and kinetic analysis. With the addition of metal-oxides served as catalysts, reaction results such as mass reduction ratio and reaction rate increased, even the maximum temperature decreased. Adding either NiO or CaO slightly increased the production of H2, while adding either CuO or MgO slightly decreased it. The addition of either CaO or MgO enhanced the gaseous production, and either NiO or CuO addition enhanced the liquid production. There could be several secondary reactions such as self-gasification and interactions among the gases originally produced during the pyrolysis stage to alter the composition of gaseous product and the final three-phase product distribution. The catalyst addition slightly increased the activation energy but greatly increased the pre-exponential factor. PMID:23948270

  7. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process as a post-treatment to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent using iron electrodes. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were studied under different operating conditions such as amount of dilution, initial pH, applied current and electrolyte dose by using response surface methodology (RSM coupled with four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The experimental results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial mathematical models were developed with high correlation of efficiency (R2 for COD, TSS removal and electrical energy consumption (EEC. The individual and combined effect of variables on responses was studied using three dimensional response surface plots. Under the optimum operating conditions, such as amount of dilution at 30 %, initial pH of 6.5, applied current of 8 mA cm-2 and electrolyte dose of 740 mg l-1 shows the higher removal efficiency of COD (98 % and TSS (93 % with EEC of 2.40 Wh, which were confirmed by validation experiments.

  8. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  9. Evaluation of sugarcane bagasse acid hydrolysate treatments for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, P.V.; Mancilha, I.M. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Furlan, S.A.; Martinez, S.E.R. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    1998-09-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolysate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolysate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH showed the best hydrolysate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolysate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolysate. (author)

  10. Bagasse wastewater treatment using biopolymer: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, the removal of turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD were investigated under different operating conditions such as agitation time (X1: 15-25 min, initial pH (X2:4-8, chitosan dose (X3:1.2-2 g L-1 and settling time (X4:40-80 min to treat bagasse based paper and pulp industry wastewater via response surface methodology (RSM. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and ANOVA (analysis of variance was used to examine the significance of the developed mathematical models. The 3-D response surface plots were derived from the mathematical models in order to study the interactive effects process variables on the treatment efficiency. Derringer’s desired function methodology were applied to determine the optimal conditions and it was found to be: agitation time of 20 min, initial pH of 6, chitosan dose of 1.8 gL-1 and settling time of 60 min. Under these conditions, the removal of turbidity, BOD and COD were found to be 84 %, 90 % and 93 % respectively.

  11. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  12. SUGARCANE BAGASSE AS SUPPORT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT AROMA BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Pessanha da Penha,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major producers of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum in the world and consequently produces large quantities of waste such as sugarcane bagasse, which can be used as inert support for the production of aroma compounds by SSF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and particle size distribution of sugar cane bagasse, as well as its applicability as support for the production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone by SSF. Analyses were performed in triplicate to evaluate the levels of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and moisture in the waste. Also evaluated were the particle size distribution and morphology structure of the sugarcane bagasse. The aroma compound produced shows that the studied waste can be used for 6PP production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC 4042 by SSF process. By kinetic production of aroma it is concluded that the seventh day of fermentation yielded the largest production of the aroma compound, as published for other studies

  13. Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F

    2012-06-30

    This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way. PMID:22387325

  14. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  15. Pre-irradiation effects of γ-rays on sugar cane bagasse liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, pre-irradiation of sugar cane bagasse with several doses of γ-irradiation was studied. The irradiated samples were submitted to liquefaction and subsequently fractionated. The results show that with increasing doses (until 80 kGy) there is an increase in the product yield, which decreases with higher doses. The results obtained by the fractionation demonstrated that the product quality decreases with higher doses of irradiation. Obtaining compounds of interest, such as hydrocarbons and resins, upon liquefaction suggests a better use for sugar cane bagasse. Since sugar cane is a renewable source, its bagasse is a viable alternative for obtaining feedstocks for chemical and pharmaceutical industries. (author) 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  17. First and Second Law to Analyze the Performance of Bagasse Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Harold Sosa Arnao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The performance of sugar cane bagasse boilers is commonly analyzed through the first law of thermodynamics, using the energy balance method and the fuel lower heating value as calculation base. This work presents a first law analysis using two different methods: the input/output and the energy balance. The employment of the fuel higher and lower heating values as calculation base are presented and discussed. Moreover, a second law analysis is showed, based on two methods: input/output and exergy balance. The methods based on exergy concept permits to observe the main irreversibilities that happen during the steam production in a bagasse boiler.


  18. Optimization of Ethanol Production from NaOH-Pretreated Solid State Fermented Sweet Sorghum Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghui Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from NaOH-Pretreated solid state fermented sweet sorghum bagasse with an engineered strain of Z. mobilis TSH-ZM-01 was optimized. Results showed that: (1 residual solid removal during ethanol fermentation was unnecessary and 24 h fermentation duration was optimal for ethanol production; (2 ethanol yield of 179.20 g/kg of solid state fermented sweet sorghum bagasse achieved under the optimized process conditions of cellulase loading of 0.04 g/g-glucan, xylanase loading of 0.01 g/g-xylan, liquid to solid ratio of 9:1 and pre-hydrolysis duration for 72 h.

  19. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  20. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months. PMID:26508073

  1. Disruption of sugarcane bagasse lignocellulosic structure by means of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with microwave-assisted heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Pretreatment of dilute sulfuric acid on bagasse using microwave heating. → An increase in reaction temperature destroyed bagasse significantly. → Pretreated bagasse particles were characterized by fragmentation and swelling. → When the temperature was 190oC, the fragmentation of particles became pronounced. → The influence of heating time on bagasse structure was not significant. - Abstract: Disruption of lignocellulosic structure of biomass plays a key role in producing bioethanol from lignocelluloses. This study investigated the impact of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment on bagasse structure using microwave heating. Three reaction temperatures of 130, 160 and 190 oC with two heating times of 5 and 10 min were considered and a number of instruments were employed to analyze the properties of the bagasse particles. On account of microwave irradiation into the solution with dielectric heating, the experiments indicated that an increase in reaction temperature destroyed the lignocellulosic structure of bagasse in a significant way. The pretreated bagasse particles were simultaneously characterized by fragmentation and swelling. When the reaction temperature was as high as 190 oC, the fragmentation of particles became fairly pronounced so that the specific surface area of the pretreated material grew substantially. Meanwhile, almost all hemicellulose was removed from bagasse and the crystalline structure of cellulose disappeared. In contrast, the feature of lignin was remained clearly. However, a comparison between the heating times of 5 and 10 min revealed that the influence of the heating time on the lignocellulosic structure was not significant, indicating that the pretreatment with 5 min was sufficiently long.

  2. Experimental study on compressive strength of concrete by partially replacement of cement with sugar cane bagasse ash

    OpenAIRE

    Jayminkumar A. Patel; Dr. D. B. Raijiwala

    2015-01-01

    Use of waste material in concrete is important for environmental aspect. Sugar cane bagasse ash is a waste by product of sugar mill. Present study is to investigate impact of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete. In this experimental work sugar cane bagasse ash which is taken from Maroli sugar mill, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA is partially replace with cement at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight in concrete. The grade of concrete is M25 and w/c ratio is 0.49 taken as a reference. 150*1...

  3. Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...

  4. Efficient and repeated production of succinic acid by turning sugarcane bagasse into sugar and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengcheng; Tao, Shengtao; Zheng, Pu

    2016-07-01

    Here we reported an endeavor in making full use of sugarcane bagasse for biological production of succinic acid. Through NaOH pre-treatment and multi-enzyme hydrolysis, a reducing sugar solution mainly composed of glucose and xylose was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing portions of cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase and pectinase in the multi-enzyme "cocktail", the hydrolysis percentage of the total cellulose in pre-treated sugarcane bagasse can be as high as 88.5%. A. succinogenes CCTCC M2012036 was used for converting reducing sugars into succinic acid in a 3-L bioreactor with a sugar-fed strategy to prevent cell growth limitation. Importantly, cells were found to be adaptive on the sugarcane bagasse residue, offering possibilities of repeated batch fermentation and replacement for MgCO3 with soluble NaHCO3 in pH modulation. Three cycles of fermentation without activity loss were realized with the average succinic acid yield and productivity to be 80.5% and 1.65g·L(-1)·h(-1). PMID:27035471

  5. Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  6. Obtaining nanofibers from curauá and sugarcane bagasse fibers using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sonication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Adriana de; Correa, Ana Carolina; Cannella, David;

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an initial study of the implementation of two new enzymes, an endoglucanase and a concoction of hemicellulases and pectinases to obtain cellulosic nanoparticles. In this study, curauá and sugarcane bagasse were dewaxed and bleached prior to enzymatic action for 72 h at 50 °C, and th...

  7. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Danielle Virginio da Silva; Elisangela de Jesus Cândido; Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Silvio Silvério da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with diff...

  8. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining pulp was delignified by alkali for 120 minutes at 170C using, separately, NaOH load of 15, 20 and 25% of weight of the pulp. The delignified pulp was further bleached twice with 4% H2O2 charge of weight of the pulp to produce high α-cellulose pulp. The water liquor was evaporated and further hydrolysed and dehydrated with diluted H2SO4 in a stainless steel reactor to produce furfural. The result shows that the optimal pretreatment of steam explosion for 4 min at 218C leads to the yield of α-cellulose pulp at 193-201 g∙kg-1 of the original bagasse, and that furfural can be produced from xylose present in the liquor with a maximum conversion factor of 0.16.

  9. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  10. Sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis: rheological data as criteria for impeller selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonardo Tupi Caldas; Pereira, Lucas Tupi Caldas; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Freitas, Suely Pereira

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to select an efficient impeller to be used in a stirred reactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse. All experiments utilized 100 g (dry weight)/l of steam-pretreated bagasse, which is utilized in Brazil for cattle feed. The process was studied with respect to the rheological behavior of the biomass hydrolysate and the enzymatic conversion of the bagasse polysaccharides. These parameters were applied to model the power required for an impeller to operate at pilot scale (100 l) using empirical correlations according to Nagata [16]. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using a blend of cellulases, β-glucosidase, and xylanases produced in our laboratory by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus awamori. Hydrolyses were performed with an enzyme load of 10 FPU/g (dry weight) of bagasse over 36 h with periodic sampling for the measurement of viscosity and the concentration of glucose and reducing sugars. The mixture presented pseudoplastic behavior. This rheological model allowed for a performance comparison to be made between flat-blade disk (Rushton turbine) and pitched-blade (45°) impellers. The simulation showed that the pitched blade consumed tenfold less energy than the flat-blade disk turbine. The resulting sugar syrups contained 22 g/l of glucose, which corresponded to 45% cellulose conversion. PMID:20844924

  11. Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maíra Nicolau; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Falkoski, Daniel Luciano; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Gonçalves, Dayelle S P O; de Rezende, Sebastião Tavares

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L -arabinose, D -xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or corn straw as carbon source. In solid-state fermentation, it was tested as carbon source sugarcane bagasse or corn straw. The highest FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase activities were produced by Acremonium sp. EA0810 cultivated in SC containing sugarcane bagasse as a carbon source. The highest β-glucosidase activity was produced by Acremonium sp. EA0810 cultivated in SC using D -xylose as carbon source. A. zeae EA0802 has highest α-arabinofuranosidase and α-galactosidase activities in SC using xylan as a carbon source. FPase, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase from Acremonium sp. EA0810 has optimum pH and temperatures of 6.0, 55 °C; 5.0, 70 °C; 4.5, 60 °C; and 6.5, 50 °C, respectively. α-Arabinofuranosidase and α-galactosidase from A. zeae EA0802 has optimum pH and temperatures of 5.0, 60 °C and 4.5, 45 °C, respectively. It was analyzed the application of Acremonium sp. EA0810 to hydrolyze sugarcane bagasse, and it was achieved 63% of conversion into reducing sugar and 42% of conversion into glucose. PMID:21573756

  12. Depithers for Efficient Preparation of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fibers in Pulp and Paper Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois-Correa J.A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the by-products originated in the agro-industrial process of sugar cane, bagasse is one of the most relevant (Paturau, 1989. The negative influence of significant amount of pith, or parenchymatous tissue, present in sugarcane bagasse is discussed. Since this non-fibrous material does not give any desired properties in the pulp and paper, agglomerated boards and polymer productions, it is remarked the importance of its maximum removal. A brief historical review in the development of bagasse depithers and depithing systems is presented in this paper. Further results in the development of depither, named S.M. Caribe by its author, are described. The mechanical performance of first prototypes was evaluated in a test installation where vibration control values and temperatures in the upper and lower rotor bearings were monitored. For comparison it was made a vibrational analysis of other depithers that were in operation. For the technological evaluation the input capacity, the bagasse fiber quality obtained and the influence on the produced paper quality were controlled during two sugar cane crop seasons, as well. The results obtained were superior of those reached by most of depithers currently available in the market.

  13. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departme

  14. Effect of bagasse ash reinforcement on dry sliding wear behaviour of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The influence of wear parameters on the wear rate of RLDPE were investigated. → The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. → The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance. -- Abstract: The tribological behaviour of recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE) polymer composites with bagasse ash particles as a reinforcement was studied using a pin-on-disc wear rig under dry sliding conditions. The influence of wear parameters like, applied load, sliding speed, sliding distance and percentage of bagasse ash fillers, on the wear rate were investigated. A plan of experiments was performed to acquire data in a controlled way. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyse the worn surface of the samples. Linear regression equation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to investigate the influence of process parameters on the wear rate of the samples. The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. The confirmation of the experiments conducted using ANOVA to verify the optimal testing parameters show that sliding speed and applied load had significant effect on the wear rate. The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance of the composite greatly.

  15. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.

  16. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  17. Efficient saccharification by pretreatment of bagasse pith with ionic liquid and acid solutions simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bagasse pith was pretreated by BMIMCl solution containing HCl and water. • Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl to maximize total sugar yield. • Cellulose was dissolved by BMIMCl and 95% of cellulose recovery was obtained. • The recovered cellulose was disrupted which is conducive to cellulase hydrolysis. • The total sugars yield is 89.9% obtained from pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis. - Abstract: Hydrolysis of hemicellulose and disruption of cellulose during pretreatment process are conducive to the following cellulase hydrolysis performance. In this work, bagasse pith was first pretreated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) solution containing 0–1.2% hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 30% water. The water (30%) added into the acidic ionic liquid (IL) solutions led to an increase in the biomass loading up to a biomass/IL solutions ratio of 1:10 (wt.%). Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl and cellulose was dissolved by [BMIM]Cl. In this process, 76.9% of hemicellulose conversion and 95% of cellulose recovery were obtained. The pretreated bagasse pith was then followed by hydrolysis with commercially available enzymes. The effects of pretreatment temperature, reaction time and acid concentration on cellulase hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse pith were investigated. Pretreatment of bagasse pith with [BMIM]Cl solutions containing 1.0% HCl at 120 °C for 30 min resulted in the glucose concentration of 92.3 g/l and yield of 94.5% after 72 h of cellulase hydrolysis. The maximum total reducing sugars yield reached to 89.9% after pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis

  18. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by dilute-alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment and subsequent disk milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Inoue, Seiichi; Endo, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Dilute-alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment (HT) was conducted to improve the enzymatic degradability of sugarcane bagasse. Wet-disk milling (DM) was also performed after HT. Sodium carbonate with 0-6% concentration on dry weight basis of bagasse was used as the alkali catalyst. A content of more than 4% of the alkali catalyst was necessary for producing a higher amount of glucose than that produced after HT without an alkali catalyst. HT with 6% of the alkali catalyst, which decreased the pH to the neutral region, retained more xylan and less lignin than HT without an alkali. Subsequent DM improved the enzymatic degradability further and increased the specific surface area. For a substrate concentration of 10%, the amounts of glucose and xylose produced were 344 and 188 mg/g-bagasse, respectively. These values corresponded to yields of 77% and 67% on the basis of the glucan and xylan contents in raw bagasse, respectively. PMID:22196074

  19. Preliminary estudies on the use of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in the manufacture of alkali activated binders

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldelli, V.N.; Mitsuuchi Tashima, Mauro; Melges, J.L.; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; AKASAKI, JORGE LUIS; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activated binders require the addition of a mineral-rich amorphous silica and alumina. This paper proposes the use of a mineral residue from the burning of sugar cane bagasse. The alkali activated mixtures were prepared containing binary mixtures of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and other mineral admixtures: fly ash (FA) or blast furnace slag (BFS). As alkaline activators, mixtures of alkali (Na+ or K+) hydroxide and alkali (Na+ or K+) silicate were used. Alkali-activated pastes and mo...

  20. Associated saccharification and fermentation study using sugar cane bagasse; Estudo da sacarificacao enzimatica e fermentacao alcoolica associadas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Neto, Carlos C. de

    1988-12-31

    This study aims to develop a research about ethanol production by the Associated Saccharification and Fermentation (ASF) process using steam-exploded sugar cane bagasse as raw material. Experiments were carried out in two steps. The first considered bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis using high bagasse concentration. In the second one research was related with ASF process development and the following aspects were under investigation: specific flow rate, pH, B-glucosidase/cellulase ratio, cellulase/bagasse ratio, utilization of exploded and delignified bagasse as raw material. In the enzymatic hydrolysis experiments yield of 48% was reached (in a 500 ml reactor) while by the ASF process this yield increased to 57% and wines with ethanol concentration of 2.2% (w/v) were produced. Use of exploded and delignified bagasse increased these values to 68% and 4.3% (w/v). Finally, the best results with the ASF process are presented. 107 refs., 17 figs., 81 tabs.

  1. Processing of Sugarcane Bagasse ash and Reactivity of Ash-blended Cement Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Goyal; Hattori, Kunio; Ogata, Hidehiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a sugar-mill waste, has the potential of a partial cement replacement material if processed and obtained under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the reactivity of SCBA obtained by control burning of sugarcane bagasse procured from Punjab province of India. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to ascertain the amorphousness and morphology of the minerals ash particles. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on SCBA-blended mortar specimens. Ash-blended cement paste specimens were analyzed by XRD, thermal analysis, and SEM methods to evaluate the hydration reaction of SCBA with cement. Results showed that the SCBA processed at 600°C for 5 hours was reactive as ash-blended mortar specimens with up to 15% substitution of cement gave better strength than control specimens.

  2. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  4. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. PMID:25846188

  5. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs

  6. Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis in a Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere with Conventional and Microwave-Assisted Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Bo-Jhih; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  7. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Jhih eLin; Wei-Hsin eChen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product...

  8. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena Severino A; Lima Leile S; Cordeiro Luís SA; Sant'Anna Celso; Constantino Reginaldo; Azambuja Patricia; Souza Wanderley de; Garcia Eloi S; Genta Fernando A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities i...

  9. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Severino A; Lima, Leile S; Cordeiro, Luís SA; Sant'Anna, Celso; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Azambuja, Patricia; de Souza, Wanderley; Eloi S. Garcia; Fernando A Genta

    2011-01-01

    Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that th...

  10. Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Felipe F; Filho, Renato Tonon; Pinto, Fabio HPB; Costa, Caliane BB; Cruz, Antonio JG; Giordano, Raquel LC; Giordano, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G...

  11. The effect of organosolv pretreatment variables on enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Leyanis; González, Erenio; Cara, Cristóbal; M González; Castro, E; Solange I. Mussatto

    2011-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreated with dilute-acid was submitted to an organosolv ethanol process with NaOH under different operational conditions (pretreatment time, temperature, and ethanol concentration) aiming to maximize the glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis stage. The different pretreatment conditions resulted in variations in the chemical composition of the solid residue as well as in the glucose recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis. All the studied variables presented signi...

  12. Optimization of media for bioethanol production by Pichia stipitis from sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Ahi; Mehrdad Azin; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Ebrahim Vasheghani Farahani; Mohsen Nosrati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reduction of fossil fuels due to its increasing consumption caused the biofuels production as an important topic, today. Using resources that have not food application was regarded as the second generation biofuels and consisted of lignocelluloses. Since considerable amount of lignocellulosic material are pentoses, utilizing them is important for the production of biofuels. Materials and methods: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute acid method. Pichia stipitis was us...

  13. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos Santos; Arthur Filipe Sousa Gomes; Emanuele Giuliane Franciscon; Jean Maikon de Oliveira; Milla Alves Baffi

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them,...

  14. First and Second Law to Analyze the Performance of Bagasse Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Harold Sosa Arnao

    2011-01-01

    The performance of sugar cane bagasse boilers is commonly analyzed through the first law of thermodynamics, using the energy balance method and the fuel lower heating value as calculation base. This work presents a first law analysis using two different methods: the input/output and the energy balance. The employment of the fuel higher and lower heating values as calculation base are presented and discussed. Moreover, a second law analysis is showed, based on two methods: input/outpu...

  15. First and Second Law to Analyze the Performance of Bagasse Boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Arnao, Juan Harold

    2011-01-01

    The performance of sugar cane bagasse boilers is commonly analyzed through the first law of thermodynamics, using the energy balance method and the fuel lower heating value as calculation base. This work presents a first law analysis using two different methods: the input/output and the energy balance. The employment of the fuel higher and lower heating values as calculation base are presented and discussed. Moreover, a second law analysis is showed, based on two methods: input/output and exe...

  16. A LCA (life cycle assessment) of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays one of the most important environmental issues is the exponential increase of the greenhouse effect by the polluting action of the industrial and transport sectors. The production of biofuels is considered a viable alternative for the pollution mitigation but also to promote rural development. The work presents an analysis of the environmental impacts of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse, taking into consideration the balance of the energy life cycle and its net environmental impacts, both are included in a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) approach. The evaluation is done as a case study of a 100,000 t/y methanol plant, using sugarcane bagasse as raw material. The methanol is produced through the BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. The results of the environmental impacts were compared to others LCA studies of biofuel and it was showed that there are significant differences of environmental performance among the existing biofuel production system, even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, technology of the biomass conversion. With relation to the result of output/input ratio, the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse showed to be a feasible alternative for the substitution of an amount of fossil methanol obtained from natural gas. -- Highlights: → High and favorable energy ratio value of methanol from bagasse. → Sugarcane production has a low participation on environmental impacts. → The gasification and methanol synthesis can be combined in a biorefinery. → Farming biomass could cause the environmental impact land competition. → The trash of sugarcane can be used successfully in methanol production.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the drying of orange bagasse associating the convective method and infrared radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. Sánchez-Sáenz; Vânia R. G. Nascimento; João D. Biagi; Rafael A. de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mathematical modeling enables dimensioning of dryers, optimization of drying conditions and the evaluation of process performance. The aim of this research was to describe the behavior of orange bagasse drying using Page's and Fick's second law models, and to assess activation energy (using Arrhenius equation), moisture content, water activity and bulk density of product at the end of the process. The drying experimental assays were performed in 2011 with convective air temperature b...

  18. Preparation and Properties of Biocomposite Based on Natural Rubber and Bagasse Nanocellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Jarnthong Methakarn; Wang Fei; Wei Xiao Yi; Wang Rui; Li Ji Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biocomposite based on natural rubber (NR) and bagasse nanocellulose (BNC) was prepared in latex state. The mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of NR/BNC biocomposite were investigated. It was found that the addition of 3 wt% of BNC in NR film caused significant increase in modulus at 100% and 300% elongations and improved thermal stability of NR/BNC biocomposite. However, the strength at break and elongation at break of the biocomposite were not enhanced correlating to the morpho...

  19. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    OpenAIRE

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci; Nitsche Saul; Pandey Ashok; Soccol Carlos Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls ...

  20. Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50 °C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35 g l(-1), 0.58 g g(-1) and 0.13 h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61 g g(-1) xylitol and 0.43 g g(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165 g (210 ml) and 183 g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

  1. Utilization of nitrogen by soybean (Glycine max) influenced by the addition of sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N2-fixation in soybean and soil-N and 15N-urea utilization where studied in a glasshouse. Doses of fertilizer were 0, 40 and 80 kgN/ha added either to cultivated - or virgin soil, where sugar cane bagasse was also added (20 ton/ha). Non-nodulating soybean was used as a control to determine the absorption of the three N-sources: soil, fertilizer and N2-fixation. The N-immobilization effect caused by bagasse addition was observed even after a pre-incubation period of 40 days, being greater in the cultivated than in the soil without organic matter. Accumulations of N, P and S where also smaller in these plants. Additions of N were not sufficient to equal the values observed in soils without organic matter. Addition of 40 kgN/ha showed a sinergistic and positive effect on treatments that had N-immobilization, reinforcing the idea that starter doses of N are necessary for maximization of nodulation and N2-fixation in soybean, in soils with low N. N2-fixation contributed with mean values of 54% and 84% N, respectively, in the aerial part and pools in non-treated soil. When bagasse was added, the percentages of N2-fixed increased, however in smaller amounts, showing a necessity of different sources of N to increase the total N in plant. The greatest N2-fixation (48,6 kgN/ha) was found in the cultivated soil, where only bagasse had been added. (M.A.)

  2. NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ESTIMATING SUGARCANE BAGASSE CONTENT IN MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ugo Leandro Belini; Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein; Mario Tomazello Filho Mail; José Carlos Rodrigues; Gilles Chaix

    2011-01-01

    Medium density fiberboard (MDF) is an engineered wood product formed by breaking down selected lignin-cellulosic material residuals into fibers, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and then forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. Because the raw material in the industrial process is ever-changing, the panel industry requires methods for monitoring the composition of their products. The aim of this study was to estimate the ratio of sugarcane (SC) bagasse to Eucalyptus ...

  3. Kinetics of cadmium, chromium, and lead sorption onto chemically modified sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M; Suthar, V; Rafique, E; Ahmad, R; Yasin, M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) adsorption potential of unmodified and modified sugarcane bagasse and ground wheat straw was explored from aqueous solution through batch equilibrium technique. Both the materials were chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) alone and in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Two kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were used to follow the adsorption process and reaction fallowed the later model. The Pb removal by both the materials was highest and followed by Cr and Cd. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity and NaOH treatment proved more effective than others. Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was utmost (12.8-23.3 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 14.5-22.4 mg/g of wheat straw) and of Cd was least (1.5-2.2 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 2.5-3.8 mg/g of wheat straw). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. Results demonstrate that agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate the heavy metal-polluted water. PMID:26116198

  4. Microcystin-LR removal from Microcystis aeruginosa using in natura sugarcane bagasse and activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rafaela de Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microcystin-LR is a type of toxin released by the Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacteria found in water sources used for human consumption. It can cause illness and even death if not completely removed in conventional water treatment. The retention of this toxin is often accomplished by the adsorption process in activated carbon in water treatment plants. In this study, a comparison was made between the retention of microcystin-LR by activated carbon and by sugarcane bagasse in natura applied as a bio-adsorbent. Adsorption experiments were performed after the physical and chemical properties of the bio adsorbent and the activated carbon were characterized. The adsorption performance was evaluated by the toxin removal efficiency and the maximum adsorption capacity. Average removal efficiencies of the toxin resulted in 65.25; 41.74 and 11.75% for the activated carbon and 24.15; 18.92 and 12.27% for the sugarcane bagasse for concentrations of 2.36, 3.33 and 3.83 µg L-1, respectively. The bio adsorbent presented removal efficiency for the toxin similar to that observed in the activated carbon for the concentration of 3.83 µg L-1. Maximum adsorption capacity obtained with better linear adjustment to the Freundlich isotherm was 6,047.84 µg g-1 (toxin concentration of 3.83 µg L-1 for sugarcane bagasse and 338.61 µg g-1 (toxin concentration of 2.36 µg L-1 for activated carbon.

  5. PARAMETERS OF PROTEIN METABOLISM IN GOATS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT PORTION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ariyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Jawarandu male goats were used to study the effect of different portion of sugarcanebagasse in diets on some parameters of protein metabolism. Goats had average of body weight of 18 kgand aged at 18 months. Animals were housed in metabolic cages and were alloted to a completelyrandomized design receiving three experimental diets with sugarcane bagasse portions of 15, 25, and35% (dry matter basis, respectively. After eight weeks of adjustment period to experimental diets andenvironment, each group of treatment was subjected to ten days of digestion trial, and followed bycollection of rumen liquid samples. Parameters observed were feed digestibility, nitrogen retention,ruminal feed fermentation, and excretion of urinary allantoin to estimate microbial protein synthesis.Data were tested using one way analysis of variance, and followed by Duncan’s mulitiple range test. Drymatter and protein intakes lowered (P<0.05 as the increasing of sugarcane bagasse in diets. Proteindigestibility and retention were unaffected by the treatment of bagasse portion. The dietary treatment didnot change ruminal ammonia, total VFA, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations. Microbialnitrogen synthesis and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were unaffected by the dietarytreatment.

  6. Experimental Study of Ageing Behaviour of Al-Cu-Mg/Bagasse Ash Particulate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mohammed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental correlation of ageing behaviour for Al-Cu-Mg/Bagasse ash particulate composites with 2-10wt% bagasse ash particles produced by double stir-casting method has been investigated. Hardness values measurement and microstructural analysis were used in determining the ageing behaviour, after solution and age-hardened heat-treatment. For comparison, the ageing characteristics of the unreinforced matrix alloy with an identical processing and ageing history were also examined. The results indicate that the composite exhibits an accelerated hardening response compared to the unreinforced matrix alloy at the three selected aging temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Ageing temperature has great influence on the hardening characteristics of the Al–Cu–Mg/BAp composite. TEM observations reveal that the addition of bagasse ash particles to the Al–Cu–Mg alloy can speed up the growth rate of precipitates S’ (Cu3Al2, and Al6CuMg4 phases. The accelerated precipitation of S’ phases is proposed to be responsible for the enhanced age-hardening of the Al–Cu–Mg/BAp composites.

  7. Metanolic extract of Malpighia emarginata bagasse: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R. Marques

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adding value to fruit residues is of great interest, since they can be presented as a viable solution in search of new drugs for the treatment of obesity and related diseases, due to bioactive substances, especially phenolic compounds. Thus, the objective of this study was to prepare the methanol extract of acerola bagasse flour, in order to evaluate its potential as a source of inhibitors of the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase and trypsin, and determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. Enzymatic inhibition assays were conducted in the presence or absence of simulated gastric fluid. In the methanol extract of acerola bagasse flour, the following phenolic compounds were identified: gallic acid, syringic and p-coumaric acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin and quercetin; epicatechin was the major compound. In the absence of gastric fluid, simulated enzymes had a variable inhibition of the acerola bagasse flour extract, except for lipase, which was not inhibited. In the presence of simulated gastric fluid, there was an inhibition of 170.08 IEU (Inhibited Enzyme Unit in µmol min−1 g−1 for α-amylase and 69.29 IEU for α-glucosidase, indicating that this extract shows potential as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemia.

  8. Endogenous phosphorus excretion by sheep fed hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, lucerne hay and citrus pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine endogenous phosphorus excretion in sheep fed with different diets. Sixteen male growing sheep, received a basic diet with: 42% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (HSB), 45% lucerne hay (LH) plus 14% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, and 30% citrus pulp (CTP) plus 40% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. A dose of 7.7 MBq 32P was injected into the left jugular vein of each animal. The P endogenous fecal losses were: 1.69, 2.50, 2.33 and 1.45 g/animal for treatments HSB, LH, and CTP respectively (P>0.05). The type of diet influenced slight endogenous P excretion but altered excretion of P in urine. Endogenous P excreted in feces (PF) comes mainly from saliva and represents an important loss of P. The estimation of net requirements of phosphorus (P) for ruminants includes endogenous losses, which is also essential for calculating true absorption of this mineral. Physical structure of the feed may influence endogenous losses, altering the metabolism of P and also the demand of this mineral, therefore being important to know how different feeds affect endogenous P losses. (author)

  9. Biological hydrogen and methane production from bagasse bioethanol fermentation residues using a two-stage bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chung, Man-Chien; Chan, Kun-Chi

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of H2 and CH4 from bagasse bioethanol fermentation residues (bagasse BEFR) using a two-stage bioprocess. In the hydrogen fermentation bioreactor (HFB), carbohydrate removal efficiency was maintained at 82-93% and the highest hydrogen yield was 8.24mL/gCOD at volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 80kgCOD/m(3)/day. The results indicated a positive correlation between hydrogen yield and butyrate-to-acetate ratio, which might be due to the mechanisms of lactate/acetate utilization for hydrogen production and acetogenesis occurring in the HFB. Remaining volatile fatty acids and alcohols in the HFB effluent were further utilized for methane production in methane fermentation bioreactor (MFB), in which the highest methane yield of 345.2mL/gCOD was attained at VLR of 2.5kgCOD/m(3)/day. Overall, the two-stage bioprocess achieved a maximum COD removal of 81% from bagasse BEFR, and converted 0.3% and 72.8% of COD in the forms of H2 and CH4, respectively. PMID:26774443

  10. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  11. COMPARATIVE EXTRACTION OF PECTIC AND POLYPHENOLS FROM MEXICAN LIME POMACE AND BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sanchez-Aldana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexican lime bagasse and pomace are rich in pectin and they also represent an important source of value-added compounds such as polyphenols. Two different options for the combined recovery of pectin and phenolic compounds from Mexican lime bagasse and pomace, two byproducts of industrial lime processing, were developed. Conventional and microwave-assisted extraction methods were used. All pectic extracts presented a degree of esterification in the range of 70%. Pomace extracts had the higher pectin yield and the lower polyphenol content. Among the bioactive compounds identified by HPLC were two flavonones, naringin and hesperidin, all compounds were present in low concentration in the pectic extracts. Microwave pectic extracts presented depolymerization, as observed by molecular weight determination (12 KDa and compared against conventional pectic extracts which presented a molecular weight of 670 KDa. The film forming capacity of pectic extracts was also evaluated. Antioxidant activity of pectic extracts was also assessed by three different methods; all extracts showed a better activity in Fe2+ chelating assay (62.85-73.32% and lipid oxidation inhibition (63.07-72.28% than in DPPH radical inhibition (5.32-6.65%. These findings indicate a correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative capacity. Conventional pectic extracts from Mexican lime bagasse and pomace presented bioactive compounds with potential application for edible films and coatings in food industry.

  12. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

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    Sudhir Kumar Saw

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy composites have been studied. The role of fibre/matrix interactions in chemically modified hybrid composites were investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimeter, Differential Thermo Gravimetry, and a Universal Tensile Machine and compared with those of unmodified bagasse fibre bundles incorporated with modified jute fibre bundles reinforced hybrid composites. Fibre surface modification reduced the hydrophilicity of fibre bundles, and significantly increased mechanical properties of hybrid composites were observed in conjunction with SEM images. The SEM analysis of the fibre and the composite fractured surfaces have confirmed the FA grafting and shown a better compatibility at the interface between chemically modified fibre bundles and epoxy resin. This paper incorporates interesting results of thermomechanical properties and evaluation of fibre/matrix interactions.

  13. NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ESTIMATING SUGARCANE BAGASSE CONTENT IN MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Medium density fiberboard (MDF is an engineered wood product formed by breaking down selected lignin-cellulosic material residuals into fibers, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and then forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. Because the raw material in the industrial process is ever-changing, the panel industry requires methods for monitoring the composition of their products. The aim of this study was to estimate the ratio of sugarcane (SC bagasse to Eucalyptus wood in MDF panels using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA and partial least square (PLS regressions were performed. MDF panels having different bagasse contents were easily distinguished from each other by the PCA of their NIR spectra with clearly different patterns of response. The PLS-R models for SC content of these MDF samples presented a strong coefficient of determination (0.96 between the NIR-predicted and Lab-determined values and a low standard error of prediction (~1.5% in the cross-validations. A key role of resins (adhesives, cellulose, and lignin for such PLS-R calibrations was shown. PLS-DA model correctly classified ninety-four percent of MDF samples by cross-validations and ninety-eight percent of the panels by independent test set. These NIR-based models can be useful to quickly estimate sugarcane bagasse vs. Eucalyptus wood content ratio in unknown MDF samples and to verify the quality of these engineered wood products in an online process.

  14. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with microwaves irradiation and its effects on the structure and on enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material with microwave irradiation and glycerol. • Lignin and hemicellulose solubilization after pre-treatment. • Improvement of enzyme hydrolysis of bagasse with increased of glucose releasing. - Abstract: This paper refers to the new proposal of pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse with microwave associated to glycerol, seeking greater release of fermentable sugars during enzymatic hydrolysis. The residue was subjected to microwave irradiation for 5 min with distilled water, phosphoric acid (pH 3.0) and glycerol (100%) before being enzymatically hydrolyzed using cellulase enzyme extract Myceliophthora thermophila M.7.7. and the commercial enzyme cocktail Celluclast 1.5 L. A variety of analyses including measurement of BET surface analysis, MET, TGA, DTG, DSC, ATR-FTIR and PAD-HPLC were used to facilitate the understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of the solid fraction resulting from pre-treatment. Infrared spectra of untreated and treated bagasse in microwave irradiation and glycerol showed significant differences in the regions 1635, 1600 and 1510 related vibration of the aromatic ring, and the band at 1100 cm−1 is attributed to an overlap of C–O–H elongation of primary and secondary alcohols and at 980 cm−1 to stretching of glycosidic linkages C–O–C. The thermal analysis showed that the bagasse treated in a microwave irradiation and glycerol has higher thermal stability compared to the untreated bagasse. The experimental results indicated that 5.4 and 11.3% w/w of lignin and xylan fractions, respectively, are degraded after pretreatment of bagasse in microwave heating with glycerol. The highest yields of hydrolysis of hemicellulose (22.4%) and cellulose (40.2%) w/w were obtained in the reaction mixture containing the enzyme and Celluclast commercial cane bagasse treated in a microwave irradiation and glycerol after 24 h of incubation. The association of microwave and glycerol is

  15. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  16. Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

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    Supitcha Rungrodnimitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L. The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax. As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  17. COMPLETE CHARACTERIZATION OF BAGASSE OF EARLY SPECIES OF SACCHARUM OFFICINERUM-CO 89003 FOR PULP AND PAPER MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnima Agnihotri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse from early species of Saccharum officinerum-Co 89003 has 71.36% useful, long, and thick-walled fibers with good slenderness ratio, but the rigidity coefficient is less than that of Eucalyptus tereticornis and Leucaena leucocephala. The kink index and kink per mm length are lower in bagasse fiber than E. terticornis, which gives rise to fewer weak points in the fiber. Low alcohol–benzene soluble substances in bagasse induce less pitch problems and favor more homogeneity in the paper. Lignin content in bagasse is comparable to Eucalyptus globulus and Leucaena leucocephala, but α-cellulose, and pentosans are slightly lower. A higher proportion of carbon content compared to hydrogen and oxygen increases the energy value of bagasse. It produces 42.2% pulp yield of kappa number 28.2 at optimum cooking conditions, such as active alkali 12% (as Na2O, temperature 150oC, and time (at temperature 60 min. An addition of 0.1% anthraquinone at the optimum condition improves pulp yield by 2.6% and mitigates kappa number by 3.9 units.

  18. Comparison of submerged and solid state pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by Pandoraea sp. ISTKB: Enzymatic and structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Madan; Singhal, Anjali; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by Pandoraea sp. ISTKB was evaluated under submerged (SmF) and solid state (SSF) culture conditions. Number of bacteria was 2.7 times higher in SmF as compared with SSF. Enzymes produced under SmF were xylanase, LiP, MnP and laccase. In SSF xylanase and laccase were detected. CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase were not detected. Delignification was highest in SmF with 19.94% and 10.43% removal of hemicelluloses and lignin, respectively. FTIR analysis suggested the degradation of lignin/hemicellulose component. SEM analysis showed pores were three times bigger in SmF as compared with raw bagasse. Maximum CR dye was absorbed by treated SmF bagasse. Enzymatic saccharification increased by 3.7 times after SmF treatment in comparison to raw bagasse. Pretreatment of bagasse by Pandoraea sp. ISTKB was more efficient under SmF than SSF. High negative correlation between saccharification vs lignin/hemicelluloses content justified the need for pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste before saccharification. PMID:26720135

  19. Radiation Role in Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Stenotorphomonas maltophilia Using Rice Straw and Cane Bagasses Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable raw materials such as rice straw and cane bagasses look promising for replacing environmentally the traditional risky chemical surfactants raw materials and hence, creating green products. Rice straw is a by-product of rice production. A great bio-source Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, bio surfactant producer strain was tested for the bio surfactant production capacity on irradiated rice straw and sugar cane bagasses. The two substrates subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve its availability for bio surfactant production which resulted in promising exhibition of the bio surfactant production at dose level 10 kGy for both substrates after 72 hours. Generally, the irradiated rice straw showed lower bio surfactant production capacity than in case of sugar cane bagasses for both Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Suez Gulf microbial consortia

  20. Study on technology of deep dehydration of bagasse%蔗渣深度脱水技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫东

    2001-01-01

    结合我区实际情况,阐述了蔗渣深度脱水的目的和意义。借鉴甜菜糖厂对废粕深度脱水技术,并参考前人经验,提出用卧式双螺旋压榨机对蔗渣进行深度脱水,并从理论上给出了蔗渣脱水后的水分含量。%The purpose and meaning on deep dehydration of bagasse were elaborated dealing with the actual conditions in Guangxi.Using the technology of deep dehydration of beet-pulp in beetsugar factory and the experiences of former researchers for reference,it was advanced that the bagasse should be deeply dehydrated with the horzontal double-screw squeezer.Water content in bagasse affer dehydration was derived in theory.

  1. Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Heredia-Olea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw.

  2. Feasibility of growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena \\\\\\'Tropic Snow\\\\\\' in pot growth-medium amended with sugarcane bagasse vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahboub Khomami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, introduction of conversion technologies to solve environmental problems in accumulation of sugarcane bagasse, as an alternative to peat, in the ornamental plants industry seems necessary. For this purpose, in an experiment, the effects of substitution of sugarcane bagasse + cow manure vermicompost with peat in 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite medium were examined on growth and nutrition of Dieffenbachia amoena ornamental plant. After production of the vermicompost, rooted cuttings of the plants were cultivated in the control medium (containing 60% peat + 30% vermiculite + 10% perlite and the media in which 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% of vermicompost was replaced with peat in control medium. Factors such as plant height, diameter, fresh and dry weights of shoots and leaves, fresh and dry weights of roots, leaf area, and nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in plants and substrates were measured. Physical properties of the substrates including aerial porosity, water holding capacity, total porosity and bulk density were measured too. Results showed that increasing the level of vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had a significant effect on nitrogen and potassium content of leaves, and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of the substrates. The highest amounts of these elements were measured at 60% vermicompost + bagasse treatment. The substrate containing 60% vermicompost + sugarcane bagasse had maximum plant height (15.91 cm, diameter (9.53 mm, fresh weight of stem and leaf (158.91 g, dry weight of stem and leaf (33.99 g, dry weight of root (25.87 g and leaf area (2680.5 cm². Based on the results, vermicomposting of sugarcane bagasse is in accordance with the environment, and can be used in the growing media for production of flowers and plants.

  3. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  4. Application of Ionic Liquid [DMIM]DMP Pretreatment in the Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Widjaja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is one of lignocellulose materials that can be converted to biofuel. This work was aimed to develop new pretreatment combination methods to process sugarcane bagasse lignocellulose into biofuel (bio-hydrogen. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using NaOH solution in combination with ionic liquid [DMIM]DMP enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly. After the pretreat-ment, the content of cellulose and hemicellulose increased by 29.31% compared to the untreated one. Cellulose and hemicelluloses were used as raw materials to produce reducing sugars, that can be con-verted to bio-hydrogen via fermentation. After being subjected to combined pretreatment processes, the crystalline index of sugarcane bagasse decreased significantly compared to solely NaOH pretratment. This indicates a more amorphous structure of the sugarcane bagasse, which makes it is easier to be hy-drolyzed into reducing sugars. The recovery of cellulose + hemicellulose after pretreatment for 20 min and 120 °C was 92%, and the yield obtained was 0.556 g sugars/g (cellulose + hemicellulose after 12 h and the bio-hydrogen yield was 0.46 mol H2/mol sugars consumed after 48 h fermentation. The use of recycled of ionic liquid showed similar performance compared to the use of fresh ionic liquid. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st July 2014; Revised: 15th September 2014; Accepted: 12nd December 2014How to Cite: Widjaja, A., Agnesty, S.Y., Sangian, H.F., Gunawan, S. (2014. Application of Ionic Liquid [DMIM]DMP Pretreatment in the Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse for Biofuel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 70-77. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7143.70-77Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7143.70-77 

  5. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE CELLULOSE AND ITS EFFECT ON MECHANICAL AND WATER ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE CELLULOSE/ HDPE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Regina Mulinari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibres from sugarcane bagasse were bleached and modified by zirconium oxychloride in order to improve the mechanical properties of composites with high density polyethylene (HDPE. The mechanical properties of the composites prepared from chemically modified cellulose fibres were found to increase compared to those of bleached fibres. Tensile strengths of the composites showed a decreasing trend with increasing filler content. However, the values for the chemically modified cellulose fibres/HDPE composites at all mixing ratios were found to be higher than that of neat HDPE. Results of water immersion tests showed that the water absorption affected the mechanical properties. The fracture surfaces of the composites were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SEM micrographs revealed that interfacial bonding between the modified filler and the matrix was significantly improved by the fibre modification.

  6. Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C. P.; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1 was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon

  7. Effect of Subsequent Dilute Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Reducing Sugar Production from Sugarcane Bagasse and Spent Citronella Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Timung, Robinson; Naik Deshavath, Narendra; Goud, Vaibhav V.; Dasu, Venkata V.

    2016-01-01

    This work was aimed at investigating the effect of process parameters on dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of spent citronella biomass (after citronella oil extraction) and sugarcane bagasse on total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. In acid pretreatment, the parameters studied were acid concentration, temperature, and time. At the optimized condition (0.1 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 120 min), maximum TRS obtained was 452.27 mg·g−1 and 487.50 mg·g−1 for bagasse and citronella, respectively....

  8. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia Lage de; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio, E-mail: mlageoli@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Polesi, Luiz Fernando; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida Santos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Jose Paulo de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Oliveira, Andrea Lage de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Araras, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  9. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  10. Effect of dry torrefaction on kinetics of catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyanto, Sutijan, Deendarlianto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Decreasing world reserve of fossil resources (i.e. petroleum oil, coal and natural gas) encourage discovery of renewable resources as subtitute for fossil resources. Biomass is one of the main natural renewable resources which is promising resource as alternate resources to meet the world's energy needs and raw material to produce chemical platform. Conversion of biomass, as source of energy, fuel and biochemical, is conducted using thermochemical process such as pyrolysis-gasification process. Pyrolysis step is an important step in the mechanism of pyrolysis - gasification of biomass. The objective of this study is to obtain the kinetic reaction of catalytic pyrolysis of dry torrified sugarcane bagasse which used Ca and Mg as catalysts. The model of kinetic reaction is interpreted using model n-order of single reaction equation of biomass. Rate of catalytic pyrolysis reaction depends on the weight of converted biomass into char and volatile matters. Based on TG/DTA analysis, rate of pyrolysis reaction is influenced by the composition of biomass (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) and inorganic component especially alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM). From this study, it has found two equations rate of reaction of catalytic pyrolysis in sugarcane bagasse using catalysts Ca and Mg. First equation is equation of pyrolysis reaction in rapid zone of decomposition and the second equation is slow zone of decomposition. Value of order reaction for rapid decomposition is n > 1 and for slow decomposition is npyrolysis of dry-torrified sugarcane bagasse with presence of Ca tend to higher than that's of presence of Mg.

  11. Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes. PMID:20156678

  12. Characterization of agave bagasse as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of agave bagasse (AGB-byproduct of tequila industry) presented unidentified crystalline peaks that are not typical from common biofuel feedstocks (e.g. sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass or corn stover) making it an important issue to be addressed for future biorefinery applications. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of AGB was performed using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) at 120, 140 and 160 °C for 3 h and a mass fraction of 3% in order to identify these peaks. Pretreated samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC) and wet chemistry methods. Previous unidentified XRD peaks on AGB at 2θ = 15°, 24.5° and 30.5°, were found to correspond to calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) in a monohydrated form. IL pretreatment with [C2mim][OAc] was observed to remove CaC2O4 and decrease cellulose crystallinity. At 140 °C, IL pretreatment significantly enhances enzymatic kinetics and leads to ∼8 times increase in sugar yield (6.66 kg m−3) when compared to the untreated samples (960 g m−3). These results indicate that IL pretreatment can effectively process lignocellulosic biomass with high levels of CaC2O4. - Highlights: • Chemical behavior of agave bagasse pretreated by ionic liquid (IL) is assessed. • Previously unidentified XRD peaks correspond to calcium oxalate (CaC2O4). • Total sugar yield and initial enzymatic hydrolysis rate were higher at 140 °C. • IL pretreatment can effectively process biomass with high levels of CaC2O4. • Increasing the temperature of IL pretreatment causes the agglomeration of CaC2O4

  13. Super-heater tube failure due to overheating when using bagasse as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Coronado Marín

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A super-heater’s boiler tubes presented external longitudinal cracks. The tubes’ external surfaces presented a reddish-white layer consisting of paraffin chains: CH, functional groups: CO, NH and sulphur compounds. This brittle layer prevented heat transfer, thereby causing increased tube temperature. Creep led to failure due to long-term overheating. The steel tubes’ microstructure presented grain growth, cementite globulisation and intergranular cracks on the external surface. The foregoing observations support microstructure deterioration facilitated by the presence of unsuitable super-heater tube material when just using bagasse as fuel.

  14. DECAY RESISTANCE, HARDNESS, WATER ABSORPTION, AND THICKNESS SWELLING OF A BAGASSE FIBER/PLASTIC COMPOSITE

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Kord; Vahidreza Safdari; Mahdi Modirzare; Seyyed Khalil Hosseinihashemi

    2011-01-01

    The decay resistance, hardness, water absorption, and thickness swelling of a bagasse fiber/polypropylene composite were evaluated. Brown- (Coniophora puteana) and white-rot (Trametes versicolor) fungal treatments were applied for 8, 12, and 16 weeks according to BS 838:1961 with the kolle-flask method. The brown- and white-rotted, and control composite samples were immersed in distilled water at 2 h and 24 h to measure the water absorption and thickness swelling of samples according to the A...

  15. Improvement of biotechnological xylitol production by glucose during cultive of Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva; Ismael Maciel de Mancilha; Silvio Silvério da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2007-01-01

    The effect of glucose on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii was examined by adding it to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate medium to obtain different glucose:xylose ratios (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2.5). Under experimental conditions, increasing glucose:xylose ratio improved the assimilation of the xylose present in the hydrolysate by yeast, resulting in biomass increase, and in the formation of xylitol and glycerol/ethanol by-products. Maximum values of xylitol yield (0.59 g ...

  16. Utilization of bagasse from the beer industry in clay brick production for building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bricks manufactured from bagasse, a by-product of the brewing industry. Raw materials (clay and bagasse were characterized to determine their chemical composition, mineralogical composition and thermal behaviour. Mixtures were prepared with amounts of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% of bagasse incorporated into the clay body. Rectangular test pieces were obtained by application of 54.5 MPa pressure, they were dried at 110 °C and fired at 950 ºC in a laboratory furnace for 1 hour. Ceramic properties related to weight loss on ignition, linear shrinkage, bulk and absolute density, water absorption, water suction and compressive strength were analyzed in order to evaluate the suitability of using this wastes in ceramic matrix to the production of building bricks. The results indicate that the incorporation of the bagasse decreases the absolute and bulk density, increases the water absorption and reduces the compressive strength of the brick.

    Este estudio analiza ladrillos fabricados a partir de bagazo, un subproducto del sector cervecero. Las materias primas (arcilla y bagazo fueron caracterizadas para determinar la composición química, la composición mineralógica y el comportamiento térmico. Las mezclas fueron preparadas adicionando cantidades del 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 y 10 % en peso de bagazo a la arcilla. Se obtuvieron piezas rectangulares por aplicación de una presión de 54,5 MPa, secadas a 110 ºC y sinterizadas a 950 ºC en un horno mufla durante 1 hora. Las propiedades cerámicas relativas a la pérdida de peso por calcinación, contracción lineal, densidad aparente, densidad absoluta, absorción de agua, succión del agua y resistencia a la compresión, fueron analizadas para evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar estos residuos en matrices cerámicas para la producción de ladrillos para construcción. Los resultados indican que, la incorporación de bagazo disminuye las densidades aparente y absoluta, incrementa la

  17. Preparation and Properties of Biocomposite Based on Natural Rubber and Bagasse Nanocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnthong Methakarn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocomposite based on natural rubber (NR and bagasse nanocellulose (BNC was prepared in latex state. The mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of NR/BNC biocomposite were investigated. It was found that the addition of 3 wt% of BNC in NR film caused significant increase in modulus at 100% and 300% elongations and improved thermal stability of NR/BNC biocomposite. However, the strength at break and elongation at break of the biocomposite were not enhanced correlating to the morphological result obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM.

  18. Comparison between wet oxidation and steam explosion as pretreatment methods for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Carlos Martín; Marcet, M.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation and steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse were compared with regard to biomass fractionation, formation of by-products, and enzymatic convertibility of the pretreated material. Wet oxidation led to the solubilisation of 82% of xylan and 50% of lignin, and to a...... fraction than steam explosion did. A better enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was achieved for the wet-oxidised material (57.4 %) than for the steam-exploded material (48.9 %). Cellulose convertibility was lower for the whole slurry than for the washed solids in both pretreatments, but more...

  19. Studies on Thermal Degradation Behavior of Siliceous Agriculture Waste (Rice Husk, Wheat Husk and Bagasse)

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Syed H.; Aslam Umair; Kazmi Mohsin; Rustam Masooma; Riaz Sheema; Munir Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Various siliceous agriculture waste (SAW) such as rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse have been investigated to study their thermal degradation behavior using Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) technique. The focus of this research is to conduct TGA of raw and acid treated (20% HCl & 1M H2SO4) SAW at heating rate 10°C/min in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The results were analyzed on the basis of thermograms and it was inferred that 24 hours soaking with 20% HCl prior to thermal degradation enhanced...

  20. Textile dye removal from aqueous solutions by malt bagasse: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Klaiani B; Chaves, Eduardo S; Sanchez, Jefferson D S; Watanabe, Erica R L R; Pietrobelli, Juliana M T A; Lenzi, Giane G

    2016-02-01

    The biosorption of orange solimax TGL 182% (OS-TGL) textile dye onto new and low cost biossorbent (malt bagasse) in aqueous solutions was investigated. The malt bagasse was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area (BET method).Batch biosorption experiments were conducted in order to determine the following parameters: particles size, pH, agitation speed, temperature, contact time, biomass dosage, influence of the ionic strength and, finally, the influence of other textile dye on the OS-TGL biosorption. The optimum conditions for OS-TGL removal were obtained at pH 1.5, agitation speed of 150rpm, contact time of 180min and biomass dosage 2, 8gL(-1). The results show that the kinetics of biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order model and by increasing the temperature from 293 up to 313K, the biosorption capacity was improved. The Langmuir model showed better fit and the estimated biosorption capacity was 23.2mgg(-1). The negative values of Gibbs free energy, ΔG°, and positive value of enthalpy, ΔH°, confirm the spontaneous nature and endothermic character of the biosorption process. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance in high salt concentrations. The removal capacity (>95%) was not affected with the presence of other textile dyes. PMID:26590694

  1. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  2. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuaizhu; Peng, Lincai; Chen, Keli; Zhu, Zhengliang

    2016-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH with different variables was conducted to improve its enzymatic digestibility and sugar recovery, and the results were compared with sole NaOH pretreatment. Lignin removal for O2-NaOH pretreatment was around 10% higher than that for sole NaOH pretreatment under the same conditions, and O2-NaOH pretreatment resulted in higher glucan recovery in the solid remain. Subsequently, O2-NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented more efficient enzymatic digestibility than sole NaOH pretreatment. Under the moderate pretreatment conditions of combining 1% NaOH and 0.5MPa O2 at 80°C for 120min, a high glucan conversion of 95% was achieved after 48h enzymatic hydrolysis. Coupled with the operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, an admirable total sugar recovery of 89% (glucose recovery of 93% and xylose recovery of 84%) was obtained. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic digestibility was explained by their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:27208740

  3. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  4. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

  5. Grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent of cadmium and lead for effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated the utilization of grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from laboratory effluent. X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analyses, surface analysis, porosity and porous size were used for characterization of the material. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the material. Parameters such as adsorption pH and contact time were optimized for the maximum accumulation onto the solid surface. The pH values found were 7 and 3 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, and contact time was 5 min for both metals. Adsorption capacity for metals were calculated from adsorption isotherms by applying the Langmueir model and found to be 0.774 and 0.428 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The competition between metals for the same adsorption sites on grape bagasse was also evaluated, showing an increasing affinity for Pb(II) over Cd(II) when only these metals are present. The potential of this material was demonstrated by efficient metal removal from laboratory effluent using a glass column. The results indicate that the referred material could be employed as adsorbent for effluent treatment, especially due to its easy acquisition and low cost as well as the fast adsorption involved

  6. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

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    Lucena Severino A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that the activity against commercial substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, does not always correspond to the activity against the natural lignocellulosic material. Besides that, the macroscopic characteristics of the raw material, such as insolubility and heterogeneity, hinder its use for high throughput screenings. Results In this paper, we present the preparation of a colloidal suspension of particles obtained from sugarcane bagasse, with minimal chemical change in the lignocellulosic material, and demonstrate its use for high throughput assays of hydrolases using Brazilian termites as the screened organisms. Conclusions Important differences between the use of the natural substrate and commercial cellulase substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose or crystalline cellulose, were observed. This suggests that wood feeding termites, in contrast to litter feeding termites, might not be the best source for enzymes that degrade sugarcane biomass.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse using high total solids and low enzyme loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; da Silva, Larissa; Ballem, Annielly Comelli; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Chiarello, Luana Marcele; Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano

    2014-10-23

    Hydrolysis of phosphoric acid-impregnated steam-treated sugarcane bagasse was pre-optimized using a face-centered central composite design in which the process variables were the substrate total solids (TS, %), agitation intensity (AI, rpm) and enzyme loading (EL, gg(-1)). Pretreatment was carried out at 180°C for 10min using cane bagasse with 50wt% moisture content containing 9.5mg of H3PO4 per gram of dry biomass. Hydrolyses were performed for 96h at 50°C using Cellic CTec2® and water-washed steam-treated substrates. The highest amount of fermentable sugars was obtained with 20wt% TS, producing 76.8gL(-1) of glucose equivalents, which corresponded to a total glucan conversion of 69.2wt% and to a theoretical net increase of 39% in ethanol production from the same sugarcane tonnage without considering the use of leaves, tops and the additional yields from C5 sugars. PMID:25459822

  8. Optimization of media for bioethanol production by Pichia stipitis from sugarcane bagasse pretreated by dilute acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reduction of fossil fuels due to its increasing consumption caused the biofuels production as an important topic, today. Using resources that have not food application was regarded as the second generation biofuels and consisted of lignocelluloses. Since considerable amount of lignocellulosic material are pentoses, utilizing them is important for the production of biofuels. Materials and methods: Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with dilute acid method. Pichia stipitis was used for the fermentation of released sugars. A L27 Taguchi orthogonal array was considered to optimize the fermentation process and increase the amount of ethanol. The eight factors with three levels considering nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, sulfur, magnesium, and vitamins sources were considered in this study. Results: The analysis of the results shows that corn steep liquor, ammonium hydrogen phosphate, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate and magnesium sulfate have a significant effect on the production of ethanol, respectively. Confirmation of the optimal conditions shows that ethanol production was increased 97% relative to the mean of the observed results. The yield and productivity during 48 h of the fermentation were reached to 0.26 (g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 0.125g (L.h, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: At the optimum condition the production of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate had higher efficiency relative to previous studies. Results of medium optimization considering cheap resources showed showed an excellent potential toward an economical bioethanol production process.

  9. COMPARISON BETWEEN WET OXIDATION AND STEAM EXPLOSION AS PRETREATMENT METHODS FOR ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE

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    Carlos Martín

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline wet oxidation and steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse were compared with regard to biomass fractionation, formation of by-products, and enzymatic convertibility of the pretreated material. Wet oxidation led to the solubilisation of 82% of xylan and 50% of lignin, and to a two-fold increase of cellulose content in the pretreated solids, while steam explosion solubilised only 60% of xylan and 35% of lignin and increased cellulose content in the solid material by one third. Wet oxidation formed more aliphatic acids and phenolics, and less furan aldehydes in the liquid fraction than steam explosion did. A better enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was achieved for the wet-oxidised material (57.4 % than for the steam-exploded material (48.9 %. Cellulose convertibility was lower for the whole slurry than for the washed solids in both pretreatments, but more significantly in steam explosion. This investigation demonstrates the potential of wet oxidation as a promising pretreatment method for enzyme-based bagasse-to-ethanol processes.

  10. The economic potential of bagasse cogeneration as CDM projects in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus bagasse in Indonesian sugar mills is potential for grid-connected electricity-generating projects under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme. In addition, it is further perceived to considerably support the efforts to address prevailing crises in domestic sugar industry and power generation sector. This paper aims at analyzing the economic potential of bagasse cogeneration as CDM projects in Indonesia with the main deliverables of total emission reductions per year and Certified Emission Reduction (CER) earnings. The analysis was made by following the applicable methodologies and based on publicly available data from official and other sources on the websites. The results show that with the electricity displacement potential at 260,253 MWh, Indonesia could generate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reductions as much as 240,774 (large scale) or 198,177 tCO2 (small scale) per annum from the recently-employed low efficiency cogeneration leading to the earnings of about US$1.36 or 1.12 million, respectively. Out of 6 regional grids where the electricity from the project activities can be grid-connected, the primary emission reductions potentials are encountered in Java-Bali and Southern Sumatera grids. Additionally, various barriers in technical, institutional, financial, and other aspects have been identified as the justifications to pass the additionality test

  11. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

    2010-06-01

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

  12. Enhanced biohydrogen and subsequent biomethane production from sugarcane bagasse using nano-titanium dioxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Omid; Zilouei, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) under ultraviolet irradiation (UV) followed by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was used to enhance the production of biohydrogen and biomethane in a consecutive dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion. Different concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1g nanoTiO2/L under different UV times of 30, 60, 90 and 120min were used. Sulfuric acid (2%v/v) at 121°C was used for 15, 30 and 60min to hydrolyze the pretreated bagasse. For acidic hydrolysis times of 15, 30 and 60min, the highest total free sugar values were enhanced by 260%, 107%, and 189%, respectively, compared to samples without nanoTiO2 pretreatment. The highest hydrogen production samples for the same acidic hydrolysis times showed 88%, 127%, and 25% enhancement. The maximum hydrogen production of 101.5ml/g VS (volatile solids) was obtained at 1g nanoTiO2/L and 120min UV irradiation followed by 30min acid hydrolysis. PMID:27208737

  13. Evaluation of high density polyethylene composite filled with bagasse after accelerated weathering followed by biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Darabi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPC have many applications as structural and non-structural material. As their outdoor application becomes more widespread, their resistance against weathering, particularly ultraviolet light and biodegradation becomes of more concern. In the present study, natural fiber composites (NFPC made of bagasse and high density polyethylene, with and without pigments, were prepared by extrusion and subjected to accelerated weathering for 1440 h; then weathered and un-weathered samples were exposed to fungal and termite resistance tests. The chemical and surface qualities of samples were studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, colorimetry, contact angle, and roughness tests before and after weathering. Using bagasse as filler does reduce the discoloration of weathered samples. Adding pigments may reduce the effect of weathering on lignin degradation, although it favors polymer oxidation, but it increases the weight loss caused by fungi. Despite the high resistance of samples against biological attack, weathering triggers attack by termites and fungi on the surface and causes surface quality loss.

  14. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  15. Production and Characterization of Nanosilica from Bagasse Through Biosynthesis Using Lactobacilus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Nanda Yuli; Harisna, Azza Hanief; Khoirunnisa, Wulida; Yasvinawati, Niarisandi; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang

    2016-06-01

    Bagasse has a potential as natural resource of nanosilica. Nanosilica biosynthetic production method is better than chemical or physical methods. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in nanosilica synthesis, the effect of the long incubation, and the effect of freeze drying to the nanosilica quality. The method consists of two steps. The first is performing biosynthesize using bagasse and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in dark place with temperature of 37 degress C for the period of 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. The second is analyzing particles and chemical of nanosilica characterization using Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), some microscopes namely stereo, fluorescence, polarizing, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results show that nanosilica has spherical shaped, amorphous, and able to fluoresce when exposed by UV. The average size of particles are 104.6 nm in the 24 hours length incubated, 67.3 nm in the 48 hours length incubation, and 30.5 nm in the 72 hours length incubation. Samples using freeze drying have more complex and smaller structure than samples using air drying. The lengths of incubation influence the size and shape of nanosilica. Samples using freeze drying enable change the soil structure, and has beneficiary effect to improve soil fertility, as nanofertilizer. Whereas, the samples using air drying may use for glass or biofilm materials. PMID:27427679

  16. Energy from sugarcane bagasse under electricity rationing in Brazil: a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)

  17. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Jhih eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51-54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  18. Studies on Thermal Degradation Behavior of Siliceous Agriculture Waste (Rice Husk, Wheat Husk and Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Syed H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various siliceous agriculture waste (SAW such as rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse have been investigated to study their thermal degradation behavior using Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA technique. The focus of this research is to conduct TGA of raw and acid treated (20% HCl & 1M H2SO4 SAW at heating rate 10°C/min in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The results were analyzed on the basis of thermograms and it was inferred that 24 hours soaking with 20% HCl prior to thermal degradation enhanced the percent weight loss. The process also improved the percentage of residual weight of SAW indicating the extraction of amorphous silica with increased purity. The effect of acid treatment was verified by determining chemical composition of SAW samples before and after soaking with 20% HCl. Proximate analysis, thermal degradation temperature ranges and percentage of residual weight at 800°C for each of rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse were also quantified to observe the thermal degradation behavior. XRF analysis was performed to observe the effect of acid treatment for extraction of pure silica.

  19. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candidate for cellulase production when cultured on in natura sugarcane bagasse. Strain L04 revealed a well-balanced cellulolytic complex, presenting fast kinetic production of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases, achieving 4,022, U.L(-1) (72 h), 1,228 U.L(-1) (120 h) and 1,968 U.L(-1) (48 h) as the highest activities, respectively. About 60% glucose yields were obtained from sugarcane bagasse after 18 hours hydrolysis. This new strain represents a potential candidate for on-site enzyme production using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. PMID:24349958

  20. A comparison of power generation and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse from the perspective of mitigating GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power generation and two ethanol production options from sugarcane bagasse were compared at grid emission factors ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent per kWh. The first ethanol production method (EP 1) directly purchased electricity and steam from the grid and the factory, and the second ethanol production method (EP 2) derived the required electricity and steam from the cogeneration system using the sugarcane bagasse as boiler fuel. Data pertaining to GHG emissions from power generation were collected from published studies. A process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse was designed, and a simulator was developed to generate the process data using Microsoft Excel. Results show that power generation is the preferential option when the grid emission factors are higher than 0.45 kg CO2 eq/kWh. The EP 1 was advantageous in mitigating the GHG emissions when the grid emission factors were lower than 0.19 kg CO2 eq/kWh, and the EP 2 might be the most environmentally beneficial when the grid emission factors were between 0.19 and 0.45 kg CO2 eq/kWh. It is hoped that these results could be helpful in determining how to best utilize sugarcane bagasse

  1. An Investigation into the Impact of Reaction Temperature on Various Parameters during Torrefaction of Sugarcane Bagasse Relevant to Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Anukam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction of sugarcane bagasse was conducted in an electric muffle furnace at 200, 250, and 300°C in order to establish the impact of heat treatment temperature on various parameters and as a method to improve sugarcane bagasse characteristics for the purpose of gasification. The results show that weight loss of bagasse reduced as temperature of torrefaction increased due to excessive devolatilization. A reduced moisture and volatile matter content as well as improved calorific value were also achieved with increasing temperature of torrefaction. The torrefaction progress was again followed by elemental analysis of the material which showed the presence of C, H, and O in varying proportions depending on torrefaction temperature. The decrease in the weight percentages of O2 and H2 as torrefaction reaction temperature increased resulted in the accumulation of C in the solid product. The thermogravimetric analysis conducted established the maximum reactivity temperature of the torrefied material and revealed that the degradation of torrefied sugarcane bagasse was accelerated by thermal treatment of the material prior to analysis. Finally, the study established that torrefaction at 300°C led to a much more degraded material compared to the lower torrefaction reaction temperatures of 200 and 250°C, respectively.

  2. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi. PMID:24078146

  3. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 immobilized on chemically modified sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangping; He, Aiyong; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min

    2015-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was chemically modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA) and then used as a support to immobilize Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 in the process of butanol production. Compared with batch fermentation using unmodified sugarcane bagasse, 22.3 g/L total solvents were produced by cells immobilized on 4 g/L PEI treated sugarcane bagasse with high solvent productivity of 0.62 g/(L h) and glucose consumption rate of 1.67 g/(L h). Improvement of 14, 43, and 37 % in total solvent titer, solvent productivity and glucose consumption rate was observed, respectively. Enhanced solvent production of 25.14 g/L was obtained when using a high concentration of glucose of 80 g/L. Continuous fermentation was studied using PEI/GA modified sugarcane bagasse as immobilization support with a range of dilution which rates from 0.2 to 2.5 to find an optimal condition. The maximum solvent productivity of 11.32 g/(L h) was obtained at a high dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1). PMID:25694132

  4. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...

  5. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  6. Simplified process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli strain MM160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Nieves, I U; Peterson, J J; Hoffman, R W; York, S W; Yomano, L P; Miller, E N; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-02-01

    Hexose and pentose sugars from phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse were co-fermented to ethanol in a single vessel (SScF), eliminating process steps for solid-liquid separation and sugar cleanup. An initial liquefaction step (L) with cellulase was included to improve mixing and saccharification (L+SScF), analogous to a corn ethanol process. Fermentation was enabled by the development of a hydrolysate-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli LY180, designated MM160. Strain MM160 was more resistant than the parent to inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetate) formed during pretreatment. Bagasse slurries containing 10% and 14% dry weight (fiber plus solubles) were tested using pretreatment temperatures of 160-190°C (1% phosphoric acid, 10 min). Enzymatic saccharification and inhibitor production both increased with pretreatment temperature. The highest titer (30 g/L ethanol) and yield (0.21 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight) were obtained after incubation for 122 h using 14% dry weight slurries of pretreated bagasse (180°C). PMID:21111615

  7. Sugarcane bagasse ash reinforced HDPE composites: effects of electron-beam radiation crosslinking on tensile and morphological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Sartori, Mariana M.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: jacielegteixeira@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Environmental issues have led to the development of polymeric materials reinforced with fibers originated from renewable agricultural sources such as pineapple leaf, sisal, jute, piassava, coir, and sugarcane bagasse. Although sugarcane bagasse fiber residues has been extensively studied and used as a source of reinforcement of polymers, the major portion of these residues is currently burnt for energy supply in the sugar and alcohol industries and as a result of its burning, tons of ashes are produced. Due to the inorganic composition, ashes can be used as reinforcement in polymeric materials. This study presents the preparation and characterization of a composite based on HDPE matrix and sugarcane bagasse ashes as reinforcement cross-linked by electron-beam radiation. The HDPE /Ash composite (95:5 wt %) was obtained by using a twin-screw extruder machine followed by injection molding. After extrusion and injection molding process, the composites were subjected to electron-beam radiation, at radiation doses of 150 kGy and 250 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated composite specimens were characterization by tensile and MFI tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis. In addition, ash from bagasse fiber was characterized by WDXRF. (author)

  8. Effect of chemical factors on integrated fungal fermentation of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Le Duy; Kondo, Ryuichiro; De Leon, Rizalinda; Anh, To Kim; Meguro, Sadatoshi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kamei, Ichiro

    2014-09-01

    Bioethanol production through integrated fungal fermentation (IFF), involving a unified process for biological delignification with consolidated biological processing by the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to sugarcane bagasse. Initial moisture content of the bagasse was found to affect biological delignification by MG-60, and 75% moisture content was suitable for selective lignin degradation and subsequent ethanol production. Additives, such as basal media, organic compounds, or minerals, also affected biological delignification of bagasse by MG-60. Basal medium addition improved both delignification and ethanol production. Some inorganic chemical factors, such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+), or Cu(2+), reduced bagasse carbohydrate degradation by MG-60 during delignifying incubations and resulted in increased ethanol production. The present results indicated that suitable culture conditions could significantly improve IFF efficiency. PMID:24968109

  9. Thermoanalytical and starch content evaluation of cassava bagasse as agro-industrial residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch nutritional fractions as well as thermal properties and other analysis are essential for food and industrial application. Cassava bagasse is an important agro-industrial residue and its starch content was evaluated using two alternative methods. Thermal characterization and microscopy analyses helped to understand how hydrolysis digests starchy fraction of cassava bagasse. The melting point of cassava starch occurred at 169.2ºC. Regarding TG analyses, after moisture content, there were observed two main mass losses for all samples. Results suggest hydrolysis carried out using enzyme is less effective in order to convert total starch content in cassava bagasse. However, using sulfuric acid, fibers are affected by analyses conditions.As frações nutricionais bem como as propriedades térmicas e outras análises são essenciais para a indústria de alimentos e suas aplicações O bagaço de mandioca é um importante resíduo agroindustrial e seu teor de amido foi avaliado por dois métodos alternativos. A caracterização por análise térmica e microscopia ajudou na compreensão de como a hidrólise digere a fração amilácea do bagaço de mandioca, O ponto de fusão foi de 170ºC, a análise termogravimétrica (TG mostrou após a perda de umidade do material, duas principais perdas de massa em todas as amostras analisadas. Os resultados sugerem que a hidrólise enzimática é menos eficiente na conversão total de amido no bagaço de mandioca. No entanto, o uso de ácido sulfúrico degradou até mesmo a parcela fibrosa do material, afetando as condições de análise.

  10. Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were considered as alternatives to biological processing for the production of biofuels from sugarcane bagasse. For bioethanol production, a minimum of 30% solids in the pretreatment reactor was required to render the process energy self-sufficient, which led to a total process energy demand equivalent to roughly 40% of the feedstock higher heating value. Both vacuum pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis could be operated as energy self-sufficient if 45% of the produced char from fast pyrolysis is used to fuel the process. No char energy is required to fuel the vacuum pyrolysis process due to lower process energy demands (17% compared to 28% of the feedstock higher heating value). The process models indicated that effective process heat integration can result in a 10-15% increase in all process energy efficiencies. Process thermal efficiencies between 52 and 56% were obtained for bioethanol production at pretreatment solids at 30% and 50%, respectively, while the efficiencies were 70% for both pyrolysis processes. The liquid fuel energy efficiency of the best bioethanol process is 41%, while that of crude bio-oil production before upgrading is 67% and 56% via fast and vacuum pyrolysis, respectively. Efficiencies for pyrolysis processes are expected to decrease by up to 15% should upgrade to a transportation fuel of equivalent quality to bioethanol be taken into consideration. -- Highlights: → Liquid biofuels can be produced via lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or pyrolysis. → A minimum of

  11. Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue - Pt. 1: gasification of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabra, M.; Pettersson, E.; Kjellstrom, B. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Backman, R. [Abo Akademi University, Abo (Finland). Div. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-11-01

    A method for avoiding excessive amount of alkali compounds and carryover particles in producer gas from gasification of sugar cane residue has been studied and evaluated. The cane sugar residue is gasified in a two-stage combustor at atmospheric pressure, where the first stage is a cyclone gasifier. The cyclone works as particle separator as well. This paper covers the results obtained for gasification of bagasse. Bagasse powder was injected into the cyclone with air and steam as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 52 kg/h. Seven experiments were conducted with the equivalence ratio being varied. The heating values of the producer gas are sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. About 60-70% of the alkali input with fuel was separated from the producer gas in the cyclone. However the total alkali contents of the producer gas was found to be higher than in ABB Stal PFBC gas turbines and at least an order of magnitude higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. The carryover particles concentrations in the producer gas were found to be in the range of that for PFBC gas turbines, but higher than what is required by most gas turbine manufacturers for operation of a gas turbine. Samples studied with scanning electronic microscope give indication that most of the carryover particles are below 10{mu}m in size. Fly ash-melting tests have not shown any major ash melting up to 1200{sup o}C, but it was found that some of the particles entrained with producer gas were partially melted. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of bagasse to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. In part 2 of this two-part paper the results from cane trash gasification tests are reported. (author)

  12. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzos Sergios

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs, still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83% > >[C2mim]Cl(53% = [C4mim]Cl(53%. Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography. Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin

  13. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. F. Antunes; A. K. Chandel; T. S. S. Milessi; J. C. Santos; Rosa, C. A.; da Silva, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G) ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB) hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH). It was co...

  14. ORANGE BAGASSE AS SUBSTRATE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE AND LACCASE BY BOTRYOSPHAERIA RHODINA MAMB-05 IN SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen C. Giese; Dekker, Robert F. H.; Aneli M. Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Orange bagasse comprising pulp tissues, rind, and seeds, constitutes a major industrial food waste arising from processing oranges for juice, and represents a fermentation feedstock for the production of enzymes. Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on essential oils-extracted orange bagasse in submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) with and without added nutrients produced pectinase and laccase. Highest enzyme titres (pectinase, 32 U ml-1; laccase, 46 U ml-1) occurred in SSF with...

  15. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  16. Hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted alkaline pretreatment as a new approach for sugarcane bagasse biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Dos Santos, Júlio César; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Jeon, Seok Hwan; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Han, Jong-In

    2016-08-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was employed in order to improve the efficiency of alkaline pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize pretreatment parameters: NaOH concentration (0.1-0.5M), solid/liquid ratio (S/L, 3-10%) and HC time (15-45min), in terms of glucan content, lignin removal and enzymatic digestibility. Under an optimal HC condition (0.48M of NaOH, 4.27% of S/L ratio and 44.48min), 52.1% of glucan content, 60.4% of lignin removal and 97.2% of enzymatic digestibility were achieved. Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated SCB resulted in a yield 82% and 30% higher than the untreated and alkaline-treated controls, respectively. HC was found to be a potent and promising approach to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27183237

  17. Water barrier properties of starch films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals obtained from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavutsky, Aníbal M; Bertuzzi, María A

    2014-09-22

    Water transport in edible films based on hydrophilic materials such as starch, is a complex phenomenon due to the strong interaction of sorbed water molecules with the polymeric structure. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. Starch and starch/CNC films were formulated and their water barrier properties were studied. The measured film solubility, contact angle, and water sorption isotherm indicated that reinforced starch/CNC films have a lower affinity to water molecules than starch films. The effects that the driving force and the water activity (aw) values at each side of the film have on permeability were analyzed. Permeability, diffusivity, and solubility coefficients indicated that the permeation process depends mostly on the tortuous pathway formed by the incorporation of CNC and therefore were mainly controlled by water diffusion. The interaction between CNC and starch chain is favoured by the chemical similarities of both molecules. PMID:24906728

  18. Environmental factors affecting sporulation of Fuligo septica (Myxomycetes on sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappeta Alda de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on sporulation of Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and the abundance of this species on sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L., stored outdoors was studied.In Northeastern Brazil, between January/1997 and January/1998, a total of 29 specimens were collected through monthly collections of aethalia. The relationships between the abundance of aethalia and rainfall, temperature, relative humidity of the air and insolation were studied. Results indicated that on the substrate analyzed, F. septica was an abundant species. Sporulation occurred in all seasons of the year, with a well-defined peak at the end of winter and beginning of spring (August/September,which was strongly influenced by rainfall.

  19. Extraction and functionalization of bagasse cellulose nanofibres to Schiff-base based antimicrobial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Monica; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S; Kaushik, Anupama; Sharma, Avantika

    2016-10-01

    The work reported in this paper involves synthesis of a nanocellulose/chitosan composite and its further modification to antimicrobial films. Bagasse, an easily available biowaste, was used as source to extract nanocellulose fibres (CNFs) by subjecting it to mechanical and chemical treatments including alkaline steam explosion and high shear homogenization. The CNFs were subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain nanocellulose dialdehyde (CDA). The aldehyde groups of CDA were reacted with amino groups of chitosan to form Schiff-base. The resulting CDA/chitosan composite fibres were characterized at various steps. The fibres were then cast into films using cellulose acetate as a binder. The films have good physical strength. The composite films show excellent antimicrobial properties when tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Such antimicrobial films have potential applications in the formation of antimicrobial packaging material. PMID:27316771

  20. Performance evaluation of chemical coagulation process to treat bagasse wastewater: modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, chemical coagulation process (CC treatment process was investigated under different conditions such as pH, ferric chloride dose, agitation time and settling time to treat bagasse wastewater using response surface methodology (RSM. The outcomes were evaluated using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial models were created with the aim of being able to predict the responses. Ideal conditions were observed to be as per the following: agitation time of 25 min, pH of 7, ferric chloride dose of 6 g/L and settling time of 60 min. Under these conditions, turbidity removal of 62%, COD removal of 67%, TDS removal 53% and sludge production of 32 mL/L were obtained with operating cost of 3.50 Rupee/L. The mechanism of CC was analyzed using XRD spectrum and founds to be adsorption.

  1. Fluidized bed gasification of sugar cane bagasse. Influence on gas composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperanza, E.; Aleman, Y. [Univ. of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba). Biomass Thermoconversion group/CETA; Arauzo, J.; Gea, G. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    Air and steam gasification of biomass has been studied at different temperatures. The experiments have been carried out in a bench scale plant. It consists of an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier heated by an electric furnace. The gasification process have been carried out at high heating rates and low residence time of the gases. The biomass used has been Cuban sugar cane bagasse. Three operating parameters have been evaluated to improve the gas composition: Equivalence Ratio (E.R.) in the range of 0.15 to 0.55; the bed temperature from 780 to 920 deg C; and steam/biomass ratio (S/B) from 0.1 g/g to 0.5 g/g. The results obtained show the effect of these operating parameters in gas composition and the conditions to obtain higher yield to gas and else the maximum energy.

  2. Nanocellulose prepared by acid hydrolysis of isolated cellulose from sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, W. T.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cellulose in nanometer range or called by nano-cellulose has attracted much attention from researchers because of its unique properties. Nanocellulose can be obtained by acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The cellulose used in this study was isolated from sugarcane bagasse, and then it was hydrolyzed by 50% sulfuric acid at 40 °C for 10 minutes. Nanocellulose has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Analysis of FTIR showed that there were not a new bond which formed during the hydrolysis process. Based on the TEM analysis, nano-cellulose has a spherical morphology with an average diameter of 111 nm and a maximum distribution of 95.9 nm determined by PSA. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity degree of nano-cellulose was higher than cellulose in the amount of 76.01%.

  3. Use of gamma radiation for the obtainment of a polyethylene-sugarcane bagasse composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation and some properties of a composite obtained by reactive extrusion of a medium density polyethylene and sugarcane bagasse fiber previously treated with gamma radiation in the presence of a reactive additive is presented. The proportion of fiber to polyethylene was approximately 50 % w/w. According to the electronic microscopic observation the fibers had a homogeneous distribution and were oriented in a longitudinal sense in the material. The material resulted suitable for processing by extrusion, injection or compression molding. Its water absorption capacity was similar to polyethylene and its flexion modulus was higher by about 60 %. Penetration measurements with a 1-mm penetrometers gave values intermediate between that of pine and polypropylene. (author)

  4. Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of deposit formation on the fireside surfaces of the boiler tubes in the various parts (water walls, platen superheater, final superheater, economizer, electrostatic precipitator etc.) of a commercial 20 MW stoker-fired boiler being fired with a mixture of 80% bagasse and 20% groundnut shell has been analyzed. The deposits in the various portions of the boiler were characterized by particle size analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The deposits were found to be mainly quartz, alkali and alkaline earth silicates and sulfates. From the phase constitution and other microscopic characteristics of the deposit, it can be inferred that the silicates in the deposit formed through inertial impaction and the sulfates formed by vapor phase deposition

  5. Effects of pre-irradiation with x-rays on the liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a search for new energy and chemical feedstocks the pre-irradiation of sugar cane bagasse with X-rays before the conversion process has been studied. Different X-ray doses for the pre-irradiation process were used after which the samples were submitted to a liquefaction process. The product obtained was then submitted to a PLC-8 fractionation. It was verified that pre-irradiation to low doses increases the yield of the liquid product obtained. It was also observed that the product quality can be altered by controlling the irradiation process. An increase in the relative concentrations of hydrocarbons and resins as a function of pre-irradiation suggests the potential use of these fibers as feedstocks. (author) 16 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Wood Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Grau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomasses are organic materials that are derived from any living or recently-living structure. Plenty of biomasses are produced nationwide. Biomasses are mostly combusted and usually discarded or disposed of without treatment as biomass ashes, which include wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes. Thus, recycling or treatment of biomass ashes leads to utilizing the natural materials as an economical and environmental alternative. This study is intended to provide an environmental solution for uncontrolled disposal of biomass ashes by way of recycling the biomass ash and replacing the soils in geotechnical engineering projects. Therefore, in this study, characteristic tests of wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes that are considered the most common biomass ashes are conducted. The test of chemical compositions of biomass ashes is conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and heavy metal analysis is also conducted. Engineering behaviors including hydraulic conductivity, constrained modulus and shear modulus are examined. Also, coal fly ash Class C is used in this study for comparison with biomass ashes, and Ottawa 20/30 sands containing biomass ashes are examined to identify the soil replacement effect of biomass ashes. The results show that the particle sizes of biomass ashes are halfway between coal fly ash Class C and Ottawa 20/30 sand, and biomass ashes consist of a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and shapes. Also, all heavy metal concentrations were found to be below the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA maximum limit. Hydraulic conductivity values of Ottawa 20/30 sand decrease significantly when replacing them with only 1%–2% of biomass ashes. While both the constrained modulus and shear modulus of biomass ashes are lower than Ottawa 20/30 sand, those of mixtures containing up to 10% biomass ashes are little affected by replacing the soils with biomass ashes.

  7. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

  8. Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Miller, E N; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Fu, Z; Tong, Z; Ingram, L O

    2011-04-01

    The addition of reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate, cysteine, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium metabisulfite) increased growth and fermentation of dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli (strains LY180, EMFR9, and MM160). With sodium metabisulfite (0.5mM), toxicity was sufficiently reduced that slurries of pretreated biomass (10% dry weight including fiber and solubles) could be fermented by E. coli strain MM160 without solid-liquid separation or cleanup of sugars. A 6-h liquefaction step was added to improve mixing. Sodium metabisulfite also caused spectral changes at wavelengths corresponding to furfural and soluble products from lignin. Glucose and cellobiose were rapidly metabolized. Xylose utilization was improved by sodium metabisulfite but remained incomplete after 144 h. The overall ethanol yield for this liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process was 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight, 250 L/tonne (61 gal/US ton). PMID:21353535

  9. INFLUENCE OF SOLID MOISTURE AND BED HEIGHT ON CULTIVATION OF Aspergillus niger FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Bastos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSolid-state cultivation (SSC may be defined as growth of microorganisms on a solid support impregnated or not with a nutrient solution in near absence of free-water conditions. The use of sugarcane bagasse as a support for SSC usually demands that the particles are impregnated and moistened with nutrient solution. Vinasse is the main wastewater of ethanol fermentation-distillation. As there are no reports of the use of wastewater for moistening solid supports in SSC, the proposal is the development of an innovative process, with valuation of these by-products. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate SSC of Aspergillus niger using sugarcane bagasse and vinasse for citric acid production. The results indicate that citric acid production and glucose consumption are dependent on oxygen availability, which can be modulated by selection of bed height and air-flow in packed-bed bioreactors.

  10. Water Absorption and Thermomechanical Characterization of Extruded Starch/Poly(lactic acid/Agave Bagasse Fiber Bioplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Aranda-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water absorption and thermomechanical behavior of composites based on thermoplastic starch (TPS are presented in this work, wherein the concentration of agave bagasse fibers (ABF, 0–15 wt% and poly(lactic acid (PLA, 0–30 wt% is varied. Glycerol (G is used as starch (S plasticizer to form TPS. Starch stands as the polymer matrix (70/30 wt/wt, S/G. The results show that TPS hygroscopicity decreases as PLA and fiber content increase. Storage, stress-strain, and flexural moduli increase with PLA and/or agave bagasse fibers (ABF content while impact resistance decreases. The TPS glass transition temperature increases with ABF content and decreases with PLA content. Micrographs of the studied biocomposites show a stratified brittle surface with a rigid fiber fracture.

  11. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  12. Effects of the pretreatment method on high solids enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of the cellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiza Helena da Silva; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse at high solids loadings in the pretreatment (20-40% w/v) and hydrolysis (10-20% w/v) stages. The best conditions for diluted sulfuric acid, AHP and Ox-B pretreatments were determined and mass balances including pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation were calculated. From a technical point of view, the best pretreatment was AHP, which enabled the production of glucose concentrations near 8% with high productivity (3.27 g/Lh), as well as ethanol production from 100.9 to 135.4 kg ethanol/ton raw bagasse. However, reagent consumption for acid pretreatment was much lower. Furthermore, for processes that use pentoses and hexoses separately, this pretreatment produces the most desirable pentoses liquor, with higher xylose concentration in the monomeric form. PMID:26004382

  13. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  14. Co-generation of microbial lipid and bio-butanol from corn cob bagasse in an environmentally friendly biorefinery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-09-01

    Biorefinery process of corn cob bagasse was investigated by integrating microbial lipid and ABE fermentation. The effects of NaOH concentration on the fermentations performance were evaluated. The black liquor after pretreatment was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the enzymatic hydrolysates of the bagasse were used for ABE fermentation. The results demonstrated that under the optimized condition, the cellulose and hemicellulose in raw material could be effectively utilized. Approximate 87.7% of the polysaccharides were converted into valuable biobased products (∼175.7g/kg of ABE along with ∼36.6g/kg of lipid). At the same time, almost half of the initial COD (∼48.9%) in the black liquor could be degraded. The environmentally friendly biorefinery process showed promising in maximizing the utilization of biomass for future biofuels production. PMID:27259190

  15. Adsorption of iron (III ion on activated carbons obtained from bagasse, pericarp of rubber fruit and coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptions of iron (III from aqueous solution at room temperature on activated carbons obtaining from bagasse, pericarp of rubber fruit and coconut shell have been studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The activated carbons were prepared by carbonization of these raw materials and followed by activation with ZnCl2 . The adsorption behavior of iron (III on these activated carbons could be interpreted by Langmuir adsorption isotherm as monolayer coverage. The maximum amounts of iron (III adsorbed per gram of these activated carbons were 0.66 mmol/g, 0.41 mmol/g and 0.18 mmol/g, respectively. Study of the temperature dependence on these adsorptions has revealed them to be exothermic processes with the heats of adsorption of about -8.9 kJ/mol , -9.7 kJ/mol and -5.7 kJ/mol for bagasse, pericarp of rubber fruit and coconut shell, respectively.

  16. IMPROVING ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY BIOLOGICAL/PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRETREATMENT USING TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND BACILLUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chularat Krongtaew Sakdaronnarong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laccase biosynthesis of two microorganisms, Trametes versicolor TISTR 3224 and Bacillus sp. TISTR 908 isolated in Thailand, was investigated using sugarcane bagasse (SCB as substrate. Two-stage biological/physico-chemical pretreatment of SCB on delignification and saccharification yield was studied. A two-level full factorial design was applied and 3 factors influencing delignification and saccharification processes of SCB were studied including C:N ratio (10:1 to 20:1, temperature (100 to 140°C, and alkali concentration (0 to 5% w/w NaOH. It was found that during biological pretreatment of SCB, a greater amount of laccase was produced from T. versicolor in the early stage of growth compared with Bacillus sp. Nitrogen supplement enhanced laccase biosynthesis of T. versicolor. By contrast, Bacillus sp. required a smaller amount of nitrogen source to produce laccase. Biological treated bagasse was subsequently subjected to a physico-chemical treatment. The results showed that the highest xylose and glucose yield of 51.97% w/w based on carbohydrate content was obtained from T. versicolor cultivation at a C:N ratio of 20:1, and consecutively treated in 5% w/w NaOH solution at 140°C for 1 h. Bacterial/alkali and alkali pretreatment yielded xylose and glucose in smaller degrees compared with fungal/alkali pretreatment. T. versicolor preferentially degraded lignin in sugarcane bagasse relative to cellulose and hemicelluloses constituents, while Bacillus sp. simultaneously attacked both lignin and carbohydrate moieties, as indicated by analysis of relative FT-IR intensities ratios of pretreated and untreated sugarcane bagasse.

  17. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura

    OpenAIRE

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candid...

  18. Assessing the potential of coal ash and bagasse ash as inorganic amendments during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Boojhawon, Anuksha; Sewhoo, Babita; Rungasamy, Selven; Somaroo, Geeta D; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2015-08-15

    This study investigates the potential of incorporating inorganic amendments such as coal and bagasse ashes in different composting mixes. 10 different composting mixes were assessed as follows: A-20% bagasse ash (BA) with unsorted municipal solid wastes (UMSW); B-40% BA with UMSW; C-UMSW; D-20% BA with sorted municipal solid wastes (SMSW); E-40% BA with SMSW; F-SMSW; G-20% coal ash (CA) with UMSW; H-40% CA with UMSW; I-20% CA with SMSW and J-40% CA with SMSW. The composting processes were carried out in rotary drum composters. Composting mixes D, F, G and I achieved a temperature above 55 °C for at least 3 days, with the following peak temperatures: D-62 °C, F-57 °C, G-62 °C and I-58 °C. D resulted in the highest average net Volatile solids (VS) degradation of 68.6% and yielded the highest average volume reduction of 66.0%. The final compost from D, G, I, C and F were within range for electrical conductivities (EC) (794-1770 μS/cm) and pH (6.69-7.12). The ashes also helped in maintaining high average water holding capacities within the range of 183-217%. The C/N ratio of sorted wastes was improved by the addition of 20% coal ash and bagasse ash. Higher germination indices, above 0.8 were obtained for the ash-amended compost (D, G, I), indicating the feasibility and enhancement of using bagasse and coal ash as inorganic amendment in the composting process. Regarding heavy metals content, the chromium concentration for the composting mix G was found to be the highest whereas mixes D and I showed compliance with the MS (Mauritian Standards) 164 standards. PMID:26093343

  19. Structural evaluation of sugar cane bagasse steam pretreated in the presence of CO2 and SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales Roberta Cristina Novaes Reis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on the use of SO2 and CO2 as impregnating agent for sugar cane bagasse steam treatment showed comparative and promising results concerning the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and the low formation of the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural for the use of CO2 at 205°C/15 min or SO2 at 190°C/5 min. In the present study sugar cane bagasse materials pretreated as aforementioned were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy aiming a better understanding of the structural and chemical changes undergone by the pretreated materials. Results SEM and TEM data showed that the structural modifications undergone by the pretreatment with CO2 were less pronounced in comparison to that using SO2, which can be directly related to the combined severity of each pretreatment. According to XRD data, untreated bagasse showed, as expected, a lower crystallinity index (CI = 48.0% when compared to pretreated samples with SO2 (CI = 65.5% or CO2 (CI = 56.4%, due to the hemicellulose removal of 68.3% and 40.5%, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results, revealing a more extensive action of SO2. Conclusions The SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy techniques used in this work contributed to structural and chemical analysis of the untreated and pretreated bagasse. The images from SEM and TEM can be related to the severity of SO2 pretreatment, which is almost twice higher. The crystallinity index values obtained from XRD showed that pretreated materials have higher values when compared with untreated material, due to the partial removal of hemicellulose after pretreatment. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results. CO2 can actually be used as impregnating agent for steam pretreatment, although the present study confirmed a more extensive action of SO2.

  20. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Marton; M. G. A. Felipe; J. B. Almeida e Silva; A. Pessoa Júnior

    2006-01-01

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting...

  1. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

    OpenAIRE

    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  2. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Combined Production of Electricity and Second Generation Ethanol Based on the Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Flório, D.N.; Junior, S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a thermoeconomic assessment of an integrated ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and traditional sugarcane juice is developed and discussed. An integrated distillery, which works with first and second generation ethanol production routes, is modeled and simulated. The thermoeconomic model assumes that the only agricultural input to the processes is the sugarcane itself (straw or other wastes recovered from the field were not considered in the analysis). The analyses are c...

  3. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016. PMID:26701152

  4. REMOVAL OF SYNTHETIC DYE BASIC VIOLET 3 BY IMMOBILISED CANDIDA TROPICALIS GROWN ON SUGARCANE BAGASSE EXTRACT MEDIUM

    OpenAIRE

    CHARUMATHI D; NILANJANA DAS

    2010-01-01

    The removal of synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 using immobilised yeast Candida tropicalis grown on sugarcane bagasse extract medium was investigated. The various immobilization matrices viz. carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate, agar, agarose and polyvinyl alcohol were tested and highest dye removal efficiency (99%) was noted in sodium alginate immobilised beads. The concentration of sodium alginate, bead size and cell concentration were optimized as 3%, 2mm and 3x 106 cells/g bead respectiv...

  5. Comparative study of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and organosolv pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse to improve the overall sugar yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailong; You, Yanzhi; Lei, Fuhou; Liu, Zuguang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Green liquor (GL) combined with H2O2 (GL-H2O2) and green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-ethanol) were chosen for treating sugarcane bagasse. Results showed that the glucose yield (calculated from the glucose content as a percentage of the theoretical glucose available in the substrates)of sugarcane bagasse from GL-ethanol pretreatment (97.7%) was higher than that from GL-H2O2 pretreatment (41.7%) after 72h hydrolysis with 18 filter paper unit (FPU)/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27,175 cellobiase units (CBU)/g-cellulose for β-glucosidase. Furthermore, about 94.1% of xylan was converted to xylose after GL-ethanol pretreatment without additional xylanase, while the xylose yield was only 29.2% after GL-H2O2 pretreatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that GL-ethanol pretreatment could break up the fiber severely. Moreover, GL-ethanol pretreated substrate was more accessible to cellulase and more hydrophilic than that of GL-H2O2 pretreated. Therefore, GL-ethanol pretreatment is a promising method for improving the overall sugar (glucose and xylan) yield of sugarcane bagasse. PMID:25846186

  6. Synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogel by radiation crosslinking of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa-carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superabsorbent hydrogels have three-dimensional networks that enable it to exhibit great water absorption capacity leading to its promising applications. However, existing commercial hydrogels are mainly acrylic acid which causes environmental problems. In this study, the incorporation of agricultural waste as filler and polysaccharide from natural sources as binder for the production of superabsorbent hydrogel was done to reduce the use of acrylic acid as well as its environmental impact while adding value to the incorporated materials. A series of superabsorbent hydrogel with the blend of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse were synthesized by radiation crosslinking. The gel fraction and swelling capacity of the hydrogels were determined and studied. The characterizations were facilitated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In the results obtained from analyses, the characteristic peaks of acrylic acid and sugarcane bagasse were observed in the FTIR spectra and the three step peaks if synthesized hydrogel in its TGA implies an improvement in thermal stability of the product. The synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel blends had exhibited comparable gel fraction to that of the polyacrylic acid hydrogel, had great swelling capacity, and achieved equilibrium degree of swelling within 72-96 hours. The optimum synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel is 3% semi-refined kappa-carrageenan, 3% sugarcane bagasse, 15% acrylic acid neutralize up to 50% and irradiated at 15kGy dose which exhibited a swelling of 599.53 and gel fraction of 39.73. (author)

  7. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 23 experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H2SO4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 23 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and β-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work.

  8. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  9. L(+-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojan P. John

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that weak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse starch hydrolysate based medium were used for lactic acid recovery study using weak base resin column. Amberlite IRA 67 had much more efficiency than Amberlite IRA 402 to recover lactic acid. Like in other reports, due to the presence of nutrients and ions other than lactate, the binding capacity was slightly lesser while using fermented media (~93% instead of aqueous lactic acid solutions (~98%.As propriedades das resinas de troca iônica, da Amberlite IRA 402, uma resina de troca aniônica forte, e da IRA 67, uma resina de troca aniônica fraca, foram determinadas para se avaliar a adequabilidade comparativa delas à obtenção de ácido lático de bagaço de mandioca fermentado. Dados sobre a capacidade de ligação e sobre a obtenção provaram que a resina de base fraca na forma de cloreto era a mais adequada para a obtenção de ácido lático em soluções aquosas e meios de fermentação. Os meios de fermentação obtidos da sacarificação e da fermentação simultâneas de meios baseados hidrolisados de fécula de bagaço de mandioca foram usados para o estudo da obtenção de ácido lático usando uma coluna de resina de base fraca. A Amberlite IRA 67 mostrou-se muito mais eficaz do que a Amberlite IRA 402 para a obtenção de ácido lático. Como em outros relatórios, devido à presença de nutrientes e íons que não lactatos, a capacidade de ligação foi ligeiramente inferior enquanto se utilizavam meios

  10. Use of vinasse and sugarcane bagasse for the production of enzymes by lignocellulolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mamede Aguiar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, three strains of Pleurotus and Trichoderma reesei were cultivated in media with pre-treated bagasse and vinasse. Cellulolytic and lignolytic activities and biomass production were analyzed. The treatment of the bagasse with 2% H2O2 + 1.5% NaOH + autoclave resulted in a greater fiber breakage increasing the cellulose level up to 1.2 times and decreasing 8.5 times the hemicellulose content. This treatment also resulted in a high lignolytic activity for all cultures utilized. T. reesei produced laccase, peroxidase and manganese-peroxidase in all the treatments, having its manganese-peroxidase activity raging from 1.9 to 4.8 times higher than the basidiomycetes.Recentemente o uso de material lignocelulolítico tem mostrado um importante avanço na produção de biocombustíveis. O bagaço e a vinhaça são resíduos oriundos do processamento da cana de açúcar e contem um alto teor de carbono, que geralmente é usado na co-geração de energia e ração animal. Três linhagens de Pleurotus e um ascomiceto, Trichoderma reesei, foram cultivados em bagaço pré-tratado e vinhaça. As atividades lignolíticas e celulolíticas foram analisadas, tanto quanto a produção de biomassa. Foi observado que o tratamento no bagaço com 2% H2O2 + 1.5% NaOH + autoclave resultou numa maior quebra da fibra, aumentando o teor de celulose em 1.2 vezes mais e diminuiu em 8.5 vezes o conteúdo de hemicelulose. Este tratamento também resultou numa alta atividade lignolítica pelos fungos utilizados. O ascomiceto T. reesei produziu lacase, peroxidase e manganês-peroxidase em todos os tratamentos, tendo uma atividade de manganês-peroxidase variando entre 1.9 a 4.8 vezes mais que nos basidiomicetos.

  11. Evaluation of Pb (II) biosorption utilizing sugarcane bagasse colonized by Basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, D; Rufato, K B; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Caetano, J; Alberton, O; Jesus, D A; Dragunski, D C

    2016-05-01

    The contamination of water resources by metallic ions is a serious risk to public health and the environment. Therefore, a great emphasis has been given to alternative biosorption methods that are based on the retention of aqueous-solution pollutants; in the last decades, several agricultural residues have been explored as low-cost adsorbent. In this study, the ability of Pb (II) biosorption using sugarcane bagasse modified by different fungal species was evaluated. The presence of carbonyl, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups in the biosorbent was observed by spectroscopy in the infrared region. By scanning electron microscopy, changes in the morphology of modified material surfaces were observed. The highest adsorption capacity occurred at pH 5.0, while the shorter adsorbate-adsorbent equilibrium was at 20 min, and the system followed the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum biosorption in isotherms was found at 58.34 mg g(-1) for modified residue by Pleurotus ostreatus U2-11, and the system followed the Langmuir isotherm. The biosorption process was energetically spontaneous with low desorption values. This modification showed great potential for filters to remove Pb (II) and provide the preservation of water resources and animal health. PMID:27063515

  12. Comparative study of different alcoholate pretreatments for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Yan, Qiuli; Fu, Jing; Lv, Xiaojing; Xiong, Chunjiang; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

    2016-07-01

    Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with alcoholates, sodium methoxide (CH3ONa), potassium methoxide (CH3OK) and sodium ethoxide (C2H5ONa), was investigated. Analyses of lignocellulose composition and enzymatic saccharification indicated that C2H5ONa showed the highest enzymatic efficiency of 102.1%. The response surface optimization of C2H5ONa pretreatment showed that under optimal conditions (4% of C2H5ONa, 121°C, 1h), 65.4% of lignin was removed and the enzymatic efficiency reached 105.2%. Hydrolysis of SCB with cellulases and xylanase at a ratio of 4:1 showed the strongest synergism with reducing sugar production of 21g/L and conversion rates of cellulose and xylan reaching 110.4% and 94.5%, respectively. These results indicated that C2H5ONa is a promising alkali to pretreat SCB and the synergism between cellulases and xylanase has a significant effect on enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated SCB. PMID:27035479

  13. Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse: Silver nanoparticle modification and ecotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Suely Patrícia C; Strauss, Mathias; Delite, Fabrício S; Clemente, Zaira; Castro, Vera L; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T

    2016-09-15

    Activated carbon from pyrolysed sugarcane bagasse (ACPB) presented pore size ranges from 1.0 to 3.5nm, and surface area between 1200 and 1400m(2)g(-1) that is higher than commonly observed to commercial activated carbon. The ACPB material was successfully loaded with of silver nanoparticles with diameter around 35nm (0.81wt.%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the material surface contains metallic/Ag(0) (93.60wt.%) and ionic/Ag(+) states (6.40wt.%). The adsorption capacity of organic model molecules (i.e. methylene blue and phenol) was very efficient to ACPB and ACPB loaded with silver nanoparticles (ACPB-AgNP), indicating that the material modification with silver nanoparticles has not altered its adsorption capacity. ACPB-AgNP inhibited bacteria growth (Escherichia coli), it is a promising advantage for the use of these materials in wastewater treatment and water purification processes. However, ACPB-AgNP showed environmental risks, with toxic effect to the aquatic organism Hydra attenuata (i.e. LC50 value of 1.94mgL(-1)), and it suppressed root development of Lycopersicum esculentum plant (tomato). Finally, this work draw attention for the environmental implications of activated carbon materials modified with silver nanoparticles. PMID:27039274

  14. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose. PMID:26356113

  15. The bioethanol from bagasse with the approach of discontinuous systems and the delay phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper was analyzed the Bioethanol technology from bagasse considering discontinuous systems' and the delay phenomena. This technology have two stages that are key to succeed in obtaining the fermentable sugars, they are the pretreatment stage and enzymatic hydrolysis for subsequent fermentation. The great obstacle of the two latter stages, is that for best results, need long residence times (and this is where the delay phenomena it appears). For that reason the analysis require a study on how to carry out to ensure that the process global continuous. The enzymatic hydrolysis stage last an average of 24 h, while fermentation stage is accomplishes in 12 h. In this paper, the bioethanol technology was studied taking into account the basic concepts of discontinuous systems. Different technological configurations were studied, obtaining the best configuration: the presaccharification process, according to technical and economics criterions. The process profitability is achieved considering the total process as a bio refinery, which allows the production of high added value by-products such as furfural. (author)

  16. Effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood and sweet sorghum bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of steam explosion treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of two different lignocellulosic substrates is studied. Raw materials have been pretreated in a pilot plant designed to work in batch and equiped with a reactor vessel of 2 1 working volume where biomass was heated at the desired temperature and then exploded and recovered in a cyclone. Temperatures from 190 to 230 oC and reaction times from 2 to 8 min. have been assayed. The efficiency of the steam explosion treatment has been evaluated on the composition of the lignocellulosic materials as well as on their enzymatic hydrolysis yield using a cellulolytic complex from T. reesei. Results show a high solubilization rate of hemicelluloses ands variable losses of cellulose and lignin depending on the conditions tested. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields of both substrates experimented remarkable increments, correspondig the highest values obtained to 210 oC; 2 min. and 210 oC; 4 min. for sorghum bagasse and eucaliptus wood respectivelly. (Author). 13 refs

  17. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 108 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 108 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation. PMID:24031404

  18. Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by using Adsorption on Treated Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saiful Azhar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cheap and ecofriendly adsorbents has been studied as an alternative substitution of activated carbon for the removal dyes from wastewater. Adsorbents prepared from sugarcane baggase-an agro industries waste was successfully used to remove the methyl red from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. This study investigates the potential use of sugarcane baggase, pretreated with formaldehyde (PCSB and sulphuric acid (PCSBC, for the removal of methyl red from simulated wastewater. Formaldehyde treated and sulphuric acid treated sugarcane bagasse were used to adsorb methyl red at varying dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time. Similar experiment was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC, in order to evaluate the performance of PCSB and PCSBC. The adsorption efficiency of different adsorbents was in the order PAC>PCSBC>PCSB. The initial pH of 6-10 flavors the adsorption of both PCSB and PCSBC. Adsorbents are very efficient in decolorized diluted solution. It is proposed that PCSB and PCSBC, in a batch or stirred tank reactors could be employed as a low cost alternative in wastewater treatment for the dye removal.

  19. Evaluation of agave bagasse recalcitrance using AFEX™, autohydrolysis, and ionic liquid pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Pimienta, Jose A; Flores-Gómez, Carlos A; Ruiz, Héctor A; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A

    2016-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the response of agave bagasse (AGB) to pretreatment by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™), autohydrolysis (AH) and ionic liquid (IL) was performed using 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, wet chemistry, enzymatic saccharification and mass balances. It has been found that AFEX pretreatment preserved all carbohydrates in the biomass, whereas AH removed 62.4% of xylan and IL extracted 25% of lignin into wash streams. Syringyl and guaiacyl lignin ratio of untreated AGB was 4.3, whereas for the pretreated biomass the ratios were 4.2, 5.0 and 4.7 for AFEX, AH and IL, respectively. Using NMR spectra, the intensity of β-aryl ether units in aliphatic, anomeric, and aromatic regions decreased in all three pretreated samples when compared to untreated biomass. Yields of glucose plus xylose in the major hydrolysate stream were 42.5, 39.7 and 26.9kg per 100kg of untreated AGB for AFEX, IL and AH, respectively. PMID:27017132

  20. Optimization of alkaline and dilute acid pretreatment of agave bagasse by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael I. Ávila-Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA and alkaline (AL catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15% since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification which will be reflected in lower capital costs, however this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables such as catalyst loading, retention time and solids loading, were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS yield. Pretreated biomass

  1. Power consumption evaluation of different fed-batch strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-05-01

    The minimization of costs in the distillation step of lignocellulosic ethanol production requires the use of a high solids loading during the enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain a more concentrated glucose liquor. However, this increase in biomass can lead to problems including increased mass and heat transfer resistance, decreased cellulose conversion, and increased apparent viscosity with the associated increase in power consumption. The use of fed-batch operation offers a promising way to circumvent these problems. In this study, one batch and four fed-batch strategies for solids and/or enzyme feeding during the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. Determinations of glucose concentration, power consumption, and apparent viscosity were made throughout the experiments, and the different strategies were compared in terms of energy efficiency (mass of glucose produced according to the energy consumed). The best energy efficiency was obtained for the strategy in which substrate and enzyme were added simultaneously (0.35 kgglucose kWh(-1)). This value was 52 % higher than obtained in batch operation. PMID:26899602

  2. Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and simultaneous remotion of organic inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Burkholderia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia sp. F24, originally isolated from soil, was capable of growth on xylose and removed organic inhibitors present in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate and simultaneously produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB). Using non-detoxified hydrolysate, Burkholderia sp. F24 reached a cell dry weight (CDW) of 6.8 g L(-1), containing 48 % of P3HB and exhibited a volumetric productivity (PP3HB) of 0.10 g L(-1) h(-1). Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers (P3HB-co-3HV) were produced using xylose and levulinic acid (LA) as carbon sources. In shake flask cultures, the 3HV content in the copolymer increased from 9 to 43 mol% by adding LA from 1.0 to 5.0 g L(-1). In high cell density cultivation using concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysate F24 reached 25.04 g L(-1) of CDW containing 49 % of P3HB and PP3HB of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1). Based on these findings, second-generation ethanol and bioplastics from sugarcane bagasse is proposed. PMID:25059637

  3. The role of phenols from bagasse vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil in cupper sulfured ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Brossard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum pyrolysis bagasse bio-oil collected in a series of sequential fractions was analyzed for total percentage of phenols and levoglucosan components. It was established that the ratio total phenols- to-levoglucosan could be used as an indicator of the performance of alkaline solutions of bio-oil fractions (SABO when they are used as foaming agents to benefit flotation of sulfured cupper minerals. A high total phenol-to-levoglucosan ratio results in high percentages of Cu in cupper flotation concentrates, L Cu. A closer look at the role of individual phenols reveals that p-cresol is the main phenol, although not the only one, responsible for the observed behavior. Additionally it was noted that rather high doses of these foaming agents must be used to obtain desirable results in flotation processes. A production cost estimate allows consideration of SABO as an alternative to others commercial foaming agents, especially if an optimization study reduces doses of SABO.

  4. Sugarcane bagasse and castor oil polyurethane adhesive-based particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential use of sugarcane bagasse in two different fiber lengths (5 mm and 8 mm of the same density as a raw material for the production of particleboards, using castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive. The quality of the product that can be manufactured industrially was evaluated based on density, thickness swell (TS, absorption (WA, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and internal bond (IB, according to the Brazilian NBR 14.810:2006 standard. The results revealed a significant difference between the particleboards made with 5-mm-long fibers and those made with 8-mm-long fibers. An analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicates that the interparticle spaces are filled with castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive, contributing to improve the physicomechanical properties of the particleboards. A durability assessment based on accelerated aging tests shows that waterproofed particleboards can be used in moist environments.

  5. Mathematical modeling of the drying of orange bagasse associating the convective method and infrared radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Sánchez-Sáenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mathematical modeling enables dimensioning of dryers, optimization of drying conditions and the evaluation of process performance. The aim of this research was to describe the behavior of orange bagasse drying using Page's and Fick's second law models, and to assess activation energy (using Arrhenius equation, moisture content, water activity and bulk density of product at the end of the process. The drying experimental assays were performed in 2011 with convective air temperature between 36 and 64 ºC and infrared radiation application time in the range from 23 to 277 s in accordance with the experimental central composite rotatable design. Analysis of variance and F-test were applied to results. At the end of the drying process, moisture content was about 0.09 to 0.87 db and water activity was between 0.25 and 0.87. Bulk density did not vary under studied conditions. Empirical Page's model demonstrated better representation of experimental data than the Fick's model for spheres. Activation energy values were about 18.491; 14.975 and 11.421 kJ mol-1 for infrared application times of 60; 150 e 244 s, respectively.

  6. High consistency enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum bagasse pretreated with liquid hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong

    2012-03-01

    A laboratory set-up was designed to carry out high consistency enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) which was pretreated by liquid hot water (LHW). The effects of two impellers on enzymatic hydrolysis of SSB were investigated. Compared with the double-curved-blade impeller (DCBI), the plate-and-frame impeller (PFI) could improve glucose production by 10%. Tween80 and fed-batch hydrolysis method adopted in this study produced total sugar of 17.06 g/L more than batch hydrolysis and raised the substrate consistency to 30%. At the final substrate loading of 30%, the concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose reached to 15.01 g/L, 88.95 g/L and 9.80 g/L, respectively, and the ethanol concentration reached to 43.36 g/L in the case of cellobiose and xylose were not fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2034. This study is an attempt at improvement of enzyme hydrolyzing LHW-pretreated material at high consistency. PMID:22281144

  7. Glass-ceramic material of the Si-Ca-K system sintered from sugarcane bagasse ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the crystallization of glasses obtained from two samples of sugarcane bagasse ash - SCBA (named Cinza 07 and Cinza 08) mixed with carbonates (calcium and potassium). The glasses and their crystallization were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations of the ashes show that they consist mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with iron, potassium and aluminum oxides as minor elements. For the sample Cinza07 the DTA data presents broad and overlaid crystallization peaks, indicating crystallization of more than two different phases. The DTA results of samples with different grain-size distribution show that the crystallization peak intensities increase as the sample grain-size decreases, suggesting that surface crystallization actively participate on the mechanism of crystallization. For the sample Cinza 08 the DTA data presents two well defined peaks. In this case, the more intense peak was evaluated to obtain kinetic data (Eat= 355 kJ/mol) to the major phase (Wollastonita). (author)

  8. Sugarcane bagasse for the removal of erythrosin B and methylene blue from aqueous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen

    2011-12-01

    Present study explores the potentiality of locally available cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin-rich agricultural by-product sugarcane bagasse (SB) for the removal of erythrosin B (EB) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous waste. The SB has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy analytical techniques. Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the influence of parameters like initial dye concentration, pH of the medium, contact time between the adsorbate and adsorbent, weight of adsorbent and system temperature on the removal of EB and MB. Optimum conditions for adsorption are found to be pH 9, temperature 308 K and an equilibration time of 1 h. Under these conditions equilibrium isotherms have been analysed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. Based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, the predicted maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of SB for EB and MB are found to be 500 mg g-1 (at 328 K) and 1,000 mg g-1 (at 308 K), respectively. The separation factor reveals the favourable nature of the isotherm for the studied dyes—SB system. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorptions of dyes are spontaneous and endothermic process. High temperatures favour EB adsorption whereas optimum temperature for MB adsorption is 318 K.

  9. Relationship between physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse varieties for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienzo, Michel; Tyhoda, Luvuyo; Benjamin, Yuda; Görgens, Johann

    2015-03-25

    The structural and physicochemical characteristics are associated with resistance of plant cell walls to saccharification by enzymes. The effect of physicochemical properties on glucose yield of bagasse from different varieties of sugarcane at low and high enzyme dosages was investigated. The result showed that glucose yield at low enzyme dosage was positively linear correlated with the yield at high enzyme dosage, for both the untreated and pretreated materials. The pretreatment significantly increased the accessibility of substrates by enzyme due to the increase of internal and external surface area. Glucose yield also showed a linear correlation with dye adsorption. However, the increase in glucose yield as a result of pretreatment did not correlate with the increases in crystallinity index and decreases in degree of polymerization. The Principal Component Analysis of infrared data indicated that lignin was the main component that differentiated the varieties before and after pretreatment. These results suggested that the key differences in pretreatment responses among varieties could be mainly attributed to their differences in the internal and external surface area after pretreatment. PMID:25576176

  10. Bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated sorghum bagasse to ethanol by Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Gkounta, Olga; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zografou (Greece). Biotechnology Lab.

    2012-07-15

    Bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SB), the lignocellulosic solid residue obtained after extraction of sugars from sorghum stalks, can further improve the energy yield of the crop. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a cost-efficient bioconversion of SB to ethanol at high solids loadings (16 % at pretreatment and 8 % at fermentation), low cellulase activities (1-7 FPU/g SB) and co-fermentation of hexoses and pentoses. The fungus Neurospora crassa DSM 1129 was used, which exhibits both depolymerase and co-fermentative ability, as well as mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A dilute-acid pretreatment (sulfuric acid 2 g/100 g SB; 210 C; 10 min) was implemented, with high hemicellulose decomposition and low inhibitor formation. The bioconversion efficiency of N. crassa was superior to S. cerevisiae, while their mixed cultures had negative effect on ethanol production. Supplementing the in situ produced N. crassa cellulolytic system (1.0 FPU/g SB) with commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase mixture at low activity (6.0 FPU/g SB) increased ethanol production to 27.6 g/l or 84.7 % of theoretical yield (based on SB cellulose and hemicellulose sugar content). The combined dilute-acid pretreatment and bioconversion led to maximum cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis 73.3 % and 89.6 %, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Removal of neutral red dye from water samples using adsorption on bagasse and sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral red dye is used in textile and leather industries and in environmental research. Therefore, the removal of this dye from the factory wastewaters is environmentally significant. In this research, two very inexpensive, abundant and easily available adsorbents, i.e. sugarcane bagasse and sawdust, were employed to remove the neutral red from water. The effects of various conditions such as pH, electrolyte concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and agitation rate were studied for the removal of the dye in a concentration of 100 mg L/sup -1/. The obtained conditions were applied for various concentrations of the dye (100 - 400 mg L/sup -1/) and in all the cases, an efficiency of more than 96 % was attained. Adsorption isotherms were studied which were well in line with both Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The possibility of employing columns was studied and good results were achieved. The method was applied for the removal of dye from real samples of different waters. (author)

  12. Methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Castor, José M; Garza-González, María T; García-Reyes, Refugio B; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; García-González, Alcione; Loredo-Medrano, José A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. In this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (Zea mays pericarp, ZMP; Agave tequilana bagasse, ATB; and Medicago sativa waste, MSW) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titrations, and N2 physisorption. MB adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems and experimental data were used to calculate the adsorption isotherm model parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) and the adsorption kinetic model parameters (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models). MB-loaded biosorbents were desorbed with deionized water, ethanol (10% and 50% v/v), hydrochloric acid (0.01 and 0.05 N), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) at room temperature, and the best eluent was used in various adsorption-desorption cycles. The selected agricultural wastes can be considered as promising adsorbents for dye uptake from water since they exhibit considerable MB adsorption capacity (MSW 202.6 mg g(-1), ATB 156.2mg g(-1), and ZMP 110.9mg g(-1)), but it is lower than that reported for activated carbon; however, the biosorbents show higher adsorption rate than powdered activated carbon. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be economically regenerated with HCl solutions and reused for seven adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24701903

  13. Do wood-based panels made with agro-industrial residues provide environmentally benign alternatives? An LCA case study of sugarcane bagasse addition to particle board manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Diogo Aparecido Lopes; Lahr, Francisco Antonio Rocco; Pavan, Ana Laura Raymundo;

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is one of the main agro-industrial residues which can be used to produce wood-based panels. However, more investigations related to its environmental performance assessment are needed, focusing on questions such as: Does it provide environmental benefits? What are its main...... environmental impacts? Could it substitute wood as raw material? Accordingly, this paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of particle board manufactured with sugarcane bagasse residues.The cradle-to-gate assessment of 1 m3 of particle board made with sugarcane bagasse (PSB) considered three main...... subsystem was 9.08 % (economic base). The potential environmental impact phase was assessed by applying the CML and USEtox methods. PSB was compared with the conventional particle board manufactured in Brazil by the categories of the CML and USETox, and including land use indicators. Finally, two scenarios...

  14. ORANGE BAGASSE AS SUBSTRATE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINASE AND LACCASE BY BOTRYOSPHAERIA RHODINA MAMB-05 IN SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen C. Giese

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Orange bagasse comprising pulp tissues, rind, and seeds, constitutes a major industrial food waste arising from processing oranges for juice, and represents a fermentation feedstock for the production of enzymes. Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on essential oils-extracted orange bagasse in submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentation (SSF with and without added nutrients produced pectinase and laccase. Highest enzyme titres (pectinase, 32 U ml-1; laccase, 46 U ml-1 occurred in SSF without added nutrients, indicating nutrient sufficiency of orange bagasse at a solids concentration of 16 % (w v-1 to sustain growth and high enzyme titres. Orange essential oil extract added to nutrient medium containing 1 % glucose in SmF strongly inhibited fungal growth with consequent lower laccase and pectinase activities. The results demonstrate the need to remove the essential oils fraction before citrus waste can be successfully used as a fermentation substrate for enzyme production.

  15. Use of a Mixture of Thermophilic Enzymes Produced by the Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus to Enhance the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the Sugarcane Bagasse Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Monte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The production of hydrolytic enzymes by T. aurantiacus has been performed under solid-state fermentations using lignocellulosic materials. The influences of the inoculum size and of the fermentation medium on the production of hemicellulases and cellulases were studied. Filtrates from the cultures were used to hydrolyze a pulp of sugarcane bagasse and the produced enzymes were shown to be candidates for use as co-adjuvants in plant saccharification. Aproach: The present study focuses on the effect of different culture conditions on production of cellulases and hemicellulases by T. aurantiacus. It is also provides a possible application of T. aurantiacus enzymes in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse pulp, considering that this thermophilic fungus is a potential source of thermostable enzymes. Results: T. aurantiacus was cultivated on four different agricultural residues: sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane straw, wheat straw and corn cob. Xylanase was produced with much more expressive activity than cellulases. The highest titre of xylanase was obtained on sugarcane straw at 9 days (1679.8 IU g−1; the same was observed for β- glucosidase (29.9 IU g−1 at 6 days. With an inoculum load of 108 spores g−1, the amount of exoglucanase produced by the fungus considerably exceeds that produced with 104 spores g−1. Xylanases and cellulases purified from filtrates of the cultures were investigated to hydrolyze a bagasse pulp prepared with alkaline peroxide. Xylanase or sulphuric acid were used as pretreatments for xylan removal, increasing the cellulase performance on pulp bagasse. However, results revealed that the removal of hemicellulose is not the only main factor limiting the cellulose hydrolysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that the xylanase action on alkaline-pretreated sugar cane bagasse enhances the cellulolytic effect promoted by a commercial cellulase. This study thus presents an evaluation of the

  16. Biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and decolorization of kraft liquor by the laccase produced by Klebsiella aerogenes NCIM 2098

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Laccase, a copper-containing enzyme, oxidizes variety of aromatic compounds. Since laccase is essential for lignin degradation, it can be used for lignin removal in the pulp and paper industry (biopulping. Laccase is also employed as a dechlorinating agent (biobleaching, along with the removal of phenolic and other aromatic pollutants. In the present investigation it was aimed to employ the laccase produced by the bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes along with the bacterium itself in biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Methodology and results: A laccase was isolated from the bacterium K. aerogenes, purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was purified by conventional techniques following salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on Con A sepharose. The purified laccase was found to be monomeric glycoprotein with a Mr of 64 kDa when measured by Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The Vmax and Km of laccase towards the substrate guaiacol was determined. The optimum pH of the laccase was found to be 5.0. biopulping and biobleaching activities were determined by TAPPI standard methods. Treatment of sugarcane baggase by K. aerogenes also significantly reduced lignin content of the bagasse. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The bacterium K. aerogenes and a laccase produced by it were used separately for biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Treatment with both brought significant reduction in lignin content and kappa number of the pulp. The handsheets prepared from the treated pulp showed improved brightness without affecting the strength properties of paper. The bacterium and the laccase efficiently decolorized the kraft liquor proving to have biobleaching potential.

  17. KOH for enhanced sugarcane bagasse delignification and further production of sugar-rich hydrolyzates by enzymes application

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Susana M.; Ladeira, S. A.; Arez, B. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Roseiro, J. Carlos; Alves, Luís Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is envisaged as an important raw material for bioethanol production due to its low cost and high availability. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a fibrous residue of cane stalks left over after crushing and extraction of the juice from sugarcane; it is one of the largest cellulosic agro-industrial by-products. Tons of SCB are produced in Brazil as a waste of sugar and ethanol industries. This lignocellulosic by-product is a potential renewable source for 2G-bioethanol produ...

  18. Production of spores of Trichoderma harzianum on sugar cane molasses and bagasse pith in solid state fermentation for biocontrol

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Rodríguez-León; Domenech, F.; M. León; Méndez, T.; D. E. Rodríguez; Ashok Pandey

    1999-01-01

    Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of spores from Trichoderma harzianum No 53 using sugar cane bagasse pith as solid matrix and sugar cane molasses as carbon and energy source. Different nitrogen sources such as urea, (NH4)2SO4 , NH4H2PO4 and (NH4)2HPO4 were added in the media to test their effect on spores production. Among these, urea was found most useful that resulted high no of spores (1x10(9)/gDM). The influence of temperature and initial moisture of the substra...

  19. Evaluation of novel xylose-fermenting yeast strains from Brazilian forests for hemicellulosic ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Martiniano, Sabrina E.; Chandel, Anuj K; Soares, Luma C. S. R.; Pagnocca, Fernando C.; da Silva, Sílvio S.

    2013-01-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulosic hydrolysates into ethanol with the desired yields plays a pivotal role for the overall success of biorefineries. This paper aims to evaluate the ethanol production potential of four native strains of Scheffersomyces shehatae (syn. Candida shehatae) viz. S. shehatae BR6-2AI, CG8-8BY, PT1-1BASP and BR6-2AY, isolated from Brazilian forests. These strains were grown in commercial d-xylose-supplemented synthetic medium and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate...

  20. Agronomic and environmental impacts of application of coal/bagasse ash and vinasse to sugarcane fields in Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Soobadar, Aneeza,

    2009-01-01

    Of the 85 000 hectares of arable land in Mauritius, sugar cane occupies some 85% of that area, the remainder is made up mostly of vegetables and fruit trees. To ensure its economic viability and long term sustanainability, the sugar cane industry through a reform program is striving to add value to its by-products by producing ethanol from molasses and by optimizing energy production from bagasse during the harvest season. However these two avenues generate considerable wastes (400 000 T/yr o...

  1. Water Absorption and Thermomechanical Characterization of Extruded Starch/Poly(lactic acid)/Agave Bagasse Fiber Bioplastic Composites

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Aranda-García; González-Núñez, R.; C. F. Jasso-Gastinel; E. Mendizábal

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption and thermomechanical behavior of composites based on thermoplastic starch (TPS) are presented in this work, wherein the concentration of agave bagasse fibers (ABF, 0–15 wt%) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA, 0–30 wt%) is varied. Glycerol (G) is used as starch (S) plasticizer to form TPS. Starch stands as the polymer matrix (70/30 wt/wt, S/G). The results show that TPS hygroscopicity decreases as PLA and fiber content increase. Storage, stress-strain, and flexural moduli increase wi...

  2. BIOCONVERSION OF HEMICELLULOSE HYDROLYSATE OF SWEET SORGHUM BAGASSE TO ETHANOL BY USING PICHIA STIPITIS NCIM 3497 AND DEBARYOMYCES HANSENII SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiby Kudakasseril Kurian; Minu K Ashok; Aditi Banerjee; Kishore V. V. N.

    2010-01-01

    Production of ethanol from concentrated D-xylose solutions and hemicellulose hydrolysate of sweet sorghum bagasse was achieved by using Pichia stipitis NCIM 3497 and an isolated yeast Debaryomyces hansenii sp. These yeasts were capable of producing ethanol from solutions containing 800 g/L D-xylose, and the optimum sugar concentration was found to be 150 g/L at pH 4, 30oC, with a production time of 72 hours. These yeasts were capable of utilizing multiple sugars. Hemicellulose hydrolysates of...

  3. 用旋风分离器干燥甘蔗渣%Cyclone as a Sugar Cane Bagasse Dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jefferson Luiz Gomes Corr(e)a; Daniel Rezende Graminho; Maria Aparecida Silva; Silvia Azucena Nebra

    2004-01-01

    Drying of sugar cane bagasse was theoretically and experimentally studied in a cyclone. The experiments were carried out using hot air as drying agent. The influence of the cyclone conical part was studied. It was shown that the conical part has a great influence on the particle residence time and, consequently, on moisture reduction.Experimental results were alike industrial ones. CFX 4.4坰 from AEA Technology was used to simulate some experiments. Simulated and experimental results were close and showed that the presented model leads to a good prediction.

  4. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  5. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  6. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos; Gomes, Arthur Filipe Sousa; Franciscon, Emanuele Giuliane; Oliveira, Jean Maikon de; Baffi, Milla Alves

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0-8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors. PMID:26413077

  7. Mixing design for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: methodology for selection of impeller configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-02-01

    One of the major process bottlenecks for viable industrial production of second generation ethanol is related with technical-economic difficulties in the hydrolysis step. The development of a methodology to choose the best configuration of impellers towards improving mass transfer and hydrolysis yield together with a low power consumption is important to make the process cost-effective. In this work, four dual impeller configurations (DICs) were evaluated during hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) experiments in a stirred tank reactor (3 L). The systems tested were dual Rushton turbine impellers (DIC1), Rushton and elephant ear (down-pumping) turbines (DIC2), Rushton and elephant ear (up-pumping) turbines (DIC3), and down-pumping and up-pumping elephant ear turbines (DIC4). The experiments were conducted during 96 h, using 10 % (m/v) SCB, pH 4.8, 50 °C, 10 FPU/g biomass, 470 rpm. The mixing time was successfully used as the characteristic parameter to select the best impeller configuration. Rheological parameters were determined using a rotational rheometer, and the power consumptions of the four DICs were on-line measured with a dynamometer. The values obtained for the energetic efficiency (the ratio between the cellulose to glucose conversion and the total energy) showed that the proposed methodology was successful in choosing a suitable configuration of impellers, wherein the DIC4 obtained approximately three times higher energetic efficiency than DIC1. Furthermore a scale-up protocol (factor scale-up 1000) for the enzymatic hydrolysis reactor was proposed. PMID:26650719

  8. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of 'before disregarded' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds.

  9. Improvement of biotechnological xylitol production by glucose during cultive of Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of glucose on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii was examined by adding it to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate medium to obtain different glucose:xylose ratios (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2.5. Under experimental conditions, increasing glucose:xylose ratio improved the assimilation of the xylose present in the hydrolysate by yeast, resulting in biomass increase, and in the formation of xylitol and glycerol/ethanol by-products. Maximum values of xylitol yield (0.59 g g-1 and volumetric productivity (0.53 g l-1.h-1 were obtained with glucose:xylose ratio of 1:5, resulting in the higher conversion efficiency (64.3%.O efeito da glicose na bioconversão de xilose em xilitol por Candida guilliermondii foi avaliado em hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de cana com diferentes relações glicose:xilose (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2,5. Sob as condições experimentais, o aumento da relação glicose:xilose favoreceu a assimilação da xilose presente no hidrolisado, resultando em aumento da biomassa celular e aumento da formação de xilitol e dos sub-produtos glicerol e etanol. Os valores máximos do fator de conversão de xilose em xilitol (0,59 g g-1 e da produtividade volumétrica de xilitol (0,53 g l-1.h-1 foram obtidos com a relação glicose:xilose 1:5, resultando na maior eficiência de conversão (64,3%.

  10. Carbon materials obtained from self-binding sugar cane bagasse and deciduous wood residues plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that dispersed biomass residues (bagasse, sawdust) can be processed into hard carbonaceous blocks, panels or boards with good strength and thermodynamic properties. There are two possible approaches: to mould dispersed biomass charcoal with a phenol-formaldehyde binder or to produce this material by carbonising the biomass fiberboard prepared by making use of steam explosion autohydrolysis pulp or steam explosion lignin as a binder. In the first step, steam explosion lignin, as a modifier and a binder is introduced to the lignocellulosic biomass by impregnation or during the hot pressing process to form a hard fiberboard. By subsequent carbonisation of the fiberboard panels or blocks, carbonised panels or blocks with high bending and crushing strength and suitable thermodynamic properties are obtained due to the formation of an internal lignin reinforcement in cell lumina and impregnation of cell walls with lignin solution or molten lignin. The carbonised panels demonstrate a good dimensional stability after a standard treatment with water. The bending strength of the carbonised panels after 24 h soaking in water is 93% of that in dry state. The thermodynamic properties and porosity of the carbonised panels demonstrate their suitability for use as a building material. Lignin, a natural binder of fiberboards, has proven to be suitable for preparation of cabonaceous panels and boards. In this respect new carbon building blocks and panels from moulded biomass and carbonised steam exploded biomass act as a concentrated form of long term carbon storage and will be a factor stabilizing the growing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. [Proceedings of the First Workshop of QITS, Materials Life-Cycle and Environmentally Sustainable Development, March 2-4, Campinas, UNU/IAS San Paulo, Brazil, 1998, pp. 95-101; Proceedings of the Workshop in ''Targeting Zero Emissions for the Utilization of Renewable Resources'', ANESC, Tokyo, 1999, pp. 2-11.

  11. Carbon materials obtained from self-binding sugar cane bagasse and deciduous wood residues plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandersons, J.; Gravitis, J.; Zhurinsh, A.; Kokorevics, A. [Latvian State Inst. of Wood Chemistry, Riga (Latvia); Kallavus, U. [Tallinn TechnicaL Univ. (Estonia). Center of Material Research; Suzuki, C.K. [University of Campinas (Brazil). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-04-01

    It is demonstrated that dispersed biomass residues (bagasse, sawdust) can be processed into hard carbonaceous blocks, panels or boards with good strength and thermodynamic properties. There are two possible approaches: to mould dispersed biomass charcoal with a phenol-formaldehyde binder or to produce this material by carbonising the biomass fiberboard prepared by making use of steam explosion autohydrolysis pulp or steam explosion lignin as a binder. In the first step, steam explosion lignin, as a modifier and a binder is introduced to the lignocellulosic biomass by impregnation or during the hot pressing process to form a hard fiberboard. By subsequent carbonisation of the fiberboard panels or blocks, carbonised panels or blocks with high bending and crushing strength and suitable thermodynamic properties are obtained due to the formation of an internal lignin reinforcement in cell lumina and impregnation of cell walls with lignin solution or molten lignin. The carbonised panels demonstrate a good dimensional stability after a standard treatment with water. The bending strength of the carbonised panels after 24 h soaking in water is 93 % of that in dry state. The thermodynamic properties and porosity of the carbonised panels demonstrate their suitability for use as a building material. Lignin, a natural binder of fiberboards, has proven to be suitable for preparation of carbonaceous panels and boards. In this respect new carbon building blocks and panels from moulded biomass and carbonised steam exploded biomass act as a concentrated form of long term carbon storage and will be a factor stabilizing the growing CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere.[Proceedings of the First Workshop of QITS, Materials Life-Cycle and Environmentally Sustainable Development, March 2-4, Campinas, UNU/IAS San Paulo, Brazil, 1998, pp. 95-101; Proceedings of the Workshop in ''Targeting Zero Emissions for the Utilization of Renewable Resources'', ANESC, Tokyo

  12. Properties of a composite of polyethylene and cellulose fibers of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way of revalorizing agricultural wastes is to combine them with synthetic polymers to obtain adequate materials for certain purposes. In this paper, a trial was made to incorporate the maximum possible amount of lignocellulose fibers from sugarcane bagasse into a polyethylene matrix. The mixture was performed by means of a laboratory extruder with corotating twin screw. During the extrusion of polyethylene, the fiber was gradually added through the feeding hopper. A composition of about 50 % (w/w) of PE - fiber was obtained. Higher fiber content resulted in a lack of cohesion of the extruded material. The extruded bars were molded into 3-mm sheets by compression molding at 140 C degrees and 20 Ton. Irradiation of the molded sheets was performed with the aim of improving the material properties. Water absorption was measured according to the procedures of ASTM D 570-95, at 25 C degrees, 60 C degrees and 100 C degrees, in comparison with non-irradiated material. Less than 4 % (w/w) water absorption was measured at the higher temperatures, with no significant differences between irradiated and control samples. At 25 C degrees, after 168-h immersion, water absorption of irradiated samples was 5.3 % while control ones absorbed 6.5%. No dimensional changes were noticed after drying of the tested probes. According to these results, the material presented very good resistance to the action of water. However, no important effect was obtained by irradiation. This suggests that either the irradiation dose or the irradiation conditions were not adequate to induce an appreciable degree of crosslinking. This aspect will be studied by means of irradiation with increasing doses and measuring the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties of obtained materials will also be studied. (author)

  13. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3, A. sydowii (SBCM7 and A. fumigatus (SBC4. The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g. For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g and 4.0 (573 U/g, respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

  14. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of ''before disregarded'' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds. (author)

  15. Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH. - Highlights: ► We study the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose in sugarcane bagasse. ► We study the combination of three pretreatments: electron beam processing, EBP followed by hydrothermal and by diluted acid treatment. ► The electron beam processing increased the enzymatic hydrolysis from 8% to 15% with 20 kGy. ► The enzymes used were commercial preparations, as Celluclast 1.5 L and β-glycosidase. ► The EBP with 50 kGy increased on 20% the yield of EH of cellulose after TH and 30% after AH.

  16. Effects of Ca(OH)(2) treatments ("overliming") on the composition and toxicity of bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A; Rodriguez, M E; York, S W; Preston, J F; Ingram, L O

    2000-09-01

    Hemicellulose syrups from dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysates of hemicellulose contain inhibitors that prevent efficient fermentation by yeast or bacteria. It is well known that the toxicity of these hydrolysate syrups can be ameliorated by optimized "overliming" with Ca(OH)(2). We have investigated the optimization of overliming treatments for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysates (primarily pentose sugars) using recombinant Escherichia coli LY01 as the biocatalyst. A comparison of composition before and after optimal overliming revealed a substantial reduction in furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and three unidentified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks. Organic acids (acetic, formic, levulinic) were not affected. Similar changes have been reported after overliming of spruce hemicellulose hydrolysates (Larsson et al., 1999). Our studies further demonstrated that the extent of furan reduction correlated with increasing fermentability. However, furan reduction was not the sole cause for reduced toxicity. After optimal overliming, bagasse hydrolysate was rapidly and efficiently fermented (>90% yield) by LY01. During these studies, titration, and conductivity were found to be in excellent agreement as methods to estimate sulfuric acid content. Titration was also found to provide an estimate of total organic acids in hydrolysate, which agreed well with the sum of acetic, levulinic, and formic acids obtained by HPLC. Titration of acids, measurement of pH before and after treatment, and furan analyses are proposed as relatively simple methods to monitor the reproducibility of hydrolysate preparations and the effectiveness of overliming treatments. PMID:10898862

  17. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  18. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from a moderate halophile strain of Aspergillus caesiellus isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alberto Batista-García

    Full Text Available A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications.

  19. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains produces an enzymatic cocktail as alternative to alkaline sugarcane bagasse pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Sanita Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60 % - 80 % of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA, GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA, GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA. This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production.

  20. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers. PMID:25063183

  1. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16gL(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58gL(-1)h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. PMID:26943936

  2. A comparison of cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibres extracted from bagasse using acid and ball milling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi Kord Sofla, M.; Brown, R. J.; Tsuzuki, T.; Rainey, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the fundamental properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) extracted from sugarcane bagasse. Conventional hydrolysis was used to extract CNC while ball milling was used to extract CNF. Images generated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope showed CNC was needle-like with relatively lower aspect ratio and CNF was rope-like in structure with higher aspect ratio. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra showed that the chemical composition of nanocellulose and extracted cellulose were identical and quite different from bagasse. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that CNC had uniform particle size distribution with a median size of 148 nm while CNF had a bimodal size distribution with median size 240 ± 12 nm and 10 μm. X-ray diffraction showed that the amorphous portion was removed during hydrolysis; this resulted in an increase in the crystalline portion of CNC compared to CNF. Thermal degradation of cellulose initiated at a much lower temperature, in the case of the nanocrystals while the CNF prepared by ball milling were not affected, indicating higher thermal stability.

  3. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  4. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans Recombinant Strains Produces an Enzymatic Cocktail as Alternative to Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Matheus S; Damasio, André R de L; Crnkovic, Paula M; Pinto, Marcelo R; da Silva, Ana M; da Silva, Jean C R; Segato, Fernando; de Lucas, Rosymar C; Jorge, João A; Polizeli, Maria de L T de M

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA), GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA) and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA). This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production. PMID:27199917

  5. Characterization and drying of caja bagasse (Spondias mombin L. in a tray dryer using a factorial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Souto da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The caja (Spondias mombin L. is used in the manufacture of ice-cream, jams, pulps, beverages being also consumed in natura. One of the most important procedures in food conservation is drying, considering that most fresh fruits contain approximately 80% of water. Food drying is used to obtain two basic aspects: (1 the economic factor; in the shipping and handling of the product; (2 at the manipulation; once dried and grinded, the material is rehydrated, at desirable levels, to formulate a new product as in ice cream, jams, yoghurts and drinks and may also be added to pasta, biscuits and other industrialized products. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of caja bagasse drying in a fixed-bed tray dryer, using central composite factorial planning. The following factors were evaluated: temperature (55, 65 and 75 ºC, dryer inlet air velocity (3.2, 4.6 and 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 cm where the response of the considered variable was caja bagasse moisture content (b.s. and the results showed that the main effects and their interactions were significant at a 95% confidence level being the best condition obtained at temperature of 75 ºC, velocity of 6.0 m.s-1 and cake thickness of 0.8 cm.

  6. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  7. Guayule (parthenium argentatum) pyrolysis biorefining: production of hydrocarbon compatible bio-oils from guayule bagasse via tail-gas reactive pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a woody desert shrub grown in the southwestern United States as a source of natural rubber, organic resins, and high energy biofuel feedstock from crop residues. We used guayule bagasse, the residual biomass after latex extraction as feedstock in a pyrolysis proces...

  8. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Veana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents; the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid. Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse.

  9. Ultrasound processing to enhance drying of cashew apple bagasse puree: Influence on antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; Leite, Ana Karoline Ferreira; Silva, Ana Raquel Araújo; Carneiro, Alessandra Pinheiro Góes; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-07-01

    The present study has evaluated the effects of power ultrasound pre-treatment on air-drying and bioactive compounds of cashew apple bagasse. The sonication induced the disruption of cashew bagasse parenchyma, which resulted in lower resistance to water diffusion, less hysteresis, and increased rehydration rate. The processing did not affect the lignocellulose fibers or the sclerenchyma cells. For sonicated samples, water activity reached values below 0.4, after 2h of drying, which is appropriate to prevent bacterial and fungi growth. The sorption isotherms of cashew apple bagasse presented sigmoid-shape for all samples and followed the type II according to BET classification. Sonicated cashew apple bagasse showed higher antioxidant activity, higher total phenolic compounds (TPC) and higher vitamin C content when compared to the non-sonicated sample. The increase in TPC and vitamin C contributed to the product antioxidant activity. A slight reduction on Vitamin C bioaccessibility was observed, but the TPC bioaccessibility has increased. Sonication reduced the quality loss of conventional drying treatments improving the quality of the dried product. PMID:26964946

  10. Analysis of convective drying kinetics of yellow passion fruit bagasse - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.10286

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraísa Lopes de Menezes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the convective drying in fixed bed of yellow passion fruit bagasse. Firstly, the initial moisture of the bagasse was determined in stove, at 105 ± 3ºC for 24 hours.  In the drying tests, it was collected the bagasse mass values over time, by using a convective dryer, operated at four temperatures (35, 45, 55 and 65ºC and three air flow speeds at 0.8, 1.0 and 1.3 m s-1. Having the curves of the drying and of drying rates, it was observed that the temperature had a great influence on the bagasse drying, since as the temperature increases, the drying time is shortened, increasing thus the drying rate. The curves of drying and of drying rate were fitted to the models proposed by Page (1949 apud MOTTA LIMA et al., 2003and Motta Lima et al. (2002, and the models set by Hogdes (1982 and Toffoli (2005 apud SANTOS et al., 2008, respectively. Other mathematical models were also fitted for each drying process, such as: Simple Exponential, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithm, two-term exponential model, and Wang and Singh model. The best model was chosen by analysis of the highest R² and F-test, and the lowest root mean square error.  

  11. Effect of the addition of sugar cane bagasse fibers in the composite with the copolymer vinyl ethylene-acetate (EVA) by solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural fibers composites obtained form sugar cane bagasse and ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer were prepared with different compositions and analysed by solid state Carbon-13 NMR aiming the observation of molecular mobility, compatibility, and chemical structure of the different obtained composites. One objective of this work was to enable the future commercial application of these materials

  12. Controlled release of drugs from cellulose acetate matrices produced from sugarcane bagasse: monitoring by square-wave voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Almeida, Flávia; Ribeiro, Sabrina D; Tormin, Thiago F; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Assunção, Rosana M N; Barud, Hernane

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, cellulose triacetate (CTA) was produced from sugarcane bagasse and used as matrices for controlled release of paracetamol. Symmetric and asymmetric membranes were obtained by formulations of CTA/dichloromethane/drug and CTA/dichloromethane/water/drug, respectively, and they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different morphologies of membranes were observed by SEM, and the incorporation of paracetamol was confirmed by lowering of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in the DSC curves. This indicates the existence of interactions between the matrix and the drug. The evaluation of drug release was based on the electrochemical monitoring of paracetamol through its oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode surface using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), which provides fast, precise and accurate in situ measurements. The studies showed a content release of 27% and 45% by the symmetric and asymmetric membranes, respectively, during 8 h. PMID:26596497

  13. Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Rice Husk and Sugarcane Bagasse: Kinetic Modeling and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters using Different Optimization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonde, Ruta Dhanram; Chaurasia, Ashish Subhash

    2015-04-01

    The present study provides the kinetic model to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice-husk and sugarcane bagasse as biomass. The kinetic scheme used for modelling of primary pyrolysis consisting of the two parallel reactions giving gaseous volatiles and solid char. Estimation of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis process has been carried out for temperature range of 773-1,173 K. As there are serious issues regarding non-convergence of some of the methods or solutions converging to local-optima, the proposed kinetic model is optimized to predict the best values of kinetic parameters for the system using three approaches—Two-dimensional surface fitting non-linear regression technique, MS-Excel Solver Tool and COMSOL software. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. The estimated value of kinetic parameters are compared with earlier researchers and found to be matching well.

  14. Removal of hexenuronic acid by xylanase to reduce adsorbable organic halides formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuangxi; Wang, Shuangfei; Qin, Chengrong; Yao, Shuangquan; Ebonka, Johnbull Friday; Song, Xueping; Li, Kecheng

    2015-11-01

    Xylanase-aided chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp was investigated. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase and followed a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The ATR-FTIR and XPS were employed to determine the surface chemistry of the control pulp, xylanase treated and chlorine dioxide treated pulps. The hexenuronic acid (HexA) could obviously be reduced after xylanase pretreatment, and the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were reduced after chlorine dioxide bleaching. Compared to the control pulp, AOX could be reduced by 21.4-26.6% with xylanase treatment. Chlorine dioxide demand could be reduced by 12.5-22% to achieve the same brightness. The ATR-FTIR and XPS results showed that lignin and hemicellulose (mainly HexA) were the main source for AOX formation. Xylanase pretreatment could remove HexA and expose more lignin, which decreased the chlorine dioxide demand and thus reduced formation of AOX. PMID:26263004

  15. Radiation and NRSP effect on protein, filtration efficiency and crude fiber degradation after sugar cane bagasse fermentation by mushroom fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shon, Jong-Sik; Kim, Gye-Nam; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu

    1998-11-01

    The upgrading of sugar cane bagasse with natural rubber waste by irradiation and three mushroom fungi was studied in order to produce economical animal feed and mushrooms. The protein concentrations changed a little at 0, 1% of NRSP but greatly increased at 5% NRSP concentration with irradiation and nonirradiation in liquid fermentation. The filtration rate decreased at 5% NRSP concentration after liquid fermentation but it increased by 2.7, 10.2, 11.1 times with irradiation for P. sajor-caju, C. phlytidosprorus and P. flavellatus. The amounts of crude fiber were decreased due to the irradiation and the different concentration of NRSP after 42 days of solid fermentation by P. sajor-caju.

  16. Cellulose triacetate films obtained from sugarcane bagasse: Evaluation as coating and mucoadhesive material for drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sabrina Dias; Guimes, Rodrigues Filho; Meneguin, Andréia Bagliotti; Prezotti, Fabíola Garavello; Boni, Fernanda Isadora; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon

    2016-11-01

    Cellulose triacetate (CTA) films were produced from cellulose extracted from sugarcane bagasse. The films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties (MP), enzymatic digestion (ED), and mucoadhesive properties evaluation (MPE). WVP showed that more concentrated films have higher values; asymmetric films had higher values than symmetric films. MP showed that symmetric membranes are more resistant than asymmetric ones. All films presented high mucoadhesiveness. From the WVP and MP results, a symmetric membrane with 6.5% CTA was selected for the coating of gellan gum (GG) particles incorporating ketoprofen (KET). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the CTA coating does not influence the thermal stability of the particles. Coated particles released 100% of the KET in 24h, while uncoated particles released the same amount in 4h. The results highlight the CTA potential in the development of new controlled oral delivery systems. PMID:27516328

  17. Saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse using enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 for sugars release and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cassia Pereira, Josiani; Travaini, Rodolfo; Paganini Marques, Natalia; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Bocchini Martins, Daniela Alonso

    2016-03-01

    The saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was studied. Fungal enzymes provided slightly higher sugar release than commercial enzymes, working at 50°C. Sugar release increased with temperature increase. Kinetic studies showed remarkable glucose release (4.99g/L, 3%w/w dry matter) at 60°C, 8h of hydrolysis, using an enzyme load of 10FPU (filter paper unit). FPase and β-glucosidase activities increased during saccharification (284% and 270%, respectively). No further significant improvement on glucose release was observed increasing the enzyme load above 7.5FPUperg of cellulose. Higher dry matter contents increased sugars release, but not yields. The fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided glucose-to-ethanol conversions around to 63%. PMID:26773948

  18. Optimization of endoglucanase and xylanase activities from Fusarium verticillioides for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Paes, Guilherme B T; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Visser, Evan M; Alfenas, Rafael F; Pereira, Olinto L; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important but expensive step in the production of ethanol from biomass. Thus, the production of efficient enzymatic cocktails is of great interest for this biotechnological application. The production of endoglucanase and xylanase activites from F. verticillioides were optimized in a factorial design (2(5)) followed by a CCDR design. Endoglucanase and xylanase activities increased from 2.8 to 8.0 U/mL and from 13.4 to 114 U/mL, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature were determined for endoglucanase (5.6, 80 °C), cellobiase (5.6, 60 °C), FPase (6.0, 55 °C) and xylanase (7.0, 50 °C). The optimized crude extract was applied in saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse from which 9.7 g/L of ethanol was produced at an ethanol/biomass yield of 0.19. PMID:24170331

  19. Alternative invitro propagation: use of sugarcane bagasse as a low cost support material during rooting stage of strawberry cv. Dover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radjiskumar Mohan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the plant material during the micropropagation process in tissue culture. Partially improvement in the rooting process, coupled with cost reduction was obtained during the invitro rooting by the use of a natural support based on sugarcane bagasse as a substitute for the traditionally used agar gelled medium. The tests were conducted with micro-cuttings of strawberry cv. Dover using a medium composed of half strength MS medium (1962, 3% sucrose and 0.05 BAP mg.l-1. The roots number, shoots number, length, and the height of aerial part of 8 independent plants were recorded after 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of culture. Also, an acclimatization tests were realized of the rooted shoots from both the media. A comparison with agar-grown micro-cuttings showed that the sugarcane bagasse yielded better results (14, 40, 15 and 12 respectively. Acclimatization tests were 83% from the agar gelled medium against 100% from the bagasse medium. As the Paraná State, Brazil, possess in great number of the sugarcane bagasse; this can feed the alternative technology invented on the area of micropropagation techniques.Para a obtenção de mudas (material vegetal sadias de espécies de café em maior quantidade e em tempo reduzido, utiliza-se a técnica de micropropagação vegetal. Essa técnica é realizada em diferentes etapas, desde o isolamento até o transporte para extra vitro. Cada etapa demanda tempo e gera custos onerosos, sendo ainda necessário otimizar o rendimento. Para melhorar o processo total é essencial que cada etapa colabore com o máximo de rendimento, no menor tempo e com o menor custo possível. Este trabalho teve como focos as etapas de enraizamento e de aclimatização com as seguintes mudanças previstas: o enraizamento destes micro-tecidos propagados em meio de cultura modificado (substituição do meio semi-sólido por bagaço de mandioca e/ou bagaço de cana

  20. Lipid production by Cryptococcus curvatus on hydrolysates derived from corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse following dilute acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanna; Jarosz, Kimberly; Wardlow, Ashley T; Zhang, Ji; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) are both pre-processed lignocellulosic materials that can be used to produce liquid biofuels. Pretreatment using dilute sulfuric acid at a severity factor of 1.06 and 1.02 released 83.2 and 86.5 % of theoretically available sugars out of corn fiber and SSB, respectively. The resulting hydrolysates derived from pretreatment of SSB at SF of 1.02 supported growth of Cryptococcus curvatus well. In 6 days, the dry cell density reached 10.8 g/l with a lipid content of 40 % (w/w). Hydrolysates from corn fiber, however, did not lead to any significant cell growth even with addition of nutrients. In addition to consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose, C. curvatus also utilized formic acid, acetic acid, 4-hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid for growth. Thus, C. curvatus appeared to be an excellent yeast strain for producing lipids from hydrolysates developed from lignocellulosic feedstocks. PMID:24928546

  1. Biorefineries based on coffee cut-stems and sugarcane bagasse: furan-based compounds and alkanes as interesting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal M, Valentina; Gómez P, Álvaro; Cardona A, Carlos A

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment for a biorefinery based on sugarcane bagasse (SCB), and coffee cut-stems (CCS). Five scenarios were evaluated at different levels, conversion pathways, feedstock distribution, and technologies to produce ethanol, octane, nonane, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). These scenarios were compared between each other according to raw material, economic, and environmental characteristics. A single objective function combining the Net Present Value and the Potential Environmental Impact was used through the Analytic Hierarchy Process approach to understand and select the best configurations for SCB and CCS cases. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance for SCB and CCS is the one that considers ethanol, furfural, and octane production (scenario 1). The global economic margin was 62.3% and 61.6% for SCB and CCS respectively. The results have shown the potential of these types of biomass to produce fuels and platform products. PMID:26280100

  2. High conversion of sugarcane bagasse into monosaccharides based on sodium hydroxide pretreatment at low water consumption and wastewater generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Qi, Wei; Yu, Qiang; Zhou, Guixiong; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-10-01

    The generation of a great quantity of black liquor (BL) and waste wash water (WWW) has been key problems of the alkaline pretreatment. This work tried to build a sustainable way to recycle the BL for pretreating sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and the WWW for washing the residual solid (RS) of alkali-treated SCB which would be subsequently hydrolysed and fermented. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of the washed RS decreased with the recycling times of BL and WWW increasing. Tween80 at the loading of 0.25% (V/V) could notably improve the enzymatic hydrolysis and had no negative impact on the downstream fermentation. Compared with the non-recycling and BL recycling ways based on alkaline pretreatment, the BL-WWW recycling way could not only maintain high conversion of carbohydrate into monosaccharides and save alkali amount of 45.5%, but also save more than 80% water and generate less than 15% waste water. PMID:27474958

  3. Radiation and NRSP effect on protein, filtration efficiency and crude fiber degradation after sugar cane bagasse fermentation by mushroom fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrading of sugar cane bagasse with natural rubber waste by irradiation and three mushroom fungi was studied in order to produce economical animal feed and mushrooms. The protein concentrations changed a little at 0, 1% of NRSP but greatly increased at 5% NRSP concentration with irradiation and nonirradiation in liquid fermentation. The filtration rate decreased at 5% NRSP concentration after liquid fermentation but it increased by 2.7, 10.2, 11.1 times with irradiation for P. sajor-caju, C. phlytidosprorus and P. flavellatus. The amounts of crude fiber were decreased due to the irradiation and the different concentration of NRSP after 42 days of solid fermentation by P. sajor-caju

  4. Selection and identification of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene removal from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Espinosa, D V; Fernández-Perrino, F J; Arana-Cuenca, A; Esparza-García, F; Loera, O; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2006-01-01

    This work investigated the identification and selection of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene (Phe) removal from soil. Fungi were identified by PCR amplification of ITS regions as Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. A primary selection of fungi was accomplished in plate, considering Phe tolerance of every strain in two different media: potato dextrose agar (PDA) and mineral medium (MM). The radial extension rate (r(r)) in PDA exhibited significant differences (pcontaminated soil ratio of 95:5, in Toyamas, Czapeck and Wunder media. Under these conditions, a maximum (70%) Phe removal by A. niger was obtained. In addition C. cladosporioides and A. niger were able to remove high (800 ppm) Phe concentrations. PMID:16484077

  5. Malpighia emarginata DC. bagasse acetone extract: Phenolic compounds and their effect on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R Marques

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annually, several tons of residues that are rich in phenolic compounds are produced during the processing of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. juice. Adding value to these residues is of great interest, since they can be a viable solution in the search for natural substances with insecticidal action and low impact on the environment and humans. Taking into account the economic losses from the attacks by the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in different crops, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extract of acerola bagasse flour (ABF against this insect and determine the phenolic compounds in this extract. Bagasse of acerola (BRS238 or Frutacor clon generated after juice production, was frozen and lyophilized. To obtain the extract, 6 g ABF was mixed with 60 mL acetone:water solution (7:3 v/v, and the extract was lyophilized. Spodoptera frugiperda caterpillars, 48 h-old, obtained by the maintenance breeding, were transferred to glass tubes supplied with an artificial diet containing the ABF extract at 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1 diet. The following variables were evaluated: duration and survival of larval and pupal stages, pupal weight, sex ratio, adult longevity, oviposition period, number of egg masses, and total number of eggs. The ABF extract contained several phenolic compounds including gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, catechin, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, and quercetin. The extract was toxic to S. frugiperda, prolonging the pre-pupal stage and increasing the mortality of caterpillars.

  6. Determination of fungicides in white grape bagasse by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Llompart, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry

    2014-05-23

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC TQ-MS) were used for the rapid determination of 11 fungicides (metalaxyl, cyprodinil, procymidone, iprovalicarb, myclobutanyl, kresoxim-methyl, benalaxyl, fenhexamide, tebuconazole, iprodione and dimethomorph) in white grape bagasse. The extractions were optimized on real non-spiked samples by means of experimental design and the optimal conditions were selected to achieve the method validation. The PLE procedure showed much higher efficiency than UAE for the target fungicides. Under the selected extraction conditions, PLE showed satisfactory linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. Recoveries for the majority of studied fungicides were higher than 80% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) for GC TQ-MS were very low, at the sub ngg(-1) for the majority of the target fungicides, well below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine and table grapes, and vine leaves. Eighteen white grape bagasse samples were analyzed and nine out of eleven targets were detected in the samples. Seven of them were detected in more than 50% of the samples and most samples contained at least four of the target analytes. The most frequently found compounds were tebuconazole and dimethomorph with concentrations between 1.6-130 and 2.0-1788ngg(-1), respectively. Some samples showed high levels of many of the studied fungicides (high ngg(-1), even μgg(-1) for cyprodinil, fenhexamide, iprodione and dimethomorph), but all of them below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine grapes. PMID:24746069

  7. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment and use of surfactants during enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Jéssica Faria; Ferraz, André; Aguiar, André

    2016-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a by-product from the sugar and ethanol industry which contains approximately 70 % of its dry mass composed by polysaccharides. To convert these polysaccharides into fuel ethanol it is necessary a pretreatment step to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the recalcitrant raw material. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by an alkaline-sulfite chemithermomechanical process for increasing its enzymatic digestibility. Na2SO3 and NaOH ratios were fixed at 2:1, and three increasing chemical loads, varying from 4 to 8 % m/m Na2SO3, were used to prepare the pretreated materials. The increase in the alkaline-sulfite load decreased the lignin content in the pretreated material up to 35.5 % at the highest chemical load. The pretreated samples presented enhanced glucose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum glucose yield (64 %) was observed for the samples pretreated with the highest chemical load. The use of 2.5 g l(-1) Tween 20 in the hydrolysis step further increased the glucose yield to 75 %. Semi-simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of the pretreated materials indicated that the ethanol yield was also enhanced as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum ethanol yield was 56 ± 2 % for the sample pretreated with the highest chemical load. For the sample pretreated with the lowest chemical load (2 % m/m NaOH and 4 % m/m Na2SO3), adding Tween 20 during the hydrolysis process increased the ethanol yield from 25 ± 3 to 39.5 ± 1 %. PMID:26718203

  8. Energetic, ecologic and fluid-dynamic analysis of a fluidized bed gasifier operating with sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the thermodynamic, ecological and fluid-dynamic aspects of a circulating fluidized bed gasifier using sugar cane bagasse as biomass, in order to estimate a model of its normal operation. In the initial stage was analysed the composition of biomass selected (sugar cane bagasse) and its lower heating value (LHV) was calculated. The energy balance of the gasifier was done, being the volumetric flow of air, synthesis gas and biomass estimated. Also the power produced by this gasifier was theoretically estimated. Then the circulating fluidized bed gasifier was designed for operation with approximately 100 kg/h of processed biomass. Cross-sectional area of the reactor, feeder size, diameter of the exit zone of the gases and minimum height of the expanded bed were selected. Some bed gasifier hydrodynamic factors were also studied. The minimum fluidization velocity, fluidization terminal velocity, and average fluidizing velocity were calculated, in order to understand the fluid-dynamic behaviour of gasification of this fuel. It was obtained a theoretical model that can support a possible prototype of circulating fluidized bed gasifier biomass. Finally, there were studied the ecological aspects of the gasifier, through an overall methodology. Ecological efficiencies were estimated for two scenarios: first considering the carbon cycle and thereafter disregarding the carbon cycle. In both cases, it can be proved the ecological viability of the project. -- Highlights: • we develop a methodology to size a fluidized bed gasifier. • we validate this methodology comparing to a fixed bed gasifier values. • we aggregate ecological efficiency to this methodology

  9. Effect of roughage to concentrate ratio of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biclor L. Moench) bagasse-based complete diet on nutrient utilization and microbial N supply in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nagireddy Nalini; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Blummel, Michel; Nagalakshmi, Devanaboyina; Sudhakar, Khaja; Reddy, Vangur Ravinder; Monika, Thamatam; Pavani, Mitta; Reddy, Marrivada Sudhakara; Reddy, Belum Venkata Subba; Reddy, Chintalapani Ravinder

    2012-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of roughage to the concentrate ratio of complete diets containing sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB), an agro-industrial by product, as sole roughage source on nutrient utilization in ram lambs. Twenty-four Nellore × Deccani cross ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body wt. 10.62 ± 0.03 kg) were randomly allotted into four groups fed with CR-I (60R:40C), CR-II (50R:50C), CR-III (40R:60C), and CR-IV (30R:70C) complete diets. The roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the dry matter intake (in grams/day or grams/kilogram weight(0.75)). The crude protein (P bagasse can be included in the complete rations at maximum level of 50 % as roughage source for rearing of ram lambs. PMID:22467041

  10. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica vermelha incorporada com residuo de cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpfaria@hotmail.co, E-mail: holanda@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados. Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  11. Use of a Mixture of Thermophilic Enzymes Produced by the Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus to Enhance the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the Sugarcane Bagasse Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Monte, J. R.; Carvalho, W.; A. M.F. Milagres

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The production of hydrolytic enzymes by T. aurantiacus has been performed under solid-state fermentations using lignocellulosic materials. The influences of the inoculum size and of the fermentation medium on the production of hemicellulases and cellulases were studied. Filtrates from the cultures were used to hydrolyze a pulp of sugarcane bagasse and the produced enzymes were shown to be candidates for use as co-adjuvants in plant saccharification. ...

  12. Investigation on lateral resistance of joints made with drywall and sheet metal screws in bagasse particleboard and comparison with that of commercial MDF

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Eshaghi; Mahdi Faezipour; Hamid Reza Taghiyari

    2013-01-01

    In this research, effects of screw diameter, screw type, panel type, and end distance on lateral resistance of the joints made with drywall and sheet metal screws were studied in bagasse particleboard and the results were compared to those obtained from commercial medium density fiberboard (MDF). The accuracy of EYM in prediction of lateral resistance was then investigated. The drywall screws comprised of size 8 with coarse thread and size 10 with fine thread; the sheet metal screws comprised...

  13. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    OpenAIRE

    F. Veana; J.L. Martínez-Hernández; Aguilar, C. N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; G. Michelena

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemi...

  14. Design and optimization of ethanol production from bagasse pith hydrolysate by a thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Pandey, Diwakar; Ghosh, Debashish; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Vadde, Vasanta Thakur; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse pith hydrolysate by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was analyzed using response surface methodology. Variables such as Substrate Concentration, pH, fermentation time and Na2HPO4 concentration were found to influence ethanol production significantly. In a batch fermentation, optimization of key process variables resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 17.44 g/L which was 88% of the theoretical with specific productivity of 0.36 g/L/h.

  15. Resolution of galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose in sugarcane bagasse employing a voltammetric electronic tongue formed by metals oxy-hydroxide/MWCNT modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso de Sá, Acelino; González-Calabuig, Andreu; Cipri, Andrea; Ramos Stradiotto, Nelson; Valle Zafra, Manuel del

    2016-01-01

    Second generation ethanol is produced from the carbohydrates released from the cell wall of bagasse and straw of sugarcane. The objective of this work is the characterization and application of a voltammetric electronic tongue using an array of glassy carbon electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes containing metal (Paladium, Gold, Copper, Nickel and Cobalt) oxy-hydroxide nanoparticles (GCE/MWCNT/MetalsOOH) towards a simpler analysis of carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, galactose ...

  16. Durability Studies on Concrete and Comparison with Partial Replacement of Cement with Rice Husk Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    B.Someswara Rao; N.Vidya Sagar Lal

    2015-01-01

    This research work describes the feasibility of using the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) waste in concrete production as a partial replacement of cement. This present work deals with the effect on strength and mechanical properties of concrete using RHA and SCBA instead of cement. The cement has been replaced by rice husk ash, accordingly in the range of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by weight. Concrete mixtures with RHA, were produced, tested and compared in ter...

  17. Thermoelectric power plant selection using natural gas and sugar cane bagasse; Selecao de centrais termoeletricas utilizando gas natural e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Caio de Paula [UNIFei - Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cleite@edu.fei.br; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br

    2003-07-01

    The electric power consumption in Brazil is growing about 4.2% a year, according to ELETROBRAS Decenal Plan in 1999. The capacity of installed electrical power is approximately 50000 MW, of the which 75% are in the Southern, South eastern and Middle western regions of the country. The growth rate indicates the need of an increase of the installed capacity of 2100 MW a year to avoid the risk of the lack of energy. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential sources of the region are practically exhausted and the government budget is low for this kind of investment. Therefore the solution would be the construction of new thermoelectric plants, with the possibility using natural gas and cane bagasse. The present work consists of the evaluation of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced for the thermo electrical plants selection. Thermo economic analysis was made evaluating the production costs of steam and electricity in exergetic basis. The results show that the power cycles and cogeneration plants that use natural gas and cane bagasse are much more economical than the ones that just use natural gas, with 48% reduction of steam cost, 40% reduction of electricity cost generated b the steam turbine in the power cycle and 37% reduction of electricity cost generated by the steam turbine in the cogeneration plant, for cane bagasse price at 4 US$ /t and natural gas price at 140 US$/t. (author)

  18. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2{sup 3} experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio [Centro de Analisis de Procesos, Facultad de Quimica-Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Castro, Eulogio [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Felissia, Fernando [Programa de Celulosa y Papel, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Misiones (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2{sup 3} full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and {beta}-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work. (author)

  19. BIOCONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE INTO SECOND GENERATION BIOETHANOL AFTER ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS WITH IN-HOUSE PRODUCED CELLULASES FROM Aspergillus sp. S4B2F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Soni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was studied for in-house cellulase production, pretreatment, and enzymatic conversion of sugarcane bagasse into glucose followed by the production of second generation bioethanol. Solid state cultures of Aspergillus sp. S4B2F produced significant levels of cellulase complex on wheat bran, supplemented with 1% (w/w soyabean meal, moistened with 1.5 parts of distilled water after 96 h of incubation at 30oC. The highest productivities of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase were 66, 60, and 26 IU/g of fermented dry bran, respectively. The enzyme components had a temperature and pH optima at 50oC and 4.0, respectively and revealed high thermostability at 50oC, retaining 66, 54, and 84% residual activities after 72 h. Pretreatment with 2% alkali in combination with steam was the most efficient pre-hydrolysis method for enzymatic bioconversion and fermentation of cellulosic residue of sugarcane bagasse, which produced the highest cellulose conversion (67%, with glucose and alcohol yields of 323 mg and 175 l respectively per dry gram of bagasse.

  20. The influence of pretreatment methods on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by an enzyme extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and commercial cocktails: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Visser, Evan Michael; Alfenas, Rafael Ferreira; Nogueira, Bráulio Ris G; de Campos, Guilherme Galvão; Milagres, Adriane Ferreira; de Vries, Ronald P; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

    2015-09-01

    Biomass enzymatic hydrolysis depends on the pretreatment methods employed, the composition of initial feedstock and the enzyme cocktail used to release sugars for subsequent fermentation into ethanol. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with 1% H2SO4 and 1% NaOH and the biomass saccharification was performed with 8% solids loading using 10 FPase units/g of bagasse of the enzymatic extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and three commercial cocktails for a comparative study. Overall, the best glucose and xylose release was obtained from alkaline pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The C. cubensis extract promoted higher release of glucose (5.32 g/L) and xylose (9.00 g/L) than the commercial mixtures. Moreover, the C. cubensis extract presented high specific enzyme activities when compared to commercial cocktails mainly concerning to endoglucanase (331.84 U/mg of protein), β-glucosidase (29.48 U/mg of protein), β-xylosidase (2.95 U/mg of protein), pectinase (127.46 U/mg of protein) and laccase (2.49 U/mg of protein). PMID:26094192

  1. An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke Ana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min and temperature (190 to 220°C. The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk.

  2. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  3. Characterization of physiochemical and microbiological properties, and bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Huerta, Katira da Mota; Monteiro, Sabrina Sauthier; da Rosa, Claudia Severo; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as the bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of two varieties (Bruno and Monty) of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) at two stages of maturation. The flour made with kiwi fruit peel from both varieties showed higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity that the flour made with bagasse from both varieties. The flour made with green kiwi fruit skin from the Bruno variety had higher DPPH values and levels of phenolic compounds (1262.34 mg GAE/100g flour), while the Monty variety showed higher FRAP values, vitamin C (189.06 mg/100g flour), flavonoids (486.47 mg/100g flour), chlorophylls (12.13 mg/100g flour) and carotenoids (246.91 μg/100g flour). Flour made from kiwi fruit bagasse can be used to reduce agro-industrial waste. This flour is a promising ingredient which can be used to enrich products providing dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant action. PMID:26775997

  4. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatments of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Almeida e Silva, J.B. [School of Chemical Engineering at Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Biotechnology], Email: jmarcelo@cetesb.sp.gov.br; Pessoa Junior, A. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite), each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it to 5.5 with H

  5. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  6. Production and productivity of sugar cane bagasse during 2008/2009 crop season for electrical energy conservation; Producao e produtividade de bagaco de cana-de-acucar ao longo da safra 2008/2009, visando a cogeracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify sources of energy generation, Brazil has encouraged cogeneration of energy from biomass. Among the various biomasses sources, sugar cane bagasse is one that combines the best economic attributes to be due mainly to industrial production in large quantities. This study aimed to evaluate the bagasse productive potential of two varieties of sugarcane during the harvest period. The experiment was conducted at UNESP, Jaboticabal County. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot, having the two sugarcane cultivars as plots, and the split times of the 11 tests during the season and 3 replications. Were estimated production (kg tc{sup -1}) and productivity (t ha{sup -1}) residue for each cultivar in their own times. The cultivars showed differences from the average production of mulch. However, obtained similar behavior throughout the season, characterized by progressive cuts. For bagasse Productivity, the cultivars showed differences in average values and behavior throughout the season. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 had the best performance in relation to production and productivity of bagasse, can be used for cogeneration for most of the season. The cultivar RB855536 presented a lower performance, achieving low production and productivity of bagasse, indicating its lower potential in relation to energy generation. (author)

  7. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  8. Enhancing enzymolysis and fermentation efficiency of sugarcane bagasse by synergistic pretreatment of Fenton reaction and sodium hydroxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A study on the synergistic pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using Fenton reaction and NaOH extraction was conducted. The optimized process conditions for Fenton pretreatment were 10% (w/w) of H2O2, 20mM of Fe(2+), pH 2.5, pretreatment time 6h, and pretreatment temperature 55°C. Sequential pretreatments were performed in combination with NaOH extraction (NaOH 1% (w/w), 80°C, 5% of solid loading, 1h). Among all the pretreatments, Fenton pretreatment followed by NaOH extraction had the highest efficiency of 64.7% and 108.3% for enzymolysis and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) with an ethanol concentration of 17.44g/L. The analyses by the scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that Fenton pretreatment disrupts the structure of SCB to facilitate the degradation of lignin by NaOH. The overall data suggest that this combinatorial strategy is a promising process for SCB pretreatment. PMID:27213578

  9. Effect of ozonolysis pretreatment parameters on the sugar release, ozone consumption and ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Barrado, Enrique; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    A L9(3)(4) orthogonal array (OA) experimental design was applied to study the four parameters considered most important in the ozonolysis pretreatment (moisture content, ozone concentration, ozone/oxygen flow and particle size) on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Statistical analysis highlighted ozone concentration as the highest influence parameter on reaction time and sugars release after enzymatic hydrolysis. The increase on reaction time when decreasing the ozone/oxygen flow resulted in small differences of ozone consumptions. Design optimization for sugars release provided a parameters combination close to the best experimental run, where 77.55% and 56.95% of glucose and xylose yields were obtained, respectively. When optimizing the grams of sugar released by gram of ozone, the highest influence parameter was moisture content, with a maximum yield of 2.98gSUGARS/gO3. In experiments on hydrolysates fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided ethanol yields around 80%, while Pichia stipitis was completely inhibited. PMID:27132222

  10. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. PMID:26802183

  11. A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energetic utilisation of agricultural residues is considered to be an important element in any strategy to achieve renewable energy targets. In the approximately 80 cane-sugar producing countries there is potential to make better use of the fibrous residue known as bagasse. Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as 'green', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. This paper compares their projected environmental benefits from a life-cycle perspective, using South African data. Mass and energy analyses were prepared for the two systems and a base case (producing sugar with current methods), relative to the annual sugarcane production on one hectare. In both cases, the environmental burdens avoided by replacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy were included. The results obtained confirm that for all the impact categories considered, both 'bioenergy' products result in environmental benefits. The co-generation option results in lower energy-related emissions (i.e. lower global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials), whereas the fuel ethanol option is preferred in terms of resource conservation (since it is assumed to replace oil not coal), and also scores better in terms of human and eco-toxicity if assumed to replace lead-bearing oxygenates

  12. Effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse pretreated by acidified glycerol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Harrison, Mark D; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-09-01

    In this study, for the first time the effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis was inhibited slightly with 2.0 wt% glycerol, leading to reduction in glucan digestibility from 84.9% without glycerol to 82.9% (72 h). With 5.0 wt% and 10.0 wt% glycerol, glucan digestibility was reduced by 4.5% and 11.0%, respectively. However, glycerol did not irreversibly inhibit cellulase enzymes. Ethanol fermentation was not affected by glycerol up to 5.0 wt%, but was inhibited slightly at 10.0 wt% glycerol, resulting in reduction in ethanol yield from 86.0% in the absence of glycerol to 83.7% (20 h). Based on the results of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, it was estimated that 0.142 kg ethanol can be produced from 1.0 kg dry bagasse (a glucan content of 38.0%) after pretreatment with acidified glycerol solution. PMID:26056778

  13. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  14. Efficient chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the lignocellulosic residue from Agave tequilana bagasse to produce ethanol by Pichia caribbica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Luna, Jaime; Castro-Montoya, Agustin Jaime; Martinez-Pacheco, Mauro Manuel; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos Ruben; Campos-Garcia, Jesus

    2011-06-01

    Bagasse of Agave tequilana (BAT) is the residual lignocellulosic waste that remains from tequila production. In this study we characterized the chemical composition of BAT, which was further saccharified and fermented to produce ethanol. BAT was constituted by cellulose (42%), hemicellulose (20%), lignin (15%), and other (23%). Saccharification of BAT was carried out at 147 °C with 2% sulfuric acid for 15 min, yielding 25.8 g/l of fermentable sugars, corresponding to 36.1% of saccharificable material (cellulose and hemicellulose contents, w/w). The remaining lignocellulosic material was further hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes, ~8.2% of BAT load was incubated for 72 h at 40 °C rendering 41 g/l of fermentable sugars corresponding to 73.6% of the saccharificable material (w/w). Mathematic surface response analysis of the acid and enzymatic BAT hydrolysis was used for process optimization. The results showed a satisfactory correlation (R (2) = 0.90) between the obtained and predicted responses. The native yeast Pichia caribbica UM-5 was used to ferment sugar liquors from both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to ethanol yielding 50 and 87%, respectively. The final optimized process generated 8.99 g ethanol/50 g of BAT, corresponding to an overall 56.75% of theoretical ethanol (w/w). Thus, BAT may be employed as a lignocellulosic raw material for bioethanol production and can contribute to BAT residue elimination from environment. PMID:21072557

  15. Evaluation of hydrogen and methane production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates by two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Filho, José Gabriel Balena; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the net energy recovery from hydrogen and methane production through anaerobic digestion of the hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) obtained by desirable conditions (DC) of autohydrolysis pretreatment (AH) of sugarcane bagasse (SB). Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) batch system where the acidogenic phase worked as a hydrolysis and biodetoxification step. This allowed the utilization of more severe AH pretreatment conditions, i.e. T=178.6°C and t=55min (DC3) and T=182.9°C and t=40.71min (DC4). Such severe conditions resulted in higher extraction of hemicelluloses from SB (DC1=68.07%, DC2=48.99%, DC3=77.40% and DC4=73.90%), which consequently improved the net energy balance of the proposed process. The estimated energy from the combustion of both biogases (H2 and CH4) accumulated during the two-stage anaerobic digestion of HH generated by DC4 condition was capable of producing a net energy of 3.15MJ·kgSB(-1)dry weight. PMID:27393834

  16. Unidimensional heat transfer analysis of elephant grass and sugar cane bagasse slow pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa-Perez, J.M.; Cortez, L.A.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola-FEAGRI/UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo, CP 6011, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Rocha, J.D.; Olivares-Gomez, E. [Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico, NIPE/UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo, CP 6086, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Brossard-Perez, L.E. [Faculdad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidade de Oriente Sede Mella, ave, Las Americas sn, Ampliacion de Terraza, Santiago de Cuba, CP 90 600 (Cuba)

    2005-02-25

    Elephant grass (Pennicetum purpureum) and sugar cane bagasse slow pyrolysis experiments was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. A 20-cm internal diameter and 12-cm-long reactor was used. Particulate biomass filled up the reactor volume. Biomass was loaded into the reactor and heated in the axial direction using an electrical resistance located at the reactor's bottom. In order to control the temperature variation during the biomass pyrolysis process, four thermocouples were installed inside of the reactor. The remain residual mass was constant approximately after 73 min of heating; the running was stopped and remain carbonised; material was manually removed from the reactor. The residue formed three layer of biomass visually different described in detail here. Proximate analysis and higher heating value (HHV) tests were carried out to the material in each layer. Mass loss against time was recorded during experiments. The results indicated that the carbonisation ratio decreases in time because the carbon layer has low thermal conductivity and it does not permit proper heat transfer to the upper layer of biomass. It means that technology that avoids high-temperature gradients during the pyrolysis of bulk-dispersed biomass could avoid the problems described before.

  17. Effect of frequency and reaction time in focused ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methrath Liyakathali, Niyaz Ahamed; Muley, Pranjali D; Aita, Giovanna; Boldor, Dorin

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a critical steps in bioethanol production. Ultrasonic pretreatment significantly improves cellulose hydrolysis increasing sugar yields, but current system designs have limitations related to efficiency and scalability. This study evaluates the ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse in a novel scalable configuration and by maximizing coupling of ultrasound energy to the material via active modulation of frequency. Pretreatment was conducted in 28% ammonia water mixture at a sample:ammonia:water ratio of 1:0.5:8. Process performance was investigated as a function of frequency (20, 20.5, 21kHz), reaction time (30, 45, 60min), temperature, and power levels for multiple combinations of ammonia, water and sample mixture. Results indicated an increased enzymatic digestibility, with maximum glucose yield of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Theoretical ethanol yields obtained ranged from 6.47 to a maximum of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Maximum energy attainable was 886.34kJ/100g dry biomass. PMID:26496215

  18. Valorisation de la bagasse de l’agave tequilana W. cv azul : caractérisation, étude de la digestibilité et de la fermentation des sucres.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Gutierrez, Maria de la Soledad

    2005-01-01

    La bagasse d’agave tequilana W cv azul est le sous-produit solide de l’extraction des sucres, essentiellement l’inuline, de la tête d’agave tequilana, pour la fermentation éthanolique et la distillation de la tequila. Les caractéristiques physiques, la structure microscopique et la composition chimique de la tête d’agave tequilana fraîche et de la bagasse fraîche et séchée sont étudies. La bagasse contient entre 5 et 20% de sucres libres selon sont état de siccité, et est constituée par plus ...

  19. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces surplus bagasse for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de bagaco para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchoa, Thales Brandao; Beneduzzi, Anderson Henrique; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of a cogeneration plant of a sugarcane industry of Sao Paulo State (Iracema) that privileges the commercialization of the bagasse surplus because it is located in a region where the consume of bagasse by the local industries is intense. Th e plant is composed by five boilers that produce 470 ton/h of steam at pressure of 2,2 MPa and temperature of 300 deg C and back-pressure turbines of simple stage for energy generation and for driving the millings, cutters, shredders, pumps and exhaust fans. Part of the steam generated is also utilized to supply consume of an associated company (OMTEK) that it produces acid ribonucleic and the bagasse excess is commercialized. For this, a thermodynamic study is made, as well as a detailed analysis of the technical and economical viability, determining some performance indexes, the global efficiencies, as well as the costs of production of electric and thermal energy. (author)

  20. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Pre-tratamento do bagaco de cana utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por feixe de eletrons para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  1. Remoção de metais de solução aquosa usando bagaço de caju Metal removal from aqueous solution using cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal ions removal on cashew bagasse, a low-cost material, has been studied by batch adsorption. The parameters chemical treatment, particle size, biosorbent concentration, and initial pH were studied. In this study the maximum ions removal was obtained on the cashew bagasse treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH/3 h, at optimum particle size (20-59 mesh, biosorbent concentration (50 g/L and initial solution pH 5. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption metal follows pseudo-second order model for a multielementary system and equilibrium time was achieved in 60 min for all metal ions.

  2. Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation processes: Enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger have been shown to be powerful enzymes for biomass conversion to sugars, but the production costs are still relatively high for commercial application. The choice of an effective microbial cultivation process employed for enzyme production is important, since it may affect titers and the profile of protein secretion. We used proteomic analysis to characterize the secretome of T. reesei and A. niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation processes. The information gained was key to understand differences in hydrolysis of steam exploded sugarcane bagasse for enzyme cocktails obtained from two different cultivation processes. The sequential process for cultivating A. niger gave xylanase and β-glucosidase activities 3- and 8-fold higher, respectively, than corresponding activities from the submerged process. A greater protein diversity of critical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were also observed through secretome analyses. These results helped to explain the 3-fold higher yield for hydrolysis of non-washed pretreated bagasse when combined T. reesei and A. niger enzyme extracts from sequential fermentation were used in place of enzymes obtained from submerged fermentation. An enzyme loading of 0.7 FPU cellulase activity/g glucan was surprisingly effective when compared to the 5-15 times more enzyme loadings commonly reported for other cellulose hydrolysis studies. Analyses showed that more than 80% consisted of proteins other than cellulases whose role is important to the hydrolysis of a lignocellulose substrate. Our work combined proteomic analyses and enzymology studies to show that sequential and submerged cultivation methods differently influence both titers and secretion profile of key enzymes required for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. The higher diversity of feruloyl esterases, xylanases and other auxiliary hemicellulolytic enzymes observed in the enzyme

  3. Esterification of oily-FFA and transesterification of high FFA waste oils using novel palm trunk and bagasse-derived catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel palm trunk and bagasse derived catalysts have been prepared. • Reduction of FFAs from 42 to <1 wt.% in 15 min under pseudo-infinite methanol. • Transesterification of waste oil results in FAME yield of 80.6–83.2% in 4 h. • Pseudo-infinite methanol affords two-folds FAME yield of conventional methods. - Abstract: Waste cooking oil is increasingly becoming a significant component of biodiesel feedstock and its conversion to FAME requires coupling of esterification and transesterification processes. In this study, new environmentally benign catalysts were prepared from oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse, which are sustainable because of the superfluity of oil palm trunk and abundant supply of bagasse. Effect of preparation variable, surface acidity and textural properties, pre-esterification of FFA in oil matrices and transesterification of waste oil under pseudo-infinite methanol and conventional methods were investigated. The preparation variable, H2SO4 impregnation time showed marginal effect on sulfonic acid density after 6 h, and the corresponding values for 6–10 h impregnations were 1.33 ± 0.01–1.41 ± 0.01mmol g−1 for OPT and 1.44 ± 0.01–1.48 ± 0.01mmol g−1 for SCB catalysts. In esterification of palmitic acid, activity of catalysts with different H2SO4 impregnation time correlates with their sulfonic acid density. The catalysts demonstrated rapid esterification of FFA in oil matrices under pseudo infinite methanol, reducing its content from 42 wt.% to <1 wt.% in just 15 min. Similarly, the conversions of waste oil by OPT and SCB derived catalysts were 80.6% and 83.2%, respectively after 4 h under pseudo-infinite methanol, and 43.7% and 45%, respectively after 6 h under conventional method. These catalysts have shown remarkable properties that are suitable for biodiesel production from waste oil

  4. Crystallization of SiO2–CaO–Na2O Glass Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as Silica Source

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Silvio R.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the feasibility results of recycling sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass–ceramic. The major component of this solid residue is SiO2 (>89%). A 100 g batch composition containing ash, CaO and Na2O was melted and afterward, poured into water to produce a glass frit. The crystallization kinetic study by nonisothermal method was performed on powder samples (970°C, and below this temperature there is a predominance of rankinite. The crystallization activation energies c...

  5. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse; Preparacao de membranas a partir de celulose obtida do bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis, E-mail: fernandes_eng@yahoo.com.b [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Pinho, Maria Noberta de [Instituto Superior Tecnico de Lisboa (IST) (Portugal), Dept. de Engenharia; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  6. Study on thermodynamics and adsorption kinetics of purified endoglucanase (CMCase) from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 produced under mixed solid-state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Arpan; Ghosh, Uma; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, one thermostable endoglucanase was purified from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 through mixed solid state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 55kDa as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme had low activation energy (Ea) of 36.39KJ mol-1 for carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis and the enthalpy and entropy for irreversible inactivation was 87 kJ mol −1 and 59.3 J mol −1 K−1 respect...

  7. Study on Thermodynamics and Adsorption kinetics of Purified endoglucanase (CMCase) from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 produced under mixed solid-state fermentation of waste cabbage and Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Arpan Das; Uma Ghosh; Pradeep Kumar Das Mohapatra; Bikas Ranjan Pati; Keshab Chandra Mondal

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, one thermostable endoglucanase was purified from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 through mixed solid state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 55kDa as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme had low activation energy (Ea) of 36.39KJ mol-1 for carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis and the enthalpy and entropy for irreversible inactivation was 87 kJ mol −1 and 59.3 J mol −1...

  8. Statistical design and optimization of single cell oil production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by an oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula sp. IIP-33 using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Bandhu, Sheetal; Dasgupta, Diptarka; Akhter, Jawed; Kanaujia, Pankaj; Suman, Sunil K; Agrawal, Deepti; Kaul, Savita; Adhikari, Dilip K; Ghosh, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Single cell oil production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula sp. IIP-33 was analyzed using a two stage statistical design approach based on Response Surface Methodology. Variables like pentose sugar, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, yeast extract, pH and temperature were found to influence lipid production significantly. Under optimized condition in a shake flask, yield of lipid was 2.1199 g with fat coefficient of 7.09 which also resembled ~99% similarity to model predicte...

  9. 甘蔗渣制浆废水综合利用%Experience of Comprehensive Utilization and Emission Reduction of the Wastewater in a Bagasse Pulping Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃琪河

    2011-01-01

    The moisture of bagasse wet bulk storage is kept by the rational spraying, counter-current washing is applied in washing, screening, bleaching stage and downstream water is used recycling, and the practice can reduced the white water discharge and fresh water consumption.%通过合理控制喷淋时间保持湿法堆垛甘蔗渣水分,并采用逆流洗涤方式进行洗选漂的生产,综合循环利用下一工序的白水,减少生产过程白水排放量和清水用量.

  10. Alkali retention/separation during bagasse gasification: a comparison between a fluidised bed and a cyclone gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabra, M. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Energy Technology Centre, Pitea (Sweden); Nordin, A. [Umea University (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Ohman, M. [Energy Technology Centre, Pitea (Sweden); Umea University (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Kjellstrom, B. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering

    2001-12-01

    Biomass fuelled integrated gasification/gas turbines (BIG/GTS) have been found to be one of the most promising technologies to maximise electricity output in the sugar industry. However, biomass fuels contain alkali metals (Na and K) which may be released during the gasification processes and cause deleterious effects on the downstream hardware (e.g. the blades of gas turbines). Much research has therefore been focused on different kinds of gas cleaning. Most of these projects are using a fluidised bed gasifier and includes extensive gas cleaning which leads to a high capital investment. Increasing alkali retention/separation during the gasification may lead to improved producer gas quality and reduced costs for gas cleaning. However, very little quantitative information is available about the actual potential of this effect. In the present work, comparative bench-scale tests of bagasse gasification were therefore run in an isothermal fluidised bed gasifier and in a cyclone gasifier to evaluate which gasification process is most attractive as regards alkali retention/separation, and to try to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the retention. The alkali retention in the fluidised bed gasifier was found to be in the range of 12-4% whereas in the cyclone gasifier the alkali separation was found to be about 70%. No significant coating of the fluidised bed's bed material particles could be observed. The SEM/EDS and the elemental maps of the bed material show that a non-sticky ash matrix consisting of mainly Si, AI and K were distributed in a solid form separated from the particles of bed material. This indicates the formation of a high temperature melting potassium containing silicate phase, which is continuously scavenged and lost from the bed through elutriation. (author)

  11. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PMID:26384901

  12. Potential of bagasse production from middle sugarcane cultivars; Potencial de producao de bagaco por cultivares medias de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebre, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Siva Neto, Helio Francisco da; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos Omir; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV /UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: antoniocplebre8@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    In the search for sustainability a major concern relates to the sugarcane agroindustry waste, and their potential use as an energy source. In this sense, the objective was to identify the production and productivity of bagasse of different sugarcane cultivars, aimed at the completion of the cogeneration of electricity. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, the number of stems was counted in a meter, obtaining the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by calculating the estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the potential number of people who could benefit from the electricity that would be produced by the combustion of bagasse generated within a system of cogeneration of electricity put in practice by the sugar mills and ethanol distilleries. Cultivars with the best performance IAC91-1099 and CEC 15 who obtained the highest production and productivity of mulch increases the number of people benefited. Cultivars IAC94-4004-5000 and IAC95 showed intermediate results and the cultivars SP81-3250 and RB855536 obtained less satisfactory results. (author)

  13. Durability Studies on Concrete and Comparison with Partial Replacement of Cement with Rice Husk Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Someswara Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the feasibility of using the Rice Husk Ash (RHA and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA waste in concrete production as a partial replacement of cement. This present work deals with the effect on strength and mechanical properties of concrete using RHA and SCBA instead of cement. The cement has been replaced by rice husk ash, accordingly in the range of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by weight. Concrete mixtures with RHA, were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive strengths with the Conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for the test results of 7, 28, 60, 90 days for compressive strengths in normal water and in MgSO4 solution of 1%, 3% and 5%. Also the durability aspect for rice husk ash concrete for sulphate attack was tested. Similarly the above tests were also performed for SCBA. The result indicates that the RHA and SCBA improve concrete durability. Finally the test results for RHA and SCBA were compared. Key words: Rice Husk Ash, Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, Concrete, M35 grade concrete, cubes, cylinders, MgSO4, durability.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide combined with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and ethanol for the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano; Vanelli, Bruno Angelo; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2015-09-01

    The use of green solvents for the partial delignification of milled sugarcane bagasse (1mm particle size) and for the enhancement of its susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out for 2h using 40 g of supercritical carbon dioxide combined with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 15.8 g of ethanol. The effects of temperature (110-180 °C), pressure (195-250 bar) and IL-to-bagasse mass ratio (0:1-1:1) were investigated through a factorial design in which the response variables were the extent of delignification and both anhydroglucose and anhydroxylose contents in the pretreated materials. The highest delignification degree (41%) led to the best substrate for hydrolysis, giving a 70.7 wt% glucose yield after 12h using 5 wt% and Cellic CTec2® (Novozymes) at 10 mg g(-1) total solids. Hence, excellent substrates for hydrolysis were produced with a minimal IL requirement, which could be recovered by ethanol washing for its downstream processing and reuse. PMID:26056781

  15. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. PMID:26697775

  16. Efficient use of sugar cane bagasse by means of the separation of its component fractions in a new type of pneumatic classifier for polydisperse solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Alarcon, Guillermo A.; Perez, Luis E. Brossard [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Olivares Gomez, Edgardo; Cortez, Luis A. Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    This paper highlights the importance of pneumatic classification to improve the performance of any process using solid polydisperse materials. It is presented a physical model, based on which, it is proposed an installation with new characteristics for the separation of solid materials into three fractions, whose main part is a classification column. The fractions classified will be designated as: coarse, medium and fine. The classification column of the pneumatic installation allows establishing the appropriate flow regimes during the classification process. To evaluate the process there were defined the following indicators: the purity index, the classification efficiency and the degree of separation. These magnitudes are experimentally determined and serve as a measure of the percentage of separation and homogeneity of any of the three fractions mentioned before. The bagasse fractions can be obtained with definite particles size ranges that can improve the practical applications of bagasse in processes such as acid or enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol's obtaining, for combustion purposes and in general for classification of any solid polydisperse material of different size, shape and density. (author)

  17. Analysis of electric power cogeneration using sugar cane bagasse; Uma analise da cogeracao de energia eletrica usando bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Anna Cristina Barbosa Dias de

    1997-07-01

    Brazil impels its economy again. A development expected in 80 and 90 years it is real. This growth demands new technologies, new researches and bases that bear that growth. Electric power is in these bases, but Brazil is not ready for that. Electric power cogeneration possibility appears, using sugar cane bagasse. Alcohol and sugar plants have already that practice working with a low generation volume. With some investment this volume can be increased, adding about 10% to national energetic matrix. The aim of this work is to present a short time alternative for national electric matrix. It shows the energetic situation of the country, some experiences already implanted in some countries around the world and some options for equipment improvement used in alcohol and sugar plants. It is shown alternatives sources of electric power generation studied on Brazil, as well as the planning of National Energetic Program of ELETROBRAS. It analyses, in details, sugar cane bagasse use, which is used in Sao Paulo plants to generate electric power. Possible systems and troubles for its implantation in sugar and alcohol plants are discussed. (author)

  18. Comparison of second-generation processes for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to liquid biofuels in terms of energy efficiency, pinch point analysis and Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Process evaluation of thermochemical and biological routes for bagasse to fuels. • Pinch point analysis increases overall efficiencies by reducing utility consumption. • Advanced biological route increased efficiency and local environmental impacts. • Thermochemical routes have the highest efficiencies and low life cycle impacts. - Abstract: Three alternative processes for the production of liquid transportation biofuels from sugar cane bagasse were compared, on the perspective of energy efficiencies using process modelling, Process Environmental Assessments and Life Cycle Assessment. Bio-ethanol via two biological processes was considered, i.e. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (Process 1) and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (Process 2), in comparison to Gasification and Fischer Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic fuels (Process 3). The energy efficiency of each process scenario was maximised by pinch point analysis for heat integration. The more advanced bio-ethanol process was Process 2 and it had a higher energy efficiency at 42.3%. Heat integration was critical for the Process 3, whereby the energy efficiency was increased from 51.6% to 55.7%. For both the Process Environmental and Life Cycle Assessment, Process 3 had the least potential for detrimental environmental impacts, due to its relatively high energy efficiency. Process 2 had the greatest Process Environmental Impact due to the intensive use of processing chemicals. Regarding the Life Cycle Assessments, Process 1 was the most severe due to its low energy efficiency

  19. A strain of Meyerozyma guilliermondii isolated from sugarcane juice is able to grow and ferment pentoses in synthetic and bagasse hydrolysate media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Cristina; Tauk-Tornisielo, Sâmia Maria; Codato, Carolina Brito; Bastos, Reinaldo Gaspar; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2016-05-01

    The search for new microbial strains that are able to withstand inhibitors released from hemicellulosic hydrolysis and are also still able to convert sugars in ethanol/xylitol is highly desirable. A yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice and identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii was evaluated for the ability to grow and ferment pentoses in synthetic media and in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. The yeast grew in xylose, arabinose and glucose at the same rate at an initial medium pH of 5.5. At pH 4.5, the yeast grew more slowly in arabinose. There was no sugar exhaustion within 60 h. At higher xylose concentrations with a higher initial cell concentration, sugar was exhausted within 96 h at pH 4.5. An increase of 350 % in biomass was obtained in detoxified hydrolysates, whereas supplementation with 3 g/L yeast extract increased biomass production by approximately 40 %. Ethanol and xylitol were produced more significantly in supplemented hydrolysates regardless of detoxification. Xylose consumption was enhanced in supplemented hydrolysates and arabinose was consumed only when xylose and glucose were no longer available. Supplementation had a greater impact on ethanol yield and productivity than detoxification; however, the product yields obtained in the present study are still much lower when compared to other yeast species in bagasse hydrolysate. By the other hand, the fermentation of both xylose and arabinose and capability of withstanding inhibitors are important characteristics of the strain assayed. PMID:27038950

  20. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH. It was concentrated, detoxified, and supplemented with nutrients in different formulations to prepare the fermentation medium to the yeast evaluation performance. S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 (isolated from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest ecosystem was used in fermentations carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a rotator shaker at 30°C and 200 rpm for 72 h. The use of a fermentation medium composed of SBHH supplemented with 5 g/L ammonium sulfate, 3 g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L malt extract resulted in 0.38 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.19 g L.h of volumetric productivity after 48 h of incubation time.

  1. A 24.7-kDa copper-containing oxidase, secreted by Thermobifida fusca, significantly increasing the xylanase/cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Zhi-Shen; Cheepudom, Jatuporn; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Meng, Menghsiao

    2013-10-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soil bacterium belonging to Actinobacteria. It has been known for its capability to degrade plant cell wall polymers except lignin and pectin. To know whether it can produce enzymes to facilitate lignin degradation, the extracellular proteins bound to sugarcane bagasse were harvested and identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, a putative copper-containing polyphenol oxidase of 241 amino acids, encoded by the locus Tfu_1114, was thought to presumably play a role in lignin degradation. This protein (Tfu1114) was thus expressed in E. coli and characterized. Similarly to common laccases, Tfu1114 is able to catalyze the oxidation reaction of phenolic and nonphenolic lignin related compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and veratryl alcohol. More interestingly, it can significantly enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse by xylanase and cellulase. Tfu1114 is stable against heat, with a half-life of 4.7 h at 90 °C, and organic solvents. It is sensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and reducing agents but resistant to sodium azide, a potent inhibitor of laccases. Atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the ratio of copper to the protein monomer is 1, instead of 4, a feature of classical laccases. All these data suggest that Tfu1114 is a novel oxidase with laccase-like activity, potentially useful in biotechnology application. PMID:23377789

  2. Hierarchical structured carbon derived from bagasse wastes: A simple and efficient synthesis route and its improved electrochemical properties for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haobin; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Xiao, Yong; Cai, Yijin; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2016-01-01

    Bagasse-derived hierarchical structured carbon (BDHSC) with tunable porosity and improved electrochemical performance is prepared via simple and efficient hydrothermal carbonization combined with KOH activation. Experimental results show that sewage sludge acts as a cheap and efficient structure-directing agent to regulate the morphology, adjust the porosity, and thus improve the supercapacitive performance of BDHSC. The as-resulted BDHSC exhibits an interconnected framework with high specific surface area (2296 m2 g-1), high pore volume (1.34 cm3 g-1), and hierarchical porosity, which offer a more favorable pathway for electrolyte penetration and transportation. Compared to the product obtained from bagasse without sewage sludge, the unique interconnected BDHSC exhibits enhanced supercapacitive performances such as higher specific capacitance (320 F g-1), and better rate capability (capacitance retention over 70.8% at a high current density of 50 A g-1). Moreover, the BDHSC-based symmetric supercapacitor delivers a maximum energy density of over 20 Wh kg-1 at 182 W kg-1 and presents an excellent long-term cycling stability. The developed approach in the present work can be useful not only in production of a variety of novel hierarchical structured carbon with promising applications in high-performance energy storage devices, but also in high-value utilization of biomass wastes and high-ash-content sewage sludge.

  3. Valorization of an industrial organosolv-sugarcane bagasse lignin: Characterization and use as a matrix in biobased composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Elaine C; Megiatto, Jackson D; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain; Frollini, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the main focus was the characterization and application of the by-product lignin isolated through an industrial organosolv acid hydrolysis process from sugarcane bagasse, aiming at the production of bioethanol. The sugarcane lignin was characterized and used to prepare phenolic-type resins. The analysis confirmed that the industrial sugarcane lignin is of HGS type, with a high proportion of the less substituted aromatic ring p-hydroxyphenyl units, which favors further reaction with formaldehyde. The lignin-formaldehyde resins were used to produce biobased composites reinforced with different proportions of randomly distributed sisal fibers. The presence of lignin moieties in both the fiber and matrix increases their mutual affinity, as confirmed by SEM images, which showed good adhesion at the biocomposite fiber/matrix interface. This in turn allowed good load transference from the matrix to the fiber, leading to biobased composites with good impact strength (near 500 J m(-1) for a 40 wt% sisal fiber-reinforced composite). The study demonstrates that sugarcane bagasse lignin obtained from a bioethanol plant can be used without excessive purification in the preparation of lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced biobased composites displaying high mechanical properties. PMID:20589841

  4. Applying functional metagenomics to search for novel lignocellulosic enzymes in a microbial consortium derived from a thermophilic composting phase of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lívia Tavares; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Carneiro, Deisy Guimarães; de Souza, Robson Assis; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Dos Santos, Josenilda Carlos; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; da Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia Maria Lopes

    2016-09-01

    Environments where lignocellulosic biomass is naturally decomposed are sources for discovery of new hydrolytic enzymes that can reduce the high cost of enzymatic cocktails for second-generation ethanol production. Metagenomic analysis was applied to discover genes coding carbohydrate-depleting enzymes from a microbial laboratory subculture using a mix of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure in the thermophilic composting phase. From a fosmid library, 182 clones had the ability to hydrolyse carbohydrate. Sequencing of 30 fosmids resulted in 12 contigs encoding 34 putative carbohydrate-active enzymes belonging to 17 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families. One third of the putative proteins belong to the GH3 family, which includes β-glucosidase enzymes known to be important in the cellulose-deconstruction process but present with low activity in commercial enzyme preparations. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of seven selected proteins, including three β-glucosidases, showed low relatedness with protein sequences deposited in databases. These findings highlight microbial consortia obtained from a mixture of decomposing biomass residues, such as sugar cane bagasse and cow manure, as a rich resource of novel enzymes potentially useful in biotechnology for saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate. PMID:27350392

  5. 蔗渣蔗稍高值化利用重点发展方向探讨%Study on Development Direction of High Value Application of bagasses and Cane Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马步

    2013-01-01

      In this paper, high value application of the sugar industry by-product including bagasses and cane top was studied, and its’ development direction was discussed.%  文章对糖业副产物蔗渣蔗稍高值化利用和发展方向进行了探讨。

  6. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose;Aplicacao da radiacao de feixe de eletrons com pre-tratamento do bagaco da cana-de-acucar para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Vanessa Miguel

    2008-07-01

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  7. The adhesive effect on the properties of particleboards made from sugar cane bagasse generated in the distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Farinassi Mendes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the adhesive type and its different contents on sugar cane bagasse particleboards. The panels were produced using Urea-Formaldehyde (UF and Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF adhesives. Three adhesive contents were tested: 6, 9 and 12%. The boards were made by using an 8-minute press closing time, pressure of 40kgf/cm², and temperature of 160ºC for the UF adhesive and 180ºC for the PF adhesive. It was concluded that: The UF adhesive was statistically equal or better than PF adhesive considering all properties evaluated. The adhesive contents of 9 and 12% were statistically equal, but both were superior to 6% considering the physical properties. The mechanical properties did not present statistical differences, except for rupture modulus. The best panels were produced using UF at 9%, but they did not attend the norm CS 236-66 for mechanical properties, therefore it is necessary manipulations of the processing variables.O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do tipo de adesivo e de seus diferentes teores na produção de painéis aglomerados com bagaço de cana. Os painéis foram produzidos utilizando os adesivos Uréia-Formaldeido (UF e Fenol-Formaldeido (FF a 6, 9 e 12%. O ciclo de prensagem utilizado foi de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC para UF e 180ºC para FF, por 8 minutos. Concluiu-se que: O adesivo UF se mostrou estatisticamente igual ou superior a FF em todas as propriedades avaliadas. Para os teores de adesivo, nas propriedades físicas, os teores 9 e 12% se mostraram estatisticamente iguais, mas superiores a 6%; já nas propriedades mecânicas não houve diferença estatística, com exceção do módulo de ruptura. Os melhores painéis foram produzidos com UF e 9% de teor de adesivo, sendo que estes não atenderam a norma CS 236-66 para propriedades mecânicas, sendo necessárias manipulações nas variáveis de processamento.

  8. Implications of the new Brazilian electric sector model in the process of distributed generation using the sugar cane bagasse; Implicacoes do novo modelo do setor eletrico brasileiro no processo de geracao distribuida com a utilizacao do bagaco da cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola]. E-mail: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This articles study what are the main implications of the new electrical sector model as an alternative to improve the electric power generation by using the sugar cane bagasse in the process of cogeneration.

  9. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  10. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. PMID:26642223

  11. Citric acid production by solid-state fermentation on a semi-pilot scale using different percentages of treated cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Prado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid is commercailly important product used in several industrial processes. Solid-state fermentation (SSF has become an alternative method for citric acid production using agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse (CB. Use of CB as substrate can avoid the environmental problems caused by its disposal in the environment. The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different percentages of gelatinized starch in CB on production of citric acid by SSF in horizontal drum and tray-type bioreactors. Gelatinization was used in order to make the starch structure more susceptible to consumption by the fungus. The best results (26.9 g/100g of dry CB were obtained in horizontal drum bioreactor using 100% gelatinized CB, although the tray-type bioreactor offers advantages and shows promise for large-scale citric acid production in terms of processing costs.

  12. The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

  13. Comparison of start-up strategies and process performance during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake co-digested with bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Nikolausz, Marcell; Radetski, Claudemir M; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake and the option of co-digestion with bagasse were investigated in a semi-continuous feeding regime to assess the main parameters used for large-scale process designing. Moreover, fresh cattle manure was considered as alternative inoculum for the start-up of biogas reactors in cases where digestate from a biogas plant would not be available in remote rural areas. Experiments were carried out in 6 lab-scale semi-continuous stirred-tank reactors at mesophilic conditions (38±1°C) while the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. Fresh cattle manure demonstrated to be appropriate for the start-up process. However, an acclimation period was required due to the high initial volatile fatty acids concentration (8.5gL(-1)). Regardless the mono-digestion of filter cake presented 50% higher biogas yield (480mLgVS(-1)) than co-digestion with bagasse (320mLgVS(-1)) during steady state conditions. A large-scale co-digestion system would produce 58% more biogas (1008m(3)h(-1)) than mono-digestion of filter cake (634m(3)h(-1)) due to its higher biomass availability for biogas conversion. Considering that the biogas production rate was the technical parameter that displayed the most relevant differences between the analyzed substrate options (0.99-1.45m(3)biogasm(3)d(-1)). The decision of which substrate option should be implemented in practice would be mainly driven by the available construction techniques, since economically efficient tanks could compensate the lower biogas production rate of co-digestion option. PMID:26584558

  14. Enhanced isopropanol and n-butanol production by supplying exogenous acetic acid via co-culturing two clostridium strains from cassava bagasse hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Qu, Chunyun; Huang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yukai; Liao, Zhengping; Wang, Jufang

    2016-07-01

    The focus of this study was to produce isopropanol and butanol (IB) from dilute sulfuric acid treated cassava bagasse hydrolysate (SACBH), and improve IB production by co-culturing Clostridium beijerinckii (C. beijerinckii) with Clostridium tyrobutyricum (C. tyrobutyricum) in an immobilized-cell fermentation system. Concentrated SACBH could be converted to solvents efficiently by immobilized pure culture of C. beijerinckii. Considerable solvent concentrations of 6.19 g/L isopropanol and 12.32 g/L butanol were obtained from batch fermentation, and the total solvent yield and volumetric productivity were 0.42 g/g and 0.30 g/L/h, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of isopropanol and butanol increased to 7.63 and 13.26 g/L, respectively, under the immobilized co-culture conditions when concentrated SACBH was used as the carbon source. The concentrations of isopropanol and butanol from the immobilized co-culture fermentation were, respectively, 42.62 and 25.45 % higher than the production resulting from pure culture fermentation. The total solvent yield and volumetric productivity increased to 0.51 g/g and 0.44 g/L/h when co-culture conditions were utilized. Our results indicated that SACBH could be used as an economically favorable carbon source or substrate for IB production using immobilized fermentation. Additionally, IB production could be significantly improved by co-culture immobilization, which provides extracellular acetic acid to C. beijerinckii from C. tyrobutyricum. This study provided a technically feasible and cost-efficient way for IB production using cassava bagasse, which may be suitable for industrial solvent production. PMID:27116556

  15. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part 1: physical characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte 1: caracteristicas fisicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (UO/CEEFE), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Fine materials or particles are often encountered in many industrial processes and in our daily life. Some examples are: salt or sugar; sand; cleaning products; fertilizer; cement; calcium hydroxide; some residues of energy biomass, for instance, sugar cane bagasse, straw of sugar cane, saw dust, straw of rice, and even, other types of particulates as aerosols, and residual ash from combustion processes of conventional solids. During the preparation and handling of these materials and also for design and optimization of some multiphase processes and equipment associated with them, as classifying, transport and pneumatic drying, and thermo chemical conversion systems, in general, it is indispensable knowing the principal physical and fluid dynamic characteristics or properties, which not always are available or well established. In this paper the Ergun Method is employed, which is based on theoretical equations established for a fixed bed of porous particles when it is crossed by a gas flow. From this expression and measurements of pressure loss for a given flow of gas crossing the bed at different heights, it is possible to determine some physical characteristics, as bulk density, real density, porosity, sphericity, and specific surface of the bed particles. The technique used for obtaining experimental data is simple but rigorous and it is possible to reproduce these data. Were tested several fractions of bagasse obtained by the conventional sieving process. Finally it was statistically processed all experimental results obtaining the corresponding mathematical models for the desired properties as a function of the mean diameter of the particles. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  16. Production of spores of Trichoderma harzianum on sugar cane molasses and bagasse pith in solid state fermentation for biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rodríguez-León

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of spores from Trichoderma harzianum No 53 using sugar cane bagasse pith as solid matrix and sugar cane molasses as carbon and energy source. Different nitrogen sources such as urea, (NH42SO4 , NH4H2PO4 and (NH42HPO4 were added in the media to test their effect on spores production. Among these, urea was found most useful that resulted high no of spores (1x10(9/gDM. The influence of temperature and initial moisture of the substrate was studied through a 2² experimental plan design. No statistical differences were found within the range of 30-35ºC and 60-70% for temperature and moisture respectively. The biotechnological parameters of the process were derived from the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR pattern, which corresponded to the order of 10(9spores/g moist material. The specific growth rate, maintenance coefficient and the yield based on O2 consumption were 0.108 h-1, 0.001 g.O2/g.biomass.h and 2.7 g biomass/g O2 consumed, respectively.Esporos de Tricoderma harzianum Nº 53 foram produzidos por fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando bagaço de cana como suporte e melaço de cana como fonte de carbono. Diferentes fontes de nitrogênio foram testadas (uréia, (NH42 SO4 , NH4H2PO4 e (NH42HPO4 na produção de esporos. As mais elevadas concentrações de esporos (10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido foram obtidas utilizando a uréia como fonte de nitrogênio. O efeito da temperatura e umidade inicial foram estudadas através da utilização da planificação experimental utilizando um modelo 2². Não foi encontrada diferença estatística na produção de esporos na faixa de temperatura compreendida entre 30-35 ° C e umidade inicial de 60-70%. Os parâmetros biotecnológicos foram determinados através da taxa de oxigênio consumido (OUR correspondente a uma produção de 10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido. A taxa de crescimento especifico, coeficiente de manutenção e rendimento foram

  17. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide; Preparacao e caracterizacao de fibras de bagaco de cana modificadas com nanoparticulas de oxido de zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H., E-mail: kcccarvalho@hotmail.com.b [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia(FEG)

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  18. Hot-water Extraction of Hemicelluloses by Microwave Heating: A Study of Sugarcane Bagasse and Sawmill Shavings of Norway Spruce and Scots Pine as Raw Materials for Hemicellulose Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbrandsen, Tore Aarhus

    2012-01-01

    In light of the increasing focus on sustainability and bio-mass as feedstock for energy and chemicals, extraction of hemicelluloses from different kinds of lignocellulosic materials has received much attention. This thesis has focused on the use of microwave heating in hemicellulose hot water extraction of sugarcane bagasse and softwood sawmill shavings. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and extraction temperature on yields and degree of polymerization in hemicellulos...

  19. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources; El compostaje como tecnologIa para el tratamiento de residuos: compostaje de bagazo de sorgo dulce con diferentes fuentes nitrogenadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs.

  20. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources; El compostaje como tecnologia para el tratamiento de residuos: compostaje de bagazo de sorgo dulce con diferentes fuentes nitrogenadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to study aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the proteic synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, in industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37 degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing stillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO{sub 3} as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources.

  1. Inyección de aire secundario caliente en calderas de vapor bagaceras y su influencia en el rendimiento térmico Injection of heated secondary air in steam bagasse boilers and its influence on thermal efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como alternativa para aumentar la eficiencia térmica de calderas bagaceras productoras de vapor, se evalúa la inyección de aire secundario al hogar, previamente calentado. Además, se reúne información sobre la combustión y los factores que influyen en dicho fenómeno. Se calculó el rendimiento térmico en una caldera bagacera con inyección de aire secundario frío, mediante el empleo de balances de masa y energía con datos de ensayos experimentales. Se planteó luego un modelo teórico para el caso de calentar todo este aire secundario, y se determinó el nuevo rendimiento térmico. Finalmente se realizó un análisis técnico-económico para evaluar la rentabilidad del uso de esta tecnología, teniendo en cuenta el ahorro de bagazo y su equivalente en gas natural. Para el caso analizado, los resultados mostraron: aumento del rendimiento térmico de la caldera (1,62 puntos; mejora del índice de generación de vapor (2,27%; reducción del consumo de bagazo (2,45%; aceptable periodo de repago de la inversión (114 días de zafra.Previously heated secondary air injection is evaluated as an alternative to increase thermal efficiency of bagasse steam boilers. Aspects regarding the combustion process and the factors affecting it are also described. Tests were made in a bagasse boiler of a sugar mill. Thermal efficiency of the bagasse boiler with cold secondary air injection was determined by solving mass and energy balances. A new thermal efficiency for the case in which all secondary air is pre-heated with hot gases was determined afterwards. Finally, a technical-economic analysis was made to evaluate the yield of this technology, taking into account bagasse saving and its equivalent in natural gas. For the analyzed case, the results showed: an increase in the thermal efficiency of the boiler (1,62 points; a higher steam production index (2,27%; a reduction in bagasse consumption (2,45%; an acceptable payback period of the investment (114

  2. Modelación del secado neumático vortiginoso del bagazo de la caña de azúcar//Modulation of sugar cane bagasse pneumatic drying in a vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio F. Bombino-Matos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en consideración los estudios realizados sobre la modelación del movimiento vortiginoso de partículas de bagazo, se realizó el estudio del secado neumático de esta importante biomasa teniendo en cuenta la transferencia de calor y de masa. Se modeló el proceso de secado a través de las ecuacionesfundamentales que describen la cinética del mismo y se compararon los resultados obtenidos con resultados reportados en la literatura especializada sobre mediciones de la variación del contenido de humedad en otros tipos de secadores neumáticos de bagazo para iguales condiciones de operación. Esta modelación permitió realizar simulaciones de este proceso las cuales arrojaron resultados aceptables en cuanto a los valores de disminución del contenido de humedad del bagazo lo que permitirá continuar profundizando en el desarrollo de próximos estudios sobre el tema ya que se evidencia que por esta vía es posible disminuir las dimensiones de los secadores de bagazo.Palabras claves: secado neumático vortiginoso, secado de bagazo, modelación matemática.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractTaking in account the studies carried out about the vortex movement of bagasse particles, the study of pneumatic drying of this important biomass was carried out considering the heat and mass transfer. The drying process was modeled through the fundamentals equations which describe the kinetic of it and theobtained results were compared with results reported in the specialized literature on drying measurements in others kinds of bagasse pneumatics dryers under the same conditions of operation. This modulation permitted to made simulations of this process which produced acceptable results about the decrease humidity values of bagasse and it will permit to continue in the development of next studies about this topic because it is evident that it is possible to reduce bagasse dryer dimensions.Key words

  3. TG-FTIR联用研究半纤维素的热裂解特性%Characteristics and kinetics of sugarcana bagasse hemicellulose pyrolysis by TG-FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭云云; 武书彬

    2009-01-01

    , The chemical structure of hemicellulose isolated from sugarcane bagasse was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and ion chromatography. The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of hemicellulose at different heating rates were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled with Fourier transform infared spectromotry (FTIR). Results show that sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose are composed mainly of L-arabino-D-xylans with minor quantities of galactose, glucose, glucuronic acid and glacuronic acid, which is a typical structure of straw hemicellulose. The pyrolysis process of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose can be divided into four stages, and the major reaction stage takes place between 200 to 315℃ with a shoulder-shaped peak at about 230℃. The pyrolysis remnants of coke have a higher proportion about 20% at 700℃. The pyrolysis kinetics can be simplified as a first-order reaction and the activation energies at different stages are 118 kJ/mol, 50 kJ/mol, 144 kJ/mol and 34 kJ/mol, respectively. During the hemicellulose pyrolysis process, the free water released out firstly, followed by the depolymerization and dehydration. The fission of glucosidic bond and carbon-carbon bond produce hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acids etc.,which may decompose further into CO2, CO and other gases. FTIR analysis showed that the gaseous products are mainly vapor, CO2, CO, CH4 and other small-molecule compounds.%利用FT-IR、离子色谱、1H-NMR及13C NMR等手段对蔗渣半纤维素的化学结构进行了表征,并利用热重-傅里叶红外光谱(TG-FTIR)联用技术对蔗渣半纤维素在不同的升温速率下的热失重行为进行了研究.结果表明,蔗渣半纤维素主要由大量的阿拉伯糖木聚糖组成,此外还含有葡萄糖、半乳糖及葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖醛酸,具有草类原料中典型的半纤维素结构.蔗渣半纤维素的主要热失重区间为200~315℃,并在230℃左右出现一个肩状峰,在700℃时焦

  4. Relation between citric acid production by solid-state fermentation from cassava bagasse and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in semi-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávera Camargo Prado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the relation between citric acid production and respiration of Aspergillus niger LPB 21 in solid-state fermentation of cassava bagasse. The experiments were carried out in horizontal drum bioreactor coupled with a gas chromatography system. Fermentation was conduced for 144 h with initial substrate moisture of 60% using heat-treated cassava bagasse as sole carbon source. The exhausted air from the bioreactor was analyzed for the monitoring of CO2 produced and O2 consumed in order to estimate the biomass biosynthesis by the fungal culture. The metabolic activity of A. niger growth was associated to citric acid production. The system using FERSOL software determined 4.372 g of biomass/g of consumed O2. Estimated and analytically determined biomass values followed the same pattern showing that the applied mathematical model was adapted.Este estudo permitiu verificar a relação ente a produção de ácido cítrico e a respiração do Aspergillus niger LPB 21 na fermentação no estado sólido do bagaço de mandioca. Os experimentos foram realizados em biorreator tipo tambor horizontal acoplado com um sistema de cromatografia gasosa. A fermentação foi conduzida durante 144 h com 60% de umidade inicial do substrato usando bagaço de mandioca termicamente tratado como única fonte de carbono. O ar de saída do biorreator foi analisado para monitorar a produção de CO2 e o consumo de O2 com o objetivo de estimar a biomassa sintetizada pelo fungo. A atividade metabólica do crescimento do Aspergillus niger está associada à produção de ácido cítrico. Usando o software FERSOL, o sistema determinou uma biomassa de 4.372 g de biomassa/g de O2 consumido. Os valores da biomassa estimada e da determinada analiticamente seguiram a mesma tendência mostrando que o modelo matemático aplicado foi adaptado.

  5. Síntese de nanotubos de carbono a partir do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A tradicional produção de açúcar, associada à crescente produção de etanol, faz da indústria sucroalcooleira um dos principais segmentos da economia brasileira. As indústrias brasileiras de açúcar e álcool processaram cerca de 630 milhões de toneladas de cana em 2009, gerando, aproximadamente, 142 milhões de toneladas de bagaço. Este trabalho apresenta uma possibilidade de destinação para o bagaço da cana através da queima controlada associada à síntese de nanotubos de carbono (CNTs, materiais que possuem inúmeras possibilidades de aplicações tecnológicas devido as suas excepcionais propriedades. Foi utilizado o processo de pirólise a 1000ºC associado a um sistema catalisador, visando à recuperação dos gases gerados como matéria-prima para a síntese dos CNTs. As emissões gasosas foram analisadas por cromatografia e os materiais produzidos foram caracterizados com o emprego de MEV, MET, TGA e espectroscopia Raman. Os resultados mostraram que o uso do catalisador resultou na diminuição das emissões gasosas. Nanotubos de carbono com comprimentos de 10 a 40 µm e diâmetros entre 20 e 50 nm foram produzidos.The traditional sugar production associated with the growing ethanol production makes the sugarcane industry one of the main segments of the Brazilian economy; together the Brazilian industries of sugar and ethanol processed about 630 million tons of sugarcane in 2009, which generated approximately 142 million tons of bagasse. This work presents an economically and environmentally viable solution for the bagasse disposal through the controlled burn associated with the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, materials that have a wide range of potential technological applications due to its exceptional properties. The pyrolysis process at 1000°C associated with a catalyst system were used to recover the generated gases as raw material for the synthesis of CNTs. Gaseous emissions were analyzed by chromatography and

  6. Low cost CaCl₂ pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhancement of textile dyes adsorption and subsequent biodegradation of adsorbed dyes under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Lade, Harshad S; Patil, Swapnil M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-03-01

    Pretreatments to sugarcane bagasse (SCB) such as CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling showed 91%, 46%, 47%, 42% and 56% adsorption of Solvent Red 5B (SR5B); 92%, 57%, 58%, 56% and 68% adsorption of simulated dyes mixture (SDM), and 86%, 45%, 49%, 44% and 56% adsorption of a real textile effluent (RTE), respectively. However, the untreated SCB showed 32%, 38% and 30% adsorption of SR5B, SDM and RTE, respectively. Adsorption of SR5B on CaCl2 pretreated SCB follows pseudo-second order kinetics. SEM and FTIR analysis reveals the delignification of CaCl2 pretreated SCB. SR5B, SDM and RTE adsorbed on CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling pretreated SCB were decolorized under solid state fermentation using isolated Providencia staurti strain EbtSPG. Tray bioreactor study showed 86% American Dye Manufacturers Institute (ADMI) removal of RTE in 72h. Biodegradation of adsorbed SR5B was confirmed using FTIR, HPLC and HPTLC. PMID:23411459

  7. Successive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse in a packed bed flow-through column reactor aiming to support biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Hilares, R; Reséndiz, A L; Martínez, R T; Silva, S S; Santos, J C

    2016-03-01

    A packed bed flow-through column reactor (PBFTCR) was used for pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Alkaline pretreatment was performed at 70°C for 4h with fresh 0.3M NaOH solution or with liquor recycled from a previous pretreatment batch. Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124 was used for fermentation of sugars released after enzymatic hydrolysis (20FPUg(-1) of dry SCB). The highest results for lignin removal were 61% and 52%, respectively, observed when using fresh NaOH or the first reuse of the liquor. About 50% of cellulosic and 57% of hemicellulosic fractions of pretreated SCBs were enzymatically hydrolyzed and the maximum ethanol production was 23.4gL(-1) (ethanol yield of 0.4gpgs(-1)), with near complete consumption of both pentoses and hexoses present in the hydrolysate during the fermentation. PBFTCR as a new alternative for SCB-biorefineries is presented, mainly considering its simple configuration and efficiency for operating with a high solid:liquid ratio. PMID:26720138

  8. Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived solid acid catalysts for rapid esterification of fatty acids and moisture-assisted transesterification of oils under pseudo-infinite methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

    2014-04-01

    The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil. PMID:24561631

  9. Preliminary study of the influence of CO2 extraction conditions on the ester, aldehyde, ketone and hydrocarbon content of grape bagasses from jam production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the chemical characteristics of the essential oil obtained from CO2 extraction of grape bagasses in the production of jam. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale unit, where the effect of temperature (290 and 303 K and pressure (15 and 25 Mpa was investigated in terms of liquid yield and chemical composition of the extracts. The CO2 mass flow rate was kept within a range of 2.5 to 3.0 g/min. The instrumental analysis was performed by gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The extraction conditions investigated in this work had no significant influence on the mass of essencial oil extracted. The main compounds identified in the extracts by the GC-MS spectra library (match quality higher tan 90% were octadecane, dihydroxy ergostene-dione and phenylethyl n-decanoate when the temperature was increased from 290 to 303 K. Heptanal, ethyl ester of decosonoic acid and hexatriacontane were the individual compounds with the greatest increase in the chromatographic peak area when the pressure was increased from 15 to 25 Mpa. The most important class of compounds were hydrocarbons at 303 K and 15 MPa and were ketones and aldehydes at 25 Mpa and 290 K.

  10. Changes in microbial community structure in two anaerobic systems to treat bagasse spraying wastewater with and without addition of molasses alcohol wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peihong; Zhang, Junya; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Chengjian; Tang, Xianlai; Li, Junfang; Zhang, Min; Wu, Bo

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the microbial community and structure in the internal circulation (IC) reactors that treat wastewater from bagasse spraying, with (reactor B) and without (reactor A) addition of molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW). The V3 regions in the 16S rRNA of bacteria were sequenced using illumina sequencing to characterize the microbial community structures. The results showed that there were approximately 34.8% more microorganisms were reduced, while the proportions of the three most predominant bacterial populations especially some sulfate-reducing bacteria increased in reactor B. The archaeal community composition was measured by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis and sequencing some clones from the 16S rRNA gene library. The results showed that numerous, mostly uncharacterized, archaeal genera are present in reactors A and B; the genus Methanomethylovorans was only detected in the samples that received MAW. This study demonstrated the significant effect of MAW on microbial communities in the wastewater treatment bioreactor. PMID:23370216

  11. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  12. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings

  13. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Silvio R., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Souza, Agda E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira — FEIS, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira – SP (Brazil); Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja — IETCC, CSIC, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  14. Caracterização da farinha de bagaço de jabuticaba e propriedades funcionais dos extrusados Characterization of jaboticaba bagasse flour and functional properties of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2006-12-01

    fermentado a 240 rpm e temperaturas de 130 e 100 °C, respectivamente. A farinha de bagaço de jabuticaba fermentado misturada com farinha de arroz polido poderá ser usada como matéria-prima para a produção de farinhas pré-gelatinizadas, se as circunstâncias operacionais apropriadas forem aplicadas.The physical properties of fermented Jaboticaba bagasse flour and some functional properties (expansion index and water solubility index of the extrudates obtained from mixtures of rice and Jaboticaba bagasse flour were studied, which varied from 11.59 to 25.00% (bagasse/rice. The fermented Jaboticaba bagasse flour analyzed the particle size distribution, color, flavor and chemical composition. Some of these properties were compared with the non-fermented Jaboticaba bagasse and white rice. A single screw extruder with a compression rate of 1:3 fitted with a round die of 3 mm diameter was used at a variable screw speed (65.9 to 234.1 rpm and feed rate at 5 kg/h. The temperature of the extruder heating zones 1 and 2 were kept constant at 50 and 100 °C, respectively and zone 3 varied from 99.54 to 200.46 °C. Surface response methodology was used to show the effect of bagasse concentration and the parameters (temperature and screw speed. The results showed that fermented jaboticaba bagasse is a good source of fiber, proteins and minerals and is made up of fine particles with the aroma of the fruit and slight salty bitter taste. Radial expansion increased as the screw speed increased and decreased as the jaboticaba bagasse flour increased showing a quadratic effect as the temperature increased. Water solubility index increased as the screw speed increased and reduced as the temperature decreased. High expansion index (3.26 and water solubility (17.55% were reached for the formulation with 10% fermented jaboticaba bagasse at 240 rpm screw speed and at 130 and 100 °C temperatures, respectively. Fermented jaboticaba bagasse flour can be incorporated into rice flour to produce pre

  15. Plasmidic Expression of nemA and yafC* Increased Resistance of Ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180 to Nonvolatile Side Products from Dilute Acid Treatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Artificial Hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiqin; Zheng, Huabao; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli SL100 was previously isolated from ethanologenic LY180 after sequential transfers in AM1 medium containing a dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse and was used as a source of resistance genes. Many genes that affect tolerance to furfural, the most abundant inhibitor, have been described previously. To identify genes associated with inhibitors other than furfural, plasmid clones were selected in an artificial hydrolysate that had been treated with a vacuum to remove furfural. Two new resistance genes were discovered from Sau3A1 libraries of SL100 genomic DNA: nemA (N-ethylmaleimide reductase) and a putative regulatory gene containing a mutation in the coding region, yafC*. The presence of these mutations in SL100 was confirmed by sequencing. A single mutation was found in the upstream regulatory region of nemR (nemRA operon) in SL100. This mutation increased nemA activity 20-fold over that of the parent organism (LY180) in AM1 medium without hydrolysate and increased nemA mRNA levels >200-fold. Addition of hydrolysates induced nemA expression (mRNA and activity), in agreement with transcriptional control. NemA activity was stable in cell extracts (9 h, 37°C), eliminating a role for proteinase in regulation. LY180 with a plasmid expressing nemA or yafC* was more resistant to a vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and to a vacuum-treated artificial hydrolysate than LY180 with an empty-vector control. Neither gene affected furfural tolerance. The vacuum-treated hydrolysates inhibited the reduction of N-ethylmaleimide by NemA while also serving as substrates. Expression of the nemA or yafC* plasmid in LY180 doubled the rate of ethanol production from the vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. PMID:26826228

  16. Bioethanol production by cashew apple bagasse (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparison of acid diluted and alkali pre-treatments; Producao de bioetanol a partir da fibra do caju (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparacao entre o pre-tratamento acido e alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa H.S.; Pinheiro, Alvaro D.T.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Maria V.P.; Macedo, Gorete R. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness on the negative impact resulting from utilization of fossil fuels, and in the search for renewable energy sources, biofuels' interest as Bioethanol has rapidly expanded recently. In this context, lignocellulosic compounds have become center of attention as an abundant and economic alternative source of carbohydrates for ethanol production. In this study, cashew's bagasse acid hydrolysis was initially studied for glucose synthesis and its fermentation towards ethanol production. Sulfuric acid concentration, solids concentration and time were some of the factors evaluated. The highest glucose productivity value (162,9 mg.g de bagaco{sup -1}) , was obtained for 0,6 mol.L{sup -1} of sulfuric acid in an autoclave at 121 deg C for 15 min. For the fermentation of the hydrolyzed material by S. cerevisiae containing 16 {+-} 2,0 g.L{sup -1} of glucose metabolic, the yield and productivity obtained were 0,63 g-g glucose{sup -1} and 1,43 g.L{sup -1}h{sup -1} respectively. Ethanol concentration after 6 h of fermentation of this hydrolyzed was 11 g.L{sup -1}. In the best conditions of acid hydrolysis, a second pre-treatment with diluted sulfuric acid was performed to evaluate availability of hemicelluloses at 160 deg C and 180 deg C. For comparative purposes, alkali pre-treatment was evaluated under the conditions of 0,6 mol.L{sup -1}, 30% p/v of bagasse thermically treated at 121 deg C for 15 minutes. However, concentration of sugars was not sufficient for fermentation. Also, nitrogen supplementation of the hydrolyzed fraction did not influence significantly ethanol production. The results demonstrate that the hydrolyzed fraction from the acid pre-treatment of cashew's bagasse could be utilized for ethanol production. (author)

  17. Use of rum and sugar cane bagasse in the removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil; Uso de cachaza y bagazo de cana de azucar en la remocion de hidrocarburos en suelo contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using two different types of agricultural residues, filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith, as amendment and bulking agents. To test these approaches, a microcosms test was applied to soil contaminated with 14 300 mg kg-1 of TPH and 23.14 mg kg-1 of PAH. The soil treatments consisted of the following ratios of soil to residue (%/%): 100:0, 98:2, 98:4 and 98:6, and macronutrient addition was based on a carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (C:N:P, %/ % / %) of 100:10:1. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith treatments, in which the TPH removal efficiency was 60.1% using sugar cane bagasse pith and 51.4% with filter cake mud. A filter cake mud ratio of 96:4 produced the highest observed removal efficiency of PAH (43%), and a sugarcane bagasse pith ratio of 98:2 resulted in a PAH removal efficiency of 41%. Filter cake mud treatment could be an alternative for use in the bioremediation process of soils polluted with hydrocarbons. [Spanish] El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la eficiencia de remocion de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos (HAP) y de hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP) de un suelo contaminado con petroleo crudo, utilizando dos tipos de residuos agroindustriales, la cachaza y el bagazo de cana de azucar como enmiendas y texturizante. Para ello, se realizaron pruebas en microcosmos de cultivos solidos para la biorremediacion de un suelo contaminado con 14300 mg kg-1 de HTP y 23.14 mg kg-1 de HAP. Las relaciones suelo: residuo utilizadas en las pruebas fueron las siguientes (%): 100:0, 98:2, 96:4 y 94:6, y la adicion de macronutrimentos con base en la relacion carbono/nitrogeno/fosforo (%%%) de 100:10:1. El analisis estadistico indico que hay diferencias

  18. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future. PMID:26906117

  19. Effects of exogenous enzymes, Lactobacillus acidophilus or their combination on feed performance response and carcass characteristics of rabbits fed sugarcane bagasse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla A Abdel-Aziz; Mounir El-Adawy; Maria A Mariezcurrena-Berasain; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Jaime Olivares-Prez; Ahmed E Kholif; Borhami E Borhami

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacil us acidophilus (LAC), exogenous enzymes of ZAD® (exogenous enzyme preparation) or their combination on feed conversion, and dressing of rabbits fed different treatments of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Five rations were al otted randomly to ifve groups of New-Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (n=10) with initial live body weight of (838±42.4) g and 5 weeks of age. Rabbits were fed on diets with different sources of ifber as fol ows, (i) a control diet composed of 100%berseem hay and 0%SCB, (i ) 50%berseem hay and 50%untreated SCB (USCB), (i i) 50%berseem hay and 50%SCB treated with L. acidophilus (LAC), (iv) 50%berseem hay and 50%SCB treated with ZAD® (ZAD), and (v) 50%berseem hay and 50%SCB treated with a combination of LAC+ZAD® (LZ). Treatments of SCB with L. acidophilus, ZAD® and LAC+ZAD® had the highest feed conversion ratio than both USCB and control. The dressing per-centage of rabbits that fed the LAC and LZ diets was higher (P<0.05) compared with that in the other groups. Performance index (PI) for LAC group was improved (P<0.05) compared to that for the other groups;however, PI for USCB group was the lowest (P<0.05). It could be concluded that treating SCB with L. acidophilus, exogenous enzymes of ZAD® or their combi-nation improved feed conversion and performance with more positive effects with L. acidophilus than the other treatments.

  20. Effect of protein and energy levels in sweet sorghum bagasse leaf residue-based diets on the performance of growing Deccani lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Khan, Arif Ali; Mallampalli, Saibutcha Rao; Devulapalli, Ravi; Kodukula, Prasad; Blümmel, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Sweet sorghum bagasse with leaf residue (SSBLR) based complete diets with high or low protein and high- or low-energy levels were evaluated in a 60-day growth trial using growing sheep. Twenty-eight Deccani ram lambs were divided into four groups (16.0 ± 0.59 kg) of seven each and fed low-protein high-/low-energy and high-protein high-/low-energy diets ad lib. Average daily gain (g; P < 0.05) and feed efficiency (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in lambs fed high energy than those with low-energy diets, and cost per kg gain ($) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in low protein than high-protein diets. Dry matter intake (DMI) (g/day) was not significantly affected either by protein or energy level in the diet, but dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), protein, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities were higher significantly (P < 0.01) in high protein/energy diets than low protein/energy diets. Crude protein (CP) intake (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in lambs fed high protein than low-protein diets. However, N balance (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in lambs fed low protein than high-protein diets. It is concluded that feeding of SSBLR-based diet with low protein (CP 12.9 %) and high energy (9.4 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/kg DM) was recommended for better performance, nitrogen retention, and returns from growing Deccani ram lambs. PMID:25757879

  1. Screening of Yeasts for Selection of Potential Strains and Their Utilization for In Situ Microbial Detoxification (ISMD) of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luma C S R; Chandel, Anuj K; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Gaikwad, Swapnil C; Rai, Mahendra; da Silva, Silvio S

    2016-06-01

    Many toxic compounds are produced and released in the hemicellulosic hydrolyzates during the acid pretreatment step, which are required for the disruption of the lignocelluloses matrix and sugars release. The conventional methods of detoxification i.e. overliming, activated charcoal, ion exchange or even membrane-based separations have the limitations in removal of these toxic inhibitors in fermentation process. Hence, it is imperative to explore biological methods to overcome the inhibitors by minimizing the filtration steps, sugar loss and chemical additions. In the present study we screened sixty-four strains of yeasts to select potential strains for detoxification of furfural, acetic acid, ferulic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) as carbon and energy source. Among these strains Pichia occidentalis M1, Y1'a, Y1'b and Y3' showed a significant decrease in the toxic compounds but we selected two best yeast strains i.e. P. occidentalis Y1'a and P. occidentalis M1 for the further experiments with an aim to remove the fermentation inhibitors. The yeasts P. occidentalis Y1'a and P. occidentalis M1 were grown aerobically in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate under submerged cultivation. For each yeast, a 2(2) full factorial design was performed considering the variables-pH (4.0 or 5.0) and agitation rate (100 or 300 rpm), and the percentage removal of HMF, furfural, acetic acid and phenols from hemicellulosic hydrolysates were responsive variables. After 96 h of biological treatment, P. occidentalis M1 and P. occidentalis Y1'a showed 42.89 and 46.04 % cumulative removal of inhibitors, respectively. PMID:27570309

  2. Efficient open fermentative production of polymer-grade L-lactate from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by thermotolerant Bacillus sp. strain P38.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Peng

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is one of the top 30 potential building-block chemicals from biomass, of which the most extensive use is in the polymerization of lactic acid to poly-lactic-acid (PLA. To reduce the cost of PLA, the search for cheap raw materials and low-cost process for lactic acid production is highly desired. In this study, the final titer of produced L-lactic acid reached a concentration of 185 g·L(-1 with a volumetric productivity of 1.93 g·L(-1·h(-1 by using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the sole carbon source simultaneously with cottonseed meal as cheap nitrogen sources under the open fed-batch fermentation process. Furthermore, a lactic acid yield of 0.99 g per g of total reducing sugars was obtained, which is very close to the theoretical value (1.0 g g(-1. No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth, and thereafter resulted in an optical purity of 100%, which exceeds the requirement of lactate polymerization process. To our knowledge, this is the best performance of fermentation on polymer-grade L-lactic acid production totally using lignocellulosic sources. The high levels of optically pure L-lactic acid produced, combined with the ease of handling and low costs associated with the open fermentation strategy, indicated the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. P38 could be an excellent candidate strain with great industrial potential for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from various cellulosic biomasses.

  3. Prospective evaluation of biorefinery routes in Brazil, from sugar cane bagasse as a basic feedstock; Avaliacao prospectiva das rotas de biorefinaria no Brasil, a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como materia-prima basica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Romulo Neves

    2009-12-15

    Bio refineries have been identified either as an alternative to oil refineries or as a supplement. This work seeks to understand these plants applied to the Brazilian case, which has in the alcohol-sugar sector a large number of lignocellulose material (sugar-cane bagasse) produced in large scale as a residue of the process of sugar and alcohol production. In this case, technological routes that are able to use this product as a basic feedstock for the industrial process will be described. Therefore, a model based on a set of economical and technological variables is applied to the routes. In this model, different profiles of bio refinery plants are described and compared with different hypothetical regions, which are characterized by a combination of both access to different amounts of raw material and different types of consumers. Overall, this work describes a model of both location and competition of the main bio refinery technological routes in Brazil that have the sugar-cane bagasse as the basic raw material. (author)

  4. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6 cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5 in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating

  5. Rendimiento térmico de calderas bagaceras modernas en Tucumán, R. Argentina Thermal efficiency of modern bagasse boilers in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron tres calderas de vapor modernas instaladas en ingenios azucareros de Tucumán, R. Argentina, equipos que se encuadran dentro de las tecnologías de producción más limpia. Tomando como base la metodología de cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de generadores de vapor desarrollada en 2008 por la Sección Ingeniería y Proyectos Agroindustriales de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, y a partir de los datos recolectados por medio de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, se determinaron sus principales variables características de operación. Las eficiencias energéticas determinadas para cada una fueron del 73,5%; 75,2% y 77,3%. Se realizó además una comparación con las calderas de vapor convencionales y se determinó el ahorro de bagazo que puede obtenerse con las calderas modernas, el cual resultó ser de un 27,6%. Como una ventaja adicional, se hace mención a la posibilidad de mejora del rendimiento térmico del ciclo motriz de la planta, que viene acompañada con el aumento de la presión de trabajo de la caldera.Three modern steam boilers, installed in sugar mills in Tucumán, R. Argentina, to attain a cleaner production, were evaluated. Their major operating variables were determined using the methodology for calculating thermal efficiency of steam generators developed by Sección Ingeniería y Proyectos Agroindustriales of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres in 2008, and data obtained from measurements and material and energy balances. Energy efficiency values determined for each boiler were 73.5%, 75.2% and 77.3%, respectively. A comparison with conventional steam boilers was drawn and it was found that bagasse savings amounted to about 27.6% when modern boilers were used. The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of the plant cycle by increasing boiler pressure is mentioned as an additional advantage.

  6. Properties of Bagasse Cellulose Microcrystai Reinforcing Poly Lactic Acid Composites%甘蔗渣微晶纤维素增强聚乳酸复合膜的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春光; 李春丽; 彭伟功; 郑宾国; 李云霞; 张锐

    2012-01-01

    Bagasse cellulose extracted by method of combination of acid and alkali hydrolyzed to yield bagasse cellulose microcrystal (BCMC) using acid hydrolysis. The biodegradable composite films were prepared by using the bagasse cellulose microcrystal as filler and poly lactic acid (PLA) as the polymeric matrix. The structure, the mechanical properties and the thermal stability of the composite film were tested. The results show that the BCMC distributed well in the PLA matrix without obvious aggregation, adding the degree of crystallization of composite films. When the mass fraction of BCMC was 5 %, the optimized integrated performance of composite films could be gained. The initial decomposition temperature increased 30. 73 ℃, the tensile strength increased by 50. 98% and the elongation at break increased by 16. 25% compared with those of the pure PLA.%利用酸碱结合的方法提取出甘蔗渣纤维素,经酸水解制备甘蔗渣微晶纤维素(BCMC);以BCMC为增强材料,以生物可降解材料聚乳酸(PLA)作为基体,制备了BCMC/PLA复合膜,并对复合膜的结构、热稳定性和力学性能进行了研究。结果表明:BCMC均匀地分散于PLA基体中,没有发生明显的团聚现象;BCMC的加入增大了复合膜的结晶度;当BCMC的质量分数为5%时增强效果最佳,与纯的PLA膜相比,复合膜的起始分解温度提高了30.73℃,拉伸强度提高了50.98%,断裂伸长率提高了16.25%。

  7. Bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante: qualidade das silagens e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Cassava bagasse in elephant grass ensilage: quality of the silage and digestibility of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 16 novilhas ¾ Holandês-Zebu com idade média de 15 meses e peso médio inicial de 144kg, para avaliar o efeito da adição de diferentes níveis (5; 10; 15 e 20% de bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum sobre a qualidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas contendo, como volumoso, silagem de capim-elefante com quatro diferentes níveis de bagaço de mandioca, mais concentrado balanceado, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Avaliou-se a qualidade das silagens, os consumos de nutrientes das dietas e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes das silagens e das dietas totais. O bagaço de mandioca elevou o teor de matéria seca (MS da silagem, preservando-a com o pH que variou de 3,85 a 4,07 e a relação N-NH3/NT de 6,2 a 7,85. Os consumos médios diários de MS e proteína bruta (PB não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA apresentaram comportamento linear decrescente (P0,05 na digestibilidade da MS (DMS, da FDN (DFDN e da FDA (DFDA das silagens. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das silagens foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da PB (DPB, do extrato etéreo (DEE e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DCNF das silagens decresceu linearmente (P0,05 na DMS, DPB, DFDN, DFDA, DEE, DCNF e NDT entre as dietas experimentais. O nível de adição de 5% de bagaço de mandioca à silagem de capim-elefante é satisfatório para sua preservação, propiciando boa digestibilidade.Sixteen ¾ Holstein-Zebu heifers aging 15 month-old averaging 144kg were used to evaluate the effect of the additions of different levels of cassava bagasse (5; 10; 15 and 20% to elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum ensilage on the diet quality and nutrients digestibility. The treatments consisted of four diets containing, as roughage, elephant grass

  8. 甘蔗渣在高温液态水中的超微结构与组分变化%Change of ultrastructure and composition of sugarcane bagasse in liquid hot water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余强; 庄新姝; 袁振宏; 孔晓英; 亓伟; 王闻; 王琼; 谭雪松

    2014-01-01

    Native lignocellulosic biomass has limited accessibility to enzymes and microorganisms due to its complex cell wall structure of cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin. Therefore, pretreatment is a prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance of biomass and enhance bio-chemical conversion ratio of polysaccharides. Compared with other methods, high temperature liquid hot water pretreatment has the advantages of no chemical addition and less inhibitory products. In the present study, different structural changes at plant tissue, cellular, and cell wall levels were investigated to understand the decomposition mechanism of sugarcane bagasse cell wall in the liquid hot water pretreatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that sugarcane bagasse cell walls were composed of middle lamella (ML) layers, primary wall (P) layers, and secondary wall layers (S). While after the pretreatment, the boundaries among the ML, P and S layers of treated samples could not be distinguished exactly. The data from scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis(SEM-EDXA)showed that migration of lignin happened among different cell wall layers. Moreover, pseudo-lignin, the degradation products of lignin and xylan, appeared on the surface of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Furthermore, Raman spectra of treated sugarcane bagasse indicated that distribution of cellulose in the cell wall was homogenized, and the difference in chemical composition was reduced.%木质纤维素类物质中天然纤维素与半纤维素、木质素等组分交联形成了坚固的细胞壁,对纤维素酶水解和微生物消化表现出一定的抗性,原料预处理可以克服细胞壁抗性,提高木质纤维多糖生化转化效率。从细胞壁超微结构层次入手,对甘蔗渣细胞壁在高温液态水预处理过程中的解构机理进行了深入研究。未处理甘蔗渣细胞壁分层现象明显,由外至内分别为胞间层(ML)、初生壁(P)及次生壁(S),

  9. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  10. Characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse by {sup 1}H-NMR; Caracterizacao de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar por {sup 1}H-RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes, E-mail: d.a.cerqueira@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Uberlendia (IQ/UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Rui A. [Universidade de Coimbra (UC) (Portugal). Dept. de Bioquimica; Valente, Artur J.M. [Universidade de Coimbra (UC) (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms present at the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH{sub 3} ) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression was carried out in order to remove the peak of residual water in the materials and the peak related to impurities in cellulose triacetate. Degree of substitution values obtained through the resonance deconvolution were compared to those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. The determined degrees of substitution of the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60. (author)

  11. Determinação da cinética e das isotermas de secagem do bagaço da laranja = Determination of drying kinetics and isotherms of orange bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Denise Fiorentin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer o comportamento do bagaço de laranja durante a secagem é de suma importância quando se deseja utilizá-lo para fins tecnológicos, como é o caso de sua aplicação como adsorvente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a determinação da cinética e das isotermas de secagem do bagaço da laranja. Para a obtenção das curvas de secagem e detaxa de secagem o bagaço foi seco em um secador convectivo, em uma faixa de temperatura de 33 a 92°C com velocidade do ar constante de 1,3 m s-1. As isotermas de equilíbrio foram determinadas utilizando o equipamento Thermoconstant Novasina, nas temperaturas de 25 a 45°C. A umidade do bagaço em base seca (b.s foi determinada pelo método da estufa. As curvas de secagem e taxa de secagem mostraram que o aumento da temperatura diminui o tempo de secagem, pelo aumento da taxa de secagem. Nas isotermas de equilíbrio, o aumento da temperatura causou aumento da umidade de equilíbrio, fato este atribuído à característica do material. Os dados experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos de BET, SABBAH e OSWIN, e nas condições estudadas, o modelo de SABBAH foi o que melhor se ajustou, com o coeficiente de correlação de 0,99. Knowing the behavior of orange bagasse during drying is very important when using it for technological purposes, as is the case of its application as an adsorbent. This work had as objective the determination of the kinetics and isotherms of orange bagasse drying. In order to obtain the drying and drying rate curves, the bagasse was dried in a convective drier, at temperatures from 33 to 92°C, with constant air speed of 1.3 m s-1. The equilibrium isotherms were determined using the Thermoconstanter Novasina device, with temperatures between 25 and 45°C. The moisture of the bagasse on a dry basis (d.b. was determined by the furnace method. The drying curves and drying rate curves showed that the increase in temperature decreased drying time, due to an increase in the drying

  12. Influence of initial CaO/SiO2 ratio on the hydration of rice husk ash-Ca(OH2 and sugar cane bagasse ash-Ca(OH2 pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Silva de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the hydration of pastes containing calcium hydroxide and either rice husk ash (RHA or sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA in various initial CaO/SiO2 molar ratios. The products of the reactions were characterized by thermal analyses X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of the RHA pastes, the product was composed of CaO-SiO2-H2O (type I C-S-H or CaO-SiO2-H2O (type II C-S-H according to the CaO/SiO2 ratio of the mixture. In contrast, in the case of the SBCA pastes, the product was composed primarily of CaO-SiO2-H2O that differed from both the previous types; the product also contained inclusions of calcium aluminate hydrates.

  13. Matriz termofixa fenólica em compósitos reforçados com fibras de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Thermoset phenolic matrix in sugar cane bagasse fiber-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria F. de Paiva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a lignina extraída pelo processo organossolve do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar substituiu parcialmente fenol (40% em massa em matrizes termofixas reforçadas com fibras curtas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70%, v/v. Os compósitos obtidos foram caracterizados por TG, DSC, DMTA, Resistência ao Impacto Charpy, Dureza Shore D. Os resultados obtidos mostraram ser viável a substituição de fenol por lignina em matrizes fenólicas. No entanto, para que se obtenha compósitos com propriedades compatíveis com às exigidas para aplicações industriais, modificações devem ser feitas: modificação de fibras por meio de reações químicas, diversificação do comprimento das fibras vegetais, realização de etapas de cura em temperaturas superiores as consideradas no presente trabalho.In this work the performance of thermoset phenolic/sugar cane bagasse composites were ascertained as a function of fiber content and matrix modification. The matrix was modified by using lignin, extracted from sugar cane bagasse, as a partial (40% wt phenol substitute. The thermoset polymer matrices and related composites were compression moulded and the products were characterized by TG, DSC, DMTA, Impact Strength, Shore D Hardness. Our results indicate that phenol can be substituted by lignin in the synthesis of phenolic resins. However, further work is necessary if one is to obtain composites complying with the performance demanded for industrial applications. In this case, chemical modification of the fibers, varying lengths of the vegetables fibers and cure steps at higher temperatures than the ones considered here must be performed.

  14. 蔗渣发酵制备木糖醇的超声波预处理效果研究%Effects of Ultrasonic Pretreatment for Bagasse to Prepare Xylitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余先纯; 李湘苏; 龚铮午

    2011-01-01

    以蔗渣为原料,采用超声波进行预处理.然后发酵制备木糖醇.探讨了超声波预处理功率、预处理初始pH值、预处理时间及液固比对木糖醇得率的影响.采用响应面法建立二次回归模型,并对预处理工艺进行了优化.结果表明,超声波预处理能有效地促进蔗渣的降解,提高木糖醇的得率.当预处理功率为450W、pH值为3.9、时间为41 min、液固比为20:1(mL:g)时,木糖醇的得率最高.比相同条件下未进行超声波预处理的试样提高了很多.%Xylitol was made from bagasse by ultrasonic pretreatment and fermentation. The effects of ultrasonic power, initial pH value and time of pretreatment and liquid-solid ratio on xylitol yield were discussed. The pretreatment process was optimized and analyzed by response surface methodology, and quadratic regression model was established. The results showed that ultrasonic pretreatment could promote bagasse degradation and increase xylitol yield. The xylitol yield was increased when pretreatment ultrasonic power was 450W, pretreatment initial pH value was 3.9, liquid-solid ratio was 20∶1(mL∶g); and pretreatment time was 41 min.

  15. Validação de metodologia para a caracterização química de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Validation of methodology for the chemical characterization of sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Ribeiro Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a methodology for the characterization of sugar cane bagasse was validated. Bagasse pre-treated with steam in a 5000 L reactor at a pressure of 15.3 kgf/cm², during 7 min, was used to test the methodology. The methodology consisted of the hydrolysis of the material with H2SO4 at 72% v/v, for the quantification of carbohydrates, organic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural by HPLC; insoluble lignin and ash by gravimetry; and soluble lignin by spectrophotometry. Linearity, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of the results obtained in two Research Laboratories were determined, and were considered to be suitable for the validation of the methodology.

  16. Digestibilidade do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio em dietas para coelhos em crescimento Digestibility of sugar cane bagasse after a NaOH treatment in growing rabbit diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Apocalypse Nogueira Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar não tratado (BN e tratado (BT com 2, 4 e 6% de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH na dieta para coelhos em crescimento. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CD dos nutrientes do BN e BT foram determinados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (ração básica e rações com 40% de bagaço com 0, 2, 4 e 6% de NaOH e quatro repetições. Para obtenção dos valores de CD apenas do bagaço, e não da dieta total, adotou-se o método de substituição isométrica da dieta basal proposto por Matterson et al. (1965. A adição de NaOH ao bagaço não melhorou significativamente (P>0,05 os CD da matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra bruta e energia bruta e piorou significativamente (P=0,0023 o CD da fibra em detergente ácido (y = 20,042 - 2,7615x, r² = 0,984. Concluiu-se que o tratamento do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com NaOH não trouxe vantagens práticas sobre os valores de CD que justificassem o seu uso, já que a adoção dessa técnica demanda aumento de mão-de-obra e do custo da alimentação.The NaOH treated sugar cane bagasse (BT (2, 4 e 6% and untreated cane bagasse (BN was evaluated as rabbit diet ingredients. The digestion coefficients (CD were determined in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (basic diet and 40% bagasse diets (0, 2, 4 e 6% NaOH and four replications, using substitution methodology (Matterson et al., 1965. The nutritive values of bagasse (DM, CP, NDF, CF and GE were not significantly (P>0,05 affected by NaOH treatment, whereas AFD was significantly (P = 0,0023 linearly decreased by the chemical treatment (y = 20,042 - 2,7615x , r² = 0,984. It was concluded that the treatment was not effective to improving the CD of sugar cane bagasse, being the practice not justifiable.

  17. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação alimentadas com níveis de inclusão de bagaço de mandioca Ingestive behavior of dairy cows fed with inclusion levels of cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação recebendo dietas com níveis de bagaço de mandioca (0; 5; 10 e 15%. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas leiteiras Holandês x Zebu com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Além do consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais, foi avaliado o comportamento ingestivo dos animais, os quais foram submetidos a quatro avaliações visuais, com duração de 24 horas cada, em escalas de cinco minutos. As avaliações foram realizadas no último dia de cada período experimental, que tiveram duração de 12 dias. Os consumos de matéria seca, carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão do bagaço de mandioca. O tempo gasto com alimentação, ruminação e ócio não diferiu entre os tratamentos, assim como o número de períodos e o tempo gasto em cada período nas respectivas atividades. Quanto aos aspectos comportamentais, apenas o número de mastigações por bolo ruminado foi afetado pelas dietas. As eficiências de alimentação e ruminação só tiveram interferência nos carboidratos não fibrosos, os quais apresentaram efeito quadrático. O aumento crescente dos consumos de matéria seca, carboidratos não-fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais demonstraram que o bagaço de mandioca em níveis de até 15% não altera o comportamento ingestivo.The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lactating cows receiving diets with different levels of cassava bagasse (0; 5; 10 and 15%. Twelve Holstein x Zebu dairy cows with 478.5kg of average body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk, were distributed in three 4 x 4 Latin Squares. The dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber, non fibrous carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients intake, and the ingestive behavior of the animals

  18. Produção de carvão ativado a partir de bagaço e melaço de canade- açúcar = Production of granular activated carbons from sugar cane bagasse and molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto da Cunha Gonçalves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Carvões ativados foram preparados a partir de diferentes misturas de bagaço e melaço de cana-de-açúcar. A relação mássica bagaço:melaço variou de 1:0 a 1:2. Cada mistura foi prensada, formando pellets, os quais foram submetidos a uma pirólise sob fluxo de 150 mL·min-1 de N2, a 850°C, por 1 hora. Os carvões pirolisados foram ativados comCO2, sob fluxo de 75 mL·min-1, a 850°C, durante 30 min. A caracterização dos carvões ativados foi realizada pela análise de isotermas de adsorção física de N2 (77 K, pH e descoloração de soluções de melaço de cana (1% p/v. O rendimento médio dos carvõesativados foi de 23% em relação aos pellets iniciais. A área superficial específica dos carvões variou de 272 a 455 m2·g-1 com predominância de micro e mesoporos. Os carvões ativados preparados com pequena adição de melaço apresentaram-se tão eficientes na descoloração quanto um carvão ativado comercial, utilizado como referência.Activated carbons were prepared from mixtures of sugar cane bagasse and molasses in bagasse:molasses mass ratios from 1:0 to 1:2. The mixture was pressed to form pellets, and pyrolyzed under N2 flow of 150 mL·min-1, at 850°C, for 1 hour. The pyrolyzed carbons were activated with CO2, under the flow of 75 mL·min-1 at 850°C for 30 min. The activated carbons were characterized by an analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms (77 K, pH, and solutions decolorization of sugar cane molasses (1% w/v. Results showed that the activated carbons presented yield of 23% in relation to the initial pellets, surface areas from 272 to 455 m2·g-1, and that micro and mesopores were predominant in the pore size distribution. Activated carbons made with a smaller amount of molasses in the mixture were as efficient in the decolorization as a commercial reference carbon.

  19. 热带假丝酵母(Candida tropiclis)去除蔗渣木聚糖酶解副产物的研究%Study onenzymolysis of bagasse xylan by-products of Candida tropiclis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海珊; 石国良; 覃香香; 周玉恒; 蔡爱华

    2014-01-01

    The effects of xylose,xylitol on enzymolysis of bagasse xylan by xylanase Shearzyme 500 L were studied. Xylooligosaccharide with high xylobiose content was obtained through the enzymolysis of by-product xylose by Can-dida tropiclis and relieving the inhibitory effect of xylitol on xylanse.The results were as follows:xylose was the in-hibitor of Shearzyme 500 L,and its inhibitory effect was in proportion to xylose content in solution;xylitol had no in-hibitory effect on xylanase;C .tropiclis could transform the xylose in the solution of bagasse xylan into xylitol with-out xylooligosaccharide,and xylobiose increased from 53.09% to 62.92% in total sugar,and reached 78.90% through the second hydrolysis.%该文研究了木糖、木糖醇对木聚糖酶 Shearzyme 500 L 酶解蔗渣木聚糖的影响.通过热带假丝酵母(Candida tropiclis )转化酶解副产物木糖,解除木糖对木聚糖酶的抑制作用,从而获得高木二糖含量的低聚木糖.结果表明:木糖是 Shearzyme 500 L 的酶活性抑制物,其抑制作用与溶液中的木糖量成正比;木糖醇对木聚糖酶无抑制作用;热带假丝酵母可将蔗渣木聚糖酶解液中的木糖转化为木糖醇而不利用低聚木糖,木二糖占总糖比例由53.09%升高到62.92%,经二次酶解后,木二糖比例可达78.90%.

  20. Proposición de dos aleaciones fundidas para su estudio en la construcción de martillos de molinos desmeduladores de bagazo. // Proposition of two casted alloys for their study in the construction of bagasse crush mills hammers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Diez Torres

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye un análisis teórico que tiene como objetivo la determinación de cuáles serían las aleaciones autilizar y la tecnología de colada adecuada para la fabricación de los martillos de los desmeduladores de bagazo a partir dealeaciones fundidas resistentes al desgaste.Se analizan los resultados de las experiencias realizadas con recubrimientos por soldadura de recargue duro, con los cualesse corroboraron las hipótesis sobre los mecanismos de desgaste ocurrentes y las estructuras metalográficas adecuadas paracada perfil del martillo.Se propone la realización de ensayos de campo con martillos construidos con hierros al cromo debido a que se caracterizanpor poseer carburos de cromo con la posibilidad de obtener diferentes contenidos y distribución de los mismos en matricesque van desde la austenítica a martensítica. Se propone realizar los ensayos con las aleaciones 15-3 y 20-3 con y sintratamiento térmico y con colada en coquilla, con diferentes velocidades de enfriamiento en cada perfil de trabajo con el finde obtener la estructura metalográfica adecuada.Palabras claves: Aleaciones, martillos desmenuzadores de bagazo, recubrimiento por soldadura.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The present paper constitutes a theoretical analysis for the determination of an appropriate cast technology determinationfor the production of bagasse crush hammers with wear cast iron alloys.The results of welding hard facing coatings with the wear mechanisms hypothesis and appropriate metallographic structureswere corroborated.Field tests with chromium cast iron hammers are proposed due that this alloys is characterized to posses chromiumcarbides, with the possibility to obtain different contents and distribution in austenitic, martensitic or intermediate metalmatrices. Tests with 15-3 and 20-3 alloys with or without thermal treatment and metal mold casting with different

  1. Novilhas alimentadas com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com amônia anidra e, ou, sulfeto de sódio Diets with of sugarcane bagasse treated with anhydrous ammonia and/or sodium sulfate fed heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 16 novilhas ½ Holandês/Indubrasil, com peso vivo médio de 230 kg, alojadas em baias individuais cobertas, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, definidos conforme a alimentação: T1 - Bagaço sem tratamento (controle; T2 - Bagaço tratado com 2,5% de Na2S; T3 - Bagaço tratado com 4% de NH3 e T4 - Bagaço tratado com 2,5% de Na2S + 4% de NH3. Todos tratamentos foram feitos com base na matéria seca do bagaço. O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar ficou armazenado por 10 meses e, após a abertura dos silos, foi fornecido aos animais ad libitum, pela manhã (7 h, para obter sobras em torno de 10%, e todos animais receberam 3,5 kg/cabeça/dia de concentrado contendo 19% de proteína bruta. Verificou-se efeito para ganho de peso diário e total, observando-se ganhos maiores para os tratamentos com NH3. Os valores médios encontrados para ganho de peso diário foram 702, 684, 1026 e 1005 g/cab, respectivamente, para o bagaço sem tratamento, tratado com Na2S, tratado com NH3 e tratado com NH3 mais Na2S. O consumo de MS, em função do peso vivo, variou de 1,92 (controle a 2,46% PV (NH3, enquanto o consumo de FDN variou de 0,84 (controle a 1,14% PV (NH3.Sixteen ½ Holstein/Indubrasil heifers, averaging 230 kg of live weight, housed in individual boxes, were allotted to a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates, according to the following treatments: T1 - bagasse without treatment (control; T2 - bagasse treated with 2.5% Na2S; T3 - bagasse treated with 4% NH3 and T4 - bagasse treated with 2.5% Na2S + 4% NH3. All treatments were based on bagasse dry matter. Sugarcane bagasse was stored for 10 months e, after silo opening, animals were ad libitum fed, in the morning (7 a.m., to obtain orts of approximately 10%, and all animals were fed 3.5 kg/head /day of concentrate with 19% crude protein. It was verified effect for daily and total weight gain

  2. Effective pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with combination pretreatment and its hydrolyzates as reaction media for the biosynthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by whole cells of E. coli CCZU-K14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Di, Jun-Hua; Wu, Yin-Qi; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Chong, Gang-Gang; Ding, Yun; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SB) was pretreated with combination pretreatment (e.g., sequential KOH extraction and ionic liquid soaking, sequential KOH extraction and Fenton soaking, or sequential KOH extraction and glycerol soaking). After the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SBs, it was found that all these three concentrated hydrolyzates could be used for the asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Compared with glucose, arabinose and cellobiose couldn't promote the initial reaction rate, and xylose could increase the intracellular NADH content. Moreover, it was the first report that hydrolyzates could be used for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (∼500g/L; 98.0% yield) from 3000 COBE by whole cells of Escherichia coli CCZU-K14 in the presence of β-CD (0.4mol β-CD/mol COBE), l-glutamine (200mM) and glycine (500mM). In conclusion, it is a new alternative to utilize bioresource for the synthesis of key chiral intermediate (S)-CHBE. PMID:27060248

  3. Butanol production employing fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum GX01 using alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus QS 7-2-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zong-Wen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Liang, Jing-Juan; Du, Liang-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SB) is a potential feedstock for butanol production. However, biological production of butanol from SB is less economically viable. In this study, evaluation of eight pretreatments on SB showed that alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from SB while retaining the intact native structure of the released microfibrils. In total, 99% of cellulose and 100% of hemicellulose in alkali-pretreated SB were hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus. The hydrolysate was used to produce butanol in a fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. At 60h, 14.17 and 21.11gL(-1) of butanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) were produced from 68.89gL(-1) of total sugars, respectively, yielding 0.22 and 0.33gg(-1) of sugars. The maximum yield of butanol and ABE reached 15.4g and 22.9g per 100g raw SB, respectively. This established process may have potential application for butanol production from SB. PMID:27089425

  4. Bioaccumulation of the synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals in single and binary systems by Candida tropicalis grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium: Modelling optimal conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and inhibition kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, Ks, and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium.

  5. Study on interaction of cellulose and hemicelluloses during bagasse pyrolysis%蔗渣热解中纤维素与半纤维素的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏群山; 彭云云; 武书彬

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolytic characteristics and the products of bagasse cellulose, hemicellulose and holocellulose at different temperatures were studied with TG and py-GC/MS, and the interaction between cellulose and hemicellulose components were discussed. The result indicated that the interaction between cellulose and hemicellulose components affected differently on different products:It enhanced the formation of some products, such as 2-furancarboxaldehyde, and it enhanced firstly and then inhibited the formation of some products, such as carbon dioxide and levoglucosan, and inhibited firstly and then enhanced the formation of some products, such as acetic acid.%用热重分析和热解气质联用研究了蔗渣纤维素、半纤维素和综纤维素3种样品的热解规律,并探讨了纤维素和半纤维素单组分间的相互作用.结果表明,纤维素和半纤维素单组分间的相互作用体现在对于不同热解产物产生不同作用:对呋喃-2-甲醛等产物的生成有促进作用;对左旋葡萄糖和二氧化碳等产物则是先促进后抑制;对乙酸等产物则先抑制后促进.

  6. Efecto de la espiral normal en el movimiento vortiginoso con partículas de bagazo de caña//Effect of normal spiral in the vortex movement with small sugar cane bagasse particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Francisco Bombino-Matos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia que adquiere cada vez más el bagazo de caña, se estudia el movimiento vortiginoso de sus partículas transportadas por un gas y se comparan los resultados obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados mediante un modelo matemático. La formación de la espiral se clasificó de tres formas, obteniéndose la velocidad y caída de presión en cada caso a través de un diseño de experimentos factorial multinivel con una réplica. Como variable dependiente cualitativa se tomó la formación de la espiral normal y como variables independientes cuantitativas la velocidad del gas, el tamaño de partículas y la concentración de la mezcla, obteniéndose una correlación que ajustó con84.64%. Se determinó el tamaño de muestra para comparar los valores de velocidades del gas y caídas de presión obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados, los resultados experimentales cumplen una distribución normal y el modelo simula el proceso con error aceptable ingenierilmente.Palabras claves: movimiento de vórtice, secado neumático de bagazo, modelo matemático.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe vortex movement of sugar cane bagasse carry by a gas is study and the results obtained in the laboratory are compared with the ones simulated through a mathematical model. The formation of the hairspring was classified in three ways, being obtained the speed and fall of pressure in each case througha design of multilevel factorial experiments with a replica. The formation of the normal hairspring was taken as qualitative dependent variable, and as quantitative independent variables, the gas speed, particles sizeand the mixture concentration were taken, being obtained a correlation that adjusted with 84.64%. The sample size was determined to compare the values of gas speed and the falls of pressure experimentally obtained with those obtained by the simulation, the experimental results

  7. ECF and TCF bleaching of Saccharum officinerum-CO89003 bagasse soda-AQ pulp with alkali-thermo-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus SW-1 NTCC1165

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnima Agnihotri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An alkali-thermo-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus SW-1 NTCC1165 produced under solid-state fermentation conditions improves the brightness of sugarcane bagasse soda-AQ pulp by 7.3, 4.7, 6.1, and 8.2% in XODED, XOD(EOPDP, OX(EOPP, and XO(EOPP bleaching sequences, respectively, at an enzyme dose of 8IU/g, a reaction time of 120 min, a consistency of 10%, and a pH of 6.4 at 55 oC. An improvement in brightness by 2.1% for pulp bleached by XO(EOPP compared to OX(EOPP sequence validates that xylanase treatment is more effective for hydrolysing lignin-carbohydrates complexes before oxygen treatment. AOX after XODED and XOD(EOPDP sequences is reduced by 41.43 and 40%, respectively, compared to controls, but an increase in COD and color in studied bleaching sequences is attributable to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and the release of lignin-carbohydrates complexes after xylanase treatment. Xylanase treatment modifies fibre surface by introducing cracks, peelings, swelling, and external fibrillation, which facilitates faster penetration of bleach chemicals by disrupting physical barriers, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. The influence of pH, temperature and hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.L.B. Rodrigues

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of pH, temperature and degree of hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural were almost totally removed in all the experiments, irrespective of pH and temperature and whether the charcoal was added before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Adding activated charcoal before the vacuum evaporation process favored the removal of phenolic compounds for all values of pH. Acetic acid, on the contrary, was most effectively removed when the activated charcoal was added after the vacuum evaporation process at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4. However, addition of activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4 favored the removal of both acetic acid and phenolic compounds.

  9. A Technique Research on Disposing Alkali Pulp-making Black Liquor with Bagasse by Recovery and Recycle Suitability%碱法蔗渣制浆黑液循环处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆环珍; 杨问波; 姚春丽; 黄衍初; 何艳明; 王建平; 袁庆波; 江渝

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism and technique to treat black liquor from alkali pulp-making with bagasse was studied. The result shows that this technique is more applicability. By this way, pulping black liquor can be disposed overall. Two utility products will be recovered and the liquid will be recycled to pulping at the same time. The materials of acidification will be translated into pulping reagent and reused to pulp-making. The properties of the pulp and paper reused the liquid are all right.%对碱法蔗渣制浆黑液良性循环处理技术路线及原理进行研究。研究结果表明,此技术路线可行,制浆黑液将被全部处理,同时实现了液体回用和回收两种实用价值好的产品目标。处理黑液所用的酸化剂转化为制浆药液成分回用于制浆蒸煮,得到的浆、纸性能良好。

  10. Utilização do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrados para novilhos Nelore em confinamento Levels of sugarcane bagasse in diets with high concentrate for Nellore steers in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Leme

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos submetidos a dietas de alto concentrado contendo 15, 21 ou 27% da matéria seca em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos Nelore, com peso médio em jejum de 279 kg e 24 meses de idade, confinados por um período de 98 dias. Não foram observados efeitos significativos para as características de ganho médio diário (média =1,461 kg e eficiência alimentar. Foi observado efeito linear entre matéria seca ingerida e níveis de bagaço, com maior consumo nos tratamentos com menor percentagem de bagaço. Consistente com o comportamento do consumo, o peso do fígado também apresentou efeito linear, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado. As características peso de carcaça quente, gordura renal e pélvica, área de olho de lombo e espessura de gordura subcutânea não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Entretanto, observou-se comportamento linear do rendimento de carcaça, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado, consistente com o nível energético da ração. Os resultados indicam a viabilidade do uso de 15 ou 21% de bagaço como único volumoso, em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrado contendo milho, polpa de citrus e farelo de soja para novilhos Nelore em confinamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle fed high concentrate diets containing 15, 21 or 27% of sugarcane bagasse in the dry matter. Twenty-four Nellore steers with 279 kg of shrunk body weight and 24 months of age, two per pen, were fed for 98 days. No significant effects were observed for average daily gain (mean =1.461 kg and feed efficiency among the treatments. It was observed a linear effect between dry matter intake and levels of bagasse, with greater intake in treatments with

  11. Edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju production on washed and supplemented sugarcane bagasse Produção do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus sajor-caju em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar lavado e suplementado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Moncaio Moda

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju is performed on different composted and pasteurized agricultural residues. The objective of this study was to investigate whether traditional composting and pasteurization processes could be replaced by washed and supplemented (mineral or organic sugarcane bagasse. In one experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was immersed in hot water at 80°C for two hours (control or washed in fresh water for one hour using an adapted machine for residue treatment. In another experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was washed in fresh water (control, and supplemented with corn grits (organic supplementation, or supplemented with nutrient solution (mineral supplementation. In the first experiment, the washed bagasse presented a average biological efficiency (ABE of 19.16% with 44% contamination, and the pasteurized bagasse presented a ABE of 13.86% with 70% contamination. In the second experiment, corn grits presented the poorest performance, with a ABE of 15.66% and 60% contamination, while supplementation with the nutrient solution presented a ABE of 30.03%, whereas the control of 26.62%. Washing fresh sugarcane bagasse could suppress the pasteurized substrate in Pleurotus sajor-caju production, compensating a reduced ABE with a faster process.Tradicionalmente, o cultivo do Pleurotus sajor-caju é realizado utilizando-se diversos resíduos agrícolas, precedido dos processos de compostagem e pasteurização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar o processo de pasteurização com a lavagem do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e avaliar formas de suplementação do bagaço, visando aumento na produtividade. No primeiro experimento, os colmos da cana-de-açúcar passaram por moenda para a extração do caldo, sendo em seguida desfibrados. No tratamento controle, o bagaço fresco foi pasteurizado em água a 80°C durante 2 horas e o outro tratamento consistiu na lavagem do bagaço fresco em centrífuga com

  12. Caracterização e análise sensorial de biscoitos de polvilho elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca Characterization and sensory analysis of cassava starch biscuits made with different levels of cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira de Macedo Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características químicas, cor, volume específico e aceitabilidade, de biscoitos elaborados com diferentes níveis de farelo de mandioca desidratado. Realizou-se previamente a desidratação do farelo de mandioca e, em seguida, elaboraram-se formulações de biscoitos com concentrações de farelo de mandioca de 0% (BP, 2% (BF2, 4% (BF4, 6% (BF6 e 8% (BF8, em substituição à fécula de mandioca. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de variância, teste de Tukey, em nível de 5% de significância. O teor de fibra alimentar e os atributos de cor (L*, a* e b* dos biscoitos aumentaram significativamente com a adição do farelo de mandioca desidratado, o teor de fibra alimentar total variou de 5,47g 100g-1 a 11,40g 100g-1, o de proteínas variou de 6,66g 100g-1 a 7,26g 100g-1. Em 100g de biscoito de polvilho com 8% de farelo de mandioca, encontram-se atendidas 20%, 32%, 26%, 38%, 79%, 16% e 20% da ingestão dietética de referência para o cálcio, cobre, fósforo, magnésio, manganês, potássio e zinco, respectivamente. O volume específico dos biscoitos diminuiu com o aumento de farelo de mandioca. Os biscoitos apresentaram boa aceitabilidade para aparência, sabor e textura. Conclui-se que biscoitos de polvilho elaborados com farelo de mandioca desidratado constituem um produto com bom potencial nutricional e de boa aceitabilidade.This study evaluated the chemically composition, color, specific volume and acceptability of biscuits made with cassava bagasse dehydrated. Held prior to the dehydration of cassava bagasse, then prepared themselves for producing biscuits with concentrations of cassava bagasse from 0% (BP, 2% (BF2, 4% (BF4 6% (BF6 and 8% (BF8, instead of cassava starch. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey at 5% level of significance. The dietary fiber content and attributes of color (L*, a* b* the biscuits increased with the addition of cassava bagasse dehydrated, the

  13. Composição química e digestibilidade da matéria seca do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com óxido de cálcio Chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of sugarcane bagasse treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.P. Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar hidrolisado com óxido de cálcio em dois períodos. As doses de óxido de cálcio aplicadas ao bagaço foram 0; 1,25; 2,5 e 3,75% (na base da MS e os períodos de tratamento, 12 e 36 horas. O teor de matéria seca (MS do bagaço de cana foi maior quando hidrolisado por 36 horas. O valor médio da proteína bruta foi de 2,4% e não foi influenciado pelo período, pela dose de óxido de cálcio nem pela interação período × dose de óxido de cálcio. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, celulose e lignina diminuíram linearmente com a adição de óxido de cálcio. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, no entanto, aumentou 1,2% a cada unidade de óxido de cálcio adicionada ao bagaço da cana-de-açúcar. O tratamento com óxido de cálcio por 12 ou 36 horas melhora o valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar.The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzed with calcium oxide (CaO in two periods were evaluated. The doses of calcium oxide applied to bagasse were 0; 1.25; 2.5; and 3.75% (dry matter basis and the treatment periods were 12 and 36 hours. The dry matter sugarcane bagasse was larger when hydrolyzed for 36 hours. The crude protein mean value observed was 2.4%, with no effects of period, CaO doses, or period and CaO interaction. The neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, celluloses, and lignin levels linearly reduced with CaO added. The IVDMD increased with CaO add, estimating increase of 1.2% for each CaO unit added to sugarcane bagasse. The periods of 12 or 36 hours can be adopted to sugarcane bagasse treatment with CaO. The CaO addiction to sugarcane bagasse improve its nutritive value.

  14. Bagaço de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na dieta de vacas leiteiras: consumo de nutrientes Cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the diet of lactating cows: intake of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis (0, 5, 10 e 15% de bagaço de mandioca à dieta de 12 vacas mestiças leiteiras Holandês x Zebu (composição racial com variação de ¼ a ¾ de sangue H x Z com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Foi avaliado o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, carboidratos totais (CHT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Forneceu-se silagem de capim-elefante como fonte de volumoso. As relações volumoso:concentrado utilizadas foram de 65,19:34,81; 61,59:38,41; 59,08:40,92 e 54,76:45,24. Formularam-se as dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas. Houve aumento linear do consumo de MS, MO, PB, CHT, CNF e NDT, efeito quadrático do consumo de EE e redução do consumo de FDA com o aumento do BM, enquanto o consumo de FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos.O bagaço de mandioca pode ser utilizado até o nível de 15% de inclusão na dieta total de vacas mestiças leiteiras sem trazer transtornos fisiológicos ou nutricionais aos animais.The effect of different inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, and 15% of cassava bagasse to the diet of 12 Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (breed composition varying from ¼ to ¾ H x Z blood, averaging 478.5kg body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk was evaluated. Cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, total carbohydrates (TC, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. Elephant grass silage was provided as roughage source. The roughage:concentrate ratios were 65.19:34.81; 61.59:38.41; 59.08:40.92; and 54.76:45.24. Isonitogen and isoenergetic diets

  15. Surface modification of sugar cane bagasse with aluminate ester strengthened by mechanical activation%机械活化强化甘蔗渣铝酸酯表面改性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖强; 王楠; 胡华宇; 江道海

    2011-01-01

    Sugar can bagasse (SCB) was mechanically activated by a self-made stirring-type ball mill. The effects of dosage of aluminate ester and activation time on the activation grade, contact angle of modified SCB and viscosity of SCB/paraffin oil system were investigated. In addition, the crystal structure and functional groups of bagasse were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that after modification with aluminate ester, the activation grade and contact angle of SCB increased, while viscosity of SCB/paraffin oil system decreased. The optimal effect was achieved when the dosage of aluminate ester was 3 % of SCB. It was found that the reaction of SCB and aluminate ester was strengthened obviously by mechanical activation. The activation grade and contact angle of mechanically activated SCB increased obviously, and the viscosity of activated SCB/paraffin oil system decreased greatly after modification with aluminate ester. The optimal mechanical activation time was 120 min. After modification with aluminate ester, the dispersion of SCB in organic phase increased greatly, and the effect of mechanically activated SCB modified with aluminate ester became more remarkable. XRD analysis showed that mechanical activation decreased the degree of crystallinity of cellulose, made it more accessible to aluminate ester, and improved the reactivity of cellulose. FTIR analysis showed that chemical reaction of the hydroxy group on the surface of SCB and the alkoxyl group of aluminate ester took place during the modification, forming a new chemical bond Al-O-C, and a molecule layer of aluminate ester was also formed on the surface of SCB.%采用自制搅拌球磨机对甘蔗渣进行机械活化预处理,以改性甘蔗渣的活化度、润湿接触角及甘蔗渣/液体石蜡体系黏度为评价指标,分别研究了铝酸酯用量和机械活化时间对甘蔗渣改性效果的影响,并采用XRD、FTIR对

  16. Potencial da cinza do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar como material de substituição parcial de cimento Portland Potential of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial replacement material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos O. de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, voltado para a avaliação do potencial da cinza do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar (CBC como material de substituição parcial do cimento Portland em argamassa, objetivou apresentar opção viável para a destinação deste resíduo, cuja quantidade gerada aumentará significativamente nos próximos anos, em decorrência da ampliação do setor de produção de álcool combustível; além disso, o emprego da CBC como adição mineral, substituindo parte do cimento em argamassas e concretos, contribui para a redução do impacto ambiental desses materiais, em boa parte decorrente da produção do cimento. O procedimento experimental abordou não só caracterização da CBC mas também a avaliação, através de ensaios físicos e mecânicos, em que os resultados mostraram que o bagaço apresenta rendimento de CBC de 10%, com a cinza sendo composta de 84% de SiO2 e 5% de Carbono. A sílica na CBC apresenta-se na fase amorfa e nas fases cristalinas de cristobalita e quartzo. Os índices de atividade pozolânica comprovam a reatividade da CBC. Do ponto de vista da resistência à compressão, argamassas com teores de CBC entre 0 e 30% indicaram a possibilidade de substituição de até 20% do cimento pela CBC.This study is focused on the evaluation of the effects of the partial replacement of Portland cement by sugarcane bagasse ash (CBC in mortars. The main objective was to find a suitable destination for an agricultural residue generated in an increasing amount in Brazil, as a result of the boom of the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel to gasoline. Also, the use of CBC as a mineral admixture in mortars and concretes contributes to a decrease in the environmental impact of these materials related to cement production. Experimental techniques were applied both for the CBC characterization and for the evaluation of its use as a mineral admixture in mortars, based on mechanical and physical tests. The yield of CBC from sugarcane

  17. Morphological and mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) and its blend with poly(lactic acid)(PLA) using cassava bagasse and starch; Caracterizacao morfologica e mecanica de amidos termoplasticos (TPS) e suas blendas com poliacido latico (PLA) utilizando bagasso e amido de mandioca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Eliangela de M.; Correa, Ana C.; Campos, Adriana de; Marconcini, Jose M.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [Embrapa Instrumentacao Agropecuaria-CNPdia, Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio - LNNA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Curvelo, Antonio A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo-USP, Instituto de Quimica da USP de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it was prepared a thermoplastic starch with BG (TPSBG) and evaluated the incorporation of 20wt% of it into the biodegradable polymer poly (lactic acid) (PLA), resulting in a blend PLA/TPSBG20. The materials were investigated through morphology (scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun (FEG), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and mechanical behavior (tensile test). Their properties were compared to the blend PLA/TPSI20 in which TPSI is obtained from commercial cassava starch. The results showed that the use of bagasse generates homogenous materials with higher mechanical strength if compared to TPS obtained from commercial cassava starch. The fiber in this residue acted as reinforcement for TPS and PLA/TPS systems. (author)

  18. Milho úmido, bagaço de cana e silagem de milho em dietas de alto teor de concentrado: 2. composição corporal e taxas de deposição dos tecidos High moisture corn, sugarcane bagasse and corn silage in high concentrate diets: 2. empty body chemical composition and tissues deposition rates

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    Alexandre Berndt

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se o efeito do grão de milho colhido seco (87% MS ou ensilado úmido (70% MS , associado à silagem de planta de milho (20% MS da dieta ou bagaço de cana de açúcar (12% MS da dieta, sobre a composição corporal e taxas de deposição dos componentes químicos corporais em 32 tourinhos Santa Gertrudis com idade média de dez meses e peso inicial médio de 245 kg. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais parcialmente cobertas por 124 dias , após adaptação de 33 dias. Quatro animais foram abatidos ao final da adaptação para determinação da composição inicial. Os outros 28 animais foram distribuídos nos quatro tratamentos. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2x2 (dois volumosos x dois processamentos do milho grão, e testados os seguintes tratamentos: silagem de milho + milho úmido (Si-MU; silagem de milho + milho seco (Si-MS; bagaço cru + milho úmido (Ba-MU e bagaço cru + milho seco (Ba-MS. Não houve interação entre volumoso e processamento do milho para nenhuma variável avaliada. Na comparação de volumosos, a silagem de planta de milho foi superior ao bagaço para ganho de peso vazio, taxa de deposição dos tecidos e de energia. O milho úmido aumentou o teor de gordura, a taxa de deposição de lipídeos e o teor de energia no ganho de peso. Estes resultados são consistentes com os dados de desempenho, demonstrando que a silagem de grão de milho aumentou o teor de energia líquida. Os resultados também sugerem que o bagaço de cana propicia um ambiente ruminal pior para o desempenho do animal que aquele obtido com uso da silagem de planta inteira de milho.The effect of corn grain harvested at 87%DM or harvested at 70%DM ground and ensiled were evaluated. Diets contained different roughage sources, either corn silage (20% of the diet DM or sugarcane bagasse (12% of the DM. Thirty two Santa Gertrudis bulls with initial average age of ten months and initial average weight of

  19. Palm rachis micro-ifbrillated cellulose and oxidized micro-ifbrillated cellulose for improving paper sheets properties of unbeaten softwood and bagasse pulps%用枣椰树叶轴微细纤维素和氧化微细纤维素来改善纸张性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金勇

    2015-01-01

    Bleached palm rachis pulp pretreated with xylanase enzymes was used for isolation of micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC) and TEMPO-oxidized MFC (TMFC) by ultraifne grinding. The isolated MFC and TMFC were used at ratios from 2.5% to 20% for improving strength properties of paper sheets prepared from unbeaten softwood and bagasse pulps. The retention of micro-ifbrillated cellulose in paper sheets was also estimated. The results showed that MFC or TMFC brought about an increase in density, wet and dry tensile strength, tear resistance, and a decrease in air permeability of paper sheets prepared from unbeaten softwood or bagasse. However, usual beating of softwood ifbers was much more effective in improving strength properties of softwood paper sheets than addition of micro-ifbrillated cellulose. On the other hand, the improvement in strength properties of bagasse paper sheets as a result of MFC or TMFC addition was generally higher than that resulted from beating of bagasse pulp. Use of TMFC with unbeaten softwood or bagasse ifbers resulted generally in better improvement in tensile strength (wet and dry) than in case of using MFC.%通过木聚糖酶预处理以及轻微磨浆处理,漂白枣椰树叶轴浆用来分离制备微细纤维素(MFC)和四甲基哌啶氧化微细纤维素(TMFC)。分离后的MFC和TMFC用来改善未打浆针叶木浆和甘蔗渣浆抄造的纸张的强度性能,添加比例从2.5%增加到20%,并且对MFC的留着也进行了估测。结果显示,MFC和TMFC的添加能够提高未打浆针叶木浆和甘蔗渣浆抄造的纸张的紧度、干湿抗张强度、撕裂强度以及降低纸张的透气度。但是,在改善针叶木浆纸张强度性能方面,通常的打浆操作比添加微细纤维素更加有效。另一方面,在改善甘蔗渣浆纸张强度性能方面,添加MFC和TMFC比通常的打浆操作更加有效。并且,在针叶木浆中或者甘蔗渣浆中添加TMFC对抗张强度(干强度和湿

  20. IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER AND FIBROUS FRACTION SUGARCANE BAGASSE TREATED WITH UREA DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DO BAGAÇO DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR TRATADO COM URÉIA

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    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in situ degradability of dry matter (iDMD, neutral detergent fiber (iNDFD, acid detergent fiber (iADFD and hemicel-lulosis of sugar cane bagasse submitted to ammoniation with urea. The treatments consisted of four urea levels (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% on dry matter – DM basis added to the sugar cane bagasse and addition of 1.2% (DM basis of ground soybean as urease source. Samples of 3 g of the bagasses were incubated in the rumen of three steers during periods of 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The urea addiction to sugar cane bagasse provided increase not only on the iDMD, but also in degradability of cell wall con-tents. The degradability increased of 73.6, 61.3, 45.6 and 65.7% for DM, NDF, ADF and hemicellulosis, respective-ly, at the longer incubation time (96 hours. The iDMD, iNDFD, iADFD and in situ hemicellusosis degradability of sugar cane bagasse were improved by urea treatment.

    KEY-WORDS: Ammoniation, by product, dry matter, cellular wall.

    O experimento foi desenvolvido para avaliar a de-gradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (DiMS, da fibra em detergente neutro (DiFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DiFDA e da hemicelulose do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar submetido à amonização com uréia. Os tratamentos cons-taram de quatro níveis de uréia (0%, 2,5%, 5,0% e 7,5% na base da matéria seca – MS adicionados ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e adição de 1,2% (base da MS de soja grão moída como fonte de urease. Amostras de 3 g dos bagaços foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. A adição de uréia ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar promoveu aumento tanto na DiMS como também na degradabilidade dos constituintes da parede celular. Houve incrementos nas degradabilidades de 73,6%, 61,3%, 45,6% e 65,7% para a MS, FDN, FDA e hemice-lulose, respectivamente, no maior tempo de incubação (96 horas. A DiMS, DiFDN, DiFDA e a

  1. Características físicas e mecânicas de misturas de solo, cimento e cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Physical and mechanical characteristics of soil-cement-bagasse ash mixtures

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    Martha Del C. Mesa Valenciano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por finalidade analisar algumas características de misturas de solo, cimento e cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar para sua possível utilização na fabricação de materiais alternativos de construção. Para tal, amostras de cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar foram submetidas a um tratamento prévio que consistia de peneiramento e moagem, antes de serem incorporadas às misturas de solo e cimento. Diferentes combinações de cimento-cinzas foram estudadas, determinando-se, para cada uma delas, a consistência normal e a resistência à compressão simples, aos 7 e 28 dias. Posteriormente, corpos-de-prova moldados com tais misturas de solo-cimento-cinzas foram submetidos a ensaios de compactação, compressão simples e absorção de água. Os resultados indicaram a possibilidade de substituir até 20% do cimento Portland, na mistura, por cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, sem prejuízo da resistência à compressão simples.This work was done with the objective of studying some physical and mechanical characteristics of the sugarcane bagasse ash added to a soil-cement mixture, in order to obtain an alternative construction material. The sugarcane bagasse ash pre-treatment included both sieving and grinding, before mixing with soil and cement. Different proportions of cement-ash were tested by determining its standard consistence and its compressive resistance at 7 and 28 days age. The various treatments were subsequently applied to the specimens molded with different soil-cement-ash mixtures which in turns were submitted to compaction, unconfined compression and water absorption laboratory tests. The results showed that it is possible to replace up to 20% of Portland cement by sugarcane bagasse ash without any damage to the mixture's compressive strength.

  2. Compósito de resina de poliéster insaturado com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar: influência do tratamento das fibras nas propriedades Unsaturated polyester resin composite with sugar cane bagasse: influence of treatment on the fibers properties

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    Elisabete M. S. Sanchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliada a influência do tratamento de fibras de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar nas propriedades mecânicas e dinâmico-mecânicas, na estabilidade térmica, na densidade e absorção de água, quando utilizadas na preparação de compósitos com resinas de poliéster insaturado em comparação com a resina sem reforço. As fibras foram submetidas a tratamento químico com solução alcalina de hidróxido de sódio. O tratamento melhorou as propriedades de impacto, aumentou o módulo de elasticidade em flexão, não alterou significativamente o módulo de elasticidade em tração dos compósitos em relação à resina sem reforço e melhorou a compatibilidade fibra matriz quando comparada com compósitos com a fibra sem tratamento, o que pode ser observado nas fraturas de impacto analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As superfícies das fibras também foram avaliadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura.The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of the sugar cane bagasse NaOH treatment in the mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties, in the thermal stability, density and water absorption, when used in unsaturated polyester resin/sugar cane bagasse composite. The sugar cane bagasse was submitted to the chemical treatment with alkaline solution of NaOH. The treatment improves the impact and flexural elasticity modulus when compared with resin without fibers, in addition to the adhesion of the fibers with the matrices, but does not improve significantly the tensile elasticity modulus. The surfaces of the impact fracture were analyzed by SEM.

  3. Shiitake (lentinula edodes production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses Produção de shiitake (Lentinula edodes em substrato esterilizado, elaborado à base de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, suplementado com farelo de arroz e melaço de cana-de-açúcar

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    Ivan Henrique Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to evaluate the biological efficiency (BE, mean mushroom weight (MMW, mean number of mushroom (MNM and mushroom quality of Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler] when grown on a sterilized substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. The proportions of rice bran were 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse; and the concentrations of sugarcane molasses were 0, 30 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. Four flushes were obtained during the production cycle, providing 3 accumulated productions which were used for production analysis. The substrate supplemented with 25 and 30% rice bran yielded the highest BE (98.42 and 99.84%, respectively, about 230 days after spawning and MNM and initially produced a lower MMW than the substrates supplemented with 15 and 20% rice bran. Any amount of rice bran added to the sugarcane bagasse improved mushroom quality, with the best production of marketable mushrooms obtained by the addition of 15% rice bran. The largest amount of sugarcane molasses (60 g/kg increased BE (90.3 and 23.6%, on first and second accumulated productions, respectively and MNM and no quantity affected mushroom quality.Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência biológica (EB, o peso e número médio (PMC e NMC e a qualidade dos cogumelos de Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Peger] cultivado em substrato esterilizado, elaborado à base de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, enriquecido com farelo de arroz e melaço de cana-de-açúcar. As proporções de farelo de arroz usadas foram 0, 15, 20, 25 e 30% (peso seco/peso seco de bagaço e as concentrações de melaço de cana-de-açúcar utilizadas foram 0, 30 e 60 g/kg(peso seco/peso seco de bagaço mais farelo de arroz. Obteve-se quatro colheitas, constituindo três produções acumuladas que foram usadas para as análises de produção. Os substratos

  4. Níveis de bagaço de cana e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento Sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in the growing dairy cattle diets

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    Luciana Brandão Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de bagaço e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento, dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, 20 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais receberam dietas à base de palma forrageira e bagaço de cana em níveis de 5,5; 14,4; 24,4 e 34% da matéria seca total. O ganho de peso diminuiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar, e os consumos de FDN e FDA aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de bagaço. O consumo máximo de MS foi estimado em 2,73% do peso vivo com 30% de bagaço de cana. No segundo experimento foi avaliada a substituição do farelo de soja (FS por uréia mais milho moído (UM, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Vinte animais foram alimentados de acordo com os níveis de substituição do FS por UM (0, 20, 40 e 60% distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Não houve efeito da substituição parcial do farelo de soja por milho e uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças.In order to evaluate different levels of sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in growing dairy cattle diets, two trials were conducted. In the first, twenty crossbreed bull calves (Holstein x Zebu were allotted in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The animals were fed forage cactus based diets, containing levels of 5.5, 14.4, 24.4 and 34% of sugar cane bagasse on the dry matter basis. The liveweight gain decreased while the feed: gain ratio, FDN and FDA intakes increased linearly in function of the increased level of sugar cane bagasse. The maximum daily dry matter intake of 2.73% of LW was estimated with 30% of sugar cane bagasse in the diet. In the second, was evaluated the partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by urea plus corn cracked (UC in forage cactus based diets on the

  5. Use of PVA-gel immobilized cells: a new strategy for biotechnological production of Xylitol from sugarcane bagasse hidrolysate/ Uso de células imobilizadas em gel de PVA: uma nova estratégia para produção biotecnológica de Xilitol a partir de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar

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    Júlio César dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is one of the most abundant residues in Brazil due to the large number of sugaralcohol industries. This biomass contains a high concentration of carbohydrates, which can be converted into products of high economic value, such as xylitol. Xylitol, a polyol with anticariogenic properties, is similar in sweetening power to sucrose, and has high potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Several studies have been carried out to produce xylitol by biotechnological processes. However, there is little information on the use of immobilized cells in these bioprocesses. The objective of this review was to present a new possibility to produce xylitol by biotechnological processes, using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and immobilized cells in PVA-gel.O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar é um dos resíduos mais abundantes no Brasil devido ao grande número de indústrias sucroalcooleiras. Esta biomassa contém elevado teor de carboidratos, podendo ser utilizada na produção de compostos de interesse econômico como o xilitol. O xilitol é um poliol de cinco carbonos que apresenta poder adoçante semelhante ao da sacarose e propriedades anti-cariogênicas, tendo elevado potencial de uso nas indústrias alimentícias e farmacêuticas. Diversos estudos buscando o desenvolvimento de processos de produção de xilitol por via biotecnológica têm sido realizados, entretanto pouco tem sido escrito sobre a utilização de células imobilizadas no bioprocesso. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma possibilidade de produção de xilitol a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de canade-açúcar, em sistema com células imobilizadas em gel de álcool polivinílico.

  6. Degradation of Bagasse Alkaline Lignin by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation with Five Catalysts%催化剂对甘蔗渣碱木质素催化湿空气氧化降解的催化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚向荣; 詹怀宇; 周生飞

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, bagasse alkaline lignin was degraded by Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) with five different catalysts. The results showed that the main degradation products were; p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, syringic acid, vanillic acid and acetosyringone. The concentration of aromatic substances increased when the reaction time increased. Catalysts had a significant effect on the concentration of aromatic substances. Using CO2O3 as catalyst, the concentration of vanillin, syringaldehyde and acetosyringone were 400.2 mg/L, 351.4 mg/L, and 248.7 mg/L respectively, and the concentration of vanillin increased 82.6% comparing to no catalyst was used. Using AQ as catalyst, the concentration of vanillin was 344. 9 mg/L which was 1. 5 times of that without using catalyst. Using Co2O3, CuSO4, MnO2, AQ, Fe2O3 as catalysts, the total concentrations of phenolic aldehyde compounds were 1696 mg/L, 1658 mg/L, 1584 mg/ L, 1347 mg/L and 1250 mg/L respectively,which explained that using Co2O3 as the catalyst was the best, and CuSO4 and MnO2 were the next, the catalysts of AQ and Fe2O3 only contributed to produce several kinds of phenolic aldehyde compounds with small molecules.%选取5种不同的催化剂对甘蔗渣碱木质素进行了催化湿空气氧化降解。结果表明,甘蔗渣碱木质素催化湿空气氧化降解的主要产物为对羟基苯甲醛、香草醛、丁香醛、丁香酸、香草酸和乙酰丁香酮;在实验条件下,反应时间对催化剂催化效果的影响较大,随着反应时间的延长,大部分小分子酚醛类化合物的浓度逐渐升高;使用催化剂能较大幅度地提高小分子酚醛类化合物的浓度。以Co2O3为催化剂,丁香醛、乙酰丁香酮、香草醛的浓度分别为400.2 mg/L、351.4 mg/L 248.7 mg/L,与未添加催化剂相比较,香草醛浓度提高了 82.6%;当以AQ为催化剂时,香草醛浓度为344.9mg/L,与空白样相比其浓度提高了1.5倍以上。

  7. Chemical properties of an oxisol under organic management as influenced by application of sugarcane bagasse ash Propriedades químicas de um latossolo sob manejo orgânico influenciado pela aplicação de cinzas de bagaço de cana

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    Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are large areas of Oxisols in South America, including Brazil, with low fertility and acidity. To improve crop yields on these Oxisols, liming and fertilization is an essential practice. However, besides the high cost of fertilizers, chemical fertilizers cannot be used in organic production systems, except insoluble sources. Ash is one of the alternative source of supplying macro and micronutrients. A field experiment was conducted, in a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (three sources of ash x four rates resulting on 12 treatments, to evaluate the effect of source and rate of ash application on soil chemical properties. The treatments consisted of three sources (bagasse, bagasse+PJ07-A and bagasse+PJ07-RA of sugarcane ash applied in four rates as 0; 5; 15 and 30 Mg ha-1. Results showed that the use of ash significantly improved soil chemical properties such as pH, P, K, Mg, base saturation, K and Mg saturation and significantly reduced soil acidity (H+Al. Depending on the ash source or rate, some of the soil chemical properties were affected, however, the effect of ash source was not so pronounced as compared with ash rate. Ashes application resulted on a soil nutritional condiction enough to guarantee the growth and yield of most annual crops. Ash sources were equally effective in reducing acidity and improving soil fertility under this study condition, while increasing ash rate provides decrease in H+Al content and increase in pH, Mg, P and K.Existem extensas áreas de Latossolo na América do Sul com baixa fertilidade e acidez, inclusive no Brasil. Para melhorar a produtividade desses solos, o uso de fertilizantes e calcário é uma prática essencial. Contudo, além dos altos custos destes insumos, seu uso não é permitido em sistemas de produção orgânica. Dependendo da fonte, as cinzas podem fornecer macro e micronutrientes para culturas anuais. Foi conduzido um experimento de campo, em delineamento de

  8. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FEEDLOT SHEEP FED WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE HYDROLYZED WITH CALCIUM OXIDE GANHO EM PESO E CARACTERÍSTICAS DA CARCAÇA DE OVINOS CONFINADOS ALIMENTADOS COM BAGAÇO DE CANA HIDROLISADO COM ÓXIDO DE CÁLCIO

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    Oscar Willian Barbosa Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of calcium oxide (0.75; 1.5 and 2.25% in the sugarcane bagasse were studied with the objective of evaluating characteristics of the carcass in crossbred Santa Ines lambs. Twenty animals, with average live weight of 14 ± 4,5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The animals received concentrated containing corn, soybean meal and urea, and also the sugar cane bagasse. The slaughter reached 81 days of confinement. Means for hot and cold carcass weights, hot and cold carcass revenues, and chilling lost were 14.66 kg, 14.35 kg, 46.62%, 45.45% and 2.09%, respectively. Treatments did not affect the subjective measures, degree of fat covering and shape form, and the objective measures, ribeye area and kidney and cavity fat. The treatment of the sugar-cane bagasse with CaO increased the live weight, but did not affect the carcass characteristics in sheep.

    KEY WORDS:  Carcass quality, co-products, ruminant. Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de teores crescentes de óxido de cálcio (0,75; 1,5 e 2,25% no bagaço de cana-de-açúcar fornecido a ovinos mestiços da raça Santa Inês no ganho de peso e nas características da carcaça. Vinte ovinos, com peso vivo médio de 14 ± 4.5 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os animais receberam concentrado contendo milho, farelo de soja e ureia, e o bagaço com as doses de CaO. Realizou-se o abate dos ovinos após 67 dias de confinamento. As médias do peso de carcaça quente, peso de carcaça fria, rendimento de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça fria e quebra no resfriamento foram de 14,66 kg, 14,35 kg, 46,62%, 45,45% e 2,09%, respectivamente, não se observando efeito dos tratamentos, o que ocorreu também para as medidas subjetivas (grau de cobertura de gordura e conformação e para as medidas objetivas (área de olho de lombo, gordura perirenal e gordura cavitária. O tratamento do bagaço de cana

  9. Efeito da granulometria do bagaço de cana sobre as características digestivas e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos Effect particle size of sugar cane bagasse on the digestive traits and the cecotrophes nutritive contribution

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    Flávia da Silva Vieira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com coelhos mestiços Nova Zelândia Branco x Califórnia, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da granulometria da fonte de fibra sobre as características digestivas de coelhos em crescimento e sobre a produção, composição química e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos, em termos de matéria seca (MS e proteína bruta (PB. Quatro dietas foram elaboradas com diferentes granulometrias do bagaço de cana com diâmetro geométrico médio (DGM de 0,231, 0,506, 0,616 e 0,833 mm. O desempenho e os pesos do sistema digestivo cheio, sistema digestivo vazio, conteúdo do sistema digestivo, ceco cheio, ceco vazio e conteúdo cecal não foram afetados significativamente, entretanto o nitrogênio amoniacal do conteúdo cecal aumentou significativamente com o aumento da granulometria do bagaço de cana. Na avaliação da cecotrofia, foi observado efeito linear significativo da granulometria sobre a produção de cecotrofos e o teor de MS e PB ingerido por cecotrofia, porém sua composição química não foi afetada.Two experiments using New Zealand White x Californian rabbits were carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fiber source particle size on digestive traits of growing rabbit and the production, chemical composition and cecotrophes nutritive contribuition on dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP base. Four diets were prepared with different particle size of sugar cane bagasse with average geometric diameters of .231, .506, .616 and .833 mm. The productive performance and weight of the full and empty digestive tract, digestive tract content, full and empty cecum and cecum content were not affected, however the ammonia nitrogen percentage in the caecum content was significantly increased by increasing particle size of sugar cane bagasse. In cecotrophy evaluation, effects of particle size on cecotrophes production, DM and CP content ingested were observed, but the cecotrophes chemical

  10. Propriedades absorventes dos produtos da carbóxi-metilação de polpa etanol/água de medula de bagaço de cana-de-açucar Absorbent properties of carboxymethylated ethanol/water pulps of pith from sugar cane bagasse

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    Cibele M. F. Martinez

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Polpas etanol/água de medula de bagaço de cana de açúcar foram empregadas para a obtenção de carbóxi-metil-celulose insolúvel, aplicável como material absorvente. Tipicamente, a reação de carbóxi-metilação da polpa branqueada foi realizada em suspensão de isopropanol/água (1:8 / m:m a 80 ºC por 4 horas, empregando-se relação molar 1 / 5,4 / 8,8 de celulose / NaOH / ClAcOH. O material com melhores características corresponde a um produto muito pouco solúvel (S W ABSTRACT: Ethanol/water pulp of pith from sugar cane bagasse was used for the obtention of insoluble carboxymethylcellulose applicable as absorbent material. Typically the carboxymethylation reaction of the bleached pulp was carried out at 80 °C for 4 hours in isopropanol/water suspension 1:8 (w/w employing a 1.0 / 5.4 / 8.8 cellulose / NaOH / ClAcOH molar ratio. The material with the best absorbent characteristics corresponds to a very insoluble product (S W < 2% possessing better absorbent properties than the pulp of pith used for its obtention.

  11. Glass-ceramic material of the Si-Ca-K system sintered from sugarcane bagasse ash; Material vitro-ceramico do distema SiO{sub 2}-CaO-K{sub 2}O sinterizado a partir de cinza de bagaco de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Silva, R.A.; Santos, G.C.; Santos, G.T.A., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia; Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IETCC/CSIC), Madri (Spain). Inst. de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja; Reynoso, V.C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2009-07-01

    This study analyses the crystallization of glasses obtained from two samples of sugarcane bagasse ash - SCBA (named Cinza 07 and Cinza 08) mixed with carbonates (calcium and potassium). The glasses and their crystallization were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations of the ashes show that they consist mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with iron, potassium and aluminum oxides as minor elements. For the sample Cinza07 the DTA data presents broad and overlaid crystallization peaks, indicating crystallization of more than two different phases. The DTA results of samples with different grain-size distribution show that the crystallization peak intensities increase as the sample grain-size decreases, suggesting that surface crystallization actively participate on the mechanism of crystallization. For the sample Cinza 08 the DTA data presents two well defined peaks. In this case, the more intense peak was evaluated to obtain kinetic data (Eat= 355 kJ/mol) to the major phase (Wollastonita). (author)

  12. Uso do bagaço de mandioca em substituição ao milho no concentrado para bovinos em crescimento. 2. Digestibilidade aparente, consumo de nutrientes digestíveis, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar Replacing corn by cassava bagasse in concentrate mix fed to growing cattle. 2. Apparent digestibility, digestible nutrients intake, live weight gain and feed:gain ratio

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    Paulo Roberto Ramos

    2000-02-01

    ível de 33% de substituição do milho pelo bagaço de mandioca no concentrado.ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the substitution of corn by cassava bagasse in concentrate on apparent digestibility, digestible nutrient intakes, average daily gain (ADG and feed:gain ratio (F:G in growing cattle. Sixteen cossbred bulls, were allotted to a completely randomized block design and in two periods. Four types of concentrade were tested, in association with an ad libitum allowance of oat/ryegrass hay (Avena strigosa, L.; Lolium multiflorum, L. and an average concentrate suplemetation of .83% LW. The concentrates fed to the animals were different by the substitution level of corn by cassava bagasse: T1 0,0; T2, 33,0; T3, 66,0; e T4, 99,0. There was no effect of the substitution of corn by cassava bagasse on the apparent digestibility coefficients of the studied nutritive fractions. The digestible acid detergent fiber intake (DADF linearly increased with the substitution of corn by cassava bagasse. There was no effect of the treatments on the intakes of digestible dry matter (DDM, digestible organic matter (DOM, digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME, which were, respectively, for T1, T2, T3 and T4, 53.51; 54.50; 53.63 and 53.69 (g DDM kg0.75·day, 51.77; 52.37; 51.27 and 51.23 (g DOM/ kg0.75·day, 30.13; 30.93; 30.46 and 30.88 (g DNDF/ kg(.75·day, 224.13; 228.51; 224.77 and 225.33 (kcal DE/ kg.75·day, 183,75; 287,56; 184,38 and 184,43 (kcal ME/ kg.75·day. The results obtained for ADG were 1.10; 0.95; 1.12 and 0.75 kg/animal·day, and for F:G 4.61; 6.17, 4.58 and 7.98, respectively for T1, T2, T3 and T4. The values of ADG and F:G, for the substitution of 99% of corn by cassava bagasse in concentrate, were lower than those obtained by the levels of 0 and 66%, however, they were similar to the 33% of substitution level of corn by cassava bagasse in the concentrate.

  13. Bagaço hidrolisado e ponta de cana-de-açúcar (Sacharum officinarum, associados a duas fontes protéicas, na engorda de bovinos em confinamento Hydrolyzed sugar cane (Sacharum officinarum bagasse and sugar cane tops, associated with two protein sources in the fattening of feedlot steers

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    Luiz Rogério Gonçalves Magalhães

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do bagaço de cana hidrolizado e da ponta de cana-de-açúcar no desempenho de bovinos, 72 novilhos Nelore, com idade média de 18 a 30 meses e 293 kg PV, foram confinados durante 99 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 40,0% de bagaço de cana hidrolizado (BAH e 20,0% ponta de cana (tratamentos T1 e T4; 20,0 de BAH e 40,0% de ponta de cana (T2 e T5; e 30,0 de BAH e 30,0% de ponta de cana (T3 e T6. Duas fontes protéicas: levedura seca, associada aos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3 e farinha de carne mais aditivo (Nutrigen, associada aos tratamentos T4, T5 e T6 também foram usadas. A ingestão média diária de matéria seca (kg/animal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso médio (kg/animal•d foram para T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, 4,01; 5,50; 5,06; 4,50; 7,33; e 12,71, 17,14; 13,09; 14,79; 8,79; 17,45; e 12,71 e 0,234; 0,420; 0,342; 0,516; 0,420; e 0,454. Os animais que receberam farinha de carne mais aditivo (Nutrigem apresentaram melhor desempenho animal.With the objective to evaluate the effect of hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane tops in the performance of cattle, 72 Nellore steers, averaging from 18 to 30 months of age and 293 kg LW were feedlot for 99 days. The treatment consisted in 40.0% hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse (BAH and 20.0% sugar cane tops (treatments T1 e T4, 20.0 BAH and 40.0% sugar cane tops (T2 and T5, and 30.0 BAH and 30.0% sugar cane tops (T3 and T6. Two protein sources: dried yeast, associated with the treatments T1, T2, and T3 and meat meal plus additive (Nutrigen, associated to T4, T5 and T6, were also used. The average daily dry matter intake (kg/ animal, the feed:gain ratio (kg DM/kg gain/animal•d and the average weight gains were for T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively, 4.01, 5.50, 5.06, 4.50, 7.33, and 12.71, 17.14, 13.09, 14.79, 8.79, 17.45, and 12.71 and .234, .420, .342, .516, .420, and .454. The animals fed diets with meat meal plus Nutrigen, showed

  14. Influência do solvente no conteúdo total de polifenóis, antocianinas e atividade antioxidante de extratos de bagaço de uva (Vitis vinifera variedades Tannat e Ancelota Solvent Influence on total polyphenol content, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of grape (Vitis vinifera bagasse extracts from Tannat and Ancelota - different varieties of Vitis vinifera varieties

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    Ismael Ivan Rockenbach

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes sistemas solventes foram aplicados para determinar a eficiência de extração de compostos com capacidade antioxidante em bagaço de uva, importante subproduto do processo de vinificação. Realizou-se a quantificação de compostos fenólicos totais, antocianinas totais e atividade antioxidante nos extratos de bagaço de uva Vitis vinifera das variedades Tannat e Ancelota, provenientes da região de Videira, Santa Catarina. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelos métodos ABTS, FRAP e β-caroteno/ácido linoléico. Conteúdos de compostos fenólicos totais em acetona 50 e 70% foram maiores nas duas variedades, enquanto que os conteúdos de antocianinas totais extraídos em ambas as variedades foram maiores no solvente etanol em concentrações de 50 e 70%. Pelo método ABTS, a atividade antioxidante foi maior nas concentrações de 50 e 70% de acetona para a variedade Tannat e 50 e 70% de acetona e etanol para a variedade Ancelota. Em relação ao poder redutor pelo método FRAP, este foi maior em solvente acetona 70% para as duas variedades. No ensaio do poder de inibição da oxidação, a adição de 100 e 200 µL de extratos etanólicos a 50% das variedades Tannat e Ancelota apresentou maior eficiência, sendo quase duas vezes superior aos extratos acetônicos testados.Different solvent systems were applied in order to determine the extraction efficiency of compounds with antioxidant capacity from grape bagasse, an important by-product from wine production. The quantification of total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity was carried out in grape bagasse extracts of Tannat and Ancelota varieties from the region of Videira, state of Santa Catarina. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS, FRAP, and β-carotene/linoleic acid system methods. Extracts from acidified aqueous solutions of acetone and ethanol in different concentrations (v/v showed higher yield in aqueous solutions of acetone 50 and 70% for

  15. Carboximetilação de polpas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e caracterização dos materiais absorventes obtidos Carboxymethylation of pulps from sugar cane bagasse and characterization of the produced absorbent materials

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    Luís C. Morais

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os processos soda/antraquinona e etanol/água foram aplicados à produção de polpas de fibras e de medulas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Tais polpas foram carboximetiladas em suspensão de isopropanol/água (8/1 m/m por 4 horas a 80(0C, empregando a relação molar 8,5/5,4/1 para ácido monocloroacético/hidróxido de sódio/celulose. Os graus médios de susbtituição dos produtos carboximetilados foram determinados por espectroscopia ¹H R.M.N. e variaram entre 0,44 e 1,27 em função da polpa empregada na derivatização. Os derivados mais substituídos foram os melhores absorventes, sugerindo que a capacidade de retenção de água desses produtos está diretamente associada a seus graus de substituição.Two pulping methods were used on fibers and pith of sugar cane bagasse: soda/anthraquinone and ethanol/water. These pulps were submitted to carboxymethylation in a slurry of isopropanol/water (8/1 m/m at 80ºC for 4 hours using a molar relation 8,8/5,4/1 of monochloroacetic acid/sodium hydroxyde/cellulose. The average degrees of substitution of the carboxymethylated products, determined by ¹H N.M.R. spectroscopy, were between 0.44 and 1.27, depending on the pulp employed for derivatization. The more substituted pulps were the more absorbent products, suggesting that the water retention capacity of these products is closely associated to their degrees of substitution.

  16. Semi-continuous xylitol bioproduction in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate: effect of nutritional supplementation Bioprodução semi-contínua de xilitol em hidrolisado de bagaço de cana: efeito da suplementação nutricional

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    Walter Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Ca-alginate entrapped Candida guilliermondii cells in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was carried out in erlenmeyer flasks using the repeated-batch mode of fermentation. The hydrolysate was supplemented or not with ammonium sulfate and/or rice bran extract at the beginning of each repeated batch. Altogether, six sets of three repeated-batches were carried out, the immobilized cells being reused at the end of each batch. The best results were achieved when the hydrolysate was supplemented with both nutrients in all the three repeated batches, which provided xylitol productions of 25.9, 46.8, 48.7 gL-1, productivities of 0.27, 0.49, 0.51 gL-1h-1, and yields of 0.45, 0.58, 0.55 gg-1, respectively. In the absence of nutrients, the xylitol production, productivity and yield did not exceed 12.1 gL-1, 0.13 gL-1h-1 and 0.30 gg-1, respectively.A bioconversão de xilose em xilitol por células de Candida guilliermondii imobilizadas em alginato de cálcio, em hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, foi realizada em frascos erlenmeyer no modo bateladas repetidas de fermentação. O hidrolisado foi suplementado ou não com sulfato de amônio e/ou extrato de farelo de arroz no início de cada batelada repetida. No total, seis experimentos com três bateladas repetidas cada um foram realizados, sendo as células imobilizadas reutilizadas ao final de cada batelada. Os melhores resultados foram alcançados quando o hidrolisado foi suplementado com ambos nutrientes em todas as três bateladas repetidas, resultando em concentrações de xilitol iguais a 25,9, 46,8 e 48,7 gL-1, produtividades de 0,27, 0,49 e 0,51 gL-1h-1, e rendimentos de 0,45, 0,58 e 0,55 gg-1, respectivamente. Na ausência de nutrientes, a concentração de xilitol, a produtividade e o rendimento não ultrapassaram 12,1 gL-1, 0,13 gL-1h-1 e 0.30 gg-1, respectivamente.

  17. Caracterização de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar por ¹H-RMN 1H-NMR characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse

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    Daniel A. Cerqueira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A celulose do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar foi usada para sintetizar acetato de celulose com diferentes graus de substituição, os quais foram caracterizados por ¹H-RMN através da relação entre as áreas dos picos dos átomos de hidrogênio presentes nos grupos acetato (-(C=OOCH3 e os picos dos hidrogênios ligados aos átomos de carbono dos anéis glicosídicos. A supressão de alguns sinais foi feita para remover sinais de ressonância da água residual nos materiais e também para remover sinais de impurezas no triacetato de celulose. Um método de deconvolução para o cálculo computacional do grau de substituição foi proposto. Os graus de substituição das amostras de acetato de celulose foram 2,94 e 2,60, o que está de acordo com os resultados por determinação química através de uma titulação ácido base.Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by ¹H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms of the acetate groups (-(C=OOCH3 and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glucosidic rings. Suppression of some signals was carried out in order to remove the residual water resonance in the materials and those related to impurities in cellulose triacetate as well. A deconvolution method for the computation of the degree of substitution of acetylation is proposed. The degrees of substitution for the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60, in good agreement with those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration.

  18. Desempenho e digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes em ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com óxido de cálcio Performance and nutrients apparent digestibility in sheep fed diets containing sugar cane bagasse treated with calcium oxide

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    Rogério Mendes Murta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de 0,0; 0,75; 1,5 e 2,25% de óxido de cálcio no bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (com base na matéria natural com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, o consumo de nutrientes e a digestibilidade aparente das dietas e dos nutrientes em ovinos mestiços da raça Santa Inês e raças nativas. Vinte e quatro ovinos, mantidos em total confinamento, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro níveis de óxido de cálcio e seis repetições. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais, por 77 dias. Os primeiros 14 dias foram de adaptação e, então, seguiram-se três períodos de 21 dias de coleta de dados. Na determinação da digestibilidade, utilizou-se o método de coleta total de fezes, que foi realizada nos quatro últimos dias do período experimental. As fezes foram coletadas três vezes ao dia, às 7, 13 e 18 h. O uso do óxido de cálcio não influenciou os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e nutrientes digestíveis totais, mas houve efeito linear sobre ganho de peso, com o aumento nas doses de óxido de cálcio, mas não sobre a conversão alimentar e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente ácido. Entretanto, foi observado efeito quadrático para o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da fibra em detergente. A utilização do bagaço de cana hidrolisado com óxido de cálcio em níveis a partir de 1,5% da matéria natural promove melhoras no desempenho de ovinos e aumenta a digestibilidade apenas da fibra em detergente neutro.The addition effects of 0.0; 0.75; 1.5 and 2.25% of calcium oxide on sugar-cane bagasse (on natural matter basis were studied to evaluate the performance, nutrients intake and apparent digestibility of the diets and nutrients in crossbred sheep of Santa Inês and native breeds. Twenty-four sheep, maintened in total confinement

  19. Desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos Nelore em confinamento alimentados com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e diferentes fontes energéticas Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Nellore fed diets containing sugarcane bagasse and different energy sources

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    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso e as características da carcaça de bovinos Nelore alimentados com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (in natura ou hidrolisado como volumoso e concentrado contendo farelo de gérmen de milho, casca do grão de soja ou polpa de citrus em substituição parcial (50% ao milho. Quarenta bovinos Nelore (peso médio inicial de 340 kg e idade inicial de 32 meses foram alimentados com quatro dietas fornecidas na proporção volumoso:concentrado 39:61. As fontes substitutivas do milho não afetaram o peso final (470,8; 478,6; 476,4 e 475,3 kg e o ganho médio diário (1,1; 1,1; 1,1 e 1,2 kg/animal/dia. Não houve efeito sobre o rendimento de carcaça (55,3; 55,3; 54,0 e 54,8%, a área de Longissimus (24,2; 23,0; 25,0 e 23,2 cm²/100 kg de carcaça e a espessura de gordura (4,4; 5,6; 4,7 e 4,4 mm. O menor custo por arroba foi observado no tratamento com polpa de citrus (R$ 44,20, seguido do farelo de gérmen de milho (R$ 48,80 e da casca de soja (R$ 50,80, porém, quando utilizado somente o milho, o custo da arroba foi de R$ 51,80. O milho moído pode ser parcialmente substituído pelo farelo de gérmen de milho, pela casca de soja ou pela polpa de citrus em dietas para bovinos em confinamento alimentados com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (in natura ou hidrolisado como volumoso, pois a substituição não alterou o ganho de peso e as características de carcaça.The objective of this trial was to evaluate weight gain and carcass traits of feedlot Nellore fed diets containing sugarcane bagasse and one of the following concentrate sources: corn germ meal, soybean hulls or citrus pulp that partially (50% DM replaced ground corn in the diet. The four experimental diets were formulated to yield a forage:concentrate ratio of 39:61. Forty Nellore animals averaging 340 kg of body weight and 32 months of age at the beginning of the trial were used. No significant differences on final weight (470.8, 478.6, 476.4, and 475.3 kg, weight gain (1

  20. Balanço de compostos nitrogenados e produção de proteína microbiana em novilhas leiteiras alimentadas com palma forrageira, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e uréia associados a diferentes suplementos Nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein production in crossbred heifers fed forage cactus, sugar cane bagasse and urea associated to different supplements

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    Ricardo Alexandre Silva Pessoa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da associação de palma forrageira ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e à uréia sobre o balanço de compostos nitrogenados e a produção de proteína microbiana em novilhas leiteiras recebendo ou não suplemento. Foram utilizadas 25 novilhas da raça Girolando, com peso vivo médio inicial de 227 kg, confinadas, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, estabelecidos de acordo com o peso dos animais. A ração controle (sem suplemento foi composta de 64,0% de palma forrageira, 30,0% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, 4,0% de mistura uréia:sulfato de amônio (9:1 e 2,0% de mistura mineral, com base na matéria seca (MS, e as rações experimentais, de 57,0% de palma forrageira, 26,0% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, 3,5% de mistura uréia:sulfato de amônio, 1,8% de mistura mineral e 11,7% de suplemento (0,5% do PV dos animais. Os suplementos testados foram: farelo de trigo, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão ou caroço de algodão. O balanço de nitrogênio não foi influenciado pelas dietas e apresentou valor médio de 49,3 g/dia. A suplementação com farelo de algodão ou com farelo de soja aumentou a excreção de nitrogênio na urina, a concentração de uréia e nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a excreção urinária de uréia e nitrogênio uréico. A associação da palma forrageira ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e à uréia, sem o uso de suplementos, permite eficiência de síntese microbiana de 105 gPBmic/kg de NDT consumido. A suplementação com caroço de algodão proporciona maior excreção urinária de alantoína e derivados de purina e melhor eficiência de síntese microbiana, portanto, é a mais indicada nestas condições.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of association of forage cactus to sugar cane bagasse and urea on nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein synthesis in milk heifers supplemented or not. Twenty-five Holstein-Gir crossbred heifers