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Sample records for bagasse soda lignin

  1. Comparison studies on soda lignin and soda-anthraquinone lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M; Yusof, N.N.M.; Hashim, A.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin were compared in this study. The physico-chemical properties and structural features of the isolated lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV), ash test, Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analyzer, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C-NMR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Nitrobenzene oxidation was performed on these two types of lignin especially for the HPLC analysis. Based on the CHN, 13 C-NMR and UV results there were no significant differences between soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin. The FTIR results also showed that there were no significant differences in terms of functional groups that exist in both lignins. (author)

  2. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  3. Characterisation of lignins isolated from sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene glycol and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Zhang, Zhanying; Wellard, R. Mark; Bartley, John P.; O'Hara, Ian M.; Doherty, William O.S.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment processes using acidified aqueous ethylene glycol (EG) and ionic liquids (ILs) have been reported recently. In this study, recovery of lignins from these processes was conducted, as well as determination of their physico-chemical properties. The amount of lignins recovered from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim]Cl) with HCl as a catalyst and [bmim][CH 3 SO 3 ] was ∼42%, and ∼35%–36% by EG with HCl or H 2 SO 4 as a catalyst, respectively. The isolated lignins were characterised using wet chemistry, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and the results compared to soda lignin from NaOH pretreatment of bagasse. The IL and EG lignins contained no or trace amounts of carbohydrates, slightly lower hydrogen content but slightly higher oxygen contents than soda lignin. The IL and EG lignins contained more C-3 and C-5 reactive sites for Mannich reaction and had more p-hydroxypheny propane unit structures than soda lignin. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence (2D HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified the major substructural units in the lignins, and allowed differences among them to be studied. As EG lignins were extracted in very reactive environment, intermediate enol ethers were formed and led to cleavage reactions which were not apparent in the other lignins. 31 P NMR and infra-red spectroscopy results showed that IL and EG lignins had lower total hydroxyl content than soda lignin, probably indicating that a higher degree of self-polymerisation occurred during bagasse pretreatment, despite the use of lower temperature and shorter reaction time. On the basis of the salient features of these lignins, potential applications were proposed. - Highlights: • Lignins were recovered from ethylene glycol (EG) and ionic liquid (IL) processes. • IL and EG lignins contained no or trace amounts of carbohydrates. • IL and EG lignin had more C-3 and C-5 sites for Mannich reaction than soda

  4. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  5. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Soda Lignin with Polyethylene Glycol

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    Fangda Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin does not have thermal flowing characteristics and it is impossible for it to be further thermally molded. To achieve the fusibility of soda lignin for fiber preparation by melt-spinning, an effective method for soda lignin modification was conducted by cooking it with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 at various ratios. The higher the ratio of PEG that was used, the more PEG molecular chains were grafted at the alpha carbon of the soda lignin through ether bonds, resulting in lower thermal transition temperatures and more excellent fusibility. The modified soda lignin with a weight ratio of lignin to PEG of 1:4 exhibited a relative thermal stability of molten viscosity at selected temperatures. Thereafter, the resultant fusible soda lignin was successfully melt-spun into filaments with an average diameter of 33 ± 5 μm, which is smaller than that of some industrial lignins. Accordingly, it is possible to utilize soda lignin to produce fibrous carbonaceous materials.

  7. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  9. Lignin derivatives from desilicated rice straw soda black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taraboulsi, M A; Nasser, M M

    1979-01-01

    Carboxymethyl lignin, cyanoethyl lignin, carboxyethyl lignin, and aminopropyl lignin were prepared from alkali lignin of rice straw black liquor (after disilication by storage for 1 wk to 1 yr) and used as sizes for paper, drilling fluid additives and flocculants.

  10. Hydrogenolysis and Activation of Soda Lignin Using [BMIM]Cl as a Catalyst and Solvent

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    Shengming Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reactivity of the soda lignin, an acid ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-mthylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl was used as the catalyst and solvent to degrade the soda lignin through hydrogenolysis. Structural elucidation of the lignin samples was conducted by using a combination of analytical methods including chemical analysis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra, two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-HSQC NMR techniques, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antioxidant activities of the lignin samples were evaluated using the diammonium 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS+ radical scavenging and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging methods. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the characterization results. The optimal reaction condition was as follows: the concentration of [BMIM]Cl in the solution was 10 wt %, the hydrogen initial pressure was 3 MPa, and the solution was heated for 4 h at 90 °C. After the reaction, the total hydroxyl content of the soda lignin increased by 81.3%, while the phenolic hydroxyl content increased by 23.1%. At the same time, the weight-average molar mass of the soda lignin sample decreased from 8220 to 6450 g/mol with an improved antioxidant activity. In addition, approximately 56.7% of the β-O-4 linkages were degraded in the lreaction. The main effect of the acid ionic liquid [BMIM]C1 was related to the cleavage of β-O-4 linkages. This study has shown the potential of using the catalyzed soda lignin as a natural polymer antioxidant.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-02-04

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus , could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p -coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Savy, Davide; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.). In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA), ferulate (FA) and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J) were only detected in wheat isolated lignin. PMID:28165411

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Gramineae and Fabaceae Soda Lignins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Domínguez-Robles

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some agricultural residues such as wheat or barley straw, as well as certain fast-growing plants like Leucaena leucocephala and Chamaecytisus proliferus, could be used as raw materials for the paper industry as an alternative to traditional plants (eucalyptus, pine, etc.. In the present study, four types of lignin obtained from the spent liquors produced by the pulping processes using the abovementioned feedstocks were isolated and characterized. Lignin samples were acquired through an acid precipitation from these spent liquors. The characterization of the precipitated lignin samples were performed using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and both liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR to analyse the chemical structure, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA for determining the thermal properties. Additionally, chemical composition of lignin fractions was also measured. Even though they were of different botanical origin, all the studied samples except for wheat straw lignin had a similar chemical composition and thermal behaviour, and identical chemical structure. Wheat straw lignin showed a greater amount of Klason lignin and lower carbohydrate content. Furthermore, this lignin sample showed a higher thermal stability and significantly different cross-peak patterns in the 2D-NMR experiments. The molecular structures corresponding to p-coumarate (PCA, ferulate (FA and cinnamyl aldehyde end-groups (J were only detected in wheat isolated lignin.

  14. Nano Transition Metal Sulfide Catalyst for Solvolysis Liquefaction of Soda Lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei-Ling, P.; Chin-Hua, C.; Sarani Zakaria; Soon-Keong, N.; Tze-Khong, L.

    2011-01-01

    Solvolysis liquefaction of soda lignin in the presence of various transition metal sulfide catalysts was studied to investigate the catalyst effects on the oil and gas yields, conversion rate and higher heating value (HHV) of oil. Nano sized copper sulfide, iron sulfide and molybdenum sulfide were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method under reaction temperature 200 degree Celsius for 90 min. The addition of transition metal sulfide based catalysts (CuS, MoS 2 and FeS 2 ) enhanced both production of the oils and gas and the higher heating value (HHV) of oil products. A high oil and gas yields of 82.1 % and 2890 cm 3 was obtained with MoS 2 at 250 degree Celsius for 60 min. Elemental analyses for the oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude soda lignin powder. (author)

  15. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2011-01-01

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model

  16. Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijiao Zeng; Zhaohui Tong; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; Lonnie Ingram

    2014-01-01

    The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation...

  17. Use of Lignins from Sugarcane Bagasse for Assembling Microparticles Loaded with Azadirachta indica Extracts for Use as Neem-Based Organic Insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Eveline S.; Perlatti, Bruno; Silva, Everton M. da; Matos, Andreia P.; Silva, Maria Fátima G. F. da; Fernandes, João B.; Zuin, Vânia G.; Silva, Caio M. P. da; Forim, Moacir R.

    2017-01-01

    Microcapsules of sugarcane bagasse lignin loaded with organic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) were prepared and evaluated as potential bioinsecticides. Lignins were extracted and modified by oxidation and acetylation reactions providing different biopolymers. Afterwards, they were characterized through several analytical techniques. The formulations were initially prepared as colloidal suspension of lignin nanoparticles, which were then spray-dried. The products were submitted to qualit...

  18. Comparative studies on anthraquinone retention following the soda/anthraquinone process using 14C-labelled anthraquinone, and mode of action of anthraquinone on lignins and lignin model components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuetze, E.

    1982-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the clarification of the following questions: how much of the additive is retained in cellulose following soda/anthraquinone-wood pulping; how much anthraquinone can be detected after extraction studies and after a conventional CEHD-bleaching treatment; can differences be detected between soda lignins and soda/anthraquinone lignins with respect to analytical data, spectroscopie characteristics and macromolecular properties; and how do dimeric lignin models with #betta#-arylether structure behave in decomposition studies using the soda/anthraquinone process. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Advances in the chemical utilization of alkali lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Klashorst, G.H.

    1985-06-01

    Large quantities of alkali lignin are produced as by-products by the South African pulping industry. The potential utilization of industrial soda/anthraquinone (soda/AQ) eucalyptus, kraft pine and soda bagasse lignin was subsequently investigated. The molecular mass distributions of the three lignins were similar when determined by high pressure gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC). The quantitative and quanlitative occurrence of various low molecular mass lignin fragments in the different spent liquors, on the other hand, indicated that the three lignins have substantial chemical differences. Analysis of the purified degraded lignins by NMR, methoxyl content determinations, elemental analysis, carbohydrate content determinations etc., quantified various of the chemical properties of the lignin. The properties of the three lignins were ultimately used to make recommendations regarding the potential use of each lignin. One such application was investigated and it was shown that soda bagasse lignin can be used successfully in phenol formaldehyde resin applications. The reaction of formaldehyde with lignin model compounds in acidic medium was also investigated. This reaction was shown to give fast crosslinking of alkyl substituted phenolic and etherified phenolic lignin model compounds at positions meta to the aromatic hydroxy groups

  20. A comparative study for the organic byproducts from hydrothermal carbonizations of sugarcane bagasse and its bio-refined components cellulose and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fang-Li; Du, Qi-Shi; Dai, Jun; Tang, Pei-Duo; Li, Yan-Ming; Long, Si-Yu; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Yan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was refined into cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin using an ethanol-based organosolv technique. The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reactions were applied for bagasse and its two components cellulose and lignin. Based on GC-MS analysis, 32 (13+19) organic byproducts were derived from cellulose and lignin, more than the 22 byproducts from bagasse. Particularly, more valuable catechol products were obtained from lignin with 56.8% share in the total GC-MS integral area, much higher than the 2.263% share in the GC-MS integral areas of bagasse. The organic byproducts from lignin make up more than half of the total mass of lignin, indicating that lignin is a chemical treasure storage. In general, bio-refinery and HTC are two effective techniques for the valorization of bagasse and other biomass materials from agriculture and forest industry. HTC could convert the inferior biomass to superior biofuel with higher energy quantity of combustion, at the same time many valuable organic byproducts are produced. Bio-refinery could promote the HTC reaction of biomass more effective. With the help of bio-refinery and HTC, bagasse and other biomass materials are not only the sustainable energy resource, but also the renewable and environment friendly chemical materials, the best alternatives for petroleum, coal and natural gas.

  1. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

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    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  2. Effect of Bagasse Chemical Pulping and Coupling Agent on the Physical - Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Bagasse pulp/Low density polyethylene

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    maryam allahdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of reinforcing bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers and applying coupling agent MAPE (Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene on physical-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE composites were studided. Fresh bagasse were collected from an experimental field in Khuzestan and after investigating anatomy and chemical properties of Different pulp fibers including monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (BS bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UNS bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were prepared. Then, composites with 30wt.% fiber content were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding processing. The mechanical and physical properties of these composites were analyzed and compared. Results revealed that the chemical pulping dissolved a fraction of lignin and hemicelluloses so that the linkage potential and aspect ratio of bagasse fibers was improved and consequently, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability. The best overall properties were achieved with MEA and AS/AQ fibers. Addition of 5% (wt/wt of coupling agent MAPE resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile strength, tensile modulus and impact strength in line with the improvement of the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion making more effective the transfer of stress from the matrix to the rigid reinforcement.

  3. Characterization of Lignin Precipitated From The Soda Black Liquor of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers by Various Mineral Acids

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    M.N Mohamad Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch was directly isolated by various mineral acids i.e. sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and nitric acid at three levels of concentration (20% v/v, 60%v/v and concentrated. A comparison study was performed through physicochemical properties and structural features using FT-IR, UV, 13C-NMR and nitrobenzene oxidation. The FT-IR results showed that there is no significant difference between the main structures of the lignin isolated by various acids. However, low concentration of phosphoric acid is preferable because of its highest yield. The S: V: H ratio of 7-15:6-11:1 as evaluated by the nitrobenzene oxidation procedure suggests that soda lignin can be classified as belonging to either the cereal straw on grass type. The UV results indicate that phosphoric acid consistently gave the highest absorbance value among the four acids tested in this study regardless of its concentration level. The C13-FTNMR spectra, suggest that the lignin structure is independent of the type of acid used for precipitation.

  4. The effect of amphipilic lignin derivatives addition on enzymatic hydrolysis performance of kraft pulp from sorghum bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatriasari, Widya; Nugroho Adi, D. T.; Laksana, R. P. B.; Fajriutami, T.; Raniya, R.; Ghozali, M.; Hermiati, E.

    2018-03-01

    Previously, the chemical characteristics of isolated lignin from Acacia mangium black liquor of kraft pulping was characterized. This lignin was blended with natural rubber latex (NR-L) as adhesive in laminated wood. In addition, lignin has potency for biosurfactant materials by modification of the hydrophobic into hydrophilic properties. Therefore, this study was intended to develop lignin as material for amphipilic lignin derivatives (A-LD) biosurfactant by reacting lignin with epoxilated polyethylene glicol (PEG). A-LD addition in slurries was used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) of kraft pulp sweet bagasse sorghum (SSB). The main observation in EH performance was to investigate the effect of lignin isolation method (one and two step) in A-LD and A-LD loading addition on reducing sugar yield (RSY) of SSB kraft pulp. The pulp was hydrolyzed at 50°C and 150 rpm for 72 h with 10 FPU cellulase loading in the shaking incubator. A-LD from one (L1S) and two step (L2S) lignin was added with A-LD loading of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10% (b/v). The RSY of hydrolyzate has been observed after EH. A-LDs addition in EH of SSB kraft pulp enhanced RSY. L1S worked better in reaction performance with PEDGE compared to L2S and LS. A better performance was showed by PEDGE 500 than that of PEDGE 6000. Generally, the higher A-LDs loading resulted higher RSY. The highest RSY (81.33%) was resulted in addition of 10% A-LD L1S using PEDGE 500. A 5% A-LD loading was more considered to be added in EH because the RSY was comparable with 10% A-LD loading.

  5. Physical vapor deposited thin films of lignins extracted from sugar cane bagasse: morphology, electrical properties, and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpati, Diogo; Machado, Aislan D; Olivati, Clarissa A; Alves, Neri; Curvelo, Antonio A S; Pasquini, Daniel; Constantino, Carlos J L

    2011-09-12

    The concern related to the environmental degradation and to the exhaustion of natural resources has induced the research on biodegradable materials obtained from renewable sources, which involves fundamental properties and general application. In this context, we have fabricated thin films of lignins, which were extracted from sugar cane bagasse via modified organosolv process using ethanol as organic solvent. The films were made using the vacuum thermal evaporation technique (PVD, physical vapor deposition) grown up to 120 nm. The main objective was to explore basic properties such as electrical and surface morphology and the sensing performance of these lignins as transducers. The PVD film growth was monitored via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, revealing a linear relationship between absorbance and film thickness. The 120 nm lignin PVD film morphology presented small aggregates spread all over the film surface on the nanometer scale (atomic force microscopy, AFM) and homogeneous on the micrometer scale (optical microscopy). The PVD films were deposited onto Au interdigitated electrode (IDE) for both electrical characterization and sensing experiments. In the case of electrical characterization, current versus voltage (I vs V) dc measurements were carried out for the Au IDE coated with 120 nm lignin PVD film, leading to a conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-10) S/m. Using impedance spectroscopy, also for the Au IDE coated with the 120 nm lignin PVD film, dielectric constant of 8.0, tan δ of 3.9 × 10(-3), and conductivity of 1.75 × 10(-9) S/m were calculated at 1 kHz. As a proof-of-principle, the application of these lignins as transducers in sensing devices was monitored by both impedance spectroscopy (capacitance vs frequency) and I versus time dc measurements toward aniline vapor (saturated atmosphere). The electrical responses showed that the sensing units are sensible to aniline vapor with the process being

  6. Flocculation of wheat straw soda lignin by hemoglobin and chicken blood: Effects of cationic polymer or calcium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocculation can be used to separate non-sulfonated lignin from base hydrolyzed biomass. In the industrial process, the lignin is isolated by filtration and washed with water. Some of the lignin is lost in the wash water, and flocculation can be used to recover this lignin. Several ways of enhanc...

  7. Kinetic modeling of formic acid pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiliang; Fu, Shiyu; Zhan, Huaiyu; Chai, Xinsheng; Lucia, Lucian A

    2008-05-14

    Organic solvent or organosolv pulping processes are alternatives to soda or kraft pulping to delignify lignocellulosic materials for the production of paper pulp. Formic acid, a typical organosolv system, has been presently examined under atmospheric pressure to pulp bagasse fibers. It was shown that efficient bagasse pulping was achieved when the formic acid concentration was limited to 90% (v/v). A statistical kinetic model based on the experimental results for the delignification of bagasse during formic acid pulping was developed that can be described as follows: D (delignification) = 0.747 x C(formicacid) (1.688) x (1 - e(-0.05171t)), an equation that can be used to predict the lignin content in formic acid during the pulping process. The delignification of bagasse by 90% formic acid was almost completed after approximately 80 min, while extended pulping did not improve the delignification but tended to degrade the carbohydrates in bagasse, especially the hemicelluloses, which were rapidly hydrolyzed at the onset of pulping.

  8. Polymerization of different lignins by laccase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattinen, M.L.; Suortti, T.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Argyropoulos, D.S.; Evtuguin, D.; Suurnäkki, A.; Jong, de E.; Tamminen, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the oxidative polymerization of different lignins, i.e. Flax Soda lignin, Spruce EMAL, and Eucalyptus Dioxane lignin by Trametes hirsuta laccase was compared. Initially the structures of the different lignins were compared by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reactivity of

  9. New insights into the structure and composition of technical lignins : A comparative characterisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Sandra|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374650519; Wienk, Hans L J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203884884; Frissen, Augustinus E.; Peinder, Peter De|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325810818; Boelens, Rolf|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070151407; Van Es, Daan S.; Grisel, Ruud J H; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X

    2016-01-01

    Detailed insight into the structure and composition of industrial (technical) lignins is needed to devise efficient thermal, bio- or chemocatalytic valorisation strategies. Six such technical lignins covering three main industrial pulping methods (Indulin AT Kraft, Protobind 1000 soda lignin and

  10. New insights into the structure and composition of technical lignins: a comparative characterisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Sandra; Wienk, Hans L.J.; Frissen, A.E.; Peinder, de Peter; Boelens, Rolf; Es, van D.S.; Grisel, Ruud J.H.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed insight into the structure and composition of industrial (technical) lignins is needed to devise efficient thermal, bio- or chemocatalytic valorisation strategies. Six such technical lignins covering three main industrial pulping methods (Indulin AT Kraft, Protobind 1000 soda lignin and

  11. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, Atef S., E-mail: atef_mouharam@sci.asu.edu.eg [Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Shehata, Iman H. [Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Elhalem, Sahar S. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-03-01

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models.

  12. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R.; Darwish, Atef S.; Shehata, Iman H.; Abd Elhalem, Sahar S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models

  13. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Shehata, Iman H; Abd Elhalem, Sahar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg/week for 2.5months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixture Design Approach on the Physical Properties of Lignin-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Xerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D. Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic xerogels were functionalized by incorporating sugarcane bagasse lignin from soda pulping black liquor, not used so far in this materials, with the aim of introducing new functional groups on traditional gels that could improve its adsorptive capacity. Two mixing designs were applied to identify the reactive combinations that allow a well gel formation and to adjust models that predict physical properties. The designs study five components: resorcinol (R, 0.04–0.3, lignin (L, 0.004–0.14, formaldehyde (F, 0.08–0.17, water (W, 0.45–0.8, and NaOH (C, 0.0003–0.0035. The first experimental design was an extreme vertices design and its results showed shrinkage between 4.3 and 59.7 and a bulk density from 0.54 to 1.3; a mass ratio LR/F near 1.5 was required for gel formation. In the second design a D-Optimal was used to achieve better adjusted coefficients and incorporate the largest possible amount of lignin in the gels. Bulk density varies from 0.42 to 0.9, shrinkage varies from 3.42 to 25.35, and specific surface area reaches values of 451.86 m2/g with 13% lignin and 270 m2/g with 27% lignin. High catalyst content improves lignin dissolution and increase shrinkage and bulk density of xerogels and bulk density. Lignin contributes to reducing shrinkage and specific surface area due to his compact and rigid structure.

  15. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm"2 and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  16. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail: takaomi@nagaoakut.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm{sup 2} and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  17. Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman; Syverud, Kristin; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Ghasemain, Ali; Resalati, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of using bagasse microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in bagasse paper. Two different types of MFC were produced from DED bleached soda bagasse pulp. The MFC was added to soda bagasse pulp furnishes in different amounts. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) was selected as retention aid. The results show that addition of MFC increased the strength of paper as expected. Interestingly, 1% MFC in combination with 0.1% C-PAM yielded similar drainage time as the reference pulp, which did not contain MFC. In addition, the samples containing 1% MFC and 0.1% C-PAM yielded (i) a significant increment of the tensile index, (ii) a minor decrease of opacity and (iii) preserved Gurley porosity. Hence, this study proves that small fractions of MFC in combination with adequate retention aids can have positive effects with respect to paper properties, which is most interesting from an industrial point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biobased alkylphenols from lignins via a two-step pyrolysis - Hydrodeoxygenation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Kloekhorst, A.; Chowdari, R. K.; Heeres, H. J.

    Five technical lignins (three organosolv, Kraft and soda lignin) were depolymerised to produce monomeric biobased aromatics, particularly alkylphenols, by a new two-stage thermochemical approach consisting of dedicated pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the resulting

  19. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  20. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Cardoso, Vanessa M.; Mori, Manoel N.; Duarte, Celina L.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  1. Oxidative polymerization of lignins by laccase in water-acetone mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiţigău, Ionița Firuța; Peter, Francisc; Boeriu, Carmen Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic oxidative polymerization of five technical lignins with different molecular properties, i.e. Soda Grass/Wheat straw Lignin, Organosolv Hardwood Lignin, Soda Wheat straw Lignin, Alkali pretreated Wheat straw Lignin, and Kraft Softwood was studied. All lignins were previously fractionated by acetone/water 50:50 (v/v) and the laccase-catalyzed polymerization of the low molecular weight fractions (Mw Reactivity of lignin substrates in laccase-catalyzed reactions was determined by monitoring the oxygen consumption. The oxidation reactions in 50% acetone in water mixture proceed with high rate for all tested lignins. Polymerization products were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography, FT-IR, and (31)P-NMR and evidence of important lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Lignin polymers with higher molecular weight (Mw up to 17500 g/mol) were obtained. The obtained polymers have potential for applications in bioplastics, adhesives and as polymeric dispersants.

  2. Structural Changes of Bagasse dusring the Homogeneous Esterification with Maleic Anhydride in Ionic Liquid 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The maleation of bagasse could greatly increase the compatibility between bagasse and composite matrixes, and the percentage of substitution (PS of bagasse maleates could be regulated in the homogeneous system. However, due to the complicated components and the linkages of bagasse, it was difficult to control the reaction behaviors of each component. In this paper, the detailed structural changes of bagasse during the homogeneous maleation in ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl were comparatively investigated with the three main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin from bagasse. The PS of the maleated bagasse was 12.52%, and the PS of the maleated cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin were 13.50%, 10.89%, and 14.03%, respectively. Fourier translation infrared (FT-IR and NMR analyses confirmed that the three main components were all involved in the homogeneous maleation. 1H-13C HSQC analysis indicated that the predominant monoesterification of cellulose, diesterification of hemicelluloses and lignin, and the degradation of the three main components simultaneously occurred. Besides, the quantitative analysis from 1H-13C HSQC revealed the relative PS of reactive sites in each component. 31P NMR results showed that the reactivity of lignin aliphatic hydroxyls was higher than that of phenolic ones, and the reactivity of phenolic hydroxyls followed the order of p-hydroxyphenyl hydroxyls > guaiacyl hydroxyls > syringyl hydroxyls.

  3. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  4. Effects of some added carbohydrates on cellulases and ligninase and decomposition of whole bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, P; Prabhu, K A

    1986-01-01

    Two basidiomycetes mould isolates were studied for the production of extracellular cellulases and ligninase in submerged shake culture using whole bagasse as substrate. The effects of some added carbohydrates on enzyme production, substrate decomposition and biomass formation were examined. In both cultures the addition of lactose stimulated biomass production and increased the decomposition of total carbohydrate and lignin contents of bagasse. Lactose was the only sugar which stimulated cellulase and ligninase in both cultures. 19 references.

  5. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Kumar Saw; Chandan Datta

    2009-01-01

    Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA) to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy comp...

  6. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months.

  7. Catalytic depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Koranyi, T.I.; Boot, M.D.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    One-step valorization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol using a CuMgAlOx catalyst results in high monomer yield (23 wt¿%) without char formation. Aromatics are the main products. The catalyst combines excellent deoxygenation with low ring-hydrogenation activity. Almost half of the monomer

  8. Liquid-phase reforming and hydrodeoxygenation as a two-step route to aromatics from lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, A.L.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    A two-step approach to the conversion of organosolv, kraft and sugarcane bagasse lignin to monoaromatic compounds of low oxygen content is presented. The first step consists of lignin depolymerization in a liquid phase reforming (LPR) reaction over a 1 wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at 225 °C in alkaline

  9. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Finguerut, J.; Galvão, A.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Célia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  10. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  11. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  12. Lignin Macromolecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plant or a structural component of a mature plant which is detected by certain colour reactions. An enzymologist has termed lignin as the ... a phenyl-propanoid structure. A soil chemist considers lignin to be the residue of .... refer to the hardness of wood, but to the botanical classifications. They are aptly called gymnosperms ...

  13. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings for the conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspeta, Luis; Caro-Bermúdez, Mario A.; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol. • Ethanosolv-pretreatment variables were statistically adjusted. • 91% of total sugars found in agave bagasse were recovered. • 225 g/L glucose from 30%-consistency hydrolysis using mini-reactors with peg-mixers. • 0.25 g of ethanol per g of dry agave bagasse was obtained. - Abstract: Agave bagasse is the lignocellulosic residue accumulated during the production of alcoholic beverages in Mexico and is a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. A factorial design was used to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and concentrations of acid and ethanol on ethanosolv pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of agave bagasse. This method and the use of a stirred in-house-made mini-reactor increased the digestibility of agave bagasse from 30% observed with the dilute-acid method to 98%; also allowed reducing the quantity of enzymes used to hydrolyze samples with solid loadings of 30% w/w and glucose concentrations up to 225 g/L were obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysates. Overall this process allows the recovery of 91% of the total fermentable sugars contained in the agave bagasse (0.51 g/g) and 69% of total lignin as co-product (0.11 g/g). The maximum ethanol yield under optimal conditions using an industrial yeast strain for the fermentation was 0.25 g/g of dry agave bagasse, which is 86% of the maximum theoretical (0.29 g/g). The effect of the glucose concentration and solid loading on the conversion of cellulose to glucose is discussed, in addition to prospective production of about 50 million liters of fuel ethanol using agave bagasse residues from the tequila industry as a potential solution to the disposal problems

  15. Lewis-acid catalyzed depolymerization of Protobind lignin in supercritical water and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, B.; Heeres, E.H.J.; Pidko, E.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of metal acetates, metal chlorides and metal triflates as Lewis acid catalysts for the depolymerization of soda lignin under supercritical conditions was investigated. The reactions were carried out at 400°C in water and ethanol. Lignin conversion in supercritical water led to formation of

  16. Lewis-acid catalyzed depolymerization of Protobind lignin in supercritical water and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Ernie J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of metal acetates, metal chlorides and metal triflates as Lewis acid catalysts for the depolymerization of soda lignin under supercritical conditions was investigated. The reactions were carried out at 400 degrees C in water and ethanol. Lignin conversion in supercritical water led to

  17. Evaluation of lime and hydrothermal pretreatments for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Maira Prearo; Marques, Marina Paganini; Laluce, Cecília; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Sponchiado, Sandra Regina Pombeiro

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment step to disrupt the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin complex and to increase biomass digestibility, thus allowing the obtaining of high yields of fermentable sugars for the subsequent fermentation. Hydrothermal and lime pretreatments have emerged as effective methods in preparing the lignocellulosic biomass for bioconversion. These pretreatments are advantageous because they can be performed under mild temperature and pressure conditions, resulting in less sugar degradation compared with other pretreatments, and also are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these pretreatments on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse obtained directly from mill without prior screening. In addition, we evaluated the structure and composition modifications of this bagasse after lime and hydrothermal pretreatments. The highest cellulose hydrolysis rate (70 % digestion) was obtained for raw sugarcane bagasse pretreated with lime [0.1 g Ca(OH)2/g raw] for 60 min at 120 °C compared with hydrothermally pretreated bagasse (21 % digestion) under the same time and temperature conditions. Chemical composition analyses showed that the lime pretreatment of bagasse promoted high solubilization of lignin (30 %) and hemicellulose (5 %) accompanied by a cellulose accumulation (11 %). Analysis of pretreated bagasse structure revealed that lime pretreatment caused considerable damage to the bagasse fibers, including rupture of the cell wall, exposing the cellulose-rich areas to enzymatic action. We showed that lime pretreatment is effective in improving enzymatic digestibility of raw sugarcane bagasse, even at low lime loading and over a short pretreatment period. It was also demonstrated that this pretreatment caused alterations in the structure and composition of raw bagasse, which had a pronounced effect on the enzymes accessibility to the

  18. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiscale Alterations in Sugar Cane Bagasse and Straw Submitted to Alkaline Deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cleilton S. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rabelo, Sarita C. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Ciesielski, Peter N. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Roberto, Inês C. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rocha, George J. M. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Driemeier, Carlos [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    2018-01-31

    Alkaline deacetylation has emerged as a promising chemistry for pretreatments performed prior to enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. This process avoids complex pressurized reactors and opens new opportunities for lignin covalorization. In this work, we evaluate the chemical and morphological response of sugar cane bagasse and straw submitted to alkaline treatments. Alkaline solutions for deacetylation (0.4% w/w NaOH, 70 degrees C, 3 h) as well as proximal conditions (0.1-0.7% NaOH, 55-85 degrees C, 1-5 h) chosen by 23 experimental design were evaluated. The deacetylation treatment removes ~90% of the acetyl groups and 20-30% of the lignin from both bagasse and straw, while removal of ~20% of the xylan and glucan is observed in straw, but not in bagasse. Considering nanoscale structural alterations, neither cellulose cocrystallization (evaluated by X-ray diffraction) nor formation of lignin aggregates (evaluated by thermoporometric signature) are observed after the alkaline conditions, in contrast to observations after hydrothermal treatments. Furthermore, calorimetric thermoporometry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies show substantial introduction of nanoscale porosity and loosening of the tissue and cell wall structures, indicating desirable mechanical weakening and gains in enzyme accessibility. These results provide fundamental and practical knowledge for biorefineries based on alkaline deacetylation of sugar cane bagasse and straw.

  20. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque.

  1. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE LIGNINS FOR USE IN PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE AND EPOXY RESINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eddine El Mansouri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides polyurethanes and polyesters, phenolic and epoxy resins are the most prominent applications for technical lignins in thermosetting materials. To evaluate the potential application of lignin raw materials in phenol formaldehyde and epoxy resins, three types of alkaline lignins were characterized in terms of their structures and thermal properties. The lignin samples analyzed were kraft lignin (LIG-1, soda–rice straw lignin (LIG-2, and soda-wheat straw lignin (LIG-3. FTIR and 1H-NMR methods were used to determine their structure. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC was used to determine the molecular weight distribution (MWD. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to determine the thermal stability of lignin samples. Results showed that kraft lignin (LIG-1 has moderate hydroxyl-group content, is rich in G-type units, and has good thermal stability. These properties make it more suitable for direct use in phenol formaldehyde resins, and it is therefore a good raw material for this purpose. The alkaline soda-rice straw lignin (LIG-2 with a high hydroxyl-group content and excellent thermal stability is most suited to preparing lignin-based epoxy resins.

  3. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  4. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  5. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, S.E.; Sokker, S.S.; Dessooki, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  6. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  7. Disruption of sugarcane bagasse lignocellulosic structure by means of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with microwave-assisted heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Tu, Yi-Jian; Sheen, Herng-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pretreatment of dilute sulfuric acid on bagasse using microwave heating. → An increase in reaction temperature destroyed bagasse significantly. → Pretreated bagasse particles were characterized by fragmentation and swelling. → When the temperature was 190 o C, the fragmentation of particles became pronounced. → The influence of heating time on bagasse structure was not significant. - Abstract: Disruption of lignocellulosic structure of biomass plays a key role in producing bioethanol from lignocelluloses. This study investigated the impact of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment on bagasse structure using microwave heating. Three reaction temperatures of 130, 160 and 190 o C with two heating times of 5 and 10 min were considered and a number of instruments were employed to analyze the properties of the bagasse particles. On account of microwave irradiation into the solution with dielectric heating, the experiments indicated that an increase in reaction temperature destroyed the lignocellulosic structure of bagasse in a significant way. The pretreated bagasse particles were simultaneously characterized by fragmentation and swelling. When the reaction temperature was as high as 190 o C, the fragmentation of particles became fairly pronounced so that the specific surface area of the pretreated material grew substantially. Meanwhile, almost all hemicellulose was removed from bagasse and the crystalline structure of cellulose disappeared. In contrast, the feature of lignin was remained clearly. However, a comparison between the heating times of 5 and 10 min revealed that the influence of the heating time on the lignocellulosic structure was not significant, indicating that the pretreatment with 5 min was sufficiently long.

  8. Modified lignin: Preparation and use in reversible gel via Diels-Alder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanpeng; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Fangeng

    2018-02-01

    In this study, popular soda lignin was modified with either furan or maleimide ring, and the modified lignins were subjected to reversible Diels-Alder reaction. A new process was proposed to prepare the functionalized lignin. A long chain was introduced to the hydroxyl groups of lignin, and then either the furan or maleimide ring was added to the other end of the chain. The test results confirmed that either the furan ring or the maleimide ring was bound to lignin. Furan- and maleimide-functionalized lignins were also combined to generate crosslinking via Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition reaction. Under appropriate conditions, the formation of a gel was identified, which reverted to liquid state after retro Diels-Alder reaction upon heating at 120°C. This study reveals the significant versatility and potential of the developed strategy for the utilization of lignin-based recyclable networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lignin nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole; Wheeler, David R.; Benko, David A.

    2015-08-11

    A method including reducing a particle size of lignin particles to an average particle size less than 40 nanometers; after reducing the particle size, combining the lignin particles with a polymeric material; and forming a structure of the combination. A method including exposing lignin to a diazonium precursor including a functional group; modifying the lignin by introducing the functional group to the lignin; and combining the modified lignin with a polymeric material to form a composite. An apparatus including a composite of a polymer and lignin wherein the lignin has an average particle size less than 100 micrometers.

  10. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  11. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  12. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks | Akgül ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, cotton stalks (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cooked using soda and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) process. Nine soda cooks were conducted by changing cooking conditions including active alkali charge and pulping time. Soda-AQ cooks were obtained by adding 0.075, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2% AQ (based on o.d stalks) to ...

  13. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used asa home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to causea variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagicencephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers ofbaking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(5)619...

  14. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  15. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  16. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  17. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  18. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  19. The Effect of Sugarcane Bagassès Size on the Properties of Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhou, Guoqiang; Li, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The influence of milled bagasse particle size on their reducing sugar and lignin content during dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymolysis was investigated. The biomass crystal structures of hydrolyzed residues and enzymolyzed substrates were studied with X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that the conversion ratio of reducing sugar declined with decreasing milled bagasse particle size. The conversion ratio of reducing sugar after acid hydrolysis decreased from 31.3% to 28.9%. The smaller of the milled bagasse particle size was, the higher of the klason lignin content of hydrolyzed residuals was, which resulted in a decline in conversion ratio of reducing sugar during enzymolysis. In this study, the optimal size of milled bagasse particles was 10 to 20 meshes. The total reducing sugar conversion ratio was 61.5%, consisting of 31.3% in hydrolysis and 30.2% in enzymolysis. After hydrolysis, the specific surface area and pore size increased, and the fiber length was shortened. The inner microfiber bundles were exposed, which improved the accessibility of cellulase and the efficiency of enzymolysis.

  20. Role of Cu-Mg-Al mixed oxide catalysts in lignin depolymerization in supercritical ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Ceylanpinar, A.; Koranyi, T.I.; Boot, M.D.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of Cu-Mg-Al mixed oxides in depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol. A series of mixed oxides with varying Cu content and (Cu+Mg)/Al ratio were prepared. The optimum catalyst containing 20 wt% Cu and having a (Cu+Mg)/Al ratio of 4 yielded 36 wt% monomers

  1. The Effect of Plant Source on the Properties of Lignin-Based Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Lang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work increases our understanding of the effect of plant source on the mechanical and morphological properties of lignin-based polyurethanes (PUs. Lignin is a polymer that is synthesized inside the plant cell wall and can be used as a polyol to synthesize PUs. The specific aromatic structure of the lignin is heavily reliant on the plant source from which it is extracted. These results show that the mechanical properties of lignin-based PUs differ based on lignin’s plant source. The morphology of lignin-based PUs was examined using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the mechanical properties of lignin-based PU samples were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis and shore hardness (Type A. The thermal analysis and morphology studies demonstrate that all PUs prepared form a multiphase morphology. In these PUs, better mixing was observed in the wheat straw lignin PU samples leading to higher moduli than in the hardwood lignin and softwood lignin PUs whose morphology was dominated by larger aggregates. Independent of the type of the lignin used, increasing the fraction of lignin increased the rigidity of PU. Among the different types of lignin studied, PU with wheat straw soda lignin exhibited storage moduli ~2-fold higher than those of PUs incorporating other lignins. This study also showed that during synthesis all hydroxyl groups in the lignin are not available to react with isocyanates, which alters the number of cross-links formed within the PU and impacts the mechanical properties of the material.

  2. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  3. Electricity from bagasse in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbohwa, C.; Fukuda, S.

    2003-01-01

    Zimbabwe has suffered electrical power shortages resulting in electrical energy imports rising to between 40% and 50% of total energy needs. Electricity generation capacity has stagnated at around 2000 Megawatts (MW e ) since 1985, when two thermal units totaling 440 MW e were completed at Hwange. The effective capacity is 1.75 GW e . The current plan is to increase capacity by installing 600 MW e at Hwange at a cost of at least US $ 600 million. Raising this level of capital is difficult hence over the last 15 years there has been a failure to increase capacity. This article is based on a study of bagasse cogeneration in Zimbabwe and Mauritius conducted over a two-year period. It discusses technology improvements that can be made in the sugar sector to improve process and energy efficiency for the purposes of becoming an independent power producer that supplies power to the grid continuously throughout the year. Power plant investment in the sugar industry offers a bridging and realizable alternative for electricity generation in Zimbabwe. Investment in a 35 MW e bagasse (moisturized fiber left when sugar has been extracted from sugarcane) system would require a capital of about US$ 35 million using modern technology based on experiences in Mauritius and Reunion. A technical and economic evaluation and analysis reveals that bagasse power development is technically and economically feasible if electricity is priced at the long-term marginal cost. At current import prices, financial assistance from the global environment facility and/or the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol would be necessary. The solving of the current political and economic problems in the country would pave the way for attracting a technical partner and development, of bagasse power using domestic and international financing

  4. Bioconversion of hydrolyzed cashew peduncle bagasse for ethanol and xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena L. de Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agro-industrial waste deposited in the environment causes problems in nature that can be solved with the use and generation of bioproducts. Thus, the objective was to study the lignocellulosic fraction of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. peduncle bagasse and fermentation on large scale (8-16 times using the strain Candida guilliermondii CCT-3544 as production agent. According to the obtained results, it can be noted that the dry cashew peduncle bagasse has 21.45% of cellulose, 10.96% of hemicellulose and 35.39% of lignin. During fermentation, C. guilliermondii 3544-CAT was able to grow on medium containing hydrolysate, with maximum cell growth concentration of 3.5 g L-1. The behavior of the sugars in the fermentation process was similar in the different variables, with maximum production of ethanol and xylitol at 48 h of fermentation.

  5. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using 13C Lignin as Internal Standard for Pyrolysis-GC-SIM-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erven, Gijs; de Visser, Ries; Merkx, Donny W H; Strolenberg, Willem; de Gijsel, Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2017-10-17

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric analysis after sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Hence, our research aimed at specific lignin quantification with concurrent characterization of its structural features. Hereto, for the first time, a polymeric 13 C lignin was used as internal standard (IS) for lignin quantification via analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (py-GC-SIM-MS). In addition, relative response factors (RRFs) for the various pyrolysis products obtained were determined and applied. First, 12 C and 13 C lignin were isolated from nonlabeled and uniformly 13 C labeled wheat straw, respectively, and characterized by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and py-GC/MS. The two lignin isolates were found to have identical structures. Second, 13 C-IS based lignin quantification by py-GC-SIM-MS was validated in reconstituted biomass model systems with known contents of the 12 C lignin analogue and was shown to be extremely accurate (>99.9%, R 2 > 0.999) and precise (RSD corn stover, and sugar cane bagasse), and lignin contents were in good agreement with the total gravimetrically determined lignin contents. Our robust method proves to be a promising alternative for the high-throughput quantification of lignin in milled biomass samples directly and simultaneously provides a direct insight into the structural features of lignin.

  6. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  7. Vegetable seedling production with sugarcane bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 380,000 ac and 12.8 million tons of harvested sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar (brown sugar), and an estimated 3 million tons of the fibrous plant residue called bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after remov...

  8. Lignin Valorization: Emerging Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Lignin, an aromatic biopolymer found in plant cell walls, is a key component of lignocellulosic biomass and generally utilized for heat and power. However, lignin's chemical composition makes it an attractive source for biological and catalytic conversion to fuels and chemicals. Bringing together experts from biology, catalysis, engineering, analytical chemistry, and techno-economic/life-cycle analysis, Lignin Valorization presents a comprehensive, interdisciplinary picture of how lignocellulosic biorefineries could potentially employ lignin valorization technologies. Chapters will specifically focus on the production of fuels and chemicals from lignin and topics covered include (i) methods for isolating lignin in the context of the lignocellulosic biorefinery, (ii) thermal, chemo-catalytic, and biological methods for lignin depolymerization, (iii) chemo-catalytic and biological methods for upgrading lignin, (iv) characterization of lignin, and (v) techno-economic and life-cycle analysis of integrated processes to utilize lignin in an integrated biorefinery. The book provides the latest breakthroughs and challenges in upgrading lignin to fuels and chemicals for graduate students and researchers in academia, governmental laboratories, and industry interested in biomass conversion.

  9. Analytical methodology for sulfonated lignins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need to characterize and classify lignins and sulfonated lignins. Lignins have so far received a good deal of attention, whereas this is not true for sulfonated lignins. There is a clear demand for a better understanding of sulfonated lignins on a chemical as well as physical

  10. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome.

  11. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  12. CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO 2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Bagasse cogeneration projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development. This study assesses the maximum theoretical as well as the realistically achievable CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO 2 mitigation by the use of bagasse for power generation through cogeneration process in India. The preliminary results indicate that the annual gross potential availability of bagasse in India is more than 67 million tonnes (MT). The potential of electricity generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 34 TWh i.e. about 5575 MW in terms of the plant capacity. The annual CER potential of bagasse cogeneration in India could theoretically reach 28 MT. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of bagasse cogeneration based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 20-26 million. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of bagasse cogeneration for power generation is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 20 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  13. Sulfur-free lignins from alkaline pulping tested in mortar for use as mortar additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadif, A; Hunkeler, D; Käuper, P

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur-free lignin, obtained through the acid precipitation of black liquor from the soda pulping process, has been tested as water reducer in mortar. It has also been compared to existing commercial additives such as naphthalene sulfonates and lignosulfonates. The ash content and sugar content of these lignins are low in comparison to lignosulfonates, conferring on them higher purity. A procedure for small scale testing derived from the industrial norms SN-EN196 and ASTM (Designation C230-90) is presented. Specifically, all the sulfur-free lignins tested improved the flow of the mortar. Selected flax lignins performed better than lignosulfonates though still less than naphthalene sulfonates. Furthermore, certain hemp lignins gave comparable results to the lignosulfonates. Overall, the straw lignin prepared herein is comparable in performance to commercially available lignins, such as Organocell, Alcell and Curan 100. The plant from which the lignin was isolated, and the process of the pulp mill are the primary influences on the performance of the lignin.

  14. Hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted alkaline pretreatment as a new approach for sugarcane bagasse biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Dos Santos, Júlio César; Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Jeon, Seok Hwan; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Han, Jong-In

    2016-08-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was employed in order to improve the efficiency of alkaline pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize pretreatment parameters: NaOH concentration (0.1-0.5M), solid/liquid ratio (S/L, 3-10%) and HC time (15-45min), in terms of glucan content, lignin removal and enzymatic digestibility. Under an optimal HC condition (0.48M of NaOH, 4.27% of S/L ratio and 44.48min), 52.1% of glucan content, 60.4% of lignin removal and 97.2% of enzymatic digestibility were achieved. Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated SCB resulted in a yield 82% and 30% higher than the untreated and alkaline-treated controls, respectively. HC was found to be a potent and promising approach to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequential enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of ionic liquid and organosolv pretreated agave bagasse for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A. [Univ. Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic (Mexico); Vargas-Tah, Alejandra [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca (Mexico).; López-Ortega, Karla M. [Univ. Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic (Mexico); Medina-López, Yessenia N. [Univ. Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic (Mexico); Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico City (Mexico); Avila, Sayeny [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Singh, Seema [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake A. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Loaces, Inés [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca (Mexico).; Martinez, Alfredo [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca (Mexico).

    2016-11-16

    Agave bagasse (AGB) has gained recognition as a drought-tolerant biofuel feedstock with high productivity in semiarid regions. A comparative analysis of ionic liquid (IL) and organosolv (OV) pretreatment technologies in AGB was performed using a sequential enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SESF) strategy with cellulolytic enzymes and the ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain MS04. After pretreatment, 86% of xylan and 45% of lignin were removed from OV-AGB, whereas IL-AGB reduced lignin content by 28% and xylan by 50% when compared to the untreated biomass. High glucan ( > 90%) and xylan ( > 83%) conversion was obtained with both pretreated samples. During the fermentation stage (48 h), 12.1 and 12.7 kg of ethanol were produced per 100 kg of untreated AGB for IL and OV, respectively. These comparative analyses showed the advantages of SESF using IL and OV in a biorefinery configuration where a better understanding of AGB recalcitrance is key for future applications.

  16. Comparison between wet oxidation and steam explosion as pretreatment methods for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Carlos Martín; Marcet, M.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    , and to a two-fold increase of cellulose content in the pretreated solids, while steam explosion solubilised only 60% of xylan and 35% of lignin and increased cellulose content in the solid material by one third. Wet oxidation formed more aliphatic acids and phenolics, and less furan aldehydes in the liquid......Alkaline wet oxidation and steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse were compared with regard to biomass fractionation, formation of by-products, and enzymatic convertibility of the pretreated material. Wet oxidation led to the solubilisation of 82% of xylan and 50% of lignin...... fraction than steam explosion did. A better enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was achieved for the wet-oxidised material (57.4 %) than for the steam-exploded material (48.9 %). Cellulose convertibility was lower for the whole slurry than for the washed solids in both pretreatments, but more...

  17. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  18. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzos Sergios

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs, still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83% > >[C2mim]Cl(53% = [C4mim]Cl(53%. Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography. Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin

  19. Biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and decolorization of kraft liquor by the laccase produced by Klebsiella aerogenes NCIM 2098

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Laccase, a copper-containing enzyme, oxidizes variety of aromatic compounds. Since laccase is essential for lignin degradation, it can be used for lignin removal in the pulp and paper industry (biopulping. Laccase is also employed as a dechlorinating agent (biobleaching, along with the removal of phenolic and other aromatic pollutants. In the present investigation it was aimed to employ the laccase produced by the bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes along with the bacterium itself in biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Methodology and results: A laccase was isolated from the bacterium K. aerogenes, purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was purified by conventional techniques following salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on Con A sepharose. The purified laccase was found to be monomeric glycoprotein with a Mr of 64 kDa when measured by Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography and SDS-PAGE. The Vmax and Km of laccase towards the substrate guaiacol was determined. The optimum pH of the laccase was found to be 5.0. biopulping and biobleaching activities were determined by TAPPI standard methods. Treatment of sugarcane baggase by K. aerogenes also significantly reduced lignin content of the bagasse. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The bacterium K. aerogenes and a laccase produced by it were used separately for biopulping of sugarcane bagasse and biobleaching of kraft liquor effluent. Treatment with both brought significant reduction in lignin content and kappa number of the pulp. The handsheets prepared from the treated pulp showed improved brightness without affecting the strength properties of paper. The bacterium and the laccase efficiently decolorized the kraft liquor proving to have biobleaching potential.

  20. Evaluation of lignins from side-streams generated in an olive tree pruning-based biorefinery: Bioethanol production and alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José I; Fillat, Úrsula; Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, María E; Negro, María J; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ibarra, David

    2017-12-01

    In modern lignocellulosic-based biorefineries, carbohydrates can be transformed into biofuels and pulp and paper, whereas lignin is burned to obtain energy. However, a part of lignin could be converted into value-added products including bio-based aromatic chemicals, as well as building blocks for materials. Then, a good knowledge of lignin is necessary to define its valorisation procedure. This study characterized different lignins from side-streams produced from olive tree pruning bioethanol production (lignins collected from steam explosion pretreatment with water or phosphoric acid as catalysts, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process) and alkaline pulping (lignins recovered from kraft and soda-AQ black liquors). Together with the chemical composition, the structure of lignins was investigated by FTIR, 13 C NMR, and 2D NMR. Bioethanol lignins had clearly distinct characteristics compared to pulping lignins; a certain number of side-chain linkages (mostly alkyl-aryl ether and resinol) accompanied with lower phenolic hydroxyls content. Bioethanol lignins also showed a significant amount of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein impurities. By contrast, pulping lignins revealed xylose together with a dramatical reduction of side-chains (some resinol linkages survive) and thereby higher phenol content, indicating rather severe lignin degradation during alkaline pulping processes. All lignins showed a predominance of syringyl units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lignocellulose nanofibers prepared by ionic liquid pretreatment and subsequent mechanical nanofibrillation of bagasse powder: Application to esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Abe, Megumi; Tsukegi, Takayuki; Kuroda, Kosuke; Tsuge, Yota; Ogino, Chiaki; Taki, Kentaro; Taima, Tetsuya; Saito, Joji; Kimizu, Mitsugu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2018-02-15

    In the present study, we examined the efficacy of choline acetate (ChOAc, a cholinium ionic liquid))-assisted pretreatment of bagasse powder for subsequent mechanical nanofibrillation to produce lignocellulose nanofibers. Bagasse sample with ChOAc pretreatment and subsequent nanofibrillation (ChOAc/NF-bagasse) was prepared and compared to untreated control bagasse sample (control bagasse), bagasse sample with nanofibrillation only (NF-bagasse) and with ChOAc pretreatment only (ChOAc-bagasse). The specific surface area was 0.83m 2 /g, 3.1m 2 /g, 6.3m 2 /g, and 32m 2 /g for the control bagasse, ChOAc-bagasse, NF-bagasse, and the ChOAc/NF-bagasse, respectively. Esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites were prepared using the bagasse samples. ChOAc/NF-bagasse exhibited the best dispersion in the composites. The tensile toughness of the composites was 0.52J/cm 3 , 0.73J/cm 3 , 0.92J/cm 3 , and 1.29J/cm 3 for the composites prepared using control bagasse, ChOAc-bagasse, NF-bagasse, and ChOAc/NF-bagasse, respectively. Therefore, ChOAc pretreatment and subsequent nanofibrillation of bagasse powder resulted in enhanced tensile toughness of esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion exchange properties of carboxylate bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Bagasse fibers were chemically modified using three different reactions: esterification using monochloro acetic acid, esterification using succinic anhydride, and oxidation using sodium periodate and sodium chlorite to prepare cation exchanger bearing carboxylic groups. Bagasse was crosslinked using epichlorohydrin before chemical modification to avoid loss of its constituents during the chemical modification. The structure of the prepared derivatives was proved using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical methods. The ability of the prepared bagasse cation exchangers to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cu +2 , Ni +2 , Cr +3 , Fe +3 ), on a separate basis or in a mixture of them, at different metal ion concentration was tested. Thermal stability of the different bagasse derivative was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  3. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H_2SO_4 was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by AFM and SEM

  4. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus.

  5. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotechnological modification of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    A literature search of organisms capable of degrading lignin was conducted. Four fungi were selected for study and these were Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Chrysosporium pruinosum, Phlebia tremellosus and Trametes versicolor. Other organisms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus florida and Lentinus edodes were also tested in preliminary experiments. All cultures were screened for their ability to degrade the lignin component of aspen sawdust and also lignin extracted from steam-exploded wood. This type of screen was followed by analysis of culture filtrates for the presence of ligninase, the marker enzyme for lignin degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and consequently chosen for further studies in fermentors. Considerable efforts were directed to production of ligninase in fermentors. Only when Chrysosporium pruinosum was pre-cultured in a shake flask for 4 days and then transferred to a fermentor could ligninase activity be detected. The enzyme from shake flasks has been concentrated ready for use in bench-scale studies on cell-free depolymerization of lignin. 13 refs., 8 tabs.

  7. Analysis of Structural Units and Their Influence on Thermal Degradation of Alkali Lignins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical structures of four alkali lignins isolated from poplar, fir, straw, and bagasse were investigated. To explore the relationship between the structural units and the thermal decomposition behavior, the system was tested by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The results indicated that the carbon content of poplar lignin (PL was higher than that of others. Fir lignin (FL exhibited the highest guaiacol units, while the other three lignins were abundant in syringol units. The thermal decomposition characteristics and pyrolysis products of the four lignins were influenced by the material structural and composition. The DTG curves showed that the initial temperatures and major degradation temperatures of woody lignins(FL and PL) with complex inherent structures were shifted to the high temperature zoom compared with that of non-woody (BL and SL)lignins. Py-GC/MS analysis showed that guaiacol-type phenolic compounds were predominant pyrolysis products derived from the four lignins. The yield of guaiacol-type phenols could reach 82.87%. Moreover, the BL had selectively on phenol-type compounds with yield of 27.89%.

  8. Papermaking Properties of Carpinus betulus with kraft, Soda and Soda-Urea Pulping Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Darstan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to comparatively investigate the hornbeam kraft, soda and soda-urea papermaking properties. The selected treatment in kraft process had an average yield of 44.43% and kappa number of 23.75. In soda process the selected treatment had an average yield of 38.75% and kappa number of 19.28. In soda-urea process, the selected treatments had an average yield of 39.85, 40.1, 40.5, 39.8 and 40.61 and kappa number of 21.21, 22.33, 22.66, 25.28 and 26.85. After refining the selected pulp to reach the freeness of 400±25 ml CSF, 60 g/m2 handsheets were made and physical, mechanical and optical properties were measured. Results showed that kraft pulps had higher yield and better refinability than soda and soda-urea pulps. Papers made from kraft process had higher strength properties than those made of soda and soda-urea process. With addition of urea, yield and kappa number of pulps increased. The highest improvement in tensile index, breaking length and tear index was achieved with addition of 3% urea and the highest improvement in burst index was achieved with adding 4% urea. Results of brightness measurements showed that papers from kraft and soda processes had the lowest and highest brightness degree respectively. With the addition of urea, brightness of papers decreased.

  9. Utilization of Bagasse Cellulose for Ethanol Production through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Samsuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse is a solid residue from sugar cane process, which is not many use it for some product which have more added value. Bagasse, which is a lignosellulosic material, be able to be use for alternative energy resources like bioethanol or biogas. With renewable energy resources a crisis of energy in Republic of Indonesia could be solved, especially in oil and gas. This research has done the conversion of bagasse to bioethanol with xylanase enzyme. The result show that bagasse contains of 52,7% cellulose, 20% hemicelluloses, and 24,2% lignin. Xylanase enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to hydrolyse and fermentation in SSF process. Variation in this research use pH (4, 4,5, and 5, for increasing ethanol quantity, SSF process was done by added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and also pre-treatment with white rot fungi such as Lentinus edodes (L.edodes as long 4 weeks. The SSF process was done with 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour's incubation time for fermentation. Variation of pH 4, 4,5, and 5 can produce ethanol with concentrations 2,357 g/L, 2,451 g/L, 2,709 g/L. The added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and L. edodes can increase ethanol yield, The highest ethanol concentration with added chloride acid (HCl concentration 0.5% and 1% consecutively is 2,967 g/L, 3,249 g/L. The highest ethanol concentration with pre-treatment by L. edodes is 3,202 g/L.

  10. Amphipathic lignin derivatives to accelerate simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of unbleached softwood pulp for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2014-12-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) were already demonstrated to improve enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose. Based on this knowledge, two kinds of A-LDs prepared from black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar were applied to a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for unbleached soda pulp of Japanese cedar to produce bioethanol. Both lignin derivatives slightly accelerated yeast fermentation of glucose but not inhibited it. In addition, ethanol yields based on the theoretical maximum ethanol production in the fed-batch SSF process was increased from 49% without A-LDs to 64% in the presence of A-LDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of electricity generation from lignin residue and biogas in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    This study takes the first insight on the rigorous evaluation of electricity generation based on the experimentally measured higher heating value (HHV) of lignin residue, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) of wastewater. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1.26-1.85tons of dry lignin residue is generated from biorefining process and 0.19-0.27tons of biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of wastewater, equivalent to 4335-5981kWh and 1946-2795kWh of electricity by combustion of the generated lignin residue and biogas, respectively. The electricity generation not only sufficiently meets the electricity needs of process requirement, but also generates more than half of electricity surplus selling to the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell wall composition and lignin biosynthetic gene expression along a developmental gradient in an Australian sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Bewg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is an abundant source of lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production. Utilisation of bagasse for biofuel production would be environmentally and economically beneficial, but the recalcitrance of lignin continues to provide a challenge. Further understanding of lignin production in specific cultivars will provide a basis for modification of genomes for the production of phenotypes with improved processing characteristics. Here we evaluated the expression profile of lignin biosynthetic genes and the cell wall composition along a developmental gradient in KQ228 sugarcane. The expression levels of nine lignin biosynthesis genes were quantified in five stem sections of increasing maturity and in root tissue. Two distinct expression patterns were seen. The first saw highest gene expression in the youngest tissue, with expression decreasing as tissue matured. The second pattern saw little to no change in transcription levels across the developmental gradient. Cell wall compositional analysis of the stem sections showed total lignin content to be significantly higher in more mature tissue than in the youngest section assessed. There were no changes in structural carbohydrates across developmental sections. These gene expression and cell wall compositional patterns can be used, along with other work in grasses, to inform biotechnological approaches to crop improvement for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  13. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Bagasse Biomass into Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the main objective of developing new hydrogel systems has been to convert biomass into environmentally-friendly hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels are usually prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto natural polymers or biomass. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used to prepare semi-synthetic hybrid hydrogels without delignification, which is a costly and timeconsuming process. Sugarcane bagasse as a source of polysaccharide was modified using polymer microgels based on acrylic monomers such as acrylic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid which were prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization. By this process, biomass as a low-value by-product was converted into a valuable semi-synthetic hydrogel. In the following, the effect of latex type¸ the aqueous-to-organic phase ratio in the polymer latex, time and temperature of modification reaction on the swelling capacity of the hybrid hydrogel were evaluated. The chemical reaction between sugarcane bagasse and acrylic latex was carried out during heating of the modified bagasse which led to obtain a semisynthetic hydrogel with 60% natural components and 40% synthetic components. Among the latexes with different structures, poly(AA-NaAA-AM-AMPS was the most suitable polymer latex for the conversion of biomass into hydrogel. The bagasse modified with this latex had a water absorption capacity up to 112 g/g, while the water absorption capacity of primary sugarcane bagasse was only equal to 3.6 g/g. The prepared polymer hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and determination of the amount of swelling capacity.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of water accessibility in cellulose of pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Jefferson Esquina; Rezende, Camila Alves; de Oliveira-Silva, Rodrigo; Lima, Marisa Aparecida; d'Eurydice, Marcel Nogueira; Polikarpov, Igor; Bonagamba, Tito José

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is a crucial step of biomass conversion into biofuels and different pretreatments have been proposed to improve the process efficiency. Amongst the various factors affecting hydrolysis yields of biomass samples, porosity and water accessibility stand out due to their intimate relation with enzymes accessibility to the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of the biomass. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was subjected to acid and alkali pretreatments. The changes in the total surface area, hydrophilicity, porosity and water accessibility of cellulose were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Changes in chemical and physical properties of the samples, caused by the partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, led to the increase in porosity of the cell walls and unwinding of the cellulose bundles, as observed by SEM. (1)H NMR relaxation data revealed the existence of water molecules occupying the cores of wide and narrow vessels as well as the cell wall internal structure. Upon drying, the water molecules associated with the structure of the cell wall did not undergo significant dynamical and partial moisture changes, while those located in the cores of wide and narrow vessels kept continuously evaporating until reaching approximately 20% of relative humidity. This indicates that water is first removed from the cores of lumens and, in the dry sample, the only remaining water molecules are those bound to the cell walls. The stronger interaction of water with pretreated bagasse is consistent with better enzymes accessibility to cellulose and higher efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis. We were able to identify that sugarcane bagasse modification under acid and basic pretreatments change the water accessibility to different sites of the sample, associated with both bagasse structure (lumens and cell walls) and hydrophilicity (lignin removal). Furthermore, we show that the substrates with increased

  15. Radiochemical methods and spectroscopical analyses for investigating the catalytic effects of 2-methyltetrahydro-anthraquinone and phenanthraquinone in wood pulp production using the soda additive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, R. v.

    1982-01-01

    The studies were to show whether 2-methyltetrahydroanthraquinone or phenanthraquinone, two additives obtainable at low cost, will have a suitable catalytic effect on the delignification using the soda additive pulping method. For this purpose, soda cookings have been made in a 7 l rotary autoclave. The results have shown that 2-MeTHAQ is by far the better catalytic agent. Further experiments have been made to investigate the mode of action of the redox additives, intended to reveal further characteristics which can be correlated with the knowledge obtained from the preceding soda cookings. The analysis shows that there is a connection between the analytical lignin characteristics and the effectiveness of quinoid additives. (orig./PW) [de

  16. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  17. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-04-25

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  18. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J.; Kruger, Jacob S.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  19. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  20. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  1. Properties Of Soda/Yttria/Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of glass-formation compositional region of soda/ yttria/silicate system and of selected physical properties of glasses within compositional region part of continuing effort to identify glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion and high softening temperatures, for use as coatings on superalloys and as glass-to-metal seals.

  2. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  3. Chapter 16: Lignin Visualization: Advanced Microscopy Techniques for Lignin Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoe, Bryon S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Visualization of lignin in plant cell walls, with both spatial and chemical resolution, is emerging as an important tool to understand lignin's role in the plant cell wall's nanoscale architecture and to understand and design processes intended to modify the lignin. As such, this chapter reviews recent advances in advanced imaging methods with respect to lignin in plant cell walls. This review focuses on the importance of lignin detection and localization for studies in both plant biology and biotechnology. Challenges going forward to identify and delineate lignin from other plant cell wall components and to quantitatively analyze lignin in whole cell walls from native plant tissue and treated biomass are also discussed.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 23 experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio; Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Felissia, Fernando; Castro, Eulogio

    2010-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H 2 SO 4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2 3 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and β-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work.

  5. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

    2014-01-01

    Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties.

  6. Sugarcane biomass for biorefineries: comparative composition of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components of bagasse and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbowski, Danielle; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2014-12-19

    Two fractions of sugarcane, namely bagasse and straw (or trash), were characterized in relation to their chemical composition. Bagasse presented values of glucans, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash of 37.74, 27.23, 20.57 and 6.53%, respectively, while straw had 33.77, 27.38, 21.28 and 6.23% of these same components. Ash content was relatively high in both cane biomass fractions. Bagasse showed higher levels of contaminating oxides while straw had a higher content of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides. A comparison between the polysaccharide chemical compositions of these lignocellulosic materials suggests that similar amounts of fermentable sugars are expected to arise from their optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Details about the chemical properties of cane biomass holocellulose, hemicelluloses A and B and α-cellulose are provided, and these may offer a good opportunity for designing more efficient enzyme cocktails for substrate saccharification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, V P; Pearce, G R

    1986-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200 degrees C for 5 min and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200 degrees C (1.72 MPa) for 5 min gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200 degrees C resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization.

  8. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Pre-tratamento do bagaco de cana utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por feixe de eletrons para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the environmental aging and mechanical properties of the polypropylene/sugarcane bagasse composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Rayane Lima de Moura; Mulinari, Daniella Regina

    2013-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with fibers from sugarcane bagasse composites in different proportions were prepared. Also environmental aging was conducted for the composites and their mechanical properties determined. The results showed that chemical treatment caused changes in color and chemical composition of the fibers, removing impurities and amorphous constituents such as lignin and hemicellulose, techniques of FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed these data. Also, it was observed that addition of natural fiber in PP matrix provided an improvement in the mechanical properties materials. The weathering test revealed a slight mass gain after 75 days, but it was clear that the inclusion of fibers has a higher mass gain compared to pure PP. (author)

  10. NMR of lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Larry L. Landucci

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will consider the basic aspects and findings of several forms of NMR spectroscopy, including separate discussions of proton, carbon, heteronuclear, and multidimensional NMR. Enhanced focus will be on 13C NMR, because of its qualitative and quantitative importance, followed by NMR’s contributions to our understanding of lignin...

  11. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  12. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin [West Lebanon, NH; Wyman, Charles E [Norwich, VT

    2011-01-25

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  13. Nanofibers of cellulose bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by electrospinning: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Miguel Ángel; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Barrera-Rodríguez, Arturo; Aguilar, Jacobo; Aguilar, José A; Reynoso-Marín, Francisco Javier; Ceja, I; Dórame-Miranda, R; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco

    2018-07-15

    In this study, cellulose of bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul was extracted to elaborate nanofibers by the electrospinning technique. Fiber characterization was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), x-ray, Fournier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TGA). Different diameters (ranging from 54.57 ± 0.02 to 171 ± 0.01 nm) of nanofibers were obtained. Cellulose nanofibers were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, where we observed a total loss of crystallinity in comparison with the cellulose, while FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the hemicellulose and lignin present in the agave bagasse were removed. Thermal analysis showed that nanofibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties, and the zeta potential value (-32.5 mV) demonstrated moderate stability in the sample. In conclusion, the nanofibers obtained provide other alternatives-of-use for this agro-industrial residue and could have potential in various industrial applications, among these encapsulation of bioactive compounds and reinforcing material, to mention a few. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sugar-rich sweet sorghum is distinctively affected by wall polymer features for biomass digestibility and ethanol fermentation in bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Feng, Shengqiu; Wu, Leiming; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Weihua; Tu, Yuanyuan; Jing, Hai-Chun; Li, Shizhong; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-09-01

    Sweet sorghum has been regarded as a typical species for rich soluble-sugar and high lignocellulose residues, but their effects on biomass digestibility remain unclear. In this study, we examined total 63 representative sweet sorghum accessions that displayed a varied sugar level at stalk and diverse cell wall composition at bagasse. Correlative analysis showed that both soluble-sugar and dry-bagasse could not significantly affect lignocellulose saccharification under chemical pretreatments. Comparative analyses of five typical pairs of samples indicated that DP of crystalline cellulose and arabinose substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses distinctively affected lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. By comparison, lignin could not alter lignocellulose crystallinity, but the KOH-extractable G-monomer predominately determined lignin negative impacts on biomass digestions, and the G-levels released from pretreatments significantly inhibited yeast fermentation. The results also suggested potential genetic approaches for enhancing soluble-sugar level and lignocellulose digestibility and reducing ethanol conversion inhibition in sweet sorghum. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54 ± 0.70% and 33.80 ± 1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21 ± 0.35%, 12.05 ± 0.37%, and 38.11 ± 0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372 ± 12 and 355 ± 37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g L(-1) and 1.41 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  16. Reactivity of main components and substituent distribution in esterified sugarcane bagasse prepared by effective solid phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tao; Zhang, Yanjuan; Chen, Yane; Hu, Huayu; Yang, Mei; Huang, Zuqiang; Chen, Dong; Huang, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Three main components of lignocellulose (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin isolated from sugarcane bagasse (SCB)) as well as holocellulose and SCB were modified with maleic acid by mechanical activation (MA)-assisted solid phase reaction (MASPR) technology. The order of reactivity was found to be lignin>hemicellulose>cellulose. The amorphous structure of lignin and hemicellulose mainly attributed to their better reactivity, and the modified lignin could reach a maximum degree of esterification (DE) of 93.45%. MA improved the accessibility and reactivity of cellulose, as the DE of modified cellulose gradually increased with milling time and reached the maximum value of 57.30% at 120min, which had significant effect on structure changes and DE of modified holocellulose and SCB. MA enhanced the esterification of all three components in lignocellulose with relatively high substituent distribution in them, and maleated SCB with a maximum DE of 64.17% was successfully prepared by this simple, green, and effective MASPR technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Agave tequilana-lignin and zinc oxide nanoparticles for skin photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel; Escalante, Alfredo; Murillo-Vázquez, Raquel Nalleli; Delgado, Ezequiel; González, Francisco Javier; Toríz, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    The use of sunscreens is essential for preventing skin damage and the potential appearance of skin cancer in humans. Inorganic active components such as zinc oxide (ZnO) have been used commonly in sunscreens due to their ability to block UVA radiation. This ultraviolet (UV) protection might be enhanced to cover the UVB and UVC bands when combined with other components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this work we evaluate the photoprotection properties of organic nanoparticles made from lignin in combination with ZnO nanoparticles as active ingredients for sunscreens. Lignin nanoparticles were synthesized from Agave tequilana lignin. Two different pulping methods were used for dissolving lignin from agave bagasse. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the precipitation method. All nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were mixed with a neutral vehicle in different concentrations and in-vitro sun protection factor (SPF) values were calculated. Different sizes of spherical lignin nanoparticles were obtained from the spent liquors of two different pulping methods. ZnO nanoparticles resulted with a flake shape. The mixture of all components gave SPF values in a range between 4 and 13. Lignin nanoparticles showed absorption in the UVB and UVC regions which can enhance the SPF value of sunscreens composed only of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Lignin nanoparticles have the added advantage of being of organic nature and its brown color can be used to match the skin tone of the person using it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lignin biodegradation and industrial implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulose, which comprises the cell walls of plants, is the Earth’s most abundant renewable source of convertible biomass. However, in order to access the fermentable sugars of the cellulose and hemicellulose fraction, the extremely recalcitrant lignin heteropolymer must be hydrolyzed and removed—usually by harsh, costly thermochemical pretreatments. Biological processes for depolymerizing and metabolizing lignin present an opportunity to improve the overall economics of the lignocellulosic biorefinery by facilitating pretreatment, improving downstream cellulosic fermentations or even producing a valuable effluent stream of aromatic compounds for creating value-added products. In the following review we discuss background on lignin, the enzymology of lignin degradation, and characterized catabolic pathways for metabolizing the by-products of lignin degradation. To conclude we survey advances in approaches to identify novel lignin degrading phenotypes and applications of these phenotypes in the lignocellulosic bioprocess.

  19. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masarin Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during

  20. PENURUNAN KADAR PROTEIN LIMBAH CAIR TAHU DENGAN PEMANFAATAN KARBON BAGASSE TERAKTIVASI (Protein Reduction of Tofu Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Purnawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penurunan kadar protein limbah tahu telah dilakukan dengan pemanfaatan karbon Bagasse teraktivasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum dari karbon teraktivasi NaOH dan H2SO4 dalam menurunkan kadar protein limbah cair tahu dan mengetahui jenis isoterm adsorpsi dari karbon aktif yang digunakan untuk menyerap protein limbah cair tahu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan konsentrasi NaOH yang optimum untuk aktivasi karbon aktif 15%, massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH adalah 2 g dan penurunan kadar proteinnya 71,95%, sedangkan massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 adalah 1 g dengan penurunan kadar protein sebesar 38,19%. Waktu kontak optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi  NaOH dan H2SO4 adalah 12 jam. Adsorpsi protein oleh karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH mengikuti isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich sedangkan karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 dominan mengikuti isoterm Freundlich.   ABSTRACT The protein reduction of tofu wastewater using activated carbon from bagasse  had been conducted. The purposes of this research were to analysis optimum condition of activated carbon bagsse using NaOH and H2SO4 for reduction protein in tofu wastewater, and analysis adsorption isotherm of activated carbon with protein. The result showed that optimum mass of carbon bagasse activated NaOH was  2 g with 71.95% protein reduction, while carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 has 1 g with 38.19% protein reduction. The optimum contact time between protein and activated carbon (with NaOH and H2SO4 was happened in 12 hours. Adsorption protein with carbon bagasse activated NaOH had followed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm, while adsorption with carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 dominantlyhad followed Freundlich adsorption isotherm

  1. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  2. Stabilization of expansive soil using bagasse ash & lime | Wubshet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7-5 soil on the AASHTO classification was stabilized using 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 15% bagasse ash in combination with 3% lime by dry weight of the soil. The effect of the additives on the soil was investigated with respect to plastcity, ...

  3. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash is a byproduct of sugar factories found after burning sugarcane ... making materials especially cement, resulting in an increase in price. ... advantages can also be exploited by using bagasse ash as a partial cement ... Normal consistency, Setting time, Compressive strength, Water penetration depth.

  4. Lignin-Furfural Based Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Dongre, Prajakta; Driscoll, Mark; Amidon, Thomas; Bujanovic, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple ( Acer saccharum ) is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin. Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1), ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of...

  5. Partially acetylated sugarcane bagasse for wicking oil from contaminated wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S. [Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., R and D Center, Suwon, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Suidan, M.T. [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Venosa, A.D. [NRMRL, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased hydrophobicity but not a limited capability to hold moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. Characterization results by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area analyzer suggested that treated bagasse exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity and surface area. Oil wicking test results indicate that treated bagasse is more effective in wicking oil from highly saturated environments than raw bagasse and suggest that application of this material in remediation of oil spills in highly saturated wetlands is promising. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Biobased alkylphenols from lignins via a two-step pyrolysis - Hydrodeoxygenation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, P J; Huijgen, W J J; Kloekhorst, A; Chowdari, R K; Heeres, H J

    2017-04-01

    Five technical lignins (three organosolv, Kraft and soda lignin) were depolymerised to produce monomeric biobased aromatics, particularly alkylphenols, by a new two-stage thermochemical approach consisting of dedicated pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the resulting pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis yielded a mixture of guaiacols, catechols and, optionally, syringols in addition to alkylphenols. HDO with heterogeneous catalysts (Ru/C, CoMo/alumina, phosphided NiMO/C) effectively directed the product mixture towards alkylphenols by, among others, demethoxylation. Up to 15wt% monomeric aromatics of which 11wt% alkylphenols was obtained (on the lignin intake) with limited solid formation (<3wt% on lignin oil intake). For comparison, solid Kraft lignin was also directly hydrotreated for simultaneous depolymerisation and deoxygenation resulting in two times more alkylphenols. However, the alkylphenols concentration in the product oil is higher for the two-stage approach. Future research should compare direct hydrotreatment and the two-stage approach in more detail by techno-economic assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Theoretical Approaches to Lignin Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey M.

    1994-01-01

    A critical review is presented of the applications of theoretical methods to the studies of the structure and chemical reactivity of lignin, including simulation of macromolecular properties, conformational calculations, quantum chemical analyses of electronic structure, spectra and chemical reactivity. Modern concepts of spatial organization and chemical reactivity of lignins are discussed.

  8. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  9. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative

  10. Use of Sugarcane Bagasse with Different Particle Sizes to Determine the Relationship between Physical Properties and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The supramolecular structures of a substrate, such as crystallinity, specific surface area, average pore size, and cellulase adsorption capacity, etc., affect the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass. It is unclear which of these factors is most important for efficient hydrolysis. To eliminate the influence of the hemicellulose content and the lignin, sugarcane bagasse samples with the same cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content but with different particle sizes were used as substrates to investigate the relationship between physical properties and enzymatic conversion efficiency. When the content of hemicellulose and lignin was not significantly different, the decrease in the crystallinity index (CrI and the increase in the specific surface area (SSA, cellulase adsorption, average pore size, and the cellulase adsorption per SSA could give rise to higher enzymatic convertibility. The effects of the CrI and the average pore size were more pronounced than the effects of the SSA, the cellulase adsorption capacity, and the cellulase adsorption per SSA. According to the developed formula, the CrI was more influential than the average pore size under the specific conditions.

  11. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpf@terra.com.br, E-mail: rfguenf2009@hotmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/GMCer/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  12. Characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash for use in ceramic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterization of sugarcane bagasse ash waste aiming the use it in red ceramic industry. The characterization was done in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, morphology, and plasticity. The results show that the cane bagasse ash waste is a non plastic material, which contains high content of silica and minor amounts of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and K oxides. Thus, the sugar cane bagasse ash waste presents high potential for application in the manufacture of ceramic products such as bricks, roofing tiles, and ceramic tiles. (author)

  13. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  14. Raman spectra of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Ashok K. Pandey; Sally A. Ralph; Kolby C. Hirth; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    To fully exploit the value of Raman spectroscopy for analyzing lignins and lignin containing materials, a detailed understanding of lignins’ Raman spectra needs to be achieved. Although advances made thus far have led to significant growth in application of Raman techniques, further developments are needed to improve upon the existing knowledge. Considering that lignin...

  15. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  17. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  18. Utilization of cellulosic waste from tequila bagasse and production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) bioplastics by Saccharophagus degradans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva Munoz, Luis Esteban; Riley, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Utilization of wastes from agriculture is becoming increasingly important due to concerns of environmental impact. The goals of this work were to evaluate the ability of an unusual organism, Saccharophagus degradans (ATCC 43961), to degrade the major components of plant cell walls and to evaluate the ability of S. degradans to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, also known as bioplastics). S. degradans can readily attach to cellulosic fibers, degrade the cellulose, and utilize this as the primary carbon source. The growth of S. degradans was assessed in minimal media (MM) containing glucose, cellobiose, avicel, and bagasse with all able to support growth. Cells were able to attach to avicel and bagasse fibers; however, growth on these insoluble fibers was much slower and led to a lower maximal biomass production than observed with simple sugars. Lignin in MM alone did not support growth, but did support growth upon addition of glucose, although with an increased adaptation phase. When culture conditions were switched to a nitrogen depleted status, PHA production commences and extends for at least 48 h. At early stationary phase, stained inclusion bodies were visible and two chronologically increasing infrared light absorbance peaks at 1,725 and 1,741 cm(-1) confirmed the presence of PHAs. This work demonstrates for what we believe to be the first time, that a single organism can degrade insoluble cellulose and under similar conditions can produce and accumulate PHA. Additional work is necessary to more fully characterize these capabilities and to optimize the PHA production and purification. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2{sup 3} experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio [Centro de Analisis de Procesos, Facultad de Quimica-Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Castro, Eulogio [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Felissia, Fernando [Programa de Celulosa y Papel, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Misiones (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2{sup 3} full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and {beta}-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work. (author)

  20. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  1. partial replacement of partial replacement of cement with bagasse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    used and their performance in terms of known engineering properties was carried out. Bitumen content of .... Tests on Bagasse Ash: Chemical Composition (using mini pal which is .... Unpublished Msc Thesis, Department of Civil. Engineering ...

  2. Lignin-Furfural Based Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Dongre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple (Acer saccharum is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin. Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1, ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of adhesive reinforced glass fibers is determined and compared to the reinforcement level of commercially available PF resin. The adhesive blend prepared at pH = 0.65 with no added furfural exhibits the highest tensile properties and meets 90% of the PF tensile strength.

  3. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  5. Enhancing the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Djarwanti, Noegroho; Umri Ukoi, Nafisah

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with stabilization of expansive soil on a laboratory experimental basis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the enhancement of the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash. The soil is treated with bagasse ash by weight (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) based on dry mass. The performance of bagasse ash stabilized soil was evaluated using physical and strength performance tests, namely the plasticity index, standard Proctor compaction, and percentage swelling. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) test was conducted to evaluate the clay mineral, whereas an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was to the chemical composition of bagasse ash. From the results, it was observed that the basic tests carried out proved some soil properties after the addition of bagasse ash. Furthermore, the plasticity index decreased from 53.18 to 47.70%. The maximum dry density of the specimen increased from 1.13 to 1.24 gr/cm3. The percentage swelling decreased from 5.48 to 3.29%. The outcomes of these tests demonstrate that stabilization of expansive soils using bagasse ash can improve the strength.

  6. Lignin-degrading enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-ru; Sarkanen, Simo; Wang, Yun-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the activities of four kinds of enzyme have been purported to furnish the mechanistic foundations for macromolecular lignin depolymerization in decaying plant cell walls. The pertinent fungal enzymes comprise lignin peroxidase (with a relatively high redox potential), manganese peroxidase, an alkyl aryl etherase, and laccase. The peroxidases and laccase, but not the etherase, are expressed extracellularly by white-rot fungi. A number of these microorganisms exhibit a marked preference toward lignin in their degradation of lignocellulose. Interestingly, some white-rot fungi secrete both kinds of peroxidase but no laccase, while others that are equally effective express extracellular laccase activity but no peroxidases. Actually, none of these enzymes has been reported to possess significant depolymerase activity toward macromolecular lignin substrates that are derived with little chemical modification from the native biopolymer. Here, the assays commonly employed for monitoring the traditional fungal peroxidases, alkyl aryl etherase, and laccase are described in their respective contexts. A soluble native polymeric substrate that can be isolated directly from a conventional milled-wood lignin preparation is characterized in relation to its utility in next-generation lignin-depolymerase assays.

  7. Catalytic wet-air oxidation of lignin in a three-phase reactor with aromatic aldehyde production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales F.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a process of catalytic wet air oxidation of lignin obtained from sugar-cane bagasse is developed with the objective of producing vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in a continuous regime. Palladium supported on g-alumina was used as the catalyst. The reactions in the lignin degradation and aldehyde production were described by a kinetic model as a system of complex parallel and series reactions, in which pseudo-first-order steps are found. For the purpose of producing aromatic aldehydes in continuous regime, a three-phase fluidized reactor was built, and it was operated using atmospheric air as the oxidizer. The best yield in aromatic aldehydes was of 12%. The experimental results were compatible with those values obtained by the pseudo-heterogeneous axial dispersion model (PHADM applied to the liquid phase.

  8. Effect of feed source and pyrolysis conditions on sugarcane bagasse biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing of sugarcane in sugar mills yield ca. 30% bagasse, a fibrous waste material composed mostly of crushed cane stalks. While 80-90% of the bagasse used on site as fuel, the remaining portion can be converted into a value-added product. One such option is thermal conversion of bagasse into bi...

  9. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  10. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Gonzalez-Vila, F J

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  11. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  12. Adsorption of gold (III) from aqueous solutions on bagasse ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, G.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential of cheap biomass materials for the recovery of gold from industrial, and electroplating waste water effluents, adsorption of gold (III) from dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid on bagasse ash has been studied under various experimental conditions by using batch technique. Percentage extraction of gold (III) on bagasse ash was determined from its distribution coefficients as a function of contact time, pH, adsorbent, adsorbate concentrations, and temperature. The uptake of gold (III) by bagasse ash is time, pH, metal concentration, amount of adsorbate, and temperature dependent. Adsorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, and the Freundlich equations. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash have been determined at three different temperatures. The positive value of heat of adsorption; delta H 44.52 kJ/mol shows that the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash is endothermic where as the negative value of delta G = -0.5303 kJ/mol at 318 K shows the spontaneity of the process. Delta G becomes more negative with increase in temperature which shows that the adsorption is more favorable at higher temperatures. Under the optimal adsorption conditions the adsorption capacity of gold is 0.70 mg /g of the adsorbent out of which 0.65 mg of gold gets desorbed with 0.1 % thiourea solution. (author)

  13. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R"2 > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T_B = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  14. Lignin recovery. A resource to value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardi, P.; Cardinale, G.; Demichele, M.; Nanna, F.; Viggiano, D.; Bonini, C.; D'Alessio, L.; D'Auria, M.; Teghil, R.; Tofani, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of the steam explosion (ES) pretreatment conditions on recovery and chemical structure of wheat straw lignin are reported. The experimental data of lignin recovery by caustic extraction, followed by acid precipitation, have been interpolated to obtain the dependence on the time and temperature of SE. The lignin has been characterised by using several methods. Preliminary results on the synthesis of copolymers lignin-styrene are also reported [it

  15. Optimization of alkaline and dilute acid pretreatment of agave bagasse by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael I. Ávila-Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA and alkaline (AL catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15% since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification which will be reflected in lower capital costs, however this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables such as catalyst loading, retention time and solids loading, were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS yield. Pretreated biomass

  16. Effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood and sweet sorghum bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, M.J.; Martinez, J.M.; Manero, J.; Saez, F.; Martin, C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of steam explosion treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of two different lignocellulosic substrates is studied. Raw materials have been pretreated in a pilot plant designed to work in batch and equiped with a reactor vessel of 2 1 working volume where biomass was heated at the desired temperature and then exploded and recovered in a cyclone. Temperatures from 190 to 230 o C and reaction times from 2 to 8 min. have been assayed. The efficiency of the steam explosion treatment has been evaluated on the composition of the lignocellulosic materials as well as on their enzymatic hydrolysis yield using a cellulolytic complex from T. reesei. Results show a high solubilization rate of hemicelluloses ands variable losses of cellulose and lignin depending on the conditions tested. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields of both substrates experimented remarkable increments, correspondig the highest values obtained to 210 o C; 2 min. and 210 o C; 4 min. for sorghum bagasse and eucaliptus wood respectivelly. (Author). 13 refs

  17. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of peracetic acid pretreated sugar cane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Linden, J.C.; Schroeder, H.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that peracetic acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. From the same studies, use of dilute alkali solutions as a pre-pretreatment prior to peracetic acid lignin oxidation increases sugar conversion yields in a synergistic, not additive, manner. Deacetylation of xylan is conducted easily by use of dilute alkali solutions at mild conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of peracetic acid pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse combined with an alkaline pre-pretreatment, is evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) procedures. A practical 92% of theoretical ethanol yield using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5 is achieved using 6% NaOH/I5% peracetic acid pretreated substrate. No sugar accumulation is observed during SSCF; the recombinant microorganism exhibits greater glucose utilization rates than those of xylose. Acetate levels at the end of the co-fermentations are less than 0.2% (w/v). Based on demonstrated reduction of acetyl groups of the biomass, alkaline pre-pretreatments help to reduce peracetic acid requirements. The influence of deacetylation is more pronounced in combined pretreatments using lower peracetic acid loadings. Stereochemical impediments of the acetyl groups in hemicellulase on the activity of specific enzymes may be involved. (author)

  18. Xylanase-Aided Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching of Bagasse Pulp to Reduce AOX Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase pretreatment was used to improve the chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase, which was followed by a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The HexA content of the pulp and the AOX content of the bleaching effluent were measured using UV-Vis and GC-MS methods, respectively. The results showed that a good correlation occurred between HexA and kappa number. HexA content of the pulp decreased significantly after the xylanase pretreatment. The AOX content of the bleaching effluent decreased as HexA was removed from the pulp. It was found that AOX could be reduced by up to 29.8%, comparing XD0 with a D0 stage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to determine the breakage of chemical bonds in the pulp. It revealed that some lignin and hemicellulose were removed after xylanase treatment. The GC-MS results showed that some toxic chloride such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol could be completely removed after xylanase pretreatment.

  19. Lignin biopolymer based triboelectric nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yukai; Wang, Ruoxing; Lu, Yunmei; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2017-07-01

    Ongoing research in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) focuses on increasing power generation, but obstacles concerning economical and eco-friendly utilization of TENGs continue to prevail. Being the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, lignin offers a valuable opportunity for low-cost TENG applications in biomedical devices, benefitting from its biodegradability and biocompatibility. Here, we develop for the first time a lignin biopolymer based TENGs for harvesting mechanical energy in the environment, which shows great potential for self-powered biomedical devices among other applications and opens doors to new technologies that utilize otherwise wasted materials for economically feasible and ecologically friendly production of energy devices.

  20. Structure variations of carbonizing lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.; Craievich, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The studied lignin is a by-product of the process of ethanol production from eucaliptus. It was heat-treated under inert atmosphere conditions at increasing temperatures from 300C up to 2400C. The structural variations were studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The bulk and 'real' density of the compacted materials have also been determined as functions of the final temperature. These experimental results enabled us to establish a mechanism of structure variation based on the formation of a turbostratic graphite-like and porous structure within the initially amorphous lignin matrix. (Author) [pt

  1. Lignin pyrolysis for profitable lignocellulosic biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de P.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based industries (pulp and paper and biorefineries) produce > 50 Mt/yr of lignin that results from fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is world's second biopolymer and a major potential source for production of performance materials and aromatic chemicals. Lignin valorization is

  2. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  3. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  4. Converting lignin to aromatics: step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassberger, Z.I.

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, the glue that holds trees together, is the most abundant natural resource of aromatics. In that respect, it is a far more advanced resource than crude oil. This is because lignin already contains the aromatic functional groups. Thus, catalytic conversion of lignin to high-value aromatics is

  5. Iron addition to soil specifically stabilized lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Whendee L. Silver; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical...

  6. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  7. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwien Andriyanti; Suyanti; Ngasifudin

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  8. Evidence for biofilm acid neutralization by baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T

    2017-11-01

    The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential. Although the neutralizing ability of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been known for many years, its anticaries potential as an additive to fluoride dentifrice has received only limited investigation. There is evidence that baking soda rapidly can reverse the biofilm pH decrease after a sugar challenge; however, the timing of when it is used in relation to a dietary sugar exposure is critical in that the sooner its used the greater the benefit in preventing a sustained biofilm pH decrease and subsequent demineralization. Furthermore, the effectiveness of baking soda in elevating biofilm pH appears to depend on concentration. Thus, the concentration of baking soda in marketed dentifrice products, which ranges from 10% to 65%, may affect their biofilm pH neutralizing performance. People with hyposalivation particularly may benefit from using fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda because of their diminished ability to clear dietary sugars and buffer biofilm acids. Although promising, there is the need for more evidence that strategies that modify the oral ecology, such as baking soda, can alter the cariogenic (acidogenic and aciduric) properties of biofilm microorganisms. The acid neutralization of dental biofilm by using fluoride dentifrice that contains baking soda has potential for helping counteract modern high-sugar diets by rapidly neutralizing biofilm-generated acid, especially in people with hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by

  9. Use of Hesperaloe funifera for the production of paper and extraction of lignin for synthesis and fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Navarro, E.; Conesa, J.A.; Jimenez, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we characterized Hesperaloe funifera; pulp and paper obtained by subjecting the plant raw material to soda, soda-anthraquinone, ethanolamine, ethyleneglycol and diethyleneglycol cooking. In addition, the solid fractions extracted by acidifying the cooking liquors, rich in lignin, were used to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. The contents in lignin, α-cellulose, holocellulose, hemicellulose, ethanol-benzene extractives, hot water solubles, 1% NaOH solubles and ash of H. funifera were found to be 7.3%, 40.9%, 76.5%, 35.6%, 4.0%, 13.5%, 29.5% and 5.9%, respectively. The mean fibre length, 4.19 mm, exceeds those for some non-wood materials. Hesperaloe pulp obtained by cooking with 10% NaOH and 1% anthraquinone at 155 o C for 30 min exhibited good values of yield (48.3%), viscosity (737 mL g -1 ), Kappa number (15.2), tensile index (83.6 Nm g -1 ), stretch (3.8%), burst index (7.34 kN g -1 ) and tear index (3.20 mNm 2 g -1 ). Acidification to pH 6 of the liquor resulting from the soda pulping of 500 g of plant raw material provided an amount of 13.90 g of lignin-rich solids pyrolysis of which gave a gas mixture containing 1.13% H 2 , 31.79% CO and 1.86% CH 4 by weight. Gasification of the same sample provided a mixture containing 0.18% H 2 , 24.50% CO and 17.75% CH 4 , also by weight.

  10. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  11. Influence of Soda Pulping Variables on Properties of Pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr. Leaf Pulp and Paper Studied by Face-Centered Composite Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantharat Wutisatwongkul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Face-centered composite design (FCC was used to study the effect of pulping variables: soda concentration (4-5 wt%, temperature (90–130°C, and pulping time (20–60 min on the properties of pineapple leaf pulp and paper employing soda pulping. Studied pulp responses were screened yield and lignin content (kappa number. Paper properties, which include tensile index, burst index, and tear index, were also investigated. Effects of the pulping variables on the properties were statistically analyzed using Minitab 16. The optimum conditions to obtain the maximum tensile index were soda concentration of 4 wt%, pulping temperature of 105°C, and pulping time of 20 min. The predicted optimum conditions provided tensile index, burst index, tear index, screened yield, and kappa number of 44.13 kN·m/kg, 1.76 kPa·m2, 1.68 N·m2/kg, 21.29 wt%, and 28.12, respectively, and were experimentally confirmed.

  12. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g -1 . The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  13. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  14. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  15. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  16. Lignin Sulfonation - A different Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The research on sulfite pulping has been characterized by the attempts to explain its chemistry. The. different approach presented is incited by perceptions about the (still) unsolved problem of the ultrastructural features of lignin in wood. A simple kinetic model has been chosen to describe the...

  17. SODA: The reduced database for the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, A.; Michaud, D.; Caumartin, J.; de Villers, P.; Gauthier, Y.; Gauvreau, J.; Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    SODA which stands for Systgrave eme d close-quote Organisation des Donnacute ees et d close-quote Analyse, is a general database for TdeV. SODA has the following goals: to produce a database of a reduced set of physical data; to ensure that these data are validated; to record all the parameters relevant to tokamak operation and experiments; to facilitate the retrieval of data using given selection criteria; and to improve data accessibility and analysis. The relational database ORACLE trademark has been chosen to provide flexibility and to accommodate the increasing expectations of the TdeV researchers. In-house expertise allows custom-made tables and centralized data management. In the process of creating SODA several new interfaces for the scientific coordinator, machine operator, and diagnosticians have been added to provide a better definition of the experiment for the archiving system. The database includes the more relevant machine and diagnostic parameters, plasma perturbations (rf, biasing, gas hor-ellipsis), mean and standard deviation of physical signals, plasma profiles, and code results (equilibrium hor-ellipsis) for selected time windows in a discharge. Users of the X-window interface of SODA are not required to know the database structure or the SQL language. SODA has been operating successfully for over a year and its capabilities are continuously expanding. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases targets control of dental plaque biofilm. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control by reducing and controlling biofilm formation. The literature on the effectiveness of different dentifrices has not, however, been carefully categorized. A lack of consensus exists among dental professionals on a recommendation for a universal dentifrice for plaque control. The authors reviewed the scientific data on the different properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)-containing dentifrices and their effectiveness in plaque removal. The results of the literature search show that baking soda-containing dentifrices are ideal candidates to be considered as a universal dentifrice because baking soda is inexpensive, abundant in supply, highly biocompatible, exhibits specific antibacterial properties to oral microorganisms, has low abrasivity, and is effective in plaque biofilm removal. Although some patients may benefit from desensitizing or high fluoride-containing dentifrices, those with routine needs may find using dentifrices containing baking soda and fluoride effective. Baking soda and fluoride dentifrices, therefore, may perhaps be considered as a criterion standard for patients with routine oral hygiene needs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lignin from Micro- to Nanosize: Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Beisl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nanosize lignin has recently gained interest due to improved properties compared to standard lignin available today. As the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, lignin is readily available but used for rather low-value applications. This review focuses on the application of micro- and nanostructured lignin in final products or processes that all show potential for high added value. The fields of application are ranging from improvement of mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites, bactericidal and antioxidant properties and impregnations to hollow lignin drug carriers for hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. Also, a carbonization of lignin nanostructures can lead to high-value applications such as use in supercapacitors for energy storage. The properties of the final product depend on the surface properties of the nanomaterial and, therefore, on factors like the lignin source, extraction method, and production/precipitation methods, as discussed in this review.

  20. Lignin biodegradation by the ascomycete Chrysonilia sitophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Ferraz, A; Nogueira, R F; Ferrer, I; Esposito, E; Durán, N

    1997-01-01

    The lignin biodegradation process has an important role in the carbon cycle of the biosphere. The study of this natural process has developed mainly with the use of basidiomycetes in laboratory investigations. This has been a logical approach since most of the microorganisms involved in lignocellulosic degradation belong to this class of fungi. However, other microorganisms such as ascomycetes and also some bacteria, are involved in the lignin decaying process. This work focuses on lignin biodegradation by a microorganism belonging to the ascomycete class, Chrysonilia sitophila. Lignin peroxidase production and characterization, mechanisms of lignin degradation (lignin model compounds and lignin in wood matrix) and biosynthesis of veratryl alcohol are outstanding. Applications of C. sitophila for effluent treatment, wood biodegradation and single-cell protein production are also discussed.

  1. 14C-labeled lignins as substrates for the study of lignin biodegradation and transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.L.; Robinson, L.E.; Chen, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Methods, both classical and isotopic, for quantifying lignin degradation are reviewed. Preparation and chemical characterization of 14 C-labeled lignins (both synthetic and plant-synthesized) are reviewed, with emphasis on the utilization of these 14 C-labeled substrates in biodegradation and biotransformation experiments. The scientific literature is reviewed concerning the use of 14 C-lignins to examine the following: microbial groups that are able to degrade lignins; lignin degradation in natural environments; biochemistry and microbial physiology of lignin degradation; biodegradability of industrial lignins and their by-products; and screening for industrially valuable, lignin-modifying microorganisms. Recent results obtained in our laboratory concerning lignin degradation by eubacteria are presented. Future directions for 14 C-methodology are examined

  2. Determination of moisture in bagasse by neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Suarez, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time in Cuba organic samples were analyzed by neutron reflection method. The feasibility of this method to determinate the moisture grade in sugar cane bagasse is fixed. From 0 to 50w% moisture grade with 2-3% relative accuracy can be determinated using 10m. measuring time. 7 refs

  3. Sugar cane bagasse pretreatment: An attempt to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    +1.5%NaOH. The pretreatment of bagasse with 2.0% H2O2 along with 1.5% NaOH enhanced the biosynthesis of cellulases by H. insolens. Production rate was also optimized with different parameters like thickness of fermentation medium, ...

  4. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Núñez-Jaquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement. Six prismatic specimens (7×7×10 cm with an embedded steel rod were prepared. Three contained 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement and the other three did not. All specimens were placed in a 3.5% NaCl solution and the corrosion rate was determined using polarization resistance. The results showed that reinforced concrete containing sugar cane bagasse ash has the lowest corrosion rates in comparison to reinforced concrete without the additive.

  5. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  6. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  7. Fabrication of environmentally biodegradable lignin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangville, Camille; Rutkevičius, Marius; Richter, Alexander P; Velev, Orlin D; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2012-12-21

    We developed a method for the fabrication of novel biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) from lignin which are apparently non-toxic for microalgae and yeast. We compare two alternative methods for the synthesis of lignin NPs which result in particles of very different stability upon change of pH. The first method is based on precipitation of low-sulfonated lignin from an ethylene glycol solution by using diluted acidic aqueous solutions, which yields lignin NPs that are stable over a wide range of pH. The second approach is based on the acidic precipitation of lignin from a high-pH aqueous solution which produces NPs stable only at low pH. Our study reveals that lignin NPs from the ethylene glycol-based precipitation contain densely packed lignin domains which explain the stability of the NPs even at high pH. We characterised the properties of the produced lignin NPs and determined their loading capacities with hydrophilic actives. The results suggest that these NPs are highly porous and consist of smaller lignin domains. Tests with microalgae like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and yeast incubated in lignin NP dispersions indicated that these NPs lack measurable effect on the viability of these microorganisms. Such biodegradable and environmentally compatible NPs can find applications as drug delivery vehicles, stabilisers of cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations, or in other areas where they may replace more expensive and potentially toxic nanomaterials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. As-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse possessing exotic field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnia, Lucky; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Palnitkar, Umesh; Satyam, P. V.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Koratkar, Nikhil A.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate the application of sugarcane bagasse as an excellent field emitter. Field emission property of as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) before and after the plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been observed that electronic nature of p-SBg transformed from semiconducting to metallic after plasma treatment. Maximum current and turn-on field defined at 10 μA/cm2 was found to be 800 μA/cm2 and 2.2 V/μm for as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) and 25 μA/cm2 and 8.4 V/μm for H2-plasma treated p-SBg. These values are found to be better than the reported values for graphene and activated carbon. In this report, pyrolysis of bagasse has been carried in a thermal chemical vapor deposition (Th-CVD) system in inert argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study the structure of both pre and post plasma-treated p-SBg bagasse's sample. HRTEM study reveals that carbonaceous structures such as 3D-nanographene oxide (3D-NGO), graphite nanodots (GNDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon onions are present in both pre-treated and plasma-treated p-SBg. Hence, we envision that the performed study will be a forwarding step to facilitate the application of p-SBg in display devices.

  9. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of adult female albino Wistar rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Group B was administered 50 ml of regular soda (RS), and group C was administered 50 ml of diet soda (DS) each per day for 21 days, and the rats were ...

  10. Conformational analysis of lignin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Helio F. dos

    2001-01-01

    The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)

  11. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Enhancement of plaque removal by baking soda toothpastes from less accessible areas in the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, S; Hooper, W; Xu, Y; Ghassemi, A; Winston, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine if baking soda toothpastes are relatively more effective than non-baking soda toothpastes in promoting plaque removal from less accessible sites in the dentition. Several single-brushing comparisons of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes for their overall ability to remove plaque have been published. In this study, individual comparisons of these published data, comparing the plaque removal performance of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes at various sites in the dentition, were examined to see if there were any site-dependant performance trends. The site-specific single-brushing data were then combined and analyzed in two ways. Meta-analyses of the clinical studies were performed to compare baking soda's relative plaque removal advantage at various sites in the mouth using paired t-testing at p baking soda toothpastes were graphically compared with plaque index reductions due to brushing with non-baking soda dentifrices. The percent relative plaque removal advantage for baking soda toothpastes at various sites were plotted against the reduction in plaque index due to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes. Individual comparisons showed that brushing with the toothpastes containing baking soda generally removed significantly more plaque from each site than brushing with toothpastes without baking soda. The relative efficacy advantage for baking soda toothpastes was consistently higher at sites where the non-baking soda toothpastes removed less plaque. Meta-analytical comparisons confirmed baking soda toothpastes to be relatively more effective in enhancing plaque removal from sites where less plaque was removed compared to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes (p baking soda toothpastes' relative plaque removal advantage could be seen to increase hyperbolically with decreasing plaque removal by the non-baking soda toothpastes with which they were compared. We presuppose that the reason less plaque is removed by non-baking soda

  13. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  14. Ferricyanide-based analysis of aqueous lignin suspension revealed sequestration of water-soluble lignin moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua, CJ; Simmons, BA; Singer, SW

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. This study describes the application of a ferricyanide-based assay as a simple and inexpensive assay for rapid analysis of aqueous lignin samples. The assay measures the formation of Prussian blue from the redox reaction between a mixture of potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride, and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin or lignin-derived phenolic moieties. This study revealed that soluble lignin moieties exhibited stronger ferricyanide reactivity than...

  15. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  16. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  17. Radical nature of C- lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Berstis; Thomas Elder; Michael Crowley; Gregg T. Beckham

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered lignin composed of caffeoyl alcohol monolignols or C-lignin is particularly intriguing given its homogeneous, linear polymeric structure and exclusive benzodioxane linkage between monomers. By virtue of this simplified chemistry, the potential emerges for improved valorization strategies with C-lignin relative to other natural heterogeneous...

  18. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  19. Assessment of cellulose purification methods from the residue of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for the production of cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Lais Angelice de; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Marconcini, José Manoel; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Over the years, there is a growing trend in the reuse of residues from the agricultural industries due to social, environmental and economic demands. The production of Brazilian sugarcane in the 2014/15 season was more than 640 million tons, estimating that one third of this total is bagasse [1]. After enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse in order to give the 2G ethanol, remains a solid fibrous residue which can be repurposed in other processes. This study evaluated four methods for the purification of the resulting solid fibrous residue from the enzymatic hydrolysis process of bagasse, with the intention of obtaining cellulose. Measurements of the crystallinity index (CI) of the cellulose contained in the samples were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The enzymatic hydrolysis of generates a fibrous solid residue with contents of lignin and cellulose. This residue was subjected to four purification methods: I) 100 mL of NaOH (5%, w/w) at 55 °C was added to 5 g of residue and 43 mL of H 2 O 2 (35%, v/v) under stirring for 1.5 hours; II) the same procedure was repeated on the resulting material from I; III) 105 mL of solution 10:1 (ν/ν) of CH 3 COOH and HNO 3 at 60 °C was added to 5 g of residue under stirring for 30 minutes; IV) reaction with a solution composed of 1 ml of CH 3 COOH and 2.5 g of NaClO 2 at 70 °C under stirring for 1 hour and after that time, the procedure was repeated twice and then the solution was kept under stirring for further 3 hours. The crystallinity indexes found for the purification procedures were: I) 81.7%; II) 83.2%; III) 52.1% e IV) 77.2%. The best result was found for the material subjected to the method II. This process (II) generated a material composed of high content of crystalline cellulose. References: [1] CONAB (National Supply Company), 2015. (author)

  20. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  1. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period. The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60% and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse, formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. Results The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Conclusion Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg

  2. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gleidiana Amélia Pontes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Almeida, Gledson Luiz Pontes

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60%) and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse), formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg/d of milk.

  3. Influence of Torrefaction on the Conversion Efficiency of the Gasification Process of Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Anukam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N2 at 10 °C·min−1 heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid reaction of the material during torrefaction. Torrefied and untorrefied bagasse were characterized to compare their suitability as feedstocks for gasification. The results showed that torrefied bagasse had lower O–C and H–C atomic ratios of about 0.5 and 0.84 as compared to that of untorrefied bagasse with 0.82 and 1.55, respectively. A calorific value of about 20.29 MJ·kg−1 was also measured for torrefied bagasse, which is around 13% higher than that for untorrefied bagasse with a value of ca. 17.9 MJ·kg−1. This confirms the former as a much more suitable feedstock for gasification than the latter since efficiency of gasification is a function of feedstock calorific value. SEM results also revealed a fibrous structure and pith in the micrographs of both torrefied and untorrefied bagasse, indicating the carbonaceous nature of both materials, with torrefied bagasse exhibiting a more permeable structure with larger surface area, which are among the features that favour gasification. The gasification process of torrefied bagasse relied on computer simulation to establish the impact of torrefaction on gasification efficiency. Optimum efficiency was achieved with torrefied bagasse because of its slightly modified properties. Conversion efficiency of the gasification process of torrefied bagasse increased from 50% to approximately 60% after computer simulation, whereas that of untorrefied bagasse remained constant at 50%, even as the gasification time increased.

  4. Biological and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars and Lignin Publications |

    Science.gov (United States)

    biorefinery lignins, ACS Sust. Chem. Eng. Lignin depolymerization with nitrate-intercalated hydrotalcite catalysts, ACS Catalysis Pyrolysis reaction networks for lignin model compounds: Unraveling thermal Free Energy, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic

  5. Studies on Lignin-Based Adhesives for Particleboard Panels

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Nihat Sami; ÖZMEN, Nilgül

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this work was to develop a phenolic resin for partially replacing phenol with modified organosolv lignin in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin production. The lignin-formaldehyde relationship was determined in a reactivity test. Organosolv lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins were produced in a two-step preparation with different additions of lignin. The method selected for the manufacture of lignin resins dealt with modification of the lignin by the methylolation route. Th...

  6. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I.; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R.; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E.; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I.; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M.; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  7. The effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chair Effendi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is the tooth-colored restorative material which most of the people are fond of due to their aesthetic value. The composite resin discoloration may happen because of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Soda water is one of the beverages which can cause the composite resin discoloration. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Methods: The study was an experimental laboratory study using 100 shade A3 nano hybrid composite resin specimens with the diameter of 5 mm and density of 2mm. The samples were divided into 5 groups, each group was immersed in different beverages. The beverages were mineral water; lemon-flavored soda; strawberry-flavored soda; fruit punch-flavored soda; and orange-flavored soda for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days respectively, in the temperature of 37o C. The discoloration measurement utilizes Spectrophotometer, Vita Easy Shade, and uses CIEL*a*b* method. Results: The result showed that the duration of immersion in soda had an effect on the Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Strawberry and fruit punch- flavored soda were the most influential components toward the discoloration. Nevertheless, the generally-occurred discoloration was clinically acceptable (∆E ≤ 3,3. Conclusion: The study suggested that the soda immersion duration has effect on Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration.Latar belakang: Resin komposit adalah material sewarna gigi yang diminati masyarakat karena memiliki nilai estetik yang baik. Perubahan warna resin komposit dapat terjadi karena faktor intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Minuman soda merupakan salah satu minuman yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan warna pada resin komposit. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk meneliti perubahan warna resin komposit nanohibrida akibat perendaman dalam minuman soda. Metode: Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorik dengan menggunakan

  8. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  9. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  10. Fabrication of Environmentally Biodegradable Lignin Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frangville, C.; Rutkevicius, M.; Richter, A.P.; Velev, O.D.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a method for the fabrication of novel biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) from lignin which are apparently non-toxic for microalgae and yeast. We compare two alternative methods for the synthesis of lignin NPs which result in particles of very different stability upon change of pH. The

  11. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V.; Kouris, Panos D.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Heeres, Hero J.; Boot, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative

  12. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-01-01

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  15. Lignin Biodegradation with Laccase-Mediator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, Lew Paul; Yao, Bin; Ji, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Lignin has a significant and largely unrealized potential as a source for the sustainable production of fuels and bulk high-value chemicals. It can replace fossil-based oil as a renewable feedstock that would bring about socio-economic and environmental benefits in our transition to a biobased economy. The efficient utilization of lignin however requires its depolymerization to low-molecular weight phenolics and aromatics that can then serve as the building blocks for chemical syntheses of high-value products. The ability of laccase to attack and degrade lignin in conjunction with laccase mediators is currently viewed as one of the potential “breakthrough” applications for lignin valorization. Here, we review the recent progress in lignin biodegradation with laccase-mediator systems, and research needs that need to be addressed in this field.

  16. Lignin Biodegradation with Laccase-Mediator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher, Lew Paul, E-mail: lew.christopher@sdsmt.edu [Center for Bioprocessing Research and Development, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Yao, Bin [Center for Bioprocessing Research and Development, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Ji, Yun [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Lignin has a significant and largely unrealized potential as a source for the sustainable production of fuels and bulk high-value chemicals. It can replace fossil-based oil as a renewable feedstock that would bring about socio-economic and environmental benefits in our transition to a biobased economy. The efficient utilization of lignin however requires its depolymerization to low-molecular weight phenolics and aromatics that can then serve as the building blocks for chemical syntheses of high-value products. The ability of laccase to attack and degrade lignin in conjunction with laccase mediators is currently viewed as one of the potential “breakthrough” applications for lignin valorization. Here, we review the recent progress in lignin biodegradation with laccase-mediator systems, and research needs that need to be addressed in this field.

  17. Physicochemical study of bagasse and bagasse ash from the sugar industries of NWFP, pakistan and its recycling in cement manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, K.; Amin, N.U.; Shah, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse and bagasse ash, obtained from the local sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, were analyzed for both physical and chemical parameters. Among the physical parameters, the moisture, ash contents, volatile matter, loss on ignition, and calorific value have been determined while the chemical constituents such as SiO/sub 2/, AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/O, K/sub 2/O, carbon and sulfur were also determined in both baggase and baggase ash. The physicochemical characterization of baggase ash suggests that it can be used as a part of the cement admixture, which could be cost effective and environmentally sustainable. (author)

  18. Baking soda pica associated with rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Myles, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pica is a commonly underappreciated disorder in pregnancy that can lead to several complications, including severe metabolic derangements and other adverse outcomes. We report a case of baking soda pica in pregnancy associated with both rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. A multigravid woman at 37 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and severe hypokalemia. She subsequently had development of rhabdomyolysis and presumed peripartum cardiomyopathy. After delivery, it was discovered that the patient had a long history of consumption of large quantities of baking soda. Her condition improved with cessation of the pica. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for pica in pregnancy because it can lead to complex diagnostic challenges and pregnancy complications. The diagnosis should be considered in a patient with unexplained metabolic abnormalities.

  19. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  20. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure change of soda-silicate glass by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, M; Okuno, M

    2010-01-01

    Structure change of ground soda-silicate glass (SiO 2 -Na 2 O binary systems) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy. The measurement results were discussed comparison to that of SiO 2 glass. With increasing Na 2 O concentrations, the XRD intensity around 2θ = 22 0 decreased and the intensity around 32 0 increased. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 maybe attributed to SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass unit, respectively. The peaks of Na 2 CO 3 crystal for 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass were observed with increasing milling time. This crystallization was suggested that Na + ion on 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass surface connected CO 2 in air. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 decreased and the intensity around 30 0 increased with increasing milling time. These may indicate that SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass structure unit were mixed by milling. In addition, IR absorption band near v = 1100 cm -1 was separated to two bands near 940 cm -1 and 1070 cm -1 with increasing Na 2 O concentrations. The band near 940 cm -1 decreased and the band near 1070 cm -1 increased with increasing milling time. These spectra changes were suggested due to decrease of Na 2 O concentrations in 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass with Na 2 CO 3 crystallization.

  2. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  3. Comparative performance of sugarcane bagasse and black polyethylene as mulch for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the millable sugarcane. Typically...

  4. Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African sugar industry has a potential for cogeneration of steam and electricity using bagasse. The sugar industry has the potential to generate about 960 MW per year from bagasse based on the average of 20 million tons of sugar cane...

  5. Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse, an energy crop residue, with NaOH for the production of fermentable substrates, was investigated. Optimal conditions for the alkaline pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse were realized at 10% NaOH (w/w dry matter). A delignification of 46% was then observed,

  6. Efficient chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the lignocellulosic residue from Agave tequilana bagasse to produce ethanol by Pichia caribbica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Luna, Jaime; Castro-Montoya, Agustin Jaime; Martinez-Pacheco, Mauro Manuel; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos Ruben; Campos-Garcia, Jesus

    2011-06-01

    Bagasse of Agave tequilana (BAT) is the residual lignocellulosic waste that remains from tequila production. In this study we characterized the chemical composition of BAT, which was further saccharified and fermented to produce ethanol. BAT was constituted by cellulose (42%), hemicellulose (20%), lignin (15%), and other (23%). Saccharification of BAT was carried out at 147 °C with 2% sulfuric acid for 15 min, yielding 25.8 g/l of fermentable sugars, corresponding to 36.1% of saccharificable material (cellulose and hemicellulose contents, w/w). The remaining lignocellulosic material was further hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes, ~8.2% of BAT load was incubated for 72 h at 40 °C rendering 41 g/l of fermentable sugars corresponding to 73.6% of the saccharificable material (w/w). Mathematic surface response analysis of the acid and enzymatic BAT hydrolysis was used for process optimization. The results showed a satisfactory correlation (R (2) = 0.90) between the obtained and predicted responses. The native yeast Pichia caribbica UM-5 was used to ferment sugar liquors from both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to ethanol yielding 50 and 87%, respectively. The final optimized process generated 8.99 g ethanol/50 g of BAT, corresponding to an overall 56.75% of theoretical ethanol (w/w). Thus, BAT may be employed as a lignocellulosic raw material for bioethanol production and can contribute to BAT residue elimination from environment.

  7. Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

    2013-09-01

    Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels.

  8. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by combined diluted acid with oxidate ammonolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xuefang; Wang, Can; Qi, Gaoxiang; Huang, Chao; Luo, Mutan; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to propose a biorefinery pretreatment technology for the bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) into biofuels and N-fertilizers. Performance of diluted acid (DA), aqueous ammonia (AA), oxidate ammonolysis (OA) and the combined DA with AA or OA were compared in SB pretreatment by enzymatic hydrolysis, structural characterization and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Results indicated that DA-OA pretreatment improves the digestibility of SB by sufficiently hydrolyzing hemicellulose into fermentable monosaccharides and oxidating lignin into soluble N-fertilizer with high nitrogen content (11.25%) and low C/N ratio (3.39). The enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB mainly composed of glucose was more suitable for the production of ABE solvents than the enzymatic hydrolysates from OA pretreated SB containing high ratio of xylose. The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB produced 12.12g/L ABE in 120h. These results suggested that SB could be utilized efficient, economic, and environmental by DA-OA pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lignin solubilisation and gentle fractionation in liquid ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassberger, Z.; Prinsen, P.; Klis, van der F.; Es, van D.S.; Tanase, S.; Rothenberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple method for solubilising lignin using liquid ammonia. Unlike water, which requires harsh conditions, ammonia can solubilise technical lignins, in particular kraft lignin. A commercial pine wood Kraft lignin (Indulin AT) was solubilized instantaneously at room temperature and 7–11

  10. The Use of Esterified Lignin for Synthesis of Durable Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Olsson; E. Ostmark; R.E. Ibach; C.M. Clemons; K.B. Segerholm; F. Englund

    2011-01-01

    Lignin is a natural polymer and one of the most abundant materials on earth. Despite this fact, lignin is often viewed as a by-product in chemical pulp processing and the use of lignin as a sustainable material is low. However, research and public awareness of sustainability have opened up new possibilities for using lignin as a material.

  11. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  12. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  13. Animal bioavailability of defined xenobiotic lignin metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Arjmand, M.; Gennity, I.; Winkler, R.; Struble, C.B.; Aschbacher, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Lignin has been recognized as a major component of bound pesticide residues in plants and is thought to be undigestible in animals. Two defined ring-U- 14 C-labeled chloroaniline/lignin metabolites have now been fed to rats, where a release of ∼66% of the bound xenobiotic occurred in the form of simple chloroaniline derivatives. The observed high degree of bioavailability indicates that bound pesticidal residues may possess ecotoxicological significance. In parallel studies, the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was more efficient, and a soil system was much less efficient, in the degradation of the [ring-U- 14 C]chloroaniline/lignin metabolites

  14. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Kalyani, Dayanand

    2015-01-01

    illustrations of the putative laccase catalyzed reactions, including the possible reactions of the reactive radical intermediates taking place after the initial oxidation of the phenol-hydroxyl groups, we show that i) Laccase activity is able to catalyze bond cleavage in low molecular weight phenolic lignin......-substituted phenols, benzenethiols, polyphenols, and polyamines, which may be oxidized. In addition, the currently available analytical methods that can be used to detect enzyme catalyzed changes in lignin are summarized, and an improved nomenclature for unequivocal interpretation of the action of laccases on lignin...

  15. The synthesis and analysis of lignin-bound Hibbert ketone structures in technical lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Barrett, Daniel M; Neal, Andrew R; Hand, Calum; Montgomery, James R D; Panovic, Isabella; Ojo, O Stephen; Lancefield, Christopher S; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Lebl, Tomas; Westwood, Nicholas J

    2016-10-25

    Understanding the structure of technical lignins resulting from acid-catalysed treatment of lignocellulosic biomass is important for their future applications. Here we report an investigation into the fate of lignin under acidic aqueous organosolv conditions. In particular we examine in detail the formation and reactivity of non-native Hibbert ketone structures found in isolated organosolv lignins from both Douglas fir and beech woods. Through the use of model compounds combined with HSQC, HMBC and HSQC-TOCSY NMR experiments we demonstrate that, depending on the lignin source, both S and G lignin-bound Hibbert ketone units can be present. We also show that these units can serve as a source of novel mono-aromatic compounds following an additional lignin depolymerisation reaction.

  16. Characterization of the effects of lignin and lignin complex particles as filler on a polystyrene film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawawy, Waleed K., E-mail: wkzawawy@yahoo.com [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, El-Tahrir St., Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, Maha M. [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, El-Tahrir St., Giza (Egypt); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Dufresne, Alain [Grenoble Institute of Technology (INP) - The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials (PAGORA), BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres cedex, Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied the use of Co(II) to form a complex with the lignin. We use first vanillin as the lignin model and we observed a change in color for the produced complex depending on the light wavelength. The use of other transition metals does not give the same observation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the transition metal with the lignin precipitated from the black liquor after pulping of agricultural residues, gave a fluorescent color under fluorescent microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We applied the resulted lignin complex to prepare polymer film that can be used as special polymer packaging which can be color changed under different wavelengths. - Abstract: The work in this research outlines the use of lignin precipitated from lignocellulosic substrate as fillers after modified with transition metal cations, Fe(III), Ni(II) and Co(II), in the production of a polystyrene based composite for polymer packaging applications. Virgin polystyrene was compared with lignin and lignin complex filled composites with loading of 5% by weight prepared using twin screw extrusion. The lignin complexes were first characterized by the UV spectra to identify the new absorption bands occurred due to the complex formation. Moreover, lignin model, namely vanillin, was used to notify the geometric structure of the resulting complexes applying the GC mass spectra. Scanning electron microscopy was used to indicate the change in the morphological structure of the filler particles. On the other hand, the mechanical and thermal analysis for the resulting polymer composites was studied and it was noticed that the type of lignin or lignin complex plays a roll in the results. The inclusion of the Co(II)-lignin complex was observed to increase the tensile strength of the resulting polymer composite and a decrease of the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, light wave lengths and UV fluorescent microscope were used to identify

  17. Characterization of the effects of lignin and lignin complex particles as filler on a polystyrene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawawy, Waleed K.; Ibrahim, Maha M.; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Dufresne, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have studied the use of Co(II) to form a complex with the lignin. We use first vanillin as the lignin model and we observed a change in color for the produced complex depending on the light wavelength. The use of other transition metals does not give the same observation. ► The use of the transition metal with the lignin precipitated from the black liquor after pulping of agricultural residues, gave a fluorescent color under fluorescent microscope. ► We applied the resulted lignin complex to prepare polymer film that can be used as special polymer packaging which can be color changed under different wavelengths. - Abstract: The work in this research outlines the use of lignin precipitated from lignocellulosic substrate as fillers after modified with transition metal cations, Fe(III), Ni(II) and Co(II), in the production of a polystyrene based composite for polymer packaging applications. Virgin polystyrene was compared with lignin and lignin complex filled composites with loading of 5% by weight prepared using twin screw extrusion. The lignin complexes were first characterized by the UV spectra to identify the new absorption bands occurred due to the complex formation. Moreover, lignin model, namely vanillin, was used to notify the geometric structure of the resulting complexes applying the GC mass spectra. Scanning electron microscopy was used to indicate the change in the morphological structure of the filler particles. On the other hand, the mechanical and thermal analysis for the resulting polymer composites was studied and it was noticed that the type of lignin or lignin complex plays a roll in the results. The inclusion of the Co(II)–lignin complex was observed to increase the tensile strength of the resulting polymer composite and a decrease of the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, light wave lengths and UV fluorescent microscope were used to identify the change of color for the resulting polymer film.

  18. Characterization of cutting soda-lime glass sludge for the formulation of red ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filogonio, P.H.C.; Reis, A.S.; Louzada, D.M.; Della, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Considering previous works that have demonstrated the feasibility of soda-lime glass incorporation into red ceramics, this paper aims to determine the potential for incorporation of cutting soda-lime glass sludge in red ceramic manufacturing. Therefore, the waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal behavior. The results confirm the chemical and mineralogical similarity between waste and soda-lime glass. Because of this similarity, it is concluded that the soda-lime glass waste has the capability to be used in the manufacturing of red ceramics. (author)

  19. Lignine als grondstof voor asfalt en dakbedekking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, D. van

    2014-01-01

    Zet een chemicus en een wegenbouwer bij elkoor en je kunt het onverwachte verwachten. Somen brouwden dr. Ted Sloghek en ing. Dave van Vliet van TNO een type bitumen met verbeterde eigenschoppen. Het basismateriaal: lignine

  20. Lignin biomass conversion into chemicals and fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melián Rodríguez, Mayra

    Second-generation biomass or lignocellulosic biomass, which is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is a very important and promising feedstock for the renewable production of fuels and chemicals of the future. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer, representing 30...... and show similar, although simplified, characteristics to the natural biopolymer. Among them, the most abundant structural unit is the β-O-4, representing approximately 60% of the bonds in hardwood and 45-50% of those in softwood. Oxidative depolymerization is one of the most viable methods for lignin...... valorization. It involves the cleavage of ether bonds, such as β-O-4 and other linkages present in lignin and its model compounds, giving aldehydes or carboxylic acids as products, depending on the reaction conditions used. In Chapter 2 of this thesis, the preparation, characterization and catalytic...

  1. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  2. Selective Oxidation of Lignin Model Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruili; Li, Yanding; Kim, Hoon; Mobley, Justin K; Ralph, John

    2018-05-02

    Lignin, the planet's most abundant renewable source of aromatic compounds, is difficult to degrade efficiently to welldefined aromatics. We developed a microwave-assisted catalytic Swern oxidation system using an easily prepared catalyst, MoO 2 Cl 2 (DMSO) 2 , and DMSO as the solvent and oxidant. It demonstrated high efficiency in transforming lignin model compounds containing the units and functional groups found in native lignins. The aromatic ring substituents strongly influenced the selectivity of β-ether phenolic dimer cleavage to generate sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde, monomers not usually produced by oxidative methods. Time-course studies on two key intermediates provided insight into the reaction pathway. Owing to the broad scope of this oxidation system and the insight gleaned with regard to its mechanism, this strategy could be adapted and applied in a general sense to the production of useful aromatic chemicals from phenolics and lignin. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Isolation and Physicochemical Characterization of Lignin from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muzakir

    and properties, lignin offers a perspective for higher value-added ... priority for the development and implementation of the lignocellulosic ... of about 2.5 m and adaptable to most soils. It had ..... in young versus adult Eucalyptus globulus plants.

  4. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  5. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Pinho, Maria Noberta de; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da

    2010-01-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  6. Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, Jean Vittorio

    The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and

  7. MODIFIED BAGASSE, ITS POTENTIAL AS DECOLORANT IN THE SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian León Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the conditions for obtaining an anionic exchanger based on the chemical modification of the fibrous fraction of bagasse by etherification in basic medium are studied. It evaluates the influence parameters concentration of sodium hydroxide, the molar ratio cellulose/diethylaminoethylamine hydrochloride and the reaction time in the substitution. In each case a degree of substitution estimated by determining the nitrogen content was obtained. It has been demostrated that the product removed 40-60 % of color in sugar solutions, therefore can be used in the sugar industry for the removal of ionic compounds.

  8. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  9. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Davison, Brian H; Standaert, Robert F; Davis, Mark F; Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2014-01-09

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular weight lignin polymers and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di-, and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p-electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages (β-β or β-5) react poorly and tend to "cap" the polymer. In general, β-5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  10. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  11. Improvement in irradiation pasteurization on sugarcane bagasse for its fungal bioconversion to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Lam

    2002-01-01

    Goals of this study were to reduce radiation dose required for bagase pasteurization and to convert the pasteurized bagasse into animal feed by using fungal fermentation. Comparative study on the effectiveness of radiation decontamination on moisturized and dried bagasse showed different doses required for pasteurization. Radiation treatment on wetted substratum bags required 20 kGy, while dried bagasse needed only 10 kGy for pasteurization. In comparison with wetted bagasse substratum, the pasteurized dry bagasse has more dominant advantages because it can be kept for storage, transportation and distribution to household producers. Moisturizing substratum with tap water can be done just before inoculation with mycelial seed. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse to ruminant feed by using fungal fermentation was investigated. The in sacco digestibility of fermented substratum increased with incubation period and it was higher than that of paddy rice straw and comparable to Pangola grass after 35 days of fermentation. As the digestibility of mushroom-harvested residue was still higher than that of non-fermented bagasse, the fermentation by using Pleurotus spp. could simultaneously provide edible mushroom and animal feed as well. (Author)

  12. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  13. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Jones, Malia; Yu, Hongjian; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-09-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem.

  14. KRAFT PULPING CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE MOROCCAN EUCALYPTI. PART 2. COMPARISON OF THE GUAIACYL FRACTION OF THE NATIVE LIGNINS BY A NOVEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka F. Alves,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In Part 1 of this series it was observed that one of the eucalypti (EGC 39 was more reactive than the other two in kraft and soda-AQ (SAQ cooking. However, the lignin in EGC 39 contained equal or less syringyl (S units than the other two eucalypti. In the present research an attempt was made to compare the guaiacyl (G fraction of the three lignins. The approach was to use SAQ treatment to cleave β-O-4 bonds in dimeric units containing uncondensed guaiacyl A-rings (those rearranging to quinone methides. The coniferyl alcohol, vinylguaiacol and isoeugenol generated from β-O-4 cleavage are then trapped as dimers by ethylguaiacol that is included in the SAQ liquor. Research with sugar maple (Acer saccharum showed that the estimate of these structures (uncondensed G-β-O-4 by this approach was in close agreement with traditional but more tedious methods such as permanganate oxidation and 31P NMR. It was also shown that the lignin in the EGC 39 hybrid contained a higher concentration of uncondensed G-β-O-4 structures than the other two eucalypti lignins.

  15. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis.

  16. Chapter 1: A Brief Introduction to Lignin Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elder, Thomas J. [USDA-Forest Service

    2018-04-03

    Lignin is an alkyl-aromatic polymer found in the cell walls of terrestrial plants. Lignin provides structure and rigidity to plants, is a natural, highly effective barrier against microbial attack, and enables water and nutrient transport through plant tissues. Depending on the plant species, the constituents of lignin can vary considerably, leading to substantial diversity in lignin chemistry and structure. Despite nearly a century of research and development attempting to convert lignin into valuable products, lignin in most current and planned biorefinery contexts remains underutilized, most often being burned to generate heat and power. However, the drive towards effective lignin valorization processes has witnessed a significant resurgence in the past decade, catalyzed by advances in improved understanding of lignin chemistry, structure, and plasticity in parallel with new catalytic and biological approaches to valorize this important, prevalent biopolymer. As a preface to the subsequent chapters in this book, this chapter briefly highlights the known aspects of lignin structure.

  17. Systematic Parameterization of Lignin for the CHARMM Force Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaas, Joshua; Petridis, Loukas; Beckham, Gregg; Crowley, Michael

    2017-07-06

    Plant cell walls have three primary components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, the latter of which is a recalcitrant, aromatic heteropolymer that provides structure to plants, water and nutrient transport through plant tissues, and a highly effective defense against pathogens. Overcoming the recalcitrance of lignin is key to effective biomass deconstruction, which would in turn enable the use of biomass as a feedstock for industrial processes. Our understanding of lignin structure in the plant cell wall is hampered by the limitations of the available lignin forcefields, which currently only account for a single linkage between lignins and lack explicit parameterization for emerging lignin structures both from natural variants and engineered lignin structures. Since polymerization of lignin occurs via radical intermediates, multiple C-O and C-C linkages have been isolated , and the current force field only represents a small subset of lignin the diverse lignin structures found in plants. In order to take into account the wide range of lignin polymerization chemistries, monomers and dimer combinations of C-, H-, G-, and S-lignins as well as with hydroxycinnamic acid linkages were subjected to extensive quantum mechanical calculations to establish target data from which to build a complete molecular mechanics force field tuned specifically for diverse lignins. This was carried out in a GPU-accelerated global optimization process, whereby all molecules were parameterized simultaneously using the same internal parameter set. By parameterizing lignin specifically, we are able to more accurately represent the interactions and conformations of lignin monomers and dimers relative to a general force field. This new force field will enables computational researchers to study the effects of different linkages on the structure of lignin, as well as construct more accurate plant cell wall models based on observed statistical distributions of lignin that differ between

  18. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases. Glycoside hydrolase (GH family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated.

  19. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzolaa, Nelson; Garcia, Joyner

    2015-01-01

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  20. The association of soda sales tax and school nutrition laws: a concordance of policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Chriqui, Jamie; Moser, Richard P; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Perna, Frank M

    2014-10-01

    The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools. The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states' competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states' disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state. Data from BTG and CLASS were used. BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used. A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %. These data suggest a concordance between states' soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.

  1. Hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis as a consequence of the therapeutic misuse of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S; Listernick, R

    1987-12-01

    When used appropriately, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, USP) is a nontoxic, readily available, multipurpose product found in many households. We report an infant who presented with hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis due to the addition of baking soda to her water. This case represents the possible dangerous use of a common household product in infants owing to the lack of proper warning labels.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide and caustic soda: Dancing with a dragon while bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Carl Houtman; Kolby Hirth

    2013-01-01

    When hydrogen peroxide is mixed with caustic soda, an auto-accelerating reaction can lead to generation of significant amounts of heat and oxygen. On the basis of experiments using typical pulp mill process concentration and temperatures, a relatively simple kinetic model has been developed. Evaluation of these model results reveals that hydrogen peroxide-caustic soda...

  3. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Zadorina, E.V.; Kravchenko, I.K.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tourova, T.P.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt). The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda

  4. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  5. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  6. Quantitative bacterial examination and chemical evaluation of Diet, Club, and Ice-cream Sodas, Soft Drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watoo, M.K.S.; Watoo, F.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Tirmizi, S.A.; Iqbal, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diet, club, and ice cream sodas are flavored soft drinks consumed throughout the world, especially in summer seasons. This study has been undertaken to monitor the bacterial and chemical contamination of these national and international branded drinks procured from local markets. The isolated coliforms and microbes were E. coli Salmonella spp, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, and Bacillus cereus. Diet and club sodas were less contaminated with microorganisms than were ice-cream sodas. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were identified with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer following the improved ash digestion method. The values of Nickel (Ni), (0.15 mg/L), (Pb) (0.28mg/L), Cadmium (Cd) (0.13mg/L) and Aluminum (Al) (0.76 mg/L) were higher than the (WHO) recommended limits. The concentrations of (Na, Fe, Pb) and Chromium (Cr) were higher in club sodas than diet and ice-cream sodas and the concentrations of Calcium (Ca), (Mn) in ice-cream sodas were also higher than diet and club sodas. Overall, the ice-cream sodas did not conform to the (WHO) standards allowed for safe ingestion of micro- and macro-metals in various drinks. (author)

  7. SINTESIS SILIKA AEROGEL DENGAN BAHAN DASAR ABU BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazriati Nazriati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SILICA AEROGEL FROM BAGASSE ASH. Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid (SA. Silicic acid solution was then added with TMCS and HMDS as surface modifier agent. In order to form gel pH must be adjusted to final pH of 8-9 by addition of NH4OH solution. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. Characterization of products was done by measuring its pore volume, surface area, and hydrophobisity (contact angle. TMCS serves as water expeller from the pores and subsequently surface was modified by HMDS and TMCS. HMDS content will linearly increase surface area, pore volume, and the contact angle of the resulting silica aerogel. Characteristics of silica aerogel was generated by varying the composition of the SA:TMCS:HMDS resulting has a surface area of 50-488 m2/g, pore volume from 0.2 to 0.9 m3 /g, the contact angle of 48-119 and pore diameter ranging from 5.7-22.56 nm. Based on the resulting pore diameter, the synthesized of silica aerogel categorized as mesoporous.      Abstrak   Sintesis silika aerogel dari bahan dasar abu bagasse dilakukan dengan ekstraksi basa dan diikuti dengan sol-gel. Abu bagasse diekstrak dengan NaOH pada suhu didihnya sambil diaduk selama satu jam, menghasilkan sodium silikat. Selanjutnya, sodium silikat dilewatkan resin penukar ion, menghasilkan asam silicic (SA. Larutan asam silicic kemudian ditambahkan trimethy­l­chlorosilane (TMCS dan hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS sebagai agen pemodifikasi permukaan. Untuk terjadinya gel pH diatur hingga mencapai 8-9 dengan penambahan larutan NH4OH. Gel yang dihasilkan kemudian di-aging dan dikeringkan pada tekanan ambien pada suhu dan

  8. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri [School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada); Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  9. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-01-01

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems

  10. The relationship between amount of soda consumed and intention to reduce soda consumption among adults exposed to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' health marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Lieberman, Alicea J; Barragan, Noel C; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2015-10-01

    To examine behavioural intention to reduce soda consumption after exposure to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' campaign in Los Angeles County, California, USA. A cross-sectional street-intercept survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, health behaviours and behavioural intentions after exposure to the 'Sugar Pack' campaign. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between the amount of soda consumed and self-reported intention to reduce consumption of non-diet soda among adults who saw the campaign. Three pre-selected Los Angeles County Metro bus shelters and/or rail stops with the highest number of 'Sugar Pack' campaign advertisement placements. Riders of the region's Metro buses and railways who were the intended audience of the campaign advertisements. The overall survey response rate was 56 % (resulting n 1041). Almost 60 % of respondents were exposed to the advertisements (619/1041). The multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds of reporting intention to reduce soda consumption among moderate consumers (1-6 sodas/week) were 1·95 times greater than among heavy consumers (≥1 soda/d), after controlling for clustering and covariates. Respondents with less than a high-school education and who perceived sugary beverage consumption as harmful also had higher odds; in contrast, respondents aged ≥65 years had lower odds. Results suggest that future campaigns should be tailored differently for moderate v. heavy consumers of soda. Similar tailoring strategies are likely needed for younger groups, for those with less educational attainment and for those who do not perceive consumption of soda as harmful.

  11. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  12. Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Corn Stover Lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Eric M.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Resch, Michael G.; Karp, Eric M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-12-05

    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as an effective biomass pretreatment strategy to depolymerize lignin into tractable fragments in high yields. We investigate the RCF of corn stover, a highly abundant herbaceous feedstock, using carbon-supported Ru and Ni catalysts at 200 and 250 degrees C in methanol and, in the presence or absence of an acid cocatalyst (H3PO4 or an acidified carbon support). Three key performance variables were studied: (1) the effectiveness of lignin extraction as measured by the yield of lignin oil, (2) the yield of monomers in the lignin oil, and (3) the carbohydrate retention in the residual solids after RCF. The monomers included methyl coumarate/ferulate, propyl guaiacol/syringol, and ethyl guaiacol/syringol. The Ru and Ni catalysts performed similarly in terms of product distribution and monomer yields. The monomer yields increased monotonically as a function of time for both temperatures. At 6 h, monomer yields of 27.2 and 28.3% were obtained at 250 and 200 degrees C, respectively, with Ni/C. The addition of an acid cocatalysts to the Ni/C system increased monomer yields to 32% for acidified carbon and 38% for phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C. The monomer product distribution was dominated by methyl coumarate regardless of the use of the acid cocatalysts. The use of phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C or the high temperature condition without acid resulted in complete lignin extraction and partial sugar solubilization (up to 50%) thereby generating lignin oil yields that exceeded the theoretical limit. In contrast, using either Ni/C or Ni on acidified carbon at 200 degrees C resulted in moderate lignin oil yields of ca. 55%, with sugar retention values >90%. Notably, these sugars were amenable to enzymatic digestion, reaching conversions >90% at 96 h. Characterization studies on the lignin oils using two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatrography revealed

  13. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of this... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  14. Understanding the fast pyrolysis of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Pushkaraj R; Brown, Robert C; Shanks, Brent H

    2011-11-18

    In the present study, pyrolysis of corn stover lignin was investigated by using a micro-pyrolyzer coupled with a GC-MS/FID (FID=flame ionization detector). The system has pyrolysis-vapor residence times of 15-20 ms, thus providing a regime of minimal secondary reactions. The primary pyrolysis product distribution obtained from lignin is reported. Over 84 % mass balance and almost complete closure on carbon balance is achieved. In another set of experiments, the pyrolysis vapors emerging from the micro-pyrolyzer are condensed to obtain lignin-derived bio-oil. The chemical composition of the bio-oil is analyzed by using GC-MS and gel permeation chromatography techniques. The comparison between results of two sets of experiments indicates that monomeric compounds are the primary pyrolysis products of lignin, which recombine after primary pyrolysis to produce oligomeric compounds. Further, the effect of minerals (NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), and CaCl(2)) and temperature on the primary pyrolysis product distribution is investigated. The study provides insights into the fundamental mechanisms of lignin pyrolysis and a basis for developing more descriptive models of biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Fermentation of undetoxified sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzates using a two stage hydrothermal and mechanical refining pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economical and environmentally friendly pretreatment technologies are required for commercial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars for fermentation to biofuels. In this paper, a novel pretreatment technology was developed for conversion of sugarcane bagasse into ethanol usi...

  16. Evaluating Bagasse-Based Ration as a Sole Feed for Goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    urea for improving the nutritive value of bagasse using soybean grain as a ... Feed offered and refused, output of feaces and urine, were recorded daily during .... synthesis, subsequently improving availability of microbial protein in the small.

  17. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  18. Assessment of Bagasse Ash Effect on the California Bearing Ratio of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory tests were performed on the natural and bagasse ash treated soil samples ... on the natural lateritic soil shows that it falls under Silt-Clay material of Group A-6 ... by the Nigerian general specification (1997) for cement stabilization.

  19. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Gong, Aihua; Li, Jianan; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. (paper)

  20. Characterization for Post-treatment Effect of Bagasse Ash for Silica Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Patcharin Worathanakul; Wisaroot Payubnop; Akhapon Muangpet

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of bagasse ash for silica sources is one of the most common application for agricultural wastes and valuable biomass byproducts in sugar milling. The high percentage silica content from bagasse ash was used as silica source for sodium silicate solution. Different heating temperature, time and acid treatment were studies for silica extraction. The silica was characterized using various techniques including X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electro...

  1. Influence of the catalyzer in the esterification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Tatiana F.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Suzuki, Paulo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount Abstract: In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount different of catalyze was studied. The chemical modification of the fibers was evaluated by techniques of X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). Results showed that the amount of catalyze influenced in the chemical modification of the fibers. (author)

  2. Fiber and lignin analysis in concentrate, forage, and feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, I.K.; Kreuzer, M.; Madsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin contents of contrasting feeds, with emphasis on concentrate ingredients and complete concentrates, were analyzed using the Van Soest detergent procedure (analyzing neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) and the enzymatic...

  3. Evaluation of the environmental aging and mechanical properties of the polypropylene/sugarcane bagasse composites; Avaliacao do envelhecimento ambiental e das propriedades mecanicas dos compositos de polipropileno/bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Rayane Lima de Moura; Mulinari, Daniella Regina [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with fibers from sugarcane bagasse composites in different proportions were prepared. Also environmental aging was conducted for the composites and their mechanical properties determined. The results showed that chemical treatment caused changes in color and chemical composition of the fibers, removing impurities and amorphous constituents such as lignin and hemicellulose, techniques of FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed these data. Also, it was observed that addition of natural fiber in PP matrix provided an improvement in the mechanical properties materials. The weathering test revealed a slight mass gain after 75 days, but it was clear that the inclusion of fibers has a higher mass gain compared to pure PP. (author)

  4. New techniques for the characterization of lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javor, T.

    2001-09-01

    In the present work new techniques for the characterization of lignins, ligninsulfonates as well as lignin degradation products with capillary electrophoresis (CE), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, APCI-MS and MALDI-MS) are described. After an overview on wood and wood pulping the development of microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for the investigation of low-molecular-mass lignin degradation compounds is described. This method is suited for the analysis of phenolic compounds as well as for non-phenolic compounds in this kind of samples. Using a carrier electrolyte system consisting of 1-butanol/n-heptane/sodiumdodeylsulfate (SDS)/20 mM borate (6.61/0.81/1.66/90,29 % (w/w)) pH 9.2 it was possible to separate 14 lignin degradation compounds (2-methoxyphenol, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dimethoxyacetophenone, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 3,4,5-trimethoxyacetophenone, 3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-ol, 4-methoxyacetophenone, 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxyacetophenone, acetovanillone, syringaldehyde, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 1-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-ethanol). In addition the advantages and disadvantages of microemulsions are discussed in comparison with carrier electrolytes containing micelles. Subsequently, the results from size exclusion chromatographic measurements are presented. SEC using modern high-performance poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) gels as stationary phase and 0.1 M NaOH as mobile phase allows efficient separations and good characterization of lignins and ligninsulfonates. Adsorption effects are practical negligible. SEC yields results which are independent of the charge of lignins or ligninsulfonates, so that this technique looks complementary to capillary electrophoresis. For the characterization of intact lignins and ligninsulfonates by capillary zone electrophoretic techniques, carrier electrolytes in the the pH range 10

  5. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane; Nanocomposito de acetato de celulose com nanocelulose obtida a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by

  6. Anaerobic biodegradation of the lignin and polysaccharide components of lignocellulose and synthetic lignin by sediment microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, R.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Hodson, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Specifically radiolabeled (/sup 14/C-lignin)lignocelluloses and (/sup 14/C-polysaccharide)lignocelluloses were prepared from a variety of marine and freshwater wetland plants including a grass, a sedge, a rush, and a hardwood. These (/sup 14/C)lignocellulose preparations and synthetic (/sup 14/C)lignin were incubated anaerobically with anoxic sediments collected from a salt marsh, a freshwater marsh, and a mangrove swamp. During long-term incubations lasting up to 300 days, the lignin and polysaccharide components of the lignocelluloses were slowly degraded anaerobically to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/CH/sub 4/. Lignocelluloses derived from herbaceous plants were degraded more rapidly than lignocellulose derived from the hardwood. After 294 days, 16.9% of the lignin component and 30.0% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the grass used (Spartina alterniflora) were degraded to gaseous end products. In contrast, after 246 days, only 1.5% of the lignin component and 4.1% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the hardwood used (Rhizophora mangle) were degraded to gaseous end products. Synthetic (/sup 14/C) lignin was degraded anaerobically faster than the lignin component of the hardwood lignocellulose; after 276 days 3.7% of the synthetic lignin was degraded to gaseous end products. Contrary to previous reports, these results demonstrate that lignin and lignified plant tissues are biodegradable in the absence of oxygen. Although lignocelluloses are recalcitrant to anaerobic biodegradation, rates of degradation measured in aquatic sediments are significant and have important implications for the biospheric cycling of carbon from these abundant biopolymers. 31 references.

  7. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  8. Application of cellulosic nanofibers to replace with imported long- fiber pulps in paper made from bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, different additives of cellulose nanofibers, cationic starch and polyacrylamide to bagasse pulp and their impact on the handsheet strengths were investigated aiming to replace with imported long-fiber softwood pulp in Pars paper factory. For this purpose, first 3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers, 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers, 0.5, 0.7 and 1% cationic starch, and 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1% cationic polyacrylamide were added separately to bagasse pulp. In the next stage,3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers and 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers along with 0.5% cationic starch or 0.05% cationic polyacrylamide were used. The results showed, adding nano-cellulose fibers along with cationic polyacrylamide or starch have increased handsheet strengths significantly. Yet, the best treatment was the addition of 3% nano-lignocellulose along with 0.5% cationic starch which resulted in the higher tensile and burst strengths and lower tear and fold strengths than that of adding 12.5% long fibers to bagasse pulp. So that, comparing with paper made from pure bagasse pulp it showed the increase of 16.57% in tensile index, 8.47% in burst index, 9.77% in tear index, and 168.85% in folding strength.

  9. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  10. EVALUATION OF ENERGY COGENERATION FROM SUGAR CANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanserth Abreu Elizundia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were simulated and evaluated five alternatives of cogeneration scheme that promote a higher production of thermal and electrical energies as well as its right management. The first three alternatives are directed to increasing the boiler pressure and a change of steam turbines which are the extraction-condensation type, and then the fourth alternative proposed a boiler change to implement a bubbling fluidized bed and finally in the fifth alternative a scheme of biomass gasification is analyzed. All scheme were analyzed energetic and exergetically. The five cogeneration alternatives were simulated in ASPEN PLUS; they showed that the largest surplus bagasse and electricity are obtained with the scheme of a biomass gasification and the worst results in these parameters were obtained in the alternative that function in low pressure and temperature parameters

  11. Production of bacterial protein from sugar cane bagasse pith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, O E; Callieri, D A.S.; Perotti de Galvez, N

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial protein was produced during the fermentation of sugar cane bagasse pith (BP) by a mixture of cellulolytic bacteria, one of them being a species of Cellulomonas. If the BP were treated with 1% NaOH prior to fermentation, the liquor could be used twice more without affecting the yield of bacterial protein. After that, the liquor became too dark and impaired the subsequent washing of BP. If the concentration of N (as NaN0/sub 3/) in the fermentation medium were raised, the conversion factor to protein was lowered, but the amount of protein formed per L per h and the ratio of protein to BP became higher. The evolution of pH, the dry matter content, cellulolytic activity, and protein yield were all affected by the type of N source used. The yield of bacterial protein can probably be increased by automatically controlling the pH and dissolved O levels of the culture.

  12. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analytical methods for lignin characterization - Differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koullas, D.P.; Koukios, E.G.; Avgerinos, E.; Abaecherli, A.; Gosselink, R.; Vasile, C.; Lehnen, R.; Saake, B.; Suren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of a round robin on lignin thermal analyses are reported. Six laboratories have conducted thermal analyses of four lignin types to determine their cp values and softening points, and to study the thermal behaviour, materials endo- and exotherms included. The lignin types examined were wood

  14. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  15. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  16. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roache, Sarah A; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2017-06-14

    Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom's new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation - whether incentivized or mandatory - helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public's health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling method was used to select bakeries and bakers in different districts of Qom. Age, bakery experience, education of bakers and bread's pH were collected by a questionnaire and an electrical pH meter. Results: The results showed that seventy bakeries (29.9% of Qom were using baking soda in bread. The highest frequent use of baking soda was observed in Taftoon (38.7% and Lavash bread (31.5%. There was a significant difference between the use of baking soda and demographic variables such as age and literacy level. The attitude and knowledge of bakery employees about the complications of the baking soda were not appropriate. Conclusions: To reduce the use of baking soda and improve their knowledge and attitude, there is a need of strict supervision and monitoring by responsible organisations, especially the Ministry of Health.

  18. Soda intake and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplee, Joy D; Duncan, Glen E; Bruemmer, Barbara; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Soda consumption may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health. We examined the relationship between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, an at-risk population because of nutritional and other lifestyle-related factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression to examine associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis, and linear regression to examine the association between soda consumption and BMD, with and without adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Quantitative ultrasound of the heel was performed to estimate BMD (g/cm2). Setting American-Indian communities in the Northern Plains and Southwestern USA. Subjects A total of 438 postmenopausal American-Indian women. Results Women with osteoporosis were significantly older and had lower BMI, average daily soda intakes, BMD levels and use of hormones than women without osteoporosis (P 0·05), although age (increased), BMI (decreased) and past hormone use (decreased) were all significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (PIndian women, analyses did confirm confounding between soda consumption and age and BMI. This suggests that any potential effects of soda consumption on bone health are largely mediated through these factors. PMID:21208477

  19. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Roache

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom’s new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation – whether incentivized or mandatory – helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs, which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public’s health.

  20. Study the effect of gamma radiation pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse on its physcio-chemical morphological and structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Khushboo; Garg, Neelima; Diwan, R. K.; Varshney, Lalit; Tyagi, Ajay K.

    2017-12-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was exposed to gamma radiation at different doses i.e. 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 kGy at a dose rate of 2.5 kGy/h and characterized for physical, chemical, morphological and structural properties. Results showed that on exposure of sugarcane bagasse, hemicellulose content reduced from 31% to 12.4% at 2000 kGy dose. The cellulose content of bagasse did not get affected much upto 1000 kGy exposure; however at 2000 kGy dose it decreased considerably. XRD study shows an initial increase in crystallinity index of bagasse at a dose level of 100 kGy while on further increase in radiation dose from 100 kGy to 2000 kGy the crystallinity index of bagasse decreases. Pores in the SEM photograph were observed on the surface of irradiated bagasse. UV-Vis spectra of bagasse showed a red shift indicating internal changes caused by radiation exposure. Study shows that the irradiation of bagasse results in disrupton of the lignocellulosic structure of Bagasse which opens up for easy accessibility of acids and hydrolytic enzymes for cellulosic hydrolysis resulting into fermentable sugars.

  1. Development of soda-lime glasses from ornamental rock wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, Michelle Pereira

    2009-01-01

    During the ornamental rocks production, among other steps, one saw the rock blocks in order to transform them into semi-finished plates. In this step, expressive amounts of residues are generated, which are not properly discharged in nature, without any programmed utilization. The residues of silicide rocks present, in their compositions, oxides which are raw materials employed to fabricate soda-lime type glasses (containing SiO_2, Al_2O_3, CaO, Na_2O and K_2O). On the other hand the residues of carbonatic rocks are constituted of glass net modifier oxides, like CaO and MgO. In this work it was developed four types of soda-lime glasses using ornamental rock residues, where the glasses compositions were adjusted by adding sand, as silica source, as well as sodium and calcium carbonates as sources of Na_2O and CaO, respectively. The obtained glasses were characterized by means of Archimed's method for densities measurements, microstructure by using optical and electronic microscopy, phases by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness by Vickers indentation, spectroscopy (UV/VIS), and hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 719. The XRD analyses confirmed the compositions total vitrification, where the greened aspect of the samples was due to the presence of the iron oxides. The produced glasses properties were compared with those of commercial glasses aiming their industrial employment. The main difference between the produced glasses and those commercials varied primarily regarding the amount of carbonates incorporated. The results showed that the ornamental rocks residues may be used as raw materials for glasses fabrication, and they found a useful economic destination rather than discharge which promotes undesirable environmental impact. (author)

  2. Improvement of Aspergillus flavus saponin hydrolase thermal stability and productivity via immobilization on a novel carrier based on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A. Amin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soyasapogenol B (SB is known to have many biological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antiviral and anticancer activities. Enzymatic conversion of soyasaponins to SB was carried out using saponin hydrolase (SH extracted from Aspergillus flavus. The partially purified enzyme was immobilized on different carriers by physical adsorption, covalent binding or entrapment. Among the investigated carriers, Eupergit C and sugarcane bagasse (SCB activated by DIC and NHS were the most suitable two carriers for immobilization (the immobilized forms recovered 46.5 and 37.1% of the loaded enzyme activity, respectively. Under optimized immobilization conditions, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SBC recovered 87.7 and 83.3% of its original activity, respectively. Compared to free SH, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SCB showed higher optimum pH, activation energy, half-lives and lower deactivation constant rate. Also, their SB productivities were improved by 2.3- and 2.2-folds compared to free SH (87.7 and 83.3 vs. 37.5%, respectively. Hence, being SCB more sustainable and an inexpensive material, it can be considered a good alternative to Eupergit C as a support for SH immobilization. SH immobilization on industrially applicable and inexpensive carrier is necessary to improve SB yield and reduce its production cost. The chemical structure of SCB and the resulting cellulose derivatives were studied by ATR-IR spectroscopy. The thermal analysis technique was used to study the chemical treatment of SCB and coupling with the enzyme. This technique confirmed the removal of lignin and hemicellulose by chemical treatment of SCB.

  3. Advanced Model Compounds for Understanding Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Depolymerization : Identification of Renewable Aromatics and a Lignin-Derived Solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahive, Ciaran W; Deuss, Peter J; Lancefield, Christopher S; Sun, Zhuohua; Cordes, David B; Young, Claire; Tran, Fanny; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; de Vries, Johannes G; Kamer, Paul C J; Westwood, Nicholas J; Barta, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    The development of fundamentally new approaches for lignin depolymerization is challenged by the complexity of this aromatic biopolymer. While overly simplified model compounds often lack relevance to the chemistry of lignin, the direct use of lignin streams poses significant analytical challenges

  4. Comparison of the acetyl bromide spectrophotometric method with other analytical lignin methods for determining lignin concentration in forage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2004-06-16

    Present analytical methods to quantify lignin in herbaceous plants are not totally satisfactory. A spectrophotometric method, acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), has been employed to determine lignin concentration in a range of plant materials. In this work, lignin extracted with acidic dioxane was used to develop standard curves and to calculate the derived linear regression equation (slope equals absorptivity value or extinction coefficient) for determining the lignin concentration of respective cell wall samples. This procedure yielded lignin values that were different from those obtained with Klason lignin, acid detergent acid insoluble lignin, or permanganate lignin procedures. Correlations with in vitro dry matter or cell wall digestibility of samples were highest with data from the spectrophotometric technique. The ABSL method employing as standard lignin extracted with acidic dioxane has the potential to be employed as an analytical method to determine lignin concentration in a range of forage materials. It may be useful in developing a quick and easy method to predict in vitro digestibility on the basis of the total lignin content of a sample.

  5. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin: Biomass Pretreatment Severity Affects Lignin Valorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads M.; Djajadi, Demi T.; Torri, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Alkalinehydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignin-rich enzymatichydrolysis residues (EnzHR) from wheat straw and Miscanthusx giganteus was performed at 255, 300, and 345 °C to investigate valorization of this side-stream from second-generation bioethanol production. The EnzHR were from biomass...... contributed with additional chemical information as well as confirming trends seen from quantified monomers. This work is relevant for future lignin valorization in biorefineries based on current second-generation bioethanol production....

  7. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V; Kouris, Panos D; Hensen, Emiel J M; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin. Life cycle analysis (LCA) displayed the second critical factor related to alternative energy carrier selection. Natural gas (NG) chosen over additional biomass boosts well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions (WTW GHG) to a level incompatible with the reduction targets set by the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS). Adversely, the process' economics revealed higher profits vs. fossil energy carrier. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Naturally p-Hydroxybenzoylated Lignins in Palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachuang Lu; Steven D. Karlen; Matt Regner; Hoon Kim; Sally A. Ralph; Run-Cang Sun; Ken-ichi Kuroda; Mary Ann Augustin; Raymond Mawson; Henry Sabarez; Tanoj Singh; Gerardo Jimenez-Monteon; Sarani Zakaria; Stefan Hill; Philip J. Harris; Wout Boerjan; Curtis G. Wilkerson; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The industrial production of palm oil concurrently generates a substantial amount of empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers that could be used as a feedstock in a lignocellulose based biorefinery. Lignin byproducts generated by this process may offer opportunities for the isolation of value-added products, such as p-hydroxybenzoate (pBz),...

  9. Enzymology and molecular biology of lignin degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Cullen; P.J. Kersten

    2004-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the physiology and genetics of lignin degradation by white rot basidiomycetes. Emphasis is on recent advances and the reader is referred to earlier comprehensive reviews for historical perspective and background (Kirk and Farrell 1987; Gold and Alic 1993; Higuchi 1993; Cullen and Kersten 1996; Cullen 1997). Recent completion of a...

  10. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin [Hanover, NH; Wyman, Charles E [Norwich, VT

    2009-10-20

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  11. Diesel-soluble lignin oils and methods of their production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Solvent consumption in supercritical ethanol, propanol or butanol treatment of either refined pre-extracted lignin or comparatively impure lignin-rich solid residual from hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulosic biomass can be minimized by conducting the reaction at very high loading of lignin...... to solvent. Comparatively impure, crude lignin- rich solid residual can be directly converted by supercritical alcohol treatment to significantly diesel-soluble lignin oil without requirement for pre-extraction or pre- solubilisation of lignin or for added reaction promoters such as catalysts, hydrogen donor...... co-solvents, acids, based or H2 gas. O:C ratio of product oil can readily be obtained using crude lignin residual in such a process at levels 0.20 or lower....

  12. Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2009-09-15

    Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

  13. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  14. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  15. Baking soda dentifrice and periodontal health: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical disruption of dental biofilm is critical to maintain periodontal health. Baking soda-containing dentifrices have shown to be potential aids for improving gingival health and maintaining dental biofilm control. Evidence from classic and contemporary literature is reviewed and summarized in this review. In vitro and in vivo (animal and human, respectively) studies and clinical trials have been analyzed. Some clinical studies demonstrated the benefits of baking soda dentifrices in plaque and gingivitis reduction. Clinical trials with longer follow-up would be useful to confirm the impact of baking soda on gingival health. Regular dental biofilm control and adjunctive use of baking soda dentifrices in an otherwise healthy and compliant patient may provide success in maintenance of gingival health. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities .... and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

  17. Catalytic Oxidation and Depolymerization of Lignin in Aqueous Ionic Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Lalitendu; Xu, Siquan; Shi, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Lignin is an integral part of the plant cell wall, which provides rigidity to plants, also contributes to the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass to biochemical and biological deconstruction. Lignin is a promising renewable feedstock for aromatic chemicals; however, an efficient and economic lignin depolymerization method needs to be developed to enable the conversion. In this study, we investigated the depolymerization of alkaline lignin in aqueous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C 2 C 1 Im][OAc] under oxidizing conditions. Seven different transition metal catalysts were screened in presence of H 2 O 2 as oxidizing agent in a batch reactor. CoCl 2 and Nb 2 O 5 proved to be the most effective catalysts in degrading lignin to aromatic compounds. A central composite design was used to optimize the catalyst loading, H 2 O 2 concentration, and temperature for product formation. Results show that lignin was depolymerized, and the major degradation products found in the extracted oil were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, acetovanillone, and homovanillic acid. Lignin streams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography to determine effects of the experimental parameters on lignin depolymerization. The weight-average molecular weight (M w ) of liquid stream lignin after oxidation, for CoCl 2 and Nb 2 O 5 catalysts were 1,202 and 1,520 g mol −1 , respectively, lower than that of Kraft lignin. Polydispersity index of the liquid stream lignin increased as compared with Kraft lignin, indicating wide span of the molecular weight distribution as a result of lignin depolymerization. Results from this study provide insights into the role of oxidant and transition metal catalysts and the oxidative degradation reaction sequence of lignin toward product formation in presence of aqueous ionic liquid.

  18. Lignin depolymerization by fungal secretomes and a microbial sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Katahira, Rui; Cleveland, Nicholas S.; Khanna, Payal; Resch, Michael G.; Black, Brenna A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María J.; Martínez, Angel T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Gladden, John M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-08-25

    In Nature, powerful oxidative enzymes secreted by white rot fungi and some bacteria catalyze lignin depolymerization and some microbes are able to catabolize the resulting aromatic compounds as carbon and energy sources. Taken together, these two processes offer a potential route for microbial valorization of lignin. However, many challenges remain in realizing this concept, including that oxidative enzymes responsible for lignin depolymerization also catalyze polymerization of low molecular weight (LMW) lignin. Here, multiple basidiomycete secretomes were screened for ligninolytic enzyme activities in the presence of a residual lignin solid stream from a corn stover biorefinery, dubbed DMR-EH (Deacetylation, Mechanical Refining, and Enzymatic Hydrolysis) lignin. Two selected fungal secretomes, with high levels of laccases and peroxidases, were utilized for DMR-EH lignin depolymerization assays. The secretome from Pleurotus eryngii, which exhibited the highest laccase activity, reduced the lignin average molecular weight by 63% and 75% at pH 7 compared to the Mw of the control treated at the same conditions and the initial DMR-EH lignin, respectively, and was applied in further depolymerization assays as a function of time. As repolymerization was observed after 3 days of incubation, an aromatic-catabolic microbe (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) was incubated with the fungal secretome and DMR-EH lignin. These experiments demonstrated that the presence of the bacterium enhances lignin depolymerization, likely due to bacterial catabolism of LMW lignin, which may partially prevent repolymerization. In addition, proteomics was also applied to the P. eryngii secretome to identify the enzymes present in the fungal cocktail utilized for the depolymerization assays, which highlighted a significant number of glucose/ methanol/choline (GMC) oxidoreductases and laccases. Overall, this study demonstrates that ligninolytic enzymes can be used to partially depolymerize a solid, high

  19. Catalytic Oxidation and Depolymerization of Lignin in Aqueous Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Lalitendu [Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Xu, Siquan [Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing (China); Shi, Jian, E-mail: j.shi@uky.edu [Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Lignin is an integral part of the plant cell wall, which provides rigidity to plants, also contributes to the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass to biochemical and biological deconstruction. Lignin is a promising renewable feedstock for aromatic chemicals; however, an efficient and economic lignin depolymerization method needs to be developed to enable the conversion. In this study, we investigated the depolymerization of alkaline lignin in aqueous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C{sub 2}C{sub 1}Im][OAc] under oxidizing conditions. Seven different transition metal catalysts were screened in presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidizing agent in a batch reactor. CoCl{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} proved to be the most effective catalysts in degrading lignin to aromatic compounds. A central composite design was used to optimize the catalyst loading, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, and temperature for product formation. Results show that lignin was depolymerized, and the major degradation products found in the extracted oil were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, acetovanillone, and homovanillic acid. Lignin streams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography to determine effects of the experimental parameters on lignin depolymerization. The weight-average molecular weight (M{sub w}) of liquid stream lignin after oxidation, for CoCl{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts were 1,202 and 1,520 g mol{sup −1}, respectively, lower than that of Kraft lignin. Polydispersity index of the liquid stream lignin increased as compared with Kraft lignin, indicating wide span of the molecular weight distribution as a result of lignin depolymerization. Results from this study provide insights into the role of oxidant and transition metal catalysts and the oxidative degradation reaction sequence of lignin toward product formation in presence of aqueous ionic liquid.

  20. Field demonstration of in situ treatment of buried low-level radioactive solid waste with caustic soda and soda ash to immobilize 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1984-02-01

    A low-level radioactive solid waste disposal trench was injected on four occasions with solutions of caustic soda, soda ash, caustic soda, and lime/soda ash, respectively. Because investigations had indicated that 90 Sr could be coprecipitated with soil calcium carbonate by treatment with soda ash, this demonstration was undertaken as a test of its technical feasibility. After concentrations of 90 Sr and water hardness decreased within the intratrench monitoring wells; one well at the foot of the trench decreased from over 100 to a persistent level of less than 10 kBq of 90 Sr per liter. Recharge of 90 Sr from the trench to a sump immediately below was reduced by about 90%. Water hardness and 90 Sr concentrations were strongly correlated through time within each monitoring well, indicating that 90 Sr behaved as a tracer for soil calcium and magnesium. The disappearance of 90 Sr from the trench water, therefore, was an in situ water softening. Soil samples retrieved from the trench indicated that as much as 98% of the total 90 Sr was present as a coprecipitate with calcium carbonate. The hydrologic characterization of this trench indicated an average void space of 41% and an average trench-wall hydraulic conductivity of 3.4 x 10 -7 m/s. Sampling of the trench's discharge contamination plume indicated that it had resulted from a combination of subsurface seepage and bathtub overflow during infrequent periods of intense precipitation. A generic assessment of soda ash treatment indicated that treatment would be most effective for soils of high cation exchange capacity with either low ( 80%) basic cation saturation of that cation exchange capacity

  1. Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Jackson, Lisa; Nakashima, Jin; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    We have recently described a hitherto unsuspected catechyl lignin polymer (C-lignin) in the seed coats of Vanilla orchid and in cacti of one genus, Melocactus (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012, 109, 1772-1777.). We have now determined the lignin types in the seed coats of 130 different cactus species. Lignin in the vegetative tissues of cacti is of the normal guaiacyl/syringyl (G/S) type, but members of most genera within the subfamily Cactoidae possess seed coat lignin of the novel C-type only, which we show is a homopolymer formed by endwise β-O-4-coupling of caffeyl alcohol monomers onto the growing polymer resulting in benzodioxane units. However, the species examined within the genera Coryphantha, Cumarinia, Escobaria and Mammillaria (Cactoideae) mostly had normal G/S lignin in their seeds, as did all six species in the subfamily Opuntioidae that were examined. Seed coat lignin composition is still evolving in the Cactaceae, as seeds of one Mammillaria species (M. lasiacantha) possess only C-lignin, three Escobaria species (E. dasyacantha, E. lloydii and E. zilziana) contain an unusual lignin composed of 5-hydroxyguaiacyl units, the first report of such a polymer that occurs naturally in plants, and seeds of some species contain no lignin at all. We discuss the implications of these findings for the mechanisms that underlie the biosynthesis of these newly discovered lignin types. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Ali Salehi; Hassan Izanloo; Zahra Ghorbani; Vahid Vanaki; Reza Ramazani; Mahdi Asadi-Ghalhari

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling met...

  3. Metabolic alkalosis secondary to baking soda treatment of a diaper rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Hogg, R J

    1981-06-01

    A 4-month-old infant was seen with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis that was associated with prior application of liberal amounts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to a diaper rash. After exclusion of other etiologies of the infant's acid-base disturbance, a complete resolution occurred following discontinuation of the baking soda applications. This case report provides a reminder of the significant side effects that may result from the excessive use of a seemingly harmless household substance.

  4. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  5. Contrasting the genetic patterns of microbial communities in Soda lakes with and without cyanobacterial bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Andreote, A. P. D.; Dini-Andreote, F.; Rigonato, J.; Machineski, G. S.; Souza, B. C. E.; Barbiéro, Laurent; Rezende, A. T.; Fiore, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved...

  6. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Mikhailova; V.O. Panasenko; N.B. Markova

    2016-01-01

    A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical a...

  7. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  8. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  11. Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bagasse/Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of bagasse/glass fiber/polypropylene hybrid composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and their properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber the melting temperature (Tm and the crystallisation temperature (Tc shift to higher temperatures and the degree of crystallinity (Xc increase. These findings suggest that the fibers played the role of a nucleating agent in composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that by the incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber into polypropylene, the storage modulus ( and the loss modulus ( increase whereas the mechanical loss factor (tanδ decrease. To assess the effect of reinforcement with increasing temperature, the effectiveness coefficient C was calculated at different temperature ranges and revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of fibers was more noticeable. The fiber-matrix adhesion efficiency determined by calculating of adhesion factor A in terms of the relative damping of the composite (tan δc and the polymer (tan δpand volume fraction of the fibers (Фf. Calculated adhesion factor A values indicated that by adding glass fiber to bagasse/polypropylene system, the fiber-matrix adhesion improve. Hybrid composite containing 25% bagasse and 15% glass fiber showed better fiber-matrix adhesion.

  12. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  13. Successive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse in a packed bed flow-through column reactor aiming to support biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Hilares, R; Reséndiz, A L; Martínez, R T; Silva, S S; Santos, J C

    2016-03-01

    A packed bed flow-through column reactor (PBFTCR) was used for pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Alkaline pretreatment was performed at 70 °C for 4h with fresh 0.3M NaOH solution or with liquor recycled from a previous pretreatment batch. Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124 was used for fermentation of sugars released after enzymatic hydrolysis (20 FPU g(-1) of dry SCB). The highest results for lignin removal were 61% and 52%, respectively, observed when using fresh NaOH or the first reuse of the liquor. About 50% of cellulosic and 57% of hemicellulosic fractions of pretreated SCBs were enzymatically hydrolyzed and the maximum ethanol production was 23.4 g L(-1) (ethanol yield of 0.4 gp gs(-1)), with near complete consumption of both pentoses and hexoses present in the hydrolysate during the fermentation. PBFTCR as a new alternative for SCB-biorefineries is presented, mainly considering its simple configuration and efficiency for operating with a high solid:liquid ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solvothermal conversion of technical lignins over NiMo catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghafarnejad Parto, Soheila; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    Scope: Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose are the main constituents of plants cell walls. Lignin is an aromatic rich compound, composed of phenolic building blocks. Depending on the method used for isolation of lignin from cellulose and hemicellulose, several types of technical lignin are availa......Scope: Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose are the main constituents of plants cell walls. Lignin is an aromatic rich compound, composed of phenolic building blocks. Depending on the method used for isolation of lignin from cellulose and hemicellulose, several types of technical lignin...... of the range of available technical lignins. In this work, catalytic conversion of different types of lignin using an alumina supported NiMo catalyst (provided by Haldor Topsøe A/S) is conducted in ethanol at 310 ˚C with initial hydrogen pressure of 25 barg. The reaction time was set to 3 hours. Proton......, attributed as ‘bio-oil’. GC-MS-FID analysis was used for identification and quantification of the bio-oil and ethanol rich light fraction. The molecular weight of the oil fraction was determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Elemental analysis (Eurovector EuroEA3000) was conducted for measuring...

  15. Internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, S; Müller, R; Deubener, J; Behrens, H

    2013-11-07

    The internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silica glasses with total water content (C(W)) up to 1.9 wt. % was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) using temperature-frequency sweeps from 723 K to 273 K and from 1 s(-1) to 50 s(-1). Total water content and concentrations of H2O molecules (C(H2O)) and OH groups (C(OH)) in the DMA specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. For low water contents (C(W) ≈ C(OH) friction peaks below the glass transition (α relaxation) were assigned to the low-temperature motion of alkali ions (γ relaxation) and cooperative movements of dissimilar mobile species under participation of OH at higher temperature (β(OH) relaxation). For large water contents (C(W) > 1 wt. %), where significant amounts of molecular water are evident (C(H2O) > 0.15 wt. %), however, internal friction spectra change unexpectedly: the β(OH) peak heights saturate and a low temperature shoulder appears on the β-relaxation peak. This emerging relaxation mode (β(H2O) relaxation) was assigned to the motions of H2O molecules. β(H2O) relaxation was found to be faster than β(OH) but slower than γ relaxation. Activation energy of the different relaxation modes increased in the order γ < β(H2O) < β(OH) < α.

  16. Disproportionation of elemental sulfur by haloalkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Alexander; Lohmayer, Regina; Vogt, Carsten; Knoeller, Kay; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Sorokin, Dimitry; Richnow, Hans-H; Finster, Kai

    2013-11-01

    Microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate is a poorly characterized part of the anoxic sulfur cycle. So far, only a few bacterial strains have been described that can couple this reaction to cell growth. Continuous removal of the produced sulfide, for instance by oxidation and/or precipitation with metal ions such as iron, is essential to keep the reaction exergonic. Hitherto, the process has exclusively been reported for neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria. Here, we report for the first time disproportionation of elemental sulfur by three pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda lakes: the Deltaproteobacteria Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Desulfurivibrio sp. AMeS2, and a member of the Clostridia, Dethiobacter alkaliphilus. All cultures grew in saline media at pH 10 by sulfur disproportionation in the absence of metals as sulfide scavengers. Our data indicate that polysulfides are the dominant sulfur species under highly alkaline conditions and that they might be disproportionated. Furthermore, we report the first organism (Dt. alkaliphilus) from the class Clostridia that is able to grow by sulfur disproportionation.

  17. Optimization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions with amphipathic lignin derivatives for concentrated bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ningning; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takasuka, Taichi E; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-05-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) prepared from the black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar are strong accelerators for bioethanol production under a fed-batch simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. To improve the bioethanol production concentration, conditions such as reaction temperature, stirring program, and A-LDs loadings were optimized in both small scale and large scale fed-batch SSF. The fed-batch SSF in the presence of 3.0g/L A-LDs at 38°C gave the maximum ethanol production and a high enzyme recovery rate. Furthermore, a jar-fermenter equipped with a powerful mechanical stirrer was designed for 1.5L-scale fed-batch SSF to achieve rigorous mixing during high substrate loading. Finally, the 1.5L fed-batch SSF with a substrate loading of 30% (w/v) produced a high ethanol concentration of 87.9g/L in the presence of A-LDs under optimized conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of lignin content on a GH11 endoxylanase acting on glucuronoarabinoxylan-lignin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Imen; Rémond, Caroline; O'Donohue, Michael; Chabbert, Brigitte

    2012-06-20

    The effects of lignin content on the activity and action pattern of GH11 endoxylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus were investigated using in vitro reconstituted non-covalent glucuronoarabinoxylan-model lignin (GAX-DHP) nanocomposites. Four types of nanocomposites were prepared, each displaying different lignin contents. Variations in the DHP (model lignin) polymerization process were induced by increasing the coniferyl alcohol concentration. Examination of the morphology of the nanocomposites revealed globular particles enrobed in a matrix. The size of these particles increased in line with the lignin concentration. Physicochemical characterization of the in vitro reconstituted GAX-DHPs strongly suggested that increased particle size is directly related to the solubility and reactivity of coniferyl alcohol, as reflected by changes in the amount of β-O-4 linkages. Evaluation of the impact of the GH11 endoxylanase on the GAX-DHP nanocomposites revealed a negative correlation between the proportion and organization patterns of DHP in the nanocomposites and enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivity of lignin and lignin models towards UV-assisted peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.P.; Wallis, A.F.A.; Nguyen, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative reactivities of a series of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin model compounds and their methylated analogues towards alkaline peroxide and UV-alkaline peroxide were investigated. The overall reaction was followed by monitoring the reduction of the substrate as a function of time, and in every case, the reaction showed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reaction rates of most lignin models having identical sidechains with alkaline peroxide and with UV-alkaline peroxide were in the order syringyl guaiacyl 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl veratryl. Thus phenols react faster than their methyl ethers, and an extra ortho methoxyl group promotes the reaction. Lignin models possessing electron-donating sidechains had generally higher reaction rates than those with electron-withdrawing sidechains. The reaction rates of the series of benzoic acids were 2-4 times higher at pH 11 than at pH 5. UV-peroxide degradation of a eucalypt kraft lignin was faster than that of a pine kraft lignin, and degradation was 1.4-1.6 times faster at pH 11 than at pH 5. The data are consistent with the formation of higher amounts of reactive radicals under alkaline conditions, and aromatic rings with greater electronegativities promoting reactions with the radicals

  20. Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin for Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders

    at higher loadings. The effect of increased reaction time was found to be beneficial for oil yields but also caused an increase in solvent consumption and so there is a trade-off where a compromise has to be found in the event of an up scaled reaction. The reactions that cause solvent consumption during......Lignocellulosic biorefineries can be an important piece of the puzzle in fighting climate change. Present, biorefineries that produce ethanol from lignocellulose are challenged in working on market terms as the two product streams ethanol and lignin are low value products. The aim of this project...... has been to increase the value of the lignin stream. Recent regulations on shipping exhaust gasses in coastal waters dictate lower sulfur emissions which require ships to use low sulfur fuels for propulsion. This opens or expands a very large market for low sulfur fuels because a shift from...

  1. Lignin- and Hemicellulose-derived Biomass Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deralia, Parveen Kumar

    technology bringing the multitude of chemical and physical changes, which govern the level of biomass recalcitrance. The lignocellulosic biomasses in question are wheat straw and poplar and the hydrothermal pretreatment is used as pretreatment technology. The 2D HSQC NMR and wet chemistry chemical...... degree to the biomass surface, giving a proportional increase in the specific surface area opposite to wheat straw, which has a marked increase in the specific surface area. The distinctly different chemistry of lignin and hemicellulose and different lignin migration and reorganization appear...... to be correlative, helping explain differences in enzymatic saccharification performance across the pretreatment severities and between two biomasses. The main contribution of this work to the current state-of-the-art in the field is the revelation of distinct behaviors of generation of different repolymerized...

  2. Impact of Different Lignin Fractions on Saccharification Efficiency in Diverse Species of the Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der Tim; Torres Salvador, Andres Francisco; Dolstra, Oene; Dechesne, Annemarie; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Lignin is a key factor limiting saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. In this comparative study, various lignin methods—including acetyl bromide lignin (ABL), acid detergent lignin (ADL), Klason lignin (KL), and modified ADL and KL determination methods—were evaluated for their

  3. Autohydrolysis pretreatment assessment in ethanol production from agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-González, Leopoldo J; Morales-Martínez, Thelma K; Rodríguez-Flores, María F; Rodríguez-De la Garza, José A; Castillo-Quiroz, David; Castro-Montoya, Agustín J; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of Agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. The pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure Parr reactor under different severity factors (SF) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. The solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the pretreatment process showed that the glucan content in the pretreated solid was mostly preserved, and an increase in the digestibility was observed for the case with a SF of 4.13 (190°C, 30min). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solids showed a yield of 74.3%, with a glucose concentration of 126g/L, resulting in 65.26g/L of ethanol after 10h of fermentation, which represent a 98.4% conversion according to the theoretical ethanol yield value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cement Stabilized Soil Blocks Admixed with Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study involved investigating the performance of ordinary Portland cement (OPC stabilized soil blocks amended with sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA. Locally available soil was tested for its properties and characterized as clay of medium plasticity. This soil was stabilized using 4% and 10% OPC for manufacture of blocks of size 19 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm. The blocks were admixed with 4%, 6%, and 8% SBA by weight of dry soil during casting, with plain OPC stabilized blocks acting as control. All blocks were cast to one target density and water content followed by moist curing for a period of 28 days. They were then subjected to compressive strength, water absorption, and efflorescence tests in accordance with Bureau of Indian standards (BIS specifications. The results of the tests indicated that OPC stabilization resulted in blocks that met the specifications of BIS. Addition of SBA increased the compressive strength of the blocks and slightly increased the water absorption but still met the standard requirement of BIS code. It is concluded that addition of SBA to OPC in stabilized block manufacture was capable of producing stabilized blocks at reduced OPC content that met the minimum required standards.

  5. Highly Organic Soil Stabilization by Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Talib Mohd Khaidir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to develop alternative binders that are environment friendly by utilizing sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA in the organic soil stabilization. Together with SCBA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, calcium chloride (CaCl2 and silica sand (K7 were used as additives to stabilize the peat. In obtaining the optimal mix design, specimens of stabilized peat were tested in unconfined compression. It was found that stabilized peat comprising 20% and 5% (PCB1-20 and PCB2-5 partial replacement of OPC with SCBA 1 and SCBA 2 attain the maximum unconfined compressive strength (UCS and discovered greater than UCS of peat-cement (PC specimen. At the optimal mix design, the UCS of the stabilized peat specimens increased with increasing of curing time, preloading rate, OPC and K7 dosage. For PCB1-20 mixture, inclusion of a minimum OPC of 300kg/m3 and K7 of 500kg/m3 along with curing under 20kPa pressure is recommendable for the peat stabilization to be effective. However for PCB2-5, it suggested to use more OPC and K7 dosage or alternatively increase the preloading during curing to 40kPa in order to achieve target UCS. It can be concluded that SCBA 1 has better quality than SCBA 2 in peat stabilization especially the contribution made by its fine particle size.

  6. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process as a post-treatment to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent using iron electrodes. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were studied under different operating conditions such as amount of dilution, initial pH, applied current and electrolyte dose by using response surface methodology (RSM coupled with four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The experimental results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial mathematical models were developed with high correlation of efficiency (R2 for COD, TSS removal and electrical energy consumption (EEC. The individual and combined effect of variables on responses was studied using three dimensional response surface plots. Under the optimum operating conditions, such as amount of dilution at 30 %, initial pH of 6.5, applied current of 8 mA cm-2 and electrolyte dose of 740 mg l-1 shows the higher removal efficiency of COD (98 % and TSS (93 % with EEC of 2.40 Wh, which were confirmed by validation experiments.

  7. Bagasse: New life for an untapped power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, T [Sugar Research Institute, Mackay, QLD (Australia)

    1996-11-01

    Sugar cane is an ideal form of untapped renewable energy. Each sugar factory by itself can generate biomass quantities far in excess of those attainable by any other industry in Queensland. For all 29 factories comprising the sugar industry in Queensland, the potential of the renewable energy resource for cogeneration is considerable. Bagasse has always been a major waste handling and disposal undertaking. The sugar industry possesses a substantial renewable energy resource that has not yet begun to be utilized to its fullest potential. This paper serves to quantify that energy potential and explore some of the cogeneration options that are technically feasible. A study is made of the Far North Queensland area as an example of the potential for cogeneration. It was concluded that power levels of approximately 25 to 60 MW per factory could be generated from the available crop resource. Although the technology for large scale conventional cogeneration is well known and proven and the risks are low, the economic factors that constitute a viable business enterprise are less certain. This important part of the cogeneration equation needs to be explored with more vigor and entrepreneurship than has been generated in the past if the potential of cogeneration for Australian sugar factories is to be realized to its fullest. (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  9. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  10. Lignin Valorization using Heterogenous Catalytic Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melián Rodríguez, Mayra; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren

    The research interests in biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals has increased significantly in the last decade in view of current problems such as global warming, high oil prices, food crisis and other geopolitical scenarios. Many different reactions and processes to convert biomass into high...... of the reaction conditions 4. Here, we therefore present an overview of the recent research about conversion of some lignin model compounds using heterogeneous catalysis in oxidation reactions....

  11. Advanced Model Compounds for Understanding Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Depolymerization: Identification of Renewable Aromatics and a Lignin-Derived Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Ciaran W; Deuss, Peter J; Lancefield, Christopher S; Sun, Zhuohua; Cordes, David B; Young, Claire M; Tran, Fanny; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; de Vries, Johannes G; Kamer, Paul C J; Westwood, Nicholas J; Barta, Katalin

    2016-07-20

    The development of fundamentally new approaches for lignin depolymerization is challenged by the complexity of this aromatic biopolymer. While overly simplified model compounds often lack relevance to the chemistry of lignin, the direct use of lignin streams poses significant analytical challenges to methodology development. Ideally, new methods should be tested on model compounds that are complex enough to mirror the structural diversity in lignin but still of sufficiently low molecular weight to enable facile analysis. In this contribution, we present a new class of advanced (β-O-4)-(β-5) dilinkage models that are highly realistic representations of a lignin fragment. Together with selected β-O-4, β-5, and β-β structures, these compounds provide a detailed understanding of the reactivity of various types of lignin linkages in acid catalysis in conjunction with stabilization of reactive intermediates using ethylene glycol. The use of these new models has allowed for identification of novel reaction pathways and intermediates and led to the characterization of new dimeric products in subsequent lignin depolymerization studies. The excellent correlation between model and lignin experiments highlights the relevance of this new class of model compounds for broader use in catalysis studies. Only by understanding the reactivity of the linkages in lignin at this level of detail can fully optimized lignin depolymerization strategies be developed.

  12. Effect of lignin on water vapor barrier, mechanical, and structural properties of agar/lignin composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable composite films were prepared using two renewable resources based biopolymers, agar and lignin alkali. The lignin was used as a reinforcing material and agar as a biopolymer matrix. The effect of lignin concentration (1, 3, 5, and 10wt%) on the performance of the composite films was studied. In addition, the mechanical, water vapor barrier, UV light barrier properties, FE-SEM, and TGA of the films were analyzed. The agar/lignin films exhibited higher mechanical and UV barrier properties along with lower water vapor permeability compared to the neat agar film. The FTIR and SEM results showed the compatibility of lignin with agar polymer. The swelling ratio and moisture content of agar/lignin composite films were decreased with increase in lignin content. The thermostability and char content of agar/lignin composite films increased with increased lignin content. The results suggested that agar/lignin films have a potential to be used as a UV barrier food packaging material for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  14. Improving the Bearing Strength of Sandy Loam Soil Compressed Earth Block Bricks Using Sugercane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan W. Salim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for affordable and sustainable alternative construction materials to cement in developing countries cannot be underemphasized. Compressed Earth Bricks have gained acceptability as an affordable and sustainable construction material. There is however a need to boost its bearing capacity. Previous research show that Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as a soil stabilizer has yielded positive results. However, there is limited research on its effect on the mechanical property of Compressed Earth Brick. This current research investigated the effect of adding 3%, 5%, 8% and 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash on the compressive strength of compressed earth brick. The result showed improvement in its compressive strength by 65% with the addition of 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash.

  15. Feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus improves xylan hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyoni M. de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feruloyl esterase is a subclass of carboxylic acid esterases with the capacity to release ferulic acid and other cinnamic acids from plant cell walls and synthetic substrates. Feruloyl esterases act synergistically with xylanases removing ferulic acid residues esterified to arabinoxylans. Feruloyl esterase type D from Aspergillus clavatus (AcFAE was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and applied with a commercial xylanase consortium (Novozymes for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. Feruloyl esterase plus xylanase increased 5.13-fold the releasing of ferulic acid from sugarcane bagasse. Removal of only 7.7% of ferulic acid content by AcFAE increased 97.3% the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis by xylanase. These data support the use of AcFAE as an interesting adjuvant enzyme to improve lignocellulose digestion and biotechnological tool for biorefineries.

  16. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as raw material for the production of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericci, C.; Indelicato, R.L.; Ferreira Neto, J.B.; Ribeiro, T.R.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Silva, G.F.B. Lenz e

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the sugar cane bagasse ash from three Sugar and Alcohol Plant of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. We intend to show the discrepancies between them, so that this raw material could be used with greater quality control in ceramic industries. The bagasse were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The ashes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and granulometric separation. The results indicated that the content of SiO 2 ranging from 50-80% by weight depends on the granulometry of the bagasse and on the region where it was collected. The analyses of X-ray diffraction indicate SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and Mg 2 P 2 O 7 as crystalline phases. (author)

  17. Radiotracer experiments on lignin reactions, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Noritsugu; Araki, Hiroshi; Suganuma, Nobuo.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of the specific carbon atoms of lignin during the cooking process was studied. Pine wood meal containing the protolignin labelled with 14-C was prepared, and treated under sulfate cooking conditions. The incorporation and distribution of radioactivity were traced in three fractions separated from the black liquor according to their solubilities and molecular weights. The gamma position carbon at the end of side chain of phenylpropane unit in lignin was eliminated easily from the high molecular weight portion in considerable extent during the cooking process, and a part of the eliminated carbon condenses again with the aromatic ring. However, a large portion of the eliminated gamma-carbon was found in the low molecular fraction of water soluble part of the black liquor. The radioactivity of alpha-carbons in the side chains adjacent to aromatic rings was found to be distributed in three fractions similarly to that of beta-carbons, except that the incorporation of radioactivity of alpha-carbons was slightly low in high molecular fraction, and slightly high in low molecular water soluble fraction as compared with that of beta-carbons and aromatic ring carbons. The number of residual carbon atoms per one monomer unit in high molecular kraft lignin was calculated from the specific incorporation ratio of radioactivity. The carbon skelton was estimated and the molecular formula was given by the elementary analysis and molecular weight determination. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. PERBEDAAN PH SALIVA ANTARA PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG BAKING SODA DAN PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG FLUOR

    OpenAIRE

    LINARDI, ALICIA NADIA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Latar belakang : Baking soda dan fluor merupakan bahan yang biasa ditambahkan dalam pasta gigi. Baking soda dan fluor mempunyai kemampuan untuk meningkatkan sekresi saliva dan pH saliva. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan pH saliva antara pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda dan pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandun fluor. Bahan dan metode : Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desai...

  19. Noncatalytic Direct Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin by Ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Madsen, Line Riis

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in lignin valorization to biofuels and chemicals. Here, we propose a novel and simple noncatalytic process to directly liquefy lignin rich solid residual from second generation bioethanol production by solvolysis with ethanol. Through an extensive parameter study...... in batch autoclaves assessing the effects of varying reaction temperature, reaction time, and solvent:lignin ratio, it is shown that hydrothermally pretreated enzymatic hydrolysis lignin solvolysis in supercritical ethanol can produce a heptane soluble bio-oil without the need for exhaustive deoxygenation....... The process does not require addition of catalyst or a reducing agent such as hydrogen. The process is advantageously carried out with a low reaction period ((ethanol:lignin (w/w) ratio of 2:1) which is a previously unexplored domain for lignin...

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of lignin-siloxane hybrid functional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Kudanga, Tukayi; Fischer, Roman; Eichinger, Reinhard; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2012-02-01

    This study combines the properties of siloxanes and lignin polymers to produce hybrid functional polymers that can be used as adhesives, coating materials, and/or multifunctionalized thin-coating films. Lignin-silica hybrid copolymers were synthesized by using a sol-gel process. Laccases from Trametes hirsuta were used to oxidize lignosulphonates to enhance their reactivity towards siloxanes and then were incorporated into siloxane precursors undergoing a sol-gel process. In vitro copolymerization studies using pure lignin monomers with aminosilanes or ethoxytrimethylsilane and analysis by ²⁹Si NMR spectroscopy revealed hybrid products. Except for kraft lignin, an increase in lignin concentration positively affected the tensile strength in all samples. Similarly, the viscosity generally increased in all samples with increasing lignin concentration and also affected the curing time. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Directional synthesis of ethylbenzene through catalytic transformation of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Bi, Peiyan; Deng, Shumei; Yan, Lifeng; Zhai, Qi; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin

    2013-09-01

    Transformation of lignin to ethylbenzene can provide an important bulk raw material for the petrochemical industry. This work explored the production of ethylbenzene from lignin through the directional catalytic depolymerization of lignin into the aromatic monomers followed by the selective alkylation of the aromatic monomers. For the first step, the aromatics selectivity of benzene derived from the catalytic depolymerization of lignin reached about 90.2 C-mol% over the composite catalyst of Re-Y/HZSM-5 (25). For the alkylation of the aromatic monomers in the second step, the highest selectivity of ethylbenzene was about 72.3 C-mol% over the HZSM-5 (25) catalyst. The reaction pathway for the transformation of lignin to ethylbenzene was also addressed. Present transformation potentially provides a useful approach for the production of the basic petrochemical material and development of high-end chemicals utilizing lignin as the abundant natural aromatic resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodegradation of lignin by Shiitake Lentinus edodes (berk. ) sing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, T.; Watanabe, H.; Ishikawa, H.

    1981-01-01

    Each strain of L. edodes destroyed all of the structural components of wood (Fagus crenata) at almost the same rate during the loss of approximately 30% of the total weight of wood. The activities of the extracellular enzymes, i.e. peroxidase, laccase, and polyphenol oxidase, in the wood powder and lignin-containing cultures increased during the early period of mycelial growth, and then declined rapidly, while the activity of Beta-glucosidase increased gradually throughout the growth period. Functional group analysis, nitrobenzene oxidation, and spectroscopic characterization showed that dioxane lignin from F. crenata degraded by L. edodes or in crude enzyme solution isolated from wood-containing culture had a higher content of carboxyl groups than the sound dioxane lignin, whereas the content of methoxyl group was lower in the degraded dioxane lignin than in sound dioxane lignin. The building units of dioxane lignin, which yield aromatic aldehydes on nitrobenzene oxidation, were attacked preferentially by L. edodes under the above conditions.

  3. The behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Whardani, Putri Nurul Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) has the ability to flow and self-compacting. One of the benefit of SCC can reduced the construction time and labor cost. The materials to be used for see slightly different with the conventional concrete. Less coarse aggregate to be used up to 50%. The maximum size of coarse aggregate was also limited e.g. 10 mm. Other material was quartz sand with grain size of 50-650 µm. For reducing the around of cement, bagasse ash was used as partial replacement of cement. In this research, the variations of w/c to be used, e.g. 0.275, 0.300, 0.325 and the percentage of bagasse ash substitution were 10%, 15%, and 20%. EFNARC standard was conducted for slump flow test following the V-funnel test and L-box shape test. The maximum value of slump flow test was 75.75 cm, V-funnel test was 4.95 second, and L-box test was 1.000 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 0% of bagasse ash. The minimum value of slump flow test was 61.50 cm, V-funnel test is 21.05 second, and L-box test was 0.743 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 20% of bagasse ash. The maximum value of compressive strength was 67.239 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 15% of bagasse ash. And the minimum value of compressive strength was 41.813 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 20% bagasse ash.

  4. Sequential high pressure extractions applied to recover piceatannol and scirpusin B from passion fruit bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganó, Juliane; Aguiar, Ana C; Moraes, Damila R; Jara, José L P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Passion fruit seeds are currently discarded on the pulp processing but are known for their high piceatannol and scirpusin B contents. Using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), these highly valuable phenolic compounds were efficiently extracted from defatted passion fruit bagasse (DPFB). PLE was performed using mixtures of ethanol and water (50 to 100% ethanol, w/w) as solvent, temperatures from 50 to 70°C and pressure at 10MPa. The extraction methods were compared in terms of the global yield, total phenolic content (TPC), piceatannol content and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The DPFB extracts were also compared with those from non-defatted passion fruit bagasse (nDPFB). Identification and quantification of piceatannol were performed using UHPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that high TPC and piceatannol content were achieved for the extracts obtained from DPFB through PLE at 70°C and using 50 and 75% ethanol as the solvent. The best PLE conditions for TPC (70°C, 75% ethanol) resulted in 55.237mgGAE/g dried and defatted bagasse, whereas PLE at 70°C and 50% ethanol achieved 18.590mg of piceatannol/g dried and defatted bagasse, and such yields were significantly higher than those obtained using conventional extraction techniques. The antioxidant capacity assays showed high correlation with the TPC (r>0.886) and piceatannol (r>0.772). The passion fruit bagasse has therefore proved to be a rich source of piceatannol and PLE showed high efficiency to recover phenolic compounds from defatted passion fruit bagasse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for lignin oxidation by the giant panda fecal microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    Full Text Available The digestion of lignin and lignin-related phenolic compounds from bamboo by giant pandas has puzzled scientists because of the lack of lignin-degrading genes in the genome of the bamboo-feeding animals. We constructed a 16S rRNA gene library from the microorganisms derived from the giant panda feces to identify the possibility for the presence of potential lignin-degrading bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the phylotypes of the intestinal bacteria were affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria (53% and Firmicutes (47%. Two phylotypes were affiliated with the known lignin-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the mangrove forest bacteria. To test the hypothesis that microbes in the giant panda gut help degrade lignin, a metagenomic library of the intestinal bacteria was constructed and screened for clones that contained genes encoding laccase, a lignin-degrading related enzyme. A multicopper oxidase gene, designated as lac51, was identified from a metagenomic clone. Sequence analysis and copper content determination indicated that Lac51 is a laccase rather than a metallo-oxidase and may work outside its original host cell because it has a TAT-type signal peptide and a transmembrane segment at its N-terminus. Lac51 oxidizes a variety of lignin-related phenolic compounds, including syringaldazine, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, ferulic acid, veratryl alcohol, guaiacol, and sinapinic acid at conditions that simulate the physiologic environment in giant panda intestines. Furthermore, in the presence of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, syringic acid, or ferulic acid as mediators, the oxidative ability of Lac51 on lignin was promoted. The absorbance of lignin at 445 nm decreased to 36% for ABTS, 51% for syringic acid, and 51% for ferulic acid after incubation for 10 h. Our findings demonstrate that the intestinal bacteria of giant pandas may facilitate the oxidation of lignin moieties, thereby clarifying the digestion

  7. Lignin transformations and reactivity upon ozonation in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudoshin, A. G.; Mitrofanova, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    The reaction of ozone with lignin in aqueous acidic solutions is investigated. The Danckwerst model is used to describe the kinetics of gas/liquid processes occurring in a bubble reactor. The efficient ozonation rate of a soluble lignin analog, sodium lignosulfate, is determined. The main lines of the reaction between ozone and lignin are revealed on the basis of kinetic analysis results and IR and UV spectroscopy data.

  8. Improved lignin polyurethane properties with Lewis acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoyong; Washburn, Newell R

    2012-06-27

    Chemical modification strategies to improve the mechanical properties of lignin-based polyurethanes are presented. We hypothesized that treatment of lignin with Lewis acids would increase the concentration of hydroxyl groups available to react with diisocyanate monomers. Under the conditions used, hydrogen bromide-catalyzed modification resulted in a 28% increase in hydroxyl group content. Associated increases in hydrophilicity of solvent-cast thin films were also recorded as evidenced by decreases in water contact angle. Polyurethanes were then prepared by first preparing a prepolymer based on mixtures of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and unmodified or modified lignin, then polymerization was completed through addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), resulting in mass ratios of TDI:lignin:PEG of 43:17:40 in the compositions investigated here. The mixture of TDI and unmodified lignin resulted in a lignin powder at the bottom of the liquid, suggesting it did not react directly with TDI. However, a homogeneous solution resulted when TDI and the hydrogen bromide-treated lignin were mixed, suggesting demethylation indeed increased reactivity and resulted in better integration of lignin into the urethane network. Significant improvements in mechanical properties of modified lignin polyurethanes were observed, with a 6.5-fold increase in modulus, which were attributed to better integration of the modified lignin into the covalent polymer network due to the higher concentration of hydroxyl groups. This research indicates that chemical modification strategies can lead to significant improvements in the properties of lignin-based polymeric materials using a higher fraction of an inexpensive lignin monomer from renewable resources and a lower fraction an expensive, petroleum-derived isocyanate monomer to achieve the required material properties.

  9. Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Daochen; Zhang, Peipei; Xie, Changxiao; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Jianzhong; Qian, Wei-Jun; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-21

    Background: Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent ability to survive in extreme environments. Results: To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC-MS analyze was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis were carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least 2-fold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system, environmental response factors, protein synthesis and assembly, etc. Conclusions: GC-MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the

  10. Recycling of bagasse ash in cement manufacturing and its impact on clinker potential and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, N.U.; Ali, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation bagasse ash from sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) has been used in the raw mix designing for high strength Portland cement as a raw material and subjected to clinkerization and cement formation. Different parameters of the resulting clinker and cement were studied and compared with the British and Pakistan standard specification. 5% bagasse ash was found as the optimal limit to be blended and pulverized with other raw material prior to clinkerization which decreased the emission of carbon dioxide to the environment up to 1.73%. Moreover it replaced 5% clay from the raw meal. (author)

  11. Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Soparkar, Pramod M; Winston, Anthony E; Proskin, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    An earlier clinical study demonstrated that brushing with a commercial Arm & Hammer dentifrice containing baking soda physically removed significantly more plaque than brushing with either of two commercial dentifrices which did not contain baking soda. However, little has been done to confirm these results and to compare baking soda-containing dentifrices with more recently commercialized non-baking soda dentifrice formulations. The objective of this study was to compare commercial dentifrices containing 20% to 65% baking soda and commercial dentifrices without baking soda in enhancing plaque removal efficacy of tooth brushing. Five randomized, controlled, blinded, crossover clinical studies were performed among healthy adult volunteers who provided informed consent. After approximately 24 hours without oral hygiene, subjects with sufficient plaque were enrolled in the study phase. Plaque was scored before and after supervised brushing for one minute using the Turesky, et al. modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at six sites per tooth according to Soparkar's modification as described by Lobene, et al. In each study, wash-out periods with a regular dentifrice not evaluated in the study separated each product treatment. In all studies, every dentifrice exhibited a significant (p baking soda dentifrices resulted in statistically greater (p baking soda. Results on other tooth surfaces, such as facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival surfaces also demonstrated statistically greater (p baking soda-containing dentifrices as compared to the baking soda-free dentifrices. In three of the studies comparing different levels of baking soda, brushing with dentifrices with higher concentrations of baking soda consistently removed numerically more plaque than those containing lower levels. In one of these three studies, the difference in plaque removal between the baking soda dentifrices reached statistical significance. The results suggest a positive relationship

  12. Dissolution of lignin in green urea aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Li, Ying; Qiu, Xueqing; Liu, Di; Yang, Dongjie; Liu, Weifeng; Qian, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution problem is the main obstacle for the value-added modification and depolymerization of industrial lignin. Here, a green urea aqueous solution for complete dissolution of various lignin is presented and the dissolution mechanism is analyzed by AFM, DLS and NMR. The results show that the molecular interaction of lignin decreases from 32.3 mN/m in pure water to 11.3 mN/m in urea aqueous solution. The immobility of 1H NMR spectra and the shift of 17O NMR spectra of urea in different lignin/urea solutions indicate that the oxygen of carbonyl in urea and the hydrogen of hydroxyl in lignin form new hydrogen bonds and break the original hydrogen bonds among lignin molecules. The shift of 1H NMR spectra of lignin and the decrease of interactions in model compound polystyrene indicate that urea also breaks the π-π interactions between aromatic rings of lignin. Lignin dissolved in urea aqueous has good antioxidant activity and it can scavenge at least 63% free radicals in 16 min.

  13. Valorization of lignin from biorefineries for fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann

    Direct lignin liquefaction is a promising process for lignin valorization in which ligninis treated in a solvent at elevated temperature and pressure. Liquefaction of sulfur freelignin obtained as a waste product from 2nd generation bio-ethanol production canprovide a sulfur free bio-oil which may...... substitute fossil fuel.In this Ph.D. study the direct liquefaction of a biorefinery lignin (hydrothermallypretreated enzymatic hydrolysis lignin) is explored. The goal is to provide a bio-crude which can substitute marine diesel as the engines found aboard large ships are adapted to more crude fuels. A novel...

  14. Kraft Lignin Depolymerization in an Ionic Liquid without a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diop

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the depolymerization of lignin was successfully achieved by the thermal treatment of kraft lignin in butyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium chloride ([DBUC4+][Cl-] without a catalyst. The thermal treatment experiments were performed in an oven at 150, 200, and 250 °C for 1 h. The changes in kraft lignin structure over the course of depolymerization were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and 1H / 31P NMR analyses. GPC chromatograms indicated that the retention time of the original kraft lignin had shifted toward higher values after the thermal treatment, which indicated lignin depolymerization. The average molecular weight of the lignin obtained after 1 h reaction time decreased by 23, 70, and 58 wt% for the treatment at 150, 200, and 250 °C, respectively. FTIR spectra indicated the cleavage of β-O-4 bonds of kraft lignin. The 1H NMR spectra showed demethylation of all treated kraft lignins. Moreover, the 31P NMR analysis demonstrated that the demethylation phenomenon of the treated kraft lignin contributed to the formation of catechol groups.

  15. Progress in lignin hydrogels and nanocomposites for water purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevicius, Sigitas; Thakur, Sourbh; Govender, Penny P.

    2017-01-01

    -based hydrogels have shown excellent performance for removal of various pollutants from water. The adsorption properties of lignin based hydrogels can further be improved by using a combination of nanomaterials and lignin that results in promising hydrogel nanocomposites. In nature, the most abundant structures...... are formed by the combination of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. In this article, we have attempted to comprehensively review the research work carried out in the direction of usage of lignin-based hydrogel for removal of toxic pollutants including metal ions and dyes....

  16. Effective Release of Lignin Fragments from Lignocellulose by Lewis Acid Metal Triflates in the Lignin-First Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Jiadong; Korányi, Tamás I; Boot, Michael D; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-12-08

    Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the process separates woody biomass into few lignin-derived alkylmethoxyphenols and cellulose under mild conditions. Model compound studies show the unique catalytic properties of metal triflates in cleaving lignin-carbohydrate interlinkages. The lignin fragments can then be disassembled by hydrogenolysis. The tandem process is flexible and allows obtaining good aromatic monomer yields from different woods (36-48 wt %, lignin base). The cellulose-rich residue is an ideal feedstock for established biorefining processes. The highly productive strategy is characterized by short reaction times, low metal triflate catalyst requirement, and leaving cellulose largely untouched. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization and enhance saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; George, Anthe; Mukerjee, Purba; Kim, Jin S; Pollet, Brigitte; Benke, Peter I; Yang, Fan; Mitra, Prajakta; Sun, Lan; Cetinkol, Ozgül P; Chabout, Salem; Mouille, Grégory; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Balzergue, Sandrine; Singh, Seema; Holmes, Bradley M; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Lapierre, Catherine; Ralph, John; Loqué, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is utilized as a renewable feedstock in various agro-industrial activities. Lignin is an aromatic, hydrophobic and mildly branched polymer integrally associated with polysaccharides within the biomass, which negatively affects their extraction and hydrolysis during industrial processing. Engineering the monomer composition of lignins offers an attractive option towards new lignins with reduced recalcitrance. The presented work describes a new strategy developed in Arabidopsis for the overproduction of rare lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization degree (DP). Biosynthesis of these 'DP reducers' is achieved by expressing a bacterial hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-lyase (HCHL) in lignifying tissues of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. HCHL cleaves the propanoid side-chain of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA lignin precursors to produce the corresponding hydroxybenzaldehydes so that plant stems expressing HCHL accumulate in their cell wall higher amounts of hydroxybenzaldehyde and hydroxybenzoate derivatives. Engineered plants with intermediate HCHL activity levels show no reduction in total lignin, sugar content or biomass yield compared with wild-type plants. However, cell wall characterization of extract-free stems by thioacidolysis and by 2D-NMR revealed an increased amount of unusual C₆C₁ lignin monomers most likely linked with lignin as end-groups. Moreover the analysis of lignin isolated from these plants using size-exclusion chromatography revealed a reduced molecular weight. Furthermore, these engineered lines show saccharification improvement of pretreated stem cell walls. Therefore, we conclude that enhancing the biosynthesis and incorporation of C₆C₁ monomers ('DP reducers') into lignin polymers represents a promising strategy to reduce lignin DP and to decrease cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied

  18. Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization and enhance saccharification

    OpenAIRE

    Eudes, Aymerick; George, Anthe; Mukerjee, Purba; Kim, J.S.; Pollet, B.; Bnke, P.I.; Persil Çetinkol, Özgül

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is utilized as a renewable feedstock in various agro-industrial activities. Lignin is an aromatic, hydrophobic and mildly branched polymer integrally associated with polysaccharides within the biomass, which negatively affects their extraction and hydrolysis during industrial processing. Engineering the monomer composition of lignins offers an attractive option towards new lignins with reduced recalcitrance. The presented work describes a new strategy developed in Arab...

  19. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebayo, Matthew A.; Prola, Lizie D.T.; Lima, Eder C.; Puchana-Rosero, M.J.; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S.; Vaghetti, Julio C.P.; Silva, Leandro G. da; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Complexes of carboxy-methylated lignin with Al and Mn were used as adsorbents. • The optimum adsorption conditions were achieved at pH 2 and 298 K. • Maximum adsorption capacities are 73.52 mg g −1 (CML-Al) and 55.16 mg g −1 (CML-Mn). • CML-Al could remove ca. 95.83% of dye-contaminated industrial effluents. • CML-Al and CML-Mn are effective for treatment of simulated dye-house effluents. - Abstract: A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al 3+ (CML-Al) and Mn 2+ (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pH PZC . The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5 h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16 mg g −1 at 298 K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone + 50% of 0.05 mol L −1 NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents

  20. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebayo, Matthew A. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Chemical Sciences, Ajayi Crowther University, PMB 1066 Oyo, Oyo State (Nigeria); Prola, Lizie D.T. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: eder.lima@ufrgs.br [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Puchana-Rosero, M.J.; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S.; Vaghetti, Julio C.P. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Leandro G. da; Ruggiero, Reinaldo [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), AV. João Naves de Ávila 2121 block 1D—Campus Santa Mônica, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Complexes of carboxy-methylated lignin with Al and Mn were used as adsorbents. • The optimum adsorption conditions were achieved at pH 2 and 298 K. • Maximum adsorption capacities are 73.52 mg g{sup −1} (CML-Al) and 55.16 mg g{sup −1} (CML-Mn). • CML-Al could remove ca. 95.83% of dye-contaminated industrial effluents. • CML-Al and CML-Mn are effective for treatment of simulated dye-house effluents. - Abstract: A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al{sup 3+} (CML-Al) and Mn{sup 2+} (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pH{sub PZC}. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5 h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16 mg g{sup −1} at 298 K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone + 50% of 0.05 mol L{sup −1} NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents.

  1. Where there's a will: can highlighting future youth-targeted marketing increase support for soda taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2014-12-01

    Amid concern about high rates of obesity and related diseases, the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to young people by the food industry has come under heavy criticism by public health advocates, who cite decades of youth-targeted marketing in arguing for reforms. In light of recent evidence that the same event evokes stronger emotional reactions when it occurs in the future versus the past, highlighting youth-targeted marketing that has yet to occur may evoke stronger reactions to such practices, and perhaps, greater support for related health policy initiatives. In a between-subjects experiment, Web participants (N = 285) read that a major soda company had already launched (past condition) or was planning to launch (future condition) an advertising campaign targeting children. Measures included support for a soda tax and affective responses to the company's actions. Greater support for the soda tax was observed in the future condition than in the past condition. Moreover, participants in the future condition reported heightened negative emotions about the company's actions, which mediated the observed effect on soda tax support. The same action undertaken by the food industry (here, marketing soda to children) may evoke stronger negative emotions and greater support for a health policy initiative when it is framed prospectively rather than retrospectively.

  2. Analysis of caustic soda of different manufacturers in pakistan for mercerization of cotton textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, B.; Faisal, S.; Siddique, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan has sufficient production capacity of caustic soda to cater the needs of the local industry. Presently, Pakistan has four major plants with production capacity around 435,000 mega ton per year of caustic soda of various grades. Textile industry of Pakistan is the major consumer of produced high grade caustic soda; as the presence of any impurities especially dissolved salts and metals is unfavorable for wet processing of cotton. This study investigates the performance of three different local brands of caustic soda intended for use in textile wet processing of cotton fabric specifically for mercerization process. The brands were selected based on their purity grades. The selected caustic soda samples were chemically analyzed for the presence of impurities. Twenty seven cotton fabric samples (nine samples of each brand) were prepared by mercerization in slack state. The cotton fabric samples were tested for changes in surface morphology, tensile strength (warp and weft), tear strength, air permeability and K/S (Colour Strength). The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to ascertain the statistical equivalence within and between the tested brands. The results showed no significant differences across the tested brands at a 95% confidence level except for air permeability and K/S in blue shade. (author)

  3. GPU-powered model analysis with PySB/cupSODA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leonard A; Nobile, Marco S; Pino, James C; Lubbock, Alexander L R; Besozzi, Daniela; Mauri, Giancarlo; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Lopez, Carlos F

    2017-11-01

    A major barrier to the practical utilization of large, complex models of biochemical systems is the lack of open-source computational tools to evaluate model behaviors over high-dimensional parameter spaces. This is due to the high computational expense of performing thousands to millions of model simulations required for statistical analysis. To address this need, we have implemented a user-friendly interface between cupSODA, a GPU-powered kinetic simulator, and PySB, a Python-based modeling and simulation framework. For three example models of varying size, we show that for large numbers of simulations PySB/cupSODA achieves order-of-magnitude speedups relative to a CPU-based ordinary differential equation integrator. The PySB/cupSODA interface has been integrated into the PySB modeling framework (version 1.4.0), which can be installed from the Python Package Index (PyPI) using a Python package manager such as pip. cupSODA source code and precompiled binaries (Linux, Mac OS/X, Windows) are available at github.com/aresio/cupSODA (requires an Nvidia GPU; developer.nvidia.com/cuda-gpus). Additional information about PySB is available at pysb.org. paolo.cazzaniga@unibg.it or c.lopez@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  5. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaona; Sui, Shujuan; Tan, Shun; Pittman, Charles; Sun, Jianping; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL), enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL), wheat straw alkali lignin (AL) and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL), were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the...

  6. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1).

  7. Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Alireza; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-11-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic biopolymer that accounts for nearly 30% of the organic carbon on Earth and is one of the few renewable sources of aromatic chemicals. As the most recalcitrant of the three components of lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), lignin has been treated as a waste product in the pulp and paper industry, where it is burned to supply energy and recover pulping chemicals in the operation of paper mills. Extraction of higher value from lignin is increasingly recognized as being crucial to the economic viability of integrated biorefineries. Depolymerization is an important starting point for many lignin valorization strategies, because it could generate valuable aromatic chemicals and/or provide a source of low-molecular-mass feedstocks suitable for downstream processing. Commercial precedents show that certain types of lignin (lignosulphonates) may be converted into vanillin and other marketable products, but new technologies are needed to enhance the lignin value chain. The complex, irregular structure of lignin complicates chemical conversion efforts, and known depolymerization methods typically afford ill-defined products in low yields (that is, less than 10-20wt%). Here we describe a method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid that results in more than 60wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics. We present the discovery of this facile C-O cleavage method, its application to aspen lignin depolymerization, and mechanistic insights into the reaction. The broader implications of these results for lignin conversion and biomass refining are also considered.

  8. Redox Fluctuations Increase the Contribution of Lignin to Soil Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Timokhin, V.; Hammel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin mineralization represents a critical flux in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet little is known about mechanisms and environmental factors controlling lignin breakdown in mineral soils. Hypoxia has long been thought to suppress lignin decomposition, yet variation in oxygen (O2) availability in surface soils accompanying moisture fluctuations could potentially stimulate this process by generating reactive oxygen species via coupled biotic and abiotic iron (Fe) redox cycling. Here, we tested the impact of redox fluctuations on lignin breakdown in humid tropical forest soils during ten-week laboratory incubations. We used synthetic lignins labeled with 13C in either of two positions (aromatic methoxyl and propyl Cβ) to provide highly sensitive and specific measures of lignin mineralization not previously employed in soils. Four-day redox fluctuations increased the percent contribution of methoxyl C to soil respiration, and cumulative methoxyl C mineralization was equivalent under static aerobic and fluctuating redox conditions despite lower total C mineralization in the latter treatment. Contributions of the highly stable Cβ to mineralization were also equivalent in static aerobic and fluctuating redox treatments during periods of O2 exposure, and nearly doubled in the fluctuating treatment after normalizing to cumulative O2 exposure. Oxygen fluctuations drove substantial net Fe reduction and oxidation, implying that reactive oxygen species generated during abiotic Fe oxidation likely contributed to the elevated contribution of lignin to C mineralization. Iron redox cycling provides a mechanism for lignin breakdown in soils that experience conditions unfavorable for canonical lignin-degrading organisms, and provides a potential mechanism for lignin depletion in soil organic matter during late-stage decomposition. Thus, close couplings between soil moisture, redox fluctuations, and lignin breakdown provide potential a link between climate variability and

  9. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  10. Pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse aiming at the enhancement of the yield of glucose and xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de A. Guilherme

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work studied the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse aiming at the production of glucose and xylose. The bagasse was subjected to two different pretreatments: combined acid and alkalinepretreatment and hydrogen peroxidepretreatment. The enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized and a kinetic study was carried out in a stirred tank reactor (STR in batch mode. Optimal conditions were obtained by subjecting the bagasse to the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The addition of xylanases to the enzymatic mixture improved the production of fermentable sugars by 48%.

  11. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  12. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Arun; Srinivas, C R; Mathew, Anil C

    2008-01-01

    Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall's Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  13. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  14. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories.

  15. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  16. Polyols from microwave liquefied bagasse and its application to rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Xianglin Zhai; Chung Hse; Todd Shupe; Hui Pan

    2015-01-01

    Bagasse flour (BF) was liquefied using bi-component polyhydric alcohol (PA) as a solventand phosphoric acid as a catalyst in a microwave reactor. The effect of BF to solvent ratio andreaction temperatures on the liquefaction extent and characteristics of liquefied products wereevaluated. The results revealed that almost 75% of the...

  17. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboards for Civil Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Battistelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the worldwide market of particleboard production, the use of alternative raw materials is increasing, due to high demand and lack of traditional raw material, despite efforts of reforestation. In Brazil, the main agricultural commodity is sugarcane due to the copious production of sugar and ethanol. In the state of São Paulo alone approximately 140 million tons of sugarcane bagasse are produced every year, from which around 70% is burned for energy production, not adding value to the residue and generating pollution to the environment; and the other 30% is sold for composting. The objective of this work is to add value to the sugarcane bagasse by using it as a raw material for particleboard production to be employed as flooring in the area of civil construction. To achieve this, the present research characterized the physical and mechanical characteristics of the particleboards with the following alternative raw materials: sugarcane bagasse and leaves of bamboo. Particleboards were produced to reach high density (0.8g/cm3 using the resin (bi-component polyurethane castor oil. Tests for abrasion, roughness and resistance to denting and wear (Janka hardness verified that the addition of leaves of bamboo in the mixtures, contrary to what was expected, did not confer a greater degree of resistance to the particleboards. Lastly, the results showed that sugarcane bagasse is a viable raw material alternative for the production of particleboards, intended to be used as products and flooring.

  18. Effect of bagasse ash reinforcement on dry sliding wear behaviour of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbodion, V.S.; Hassan, S.B.; Agunsoye, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of wear parameters on the wear rate of RLDPE were investigated. → The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. → The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance. -- Abstract: The tribological behaviour of recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE) polymer composites with bagasse ash particles as a reinforcement was studied using a pin-on-disc wear rig under dry sliding conditions. The influence of wear parameters like, applied load, sliding speed, sliding distance and percentage of bagasse ash fillers, on the wear rate were investigated. A plan of experiments was performed to acquire data in a controlled way. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyse the worn surface of the samples. Linear regression equation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to investigate the influence of process parameters on the wear rate of the samples. The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. The confirmation of the experiments conducted using ANOVA to verify the optimal testing parameters show that sliding speed and applied load had significant effect on the wear rate. The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance of the composite greatly.

  19. Optimization of Verticillium lecanii spore production in solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Xu, X.; Zhu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Verticillium lecanii is an entomopathogen with high potential in biological control of pests. We developed a solid-state fermentation with sugarcane bagasse as carrier absorbing liquid medium to propagate V. lecanii spores. Using statistical experimental design, we optimized the medium composition

  20. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining pulp was delignified by alkali for 120 minutes at 170C using, separately, NaOH load of 15, 20 and 25% of weight of the pulp. The delignified pulp was further bleached twice with 4% H2O2 charge of weight of the pulp to produce high α-cellulose pulp. The water liquor was evaporated and further hydrolysed and dehydrated with diluted H2SO4 in a stainless steel reactor to produce furfural. The result shows that the optimal pretreatment of steam explosion for 4 min at 218C leads to the yield of α-cellulose pulp at 193-201 g∙kg-1 of the original bagasse, and that furfural can be produced from xylose present in the liquor with a maximum conversion factor of 0.16.

  1. Removal of Cr6 + and Ni2+ from aqueous solution using bagasse and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M; Parwate, A V; Bhole, A G

    2002-01-01

    Raw bagasse and fly ash, the waste generated in sugar mills and boilers respectively have been used as low-cost potential adsorbents. Raw bagasse was pretreated with 0.1N NaOH followed by 0.1N CH3COOH before its application. These low-cost adsorbents were used for the removal of chromium and nickel from an aqueous solution. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at equilibrium are dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate and experimental system. The effect of hydrogen ion concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, initial concentrations of adsorbate and adsorbent and particle size on the uptake of chromium and nickel were studied in batch experiments. The Sorption data has been correlated with Langmuir, Freundlich and Bhattacharya and Venkobachar adsorption models. The efficiencies of adsorbent materials for the removal of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) were found to be between 56.2 and 96.2% and 83.6 and 100%, respectively. These results were obtained at the optimized conditions of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, sorbate concentration of 100 mg/l and with the variation of adsorbent particles size between 0.075 and 4.75 mm. The order of selectivity is powdered activated carbon > bagasse > fly ash for Cr(VI) removal and powdered activated carbon > fly ash > bagasse for Ni(II) removal.

  2. Disk Refining and Ultrasonication Treated Sugarcane Bagasse Residues for Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Bio-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingzheng Cheng; Zhaohui Tong; Luisa Dempere; Lonnie Ingram; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Disk refining and ultrasonication treated sugarcane bagasse residues reclaimed from the waste stream of a simplified bioethanol process after fermentation were used to fabricate biobased composites with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by film casting. The morphologies and the size distributions of residue particles were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and...

  3. Obtaining nanofibers from curauá and sugarcane bagasse fibers using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sonication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Adriana de; Correa, Ana Carolina; Cannella, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an initial study of the implementation of two new enzymes, an endoglucanase and a concoction of hemicellulases and pectinases to obtain cellulosic nanoparticles. In this study, curauá and sugarcane bagasse were dewaxed and bleached prior to enzymatic action for 72 h at 50 °C, and th...

  4. Biosorption of styrene from synthetic wastewater by sugar cane waste(Bagass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, styrene removal from wastewater by using sugarcane waste (bagasse as an adsorbent was studied. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were determined; the effects of bagasse particle size and concentration, solutions pH, and temperature on the biosorption of styrene were studied in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibrium data was successfully fitted to Langmuir isotherms (R2=0.986 and Freundlich isotherms (R2=0.96. Also, the kinetics of biosorption was fitted to pseudo-second order equations (K2=0.00146 g mg-1 min-1, qe=24.5 mg g-1 for particle size range of 88-105 μm. According to the obtained results, an empirical equation was presented that could be used to calculate the percentage of styrene adsorption. The results showed that an increase in temperature caused a decrease in styrene removal. Moreover, maximum uptake was observed with NaOH-treated bagasse. It was found that an increase in average particle size decreased the biosorption rate. According to the calculated heat of adsorption, this sorption can be classified as a chemical biosorption. The optimum uptake was determined to be 88% at a pH equal to 12.1, a temperature of 35 oC, a particle size of 420-500 μm, and a bagasse concentration of 1 g L-1.

  5. Uranium Geochemistry in Hypersaline Soda Lakes in Eastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, B. S.; Bennett, P.; Puntsag, T.

    2007-12-01

    Extremely high concentrations of uranium were discovered in water samples from hypersaline soda lakes in eastern Mongolia. The origin and fate of uranium in these lakes was examined using geochemical analyses and modeling, using samples collected from five lakes, six wells and one stream. Samples were analyzed for strontium and uranium isotopes, cations and trace metals, anions, alkalinity, and unstable field parameters. The lakes are small, shallow (chlorine to bromine ratios implying groundwater discharges to lake water and is subsequently evaporated. Evaporation is intense with lake waters having average chlorine concentrations 300 times that of well waters. Uranium in well samples is higher than typical for shallow groundwaters (7-101ppb) suggesting discharging groundwater as a probable source of uranium in lake water. Concentrations of uranium in lake water ranges from 57-14,900ppb making these lakes possibly the highest naturally occurring uranium concentration reported. Lake water alkalinity is strongly correlated to uranium abundance suggesting uranium is complexed with carbonate as the aqueous species UO2CO3. Consequently, the extremely high alkalinity of the most alkaline lake (pH = 9.8, 1288.8 meq alk/L) also has the highest uranium concentrations. Stable strontium isotopes were used to assess the degree of water rock interactions and the presence of 90Sr was checked for to test the possibility of input of nuclear fallout. 90Sr was not detected in lake water samples suggesting the high uranium is of natural origins. A large difference in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was found between groundwater and lake water samples. Groundwater samples displayed large variation in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70612-0.709776) whereas lake water samples averaged a high radiogenic ratio (0.709432). The large variation in the strontium isotopes in groundwater samples suggests varying degrees of water rock interactions, however the least radiogenic samples likely are derived from

  6. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Saliva secretion difference before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggraeni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause women can experience a decrease in saliva secretion (decrease. To understand the clear picture about saliva secretion, the volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity were then measured. The aim of this research was to obtain a picture about the difference of saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women. The type of the research used was a laboratory quasi-experiment with comparative descriptive form. The technique used in this research is the survey method, and samples were taken using the multistage cluster random sampling method, and t-student statistical analysis. This research was conducted with the saliva collected with spitting method on 45 menopause women. The results show that the average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity before rinsing with baking soda was 1.79 ml, 0.18 ml/minute, 7.40 and 0.81 mm2/second. The average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity after rinsing with baking soda were 2.66 ml; 0.27 ml/minute; 8.67 and 0.78 mm2/second. Statistical analysis t-student on α = 0.05 shows volume changes, flow rate, pH and saliva viscosity before and after rinsing with baking soda was 0.873; 0.086; 1.273 and 0.037 respectively. The conclusion shows a significant difference between saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda, and saliva secretion after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women.

  8. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, S A; Kearney, T

    2014-02-01

    Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Enzymatic Synthesis of Lignin-Based Concrete Dispersing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Dagmara; Heck, Tobias; Schubert, Mark; Yerlikaya, Alpaslan; Weymuth, Christophe; Rentsch, Daniel; Schober, Irene; Richter, Michael

    2018-03-15

    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer, functioning as an integral component of woody materials. In its unmodified form it shows limited water solubility and is relatively unreactive, so biotechnological lignin valorisation for high-performance applications is greatly underexploited. Lignin can be obtained from the pulp and paper industry as a by-product. To expand its application, a new synthesis route to new dispersing agents for use as concrete additives was developed. The route is based on lignin functionalisation by enzymatic transformation. Screening of lignin-modifying systems resulted in functionalised lignin polymers with improved solubility in aqueous systems. Through grafting of sulfanilic acid or p-aminobenzoic acid by fungal laccases, lignin became soluble in water at pH≤4 or pH≤7, respectively. Products were analysed and evaluated in miniaturised application tests in cement paste and mortar. Their dispersing properties match the performance criteria of commercially available lignosulfonates. The study provides examples of new perspectives for the use of lignin. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The investigation of wood hydrolysis lignin ability for uranium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachkova, N.G.; Shuktomova, I.I.; Taskaev, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium are sorbed in wood hydrolysis lignin efficacious and very strong both in uranyl nitrate solutions and in podsolic soil. It may well be that formation of complexes are possible mechanism of irreversible sorption. The static capacity of lignin are 2.7 mg/g. (author)

  11. The chemical oxidation of lignin found in Sappi Saiccor dissolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sappi Saiccor (situated in Durban, South Africa) dissolving pulp mill effluent, produced from an acid bisulphite pulping process, uses acacia and eucalyptus hardwoods to produce a unique and different blend of lignin that has not been previously studied. The chemical oxidation of lignin found in Sappi Saiccor's effluent has ...

  12. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  13. Production of lignin peroxidase by Ganoderma leucidum using solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objectives of this study were to optimize the culture conditions for the production of lignin peroxidase by Ganoderma leucidum, economic utilization of waste corn cobs as inducers substrate by pollution free fermentation technology and to optimize the solid state fermentation (SSF) process for lignin peroxidase ...

  14. Effect of periodate on lignin for wood adhesive application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.; Gellerstedt, G.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Development of eco-friendly binders with no harmful emission during its complete life cycle is of high interest for the wood-based industry. In this paper, a fully renewable binder based on activated lignin and poly-furfuryl alcohol and a partly renewable lignin based phenol-formaldehyde (PF) binder

  15. Metal Triflates for the Production of Aromatics from Lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuss, Peter J.; Lahive, Ciaran W.; Lancefield, Christopher S.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Kamer, Paul C. J.; Barta, Katalin; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin into valuable aromatic chemicals is one of the key goals towards establishing economically viable biorefineries. In this contribution we present a simple approach for converting lignin to aromatic monomers in high yields under mild reaction conditions. The methodology

  16. Characterisation and application of NovaFiber lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.; Kranenbarg, A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Jong, de E.; Stigsson, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Sulphur-free lignin coming from a novel alkaline-pulping process called NovaFiber, which has been developed by KIRAM AB, has been characterised and evaluated for potential applications. A Kraft lignin has been used for comparison. Considering the characterisation results of a NovaFiber softwood and

  17. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R.; Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system ( 2 lixiviation followed a Jander model (α 2 /4 ≈ Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 μm with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  18. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwasi?ska, Agnieszka; Felf?ldi, Tam?s; Szab?, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemys?aw; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth...

  19. Effects of Diet Soda on Gut Hormones in Youths With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rebecca J.; Walter, Mary; Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In patients with type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, abnormal secretion of incretins in response to oral nutrients has been described. In healthy youths, we recently reported accentuated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in response to a diet soda sweetened with sucralose and acesulfame-K. In this study, we examined the effect of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects aged 12?25 years with type 1 diabetes (n = 9) or type...

  20. Structural adaptation of Salsola soda L. (Chenopodiaceae from inland and maritime saline area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic analysis of leaf and stem in two populations of Salsola soda was carried out in order to examine mechanism of anatomical adaptations to environmental condition on saline habitats and to determine if there exists a morpho-anatomical differentiation between populations from maritime and inland saline area. Analysis included 26 quantitative characters of leaf and stem. The results showed that both populations exhibited halomorphic and xeromorphic adaptations, which refered to ecological plasticity and adaptations of plants to their habitats. Our research also showed that S. soda had quite a stable morphoanatomical structure, since only quantitative changes were recorded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  1. Lignin-based cement fluid loss control additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, P.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a hydraulic cement slurry composition. It comprises: a hydraulic cement, and the following expressed as parts by weight per 100 parts of the hydraulic cement, water from about 25 to 105 parts, and from abut 0.5 to 2.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of a sulfonated lignin and a sulfomethylated lignin, wherein the lignin has been sequentially crosslinked by reacting the lignin with a member of the group consisting of formaldehyde and epichlorohydrin and alkoxylated with between about 2 to about 6 moles of a compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide and a combination thereof per 1000 g of the lignin.

  2. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiachuan; Eraghi Kazzaz, Armin; AlipoorMazandarani, Niloofar; Hosseinpour Feizi, Zahra; Fatehi, Pedram

    2018-04-10

    Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  3. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachuan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  4. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF FURFURAL RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic saccharification of pretreated furfural residues with different lignin content was studied to verify the effect of lignin removal in the hydrolysis process. The results showed that the glucose yield was improved by increasing the lignin removal. A maximum glucose yield of 96.8% was obtained when the residue with a lignin removal of 51.4% was hydrolyzed for 108 h at an enzyme loading of 25 FPU/g cellulose. However, further lignin removal did not increase the hydrolysis. The effect of enzyme loading on the enzymatic hydrolysis was also explored in this work. It was concluded that a high glucose yield of 90% was achieved when the enzyme dosage was reduced from 25 to 15 FPU/g cellulose, which was cost-effective for the sugar and ethanol production. The structures of raw material and delignified samples were further characterized by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  5. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Joseph S.; Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W.; Chornet, Esteban

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  6. Nitroxyl-mediated oxidation of lignin and polycarboxylated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Shannon S.; Rafiee, Mohammad

    2018-02-27

    Methods of selectively modifying lignin, polycarboxylated products thereof, and methods of deriving aromatic compounds therefrom. The methods comprise electrochemically oxidizing lignin using stable nitroxyl radicals to selectively oxidize primary hydroxyls on .beta.-O-4 phenylpropanoid units to corresponding carboxylic acids while leaving the secondary hydroxyls unchanged. The oxidation results in polycarboxylated lignin in the form of a polymeric .beta.-hydroxy acid. The polymeric .beta.-hydroxy acid has a high loading of carboxylic acid and can be isolated in acid form, deprotonated, and/or converted to a salt. The .beta.-hydroxy acid, anion, or salt can also be subjected to acidolysis to generate various aromatic monomers or oligomers. The initial oxidation of lignin to the polycarboxylated form renders the lignin more susceptible to acidolysis and thereby enhances the yield of aromatic monomers and oligomers obtained through acidolysis.

  7. Influence of Reaction Conditions on Lignin Hydrothermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdocia, Xabier; Prado, Raquel; Corcuera, M. Ángeles; Labidi, Jalel, E-mail: jalel.labidi@ehu.es [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country, San Seabastian (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Organosolv lignin, obtained from olive tree pruning under optimized conditions, was subjected to a hydrothermal depolymerization process catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. The depolymerization of lignin was carried out at 300°C using different reaction times (20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 min) in order to study the influence of this parameter on lignin depolymerization. The resulting products (oil and residual lignin) were measured and analyzed by different techniques (GC/MS, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, and pyrolysis–GC/MS) in order to determine their nature and composition. Coke was also formed, at a lower quantity, uncompetitive repolymerization reactions during the lignin hydrothermal treatment. The maximum oil yield and concentration of monomeric phenolic compounds was obtained after 80 min of reaction time. The highest reaction time studied (100 min) had the worst results with the lowest oil yield and highest coke production.

  8. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.

  9. Efficient saccharification by pretreatment of bagasse pith with ionic liquid and acid solutions simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Wenjuan; Qi, Wei; Yan, Yongjie; Xu, Qingli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bagasse pith was pretreated by BMIMCl solution containing HCl and water. • Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl to maximize total sugar yield. • Cellulose was dissolved by BMIMCl and 95% of cellulose recovery was obtained. • The recovered cellulose was disrupted which is conducive to cellulase hydrolysis. • The total sugars yield is 89.9% obtained from pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis. - Abstract: Hydrolysis of hemicellulose and disruption of cellulose during pretreatment process are conducive to the following cellulase hydrolysis performance. In this work, bagasse pith was first pretreated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) solution containing 0–1.2% hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 30% water. The water (30%) added into the acidic ionic liquid (IL) solutions led to an increase in the biomass loading up to a biomass/IL solutions ratio of 1:10 (wt.%). Hemicellulose was hydrolyzed to reducing sugars by HCl and cellulose was dissolved by [BMIM]Cl. In this process, 76.9% of hemicellulose conversion and 95% of cellulose recovery were obtained. The pretreated bagasse pith was then followed by hydrolysis with commercially available enzymes. The effects of pretreatment temperature, reaction time and acid concentration on cellulase hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse pith were investigated. Pretreatment of bagasse pith with [BMIM]Cl solutions containing 1.0% HCl at 120 °C for 30 min resulted in the glucose concentration of 92.3 g/l and yield of 94.5% after 72 h of cellulase hydrolysis. The maximum total reducing sugars yield reached to 89.9% after pretreatment and cellulase hydrolysis

  10. Properties Evaluation of High Density Polyethylene Composite Filled with Bagasse after Accelerated Weathered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Darabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites (WPCs are produced from a mixture of wood (in different sizes and resin (thermoset or thermoplastic. This product has many applications as structural and non-structural materials and since its emerge in market its use received an increasing trend. Adding wood flour to polymer not only improves its mechanical properties compared to net polymer, but also leads to products with moldability characteristics. With increasing demand of WPCs and reduction in forest harvest according to new protecting law of forestry, and lack of raw materials for producers, other lignocelluloses materials replace wood flour. Agricultural by-products such as hemp, coir, rice husk and bagasse (residual from sugar cane extraction are the examples that can be used in WPCs. As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs becomes more widespread, the resistance of its products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more concerned. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor, ultraviolet (UV light, rain, snow and atmospheric pollution, they will be degraded which is marked by color fade and loss in mechanical properties. Nowadays many manufactures of WPCs use bagasse as a raw material. Their production in different color and shapes are used as arbors and pergolas and also as decorative applications for outdoor uses. However, so far there has been no research done on the effects of weathering on composites made from bagasse. In present study, composites from bagasse and high density polyethylene, with and without pigments in master batch, have been made through extrusion. Then samples were exposed to accelerated weathering for 1440h. After this period of time samples were removed and their chemical, mechanical and surface qualities were studied. The results have shown that using bagasse as filler can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples. Moreover, adding pigments to WPCs can increase colorstability, while it

  11. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  12. Wood chemistry symposium: from muka to lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Canadian Wood Chemistry Symposium held during September, 1979, is reviewed. The chemical and physical explanations of delignification were debated. Problems of mechanical pulping include insufficient brightness, yellowing, and low strength relative to energy consumption. A session on chemicals, energy, and food from wood began with criteria for a viable project, which included adequate return on investment, modest capital investment requirements, identified pre-existing markets, and favorable thermodynamic balances. The pulp and paper industry should improve its methods of using bark and wood waste in direct combustion (by pre-drying wastes and improving furnace efficiency) rather than supporting oil-from-wood projects, since using a waste for fuel will free fossil fuels for uses in synthetic fibers and thermoplastics. In the area of food, there are modest successes with cellulose fiber additives to bread and snack food and single cell protein (which, though made from wastes, cannot compete with soy protein). However, making monomeric sugars from wood polysaccharides is not an efficient process, and muka, animal feed supplement from foliage, is successful only in Russia. In Canada it cannot compete with agricultural products. Alpha cellulose is a major wood chemical product. Promising uses include cellulose derived thermoplastics and lignosulphonates for secondary oil recovery. Instead of breaking wood polysaccharides and lignin into monomers and then repolymerizing them, it is possible to use the pre-built polymers; such an approach is illustrated by use of lignin in polyurethane foams, adhesives, and coatings.

  13. Characterisation of Authentic Lignin Biorefinery Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Determination of the Chemical Formula for Lignin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Damgaard Nielsen, Anders; Sørensen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    samples in situ with no prior purification and minimal sample preparation. Lignin chemical formulas and lignin Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were extracted from mixed spectra by filtering out signals from residual carbohydrates and minerals. From estimations of C, H and O and adjustment...

  14. Effective release of lignin fragments from lignocellulose by lewis acid metal triflates in the lignin-first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Zhu, J.; Koranyi, T.I.; Boot, M.D.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the

  15. Formation of a tyrosine adduct involved in lignin degradation by Trametopsis cervina lignin peroxidase: a novel peroxidase activation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuta Miki; Rebecca Pogni; Sandra Acebes; Fatima Lucas; Elena Fernandez-Fueyo; Maria Camilla Baratto; Maria I. Fernandez; Vivian De Los Rios; Francisco J. Ruiz-duenas; Adalgisa Sinicropi; Riccardo Basosi; Kenneth E. Hammel; Victor Guallar; Angel T. Martinez

    2013-01-01

    LiP (lignin peroxidase) from Trametopsis cervina has an exposed catalytic tyrosine residue (Tyr181) instead of the tryptophan conserved in other lignin-degrading peroxidases. Pristine LiP showed a lag period in VA (veratryl alcohol) oxidation. However, VA-LiP (LiP after treatment with H2O2...

  16. Nanosecond (ns) laser transfer of silver nanoparticles from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to transparent soda-lime glass and shock waves formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sow, Mohamed Chérif; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Sagot, Nadine; Ollier, Nadège; Tite, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles growth by nanosecond laser irradiation of silver exchanged soda-lime glasses. • Silver nanoparticles transfer. • Nanosecond laser induced shock waves formation on glass. - Abstract: In this contribution, we showed for the first time in our knowledge a single-step process for silver clusters and nanoparticles growth and transfer from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to un-exchanged soda-lime glass (transparent glass in visible and NIR domain) by nanosecond (ns) laser irradiation. The transferred silver nanoparticles in transparent glass are strongly linked to the glass surface. In addition, we point out the formation of shock waves, with selective silver clustering on the top wave. This technique provides an alternative and simple way to obtain metallic nanoparticles in different media which can be traversed by laser wavelength used. Moreover, this experiment is made at room temperature and air environment. It is worth noting that our technique requires a glass previously doped with the corresponding silver ions

  17. Fiber degradability of sugar cane bagasse treated by alkaline solutions, through the “in situ” nylon bag technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carlo Franco Morgulis

    1996-09-01

    treated bagasse (A was higher than in B or C treatments; degradability of B was higher than in C at 72h and 96h of incubation time. NDF degradability at 48 hour incubation time showed the following results: A = 74.0%; B = 41.6% and C = 35.7%. In conclusion, alkaline (NaOH and wood ash treated sugar cane bagasse improves ruminal degradability, and NaOH is better than wood ash.

  18. Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Aigbodion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash(BAp particulate composites was investigated. The composites were produced by a double stir-casting method by varying bagasse ash from 2 to 10 wt.%. After casting the samples were solution heat-treated at a temperature of 500 °C in an electrically heated furnace, soaked for 3 h at this temperature and then rapidly quenched in water and thermal aged at temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. The ageing characteristics of these grades of composites were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, hardness and tensile test samples obtained from solution heat-treated composites samples subjected to the temperature conditions mentioned above. The results show that the uniform distribution of the bagasse ash particles in the microstructure of both the as-cast and age-hardened Al–Cu–Mg/BAp composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement in mechanical properties. The presence of the bagasse ash particles in the matrix alloy results in a much smaller grain size in the cast composites compared to the matrix alloy. The addition of bagasse ash particles to Al–Cu–Mg (A2009 does not alter the thermal ageing sequence, but it alters certain aspects of the precipitation reaction. Although thermal ageing is accelerated in the composites the presence of bagasse ash particles in A2009 reduces the peak temperatures.

  19. Flue gas desulphurization in a spray tower with de-coupled recycling of soda ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebgott, H.

    1983-05-01

    RD project to develop a ''dry'' process for the desulphurization of flue gases. The process is based on a desulphurization step with a solution of soda ash which is sprayed into the flue gas. The gas is cooled by evaporation but its temperature is still higher than the dew point; reheating is not necessary. The product of the desulphurization is a dry mixture of sodium sulphite and -carbonate. It is intended to reprocess this powder to soda in a central plant - serving several power stations. First sulphite is oxidized to sulphate, which in turn is reacted with calcium chloride to form calcium sulphate and sodium chloride. The latter is introduced into the Solvay-soda ash process which yields calcium chloride as a by-product. Tests were carried out for the desulphurization step and the oxidation of sulphite. The desulphurization tests resulted in poor degrees of SO/sub 2/-removal even with high stoichiometric ratios of soda ash to sulphur dioxide. The preliminary estimates of process economics made before start of experimental work could not be verified. Furthermore, during work on the project, new processes were revealed whereby flue gas is desulphurized in a spray-drying apparatus with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. In an extension of the project, tests were carried out which confirmed these findings. The project was abandoned.

  20. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon streams

  1. Surface morphology study in high speed milling of soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Bagum, Mst. Nasima; Ali, Mohammad Yeakub; Amin, A. K. M. Nurul

    2018-05-01

    Soda lime glass has a wide range of applications in optical, bio-medical and semi-conductor industries. It is undeniably a challenging task to produce micro finish surface on an amorphous brittle solid like soda lime glass due to its low fracture toughness. In order to obtain such a finish surface, ductile machining has been exploited, as this usually cause's plastic flow which control crack propagation. At sub-micro scale cutting parameters, researchers achieved nano finish surface in micro milling operation using coated tool. However it is possible to enhance the rate of material removal (RMR) of soda lime glass at flexible cutting condition. High speed cutting at micro meter level, extend of thermal softening might be prominent than the strain gradient strengthening. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high cutting speed end milling parameters on the surface texture of soda lime glass using uncoated carbide tool. The spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate were varied from 20,000 to 40,000 rpm, 10 to 30 mm/min and 30 to 50 µm respectively. Mathematical model of roughness has been developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental verification confirmed that surface roughness (Ra) 0.38 µm is possible to achieve at increased RMR, 4.71 mm3/min.

  2. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  3. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Soda Can Optimization Problem: Getting Close to the Real Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul; Sprecher, Bryce; Yang, Lai; Dodge, Noah-Helen

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the dimensions of a soda can is a classic problem that is frequently posed to freshman calculus students. However, if we only minimize the surface area subject to a fixed volume, the result is a can with a square edge-on profile, and this differs significantly from actual cans. By considering a more realistic model for the can that…

  5. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams

  6. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of female albino Wistar rats was ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities consumed5. Caffeine is linked ... consumption might result in seizures, memory loss, dizziness, headache and ...

  7. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavourakis, C. D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, F.; Sorokin, D. Y.; Tringe, S. G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, February (2016), č. článku 211. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soda lake brines * Nanohaloarchaea * Halobacteria * Bacteroidetes * hydrolytics * cellulase * chitinase * rhodopsin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  8. Adsorption of cellulase on cellulolytic enzyme lignin from lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Maobing; Pan, Xuejun; Saddler, Jack N

    2009-09-09

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials is significantly affected by cellulase adsorption onto the lignocellulosic substrates and lignin. The presence of lignin plays an important role in lignocellulosic hydrolysis and enzyme recycling. Three cellulase preparations (Celluclast, Spezyme CP, and MSUBC) were evaluated to determine their adsorption onto cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) from steam-exploded Lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol (organosolv)-pretreated Lodgepole pine (EPLP). The adsorption affinity of cellulase (Celluclast) onto isolated lignin (CEL-EPLP and CEL-SELP) was slightly higher than that from corresponding EPLP and SELP substrates on the basis of the Langmuir constants. Effects of temperature, ionic strength, and surfactant on cellulase adsorption onto isolated lignin were also explored in this study. Thermodynamic analysis of enzyme adsorption onto isolated lignin (Gibbs free energy change DeltaG(0) approximately -30 kJ/mol) indicated this adsorption was a spontaneous process. The addition of surfactant (0.2% w/v) could reduce the adsorption of cellulase onto CEL-SELP by 60%. Two types of adsorption isotherm were compared for cellulase adsorption onto isolated lignin. A Langmuir adsorption isotherm showed better fit for the experimental data than a Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

  9. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  10. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  11. Characterization of the lignin polymer in Brassicaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hemmati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Residues of medicinal plants after extraction and weeds are suitable candidates for bioethanol production. Significant barriers exist to make the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstock to biofuel cost effective and environmentally friendly; one of which is the lignin polymer. Brassicaceae family is one of the potential targets for biofuel production. The structural characteristics of lignin from Hirschfeldia incana, Sisymbrium altissimum and Cardaria draba were studied in comparison to that of Brassica napus. Methods: Lignin deposition was observed by phloroglucinol and Mäule staining. The total lignin content was determined by Klason method. Maximum UV absorbance and FT-IR spectra were compared. Ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl lignin (S/G ratio as a metric of lignin digestibility was determined by DFRC followed by GC-MS analysis. 1H-NMR spectra of the total lignin was compared with other spectroscopic methods. Results: Staining of thestem cross sections of C. draba showed higher G units in contrast to the higher S units in S. altissimum which was in agreement with 1H-NMR analysis. Total lignin content for H. incana, C. draba and S. altissimum was 27.10%, 23.8% and 24.5%, respectively. The specific maximum UV absorbance appeared between 230-260 nm. FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of more aromatic structures in the seed maturation stage than the flowering stage. S/G ratio was 0.26, 0.10 and 0.22 for H. incana, C. draba and S. altissimum, respectively.  Conclusion: Except Cardaria draba with the predominance of G subunits in lignin polymer, Hirschfeldia incana and Sisymbrium altissimum are suitable candidates for bioethanol production.

  12. Solid-state 29Si NMR and FTIR analyses of lignin-silica coprecipitates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Cabrera, Andrés; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2016-01-01

    When agricultural residues are processed to ethanol, lignin and silica are some of the main byproducts. Separation of these two products is difficult and the chemical interactions between lignin and silica are not well described. In the present study, the effect of lignin-silica complexing has been...... investigated by characterizing lignin and silica coprecipitates by FTIR and solid state NMR. Silica particles were coprecipitated with three different lignins, three lignin model compounds, and two silanes representing silica-in-lignin model compounds. Comparison of 29Si SP/MAS NMR spectra revealed differences...

  13. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sánchez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp, hsp65 (401 bp, secA1 (494 bp, gyrB (1195 bp and rpoB (401 bp. The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  14. Insights into lignin degradation and its potential industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Solbiati, Jose O; Cann, Isaac K O

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulose is an abundant biomass that provides an alternative source for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The depolymerization of the carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulosic biomass is hindered by lignin, which is recalcitrant to chemical and biological degradation due to its complex chemical structure and linkage heterogeneity. The role of fungi in delignification due to the production of extracellular oxidative enzymes has been studied more extensively than that of bacteria. The two major groups of enzymes that are involved in lignin degradation are heme peroxidases and laccases. Lignin-degrading peroxidases include lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP), and dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP). LiP, MnP, and VP are class II extracellular fungal peroxidases that belong to the plant and microbial peroxidases superfamily. LiPs are strong oxidants with high-redox potential that oxidize the major non-phenolic structures of lignin. MnP is an Mn-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various phenolic substrates but is not capable of oxidizing the more recalcitrant non-phenolic lignin. VP enzymes combine the catalytic activities of both MnP and LiP and are able to oxidize Mn(2+) like MnP, and non-phenolic compounds like LiP. DyPs occur in both fungi and bacteria and are members of a new superfamily of heme peroxidases called DyPs. DyP enzymes oxidize high-redox potential anthraquinone dyes and were recently reported to oxidize lignin model compounds. The second major group of lignin-degrading enzymes, laccases, are found in plants, fungi, and bacteria and belong to the multicopper oxidase superfamily. They catalyze a one-electron oxidation with the concomitant four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases can oxidize phenolic lignin model compounds and have higher redox potential than bacterial laccases. In the presence of redox mediators, fungal laccases can oxidize non

  15. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids from lignin-derived compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Aaron; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Bergeron, Maxime

    2017-09-19

    Methods and compositions are provided for synthesizing ionic liquids from lignin derived compounds comprising: contacting a starting material comprising lignin with a depolymerization agent to depolymerize the lignin and form a mixture of aldehyde containing compounds; contacting the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds with an amine under conditions suitable to convert the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds to a mixture of amine containing compounds; and contacting the mixture of amine containing compounds with an acid under conditions suitable to form an ammonium salt, thereby preparing the ionic liquid.

  16. Radiolysis of lignin: Prospective mechanism of high-temperature decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The range of the radiation-thermal processes resulting in conversion of lignin into monomeric phenols is considered. Statistically the most probable places of macromolecule ionization are aromatic units. Release of phenolic products from a lignin macromolecule is the multistage process beginning via fragmentation of primary cation-radicals. Reactions of electrons and small radicals with macromolecules, also as degradation of cation-radicals, result in formation of phenoxyl radicals. Macroradicals possess lower heat stability in comparison with macromolecules. Thermal decomposition of macroradicals leads to release of monohydric and dihydric phenols. The probability of benzenediols formation increases in the presence of alkanes. As noted, partial transformation of lignin into charcoal is inevitable.

  17. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of isolated, synthetic and degraded lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz-Jimenez, C.; De Leeuw, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to study the chemical structure of sound and fungus degraded, industrial and synthetic lignins. Pyrolysis products reflected in some detail the structural units present in the lignin polymer. Thus, sound spruce lignin yielded trans-isoeugenol coniferaldehyde and trans-coniferyl alcohol as major pyrolysis products. Biodegraded lignin yielded oxidized units, including vanillin, acetoguaiacone, methyl vanillate, propioguaiacone, vanilloyl methyl ketone and vanillic acid as major products. Kraft lignin also showed evidence of oxidation, although not as much as the biodegraded lignin. Major products from this industrial lignin were guaiacol, methylguaiacol, vinylguaiacol and homovanillic acid. Results indicated that synthetic lignin duplicates fairly well the structure of natural lignin. However, coniferylaldehyde and trans-coniferyl alcohol were the dominant products only from the synthetic lignin, indicating the presence of large amounts of coniferyl alcohol and coniferylaldehyde end groups. 21 references.

  18. Effects of lignin and surfactant on adsorption and hydrolysis of cellulases on cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanfei; Sun, Zongping; Ge, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Considerable works have been reported concerning the obstruction of enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency by lignin. However, there is a lack of information about the influence of lignin on the adsorption of cellulases on cellulose, along with the hydrolytic activity of the cellulases adsorbed on lignin. In addition, limited discovery has been reported about the influence of additives on cellulase desorption from lignin and lignocellulosic materials. In this work, the effects of lignin o...

  19. Alkali-treated kraft lignin as a component in flakeboard eesins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Lin Kuo; Chung-Yun Hse; Dee-Hua Huang

    1991-01-01

    Southern pine kraft lignin was reacted with NaOH (15 and 20% based on dry lignin) at 170, 200, and 250°C for 30 and 60 min. Sweetgum flake boards bonded with phenolic resins containing 50% hydroxymethylated lignin prepared from some of the alkali treated lignins were compared with boards bonded with a neat PF resin. Results indicate that boards bonded with lignin-...

  20. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  1. Effect of Hydrochloric Acid Concentration on the Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to Levulinic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggorowati, Heni; Jamilatun, Siti; Cahyono, Rochim B.; Budiman, Arief

    2018-01-01

    Levulinic acid is a new green platform chemical used to the synthesis of a variety of materials for numerous applications such as fuel additives, polymers and resins. It can be produced using renewable resources such as biomass like sugarcane bagasse which are cheap and widely available as waste in Indonesia. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid with a solid liquid ratio 1:10. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration at temperature of 180 °C and reaction time of 30 min were studied. The presence of levulinic acid in product of hydrolysis was measured with gas chromatography (GC). It was found that the highest concentration of levulinic acid was obtained at 1 M hydrochloric acid in 25.56 yield%.

  2. Influence of sugarcane bagasse variability on sugar recovery for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Liliane Pires; Crespim, Elaine; de Oliveira, Nilton; de Campos, Rafael Carinha; Teodoro, Juliana Conceição; Galvão, Célia Maria Araújo; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2017-10-01

    In the context of cellulosic ethanol production, special attention must be given to the raw material, as it affects final product yield. As observed for sugarcane, bagasse variations may derive from several elements, for instance edaphoclimatic factors, seasonality, maturation stage and harvesting techniques. Therefore, in the present work, to investigate the impact of raw material characteristics on process performance, sugarcane bagasse from four harvests from October/2010 to October/2011 was pretreated by steam explosion and had its soluble and insoluble solids contents measured, following enzymatic hydrolysis to assess glucan conversion. As confirmed by ANOVA, glucose concentration was related to the solids content in the reactor, whereas glucan conversion was related to the enzymatic load. Variations in raw material composition were indeed observed to significantly interfere in the final sugar recovery, probably due to the increase in the impurities observed as a result of the type of harvest performed in 2011. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzymatic saccharification of hemicellulose obtained from hydrothermally pretreated sugar can bagasse and beech bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walch, E; Zemann, A; Bonn, G; Bobleter, O [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiochemie und Angewandte Physikalische Chemie; Schinner, F [Innsbruck Univ. (AT). Inst. for Microbiology

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of different xylanses and their use in the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse and beech bark were studied. Bagasse was pretreated by two different hydrothermolysis procedures, a recirculation and a direct flow-through process. The recirculation procedure resulted in a higher yield of dry matter in the hydrothermolysis solution and a higher saccharification effect after enzymatic hydrolysis. In the case of beech bark, the tannins have first to be removed at temperatures of 120-140{sup o}C. In a second hydrothermal step (at approximately 200{sup o}C), a hemicellulose solution is obtained which can be saccharified enzymatically with high yields. The inhibitory effect of the tannins is experimentally demonstrated. (author).

  4. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  5. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  6. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO_2) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  7. Mechanical behavior of cementitious composites with processed sugar cane bagasse ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Augusto C.S.; Saraiva, Sergio L.C.; Sena, Natalia O.; Pereira, Gabriela M.; Rodrigues, Conrado S.; Ferreira, Maria C.N.F.; Castro, Laurenn W.A.; Silva, Marcos V.M.S.; Gomes, Romero C.; Aguilar, Maria T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is waste from the sugar and ethanol industry and is primarily intended for burning in boilers to generate energy. As waste from the cogeneration of energy, sugar cane bagasse ashes (SCBA) are produced with no honorable destination. This paper studies the use of SCBA to partially replace Portland cement in producing cementitious composites. The ashes were processed by reburning and grinding, and after processing were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, laser granulometry, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After characterization, cement compounds were fashioned, replacing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the cement with SCBA. The composites were mechanically evaluated by means of compression strength tests, tensile strength tests by bending. The results proved significant, indicating the possible use of SCBA when added to the cement on manufacture. (author)

  8. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  9. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of calcination temperature in pozolanicity of gray sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.A.; Argolo, R.A.; Andrade, H.M.C.; Ribeiro, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    BCA (Sugar Cane Bagasse) is burned in boilers in the process of electricity cogeneration causing the generation of CBCA (Gray Sugar Cane Bagasse), which is the final residue of sucroalcooeira industry. Currently, several studies seek alternative materials that can replace Portland cement, promoting discussions on the use of pozzolanic materials in cementitious matrices. Thus, this research seeks to analyze the pozzolanicity the CBCA, obtained by calcining the residue at different temperatures, to be determined by TG / DTG and DTA tests. For analysis of pozzolanicity these ashes were used electrical conductivity techniques, chemical titration NP EN 196-5, chapelle modified NBR 15895/2010 and the IAP method (Activity Index pozzolanic NBR:5752). The results obtained during the study demostraramm no difference between the ash calcined at temperatures of 500 ° C, 600 ° C and 700 ° C. (author)

  11. Nano-lignin filled natural rubber composites: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel strategy to prepare nano-lignin and its composites with natural rubber. The nanolignin was ontained by fabricating colloidal lignin-Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC complexes (LPCs via self-assembly technology. The characteristics of LPCs were investigated by zeta potential, dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and ultraviolet – visible (UV-vis absorption measurements. The results indicated that PDADMAC intensively interacted with lignin by cation-π and π-π interactions, and lignin particles were stable in aqueous solution with an average particle size less than 100 nm. LPCs accelerated the vulcanization of NR/LPCs nanocomposites. Morphological studies and Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA showed the homogeneous dispersion of LPCs in the NR matrix and the strong interfacial adhesion between them. The nanoscale dispersion of LPCs significantly enhanced the thermal stability and mechanical properties of NR/LPCs nanocomposites.

  12. Membrane Technology for the Recovery of Lignin: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Humpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of renewable resources is becoming increasingly important, and only sustainable processes that convert such resources into useful products can achieve environmentally beneficial economic growth. Wastewater from the pulp and paper industry is an unutilized resource offering the potential to recover valuable products such as lignin, pigments, and water [1]. The recovery of lignin is particularly important because it has many applications, and membrane technology has been investigated as the basis of innovative recovery solutions. The concentration of lignin can be increased from 62 to 285 g∙L−1 using membranes and the recovered lignin is extremely pure. Membrane technology is also scalable and adaptable to different waste liquors from the pulp and paper industry.

  13. Membrane Technology for the Recovery of Lignin: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpert, Daniel; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of renewable resources is becoming increasingly important, and only sustainable processes that convert such resources into useful products can achieve environmentally beneficial economic growth. Wastewater from the pulp and paper industry is an unutilized resource offering the potential to recover valuable products such as lignin, pigments, and water [1]. The recovery of lignin is particularly important because it has many applications, and membrane technology has been investigated as the basis of innovative recovery solutions. The concentration of lignin can be increased from 62 to 285 g∙L−1 using membranes and the recovered lignin is extremely pure. Membrane technology is also scalable and adaptable to different waste liquors from the pulp and paper industry. PMID:27608047

  14. Removal of oil palm trunk lignin in ammonium hydroxide pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Az-Zahraa, Balqis; Zakaria, Sarani; Daud, Muhammad F. B.; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed

    2018-04-01

    Alkaline pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH serves as one of a process to remove lignin from lignocellulosic biomass such as oil palm trunk fiber. In this study, the effect of NH4OH pretreatment on removal of oil palm trunk lignin was investigated. The oil palm trunk fiber was dissolved in NH4OH with different concentrations (6, 8 and 10 %), different duration (3, 5 and 7 h) and temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C). The samples were analyzed by using UV-Vis to estimate the concentration of extracted lignin. The result indicates that the optimum conditions to gain maximum extracted lignin were 8% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 64 mgL-1 while the lowest was at 6% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 62.5 mgL-1.

  15. Analytical protocols for characterisation of sulphur-free lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Abächerli, A.; Semke, H.; Malherbe, R.; Käuper, P.; Nadif, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Interlaboratory tests for chemical characterisation of sulphur-free lignins were performed by five laboratories to develop useful analytical protocols, which are lacking, and identify quality-related properties. Protocols have been established for reproducible determination of the chemical

  16. Biological and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars and Lignin | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars and Lignin Our research group, comprised of staff scientists, postdoctoral associates, students synthase enzyme, represented as "surfaces" or "blobs," embedded in a lipid bilayer "blobs," embedded in a lipid bilayer, represented as yellow multi-jointed strands. Above this

  17. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained...... at temperatures of 500−550 °C, reactor gas residence time of 0.8 s, and feed rate of 5.6 g/min. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography were used to characterize the Chemical properties of the lignin oils. Acetic acid, levoglucosan, guaiacol, syringols, and p-vinylguaiacol are found...... components and molecular mass distribution of the lignin oils. The obtained lignin oil has a very different components composition when compared to a beech wood oil....

  18. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Harakava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

  19. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs

  20. Utilization of bagasse and coconut fibers waste as fillers of sandwich composite for bridge railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardjo, K. A.; Basuki, A.

    2017-07-01

    The bridge railway sleepers is an essential component in the construction of railways, as the foundation of the rail support in order to withstand the load a train that runs above it. Sleepers used in bridge construction are expected to have a longer service life, lighter weight and durable so that can be used more efficient. This research was carried out to create a model of bridges railway sleepers made of sandwich structured composite from fiber glass, epoxy resin with fillers waste of bagasse (sugar cane pulp mill) or coconut fiberboard (copra industry) that using polyurethane as an adhesive. The process of making was conditioned for small and medium industrial applications. Railway sleepers’ specifications adapted to meet the requirements of end user. The process steps in this research include; lay-up fiberglass combined with bagasse/coconut fiberboard (as fillers), gluing with epoxy resin, molded it with pressure to be solid, curing after solidification process. The specimens of composite, bagasse and coconut fiber board were tested for tensile and compressive strength. The prototype were tested of mechanical test: flexural moment test to the stand rail, flexural moment test to the middle of the sleepers and tensile strength test on one side of the sleepers, in accordance to SNI 11-3388-1994 Method testing of single block concrete sleepers and bearing single rail fastening systems. The results of mechanical testing all variations meet the technical specifications of end user such as test results for flexural moment on all prototypes, after load test, there is no visible crack. While in the tensile strength test, it seem the prototype with coconut fiberboard filler, shows better performance than bagasse fiberboard filler, the decisions is just depended on techno economic and lifetime.