WorldWideScience

Sample records for bag model

  1. Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  2. Dynamical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results

  3. Bag models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeTar, C.E.; Donoghue, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    We believe further progress in the bag model must come from a better understanding of QCD. The bag theory is basically a simple model of the vacuum. A ''perturbative'' vacuum of finite extent is found inside the bag, while the ''true'' vacuum is found outside. The formation of the bag can be viewed as a phase change between the two types of vacuum. In what sense does QCD support this view. There have been many recent attempts to characterize the QCD vacuum. Of particular relevance to the bag model is recent work by Hansson et al. They set out to determine the structure of the vacuum wave function by using a variational argument. Their ''trial'' wave function was inspired by the bag model, but their intention was to describe general features of QCD. Their work starts from the realization that with the usual perturbative model of the vacuum a J /sup PC/ = 0 ++ glueball state can be made with m 2 ++ glueball (C. B. Thorn, unpublished), which leads to a state with m 2 < 0 when c.m. corrections are included (65). Hansson et al show that the perturbative vacuum can lower its energy by filling up with scalar glueballs. They calculate the energy of glueballs containing two and four gluons and find that the energy of the four-gluon state is higher. Therefore the vacuum energy reaches a minimum when the glueballs start to overlap

  4. The cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in the bag model, in which the constraints of chiral symmetry are explicitly included are reviewed. The model leads to a new understanding of the Δ-resonance. The connection of the theory with current algebra is clarified and implications of the model for the structure of the nucleon are discussed

  5. Gravitating lepton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system

  6. The quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Kuti, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quark bag model is reviewed here with particular emphasis on spectroscopic applications and the discussion of exotic objects as baryonium, gluonium, and the quark phase of matter. The physical vacuum is pictured in the model as a two-phase medium. In normal phase of the vacuum, outside hadrons, the propagation of quark and gluon fields is forbidden. When small bubbles in a second phase are created in the medium of the normal phase with a characteristic size of one fermi, the hadron constituent fields may propagate inside the bubbles in normal manner. The bubble (bag) is stabilized against the pressure of the confined hadron constituent fields by vacuum pressure and surface tension. Inside the bag the colored quarks and gluons are governed by the equations of quantum chromodynamics. (Auth.)

  7. Soliton Bag Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Bickeboeller, M.; Birse, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of recent and current research on the Soliton Bag Model is presented. The unique feature of the model, namely dynamics, is emphasized, since this permits calculation of reactions within the framework of a covariant effective Lagrangian. One gluon exchange effects are included. 17 refs., 3 figs

  8. The fuzzy bag model revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilotto, F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.; Coelho, H.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this work we develop a new version of the fuzzy bag model. Th main ideas is to include the conservation of energy and momentum in the model. This feature is not included in the original formulation of the fuzzy bag model, but is of paramount importance to interpret the model as being a bag model - that, is a model in which the outward pressure of the quarks inside the bag is balanced by the inward pressure of the non-perturbative vacuum outside the bag - as opposed to a relativistic potential model, in which there is no energy-momentum conservation. In the MT bag model, as well as in the original version of the fuzzy bag model, the non-perturbative QCD vacuum is parametrized by a constant B in the Lagrangian density. One immediate consequence of including energy-momentum conservation in the fuzzy bag model is that the bag constant B will acquire a radial dependence, B = B(r). (author)

  9. The fuzzy bag model revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilotto, F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Coelho, H.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    In this work we develop a new version of the fuzzy bag model. Th main ideas is to include the conservation of energy and momentum in the model. This feature is not included in the original formulation of the fuzzy bag model, but is of paramount importance to interpret the model as being a bag model - that, is a model in which the outward pressure of the quarks inside the bag is balanced by the inward pressure of the non-perturbative vacuum outside the bag - as opposed to a relativistic potential model, in which there is no energy-momentum conservation. In the MT bag model, as well as in the original version of the fuzzy bag model, the non-perturbative QCD vacuum is parametrized by a constant B in the Lagrangian density. One immediate consequence of including energy-momentum conservation in the fuzzy bag model is that the bag constant B will acquire a radial dependence, B = B(r). (author)

  10. Bag model with diffuse surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The constraint of a sharp bag boundary in the bag model is relaxed in the present work. This has been achieved by replacing the square-well potential of the bag model by a smooth scalar potential and introducing a term similar to the bag pressure term. The constraint of the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is used to obtain an expression for the added bag pressure term. The model is then used to determine the static properties of the nucleon. The calculation shows that the rms charge radius and the nucleon magnetic moment are larger than the corresponding bag model values. Also, the axial vector coupling constant and the πNN coupling constant are in better agreement with the experimental values

  11. Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.

    1983-08-01

    This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models

  12. The Chiral bag model and the little bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, Vincent.

    1980-11-01

    We review the properties of the existing solutions to the Chiral bag equations of motion and discuss how the 'little bag' picture could come about in this scheme. Our analysis leads to a model which is qualitatively similar to the naive quark model with pion cloud corrections. We use this latter approach to look for pion cloud signatures in experimental data

  13. Translational invariance in bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, F.

    1981-10-01

    In this thesis, the effect of restoring the translational invariance to an approximation to the MIT bag model on the calculation of deep inelastic structure functions is investigated. In chapter one, the model and its major problems are reviewed and Dirac's method of quantisation is outlined. This method is used in chapter two to quantise a two-dimensional complex scalar bag and formal expressions for the form factor and the structure functions are obtained. In chapter three, the expression for the structure function away from the Bjorken limit is studied. The corrections to the L 0 - approximation to the structure function is calculated in chapter four and it is shown to be large. Finally, in chapter five, a bag-like model for kinematic corrections to structure functions is introduced and agreement with data between 2 and 6 (GeV/C) 2 is obtained. (author)

  14. Soliton bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1988-01-01

    Soliton models are well-suited for dynamical calculations, such as hadron-hadron interactions and collisions, since for each variable in the Lagrangian the time derivative of that variable also appears. For such models, constrained (deformed) mean field solutions provide a basis for generator coordinate dynamical calculations. This requires the solution of a large number of coupled, nonlinear, differential equations involving the quark and scalar fields. The Henyey-Wilets method reduces the problem to the solution of a set of coupled, linear, inhomogeneous, differential equations to be iterated. In the chromodielectric model, color confinement is effected by the self and mutual interactios of the quarks through the chromelectric field. This requires the self-consistent calculation of the gluon propagator in a spatially varying dielectric function. This now involves the solution of a set of coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations, which can be linearized and solved by iterations. The problem is computation intensive. 20 refs

  15. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Mateusz; Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Bastian, Niels-Uwe

    2018-02-01

    A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG). The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag) improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  16. A deformable bag model of hadrons, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich

    1983-01-01

    As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable. (author)

  17. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  18. Recent status of the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    In this note, recent status of the chiral bag model is presented. As it combines the MIT quark bag model and the Skyrme model, the chiral bag model interpolates the two models smoothly as a function of the chiral bag radius R. The correct limit of R → ∞ is reproduced by including the higher order terms in the Ω expansion of the cranking method. It resolves the so-called small g A problem in a class of models where the semiclassical method is used. (author)

  19. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of a classical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, H.

    1985-01-01

    The author studies a classical chiral bag model with a Mexican hat-type potential for the self-coupling of the pion fields. He assumes a static spherical bag of radius R, the hedgehog ansatz for the chiral fields and that the quarks are all in the lowest lying s state. The author has considered three classes of models, the cloudy or pantopionic bags, the little or exopionic bags and the endopionic bags, where the pions are allowed all through space, only outside the bag and only inside the bag respectively. In all cases, the quarks are confined in the interior. He calculates the bag radius R, the bag constant B and the total ground state energy R for wide ranges of the two free parameters of the theory, namely the coupling constant λ and the quark frequency omega. The author focuses the study on the endopionic bags, the least known class, and compares the results with the familiar ones of other classes

  1. A rotating bag model for hadrons. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    The MIT bag model is modified in order to describe rotational motion of hadrons. It has a kind of 'diatomic molecular' structure; The rotational excitation of the MIT bag is described by the polarized two colored sub-bags which are connected with each other by the gluon flux. One sub-bag contains a quark and the other has an antiquark for mesons. For baryons, the latter sub-bag contains the remaining two quarks instead of the antiquark. The Regge trajectories of hadrons are explained qualitatively by our new model with the usual MIT bag parameters. In particular the Regge slopes are reproduced fairly well. It is also pointed out that the gluon flux plays an important role in the rotational motion of hadrons. (author)

  2. Baryon excitations in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.L.

    1976-07-01

    Two recent spectroscopic applications of the bag model are discussed. The first is a study of the place of multiquark states in meson and baryon spectroscopy, and the second is an attempt to sort out the P-wave baryon excitations in a bag model. 33 references

  3. Models of quark bags and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolubov, P.N.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the first Dubna Quark Bag and the results obtained in this way are considered. The idea of the first Dubna Quark Bag is as follows: baryons are constructed of three quarks measons are constructed of two quarks, and each quark is interpreted as the Dirac particle which moves in a scalar square well. The so-called quasiindependent quark model is considered too. It is a simple quark model based on an analogy with the shell model for nuclei. The quarks are considered as moving in an arbitrary radially-symmetric field, and their one-particle wave function satisfies the usual Dirac equation. Such quark model can give at least the same results as the relativistic bag model. A possibility exists to improve the results of the relativistic quark model with the oscillator interaction between quarks. The results of the MIT-Bag model and the quasiindependent quark model coincide

  4. Nuclear surface vibrations in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio, L.

    1984-01-01

    The main difficulties found in the hadron bag models are reviewed from the original version of the MIT bag model. Following, with the aim to answer two of the main difficulties in bag models, viz., the parity and the divergence illness, a dynamical model is presented. In the model, the confinement surface of the quarks (bag) is treated like a real physical object which interacts with the quarks and is exposed to vibrations. The model is applied to the nucleon, being observed that his spectrum, in the first excited levels, can be reproduced with resonable precision and obeying to the correct parity order. In the same way that in a similar work of Brown et al., it is observed to be instrumental the inclusion of the effect due to pions. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Modern status of quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, P.N.; Dorokhov, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    A review contains a modern status of the bag model - a composite quark model of hadrons. The idea of quasi-independent quarks moving in a finite closed region of space is a basic feature of the model. Dubna's formulation of the model and its different versions (MIT, chiral model and others) are given in detail. The role of symmetric and physical principles of the model is underlined, a critical review of mass formulas is given, the relation of the bag model and the soliton-like models (in particular with the Skyrme model) is considered

  6. Zero-point energy in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure

  7. On the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    We give a rederivation, generalization and interpretation of the result of Goldstone and Jaffe on the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model. Our results are based on considering the bag model as a theory of free quarks, massless inside and infinitely massive outside the bag. (orig.)

  8. The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  9. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)

  10. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  11. QCD inspired bag model of quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Horgan, R.R.; Kuti, J.; Richard, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The QCD motivated bag model is applied to heavy quark-antiquark systems. The effect of colored glue in the model is shown to explain the rapid cross-over of the static QQ potential from the asymptotically free Coulomb region into the linear confinement regime. The spin-dependent force between static quarks is derived in Coulomb gauge from the exchange of a confined transverse gluon. The dimensional bag parameter Λ/sub B/ = 235 MeV and the quark-gluon coupling constant α = 0.38 as defined at r/sub QQ/approx.0.2 fermi are determined from a good fit of the cc-bar and bb-bar spectra. The fit is in serious disagreement with the widely accepted MIT parameters. As an important test of our model, we calculate the rich spectrum of QQ glue states. In UPSILON particle spectroscopy we predict a narrow QQ glue state with exotic quantum numbers J/sup PC/ = 1 -+ below the BB threshold. Its experimental confirmation would be the first direct evidence for colored glue in the hadron spectrum

  12. QCD inspired bag model of quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Peter; Kuti, Julius; Richard, J M

    1981-01-01

    The QCD motivated bag model is applied to heavy quark-antiquark systems. The effect of colored glue in the model is shown to explain the rapid cross-over of the static QQ potential from the asymptotically free Coulomb region into the linear confinement regime. The spin-dependent force between static quarks is derived in Coulomb gauge from the exchange of a confined transverse gluon. The dimensional bag parameter Lambda /sub B/=235 MeV and the quark-gluon coupling constant alpha =0.38 as defined at r/sub QQ/ approximately 0.2 fermi are determined from a good fit of the cc and bb spectra. The fit is in serious disagreement with the widely accepted MIT parameters. As an important test of their model, the authors calculate the rich spectrum of QQ glue states. In Upsilon particle spectroscopy they predict a narrow QQglue state with exotic quantum numbers J/sup PC/=1/sup -+/ below the BB threshold. Its experimental confirmation would be the first direct evidence for colored glue in the hadron spectrum. (3 refs).

  13. Light hadrons in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A version of the bag model with broken chiral symmetry is proposed. A satisfactory description of the experimental data on light hadrons including the pion is obtained. The estimate of the pion-nucleon σ term is given in the framework of this model. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated. The centre-of-mass motion problem in bag models is discussed

  14. Radiative decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A new model of radiative π-meson decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model is proposed. The quark-π-meson interaction has the form of a pseudoscalar coupling and is located on the bag surface. The vector meson decay width depends on the quark masses, the π-meson decay constant, the radius of the bag, and the free parameter Z 2 , which specifies the disappearance of the bag during the decay. The obtained results for the omega- and p-decay widths are in satisfactory agreement with the experiment

  15. Non-topological soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs

  16. Deformed baryons: constituent quark model vs. bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Y.; Nogami, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Recently Bhaduri et al. developed a nonrelativistic constituent quark model for deformed baryons. In that model the quarks move in a deformable mean field, and the deformation parameters are determined by minimizing the quark energy subject to the constraint of volume conservation. This constraint is an ad hoc assumption. It is shown that, starting with a bag model, a model similar to that of Bhaduri et al. can be constructed. The deformation parameters are determined by the pressure balance on the bag surface. There is, however, a distinct difference between the two models with respect to the state dependence of the ''volume''. Implications of this difference are discussed

  17. Vector meson decays in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Jennings, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Vector meson decays are examined in a model where a confined quark and antiquark annihilate, producing a pair of elementary pseudoscalar mesons. Two versions of the pseudoscalar meson-quark interaction are employed, one where the coupling is restricted to the bag surface and one where it extends throughout the bag volume. Energy conservation is ensured in the model through insertion of exponential factors containing the bag energy at each interaction vertex. To guarantee momentum conservation, a wave-packet description is utilized in which the decay widths are normalized by a factor involving the overlap of the initial bag state with the confined qanti q state of zero momentum. With either interaction, the model yields a value for the p-width that exceeds the empirical width by a factor two. For the Ksup(*) and PHI mesons, the computed widths depend strongly on the interaction employed. Implications of these results for chiral bag models are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Behaviour of hadron matter within the bag model: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberson, G.; Savatier, F.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum theory of the vibrating bag developed in I, it is worked out the partition function of a gas of hadronic bags. This is done within the small deformation, Van der Waals approximation. The outcome is in full agreement with a previous, less elaborate model of deconfinement phase transition

  19. Chiral bag model with constituent quarks: topological and nontopological decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, I.Yu.; Sveshnikov, K.A.; Fedorov, S.M.; Khalili, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The three-phase modification of the hybrid chiral bag containing along with asymptotic freedom and hadronization phases and also intermediate phase of the constituent quarks is considered. The self-consistent solutions of the equations of the model in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case are determined with an account of the fermion vacuum polarization effects. The bag renormalized complete energy is studied as a function of the parameters characterizing the bag geometry and its topological (baryon) charge. It is shown that for nonzero topological charge there exists the whole series of configurations representing the local minima of the bag complete energy and containing all three phases, whereas the bag energy minimum in the nontopological case corresponds to zero dimensions of the area corresponding to asymptotic freedom phase [ru

  20. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Wirzba, A.

    1987-05-01

    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  1. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy

  2. Connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, M.; Bertrand, P.; Feix, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    The connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models is still under consideration with numerical experiments. For long wavelength, slightly non linear excitations and initial preparations such as the usual adiabatic invariant Pn -3 is space independent, the hydrodynamic model is equivalent to the water bag, and for long wavelengths a nice agreement is found with the full numerical solution of the Vlasov equation. For other initial conditions when the water bag cannot be defined, the hydrodynamic approach does not represent the correct behaviour. (author)

  3. Hydrodynamical model based on a bag-like Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Lam, C.S.; Wang, K.H.

    1976-06-01

    Equations of motion of hydrodynamical model are derived from a bag-like Lagrangian by using the technique of information theory. Comments on the break-up of the system and on the properties of decay products are included

  4. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.J.; Maslow, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)

  5. Comment on bag models with spontaneously broken color symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A recently suggested field-theoretic bag model, where gluons are confined via a Higgs mechanism, is discussed. It is found that the proposed model creates gluon boundary conditions that break global SU/sub c/(3) invariance. A modified scheme that removes this anomaly is suggested. However, some severe generic problems remain. Examples are the lack of a suppression mechanism for states with open color and the large surface energy of the bag states

  6. Potential bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Tomio, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, relativistic confining potential models, endowed with bag constants associated to volume energy terms, are investigated. In contrast to the usual bag model, these potential bags are distinguished by having smeared bag surfaces. Based on the dynamical assumptions underlying the fuzzy bag model, these bag constants are derived from the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. Explicit expressions for the single-quark energies and for the nucleon bag constant are obtained by means of an improved analytical version of the saddle-point variational method for the Dirac equation with confining power-law potentials of the scalar plus vector (S + V) or pure scalar (S) type

  7. Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Tmurbagan; Liu Guangzhou; Zhu Mingfeng

    2009-01-01

    The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(ρ) decreases with baryon density ρ; this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever; which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii. (authors)

  8. Improved bag models of P-wave baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Wong Chunwa

    1988-01-01

    Problems in two previous bag-model calculations of P-wave baryon states are pointed out. The two-body matrix elements used in one of these models, the Myhrer-Wroldsen bag model, have now been revised and corrected by Myhrer, Umino and Wroldsen. We use their corrected matrix elements to construct simple bag models in which baryon masses are stabilized against collapse by using a finite pion size. We find that baryon masses in both ground and excited states can be fitted with the same model parameters. Models with small-bag baryons of the type proposed by Brown and Rho are then obtained. Typical bag radii are 0.5 fm for N, 0.6 fm for Δ and 0.7 fm for P-wave nonstrange baryons. In these models, the mixing angles are still unsatisfactory, while inadequacy in the treatment of center-of-mass motion found in an earlier paper persists. These results are briefly discussed. especially in connection with skyrmion models. (orig.)

  9. Maximum Mass of Hybrid Stars in the Quark Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdyan, G. B.; Vartanyan, Yu. L.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of model parameters in the equation of state for quark matter on the magnitude of the maximum mass of hybrid stars is examined. Quark matter is described in terms of the extended MIT bag model including corrections for one-gluon exchange. For nucleon matter in the range of densities corresponding to the phase transition, a relativistic equation of state is used that is calculated with two-particle correlations taken into account based on using the Bonn meson-exchange potential. The Maxwell construction is used to calculate the characteristics of the first order phase transition and it is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the baryon concentrations of the coexisting phases grow monotonically as the bag constant B increases. It is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the maximum mass of a hybrid star increases as the bag constant B decreases. For a given value of the bag parameter B, the maximum mass rises as the strong interaction constant αs increases. It is shown that the configurations of hybrid stars with maximum masses equal to or exceeding the mass of the currently known most massive pulsar are possible for values of the strong interaction constant αs > 0.6 and sufficiently low values of the bag constant.

  10. Pion-nucleon scattering in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Pion-nucleon scattering in the (3.3) resonance region in the framework of chiral bag model(CBM) is considered. The effective Hamiltonian of πNΔ-system in the framework of the CBM contains πNN, πNΔ, πΔΔ interaction terms with the formfactor which is essentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The iteration of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3.3) and (3.1) scattering where the values of the parameters agree with CBM [ru

  11. Pion-nucleon scattering in the Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effective hamiltonian of the πNΔ-system in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model (CBM) contains πNN-, πNΔ-, πΔΔ-interaction terms with a form factor which is esstentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The interation of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3,3) and (3,1) phase shifts [in the (3,3) resonance region] where the values of the paramters agree with the CBM. (orig.)

  12. M1-transitions in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackman, R.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1977-03-01

    In the MIT bag model, the M1-transitions of low lying hadrons are investigated. The following calculations are performed: 32 hadron masses are recomputed with a choice of bag parameters designed to give the correct values for the proton magnetic moment, μ/sub p/, and several masses, M/sub rho/ M/sub ω/ M/sub Δ/ M/sub Ω/, and M/sub D/; (2) eta, eta', eta/sub c/ mixing is computed in an untrustworthy approximation; and the widths for 38 M1-transitions are computed

  13. The neutron electric dipole moment in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Miller, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM), using the cloudy bag model (CBM) shows that two CP-violating effects (a quark mass term and a pion-quark interaction) have contributions that are about equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign. This cancellation allows the upper limit on the θ parameter to increase by about an order of magnitude. (orig.)

  14. Exclusive semileptonic B decays in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Oe.

    1989-09-01

    Using a recoil corrected version of the MIT bag model, the author has computed the relevant form factors and decay rates for the exclusive semileptonic decays B→De anti ν e and B→D*e anti ν e. The results are similar to other quark model calculations, but it is shown that the D* mode is suppressed due to the influence of the spectator quark. The D*'s produced are almost unpolarized in this model

  15. A multi water bag model of drift kinetic electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, P.; Dreydemy Ghiro, F.; Berionni, V.; Gurcan, O.D.; Coulette, D.; Besse, N.

    2014-01-01

    A Multi Water Bag model is proposed for describing drift kinetic plasmas in a magnetized cylindrical geometry, relevant for various experimental devices, solar wind modeling... The Multi Water Bag (MWB) model is adapted to the description of a plasma with kinetic electrons as well as an arbitrary number of kinetic ions. This allows to describe the kinetic dynamics of the electrons, making possible the study of electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, in addition to the effects of non adiabatic electrons on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, that are of prime importance in the magnetized plasmas micro-turbulence [X. Garbet, Y. Idomura, L. Villard, T.H. Watanabe, Nucl. Fusion 50, 043002 (2010); J.A. Krommes, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 44, 175 (2012)]. The MWB model is shown to link kinetic and fluid descriptions, depending on the number of bags considered. Linear stability of the ETG modes is presented and compared to the existing results regarding cylindrical ITG modes [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse, R. Klein, A. Ghizzo, P. Bertrand, W. Garbet, Ph. Ghendrih, V. Grandgirard, Y. Sarazin, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. (authors)

  16. Quark matter revisited with non-extensive MIT bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Pedro H.G.; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Menezes, Debora P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed. (orig.)

  17. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  18. Qanti-QG hermaphrodite mesons in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Close, F.E.; Viron, F. de

    1982-10-01

    It is suggested that hermaphrodite (qanti-qg) mesons could exist with rather light masses. The spectrum of the ground state nonets, Jsup(PC) = (0, 1, 2) -+ ; 1 -- is calculated in the MIT bag model including 0(αsub(s)) energy shifts. Hadronic transitions among these states are discussed, considering their possible production at LEAR and SPEAR and indicating some interesting decay signatures. (author)

  19. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  20. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  1. Nonlinear cloudy bag model in the meson mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the cloudy bag model for the nucleon, including the essentially nonlinear interaction of the quarks with the meson field. From the boundary conditions, which guarantee the stability of the bag, we obtain equations for the size R of the bag, for the momentum p of the quarks, and for the mean pion field var-phi. We obtain an expression for the total energy E of the bag nucleon. By taking the appropriate averages of all the relations the calculations reduce to the case of a spherically symmetric bag. We show that in the general nonlinear cloudy bag model in question the equations for R, p, and var-phi have a simultaneous solution which corresponds to the absolute minimum of the bag energy E and, consequently, that there exists a stable equilibrium state of the bag nucleon

  2. The bag model and the Nambu-Goldstone pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.C.; Ho-Kim, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The MIT bag model for the pion is improved and extended in such a way that the pion does not have spurious center-of-mass motions; perturbative gluon contributions to the pion mass msub(π) and decay constant fsub(π) are both calculated to lowest order in αsub(s). The pion is a Nambu-Goldstone boson in the sense that the vacuum in the bag refers to massive constituent quarks, but not so massless current quarks. The transformation of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio between massive and massless quarks is utilized in the computation of fsub(π), the result of which strongly suggests that quarks in the pion are correlated, characterized by a correlation momentum which is proportional 300 MeV/c. The vacuum expectation value for the massless quark condensate is calculated to be proportional0.04 GeV 3 , corresponding to a current quark mass of proportional4 MeV. The requirement that msub(π) approaches zero in a manner consistent with PCAC constrains the bag energy to be msub(π)/4. (orig.)

  3. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.)

  4. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  5. P-matrix in the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.; Veselov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Meaning of the P-matrix analysis is discussed within the quark compound bag (QCB) model. The most general version of this model is considered including the arbitrary coupling between quark and hadronic channels and the arbitrary smearipg of the surface interection region. The behaviour of P-matrix poles as functions of matching radius r,L0 is discussed for r 0 > + . In conclusion are presented the parameters of an illustrative set of NN potentials that has been obtained from the P-matrix fit to experimental data

  6. Pionic corrections to the MIT bag model: The (3,3) resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theberge, S.; Thomas, A.W.; Miller, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    By incorporating chiral invariance in the MIT bag model, we are led to a theory in which the pion field is coupled to the confined quarks only at the bag surface. An equivalent quantized theory of nucleons and Δ's interacting with pions is then obtained. The pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in this model is found to give a good fit to experimental data on the (3,3) resonance, with a bag radius of about 0.72 fm

  7. K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion

  8. K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B. K.

    1986-10-01

    The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion.

  9. Nucleon-nucleon interaction in the soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the framework of the Soliton Bag Model introduced by Friedberg and Lee we treat S-wave nucleon-nucleon scattering. Our system consists of six quarks and the nontopological soliton field which represents an average colorfree interaction between the quarks and yields their (relative) confinement. The dynamical problem is treated by means of the Generator coordinate Method (GCM) where the total wave function is the weighted sum over static configurations of prescribed bag deformation. The static configurations needed for the GCM ansatz are generated starting from a potential well of prescribed deformation wherein we solve the Dirac equation for the quarks. The single particle quark orbitals are properly coupled with respect to orbital, color, spin, and isospin quantum numbers to form a totally antisymmetric 6-quark state. A mean field solution for the soliton field is then calculated and turned into a quantum mechanical state by a coherent state approximation. Since these static configurations are only to be seen as wave function generators for the GCM no selfconsistency between quark and soliton solution is enforced. With these configurations we then evaluate the norm and Hamiltonian kernels appearing in the GCM treatment. The Hill-Wheeler integral equation for the weight functions is transformed into a Schroedinger-type differential equation by an expansion into symmetric moments of up to second order. This equation is brought into a form where we can identify the interaction potential unambiguously. We find an intermediate range attraction of about 120 MeV and no attraction in the vicinity of the spherically symmetric shape of the system, in contradiction to the naive adiabatic potentials widely used in quark models for the nucleon-nucleon interaction up to now. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Extensions and applications of the Cloudy Bag Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Three separate calculations involving the Cloudy Bag Model (CBM) of physical baryons are presented. First, two methods are used to investigate higher order corrections to the self-energy of the nucleon. Both methods are found to yield self-energies which are less negative than the standard second order perturbation theory. The second calculation is a correction to the predictions for baryon magnetic moments in the volume coupling version of the CBM. The correction is due to an extra term in the electromagnetic current and is found to be not larger than other theoretical uncertainties such as those due to the motion of the center of mass. The last calculation is an estimate of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. A parity and time violating quark-pion interaction motivated by QCD is added to the CBM lagrangian. The CBM is a natural model to use in this calculation since it includes the effects of both quarks and pions which have been, until now, employed separately in QCD motivated calculations of the neutron EDM

  11. P11 πN scattering in a potential model and in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss P 11 πN scattering in a model where the π is coupled to quark bags for baryons N, R, Δ. From the underlying qqπ couplings we derive B'Bπ vertices which are used in a solution of a πN, πΔ two-channel scattering problem. Using one bag radius from a fit to P 33 πN data, we are unable to reproduce delta 11 . A fit requires a Roper radius Rsub(R) > Rsub(N). We discuss the sensitivity of the fit to small variations in other bag parameters. The theory is compared with a simple potential model and with field theories employing baryons instead of quark fields. (orig.)

  12. Zebrafish models of BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy suggest a toxic gain of function leading to BAG3 insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Oorschot, Viola; Vaz, Raquel; Ramm, Georg; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in the co-chaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) can cause myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), a childhood-onset progressive muscle disease, characterized by the formation of protein aggregates and myofibrillar disintegration. In contrast to other MFM-causing proteins, BAG3 has no direct structural role, but regulates autophagy and the degradation of misfolded proteins. To investigate the mechanism of disease in BAG3-related MFM, we expressed wild-type BAG3 or the dominant MFM-causing BAG3 (BAG3(P209L)) in zebrafish. Expression of the mutant protein results in the formation of aggregates that contain wild-type BAG3. Through the stimulation and inhibition of autophagy, we tested the prevailing hypothesis that impaired autophagic function is responsible for the formation of protein aggregates. Contrary to the existing theory, our studies reveal that inhibition of autophagy is not sufficient to induce protein aggregation. Expression of the mutant protein, however, did not induce myofibrillar disintegration and we therefore examined the effect of knocking down Bag3 function. Loss of Bag3 resulted in myofibrillar disintegration, but not in the formation of protein aggregates. Remarkably, BAG3(P209L) is able to rescue the myofibrillar disintegration phenotype, further demonstrating that its function is not impaired. Together, our knockdown and overexpression experiments identify a mechanism whereby BAG3(P209L) aggregates form, gradually reducing the pool of available BAG3, which eventually results in BAG3 insufficiency and myofibrillar disintegration. This mechanism is consistent with the childhood onset and progressive nature of MFM and suggests that reducing aggregation through enhanced degradation or inhibition of nucleation would be an effective therapy for this disease.

  13. The center-of-mass bag model and the Lorentz-boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.M.

    1984-01-01

    A center-of-mass (CM) bag model and its cavity approximation are suggested by introducing a phenomenological four-potential of confinement and the CM four-vector. This model, equivalent to the MIT version on the rest CM-frame, seems to provide a field-theory interpretation of our previous assumptions about the collective motion of bagged quarks and can be readily quantized. (orig.)

  14. Quark compound Bag model for NN scattering up to 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, C.; Lee, T.S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A Quark Compound Bag model has been constructed to describe NN s-wave scattering up to 1 GeV. The model contains a vertex interaction H/sub D/leftrightarrow/NN/ for describing the excitation of a confined six-quark Bag state, and a meson-exchange interaction obtained from modifying the phenomenological core of the Paris potential. Explicit formalisms and numerical results are presented to reveal the role of the Bag excitation mechanism in determining the relative wave function, P- and S-matrix of NN scattering. We explore the merit as well as the shortcoming of the Quark Compound Bag model developed by the ITEP group. It is shown that the parameters of the vertex interaction H/sub D/leftrightarrow/NN/ can be more rigorously determined from the data if the notation of the Chiral/Cloudy Bag model is used to allow the presence of the background meson-exchange interaction inside Bag excitation region. The application of the model in the study of quark degrees of freedom in nuclei is discussed. 41 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Topological and nontopological solutions for the chiral bag model with constituent quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveshnikov, K.; Malakhov, I.; Khalili, M.; Fedorov, S.

    2002-01-01

    The three-phase version of the hybrid chiral bag model, containing the phase of asymptotic freedom, the hadronization phase as well as the intermediate phase of constituent quarks is proposed. For this model the self-consistent solutions of different topology are found in (1 + 1)D with due regard for fermion vacuum polarization effects. The renormalized total energy of the bag is studied as a function of its geometry and topological charge. It is shown that in the case of nonzero topological charge there exists a set of configurations being the local minima of the total energy of the bag and containing all the three phases, while in the nontopological case the minimum of the total energy of the bag corresponds to vanishing size of the phase of asymptotic freedom

  16. Modified bag models for the quark–gluon plasma equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begun, V.V.; Gorenstein, M.I.; Mogilevsky, O.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modified versions of the bag model equation of state (EoS) are considered. They are constructed to satisfy the main qualitative features observed for the quark–gluon plasma EoS in the lattice QCD calculations. A quantitative comparison with the lattice results at high temperatures T are done in the SU(3) gluodynamics and in the full QCD with dynamical quarks. Our analysis advocates a negative value of the bag constant B. (author)

  17. Cloudy bag model calculation of P11 πN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1981-05-01

    πN, πΔ scattering in the cloudy bag model (CBM) is considered using an elementary π field and bare bag states for N, Δ, Nsup(*)(1470). The resulting 2-channel problem is solved neglecting intermediate states with anti-baryons and states with more than a single pion. It is shown that delta 11 may be reproduced for parameters close to their theoretical values. The fit thus provides a test for the CBM. (author)

  18. Bag-model analyses of proton-antiproton scattering and atomic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberg, M.A.; Freedman, R.A.; Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.P.; Seckel, D.; Wilets, L.

    1983-01-01

    We study proton-antiproton (pp-bar ) scattering using the static real potential of Bryan and Phillips outside a cutoff radius rsub0 and two different shapes for the imaginary potential inside a radius R*. These forms, motivated by bag models, are a one-gluon-annihilation potential and a simple geometric-overlap form. In both cases there are three adjustable parameters: the effective bag radius R*, the effective strong coupling constant αsubssup*, and rsub0. There is also a choice for the form of the real potential inside the cutoff radius rsub0. Analysis of the pp-bar scattering data in the laboratory-momentum region 0.4--0.7 GeV/c yields an effective nucleon bag radius R* in the range 0.6--1.1 fm, with the best fit obtained for R* = 0.86 fm. Arguments are presented that the deduced value of R* is likely to be an upper bound on the isolated nucleon bag radius. The present results are consistent with the range of bag radii in current bag models. We have also used the resultant optical potential to calculate the shifts and widths of the sup3Ssub1 and sup1Ssub0 atomic bound states of the pp-bar system. For both states we find upward (repulsive) shifts and widths of about 1 keV. We find no evidence for narrow, strongly bound pp-bar states in our potential model

  19. Nucleon-delta mass difference in the chiral bag plus skyrmion hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, K.; Toki, H.

    1988-01-01

    We study the nucleon-delta isobar mass difference in the chiral bag plus skyrmion hybrid model (CSH). While in the Skyrme model the collective rotation solely provides the mass difference, in the CSH model the one-gluon exchange process also contributes in addition to the collective rotation due to the broken symmetry restoration. We study the one-gluon exchange contribution using the collective coordinate projection method. We find that the one-gluon exchange energy tends to compensate for the decreasing tendency of the rotational energy in the large bag region. (orig.)

  20. The modified version of the centre-of-mass correction to the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelski, J.; Tatur, S.

    1986-01-01

    We propose the improvement of the recently considered version of the centre-of-mass correction to the bag model. We identify a nucleon bag with physical nucleon confined in an external fictitious spherical well potential with an additional external fictitious pressure characterized by the parameter b. The introduction of such a pressure restores the conservation of the canonical energy-momentum tensor, which was lost in the former model. We propose several methods to determine the numerical value of b. We calculate the Roper resonance mass as well as static electroweak parameters of a nucleon with centre-of-mass corrections taken into account. 7 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  1. Parity violating NN forcES in the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    Parity violation (PV) in the interaction is considered as due to the Weinberg-Salam quark-quark interaction inside the six-quark bag. The initial and final strong interaction is described within the same quark compound bag (QCB) model, where the NN coupling to the six quark QCB is defined from the NN experimental data. The resulting PV amplitude contains no free parameters and allows therefore an unambiguous test of the QCB model. An estimate of the 1 S 0 → 3 P 0 contribution to the proton-proton asymmetry is in a rough agreement with experimental data [ru

  2. Pionic and radiative decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, M.; Osaka Univ.; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria; Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park. School of Physical Sciences)

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that a mechanism, within the framework of the cloudy bag model, analogous to that for e + e - ->2γ in QED accounts qualitatively for the decays p->2π, ω->πγ and p->πγ with a bag radii 0.8-1.0 fm, and averaged momenta for decay particles. For the radiative decays, the process identical to that in the vector-dominance model gives about 60% of the total calculated width. It also explains small decay widths previously calculated, using the single quark transition process. (orig.)

  3. Color interaction of quarks and magnetic moments of baryons in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to saccount for the quark interaction in the bag model by calculating corrections to the baryon magnetic moments related to the colour interaction of quarks. The quark-in-bag wave function to that holds the confinement linear boundary condition has been found in the first order for the external magnetic field. Corrections to the baryon magnetic moments are calculated. They are related to energy variations of colour electric and colour magnetic fields. Numerical data are presented and the structure of corrections in the SU-3 group approximation is discussed. The results are compared with the potential model and the experiment

  4. Range bagging: a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, John M

    2015-06-06

    The ecological niche is the set of environments in which a population of a species can persist without introduction of individuals from other locations. A good mathematical or computational representation of the niche is a prerequisite to addressing many questions in ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology and conservation. A particularly challenging question for ecological niche modelling is the problem of presence-only modelling. That is, can an ecological niche be identified from records drawn only from the set of niche environments without records from non-niche environments for comparison? Here, I introduce a new method for ecological niche modelling from presence-only data called range bagging. Range bagging draws on the concept of a species' environmental range, but was inspired by the empirical performance of ensemble learning algorithms in other areas of ecological research. This paper extends the concept of environmental range to multiple dimensions and shows that range bagging is computationally feasible even when the number of environmental dimensions is large. The target of the range bagging base learner is an environmental tolerance of the species in a projection of its niche and is therefore an ecologically interpretable property of a species' biological requirements. The computational complexity of range bagging is linear in the number of examples, which compares favourably with the main alternative, Qhull. In conclusion, range bagging appears to be a reasonable choice for niche modelling in applications in which a presence-only method is desired and may provide a solution to problems in other disciplines where one-class classification is required, such as outlier detection and concept learning.

  5. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.

  6. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Almasri, Islam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.

  7. Equation of state for neutron matter in the Quark Compound Bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The equation of state for neutron matter is derived in the framework of the Quark Compound Bag model, in which the nucleon-nucleon interaction is generated by the s-channel exchange of six-quark Jaffe-Low primitives.

  8. Bag-model motivated NN potentials and the three-nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Few examples are presented of the short-range energy-dependent NN potentials derived in the quark compound bag model which satisfy the classical causality condition and show that for the radii of the NN interactions b=1.35-1.40 fm these potentials reproduce the trinucleon binding energy

  9. Bag-model matrix elements of the parity-violating weak hamiltonian for charmed baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Kallies, W.

    1983-01-01

    Baryon matrix elements of the parity-violating part of the charmchanging weak Hamiltonian might be significant and comparable with those of the parity-conserving one due to large symmetry breaking. Expression for these new matrix elements by using the MIT-bag model are derived and their implications on earlier calculations of nonleptonic charmed-baryon decays are estimated

  10. The Nonlinear Effects of Pion-Quark Coupling in the Cloudy Bag Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiko, FUTAMI; Satoru, AKIYAMA; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology Science University of Tokyo; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology Science University of Tokyo

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear pion-quark interaction in the Cloudy Bag Model is investigated. The Hamiltonian is normal-ordered. The vacuum expectation value of pion field squared is evaluated by introducting some cutoff momentum for the virtual pions.We then calculate g_A, including other corrections.

  11. The nonlinear effects of pion-quark coupling in the Cloudy Bag Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Yasuhiko; Akiyama, Satoru

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear pion-quark interaction in the Cloudy Bag Model is investigated. The Hamiltonian is normal-ordered. The vacuum expectation value of pion field squared is evaluated by introducing some cutoff momentum for the virtual pions. We then calculate g A , including other corrections. (author)

  12. Polarized quark distributions in bound nucleon and polarized EMC effect in Thermodynamical Bag Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesamurthy, Kuppusamy, E-mail: udckgm@sify.co [Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy 620019 (India); Sambasivam, Raghavan, E-mail: udcsam@sify.co [Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy 620019 (India)

    2011-04-15

    The polarized parton distribution functions (PDFs) and nuclear structure functions are evaluated by the phenomenological Thermodynamical Bag Model for nuclear media {sup 7}Li and {sup 27}Al. The Fermi statistical distribution function which includes the spin degree of freedom is used in this statistical model. We predict a sizeable polarized EMC effect. The results of quark spin sum and axial coupling constant of bound nucleons are compared with theoretical predictions of modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by Bentz et al.

  13. Description of a nucleon in nuclear matter using the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The chiral bag (cloudy bag) model, which contains an essentially nonlinear interaction of quarks with both the classical and quantum pion field, is extended for description of a nucleon in nuclear matter. The dependence on the density and temperature of the medium is studied. The pion field in nuclear matter differs considerably from the free field, and this leads to a modification of the nucleon bag. Increase of the density ρ and temperature T causes strengthening of the pion field and growth of its thermodynamic fluctuations. At sufficiently high densities ρ approx-gt ρ CB and temperatures T≥T cr this leads to instability of the three-quark nucleon bag. Under such conditions nuclear matter cannot be composed only of nucleons, and one should expect the appearance of a different, non-nucleon, phase. Estimates of the critical density and temperature are obtained: ρ CB ∼ (1.5-2)ρ 0 and T cr ∼ 200 MeV (where ρ 0 is the conventional nuclear density)

  14. Gyrokinetic-water-bag modeling of low-frequency instabilities in a laboratory magnetized plasma column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravier, E.; Klein, R.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2008-12-01

    A new model is presented, named collisional-gyro-water-bag (CGWB), which describes the collisional drift waves and ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instabilities in a plasma column. This model is based on the kinetic gyro-water-bag approach recently developed [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)] to investigate ion-temperature-gradient modes. In CGWB electron-neutral collisions have been introduced and are now taken into account. The model has been validated by comparing CGWB linear analysis with other models previously proposed and experimental results as well. Kinetic effects on collisional drift waves are investigated, resulting in a less effective growth rate, and the transition from collisional drift waves to ITG instability depending on the ion temperature gradient is studied.

  15. Self-consistent one-gluon exchange in soliton bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.R.; Adelaide Univ.; Williams, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of soliton bag models as two-point boundary value problems is extended to include self-consistent one-gluon exchange interactions. The colour-magnetic contribution to the nucleon-delta mass splitting is calculated self-consistently in the mean-field, one-gluon-exchange approximation for the Friedberg-Lee and Nielsen-Patkos models. Small glueball mass parameters (m GB ∝ 500 MeV) are favoured. Comparisons with previous calculations are made. (orig.)

  16. Masses of the light hadrons in the chiral and cloudy bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Koichi.

    1983-10-01

    The masses of the light hadrons except for the pion are calculated in the stable chiral and cloudy bag models with the massless or massive u, d quark and pion. Two difficulties in these models, i.e. the lack of stability and the divergence of the quark self-energy, are removed by taking account of a simple non-local quark-pion interaction. The effects of the finite size of the qq-bar pion and the behavior of the quark self-energy are discussed in detail. In our calculation the bag self-energy due to the pion has an important role in the origin of the N-Δ and the Σ-Λ mass differences. The baryon octet and decuplet masses are well reproduced by the present model. (author)

  17. Quark compound bag (QCB) model and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1983-01-01

    Quark degrees of freedom are treated in the NN system in the framework of the QCB model. The resulting QCB potential is in agreement with experimental data. P-matrix analysis inherent to the QCB model is discussed in detail. Applications of the QCB model are given including the weak NN interaction

  18. Calculations of higher twist distribution functions in the MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate all twist-2, -3 and -4 parton distribution functions involving two quark correlations using the wave function of the MIT bag model. The distributions are evolved up to experimental scales and combined to give the various nucleon structure functions. Comparisons with recent experimental data on higher twist structure functions at moderate values of Q 2 give good agreement with the calculated structure functions. (orig.)

  19. Divergence of the quark self-energy in the second quantized chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.

    1983-01-01

    When summing over the intermediate quark states of a spherical cavity, the quark self-energy of the chiral bag model, in lowest order of the pion coupling, is shown to generate a series of terms, each one growing linearly with the angular variable kappa. However, there is a cancellation between terms for different kappa, which finally leads to an overall linearly divergent series. (orig.)

  20. Nucleon-nucleon forces in the quark compound bag model and few-nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Role of quark-gluon degrees of freedom is discussed in nucleon-nucleon scattering at low and intermediate energies. It is shown that the existence of six-quark hags fixes the form of NN potential at small distances, which leads to the P-matrix satisfying the criterion of Jaffe and Low. The dynamical model of three-nucleon system is discussed taking into accoint the contribution of six-quark bags

  1. Effects of quark structure on NN scattering: relevance to current data and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomon, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of the R-matrix method to the transition from asymptotic freedom to confinement depends on the overlap of the regions in which asymptotic freedom is a good approximation and the region well described by hadronic field theory. This enables a quantitative description of hadron-hadron interactions at low and intermediate energies. ''Compound'' and ''Cloudy'' bag models and the P-matrix method are shown to be special or approximate versions of the R-matrix method in its f-matrix form. The f-matrix condition is applied to S-state nucleon-nucleon scattering where it (i) overcomes the deficiencies of the P-matrix applications, (ii) shows that some of the bag models which have had some success in describing mesons and baryons are inconsistent when applied to nucleon-nucleon scattering, and (iii) that the bag models which are consistent with that data predict inelastic resonant structures of 50-100 MeV width at barycentric energies between 2.3 GeV and 3.5 GeV

  2. Suction forces generated by passive bile bag drainage on a model of post-subdural hematoma evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenny, Steven O; Thorell, William E

    2018-05-05

    Passive drainage systems are commonly used after subdural hematoma evacuation but there is a dearth of published data regarding the suction forces created. We set out to quantify the suction forces generated by a passive drainage system. We created a model of passive drainage after subdural hematoma evacuation. We measured the maximum suction force generated with a bile bag drain for both empty drain tubing and fluid-filled drain tube causing a siphoning effect. We took measurements at varying heights of the bile bag to analyze if bile bag height changed suction forces generated. An empty bile bag with no fluid in the drainage tube connected to a rigid, fluid-filled model creates minimal suction force of 0.9 mmHg (95% CI 0.64-1.16 mmHg). When fluid fills the drain tubing, a siphoning effect is created and can generate suction forces ranging from 18.7 to 30.6 mmHg depending on the relative position of the bile bag and filled amount of the bile bag. The suction forces generated are statistically different if the bile bag is 50 cm below, level with or 50 cm above the experimental model. Passive bile bag drainage does not generate significant suction on a fluid-filled rigid model if the drain tubing is empty. If fluid fills the drain tubing then siphoning occurs and can increase the suction force of a passive bile bag drainage system to levels comparable to partially filled Jackson-Pratt bulb drainage.

  3. Building the nucleus from quarks: The cloudy bag model and the quark description of the nucleon-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties

  4. Soliton bag model of the nucleon and delta dressed by a quark-antiquark pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethier, J.L.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton bag model is used to describe the nucleon, delta and pion. The author builds upon the mean-field solutions to the model taking into account the one-gluon-exchange interaction by the use of a free gluon propagator in the Coulomb gauge and allowing the nucleon or delta to consist of a bare three quark bag and a three quark bag dressed by one quark-antiquark pion. This way of treating the pion cloud differs from most other works on the subject by the fact that he takes the quark substructure of the pion into account. The generator coordinate method enables him to find an approximate solution to the ground state of the nucleon and the delta from which static physical properties can be calculated. The soliton field part of the ground state is treated in a coherent state approximation (similar to the mean-field approximation, but remaining a true quantum state). The generator coordinate or Hill-Wheeler integral equations are solved numerically with the help of the Tikhonov regularization. Detailed numerical results are given for different sets of parameters. The agreement with experiment is as good as in the mean-field approximation but new quantities are now accessible to computation (e.g., the neutron charge radius and the NN[ and NΔπ coupling constants

  5. Recoil corrected bag model calculations for semileptonic weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Oe.; Hoegaasen, H.

    1987-02-01

    Recoil corrections to various model results for strangeness changing weak decay amplitudes have been developed. It is shown that the spurious reference frame dependence of earlier calculations is reduced. The second class currents are generally less important than obtained by calculations in the static approximation. Theoretical results are compared to observations. The agreement is quite good, although the values for the Cabibbo angle obtained by fits to the decay rates are somewhat to large

  6. Photoproduction of pions on nuclear in chiral bag model with account of motion effects of recoil nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kanokov, Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.; Rakhimov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Pion production on a nucleon is studied in the chiral bag model (CBM). A CBM version is investigated in which the pions get into the bag and interact with quarks in a pseudovector way in the entire volume. Charged pion photoproduction amplitudes are found taking into account the recoil nucleon motion effects. Angular and energy distributions of charged pions, polarization of the recoil nucleon, multipoles are calculated. The recoil effects are shon to give an additional contribution to the static approximation of order of 10-20%. At bag radius value R=1 in the calculations are consistent with the experimental data

  7. Hamiltonian fluid closures of the Vlasov-Ampère equations: From water-bags to N moment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, M.; Chandre, C.; Tassi, E. [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Morrison, P. J. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Moment closures of the Vlasov-Ampère system, whereby higher moments are represented as functions of lower moments with the constraint that the resulting fluid system remains Hamiltonian, are investigated by using water-bag theory. The link between the water-bag formalism and fluid models that involve density, fluid velocity, pressure and higher moments is established by introducing suitable thermodynamic variables. The cases of one, two, and three water-bags are treated and their Hamiltonian structures are provided. In each case, we give the associated fluid closures and we discuss their Casimir invariants. We show how the method can be extended to an arbitrary number of fields, i.e., an arbitrary number of water-bags and associated moments. The thermodynamic interpretation of the resulting models is discussed. Finally, a general procedure to derive Hamiltonian N-field fluid models is proposed.

  8. Raman scattering in cuprate superconductors : an analysis in the spin bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, S.N.; Gaitonde, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The spin bag model for the high temperature superconductivity (SC) in the cuprates is reformulated, so that the spin density wave (SDW) collective mode mediated pairing interaction between the doped charge carriers, has a formal similarity to the usual phonon mediated BCS mechanism. The collective modes of the spin bag superconductor are calculated and the spectral density function for the amplitude mode is plotted. The self energy and the spectral density function of an optic phonon are calculated in the spin bag superconducting state. The spectral density function does not couple to the SDW-amplitude mode. A low frequency is shown to harden while the high frequency (greater than the SC-gap) one softens; which are features in qualitative agreement with the behaviour seen in the Raman data. When the phonon frequency is larger than the SC-gap, its spectral function shows a low frequency weak peak, attributed to the SC-gap excitation which is not observed experimentally. (author). 21 refs., 3 figs

  9. Nucleon-nucleon interaction in the quark-compound-bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    The NN potential is investigated in the framework of the quark-compound-bag model. The cluster decomposition of the total six-quark wave function are obtained. The resulting potential is nonlocal and energy dependent with coefficients which can be derived both phenomenologically and theoretically. Stringent conditions exist for those coefficients. As an example the NN potentials for the 3 S 1 and 1 S 0 states are presented. The properties of the wave functions are studied both in the configurational and momentum space

  10. Soumen Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Soumen Bag. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 133-168. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari scripts · Soumen Bag Gaurav Harit · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The past few decades have witnessed an intensive research on ...

  11. Quark structure of nucleons: the third bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1983-01-01

    The soliton bag model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is discussed. Unlike the other bag models, it treats the confining bag as a fully dynamical object. A scalar soliton field is introduced to effect confinement. The combined quark-soliton system (plus gluons, Higgs fields, counter terms) is described by a Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The standard bag models do not have a complete Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The resulting bag can undergo oscillations, rotations and dynamical distortions

  12. Asymptotic behavior of the elastic form factor in two-dimensional scalar field theory of the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapchev, V.

    1976-01-01

    In the framework of the two-dimensional scalar quantum theory of the bag model of Chodos et al a definition of the physical field and a general scheme for constructing a physical state are given. Some of the difficulties associated with such an approach are exposed. Expressions for the physical current and the elastic form factor are given. The calculation of the latter is restricted at first to the approximation in which the mapping from a bag of changing shape to a fixed domain is realized only by a term which is a diagonal, bilinear function of the creation and annihilation operators. This is done for the case of a one-mode and an infinite-mode bag theory. By computing the form factor in an exact one-mode bag model it is shown that the logarithmic falloff of the asymptotic term is the same as the one in the approximation. On the basis of this a form for the asymptotic behavior of the form factor is suggested which may be correct for the general two-dimensional scalar bag theory

  13. Evaluation of the spectra of baryons containing two heavy quarks in a bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Daheng; Qian Ke; Ding Yibing; Li Xueqian; Shen Pengnian

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the mass spectra of baryons which consist of two heavy quarks and one light quark in the MIT bag model. The two heavy quarks constitute a heavy scalar or axial-vector diquark. Concretely, we calculate the spectra of vertical bar q(QQ ' )> 1/2 and vertical bar q(QQ ' )> 3/2 where Q and Q ' stand for b and/or c quarks. Especially, for vertical bar q(bc)> 1/2 there can be a mixing between vertical bar q(bc) 0 > 1/2 and vertical bar q(bc) 1 > 1/2 where the subscripts 0 and 1 refer to the spin state of the diquark (bc), the mixing is not calculable in the framework of quantum mechanics as the potential model is employed, but can be evaluated by the quantum field theory. Our numerical results indicate that the mixing is sizable

  14. A bag model calculation of the electroweak s → dγ loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.; Ruud, J.Aa.

    1990-10-01

    The CP-conservering electroweak transitions s → dγ have been considered. In order to include confinement effects below the charm scale, the loop calculations within the bag model were performed. According to the calculations, confinement effects are rather important and give amplitudes three orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from the free quark loop, which is ∼eG F m c 2 /M W 2 . Moreover, the amplitude is of the same order of magnitude as the perturbative two-loop amplitude ∼eG F α s ln(m c /μ). For the decay mode Ω - → γΞ - , a branching ratio 4.4 x 10 -5 was obtained. Other radiative decays of strange baryons are known to be dominated by pole diagrams. 14 refs., 1 fig

  15. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Goldflam, R.

    1983-09-01

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  16. Bag facaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Susanne; Sjøstedt, Lotte Ebsen

    Bag facaden er et task-baseret materiale der går bag om danskerne kulturelt og sprogligt. Det henvender sig til spor 3-learnere på de sidste trin, men kan i nogle klasser godt anvendes tidligere. Teksterne i bogen er autentiske dagbogsnotater skrevet af danskere i alle aldre. Den nærværende og...... eller hun er i sin sprogtilegnelse og i sit behov for viden om dansk kultur og samfund. Derudover forbereder det fint learneren til almenprøve 2 og DUF eksamen, både hvad angår indhold og arbejdsformer. I forløb hvor der stiles mod folkeskolens afgangseksamner er Bag facaden relevant som supplerende...

  17. Urine drainage bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leg bag ... the catheter from your bladder into the leg bag. Your leg bag will be attached to you all day. You ... freely with it. You can hide your leg bag under skirts, dresses, or pants. They come in ...

  18. Sourav Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Sourav Bag. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 128 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 339-347 Regular Articles. On the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene Oxide:Does the nature of nitrogen really control the activity towards oxygen ...

  19. The influence of injection volume and capsular bag contraction on the refractive power of polymer refilled lenses - a finite element modelling simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heiner; Guthoff, Rudolf; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Polymer injection into the capsular bag after phakoemulsification is an interesting and promising approach to lens surgery. Safe clinical application of this technique will require an appropriate estimate of the effect of implantation variables on the lens power. This article details the results of finite element investigations into the effects of the injected polymer volume and capsular bag contraction on the resultant lens power and accommodation amplitude. An axisymmetric finite element model was created from literature sources. Polymer injection and the capsular contraction were simulated, and their effect on the lens power was calculated. The simulations show that overfilling during polymer injection leads to a refractive power increase of the lens. Capsular bag contraction also results in a power increase. The calculated accommodative amplitude of the lens is minimally affected by capsular bag contraction but decreases significantly with increased capsular bag stiffness as a result of fibrosis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  20. The bag-of-frames approach: A not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Défréville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-11-01

    The "bag-of-frames" approach (BOF), which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes) since its introduction in an influential 2007 article. The present paper describes a concep-tual replication of this seminal article using several new soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. We show that the good accuracy originally re-ported with BOF likely result from a particularly thankful dataset with low within-class variability, and that for more realistic datasets, BOF in fact does not perform significantly better than a mere one-point av-erage of the signal's features. Soundscape modeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be. Progress, we ar-gue, could lie in reconsidering the problem of considering individual acoustical events within each soundscape.

  1. A food recognition system for diabetic patients based on an optimized bag-of-features model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthimopoulos, Marios M; Gianola, Lauro; Scarnato, Luca; Diem, Peter; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G

    2014-07-01

    Computer vision-based food recognition could be used to estimate a meal's carbohydrate content for diabetic patients. This study proposes a methodology for automatic food recognition, based on the bag-of-features (BoF) model. An extensive technical investigation was conducted for the identification and optimization of the best performing components involved in the BoF architecture, as well as the estimation of the corresponding parameters. For the design and evaluation of the prototype system, a visual dataset with nearly 5000 food images was created and organized into 11 classes. The optimized system computes dense local features, using the scale-invariant feature transform on the HSV color space, builds a visual dictionary of 10000 visual words by using the hierarchical k-means clustering and finally classifies the food images with a linear support vector machine classifier. The system achieved classification accuracy of the order of 78%, thus proving the feasibility of the proposed approach in a very challenging image dataset.

  2. Quark spin-flavor layered structure with condensed π/sup 0/ field in Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagaki, R.; Tatsumi, T.

    1984-01-01

    In order to understand predispositions of high density matter, a new phase possibly arising from the neutron matter under π/sup 0/ condensation is studied in chiral bag model, as a facet in which both quark and pion degrees of freedom are incorporated in a well-developed situation of π/sup 0/ condensation. The aspects of this phase are characterized by the periodic layered structure of the two-dimensional quark matter with a specific spin-flavor order the π/sup 0/ field existent as the Nambu-Goldstone mode between the adjacent layers. Such quark configuration is caused due to the pion-quark coupling at the layer (bag) surface which drastically lowers quark energy. Energy properties of the system are examined, and it is shown that the one-gluon-exchange contribution provides the repulsive effect to prevent the layered structure from collapsing. This model provides an example which can be solved nonperturbatively in the chiral bag model and suggests the possibility of an intermediate stage which may appear prior to the phase transition to uniform quark matter

  3. Gyrokinetic water-bag modeling of a plasma column: Magnetic moment distribution and finite Larmor radius effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Gravier, E.; Morel, P.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2009-08-01

    Describing turbulent transport in fusion plasmas is a major concern in magnetic confinement fusion. It is now widely known that kinetic and fluid descriptions can lead to significantly different properties. Although more accurate, the kinetic calculation of turbulent transport is much more demanding of computer resources than fluid simulations. An alternative approach is based on a water-bag representation of the distribution function that is not an approximation but rather a special class of initial conditions, allowing one to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamics equations while keeping its kinetic character [P. Morel, E. Gravier, N. Besse et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. In this paper, the water-bag concept is used in a gyrokinetic context to study finite Larmor radius effects with the possibility of using the full Larmor radius distribution instead of an averaged Larmor radius. The resulting model is used to study the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability.

  4. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  5. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  6. Pions and the chiral bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1982-01-01

    As an aid to discussing the structure of nucleons and nuclei conceptual framework, heuristic arguments are presented which indicate that a hadron can be considered as a bag consisting of two different phases. The chiral structure of the phase outside the bag is discussed in terms of effective field theories and it is shown to what extent experiments in nuclei can constrain the structure of such theories. Results thus obtained are then combined to set up a set of equations for the bag structure of u and d hadrons, incorporating asymptotic freedom in the phase inside of the bag confinement of quarks and gluons by boundary conditions and spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in the outside. This set of equations which represent a chirally invariant generalization of the M.I.T. bag model is then solved. (U.K.)

  7. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  8. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  9. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  10. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  11. Multiquark colour-hyperfine spectra in the bag model: a survey using the P-matrix formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerstaff, R.P.

    1982-12-01

    The masses of S-wave q 2 (anti q) 2 , q 4 (anti q) and q 6 multiquark states have been calculated in the M.I.T. bag model after taking proper account of flavour symmetry violations in the single-gluon-exchange magnetic contribution. Mixing induced by the flavour dependence of the colour-magnetic interaction strengths raises some degeneracies and inverts a few levels but does not otherwise greatly affect the masses. However, the mixing does in a few cases result in very substantial changes in the eigenfunctions. These effects are surveyed and the masses and dissociation couplings for the most important states are examined using the P-matrix formalism

  12. The renormalised π NN coupling constant and the P-wave phase shifts in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, B.C.; Afnan, I.R.

    1986-02-01

    Most applications of the cloudy bag model to π N scattering involve unitarising the bare diagrams arising from the Lagrangian by iterating in a Lippmann-Schwinger equation. However analyses of the renormalisation of the coupling constant proceed by iterating the Lagrangian to a given order in the bare coupling constant. These two different approaches means there is an inconsistency between the calculation of phase shifts and the calculation of renormalisation. A remedy to this problem is presented that has the added advantage of improving the fit to the phase shifts in the P 11 channel. This is achieved by using physical values of the coupling constant in the crossed diagram which reduces the repulsion rather than adds attraction. This approach can be justified by examining equations for the π π N system that incorporate three-body unitarity

  13. Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)

  14. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  15. Bosonization relations as bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Zahed, I.

    1984-10-01

    The more sophisticated bag models of hadrons become, the less precisely they seem to determine the bag radius. Idealizing this situation leads to the concept of exact bag models - ''Cheshire Cat'' models, CCM'S - where the physics is completely insensitive to changes in the bag radius. CCM's are constructed explitly in 1+1-dimensions, where exact bosonization relations are known. In the formalism of bag models, these relations appear as boundary conditions which ensure that the shifting of the bag wall has no physical effect. Other notable features of 1+1-dimensional CCM's are: (i) Fermion number, though classically confined, can escape the bag via a vector current anomaly at the surface. (ii) Essentially the same boundary action works for a variety of models and its symmetries determine those of the external boson fields. Remarkably enough, this 1+1-dimensional boundary action has precisely the same form as the one used in 3+1-dimensional chiral bag models, lending support to the belief that the latter are indeed approximateCCM's. These 1+1-dimensional results are expected to provide useful guidelines in the attempt to, at least approximately, besonize 3+1-dimensional QCD. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear matter as an MIT bag crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Derreth, C.; Schaefer, A.; Greiner, W.

    1986-01-01

    An MIT bag crystal model of nuclear matter is formulated. The energy bands of the quarks are calculated as a function of the overlap between adjacent bags. A clear indication of substantial overlap is found. Accordingly, infinite nuclear matter is more similar to a quark gas than to a nucleonic structure. (author)

  17. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  18. Mask leak increases and minute ventilation decreases when chest compressions are added to bag ventilation in a neonatal manikin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Mark B; Shah, Dharmesh; Hinder, Murray; Klimek, Jan; Marceau, James; Wright, Audrey

    2014-05-01

    To determine changes in respiratory mechanics when chest compressions are added to mask ventilation, as recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines for newborn infants. Using a Laerdal Advanced Life Support leak-free baby manikin and a 240-mL self-inflating bag, 58 neonatal staff members were randomly paired to provide mask ventilation, followed by mask ventilation with chest compressions with a 1:3 ratio, for two minutes each. A Florian respiratory function monitor was used to measure respiratory mechanics, including mask leak. The addition of chest compressions to mask ventilation led to a significant reduction in inflation rate, from 63.9 to 32.9 breaths per minute (p mask leak of 6.8% (p mask ventilation, in accordance with the ILCOR guidelines, in a manikin model is associated with a significant reduction in delivered ventilation and increase in mask leak. If similar findings occur in human infants needing an escalation in resuscitation, there is a potential risk of either delay in recovery or inadequate response to resuscitation. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. THE LOW BACKSCATTERING OBJECTS CLASSIFICATION IN POLSAR IMAGE BASED ON BAG OF WORDS MODEL USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the forward scattering and block of radar signal, the water, bare soil, shadow, named low backscattering objects (LBOs, often present low backscattering intensity in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR image. Because the LBOs rise similar backscattering intensity and polarimetric responses, the spectral-based classifiers are inefficient to deal with LBO classification, such as Wishart method. Although some polarimetric features had been exploited to relieve the confusion phenomenon, the backscattering features are still found unstable when the system noise floor varies in the range direction. This paper will introduce a simple but effective scene classification method based on Bag of Words (BoW model using Support Vector Machine (SVM to discriminate the LBOs, without relying on any polarimetric features. In the proposed approach, square windows are firstly opened around the LBOs adaptively to determine the scene images, and then the Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT points are detected in training and test scenes. The several SIFT features detected are clustered using K-means to obtain certain cluster centers as the visual word lists and scene images are represented using word frequency. At last, the SVM is selected for training and predicting new scenes as some kind of LBOs. The proposed method is executed over two AIRSAR data sets at C band and L band, including water, bare soil and shadow scenes. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the scene method in distinguishing LBOs.

  20. B P Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. B P Bag. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 1-5. Structural and optical characterization of thick and thin polycrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma activated CVD · S K Pradhan B Satpati B P Bag T Sharda.

  1. BAG3: a multifaceted protein that regulates major cell pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Graziano, V; De Laurenzi, V; Pascale, M; Turco, M C

    2011-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 through BAG domain (110–124 amino acids). BAG3 is the only member of the family to be induced by stressful stimuli, mainly through the activity of heat shock factor 1 on bag3 gene promoter. In addition to the BAG domain, BAG3 contains also a WW domain and a proline-rich (PXXP) repeat, that mediate binding to partners different from Hsp70. These multifaceted interactions underlie BAG3 ability to modulate major biological processes, that is, apoptosis, development, cytoskeleton organization and autophagy, thereby mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. In normal cells, BAG3 is constitutively present in a very few cell types, including cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells, in which the protein appears to contribute to cell resistance to mechanical stress. A growing body of evidence indicate that BAG3 is instead expressed in several tumor types. In different tumor contexts, BAG3 protein was reported to sustain cell survival, resistance to therapy, and/or motility and metastatization. In some tumor types, down-modulation of BAG3 levels was shown, as a proof-of-principle, to inhibit neoplastic cell growth in animal models. This review attempts to outline the emerging mechanisms that can underlie some of the biological activities of the protein, focusing on implications in tumor progression. PMID:21472004

  2. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  3. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  4. Two-component dressed-bag model for NN interaction: deuteron structure and phase shifts up to 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V.I.; Obukhovsky, I.T.; Pomerantsev, V.N.; Faessler, A.

    2002-01-01

    A two-component model is developed for the intermediate-range NN interaction based on a new mechanism with an intermediate symmetric six-quark bag 'dressed' by σ and other fields. To calculate the transition amplitude, the microscopic six-quark shell-model in combination with the 3 P 0 -quark pion production mechanism is used. As a result, an effective energy-dependent NN interaction is constructed. The new quark-meson model for the NN interaction has been demonstrated to result in a new type of NN tensor force at intermediate ranges, which is crucially important for the treatment of tensor mixing at intermediate energies. The suggested model is able to describe NN phase shifts in a broad energy range from low energy up to 1 GeV, and the deuteron structure. The generalization of the model results in new spin-orbit 2N and 3N forces and new meson-exchange currents induced by intermediate dressed bag components, and also in the enhancement of a collective σ-field in nuclei. (author)

  5. Hybridizing the Skyrmion with an Anti-de-Sitter bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, H.

    1992-02-01

    We discuss a phenomenological model of the nucleon in which a small Anti-de-Sitter bag is placed into the Skyrmion configuration. Such a bag has a timelike boundary and allows naturally the Cheshire Cat Principle. Very important in this model is the membrane of the bag, the 3-dimensional manifold S 1 xS 2 , in which topological techniques will come into play. (author). 63 refs

  6. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  7. Book Bag Buddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  8. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  9. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  10. A bag with soft surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il-Tong Cheon.

    1991-02-01

    The MIT bag has a sharply edged surface. It seems to be unnatural. Taking vector mesons into account, we discuss effects of a smooth surface of the bag constructed by superposition of the MIT bags with various radii on the baryon magnetic moments. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Observational constraints on the unified dark matter and dark energy model based on the quark bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, Ariadna, E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México DF (Mexico); Salzano, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lazkoz, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-06-02

    In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.

  12. Observational constraints on the unified dark matter and dark energy model based on the quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, Ariadna; Salzano, Vincenzo; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.

  13. Investigating Comfort Temperatures and Heat Transfer in Sleeping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-01-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton's law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers' claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  14. Monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    From chapter III to chapter V properties of U(1) monopole are discussed by calculating radiative capture of an electron by a monopole, the scattering cross section of an electron by a dyon, and the bound state properties of the electron-dyon system. The Lipkin-Weisberger-Peshkin difficulty is overcome by an introduction of a small magnetic moment of the electron. In chapter VI, the linear deformation of the Prasad-Sommerfield solution of the t'Hooft Polyakov monopole is discussed, where we found all the deformed solutions analytically. In chapter VII and VIII, the question of a deformed bag and properties of an excited bag are discussed. The excited D-state is mixed with S-state to give the correct value of g/sub A/. Initially, in chapter II, energy ratios for trimuons produced through a heavy-lepton cascade decay are calculated

  15. Non-leptonic hyperon decays and the chiral meson coupling to bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, D.; Tadic, D.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperon nonleptonic decays have been analyzed using a chiral-bag model instead of the MIT-bag model which was used in earlier analyses. The adopted theoretical formalism allows a step by step comparison between the new and the old approaches. The results are in agreement with the calculation which has used chiral model in its cloudy-bag variant. Chiral-bag model based theoretical predictions are not significantly different from the old MIT-bag model based results. Theory can account for overall gross features of the hyperon nonleptonic decays but not for the fine details like the exact, almost vanishing, value of the A(Σsub(+) + ) amplitude. (orig.)

  16. Non-stationary Bias Correction of Monthly CMIP5 Temperature Projections over China using a Residual-based Bagging Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    The biases in the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are crucial for understanding future climate changes. Currently, most bias correction methodologies suffer from the assumption that model bias is stationary. This paper provides a non-stationary bias correction model, termed Residual-based Bagging Tree (RBT) model, to reduce simulation biases and to quantify the contributions of single models. Specifically, the proposed model estimates the residuals between individual models and observations, and takes the differences between observations and the ensemble mean into consideration during the model training process. A case study is conducted for 10 major river basins in Mainland China during different seasons. Results show that the proposed model is capable of providing accurate and stable predictions while including the non-stationarities into the modeling framework. Significant reductions in both bias and root mean squared error are achieved with the proposed RBT model, especially for the central and western parts of China. The proposed RBT model has consistently better performance in reducing biases when compared to the raw ensemble mean, the ensemble mean with simple additive bias correction, and the single best model for different seasons. Furthermore, the contribution of each single GCM in reducing the overall bias is quantified. The single model importance varies between 3.1% and 7.2%. For different future scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5), the results from RBT model suggest temperature increases of 1.44 ºC, 2.59 ºC, and 4.71 ºC by the end of the century, respectively, when compared to the average temperature during 1970 - 1999.

  17. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  18. Circular polarization of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons and the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Shmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    The circular polarization Psub(γ) of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons is calculated The contribution of the M1 and E2 radiation of nucleons to Psub(γ) is found using the accurate wave functions of the continuous spectrum. The contribution of the six-quark bag to the polarization Psub(γ) is determined. The value of Psub(γ) is related to the admixture of the 6q-bag in the deuteron. Experimental value of Psub(γ) corresponds to small (< or approximately 0.7%) admixture of the bag

  19. Runer bag ruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    efterhånden ses på dem. Vejr og vind har gennem tiderne sat deres præg på de enestående mindesmærker. Og de mange turister, der hvert år besøger monumentområder, kommer også helt tæt på mindesmærkerne. Så tæt at Haralds sten udsættes for et alvorligt graffitihærværk i 2011. Se med i filmen ”Runer bag ruder...

  20. Solitons, monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, G.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)

  1. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  2. Bag pigtråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    2015-01-01

    BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider......BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider...

  3. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  5. The bag-of-frames approach to audio pattern recognition: a sufficient model for urban soundscapes but not for polyphonic music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Defreville, Boris; Pachet, François

    2007-08-01

    The "bag-of-frames" approach (BOF) to audio pattern recognition represents signals as the long-term statistical distribution of their local spectral features. This approach has proved nearly optimal for simulating the auditory perception of natural and human environments (or soundscapes), and is also the most predominent paradigm to extract high-level descriptions from music signals. However, recent studies show that, contrary to its application to soundscape signals, BOF only provides limited performance when applied to polyphonic music signals. This paper proposes to explicitly examine the difference between urban soundscapes and polyphonic music with respect to their modeling with the BOF approach. First, the application of the same measure of acoustic similarity on both soundscape and music data sets confirms that the BOF approach can model soundscapes to near-perfect precision, and exhibits none of the limitations observed in the music data set. Second, the modification of this measure by two custom homogeneity transforms reveals critical differences in the temporal and statistical structure of the typical frame distribution of each type of signal. Such differences may explain the uneven performance of BOF algorithms on soundscapes and music signals, and suggest that their human perception rely on cognitive processes of a different nature.

  6. Fermion bag solutions to some unsolved sign problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyi; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2012-03-01

    Some interesting lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions with Z2 and U(1) chiral symmetries suffer from sign problems in the auxiliary field approach. Earlier calculations have either ignored these sign problems or have circumvented them by adding conjugate fermion fields which changes the model. In this talk we show that the recently proposed fermion bag approach solves these sign problems. The basic idea of the new approach is to collect unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom inside a fermion bag. A resummation of all fermion world lines inside the bag is then sufficient to solve the sign problems. The fermion bag approach provides new opportunities to solve in these ``unsolved'' four-fermion models in the chiral limit efficiently.

  7. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  8. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ bag is a device that is a flexible plastic bag intended to be used as a temporary receptacle for an...

  9. Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise

  10. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  11. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r...

  12. The μ-dependence of the effective weak hamiltonian and K → 2π amplitudes in chiral-bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Ilakovac, A.; Tadic, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the μ-dependence of the operator matrix elements. Although the μ-dependence must in principle cancel as illustrated in the paper by using a simple pedagogical model, in practice the choice of μ markedly influences the theoretical predictions for K → 2π decays. (orig.)

  13. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  14. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  15. Mathematical and physical model of gravity-fed infusion outflow: application to soft-bag-packed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N; Décaudin, B; Lannoy, D; Barthélémy, C; Lemdani, M; Odou, P

    2011-12-01

    Gravity-fed infusion (GFI) systems are acknowledged as being unable to keep their flow-rate constant. This may affect drug plasma levels such as aminoglycosides. Numerous factors have previously been cited, but their relative importance has never been quantified so far. The objective of this work is to identify the main factors that influence GFI in vitro outflow and to propose a mathematical model of flow-rate evolution as a function of time. In this model, pressure loss and infusion device creep have been considered as the main variation factors. Concomitantly, two experiments were undertaken. Firstly, the flow-rate evolution of an in vitro infusion of 250 mL of dextrose 5% was assessed. Secondly, the creep occurring on an infusion device was measured through a stress relaxation experiment. The experimental infusion flow-rate decreased by as much as 28.5% over 1 h. Simulated and experimental data are well correlated (r = 0.987; P model should help to explain the differences observed in drug plasma levels with gravity-fed devices.

  16. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bags. 201.41 Section 201.41 Agriculture Regulations of... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or less, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six bags...

  17. BAG3 role in cardiomyocytes physiopathology

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Margot

    2013-01-01

    2010 - 2011 The anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 is expressed at high levels in skeletal and cardiac muscle in vivo. Our group recently focused its interest on BAG3 role in myocardiocyte proliferation, survival and response to stressful stimuli. We found that BAG3 is upregulated during the differentiation of cardiomyoblasts. Our results prompted us to verify whether bag3 silencing could affect the differentiation state of cardiocytes and we found that bag3 silencing resulted in highly reducing ...

  18. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  19. Comparison of ventilation and cardiac compressions using the Impact Model 730 automatic transport ventilator compared to a conventional bag valve with a facemask in a model of adult cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Nichole; Wisor, Bernadette; Agazio, Janice; Branson, Richard; Austin, Paul N

    2007-07-01

    To determine the performance of two person CPR on an instrumented manikin by registered nurses using conventional bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation or the Impact Model 730 automatic transport ventilator (Impact 730, Impact Instrumentation, Inc., West Caldwell, NJ) in CPR mode using a face mask. Randomized crossover quasi-experimental. Laboratory simulation. Twenty-eight registered nurses trained in performing adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Basic Life Support was provided by subjects using a conventional bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation or mask ventilation with an automatic transport ventilator, the Impact 730, which incorporates a metronome to facilitate chest compression timing. Subjects alternated performing 4min of CPR using the BVM or Impact 730 to deliver breaths with a mask while the other subject performed compressions. Flow, volume and pressure were measured using a pneumotachograph and pressure transducer, and ease of use was measured using a 10cm visual analogue scale. There was no statistical or clinical difference between the actual and recommended tidal lung volume (mean+/-S.D.) delivered by the Impact 730 (-120.4+/-91.5ml) versus the BVM (-119.8+/-187.3+/-ml). Ventilation with the BVM resulted in more (137.7+/-143.9ml) air per breath passing through the simulated lower esophageal sphincter compared to the Impact 730 (14.0+/-16.8ml, pCPR in a simulated setting.

  20. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  1. Effects of 6q bags in the 1D2 pp scattering amplitude and the problem of dibaryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the short-range NN forces in the quark compound bag method reproduce the energy dependence of the 1 D 2 pp-scattering amplitude predicted by existing phaseshift analyses. The parameters of the six-quark bag wave function obtained by description of the experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the MIT bag model

  2. Quark bag coupling to finite size pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kam, J.; Pirner, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A standard approximation in theories of quark bags coupled to a pion field is to treat the pion as an elementary field ignoring its substructure and finite size. A difficulty associated with these treatments in the lack of stability of the quark bag due to the rapid increase of the pion pressure on the bad as the bag size diminishes. We investigate the effects of the finite size of the qanti q pion on the pion quark bag coupling by means of a simple nonlocal pion quark interaction. With this amendment the pion pressure on the bag vanishes if the bag size goes to zero. No stability problems are encountered in this description. Furthermore, for extended pions, no longer a maximum is set to the bag parameter B. Therefore 'little bag' solutions may be found provided that B is large enough. We also discuss the possibility of a second minimum in the bag energy function. (orig.)

  3. The Multifunctional Protein BAG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie D. Myers, MS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The B-cell lymphoma 2–associated anthanogene (BAG3 protein is expressed most prominently in the heart, the skeletal muscle, and in many forms of cancer. In the heart, it serves as a co-chaperone with heat shock proteins in facilitating autophagy; binds to B-cell lymphoma 2, resulting in inhibition of apoptosis; attaches actin to the Z disk, providing structural support for the sarcomere; and links the α-adrenergic receptor with the L-type Ca2+ channel. When BAG3 is overexpressed in cancer cells, it facilitates prosurvival pathways that lead to insensitivity to chemotherapy, metastasis, cell migration, and invasiveness. In contrast, in the heart, mutations in BAG3 have been associated with a variety of phenotypes, including both hypertrophic/restrictive and dilated cardiomyopathy. In murine skeletal muscle and vasculature, a mutation in BAG3 leads to critical limb ischemia after femoral artery ligation. An understanding of the biology of BAG3 is relevant because it may provide a therapeutic target in patients with both cardiac and skeletal muscle disease.

  4. Peepoo bag: self-sanitising single use biodegradable toilet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Hedenkvist, Mikael; Nordin, Annika; Wilhelmson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene together with deficient nutritional status are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Safe collection, disposal and reuse of human excreta would enable the risk of transmission of diseases to be decreased and household food security to be increased in many regions. However, the majority of the 2.5 billion people lacking improved sanitation comprise poor people in societies with weak infrastructure. This study developed a low cost sanitation option requiring little investment and maintenance--a single use, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet (Peepoo bag) and tested it for smell, degradability and hygiene aspects. It was found that no smell was detectable from a 25 microm thick bag filled with faeces during 24 h in a 10 m2 room at 30 degrees C. Bags that had been in contact with urea-treated faeces or urine for 2 months in air, compost or water at 24 or 37 degrees C showed little signs of degradation. Furthermore, pathogen inactivation modelling of the 4 g of urea present in the bag indicated that appropriate sanitation of faecal material collected is achieved in the bag within 2-4 weeks, after which the bag can be degraded and reused as fertiliser.

  5. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G; Sharp, Thomas E; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-07-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of BAG3 in the homeostasis of myocytes and its role in the development of heart failure was evidenced by the finding that single allelic mutations in BAG3 were associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, significant decreases in the level of BAG3 have been found in end-stage failing human heart and in animal models of heart failure including mice with heart failure secondary to trans-aortic banding and in pigs after myocardial infarction. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the cellular biology and molecular regulation of BAG3 expression in order to design new therapies for the treatment of patients with both hereditary and non-hereditary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy.

  6. Silencing of BAG3 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Wang, Geng; Ma, Zhifang; Ma, Yuebing; Wang, Yingying

    2017-11-10

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has been reported to be involved in aggressive progression of many tumors. In the present study, we examined the expression of BAG3 in human cervical cancer (CC) tissues and investigated the role of BAG3 in SiHa and HeLa cell growth, migration, and invasion. Here, we found that most of CC tissues highly expressed the protein and mRNA of BAG3, while their expression was obviously lower in paired normal tissues (all pBAG3 expression was associated with FIGO stage and metastasis (all pBAG3 siRNAs inhibited SiHa and HeLa cell growth, invasion and migration. Mechanically, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited the expression of EMT-regulating markers, involving MMP2, Slug and N-cadherin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. In a xenograft nude model, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited tumor growth and the expression of EMT biomarkers. In conclusion, BAG3 is involved in the EMT process, including cell growth, invasion and migration in the development of CC. Thus, BAG3 target might be recommended as a novel therapeutic approach.

  7. Psychological interventional approach for reduce resource consumption : Reducing plastic bag usage at supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtomo, Shoji; OHNUMA, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...

  8. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  9. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the... the body. The device may include a holder that keeps the bag in place against an external area of the...

  10. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  11. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  12. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  13. Quantization of bag-like solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breit, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The method of collective coordinates is used to quantize bag-like solitons formed by scalar and spinor fields. This method leads to approximate wave functions for quarks in the bag that are orthogonal to the translational modes. Solutions are given for the MIT bag limit of the fields. (orig.)

  14. Massless quark wavefunction in the deformed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.P.; Park, B.Y.; Koh, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    The quark wavefunctions inside the deformed bag are obtained using a modified linear boundary condition stemming from the MIT bag Lagrangian with an additional term. We propose an exact method to obtain the quark wavefunction even for a spheroidally deformed bag. (Author)

  15. A BAG3 chaperone complex maintains cardiomyocyte function during proteotoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Luke M; Perez-Bermejo, Juan A; Truong, Annie; Ribeiro, Alexandre Js; Yoo, Jennie C; Jensen, Christina L; Mandegar, Mohammad A; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Kaake, Robyn M; So, Po-Lin; Srivastava, Deepak; Pruitt, Beth L; Krogan, Nevan J; Conklin, Bruce R

    2017-07-20

    Molecular chaperones regulate quality control in the human proteome, pathways that have been implicated in many diseases, including heart failure. Mutations in the BAG3 gene, which encodes a co-chaperone protein, have been associated with heart failure due to both inherited and sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy. Familial BAG3 mutations are autosomal dominant and frequently cause truncation of the coding sequence, suggesting a heterozygous loss-of-function mechanism. However, heterozygous knockout of the murine BAG3 gene did not cause a detectable phenotype. To model BAG3 cardiomyopathy in a human system, we generated an isogenic series of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with loss-of-function mutations in BAG3. Heterozygous BAG3 mutations reduced protein expression, disrupted myofibril structure, and compromised contractile function in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). BAG3-deficient iPS-CMs were particularly sensitive to further myofibril disruption and contractile dysfunction upon exposure to proteasome inhibitors known to cause cardiotoxicity. We performed affinity tagging of the endogenous BAG3 protein and mass spectrometry proteomics to further define the cardioprotective chaperone complex that BAG3 coordinates in the human heart. Our results establish a model for evaluating protein quality control pathways in human cardiomyocytes and their potential as therapeutic targets and susceptibility factors for cardiac drug toxicity.

  16. Are the N and Δ deformed MIT bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Maamache, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the one-gluon exchange interaction, zero-point energy, and centre-of-mass correction, on the deformation of the nucleon and Δ bags, is studied in the MIT bag model. If the sharp MIT boundary conditions are taken seriously, the strong dependence of the zero-point energy on the deformation leads to the collapse of the N and Δ bags for realistic values of the strong fine structure constant α/sub S/. If on the other hand the zero-point energy is ignored altogether, then the nucleon, spherical for α/sub S/ 3.25, while the Δ is always prolate. The various predictions of the model are, for α/sub S/> or approx. =3.25, consistent with experiment, except for the proton magnetic moment which is only about 40% of the experimental value

  17. The fuzzy bag and baryonic properties with center of mass and recoil corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilotto, F.

    2003-01-01

    The fuzzy bag is a hadronic model which has features both of the bag model (energy-momentum conservation, QCD vacuum energy) and of relativistic potential models (confinement achieved through a potential). It is also a chiral model, with the unique property that the pion field is suppressed in the interior of the bag by means of a scalar potential, and yet chiral symmetry is preserved. This scalar potential allows one to control how far the pion field can penetrate in the interior of the bag. We calculate the masses of the fundamental baryon octet taking into account the center of mass, one-gluon exchange and one-pion exchange corrections. We also calculate the nucleon axial charge, charge radii and magnetic moments including center of mass and recoil corrections. The agreement with experiment is excellent, and the results indicate that the pion field is suppressed only very close to the center of the bag. (orig.)

  18. Evidence for the Role of BAG3 in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrir, Farzaneh G; Knezevic, Tijana; Gupta, Manish K; Gordon, Jennifer; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M; Khalili, Kamel

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities impact the development of myofibrillar myopathies. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria from cells is of great importance toward understanding the molecular events involved in the genesis of cardiomyopathy. Earlier studies have ascribed a role for BAG3 in the development of cardiomyopathy in experimental animals leading to the identification of BAG3 mutations in patients with heart failure which may play a part in the onset of disease development and progression. BAG3 is co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which has been shown to modulate apoptosis and autophagy, in several cell models. In this study, we explore the potential role of BAG3 in mitochondrial quality control. We demonstrate that siRNA mediated suppression of BAG3 production in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs) significantly elevates the level of Parkin, a key component of mitophagy. We found that both BAG3 and Parkin are recruited to depolarized mitochondria and promote mitophagy. Suppression of BAG3 in NRVCs significantly reduces autophagy flux and eliminates clearance of Tom20, an essential import receptor for mitochondria proteins, after induction of mitophagy. These observations suggest that BAG3 is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis under stress conditions, and disruptions in BAG3 expression impact cardiomyocyte function. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 797-805, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Some spectroscopic problems in the bag theory of quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.L.

    1976-04-01

    In addition to conventional mesons and baryons, the bag model predicts the existence of several classes of unusual hadrons. The spectroscopy of two classes of unconventional hadrons is discussed: first are the Q 2 antiQ 2 mesons; second are Q 3 baryons or QantiQ mesons with quantum numbers forbidden by the nonrelativistic quark model

  20. Bag-of-steps : Predicting lower-limb fracture rehabilitation length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pla, Albert; López, Beatriz; Nogueira, Cristofor; Mordvaniuk, Natalia; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Holtslag, Herman R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents bag-of-steps, a new methodology to predict the rehabilitation length of a patient by monitoring the weight he is bearing in his injured leg and using a predictive model based on the bag-of-words technique. A force sensor is used to monitor and characterize the patient's gait,

  1. Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van T.A.; Stomph, T.J.; Murdoch, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate

  2. Protection against head injuries should not be optional: a case for mandatory installation of side-curtain air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Lance E; Nirula, Raminder; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2010-10-01

    More than 9,000 vehicle occupants die each year in side-impact vehicle collisions, primarily from head injuries. The authors hypothesized that side-curtain air bags significantly improve head and neck safety in side-impact crash testing. Side-impact crash-test data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which ranks occupant protection as good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. Vehicles of the same make and model that underwent side-impact crash testing both with and without side-curtain air bags were compared, as well as the protective effect of these air bags on occupants' risk for head and neck injury. Of all the passenger vehicles, 25 models have undergone side-impact crash testing with and without side-curtain air bags by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Only 3 models without side-curtain air bags (12%) provided good head and neck protection for drivers, while 21 cars with side-curtain air bags (84%) provided good protection (P bags was less dramatic but significant (84% without vs 100% with side-curtain air bags, P = .04). Side-curtain air bags significantly improve vehicle occupant safety in side-impact crash tests. Installation of these air bags should be federally mandated in all passenger vehicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. BAG3 regulates ECM accumulation in renal proximal tubular cells induced by TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, De-Tian; Du, Zhen-Xian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Wang, Yan-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is increased in renal fibrosis using a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction model. The current study investigated the role of BAG3 in renal fibrosis using transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. An upregulation of BAG3 in vitro models was observed, which correlated with the increased synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. Blockade of BAG3 induction by shorting hairpin RNA suppressed the expression of ECM proteins but had no effect on PAI-1 expression induced by TGF-β1. Forced overexpression of BAG3 selectively increased collagens. TGF-β1-induced BAG3 expression in HK-2 cells was attenuated by ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK inhibitors. In addition, forced BAG3 overexpression blocked attenuation of collagens expression by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. These data suggest that ERK1/2 and JNK signaling events are involved in modulating the expression of BAG3, which would ultimately contribute to renal fibrosis by enhancing the synthesis and deposition of ECM proteins.

  4. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  5. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... generant and, in some cases, a pressure vessel (cylinder)) is a gas generator used to inflate an air bag in... domestic transportation by highway, rail freight, cargo vessel or cargo aircraft, a serviceable air bag...

  6. 19 CFR 148.83 - Diplomatic and consular bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diplomatic and consular bags. 148.83 Section 148... bags. (a) Diplomatic bags. The contents of diplomatic bags are restricted to diplomatic documents and articles intended exclusively for official use and packages constituting the diplomatic bag must bear...

  7. Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, X.; Jennings, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Ziad; Boyle, Malcolm J

    2009-02-20

    Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015) and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045). Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  9. BAG3 facilitates the clearance of endogenous tau in primary neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhinian; Brizzee, Corey; Johnson, Gail V W

    2015-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule associated protein that is found primarily in neurons, and in pathologic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) it accumulates and contributes to the disease process. Because tau plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of AD and other tauopathies, and in AD mouse models reducing tau levels improves outcomes, approaches that facilitate tau clearance are being considered as therapeutic strategies. However, fundamental to the development of such interventions is a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that regulate tau clearance. Here, we report a novel mechanism of tau degradation mediated by the co-chaperone BAG3. BAG3 has been shown to be an essential component of a complex that targets substrates to the autophagy pathway for degradation. In rat primary neurons, activation of autophagy by inhibition of proteasome activity or treatment with trehalose resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels. These treatments also induced an upregulation of BAG3. Proteasome inhibition activated JNK, which was responsible for the upregulation of BAG3 and increased tau clearance. Inhibiting JNK or knocking down BAG3 blocked the proteasome inhibition-induced decreases in tau. Further, BAG3 overexpression alone resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels in neurons. These results indicate that BAG3 plays a critical role in regulating the levels of tau in neurons, and interventions that increase BAG3 levels could provide a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The anti-apoptotic BAG3 protein is involved in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Luana; Palmieri, Giuseppe; De Marco, Margot; Cossu, Antonio; Remondelli, Paolo; Capunzo, Mario; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2017-10-06

    BAG3 protein, a member of BAG family of co-chaperones, has a pro-survival role in several tumour types. BAG3 anti-apoptotic properties rely on its characteristic to bind several intracellular partners, thereby modulating crucial events such as apoptosis, differentiation, cell motility, and autophagy. In human melanomas, BAG3 positivity is correlated with the aggressiveness of the tumour cells and can sustain IKK-γ levels, allowing a sustained activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, BAG3 is able to modulate BRAFV600E levels and activity in thyroid carcinomas. BRAFV600E is the most frequent mutation detected in malignant melanomas and is targeted by Vemurafenib, a specific inhibitor found to be effective in the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma may result insensitive ab initio or, mostly, develop acquired resistance to the treatment with this molecule. Here we show that BAG3 down-modulation interferes with BRAF levels in melanoma cells and sensitizes them to Vemurafenib treatment. Furthermore, the down-modulation of BAG3 protein in an in vitro model of acquired resistance to Vemurafenib can induce sensitization to the BRAFV600E specific inhibition by interfering with BRAF pathway through reduction of ERK phosphorylation, but also on parallel survival pathways. Future studies on BAG3 molecular interactions with key proteins responsible of acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance may represent a promising field for novel multi-drugs treatment design.

  11. BAG3 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Heng; Cheng, Shaobing; Tong, Rongliang; Lv, Zheng; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-03-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a co-chaperone of heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 and may regulate major physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, few reports have examined the role of BAG3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we show that BAG3 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis in HCC. BAG3 was overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines. BAG3 knockdown resulted in reduction in migration and invasion of HCC cells, which was linked to reversion of EMT by increasing E-cadherin expression and decreasing N-cadherin, vimentin and slug expression, as well as suppressing matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression. In a xenograft tumorigenicity model, BAG3 knockdown effectively inhibited tumor growth and metastasis through reduction in CD34 and VEGF expression and reversal of the EMT pathway. In conclusion, BAG3 is associated with the invasiveness and angiogenesis in HCC, and the BAG3 gene may be a novel therapeutic approach against HCC.

  12. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis.

  13. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  14. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    consequent breaking of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film - "bags". On the base of general principles of statistical physics (model of a canonical ensemble) we developed statistics of the "bag-breakup" events: their number and statistical distribution of geometrical parameters depending on wind speed. Basing on the developed statistics, we estimated the surface stress caused by bags as the average sum of stresses caused by individual bags depending on their eometrical parameters. The resulting stress is subjected to counteracting impacts of the increasing wind speed: the increasing number of bags, and their decreasing sizes and life times and the balance yields a peaking dependence of the bag resistance on the wind speed: the share of bag-stress peaks at U10  35 m/s and then reduces. Peaking of surface stress associated with the "bag-breakup" explains seemingly paradoxical non-monotonous wind-dependence of surface drag coefficient peaking at winds about 35 m/s. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (14-05-91767, 13-05-12093, 16-05-00839, 14-05-91767, 16-55-52025, 15-35-20953) and experiment and equipment was supported by Russian Science Foundation (Agreements 14-17-00667 and 15-17-20009 respectively), Yu.Troitskaya, A.Kandaurov and D.Sergeev were partially supported by FP7 Collaborative Project No. 612610.

  15. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  16. Cheshire Cat scenario in A 3+1 dimensional hybrid chiral bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, M. De; Falomir, H.; Santangelo, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    The total energy in the two-phase chiral bag model is studied, including the contribution due to the bag (Casimir energy plus energy of the valence quarks), as well as the one coming from the Skyrmion in the external sector. A consistent determination of the parameters of the model and the renormalization constants in the energy is performed. The total energy shows an approximate independence with the bag radius (separation limit between the phases), in agreement with the Cheshire Cat Principle. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  17. Green Purchasing Behavior Analysis of Government Policy About Paid Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khoiruman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research will be conducted to know: 1 The influence of green perceived value to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 2 The influence of green perceived risk to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 3 The effect of green trust on green purchase behavior of consumers to use plastic bags after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. The study was conducted in modern retail stores (Alfamart, Indomart and Superindo in Surakarta using 200 respondents who shop at the modern retail store. A model that can be used to measure green purchasing behavior in the use of paid plastic bags using four interrelated variables: green perceived value, green perceived risk, green trust and green purchasing. Data analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of analysis and discussion showed that green perceived value have positive and significant effect to green trust, green trust has positive effect on green purchasing, but green perceived risk has no significant effect to green trust.

  18. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Emilie

    2018-03-01

    Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  19. Breaking BAG: The Co-Chaperone BAG3 in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins form a family of antiapoptotic proteins that currently consists of six members (BAG1-6) all sharing the BAG protein domain from which the name arises. Via this domain, BAG proteins bind to the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), thereby acting as a co-chaperone regulating the activity of Hsp70. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, all human BAG proteins have distinct functions in health and disease, and BAG3 in particular is the focus of many investigations. BAG3 has a modular protein domain composition offering the possibility for manifold interactions with other proteins. Various BAG3 functions are implicated in disorders including cancer, myopathies, and neurodegeneration. The discovery of its role in selective autophagy and the description of BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy as an adaptive mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis, under stress as well as during aging, make BAG3 a highly interesting target for future pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The small surface oscillations of the gluon tube: The elongated bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laperashvili, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate surface oscillations on a bag tube, inside of which is spanned a longitudinal color electric field, and calculate the masses for such vibrations conceived of as quasi-particles on the string. This represents the bag tube for several suggestive values of the parameters in the bag model. Contrary to similar calculations by Vladimirsky, we consider the case where there is a surface tension and we consider higher than zero angular momentum modes. The nonzero angular momentum modes have zero mass in the case of zero surface tension (when higher quantum corrections are ignored). Our considerations point towards the surface tension not being zero. (orig.)

  1. miR-206 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting BAG3 in human cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Tian, Yongjie

    2018-01-02

    miR-206 and bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) have been suggested as important regulators in various cancer types. However, the biological role of miR-206 and BAG3 in cervical cancer (CC) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the expressions and mechanisms of miR-206 and BAG3 in cervical cancer using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the present study, miR-206 expression was expressed at a lower level in CC tissues and cells than adjacent normal tissues and NEEC cells. By contrast, BAG3 mRNA and protein were expressed at higher levels in CC tissues and cells. Furthermore, miR-206 overexpression repressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of BAG3 was a direct target of miR-206. miR-206 overexpression also inhibited EGFR, Bcl-2 and MMP2/9 protein expression, but promoted Bax protein expression. Besides, BAG3 over-expression partially abrogated miR-206-inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, while BAG3 silencing enhanced miR206-mediated inhibition. In vivo assay revealed that miR-206 repressed tumor growth in nude mice xenograft model. In conclusion, miR-206 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting BAG3 in human cervical cancer. Thus, miR-206-BAG3 can be used as a useful target for cervical cancer.

  2. Bag3 promotes resistance to apoptosis through Bcl-2 family members in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jian-Hua; Lu, Qiang; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) certain molecular characteristics, which are related to molecular alterations have been investigated. These are responsible for both the initiation and maintenance of the malignancy in lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Bag3 (Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3) in the regulation of apoptosis on NSCLC. Bag3 and Hsp70 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry to confirm their potential roles in the prevalence of NSCLC. We also established human normal bronchial epithelial cells and HOP-62 cell line as the model to analyze cell apoptosis and the expression of Hsp70, Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, which were affected by Bag3. In this study, we found that Bag3 and Hsp70 are highly expressed in few tissues and cell lines of NSCLC. Bag3 inhibits apoptosis in human normal bronchial epithelial cell lines and sustain the survival of NSCLC cells. Bag3, Hsp70, Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 are up-regulated in NSCLC cell lines. At the same time, the silencing of Bag3 results in diminishing protein levels of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2. The results of immunoprecipitation identified that Bag3 could interact with Hsp70, Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 NSCLC cells directly or indirectly. We conclude that NSCLC cells were protected from apoptosis through increasing Bag3 expression and consequently promoted the expression of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2.

  3. Are ''anomalons'' a bag ful'o colorful nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, F.; Noack, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    One of the more intriguing explanations of the possible existence of ''anomalons'' (if they do exist) would seem to be in terms of internal color excitations of nuclei. While it follows from confinement in QCD that isolated nuclei (as well as isolated nucleons) must be in color singlet states, the same is not necessarily so for nucleons bound together in a small region of space, viz. a nucleus. Thus one can envisage a nucleus in a color-excited state as composed of localized 3q-systems (i.e. nucleons) which, however, are not all color singlets. We have investigated a particularly simple example of such a model which retains as many of the features of ''normal'' nuclei as possible, and at the same time stays close to the physical picture of the M.I.T. bag model. We call this a ''nuclear bag.''

  4. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  5. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  6. The 'silent' phase transition in mesonic bags and lattice theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Dey, M.; Araujo Junior, C.F. de; Tomio, L.

    1993-10-01

    It is shown that even the simple bag model is able to reproduce the lattice result for the masses and the sound velocity, at finite temperature, T, suggests that the transition point depends on the nature of the meson. It would be interesting to check the last conclusion in present day finite temperature lattice theory, since different transition points seem to be indicated by particle emission T in heavy ion reactions. (author)

  7. Quark bags, P-matrix and nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narodetskij, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is an extended version of the talk given at IX European Conference on Few Body Problems in Physics, Tbilisi, 1984. It reviews recent developments of the quark compound bag (QCB) model including explicit examples of the QCB nucleon-nucleon potentials, description of the deuteron properties, calculation of the six quark admixture in the deuteron and applications to the three-nucleon system

  8. Pairing-bag excitations in small-coherence-length superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Schrieffer, J.R.; Trugman, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Localized baglike solutions in the pairing theory of superconductivity are studied. Starting from the Bogoliubov--de Gennes equations on a two-dimensional square lattice for half-filled negative-U Hubbard model, cigar- and star-shaped bags are numerically obtained, inside of which the order parameter is reduced, self-consistently trapping an added quasiparticle. These nonlinear excitations are important when the coherence length is small as for the new high-temperature superconductors. Several experimental consequences are discussed

  9. Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) 2015 Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) hardware and software capabilities, including portable electronic devices (PEDs) used as EFBs, as of July 2015. This document updates and replaces the Volpe Centers previous EFB ind...

  10. Electronic flight bag (EFB) : 2010 industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) systems and capabilities, as of June 2010. This document updates and replaces the April 2007 EFB Industry Review (Yeh and Chandra, 2007). As with the previous industry survey, the focu...

  11. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  12. Multi-monopoles and magnetic bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    By analogy with the multi-vortices, we show that also multi-monopoles become magnetic bags in the large n limit. This simplification allows us to compute the spectrum and the profile functions by requiring the minimization of the energy of the bag. We consider in detail the case of the magnetic bag in the limit of vanishing potential and we find that it saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound and there is an infinite set of different shapes of allowed bags. This is consistent with the existence of a moduli space of solutions for the BPS multi-monopoles. We discuss the string theory interpretation of our result and also the relation between the 't Hooft large n limit of certain supersymmetric gauge theories and the large n limit of multi-monopoles. We then consider multi-monopoles in the cosmological context and provide a mechanism that could lead to their production

  13. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  14. PLASTIC BAGS: AQUESTION OF CHANGING HABITS

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzett, Juliana Benitti; Rizzatti, Cláudia Bach; Lorenzett, Daniel Benitti; Godoy, Leoni Pentiado

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/223613087725This study aimed to conduct a review about of the use and disposal of plastic bags, checking in the existing literature that has been studied and the current status of this environmental problem, besides conducting a survey with customers in a supermarket to check the involvement of the community with the adoption of reusable bags. A bibliographic search was conducted by internet, and is considered therefore works available online. The study survey was gi...

  15. An alternative approach to heavy quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baacke, J.; Kasperidus, G.

    1980-01-01

    We discuss a formulation of quark bags where the quark wave function depends only on the relative coordinate and the bag boundary is fixed with respect to the center of mass of the quark system. For technical reasons we have to restrict ourselves to a heavy quark-antiquark system in an s-wave with spherical boundary. A phenomenological application to quarkonium states encourages further investigation of the approach. (orig.)

  16. The anti-apoptotic BAG3 protein is expressed in lung carcinomas and regulates small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Gennaro; Basile, Anna; Barbieri, Antonio; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Festa, Michelina; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Califano, Daniela; Palma, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Raffaele; Barcaroli, Daniela; Capunzo, Mario; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Maria Caterina; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Arra, Claudio

    2014-08-30

    BAG3, member the HSP70 co-chaperones family, has been shown to play a relevant role in the survival, growth and invasiveness of different tumor types. In this study, we investigate the expression of BAG3 in 66 specimens from different lung tumors and the role of this protein in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumor growth. Normal lung tissue did not express BAG3 while we detected the expression of BAG3 by immunohistochemistry in all the 13 squamous cell carcinomas, 13 adenocarcinomas and 4 large cell carcinomas. Furthermore, we detected BAG3 expression in 22 of the 36 SCLCs analyzed. The role on SCLC cell survival was determined by down-regulating BAG3 levels in two human SCLC cell lines, i.e. H69 and H446, in vitro and measuring cisplatin induced apoptosis. Indeed down-regulation of BAG3 determines increased cell death and sensitizes cells to cisplatin treatment. The effect of BAG3 down-regulation on tumor growth was also investigated in an in vivo xenograft model by treating mice with an adenovirus expressing a specific bag3 siRNA. Treatment with bag3 siRNA-Ad significantly reduced tumor growth and improved animal survival. In conclusion we show that a subset of SCLCs over express BAG3 that exerts an anti-apoptotic effect resulting in resistance to chemotherapy.

  17. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  18. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  19. The quark mass and baryon numbers of empty chiral bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Zalewski, K.

    1984-01-01

    We show that for spherical chiral bags the baryon number of the Dirac vacuum inside the bag does not depend on quark masses. Thus, the sum of the baryon numbers of an empty chiral bag and the skyrmion surrounding the bag is an integer, which depends on the boundary condition on the surface of the bag. This extends the result obtained by Goldstone and Jaffe for massless quarks. (orig.)

  20. Temperature and baryon-chemical-potential-dependent bag pressure for a deconfining phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, B.K.; Singh, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    We explore the consequences of a bag model developed by Leonidov et al. for the deconfining phase transition in which the bag pressure is made to depend on the temperature and baryon chemical potential in order to ensure the entropy and baryon number conservation at the phase boundary together with the Gibbs construction for an equilibrium phase transition. We show that the bag pressure thus obtained yields an anomalous increasing behavior with the increasing baryon chemical potential at a fixed temperature which defies a physical interpretation. We demonstrate that the inclusion of the perturbative interactions in the QGP phase removes this difficulty. Further consequences of the modified bag pressure are discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-11-02

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential.

  2. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  4. Baryon bags in strong coupling QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Christof

    2018-04-01

    We discuss lattice QCD with one flavor of staggered fermions and show that in the path integral the baryon contributions can be fully separated from quark and diquark contributions. The baryonic degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) are independent of the gauge field, and the corresponding free fermion action describes the baryons through the joint propagation of three quarks. The nonbaryonic dynamics is described by quark and diquark terms that couple to the gauge field. When evaluating the quark and diquark contributions in the strong coupling limit, the partition function completely factorizes into baryon bags and a complementary domain. Baryon bags are regions in space-time where the dynamics is described by a single free fermion made out of three quarks propagating coherently as a baryon. Outside the baryon bags, the relevant d.o.f. are monomers and dimers for quarks and diquarks. The partition sum is a sum over all baryon bag configurations, and for each bag, a free fermion determinant appears as a weight factor.

  5. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Results Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015 and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045. Conclusion Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  6. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  7. EMC effect and multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of 9q- and 12q bags in niclei the form factors of light nuclei at large momentum transfers and structure functions of deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei are described. It is shown that the existing experimental data can be described in a unified way provided the momentum distribution of quarks in multiquark bags at k 0 has the exponential form PSIsub(q)sup(2)(k) approximately esup(-k/k 0 ) with the parameter k 0 approximately 50-60 MeV. Theoretical results agree well the EMC experimental data on the ratio of the iron and deuteron structure functions with the 20% admixture of 12q-bags in the Fe nucleus

  8. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  9. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  10. Solar saddle bags. Solar-Fahrradpacktaschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, M

    1991-09-12

    The invention consists of the arrangement of solar cells on the upper side of saddle bags of every design (handle bar pocket, bicycle saddle bag etc.) which charge the accumulators in the pack pocket. One can drive the alternator of the bicycle, a transistor radio, a cassette tape recorder, or similar, with the power from the accumulators. The lamp and the taillight of the bicycle can still be used. The solar cells can be attached firmly to the pack pocket. However, they can also be assembled detachably, e.g. by push-buttons or zip-fasteners.

  11. High Energy pp Elastic Scattering in Condensate Enclosed Chiral Bag Model and TOTEM Elastic Measurements at LHC at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M M

    2013-01-01

    We study high energy $\\small{\\rm{pp}}$ and $\\small{\\rm{\\bar {p}p}}$ elastic scattering in the TeV region based on an effective field theory model of the proton. We phenomenologically investigate the main processes underlying elastic scattering and quantitatively describe the measured elastic d$\\small{\\sigma}$/dt at energies 7.0 TeV (LHC $\\small{\\rm{pp}}$), 1.96 TeV (Tevatron $\\small{\\rm{\\bar {p}p}}$), and 0.630 TeV (SPS $\\small{\\rm{\\bar {p}p}}$). Finally, we give our prediction for $\\small{\\rm{pp}}$ elastic d$\\small{\\sigma}$/dt at 14 TeV that will be measured by the TOTEM Collaboration.

  12. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  13. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bilck,Ana Paula; Olivato,Juliana Bonametti; Yamashita,Fabio; Souza,José Roberto Pinto de

    2014-01-01

    The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the deve...

  14. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water...

  15. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  16. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...

  17. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...

  18. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology and investigates the possible function of the air bags found on the nestlings of Monteiro's Hornbill Tockus monteiri. These air bags increased in size with age and mass of the nestling until 14 d of age, and then decreased in size. By 20 d of age, the air bags were absent. Histological ...

  19. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film...

  20. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  1. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic... bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil. (4) Maximum net... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178...

  2. Determination of H2 Diffusion Rates through Various Closures on TRU Waste Bag-Out Bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Phillip D. Jr.; Callis, E. Larry; Norman, Kirsten M.

    1999-01-01

    The amount of H 2 diffusion through twist and tape (horse-tail), wire tie, plastic tie, and heat sealed closures on transuranic (TRU) waste bag-out bags has been determined. H 2 diffusion through wire and plastic tie closures on TRU waste bag-out bags has not been previously characterized and, as such, TRU waste drums containing bags with these closures cannot be certified and/or shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Since wire ties have been used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1980 to 1991 and the plastic ties from 1991 to the present, there are currently thousands of waste drums that cannot be shipped to the WIPP site. Repackaging the waste would be prohibitively expensive. Diffusion experiments performed on the above mentioned closures show that the diffusion rates of plastic tie and horse-tail closures are greater than the accepted value presented in the TRU-PACT 11 Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Diffusion rates for wire tie closures are not statistically different from the SAR value. Thus, drums containing bags with these closures can now potentially be certified which would allow for their consequent shipment to WIPP

  3. Autoregulation of Co-Chaperone BAG3 Gene Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilella, Antonio; Khalili, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    The Bcl-2-associated athanogene, BAG, protein family through their BAG domain associates with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) and modulates its chaperone activity. One member of this family, BAG3, appears to play an important role in protein homeostasis, as its expression promotes cell survival by preventing polyubiquitination of Hsp-70 client proteins. Expression of BAG3 is enhanced by a variety of stress-inducing agents. Here we describe a role for BAG3 to modulate transcription of its o...

  4. Zero-point motion in the bag description of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Durso, J.W.; Johnson, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    In the bag model, confinement of quarks is accomplished by introduction of a boundary condition at some definite radius R, where the energy of the total system is a minimum. This minimum is, however, relatively shallow and energies for substantially different bag radii are not much larger than this minimum value. This indicates that the zero-point motion of the bag surface may be important. In this paper, quantization of the bag surface motion is carried out in a somewhat ad hoc fashion, modelled after the generator coordinate theory in nuclear physics. This procedure unifies a number of ideas previously in the literature; it stresses the anharmonicity of the collective motion. As in earlier treatments, the Roper resonance emerges as a breathing-mode type of excitation of the nucleon. The one- and two-pion decays of the Roper resonance are calculated and the widths are found to fall short of the empirical ones. It is pointed out, however, that decays involving intermediate states containing virtual rho-mesons will enhance the widths. Pion-nucleon scattering in the P 11 channel is constructed in our model and found to agree roughly with experiment. A crucial term in the driving force involves the pion coupling to the nucleon through a virtual rho-meson. With introduction of zero-point motion of the bag surface, the motion of 'bag radius' becomes dependent on precisely which moment of the radius is measured. Our development gives a model for cutting off smoothly the pion-exchange term in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic value of a Rec-ELISA using Toxoplasma gondii recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1, and GRA1 proteins in murine models infected orally with tissue cysts and oocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Döşkaya

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns resulting with fetal anomalies. Determining the initiation time of infection is very important for pregnant women and current serological assays have drawbacks in distinguishing the recently acute toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of recently acute infection may be improved by using stage specific antigens in serological assays. In the present study, the diagnostic value of sporozoite specific SporoSAG, bradyzoite specific BAG1 proteins and GRA1 protein expressed by all forms of the parasite have been evaluated ELISA using sera systematically collected from mice administered orally with tissue cyst and oocysts. The anti-SporoSAG IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 1, 10, and 15 (P<0.01. The anti-BAG1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly at days 15, 40, and 120 (P<0.05. The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with oocysts peaked significantly at days 2, 10, and 40 (P<0.01. The anti-GRA1 IgM antibodies in sera obtained from mice infected with tissue cysts peaked significantly only at day 40 (P<0.05. The anti-SporoSAG, anti-BAG1, and anti-GRA1 IgG titers of mice showed significant increases at day 40 (P<0.05 and decrement started for only anti-GRA1 IgG at day 120. The presence of anti-SporoSAG IgM and IgG antibodies can be interpreted as recently acute infection between days 10-40 because IgM decreases at day 40. Similarly, presence of anti-BAG1 IgM and absence of IgG can be evaluated as a recently acute infection that occurred 40 days before because IgG peaks at day 40. A peak in anti-GRA1 antibody level at first testing and reduction in consecutive sample can be considered as an infection approximately around day 40 or prior. Overall, recombinant SporoSAG, BAG1 and GRA1 proteins can be accepted as valuable diagnostic markers of recently acute toxoplasmosis.

  6. Inflatable bag with sealing and protection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocourek, L.; Dohnal, M.; Klinga, J.; Matal, O.; Holy, F.

    1989-01-01

    The inflatable bag consists of a textile casing in which a cylindrical pvc tyre with concave bottoms is inserted and glued to the casing. A sealing protective layer is provided on the outer periphery of the cylindrical part of the tyre. A tyre valve with flange and fixing ears and also a relief valve are provided in the concave bottom. The casing material, such as a layer of 0.5 to 5 mm silicone rubber bands is suitable for use in contact with austenitic materials. The bag completely seals spaces such as the mouths of steam generator tubes or collector branches in a nuclear power plant. Decontamination can easily be achieved by rinsing the surface with common means. (J.B.). 2 figs

  7. Are there multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Scmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are presented favouring the idea that multiquark bags do eXist in nuclei. Such hypothesis makes possible to reveal the relationship among three different scopes of phenomena: deep inelastic scattering of leptons by nUclei, large q 2 (where q 2 is a square of momentum transfer) behaviour of the form factors of light nuclei and yield of cumulative proton.s

  8. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  9. BAG3 myofibrillar myopathy presenting with cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konersman, Chamindra G; Bordini, Brett J; Scharer, Gunter; Lawlor, Michael W; Zangwill, Steven; Southern, James F; Amos, Louella; Geddes, Gabrielle C; Kliegman, Robert; Collins, Michael P

    2015-05-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders distinguished by the pathological hallmark of myofibrillar dissolution. Most patients present in adulthood, but mutations in several genes including BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) cause predominantly childhood-onset disease. BAG3-related MFM is particularly severe, featuring weakness, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, and early lethality. While prior cases reported either neuromuscular weakness or concurrent weakness and cardiomyopathy at onset, we describe the first case in which cardiomyopathy and cardiac transplantation (age eight) preceded neuromuscular weakness by several years (age 12). The phenotype comprised distal weakness and severe sensorimotor neuropathy. Nerve biopsy was primarily axonal with secondary demyelinating/remyelinating changes without "giant axons." Muscle biopsy showed extensive neuropathic changes that made myopathic changes difficult to interpret. Similar to previous cases, a p.Pro209Leu mutation in exon 3 of BAG3 was found. This case underlines the importance of evaluating for MFMs in patients with combined neuromuscular weakness and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the properties of six-quark bag by means of P-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Veselov, A.I.; Konyukhova, N.B.; Shmatikov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    The P-matrix for NN states with definite orbital momenta P 1 S 0 , 1 1 , 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 , 1 D 2 , 3 D 2 is calculated. The position of P-matrix poles determined from the results of phase shift analysis with the account of inelastic channels are compared to the predictions of the bag models for masses of six-quark states. The possible use of the low-energy behaviour of the P-matrix for the determination of the six-quark-bag radius is discussed

  11. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  12. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bilck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the development of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen, when the plant is planted without being removed from the bag. Both black and white biodegradable bags remained intact throughout the seedling production period (60 days. After being transplanted into containers (240 days, they were completely biodegraded, and there was no significant difference between the dry mass of these plants and that of plants that were transplanted without the bags. The plants that were cultivated without being removed from the polyethylene bags had root development difficulties, and the wrapping showed no signs of degradation. The use of biodegradable films is an alternative for the production of bags for seedlings, as these can then be transplanted directly into the soil without removing the bag, reducing the risk of damage to the roots during the moment of transplant.

  13. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  14. adabag: An R Package for Classification with Boosting and Bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Alfaro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Boosting and bagging are two widely used ensemble methods for classification. Their common goal is to improve the accuracy of a classifier combining single classifiers which are slightly better than random guessing. Among the family of boosting algorithms, AdaBoost (adaptive boosting is the best known, although it is suitable only for dichotomous tasks. AdaBoost.M1 and SAMME (stagewise additive modeling using a multi-class exponential loss function are two easy and natural extensions to the general case of two or more classes. In this paper, the adabag R package is introduced. This version implements AdaBoost.M1, SAMME and bagging algorithms with classification trees as base classifiers. Once the ensembles have been trained, they can be used to predict the class of new samples. The accuracy of these classifiers can be estimated in a separated data set or through cross validation. Moreover, the evolution of the error as the ensemble grows can be analysed and the ensemble can be pruned. In addition, the margin in the class prediction and the probability of each class for the observations can be calculated. Finally, several classic examples in classification literature are shown to illustrate the use of this package.

  15. Role of blood bag temperature indicators in maintaining patent temperature of the returned unused blood bags in blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurasyikin, Y; Leong, C F; Fadhlullah, T M; Hafiz, W M; Nadiah, Z; Atieqah, A N; Ling, T J; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the temperature chain of red blood cells (RBC) returned unused blood bags using blood temperature indicator and ascertain the factors like transportation time, type, size of coolant box and number of bags per box. A total of 250 blood bags with the indicator were observed for the temperature changes with other factors like transportation time, type and size of coolant box and number of bags per box. The recordings were performed at several checkpoints located between the blood bank and the wards. Out of the 250 bags, 74 (29.6%) showed colour changes in which 64 (86.3%) were returned unused (RU) blood bags. The transportation time for these 74 bags was 818.3 ± 941.643 min, significantly higher than bags without colour changes, (p=0.02). Interestingly, 71.4% of the colour changes occurred within the ward. The 7 litre coolant box with an average of 1-5 blood bags per box had a statistically significant higher percentage of colour change with 59.2% compared to the 5 litre coolant box (p=0.05). This study showed that the temperature chain of blood bags was often not well maintained. These results could be mainly due to the non-adherence to the standard operating procedure (SOP) of blood transfusion and the usage of non-standardized coolant boxes.

  16. Pricing and hedging derivative securities with neural networks: Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençay, R; Qi, M

    2001-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of cross validation, Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging to mitigate overfitting and improving generalization for pricing and hedging derivative securities with daily S&P 500 index daily call options from January 1988 to December 1993. Our results indicate that Bayesian regularization can generate significantly smaller pricing and delta-hedging errors than the baseline neural-network (NN) model and the Black-Scholes model for some years. While early stopping does not affect the pricing errors, it significantly reduces the hedging error (HE) in four of the six years we investigated. Although computationally most demanding, bagging seems to provide the most accurate pricing and delta hedging. Furthermore, the standard deviation of the MSPE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in all six years, and the standard deviation of the average HE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in five out of six years. We conclude that they be used at least in cases when no appropriate hints are available.

  17. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a plug-in hybrid electric car. The basis of the petition was... upgraded the requirements for air bags in passenger cars and light trucks, requiring what are commonly... completely new passenger car model. Design and development of the Karma began in late 2007. The Karma is...

  18. On the nonuniversality of the bag constant B and stability of dilambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Krivoruchenko, M.I.; Shchepkin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that in the quark bag model with nonuniversal constant B the H dihyperon is above the ΛΛ threshold and therefore is not stable. Estimates of the magnitude of B for 6-quark systems are made using the data on the deuteron magnetic moment

  19. A hand in the bag; La main dans le sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, C.

    2009-10-15

    Many retailers have abandoned the plastic bag for seemingly more environmentally friendly biodegradable bags. However, the solution may be worse than the problem. Biodegradable plastic bags are essentially made of the same polyethylene that is used in regular plastic bags. The only difference is that oxo-biodegradable bags have an additive such as iron or manganese that enables them to decompose in 12 to 24 months. The plastic decomposes quickly when exposed to ultraviolet rays or stress. Although the bags have been touted to be recyclable, they are not. This article presented an example of how a park bench made of recycled materials began to deteriorate after only a few weeks outside. The additive therefore renders the plastics ineffectual for use in recycled plastic products. The article also emphasized that contrary to popular belief, the role of landfills is not to accelerate decomposition, but limit it in order to prevent emissions of greenhouse gases. 1 fig.

  20. Role of BAG3 in cancer progression: A therapeutic opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Margot; Basile, Anna; Iorio, Vittoria; Festa, Michelina; Falco, Antonia; Ranieri, Bianca; Pascale, Maria; Sala, Gianluca; Remondelli, Paolo; Capunzo, Mario; Firpo, Matthew A; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Marzullo, Liberato; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra

    2018-06-01

    BAG3 is a multifunctional protein that can bind to heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 through its BAG domain and to other partners through its WW domain, proline-rich (PXXP) repeat and IPV (Ile-Pro-Val) motifs. Its intracellular expression can be induced by stressful stimuli, while is constitutive in skeletal muscle, cardiac myocytes and several tumour types. BAG3 can modulate the levels, localisation or activity of its partner proteins, thereby regulating major cell pathways and functions, including apoptosis, autophagy, mechanotransduction, cytoskeleton organisation, motility. A secreted form of BAG3 has been identified in studies on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Secreted BAG3 can bind to a specific receptor, IFITM2, expressed on macrophages, and induce the release of factors that sustain tumour growth and the metastatic process. BAG3 neutralisation therefore appears to constitute a novel potential strategy in the therapy of PDAC and, possibly, other tumours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Properties of the cloudy bag in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the pion mode softening, the pion field of the clody bag in the nuclear matter increases if the nuclear density increases. This causes in its turn the decreasing of the bag size and at a sufficiently large density of the nuclear matter lead to absolute instability of the cloudy bag-nucleon, which means the transition of the nuclear matter in another nonnucleon phase

  2. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toponium Tests Of Top-Quark Higgs Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, Alick L.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that top quarks, or very massive fourth generation quarks, might surround themselves with a Higgs "bag" of deformation of the Higgs expectation value from its vacuum magnitude. In this paper we address the question of whether such nonlinear Higgs-top interaction effects are subject to experimental test. We first note that if top quarks were necessarily accompanied by Higgs "bags", then top quark weak decay would involve the sudden disruption of the Higgs "bag", ...

  4. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  5. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  6. BAG3 is involved in neuronal differentiation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Antonietta; Nicolin, Vanessa; Florenzano, Fulvio; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Nori, Stefania L

    2017-05-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein belongs to the family of co-chaperones interacting with several heat shock proteins. It plays a key role in protein quality control and mediates the clearance of misfolded proteins. Little is known about the expression and cellular localization of BAG3 during nervous system development and differentiation. Therefore, we analyze the subcellular distribution and expression of BAG3 in nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and in developing and adult cortex of mouse brain. In differentiated PC12 cells, BAG3 was localized mainly in the neuritic domain rather than the cell body, whereas in control cells, it appeared to be confined to the cytoplasm near the nuclear membrane. Interestingly, the change of BAG3 localization during neuronal differentiation was associated only with a slight increase in total BAG3 expression. These data were coroborated by transmission electron microscopy showing that BAG3 was confined mainly within large dense-core vesicles of the axon in differentiated PC12 cells. In mouse developing cortex, BAG3 appeared to be intensely expressed in cellular processes of migrating cells, whereas in adult brain, a diffuse expression of low to medium intensity was detected in neuronal cell bodies. These findings suggest that BAG3 expression is required for neuronal differentiation and migration and that its role is linked to a change in its distribution pattern rather than to an increase in its protein expression levels.

  7. BagReg: Protein inference through machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Can; Liu, Dao; Teng, Ben; He, Zengyou

    2015-08-01

    Protein inference from the identified peptides is of primary importance in the shotgun proteomics. The target of protein inference is to identify whether each candidate protein is truly present in the sample. To date, many computational methods have been proposed to solve this problem. However, there is still no method that can fully utilize the information hidden in the input data. In this article, we propose a learning-based method named BagReg for protein inference. The method firstly artificially extracts five features from the input data, and then chooses each feature as the class feature to separately build models to predict the presence probabilities of proteins. Finally, the weak results from five prediction models are aggregated to obtain the final result. We test our method on six public available data sets. The experimental results show that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art protein inference algorithms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gravitational bags and solitary cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Guendelman, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The role played by the sophisticated scalar potential, dictated by spontaneous compactification, is analyzed. A fine-tuning is mandatory for achieving asymptotic flatness. Two main aspects are studied. 1. The three-fold spherically symmetric case exhibits localized four-dimensional objects, to be referred to as ''gravitational bags''. These are cores of scalar fields confined by means of a cosmic domain wall, whose size only slightly exceeds equal-mass black holes. 2. The cosmological case introduces a novel scenario of ''solitary evolution''. Triggered by the collapse of the extra dimensions, the universe undergoes an inflationary stage before settling in an oscillating fashion, in its ground state. (orig.)

  9. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... by smoothing the restriction through bagging....

  10. Bogota bag in the treatment of abdominal wound dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, N; Shaharin, S; Razman, J; Jasmi, A Y

    2004-06-01

    A patient who underwent emergency laparotomy for rectal prolapse developed repeated abdominal wound dehiscence and subsequently an enteric fistula. The management of abdominal wound dehiscence is discussed, specifically with regards to the Bogota bag. Use of Bogota bag has been reported worldwide but this may be the first report here.

  11. Storage quality and marketability potential of bagged silage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagged sole maize and maize–cowpea silages in three bag sizes were assessed at 42 and 282 d post-ensiling for sensory and chemical quality. A survey of dairy farmers on silage use and preferences was conducted in the Chikwaka communal area and Marirangwe small-scale commercial farming area. Only silage ...

  12. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control

  13. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological examination of the air bags showed that they were integumentary structures composed of an outer epidermis and an inner dermis. The air bags were not connected to the respiratory system. The body temperature (Tb) of Monteiro's Hornbill nestlings increased significantly with increasing age. Comparisons of ...

  14. On the quantisation of one-dimensional bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairley, G.T.; Squires, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    The quantisation of one-dimensional MIT bags by expanding the fields as a sum of classical modes and truncating the series after the first term is discussed. The lowest states of a bag in a world containing two scalar quark fields are obtained. Problems associated with the zero-point oscillations of the field are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  16. Ca2+-induced uncoupling of Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaei, Zahra; Standage, Dominic; Groten, Christopher J; Blohm, Gunnar; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-01

    Electrical transmission is a dynamically regulated form of communication and key to synchronizing neuronal activity. The bag cell neurons of Aplysia are a group of electrically coupled neuroendocrine cells that initiate ovulation by secreting egg-laying hormone during a prolonged period of synchronous firing called the afterdischarge. Accompanying the afterdischarge is an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We used whole cell recording from paired cultured bag cell neurons to demonstrate that electrical coupling is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Elevating Ca2+ with a train of voltage steps, mimicking the onset of the afterdischarge, decreased junctional current for up to 30 min. Inhibition was most effective when Ca2+ entry occurred in both neurons. Depletion of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, also attenuated the electrical synapse. Buffering Ca2+ with high intracellular EGTA or inhibiting calmodulin kinase prevented uncoupling. Furthermore, activating PKC produced a small but clear decrease in junctional current, while triggering both Ca2+ influx and PKC inhibited the electrical synapse to a greater extent than Ca2+ alone. Finally, the amplitude and time course of the postsynaptic electrotonic response were attenuated after Ca2+ influx. A mathematical model of electrically connected neurons showed that excessive coupling reduced recruitment of the cells to fire, whereas less coupling led to spiking of essentially all neurons. Thus a decrease in electrical synapses could promote the afterdischarge by ensuring prompt recovery of electrotonic potentials or making the neurons more responsive to current spreading through the network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Fermion bag solutions to some sign problems in four-fermion field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Anyi

    2013-01-01

    Lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions, that are invariant under Z 2 and U(1) chiral symmetries, are known to suffer from sign problems when formulated using the auxiliary field approach. Although these problems have been ignored in previous studies, they can be severe. In this talk, we show that the sign problems disappear when the models are formulated in the fermion bag approach, allowing us to solve them rigorously for the first time.

  18. Fermion bag solutions to some sign problems in four-fermion field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyi

    2013-04-01

    Lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions, that are invariant under Z2 and U(1) chiral symmetries, are known to suffer from sign problems when formulated using the auxiliary field approach. Although these problems have been ignored in previous studies, they can be severe. In this talk, we show that the sign problems disappear when the models are formulated in the fermion bag approach, allowing us to solve them rigorously for the first time.

  19. Degradation of plastic compost bags used for yard waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taber, H.G.; Cox, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Three trials, beginning June, July, and September 1991, examined the breakdown of photodegradable plastic bags. The plastic contained a light-sensitive compound dissolved in the polymer to hasten degradation. The bags were placed in east-west rows on bare ground. Other factors studied included turning the bags over either every 3 or 7 days and either filling the bags with fresh grass clippings or leaving them empty. Strength loss was determined with a hand-held puncture tester. Strength increased initially by 36%, 32%, and 63% in the three trials, respectively. The bags took 33, 35, and 64 days to reach brittleness (puncture strength of 180 g) in the three trials, respectively. Once degradation began, all trials showed similar rates of decline. However, the degradation began 7 days after exposure in the first two trials, but not until 14 days after exposure in the September trial. The addition of grass clippings to the bags increased the initial strength and delayed the onset of degradation. Turning the bags every 3 days rather than every 7 did not affect degradation

  20. PICS bags safely store unshelled and shelled groundnuts in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baributsa, D; Baoua, I B; Bakoye, O N; Amadou, L; Murdock, L L

    2017-05-01

    We conducted an experiment in Niger to evaluate the performance of hermetic triple layer (Purdue Improved Crop Storage- PICS) bags for the preservation of shelled and unshelled groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. Naturally-infested groundnut was stored in PICS bags and woven bags for 6.7 months. After storage, the average oxygen level in the PICS bags fell from 21% to 18% (v/v) and 21%-15% (v/v) for unshelled and shelled groundnut, respectively. Identified pests present in the stored groundnuts were Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). After 6.7 months of storage, in the woven bag, there was a large increase in the pest population accompanied by a weight loss of 8.2% for unshelled groundnuts and 28.7% for shelled groundnut. In PICS bags for both shelled and unshelled groundnuts, by contrast, the density of insect pests did not increase, there was no weight loss, and the germination rate was the same compared to that recorded at the beginning of the experiment. Storing shelled groundnuts in PICS bags is the most cost-effective way as it increases the quantity of grain stored.

  1. Comparison of compostable bags and aerated bins with conventional storage systems to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste from homes. a Catalonia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyuelo, Belén; Colón, Joan; Martín, Patrícia; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-06-01

    The separation of biowaste at home is key to improving, facilitating and reducing the operational costs of the treatment of organic municipal waste. The conventional method of collecting such waste and separating it at home is usually done by using a sealed bin with a plastic bag. The use of modern compostable bags is starting to be implemented in some European countries. These compostable bags are made of biodegradable polymers, often from renewable sources. In addition to compostable bags, a new model of bin is also promoted that has a perforated surface that, together with the compostable bag, makes the so-called "aerated system". In this study, different combinations of home collection systems have been systematically studied in the laboratory and at home. The results obtained quantitatively demonstrate that the aerated bin and compostable bag system combination is effective at improving the collection of biowaste without significant gaseous emissions and preparing the organic waste for further composting as concluded from the respiration indices. In terms of weight loss, temperature, gas emissions, respiration index and organic matter reduction, the best results were achieved with the aerated system. At the same time, a qualitative study of bin and bag combinations was carried in 100 homes in which more than 80% of the families participating preferred the aerated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of hang time and location on bacterial contamination of intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency and critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumin, Julien; Olp, Nichole M; Magnusson, Karissa D; Butler, Amy L; Daniels, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of fluid and ports in intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU). Experimental model. Ninety intravenous fluid bags of lactated balanced-electrolytes solution (1 L) hung in a university hospital. Bags were hung in 2 different locations in the ER (sink and bins) and one location in the ICU (sink) for 11 days. Bags were punctured 3 times daily with a sterile needle to simulate clinical use. Injection ports were swabbed and 50 mL of fluid were collected in duplicates on days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Aerobic bacterial cultures were performed on the fluid and injection port. Contamination was defined as bacterial growth of a similar phenotype across 2 consecutive times. Increase in the fluid contamination rate from day 0 was tested using an exact binomial test. Port contamination rate between locations was tested using Fisher's exact test. Combined bacterial growth on injection ports reached a mean (95% confidence interval) of 8.1 (0.005-16.2) cfu/port on day 10. The combined port contamination was 3.3%, 11.1%, 17.8%, and 31.1% on days 0, 2, 4, and 7, respectively. Port contamination was similar between ER and ICU. However, port contamination was higher in the sink versus the bins area (38.3% vs 16.7%, P = 0.032). No fluid bag was contaminated at days 0 and 2. The contamination rate of fluid bag was 1.1% and 4.4% on days 4 and 7, respectively. All bags with contaminated fluid were in the ER (6.7%, 95% exact binomial confidence interval 1.9-16.2%). Injection port contamination reached 31.1% on day 7. Contamination was more likely when the bags were hung next to a sink. In our model of bag puncture, fluid contamination occurred between days 2 and 4. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  3. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report

  4. Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shad

    Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber

  5. Interference with the HSF1/HSP70/BAG3 Pathway Primes Glioma Cells to Matrix Detachment and BH3 Mimetic-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, Patrick; Linder, Benedikt; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Mildenberger, Iris C; Burger, Michael C; Fulda, Simone; Steinbach, Joachim P; Gessler, Florian; Rödel, Franz; Mittelbronn, Michel; Kögel, Donat

    2017-01-01

    Malignant gliomas exhibit a high intrinsic resistance against stimuli triggering apoptotic cell death. HSF1 acts as transcription factor upstream of HSP70 and the HSP70 co-chaperone BAG3 that is overexpressed in glioblastoma. To specifically target this resistance mechanism, we applied the selective HSF1 inhibitor KRIBB11 and the HSP70/BAG3 interaction inhibitor YM-1 in combination with the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor AT-101. Here, we demonstrate that lentiviral BAG3 silencing significantly enhances AT-101-induced cell death and reactivates effector caspase-mediated apoptosis in U251 glioma cells with high BAG3 expression, whereas these sensitizing effects were less pronounced in U343 cells expressing lower BAG3 levels. KRIBB11 decreased protein levels of HSP70, BAG3, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1, and both KRIBB11 and YM-1 elicited significantly increased mitochondrial dysfunction, effector caspase activity, and apoptotic cell death after combined treatment with AT-101 and ABT-737. Depletion of BAG3 also led to a pronounced loss of cell-matrix adhesion, FAK phosphorylation, and in vivo tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse glioma model. Furthermore, it reduced the plating efficiency of U251 cells in three-dimensional clonogenic assays and limited clonogenic survival after short-term treatment with AT-101. Collectively, our data suggest that the HSF1/HSP70/BAG3 pathway plays a pivotal role for overexpression of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins and cell death resistance of glioma. They also support the hypothesis that interference with BAG3 function is an effective novel approach to prime glioma cells to anoikis. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 156-68. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Margam, Venu; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    ) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five

  7. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. The notice did not include the... bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of...

  8. The effects of four agrobotanical extracts and three types of bags on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Shaki area of Oyo State, Nigeria and treated with extracts from Azadiractha indica (neem) leaf, Xylopia aethiopica(uda) pod, Occimum graticimum (nche anwu) leaf and Zingiber officinale (ginger) stem tuber. The storage bags were 0.05mm gauge polythene bags, 0.05mm gauge polythene-lined-jute bags and jute bags.

  9. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  10. Use of pliable bags in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, G.; Jacquet, M.A.; Sharif, A.; Engler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Pliable plastic bags have been used to replace glass or plastic vials for liquid scintillation counting. The two major advantages of this method are the lower cost of the plastic bags and the fact that, per sample, the radioactive waste is significantly reduced. The following parameters have been checked: the impermeability of the bags to various scintillator mixtures and the fact that neither the irregular shape of the bags nor their position in the counting chamber had any effect on the results of the counting. The latter was also constant with time, at least over a period of 10 days. The technique has been used to count the radioactivity of 3 H-DNA precipitates prepared from bacteria and lymphocytes and deposited on filters impregnated with only 200 μl scintillator. It is a method that can be applied to the counting of any samples deposited on filters and insoluble in scintillator. (author)

  11. Off-gas filtration and releases: bag filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, D.M.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    During high-temperature incineration of radioactive waste, some metal oxides are volatilized and carried out with the off-gases. During cooling those oxides react with acidic components generated by the combustion of the fuel oil or of the waste itself. This results in a submicronic crystalline dust in which cesium isotopes are concentrated. Bag filters have been selected at S.C.K./C.E.N. to carry out the first step of dust separation. Two baghouses equipped with Teflon bags with a total filtering area of 100 m 2 have been installed. The bags are cleaned on line by compressed air backflow. The residual dust content is below 3 mg/m 3 , which is sufficiently low to be removed by HEPA filters. The baghouses were put into operation in October 1981 and since then have been on line for about 3000 hours. Some bags had to be replaced after a fire in mid-1983. (orig.)

  12. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may transport...

  13. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficient volume to prevent gas waste during exhalation and to provide an adequate reserve for inhalation. (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to gasoline...

  14. In vitro digestibility of lucerne hay using bag method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    constantin gavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A filter bag method was used for estimating apparent dry matter (DM digestibility, apparent digestible organic matter in DM, true DM digestibility, true digestible organic matter in DM and Digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The forage sample analysed comprised tree plant parts (whole, leaf and stem of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, one degree of particle breakdown (1 mm sieve size at miliing and two field replicates at Agricultural Research and Developement Station (ARDS Șimnic-Craiova. Rumen fluid was used from two cannulated dairy cows. The use of filter bags can give acceptable results for the in vitro digestibility of forages. The escape of soluble matter from bags with samples high in solubles could influence the microbial population and hence increase cell wall degradation in bags with samples low in soluble matter, if  all are in the same incubation vessel.

  15. Transcriptional upregulation of BAG3 upon proteasome inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaqin; Liu Haimei; Zhang Haiyan; Guan Yifu; Du Zhenxian

    2008-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors exhibit antitumoral activity against malignancies of different histology. Emerging evidence indicates that antiapoptotic factors may also accumulate as a consequence of exposure to these drugs, thus it seems plausible that activation of survival signaling cascades might compromise their antitumoral effects. Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins are characterized by their property of interaction with a variety of partners involved in modulating the proliferation/death balance, including heat shock proteins (HSP), Bcl-2, Raf-1. In this report, we demonstrated that BAG3 is a novel antiapoptotic molecule induced by proteasome inhibitors in various cancer cells at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we demonstrated that BAG3 knockdown by siRNA sensitized cancer cells to MG132-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that BAG3 induction might represents as an unwanted molecular consequence of utilizing proteasome inhibitors to combat tumors

  16. Bag-like contaminant control work module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.; Jacobson, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A bag-like contaminant control work module is formed from a flexible impervious membrane which is inflated inside of an enclosed workspace to protect workers in the module from contaminants. The workspace, such as in a nuclear power steam generator, has a portal or manway opening into the workspace into which the module is secured by a module passageway. The module includes one or more glove boxes, in which the workers perform their assigned tasks after passing through the passageway and portal. The module includes one or more absolute filters allowing passage of air flow through the module passageway and into the workspace only through the filters. The module may include an auxiliary passageway secured to the outside of the module passageway and also secured in the portal opening and through which items can be passed back and forth to the worker in the glove box from outside the portal. The module is invertible so that it can be pulled out of the workspace trapping all the contaminants therein and disposed of without handling the contaminants

  17. A Decade (almost) of Brown bag Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2018-01-01

    This collection of BB Seminar Series abstracts and titles is a celebration of sorts. The Center for Mobilities and Urban Studies (C-MUS) was established at Aalborg University in 2008. The 10th Year Anniversary conference to be held in August 2018 is a testament to this. It is not too much to say...... that during this decade C-MUS has grown to become an internationally well-recognized research center under the heading of the ‘new Mobilities turn’. However, a research center also need a daily life of mundane (but important) practices. This collection of abstracts takes you through the BB programs since...... series of BB presentations we get a sense of the academic debates and ‘matters of concern’ for the researchers in C-MUS. Moreover, this may also serve as an important pointer for the future. So next to presenting ‘old stories’ the report is an invitation to reflect upon the next decade of Brown Bag...

  18. Kluster Bag of Word Menggunakan Weka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tari Mardiana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bidang pengolahan bahasa alami dan sistem temu balik informasi, representasi sebuah data teks sangat penting untuk mendukung proses analisis data statistik di dalamnya. Data teks dengan bentuk tidak terstruktur dapat direpresentasikan secara sederhana menggunakan sekumpulan set kata yang disebut bag-of-words dan belum memiliki label atau kelas tertentu. Data unsupervised atau objek-objek yang belum memiliki label dapat dikelompokan menggunakan klustering berdasarkan kemiripan satu objek dengan objek lain. Artikel ini membahas perbandingan hasil pengelompokan unsupervised data menggunakan algoritma kluster yang tersedia pada tools Weka, yaitu SimpleKMeans, X-Means, dan Farthest First. SimpleKMeans dan XMeans digunakan untuk mengolah dataset dan mengelompokan berdasarkan jumlah kluster tetap yang digunakan, sedangkan Farthest First akan meletakan semua pusat kluster pada titik terjauh dari pusat kluster yang sudah ada untuk mengelompokan data. Dataset berasal dari UCI machine learning dengan menggunakan 3 koleksi data, yaitu Enron Email, NIPS Proceedings, dan Daily Kos Blog entries. Performa dataset diuji dengan berbagai masukan parameter yang berbeda meliputi jumlah kluster hingga evaluasi sum squared error (SSE, serta iterasi selama proses pengolahan data. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat dijadikan acuan untuk menentukan algoritma dan parameter yang sesuai untuk melakukan pengelompokan data yang tidak memiliki label.

  19. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T.; Rivera, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials

  20. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a po...

  1. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BAG3 controls angiogenesis through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, A; Festa, M; Basile, A; Rosati, A; Pascale, M; Florenzano, F; Nori, S L; Nicolin, V; Di Benedetto, M; Vecchione, M L; Arra, C; Barbieri, A; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2012-12-13

    BAG3 is a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, is expressed in many cell types upon cell stress, however, its expression is constitutive in many tumours. We and others have previously shown that in neoplastic cells BAG3 exerts an anti-apoptotic function thus favoring tumour progression. As a consequence we have proposed BAG3 as a target of antineoplastic therapies. Here we identify a novel role for BAG3 in regulation of neo-angiogenesis and show that its downregulation results in reduced angiogenesis therefore expanding the role of BAG3 as a therapeutical target. In brief we show that BAG3 is expressed in endothelial cells and is essential for the interaction between ERK and its phosphatase DUSP6, as a consequence its removal results in reduced binding of DUSP6 to ERK and sustained ERK phosphorylation that in turn determines increased levels of p21 and p15 and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase.

  3. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  4. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  5. Fermion bag approach to Hamiltonian lattice field theories in continuous time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Emilie; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2017-12-01

    We extend the idea of fermion bags to Hamiltonian lattice field theories in the continuous time formulation. Using a class of models we argue that the temperature is a parameter that splits the fermion dynamics into small spatial regions that can be used to identify fermion bags. Using this idea we construct a continuous time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm and compute critical exponents in the 3 d Ising Gross-Neveu universality class using a single flavor of massless Hamiltonian staggered fermions. We find η =0.54 (6 ) and ν =0.88 (2 ) using lattices up to N =2304 sites. We argue that even sizes up to N =10 ,000 sites should be accessible with supercomputers available today.

  6. Extended Stability of Epinephrine Hydrochloride Injection in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags Stored in Amber Ultraviolet Light-Blocking Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Edward T; Ho, Kang C; Lyda, Clark; Fullmer, Beth A; Oldland, Alan R; Kiser, Tyree H

    2017-09-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of epinephrine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags for up to 60 days. Methods: Dilutions of epinephrine hydrochloride to concentrations of 16 and 64 µg/mL were performed under aseptic conditions. The bags were then placed into ultraviolet light-blocking bags and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) or under refrigeration (3°C-5°C). Three samples of each preparation and storage environment were analyzed on days 0, 30, 45, and 60. Physical stability was performed by visual examination. The pH was assessed at baseline and upon final degradation evaluation. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of epinephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To determine the stability-indicating nature of the assay, degradation 12 months following preparation was evaluated. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Results: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. At days 30 and 45, all bags had less than 10% degradation. At day 60, all refrigerated bags had less than 10% degradation. Overall, the mean concentration of all measurements demonstrated less than 10% degradation at 60 days at room temperature and under refrigeration. Conclusion: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride bags stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was stable up to 45 days at room temperature and up to 60 days under refrigeration.

  7. A validation study of new cryopreservation bags for implementation in a blood and marrow transplant laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Gregory J; Wilson, Emily; Isom, Scott; Hurd, David D

    2011-06-01

    A new cryopreservation bag for hematopoietic cell transplantation requires validation as a safe alternative to the bag currently being used in the laboratory. The new bag was validated using both laboratory and clinical criteria. Laboratory validation proceeded using paired samples of mononuclear cells processed using standard procedures. Cells cryopreserved in the new and old bags were compared for viability, cell counts, CD34 enumeration, colony-forming unit assays, and bag integrity. After completion of laboratory investigations, engraftment with the new bags was followed and compared to historical engraftment using the old bags. There were no significant differences between the old and new bags detected using laboratory studies. Bag integrity was equivalent. The validation data suggested impaired cell function after cryopreservation in the new bags, but there were no significant differences in engraftment potential using either material. Days to engraftment was longer using the new bags, but statistical analysis revealed an association with CD34 dose and not with cryopreservation bag type. The new bags were noninferior to the old bags. A change in cryopreservation bag type may appear to affect cell function and potentially affect engraftment. Multiple analyses may be needed to understand the effect of cell processing changes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Electricity Demand Projection Using a Path-Coefficient Analysis and BAG-SA Approach: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-coefficient analysis is utilized to investigate the direct and indirect effects of economic growth, population growth, urbanization rate, industrialization level, and carbon intensity on electricity demand of China. To improve the projection accuracy of electricity demand, this study proposes a hybrid bat algorithm, Gaussian perturbations, and simulated annealing (BAG-SA optimization method. The proposed BAG-SA algorithm not only inherits the simplicity and efficiency of the standard BA with a capability of searching for global optimality but also enhances local search ability and speeds up the global convergence rate. The BAG-SA algorithm is employed to optimize the coefficients of the multiple linear and quadratic forms of electricity demand estimation model. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm has higher precision and reliability than the coefficients optimized by other single-optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, or bat algorithm. And the quadratic form of BAG-SA electricity demand estimation model has better fitting ability compared with the multiple linear form of the model. Therefore, the quadratic form of the model is applied to estimate electricity demand of China from 2016 to 2030. The findings of this study demonstrate that China’s electricity demand will reach 14925200 million KWh in 2030.

  9. Burns From Hot Wheat Bags: A Public Safety Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Amprayil, Mathew; Solanki, Nicholas S.; Greenwood, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Wheat bags are therapeutic devices that are heated in microwaves and commonly used to provide relief from muscle and joint pain. The Royal Adelaide Hospital Burns Unit has observed a number of patients with significant burn injuries resulting from their use. Despite their dangers, the products come with limited safety information. Methods: Data were collected from the Burns Unit database for all patients admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags from 2004 to 2009. This was analyzed to determine the severity of the burn injury and identify any predisposing factors. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperature of wheat bags when heated to determine their potential for causing thermal injury. Results: 11 patients were admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags. The median age was 52 years and the mean total body surface area was 1.1%. All burns were either deep dermal (45.5%) or full thickness (54.5%). Ten patients required operative management. Predisposing factors (eg, neuropathy) to thermal injury were identified in 7 patients. The experimental study showed that hot wheat bags reached temperatures of 57.3°C (135.1°F) when heated according to instructions, 63.3°C (145.9°F) in a 1000 W microwave and 69.6°C (157.3°F) on reheating. Conclusions: Hot wheat bags cause serious burn injury. When heated improperly, they can reach temperatures high enough to cause epidermal necrosis in a short period of time. Patients with impaired temperature sensation are particularly at risk. There should be greater public awareness of the dangers of wheat bag use and more specific safety warnings on the products. PMID:21915357

  10. A laboratory validation study of comfort and limit temperatures of four sleeping bags defined according to EN 13537 (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yen; Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar; Zhao, Mengmeng

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we validated comfort and limit temperatures of four sleeping bags with different levels of insulation defined according to EN 13537. Six male subjects and four female subjects underwent totally 20 two-hour exposures in four sleeping bags at four intended testing temperatures: 11.2, 3.8, 2.1 and -9.0 °C. The subjective perceptions and physiological responses of these subjects were reported and analyzed. It was found that the EN 13537 defined comfort temperature and limit temperature were underestimated for sleeping bags MA3, HAG and MAM. The predictions are so conservative that further revision may be required to meet the requirements of both manufacturers and consumers. In contrast, for the sleeping bag MA0 with a low level of insulation, the limit temperature defined by EN 13537 was slightly overestimated. In addition, two individual case studies (-28.0 and -32.0 °C) demonstrated that low toe temperatures were widely observed among the male and female subjects, although the mean skin temperatures were almost within the thermoneutrality range (32.0-34.0 °C). It seems that the IREQ model (ISO 11079) overestimated both the comfort and limit temperatures of the sleeping bags. Finally, traditional sleeping bags may be required to be re-designed to provide consumers both whole body comfort as well as local thermal comfort at feet/toes or users need to be made aware of the higher need for their insulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient response of the 'multiple water-bag' plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Cheeseng

    1989-01-01

    A charge activates impulsively and then decays temporally within a MWB (multiple water-bag)-modelled warm plasma. The transient problem is formulated and asymptotically resolved for large time. The response potential comprises two characteristically distinct quantities W and W N : W is a superposition of spherically expanding, moderately attenuated Kelvin waves contributed by certain points on a subset of dispersion curves; W N is a superposition, associated with two other dispersion curves, of three spherical wavefunctions, one of which incorporates the Fresnel integrals. A transient state feature of the MWB discretization is the partitioning of the response field by growing (fast) fronts, (trailing) slow caustics and a j -surfaces, the fastest among these being an a N- surface (thermal front) which pushes back a quasi-static exterior. Contrary to expectations, there is no response jump across any of those growing partitions. Wavefunctions near the slow caustics possess Airy factors. A rest state ultimately develops behind the slowest slow caustic. An application is made to the fluid plasma. (author)

  12. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  13. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Marcela; Zechmeister, Harald; Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Bouso, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael; Koellensperger, Gunda; Deltell, Alexandre; Vizcaya, David

    2011-01-01

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO 2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO 2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO 2 . Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO 2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO 2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO 2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO 2 . → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  14. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  15. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The development of an intraruminal nylon bag technique using non-fistulated animals to assess the rumen degradability of dietary plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagella, J H; Mayes, R W; Pérez-Barbería, F J; Ørskov, E R

    2018-01-01

    Although the conventional in situ ruminal degradability method is a relevant tool to describe the nutritional value of ruminant feeds, its need for rumen-fistulated animals may impose a restriction on its use when considering animal welfare issues and cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a ruminal degradability technique which avoids using surgically prepared animals. The concept was to orally dose a series of porous bags containing the test feeds at different times before slaughter, when the bags would be removed from the rumen for degradation measurement. Bags, smaller than those used in the conventional nylon bag technique, were made from woven nylon fabric, following two shape designs (rectangular flat shape, tetrahedral shape) and were fitted with one of three types of device for preventing their regurgitation. These bags were used in two experiments with individually housed non-pregnant, non-lactating sheep, as host animals for the in situ ruminal incubation of forage substrates. The bags were closed at the top edge by machine stitching and wrapped in tissue paper before oral dosing. Standard times for ruminal incubation of substrates in all of the tests were 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h before slaughter. The purpose of the first experiment was to compare the effectiveness of the three anti-regurgitation device designs, constructed from nylon cable ties ('Z-shaped', ARD1; 'double Z-shaped', ARD2; 'umbrella-shaped', ARD3), and to observe whether viable degradation curves could be generated using grass hay as the substrate. In the second experiment, three other substrates (perennial ryegrass, red clover and barley straw) were compared using flat and tetrahedral bags fitted with type ARD1 anti-regurgitation devices. Non-linear mixed-effect regression models were used to fit asymptotic exponential curves of the percentage dry matter loss of the four substrates against time of incubation in the reticulorumen, and the effect of type of anti

  17. BAG3 (Bcl-2-Associated Athanogene-3) Coding Variant in Mice Determines Susceptibility to Ischemic Limb Muscle Myopathy by Directing Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Joseph M; McCord, Timothy J; Ryan, Terence E; Schmidt, Cameron A; Green, Tom D; Southerland, Kevin W; Reinardy, Jessica L; Mueller, Sarah B; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Lascola, Christopher D; Keum, Sehoon; Marchuk, Douglas A; Spangenburg, Espen E; Dokun, Ayotunde; Annex, Brian H; Kontos, Christopher D

    2017-07-18

    Critical limb ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral artery disease that carries significant mortality and morbidity risk in humans, although its genetic determinants remain largely unknown. We previously discovered 2 overlapping quantitative trait loci in mice, Lsq-1 and Civq-1 , that affected limb muscle survival and stroke volume after femoral artery or middle cerebral artery ligation, respectively. Here, we report that a Bag3 variant (Ile81Met) segregates with tissue protection from hind-limb ischemia. We treated mice with either adeno-associated viruses encoding a control (green fluorescent protein) or 2 BAG3 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene-3) variants, namely Met81 or Ile81, and subjected the mice to hind-limb ischemia. We found that the BAG3 Ile81Met variant in the C57BL/6 (BL6) mouse background segregates with protection from tissue necrosis in a shorter congenic fragment of Lsq-1 (C.B6- Lsq1-3 ). BALB/c mice treated with adeno-associated virus encoding the BL6 BAG3 variant (Ile81; n=25) displayed reduced limb-tissue necrosis and increased limb tissue perfusion compared with Met81- (n=25) or green fluorescent protein- (n=29) expressing animals. BAG3 Ile81 , but not BAG3 Met81 , improved ischemic muscle myopathy and muscle precursor cell differentiation and improved muscle regeneration in a separate, toxin-induced model of injury. Systemic injection of adeno-associated virus-BAG3 Ile81 (n=9), but not BAG3 Met81 (n=10) or green fluorescent protein (n=5), improved ischemic limb blood flow and limb muscle histology and restored muscle function (force production). Compared with BAG3 Met81 , BAG3 Ile81 displayed improved binding to the small heat shock protein (HspB8) in ischemic skeletal muscle cells and enhanced ischemic muscle autophagic flux. Taken together, our data demonstrate that genetic variation in BAG3 plays an important role in the prevention of ischemic tissue necrosis. These results highlight a pathway that preserves tissue survival and muscle

  18. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, J. R.; Hann, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are gene......A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements...

  19. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  20. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  1. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of PICS bags under extreme conditions in the sahel zone of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoua, Ibrahim B; Bakoye, Ousmane; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-03-01

    Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4.5 months of storage compared to the initial values. By contrast, woven bags stored inside or outside side by side with PICS bags showed several-fold increases in insects present in or on the grain and significant losses in grain weight. Grain stored inside in PICS bags showed no reduction in germination versus the initial value but there was a small but significant drop in germination of grain in PICS bags held outside (7.6%). Germination rates dropped substantially more in grain stored in woven bags inside (16.1%) and still more in woven bags stored outside (60%). PICS bags held inside and outside retained their ability to maintain internal reduced levels of oxygen and elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions degraded the external polypropylene outer layer of the PICS triple-layer bag. Even so, the internal layers of polyethylene were more slowly degraded. The effects of exposure to sunlight, temperature and humidity variation within the sealed bags are described.

  3. WW domain of BAG3 is required for the induction of autophagy in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabova, Nana; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Saribas, A Sami; Knezevic, Tijana; Gordon, Jennifer; Turco, M Caterina; Rosati, Alessandra; Weaver, Michael; Landry, Jacques; Khalili, Kamel

    2015-04-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co-chaperone family of proteins that associates with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of environmental changes that cause stress to cells. Our results show that BAG3 overexpression induces autophagy in glioma cells. Interestingly, inhibition of the proteasome caused an increase in BAG3 levels and induced autophagy. Further analysis using specific siRNA against BAG3 suggests that autophagic activation due to proteosomal inhibition is mediated by BAG3. Analyses of BAG3 domain mutants suggest that the WW domain of BAG3 is crucial for the induction of autophagy. BAG3 overexpression also increased the interaction between Bcl2 and Beclin-1, instead of disrupting them, suggesting that BAG3 induced autophagy is Beclin-1 independent. These observations reveal a novel role for the WW domain of BAG3 in the regulation of autophagy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  5. Linearized theory of inhomogeneous multiple 'water-bag' plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, H. W.; Berk, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Equations are derived for describing the inhomogeneous equilibrium and small deviations from the equilibrium, giving particular attention to systems with trapped particles. An investigation is conducted of periodic systems with a single trapped-particle water bag, taking into account the behavior of the perturbation equations at the turning points. An outline is provided concerning a procedure for obtaining the eigenvalues. The results of stability calculations connected with the sideband effects are considered along with questions regarding the general applicability of the multiple water-bag approach in stability calculations.

  6. Dynamics of cesium-134 and biomass in treated and untreated turkey oak leaf-litter bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, J.M.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Litter bags were prepared from leaves harvested in late fall from turkey oak trees (Quercus laevis) tagged with 134 Cs. Untreated bags and bags treated by soaking in 1000 ppM HgCl 2 were placed in the field on Dec. 7, 1974. Five bags of each treatment were retrieved at 7-, 14-, and 30-day intervals as the experiment progressed. Treated bags remained free of visible fungal hyphae growth for 12 weeks. Untreated bags had lost more weight but less 134 Cs than treated bags after 14 and 56 days, respectively. After 9 months, untreated bags had lost 33% weight and 90% 134 Cs. Although 134 Cs is rapidly leached from litter (ecological half-life approximately equal to 12 weeks), some is retained by fungal hyphae on leaf-litter surfaces. This mechanism of mineral retention in the litter layer could represent adaptation at the ecosystem level for nutrient conservation

  7. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  8. The anti-apoptotic activity of BAG3 is restricted by caspases and the proteasome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Virador

    Full Text Available Caspase-mediated cleavage and proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated proteins are two independent mechanisms for the regulation of protein stability and cellular function. We previously reported BAG3 overexpression protected ubiquitinated clients, such as AKT, from proteasomal degradation and conferred cytoprotection against heat shock. We hypothesized that the BAG3 protein is regulated by proteolysis.Staurosporine (STS was used as a tool to test for caspase involvement in BAG3 degradation. MDA435 and HeLa human cancer cell lines exposed to STS underwent apoptosis with a concomitant time and dose-dependent loss of BAG3, suggesting the survival role of BAG3 was subject to STS regulation. zVAD-fmk or caspase 3 and 9 inhibitors provided a strong but incomplete protection of both cells and BAG3 protein. Two putative caspase cleavage sites were tested: KEVD (BAG3(E345A/D347A within the proline-rich center of BAG3 (PXXP and the C-terminal LEAD site (BAG3(E516A/D518A. PXXP deletion mutant and BAG3(E345A/D347A, or BAG3(E516A/D518A respectively slowed or stalled STS-mediated BAG3 loss. BAG3, ubiquitinated under basal growth conditions, underwent augmented ubiquitination upon STS treatment, while there was no increase in ubiquitination of the BAG3(E516A/D518A caspase-resistant mutant. Caspase and proteasome inhibition resulted in partial and independent protection of BAG3 whereas inhibitors of both blocked BAG3 degradation. STS-induced apoptosis was increased when BAG3 was silenced, and retention of BAG3 was associated with cytoprotection.BAG3 is tightly controlled by selective degradation during STS exposure. Loss of BAG3 under STS injury required sequential caspase cleavage followed by polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The need for dual regulation of BAG3 in apoptosis suggests a key role for BAG3 in cancer cell resistance to apoptosis.

  9. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  10. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A.

    2015-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1 −/− ) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling

  11. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  12. Bagged K-means clustering of metabolome data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J. A.; van den Berg, R. A.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering of metabolomics data can be hampered by noise originating from biological variation, physical sampling error and analytical error. Using data analysis methods which are not specially suited for dealing with noisy data will yield sub optimal solutions. Bootstrap aggregating (bagging) is a

  13. Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and disposal in Africa. S Rayne. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  14. Plastic-bag radon gas monitor and survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Plastic-bag radon monitor used in the Italian National Survey is described. The choice of this radon gas sampler has been determined by the peculiarity of the italian environmental monitoring program, which is carried out by several different regional laboratories. Results obtained in the past using this radon monitoring device are also reported. (author). 8 refs, 7 figs

  15. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presence of plastic bags in the rumen of the goats was clinically characterized by anorexia, severe depression, discomfort (grunting sounds), dehydration, firmness and asymmetrical distention of the abdomen, reduced ruminal movements, diarrhoea with intermittent constipation, recumbency and death. Severity of the ...

  16. Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollination bags for making controlled crosses between switchgrass plants were made from a polyester micro-mesh fabric with a mesh size of 41 µm which is smaller than the mean reported 43 µm diameter of switchgrass pollen. When used in paired plant crosses between switchgrass plants, the mean amoun...

  17. Review of safety reports involving electronic flight bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) are a relatively new device used by pilots. Even so, 37 safety-related events involving EFBs were identified from the public online Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database as of June 2008. In addition, two accid...

  18. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Case Report | Gandhi | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon phenomenon reported mostly in chronically constipated, institutionalized females on an indwelling catheter. It can often cause tremendous distress among health care providers. Though the condition is generally described as benign, it should draw immediate attention to ...

  19. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  20. Clinical efficacy of a tea-bag formulation of Cryptolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a tea bag formulation of the root of C. sanguinolenta. Design: This is a prospective descriptive open trial. Setting: Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu, Mamprobi and Dansoman Polyclinics. Subjects: Forty-four subjects with uncomplicated malaria were recruited for ...

  1. The Effectiveness of a Collector Bag for Measurement of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of collector bag and its correlation with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) variations. This study, carried on 100 women referred for admission to labor ward of Shohada hospital in Orumeyeh City, Iran, ...

  2. Emulsification in novel ultrasonic cavitation intensifying bag reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van Ralph; Verhaagen, Bram; Schroën, Karin; Fernández Rivas, David

    2017-01-01

    Cavitation Intensifying Bags (CIBs), a novel reactor type for use with ultrasound, have been recently proposed as a scaled-up microreactor with increased energy efficiencies. We now report on the use of the CIBs for the preparation of emulsions out of hexadecane and an SDS aqueous solution. The

  3. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...) Co., Ltd., Sahachit Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., and Thantawan Industry Public Co., Ltd. Id. The Department has determined previously that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See...

  4. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Co., Ltd., Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Sahachit Watana Plastics Ind. Co., Ltd., Thai Plastic Bags... that Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., APEC Film Ltd., and Winner's Pack Co., Ltd., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value...

  5. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for... August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual...

  6. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3730 - Piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins as components of bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bags. 178.3730 Section 178.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... pyrethrins as components of bags. Piperonyl butoxide in combination with pyrethrins may be safely used for insect control on bags that are intended for use in contact with dried feed in compliance with §§ 561.310...

  8. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004). On August 1, 2011...

  9. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import..., the Department of Commerce (the Department) published Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand... 351.224(c) from the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members, Hilex Poly...

  10. 78 FR 76280 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the... determines that imports of unfinished polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9...

  11. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young-Hee; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kim, Soo-A

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1(-/-)) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High expression of BAG3 predicts a poor prognosis in human medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yutao; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Yundong

    2016-10-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, regulates various physiological and pathological processes. However, its role in human medulloblastoma has not been clarified. First of all, the expression of BAG3 was examined in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens by immunohistochemical staining. And then, the prognostic role of BAG3 was analyzed in 51 medulloblastoma samples. Finally, the roles of BAG3 in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Daoy medulloblastoma cell were investigated using a specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The expression of BAG3 in medulloblastoma tissues was higher than nontumorous samples. Furthermore, BAG3 overexpression significantly correlated with poor prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma. The overall survival and tumor-free survival in patients with BAG3 low expression were higher than high expression. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that BAG3 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker for medulloblastoma. After the BAG3 knockdown, the Daoy cells exhibited decreased the ability to proliferate and form neurosphere. The preliminary mechanism study showed that overexpression of BAG3 might facilitate the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by modulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin E expression. Additionally, we found that BAG3 might enhance the medulloblastoma cell migratory and invasive ability. In summary, BAG3 overexpression may regulate the survival and invasive properties of medulloblastoma and may serve as a potential therapy target for medulloblastoma.

  13. Augmenting Bag-of-Words: Data-Driven Discovery of Temporal and Structural Information for Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bettadapura, Vinay; Schindler, Grant; Plotz, Thomaz; Essa, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    We present data-driven techniques to augment Bag of Words (BoW) models, which allow for more robust modeling and recognition of complex long-term activities, especially when the structure and topology of the activities are not known a priori. Our approach specifically addresses the limitations of standard BoW approaches, which fail to represent the underlying temporal and causal information that is inherent in activity streams. In addition, we also propose the use of randomly sampled regular ...

  14. Managing Deadline-constrained Bag-of-Tasks Jobs on Hybrid Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Song, Ying; Sun, Yuzhong; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Outsourcing jobs to a public cloud is a cost-effective way to address the problem of satisfying the peak resource demand when the local cloud has insufficient resources. In this paper, we study on managing deadline-constrained bag-of-tasks jobs on hybrid clouds. We present a binary nonlinear programming (BNP) problem to model the hybrid cloud management where the utilization of physical machines (PMs) in the local cloud/cluster is maximized when the local resources are enough to satisfy the d...

  15. Semileptonic *DELTA*S=1 decays of baryons with boosted bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.; Lie-Svendsen, Oe.

    1984-03-01

    Recoil effects for strangeness-changing semileptonic decays of baryons by means of boosted quark mode solutions of the MIT bag model is calculated. Both the quark and the psevdoscalar part of the axial current is considered. It is shown that the induced scalar form factor f*sb3* and the ''weak electric'' form factor g*sb2* are proportional to the mass difference of the final and initial baryon. Moreover, it is shown that the quark wave function mismatch, which decreases the conventional vector form factor f*sb1*, can be compensated by recoil effects. Thus a better agreement with experiment seems to be achieved. (Auth.)

  16. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2018-04-01

    The investigation was carried out at Germplasm Centre (BAU-GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during March to July 2016 in order to investigate the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. Four different bagging materials viz. brown paper bag, white paper bag, white polythene bag, black polythene bag included for the study and uncovered fruits were used as control treatment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit bagging treatments showed significant effects on different parameters studied. It was observed that fruit size, fruit weight, vitamin C concentration, and moisture content increased due to fruit bagging. Fruits were gained maximum in size (6.59 cm length, 5.86 cm diameter and weight (164.26 g under white paper bag followed by white polythene bag (131.3g. The skin color of fruits was very attractive in case of white paper bag than that of other treatments. Total soluble solid concentration of the fruit was found maximum (12.33% Brix under brown paper bag while maximum vitamin C concentration (162.14 mg 100 g-1 was recorded under white paper bag. Uncovered fruits showed maximum total sugar, non-reducing sugar, reducing sugar concentrations (10.13%, 6.05%, 4.08%, respectively.The results revealed that fruit bagging in general, improved the growth and quality of guava fruits as compared to control. Among the various fruit covering materials, white paper bag was found to be the best for overall improvement of physical and chemical quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 363-371

  17. Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhonghao; Jiang, Binhui; Zhu, Feng; Cao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the adaptive occupant restraint system (AORS) has led to an innovative way to optimize such systems for multiple size occupants. An AORS consists of multiple units such as adaptive air bags, seat belts, etc. During a collision, as a supplemental protective device, air bags can provide constraint force and play a role in dissipating the crash energy of the occupants' head and thorax. This article presents an investigation into an adaptive passenger air bag (PAB). The purpose of this study is to develop a base shape of a PAB for different size occupants using an optimization method. Four typical base shapes of a PAB were designed based on geometric data on the passenger side. Then 4 PAB finite element (FE) models and a validated sled with different size dummy models were developed in MADYMO (TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands) to conduct the optimization to obtain the best baseline PAB that would be used in the AORS. The objective functions-that is, the minimum total probability of injuries (∑Pcomb) of the 5th percentile female and 50th and 95th percentile male dummies-were adopted to evaluate the optimal configurations. The injury probability (Pcomb) for each dummy was adopted from the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). The parameters of the AORS were first optimized for different types of PAB base shapes in a frontal impact. Then, contact time duration and force between the PAB and dummy head/chest were optimized by adjusting the parameters of the PAB, such as the number and position of tethers, lower the Pcomb of the 95th percentile male dummy. According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax.

  18. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of six-quark bags on the 1D2 NN partial wave and the question of dibaryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled 1 D 2 (pp)- 5 S 0 (ΔN) channels are studied in a relativized version of the quark compound bag (QCB) model. The QCB model is a semiphenomenological model that incorporates the important role that the bag dynamics plays at small distances. In this model, the short-range hadron force is given by the energy-dependent and non-local potential and contains few parameters which are defined by the wave function of the six-quark primitive. It is suggested that this force is responsible for the appearance of the S-matrix pole of the dibaryon amplitude. The QCD short-range force is shown to reproduce an energy dependence of the 1 D 2 phase shift and inelasticity in the region T >or approx. 200 MeV. At small energy the effect of the long-range meson force is essential. The values of the QCD parameters found from the fit to the data are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for the MIT bag model

  20. Calculation of the structural properties of a strange quark star in the presence of a strong magnetic field using a density dependent bag constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Hajar Bahri; Fatemeh Kayanikhoo

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a strong magnetic field.To this end,we use the MITbag model with a density dependent bag constant.To parameterize the density dependence of the bag constant,we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter.By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter,we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field.Finally,we have investigated the effect of density dependence of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.

  1. Comparison of bacterial attachment to platelet bags with and without preconditioning with plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Correa, M; Kalab, M; Yi, Q-L; Eltringham-Smith, L J; Sheffield, W P; Ramirez-Arcos, S

    2017-07-01

    Canadian Blood Services produces apheresis and buffy coat pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) stored in bags produced by two different manufacturers (A and B, respectively), both made of polyvinyl chloride-butyryl trihexyl citrate. This study was aimed at comparing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to the inner surface of both bag types in the presence or absence of plasma factors. Sets (N = 2-6) of bags type A and B were left non-coated (control) or preconditioned with platelet-rich, platelet-poor or defibrinated plasma (PRP, PPP and DefibPPP, respectively). Each bag was inoculated with a 200-ml S. epidermidis culture adjusted to 0·5 colony-forming units/ml. Bags were incubated under platelet storage conditions for 7 days. After culture removal, bacteria attached to the plastic surface were either dislodged by sonication for bacterial quantification or examined in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Higher bacterial adhesion was observed to preconditioned PC bags than control containers for both bag types (P bags was confirmed by SEM. Bacteria adhered equally to both types of containers in the presence of PRP, PPP and DefibPPP residues (P > 0·05). By contrast, a significant increase in bacterial adherence was observed to type A bags compared with type B bags in the absence of plasma (P bags depends on the presence of plasma factors. Future efforts should be focused on reducing plasma proteins' attachment to platelet storage containers to decrease subsequent bacterial adhesion. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. The Portuguese plastic carrier bag tax: The effects on consumers' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Balaia, Natacha; Pires, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Marine litter from lightweight plastic bags is a global problem that must be solved. A plastic bag tax was implemented in February 2015 to reduce the consumption of plastic grocery bags in Portugal and in turn reduce the potential contribution to marine litter. This study analyzes the effect of the plastic bag tax on consumer behavior to learn how it was received and determine the perceived effectiveness of the tax 4months after its implementation. In addition, the study assessed how proximity to coastal areas could influence behaviors and opinions. The results showed a 74% reduction of plastic bag consumption with a simultaneously 61% increase of reusable plastic bags after the tax was implemented. Because plastic bags were then reused for shopping instead of garbage bags, however, the consumption of garbage bags increased by 12%. Although reduction was achieved, the tax had no effect on the perception of marine litter or the impact of plastic bags on environment and health. The majority of respondents agree with the tax but view it as an extra revenue to the State. The distance to the coast had no meaningful influence on consumer behavior or on the perception of the tax. Although the tax was able to promote the reduction of plastics, the role of hypermarkets and supermarkets in providing alternatives through the distribution of reusable plastic bags was determinant to ensuring the reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. FUNGAL POPULATION, AFLATOXIN AND FREE FATTY ACID CONTENTS OF PEANUTS PACKED IN DIFFERENT BAG TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA S.P. BULAONG

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shelled peanuts of Gajah var. with initial moisture content of 7% were stored at 11 kg/bag in four bag types namely: jute bag, polypropylene bag, jute bag doubled with thin polyethylene (PE, and jute bag doubled with thick PE. Storage was done for six months under warehouse conditions with monitoring of relative humidity and temperature. Samples taken at the be ginning of storage and every month thereafter were analyzed for moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents. Statistical analyses showed that moisture content, fungal population, and free fatty acid contents were signifi cantly higher in jute and polypropylene bags than in PE-dou,bled jute bags. No significant differences were obtained in aflatoxin contents among bag types but at the end of six months storage, toxin level in jute bag exceeded the 30 ppb limit. Polypropylene had second highest toxin level at 23 ppb. The PE-doubled bags ha d 17 and 19 ppb total aflatoxins for thin and thick films, respectively. The results indicated that the immediate packag ing of dried shelled peanuts at safe moisture level in plastic films with water vapor transmission rated of 1 g/m2/24 hr or lower is recommended. This p ackaging will delay critical increases in moisture content, fungal population, aflatoxin and free fatty acid contents of peanut kernels at ambient storage conditions.

  4. Dimerization Products of Chloroprene are Background Contaminants Emitted from ALTEF (Polyvinylidene Difluoride) Gas Sampling Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Martin, Jennifer A; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2017-01-01

    Gas sampling bags have been used for collecting air samples. Tedlar bags are most commonly used, but bleed background chemicals such as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol. It is often necessary to remove the contaminant by flushing the bags with pure nitrogen or air. In this study, we identified four chloroprene dimerization products as background contaminants emitted from ALTEF bags that are made of a proprietary polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). No monomer chloroprene was detected in the bags analyzed. All of the dimers gradually increased once bags were filled with nitrogen due to diffusion from the bag surface. Flushing the bags with nitrogen reduced their concentrations, but was not effective for removing the contaminants. When the bags that had been flushed with nitrogen 5 times were left for 24 h, they increased again, indicating that the dimers were constantly emitted from the ALTEF bag surface. To our knowledge, these compounds have never been demonstrated in ALTEF or other PVDF bags. Our finding indicates that ALTEF might be incorporated with Neoprene (chloroprene-based polymer) during its manufacturing process.

  5. BAG3 induces the sequestration of proteasomal clients into cytoplasmic puncta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Melania; Boncoraglio, Alessandra; Vinet, Jonathan; Morelli, Federica F; Brunsting, Jeanette F; Poletti, Angelo; Krom, Sabine; Reits, Eric; Kampinga, Harm H; Carra, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome system as their major protein degradation pathways. Upon proteasomal impairment, cells switch to autophagy to ensure proper clearance of clients (the proteasome-to-autophagy switch). The HSPA8 and HSPA1A cochaperone BAG3 has been suggested to be involved in this switch. However, at present it is still unknown whether and to what extent BAG3 can indeed reroute proteasomal clients to the autophagosomal pathway. Here, we show that BAG3 induces the sequestration of ubiquitinated clients into cytoplasmic puncta colabeled with canonical autophagy linkers and markers. Following proteasome inhibition, BAG3 upregulation significantly contributes to the compensatory activation of autophagy and to the degradation of the (poly)ubiquitinated proteins. BAG3 binding to the ubiquitinated clients occurs through the BAG domain, in competition with BAG1, another BAG family member, that normally directs ubiquitinated clients to the proteasome. Therefore, we propose that following proteasome impairment, increasing the BAG3/BAG1 ratio ensures the “BAG-instructed proteasomal to autophagosomal switch and sorting” (BIPASS). PMID:25046115

  6. Overexpressed BAG3 is a potential therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huayuan; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yuan; Shen, Wenyi; Miao, Kourong; Hong, Min; Xu, Wei; Young, Ken H; Liu, Peng; Li, Jianyong

    2014-03-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of BAG family, is shown to sustain cell survival and underlie resistance to chemotherapy in human neoplastic cells. We aimed to determine the exact role and underlying mechanisms of BAG3 in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). One hundred human CLL samples and 20 normal B-cell samples from healthy controls were collected. We measured the BAG3 expression in these cells and explored its relationship with known prognostic factors for CLL. The roles of BAG3 in cell apoptosis and migration were evaluated by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of BAG3 in primary CLL cells. We showed that BAG3 expression level was increased in CLL cells compared with normal B cells. Moreover, BAG3 expression was particularly upregulated in CD38 positive, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain patients and those with lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. Importantly, patients with increased BAG3 expression level have poor overall survival in subgroups with positive ZAP-70 or those without any "p53 abnormality". In addition, knocking down of BAG3 expression resulted in increased apoptotic ratio and decreased migration in primary CLL cells. Our data indicate that BAG3 is a marker of poor prognostic in specific subgroups of CLL patients and may be a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  7. Deep-inelastic structure functions in an approximation to the bag theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A cavity approximation to the bag theory developed earlier is extended to the treatment of forward virtual Compton scattering. In the Bjorken limit and for small values of ω (ω = vertical-bar2p center-dot q/q 2 vertical-bar) it is argued that the operator nature of the bag boundaries might be ignored. Structure functions are calculated in one and three dimensions. Bjorken scaling is obtained. The model provides a realization of light-cone current algebra and possesses a parton interpretation. The structure functions show a quasielastic peak. The spreading of the structure functions about the peak is associated with confinement. As expected, Regge behavior is not obtained for large ω. The ''momentum sum rule'' is saturated, indicating that the hadron's charged constituents carry all the momentum in this model. νW/subL/ is found to scale and is calculable. Application of the model to the calculation of spin-dependent and chiral-symmetry--violating structure functions is proposed. The nature of the intermediate states in this approximation is discussed. Problems associated with the cavity approximation are also discussed

  8. Comparison of cryopreservation bags for hematopoietic progenitor cells using a WBC-enriched product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Hazelaar, Sandra; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Weggemans, Margienus; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) are stored in cryopreservation bags that are resistant to liquid nitrogen. Since Cryocyte bags of Baxter (B-bags) are no longer available, an alternative bag was sought. Also, the influence of freezing volume was studied. Miltenyi Biotec (MB)- and MacoPharma (MP)-bags passed the integrity tests without failure. Comparing MB- and MP-bags with B-bags, no difference in WBC recovery or viability was found when using a WBC-enriched product as a "dummy" HPC product. Further, a freezing volume of 30 mL resulted in better WBC recovery and viability than 60 mL. Additonal studies using real HPC might be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  10. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  11. HIV-1 Tat protein induces glial cell autophagy through enhancement of BAG3 protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Anna Paola; De Simone, Francesca Isabella; Iorio, Vittoria; De Marco, Margot; Khalili, Kamel; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Capunzo, Mario; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Rosati, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    BAG3 protein has been described as an anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagic factor in several neoplastic and normal cells. We previously demonstrated that BAG3 expression is elevated upon HIV-1 infection of glial and T lymphocyte cells. Among HIV-1 proteins, Tat is highly involved in regulating host cell response to viral infection. Therefore, we investigated the possible role of Tat protein in modulating BAG3 protein levels and the autophagic process itself. In this report, we show that transfection with Tat raises BAG3 levels in glioblastoma cells. Moreover, BAG3 silencing results in highly reducing Tat- induced levels of LC3-II and increasing the appearance of sub G0/G1 apoptotic cells, in keeping with the reported role of BAG3 in modulating the autophagy/apoptosis balance. These results demonstrate for the first time that Tat protein is able to stimulate autophagy through increasing BAG3 levels in human glial cells.

  12. Expression of Anti-apoptotic Protein BAG3 in Human Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), has been shown to play a role in anti-apoptosis of various malignant tumors. In this study, the expression of BAG3 was examined in human sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. The expression of BAG3 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of surgical samples from 5 patients with sebaceous gland carcinoma in the eyelid. BAG3 was positive diffusely in the cytoplasm in all patients. The average positive rate of BAG3 was 73.0±26.0% in tumor cells of all patients. BAG3 was highly expressed in sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. BAG3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Microwave Steam Bags for the Decontamination of Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edward M.; Williams, Jessica L.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21525995

  14. Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M Fisher

    Full Text Available Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens.

  15. Testing of SRS and RFETS Nylon Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the effects of radiation and heating on nylon bagout materials used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Recently, to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C), FB-Line has replaced the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags normally used to package cans of plutonium-bearing material with nylon bags. LDPE and PVC are not soluble in the nitric acid dissolver solution used in F-Canyon, so cans bagged using these materials had to be repackaged before they were added to the dissolver. Because nylon dissolves in nitric acid, cans bagged in nylon can be charged to the F-Canyon dissolvers without repackaging, thereby reducing handling requirements and personnel exposure. As part of a program to process RFETS SS and C at SRS, RFETS has also begun to use a nylon bagout material. The RFETS bag materials is made from a copolymer of nylon 6 and nylon 6.9, while the SRS material is made from a nylon 6 monomer. In addition, the SRS nylon has an anti-static agent added. The RFETS nylon is slightly softer than the SRS nylon, but does not appear to be as resistant to flex cracks initiated by contact with sharp corners of the inner can containing the SS and C.2 FB-Line Operations has asked for measurement of the effects of radiation and heating on these materials. Specifically, they have requested a comparison of the material properties of the plastics before and after irradiation, a measurement of the amount of outgassing when the plastics are heated, and a calculation of the amount of radiolytic gas generation. Testing was performed on samples taken from material that is currently used in FB-Line (color coded orange) and at RFETS. The requested tests are the same tests previously performed on the original and replacement nylon and LDPE bag materials.3,4,5. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on material properties, tensile stresses and elongations to break

  16. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Dilraj S; Ward, Joel; Lee, Regent; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  17. Quantum fluctuations in the bag and nucleon observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Vento, V.

    1982-03-01

    A time-dependent, perturbative formalism is developed to describe the effect of quantum fluctuations of the quark fields inside a hadronic bag on physical observables. This formalism differs from previous ones in that (1) all contributions to second order in the QCD coupling constant are generated systematically and included in the numerical treatment; (2) the intermediate sums are carried out over a full set of states consistent with parity and SU(2) coupling rules. After removing the logarithmic divergences arising from the intermediate state sums in the 1-body terms and applying a finite renormalization, the second order fluctuation corrections to several proton and neutron observables are computed. The results obtained are significantly different from those obtained in earlier calculations. In no case considered are the calculated corrections sufficient to account for existing discrepancies between empirical values and lower order hadronic bag results for nucleon observables

  18. Pioneras del punk: el caso de Alice Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Alonso Alconada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a la música chicana Alice Bag como una de las figuras influyentes en la temprana escena punk de Los Ángeles, California, quien ayudó a abrir el camino a una afluencia mayor de mujeres en la música punk, poniendo así algunos temas feministas en primera línea. De este modo, trataremos de ampliar el ámbito de estudio del punk. Tanto su autobiografía Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011 y su casi recién estrenado LP Alice Bag (2016 abarcan temas relacionados con la condición de las mujeres chicanas, convirtiendo al punk en una poderosa plataforma de la que se ayuda para articular conceptos feministas y étnicos.

  19. Effective ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrates in teflon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capon, S.M.; Sacher, R.A.; Deeg, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several plastic materials used in blood storage were evaluated for their ability to transmit ultraviolet B (UVB) light. A plastic bag manufactured from sheets of transparent Teflon efficiently (78-86%) transmitted UVB light and was employed in subsequent functional studies of lymphocytes and platelets exposed to UVB light while contained in these bags. In vitro experiments showed a UVB dose-dependent abrogation of lymphocyte responder and stimulator functions, with concurrent preservation of platelet aggregation responses. In a phase I pilot study, UVB-treated platelet concentrates were administered to four bone marrow transplant recipients. Adverse effects attributable to the transfusions were not observed, and patients showed clinically effective transfusion responses. No patient developed lymphocytotoxic HLA or platelet antibodies. These studies suggest that platelets can be effectively irradiated with UVB light in a closed system. However, numerous variables, including container material, volume and composition of contents, steady exposure versus agitation, and exact UV wavelength, must be considered

  20. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S. Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue and indirubin (red pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  1. Medical emergencies facing general practitioners: Drugs for the doctor's bag

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    General practitioners are frequently facing medical emergencies. In order to react properly and administer therapy on time, a general practitioner needs to prepare and keep with himself the appropriate set of drugs which could be effectively used for treatment of the emergencies. The following drugs should find their place in the doctor's bag: acetaminophen (for mild and moderate pain, and for fever), morphine (for severe pain), naloxone (for heroin poisoning), ceftriaxone (for meningococcal ...

  2. Quarks-bags phase transition in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenshtejn, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Phase transitions in the quark-gluon plasma are considered at finite temperatures and chemical potentials. A phenomenological account for a complicated structure of the QCD vacuum results in the necessity to use the formalism of isobaric ensembles to describe the system. The phase transition curve separating the regions of the quark-gluon plasma and the hadronic bag phase in the μT plane is calculated [ru

  3. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  4. Leachables from saline-containing IV bags can alter therapeutic protein properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Judy Y; Xiao, Nina J; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jennifer; Hoff, Ed; Russell, Stephen J; Katta, Viswanatham; Shire, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the cause of the observed instability of dulanermin in 100 ml polyolefin (PO) infusion bags containing saline. Diluted dulanermin in IV bags was collected and frozen prior to analysis by size exclusion chromatography. The UV absorption profiles of the IV bag solutions were characterized by using spectrophotometry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measured the metal content. Leachables from IV bags were identified by LC-UV-high resolution MS/MS analysis. An elevated loss of dulanermin monomers was observed only in 100 ml PO bags. These IV bag solutions have a compound that contains zinc and has absorbance at 320 nm. This compound was identified to be 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and its zinc salt and was found to come from the stopper used in the 100 ml PO bags. The manufacturer has subsequently corrected this problem by using non-latex components in the 100 ml PO IV bag. End-users need to be aware that IV bags made from a particular polymer by the same manufacturer may contain components or use a manufacturing process that results in a different product. Analysis of samples after freezing and thawing proved to be useful in identifying potential incompatibility of dulanermin in the IV bags.

  5. Warming preterm infants in the delivery room: polyethylene bags, exothermic mattresses or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa K; O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2011-12-01

    To compare the admission temperature of infants treated with polyethylene bags alone to infants treated with exothermic mattresses in addition to bags in the delivery room. We prospectively studied infants born at bags at birth. Some infants were also placed on mattresses. Admission axillary temperatures were measured in all infants on admission to the neonatal intensive care. We compared the temperatures of infants treated with bags alone to those treated with mattresses and bags. We studied 43 infants: 15 were treated with bags while 28 were treated with a bag and mattress. Mean admission temperature was similar between the groups. Hypothermia and hyperthermia occurred more frequently in infants treated with a bag and mattress, and more infants treated with a bag had admission temperatures 36.5-37.5°C. The use of exothermic mattresses in addition to polyethylene bags, particularly in younger, smaller newborns, may result in more hypothermia and hyperthermia on admission. A randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which strategy results in more infants having admission temperatures in the normal range. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of the trunk in malignant tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianxin; Wu Yuqi; Huang Jun; Lin Chengguang; Liu Hui; Huang Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of thorax and pelvis for patients with malignant tumors. Methods: Of 714 patients (fields) chosen randomly, 582(fields) were immobilized with vacuum bag, while the other 132 (fields) used only sand bags, tapes, and other simple immobilizing devices. The field movements were measured and compared before and after the setup, along with 56 patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Results: The variance of movement before and after the setup was 6.7% for patients with vacuum bag , while that was 26.5% for patients without the vacuum bag. It was even 32.1% for patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Conclusions: The variance of movement decreases significantly with vacuum bag immobilization. It should be used as frequently as possible. As the variance of movement rises obviously when vacuum bag is used twice, the semi-soft vacuum bag should be prepared afresh and checked under the simulator before the second use. (authors)

  7. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde induces apoptosis through HSF1-mediated BAG3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Anh; Kim, Soo-A

    2017-01-01

    BAG3, a member of BAG co-chaperone family, is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals. Through interaction with various binding partners, BAG3 is thought to play a role in cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions in normal and neoplastic cells. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) is a natural derivative of cinnamaldehyde and has antitumor activity in various cancer cells. In the present study, for the first time, we identified that HCA induced BAG3 expression and BAG3-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by HCA was demonstrated by caspase-7, -9 and PARP activation, and confirmed by Annexin V staining in both SW480 and SW620 colon cancer cells. Notably, both the mRNA and protein levels of BAG3 were largely induced by HCA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. By showing transcription factor HSF1 activation, we demonstrated that HCA induces the expression of BAG3 through HSF1 activation. More importantly, knockdown of BAG3 expression using siRNA largely inhibited HCA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that BAG3 is actively involved in HCA-induced cancer cell death. Considering the importance of the stress response mechanism in cancer progression, our results strongly suggest that BAG3 could be a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  8. A role of BAG3 in regulating SNCA/α-synuclein clearance via selective macroautophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu-Lan; Yang, Ya-Ping; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Chen-Tao; Yang, Jing; Lv, Dong-Jun; Wang, Fen; Hu, Li-Fang; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2017-12-01

    Many studies reveal that BAG3 plays a critical role in the regulation of protein degradation via macroautophagy. However, it remains unknown whether BAG3 affects the quality control of α-synuclein (SNCA), a Parkinson's disease-related protein. In this study, we demonstrated the increases of BAG3 expression in the ventral midbrain of SNCA A53T transgenic mice and also in MG132-treated PC12 cells overexpressing wild-type SNCA (SNCA WT -PC12). Moreover, we showed that BAG3 overexpression was sufficient to enhance the autophagy activity while knockdown of Bag3 reduced it in SNCA WT -PC12 cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed that BAG3 interacted with heat shock protein 70 and sequestosome 1. The immunostaining also showed the perinuclear accumulation and colocalization of BAG3 with these 2 proteins, as well as with LC3 dots in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the midbrain of SNCA A53T mice. BAG3 overexpression was able to modulate SNCA degradation via macroautophagy which was prevented by Atg5 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that BAG3 plays a relevant role in regulating SNCA clearance via macroautophagy, and the heat shock protein 70-BAG3-sequestosome 1 complex may be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. BAG3 protects bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed equine fibroblasts against pro-death signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugno, Roberta; Gallotta, Dario; d'Avenia, Morena; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Roperto, Franco; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the expression of BAG3 protein both in equine sarcoids in vivo and in EqS04b cells, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that most tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from healthy horses displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrate in EqS04b the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation was indeed shown to promote cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized EqS04b cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent present in edible cruciferous vegetables. Notably, such a pro-survival role of BAG3 was less marked in E. Derm cells, an equine BPV-negative fibroblast cell line taken as a normal counterpart. Altogether our findings might suggest a mutual cooperation between BAG3 and viral oncoproteins to sustain cell survival.

  10. BAG3 sensitizes cancer cells exposed to DNA damaging agents via direct interaction with GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De-Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Li, Chao; Liu, Bao-Qin; Guan, Yifu; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has a modular structure that contains a BAG domain, a WW domain, a proline-rich (PxxP) domain to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and other proteins that participate in more than one signal transduction. In search for novel interacting partners, the current study identified that 78kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was a novel partner interacting with BAG3. Interaction between GRP78 and BAG3 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown. We also identified that the ATPase domain of GRP78 and BAG domain of BAG3 mediated their interaction. Counterintuitive for a prosurvival protein, BAG3 was found to promote the cytotoxicity of breast cancer MCF7, thyroid cancer FRO and glioma U87 cells subjected to genotoxic stress. In addition, the current study demonstrated that BAG3 interfered with the formation of the antiapoptotic GRP78-procaspase-7 complex, which resulted in an increased genotoxic stress-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of GRP78 significantly blocked the enhancing effects of BAG3 on activation of caspase-7 and induction of apoptosis by genotoxic stress. Overall, these results suggested that through direct interaction BAG3 could prevent the antiapoptotic effect of GRP78 upon genotoxic stress. © 2013.

  11. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Aveic

    Full Text Available BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1 is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  12. Impact of storage environment on the efficacy of hermetic storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Brett; Woloshuk, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Small hermetic bags (50 and 100 kg capacities) used by smallholder farmers in several African countries have proven to be a low-cost solution for preventing storage losses due to insects. The complexity of postharvest practices and the need for ideal drying conditions, especially in the Sub-Sahara, has led to questions about the efficacy of the hermetic bags for controlling spoilage by fungi and the potential for mycotoxin accumulation. This study compared the effects of environmental temperature and relative humidity at two locations (Indiana and Arkansas) on dry maize (14% moisture content) in woven polypropylene bags and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) hermetic bags. Temperature and relative humidity data loggers placed in the middle of each bag provided profiles of environmental influences on stored grain at the two locations. The results indicated that the PICS bags prevented moisture penetration over the three-month storage period. In contrast, maize in the woven bags increased in moisture content. For both bag types, no evidence was obtained indicating the spread of Aspergillus flavus from colonized maize to adjacent non-colonized maize. However, other storage fungi did increase during storage. The number of infected kernels did not increase in the PICS bags, but the numbers in the woven bags increased significantly. The warmer environment in Arkansas resulted in significantly higher insect populations in the woven bags than in Indiana. Insects in the PICS bags remained low at both locations. This study demonstrates that the PICS hermetic bags are effective at blocking the effects of external humidity fluctuations as well as the spread of fungi to non-infected kernels.

  13. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  14. Penerapan Dizcretization dan Teknik Bagging Untuk Meningkatkan Akurasi Klasifikasi Berbasis Ensemble pada Algoritma C4.5 dalam Mendiagnosa Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirqotussa’adah Mirqotussa’adah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pada bidang kesehatan, data mining dapat dimanfaatkan untuk memprediksi suatu penyakit dari data rekam medis pasien, diantaranya diabetes. Ada beberapa model data mining salah satunya klasifikasi. Di bidang klasifikasi,  ada banyak cabang yang berkembang yaitu pohon keputusan (decision tree. Salah satu decision tree yang populer adalah C4.5. Dalam riset ini, data yang digunakan adalah pima indian diabetes dataset yang diambil dari UCI repository of machine learning. Pada dataset ini seluruh atributnya bertipe numerik yang bersifat continuous dan untuk menangani data continuous digunakan discretization. Akurasi sangat penting dalam pengklasifikasian, ensemble method adalah metode yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan akurasi algoritma klasifikasi dengan membangun beberapa classifier dari data training. Dari hasil penelitian, dengan menerapkan discretization dan teknik bagging untuk klasifikasi berbasis ensemble pada algoritma C4.5 dapat meningkatkan akurasi sebesar 6,26%. Dengan akurasi awal 68,61%, setelah diterapkan discretization dan teknik bagging menjadi 74,87%.

  15. Anterior haptic flexing and in-the-bag subluxation of an accommodating intraocular lens due to excessive capsular bag contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory D; Werner, Liliana; Neuhann, Tobias; Tetz, Manfred; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of the hydrophilic acrylic Tetraflex accommodating intraocular lens (IOL), with subsequent development of capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL subluxation. Contraction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis resulted in significant anterior flexing of the lens haptic component. Explantation of the IOL-capsular bag complex was required 7 years after implantation. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated multiple areas of thick anterior subcapsular fibrosis. Pseudoexfoliative material was present throughout the surface of the lens capsule. Intraocular lenses manufactured from hydrophilic acrylic material are highly flexible and may be more susceptible to capsule contraction, even in the absence of predisposing ocular and systemic conditions. This case highlights the importance of developing guidelines regarding patient screening and selection for the appropriate use of accommodating and other highly flexible IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peak Bagging of red giant stars observed by Kepler: first results with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Enrico; De Ridder, Joris

    2015-09-01

    The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars' power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars observed by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of observed oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Efficiency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we show the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noise red giant stars by exploiting recent Kepler datasets and a new criterion for the detection of an oscillation mode based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence. Preliminary results for frequencies and lifetimes for single oscillation modes, together with acoustic glitches, are therefore presented.

  17. Peak Bagging of red giant stars observed by Kepler: first results with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsaro Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars’ power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars observed by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of observed oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Efficiency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we show the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noise red giant stars by exploiting recent Kepler datasets and a new criterion for the detection of an oscillation mode based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence. Preliminary results for frequencies and lifetimes for single oscillation modes, together with acoustic glitches, are therefore presented.

  18. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.; Sojka, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 2 ), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak

  19. Thermodynamics of strange quark matter with the density-dependent bag constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of strange quark matter with density dependent bag constant are studied self-consistently in the framework of the general ensemble theory and the MIT bag model.In our treatment,an additional term is found in the expression of pressure.With the additional term,the zero pressure locates exactly at the lowest energy state,indicating that our treatment is a self-consistently thermodynamic treatment.The self-consistent equations of state of strange quark matter in both the normal and color-flavor-locked phase are derived.They are both softer than the inconsistent ones.Strange stars in both the normal and color-flavor locked phase have smaller masses and radii in our treatment.It is also interesting to find that the energy density at a star surface in our treatment is much higher than that in the inconsistent treatment for both phases.Consequently,the surface properties and the corresponding observational properties of strange stars in our treatment are different from those in the inconsistent treatment.

  20. Thermodynamics of strange quark matter with the density-dependent bag constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU MingFeng; LIU GuangZhou; YU Zi; XU Yan; SONG WenTao

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of strange quark matter with density dependent bag constant are studied selfconsistently in the framework of the general ensemble theory and the MIT bag model.In our treatment,an additional term Is found in the expression of pressure.With the additional term,the zero pressure locates exactly at the lowest energy state,Indicating that our treatment is a self-consistently thermodynamic treatment.The self-consistent equations of state of strange quark matter in both the normal and color-flavor-locked phase are derived.They are both softer than the inconsistent ones.Strange stars in both the normal and color-flavor locked phase have smaller masses and radii in our treatment.It is also interesting to find that the energy density at a star surface in our treatment is much higher than that In the inconsistent treatment for both phases.Consequently,the surface properties and the corresponding observational properties of strange stars in our treatment are different from those in the inconsistent treatment.

  1. Handling imbalance data in churn prediction using combined SMOTE and RUS with bagging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura Hartati, Eka; Adiwijaya; Arif Bijaksana, Moch

    2018-03-01

    Customer churn has become a significant problem and also a challenge for Telecommunication company such as PT. Telkom Indonesia. It is necessary to evaluate whether the big problems of churn customer and the company’s managements will make appropriate strategies to minimize the churn and retaining the customer. Churn Customer data which categorized churn Atas Permintaan Sendiri (APS) in this Company is an imbalance data, and this issue is one of the challenging tasks in machine learning. This study will investigate how is handling class imbalance in churn prediction using combined Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling (SMOTE) and Random Under-Sampling (RUS) with Bagging method for a better churn prediction performance’s result. The dataset that used is Broadband Internet data which is collected from Telkom Regional 6 Kalimantan. The research firstly using data preprocessing to balance the imbalanced dataset and also to select features by sampling technique SMOTE and RUS, and then building churn prediction model using Bagging methods and C4.5.

  2. BAG3 promotes chondrosarcoma progression by upregulating the expression of β-catenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijuan; Chen, Wenfang; Dong, Yu; Lu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Liantang

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the roles of B-cell lymphoma-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in human chondrosarcoma and the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of BAG3 were detected in the present study, and the associations between BAG3 and clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage as well as the survival of patients were analyzed. The present study detected BAG3 mRNA and protein expression in the normal cartilage cell line HC-a and in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The BAG3 protein expression in 59 cases of chondrosarcoma, 30 patients with endogenous chondroma and 8 cases of normal cartilage was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. In addition, the BAG3 protein expression level, the clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage and the survival time of patients with chondrosarcoma were analyzed. The plasmid transfection method was employed to upregulate the expression BAG3 and small RNA interference to downregulate the expression of BAG3 in SW1353 cells. The expression levels of BAG3 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the chondrosarcoma cell line when compared with the normal cartilage cell line. The immunohistochemistry results indicated that BAG3 protein was overexpressed in the tissue of human chondrosarcoma. Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of BAG3 was significantly increased in the different Enneking staging of patients with chondrosarcoma and Tumor staging, and there were no statistical differences in age, gender, histological classification and tumor size. In the in vitro experiments, the data revealed that BAG3 significantly promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation, colony-formation, migration and invasion; however, it inhibited chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. It was observed that BAG3 upregulated β-catenin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, BAG3 induced the expression of runt

  3. BAG3 promotes chondrosarcoma progression by upregulating the expression of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijuan; Chen, Wenfang; Dong, Yu; Lu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Liantang

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the roles of B‑cell lymphoma‑2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in human chondrosarcoma and the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of BAG3 were detected in the present study, and the associations between BAG3 and clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage as well as the survival of patients were analyzed. The present study detected BAG3 mRNA and protein expression in the normal cartilage cell line HC‑a and in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The BAG3 protein expression in 59 cases of chondrosarcoma, 30 patients with endogenous chondroma and 8 cases of normal cartilage was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. In addition, the BAG3 protein expression level, the clinical pathological parameters, clinical stage and the survival time of patients with chondrosarcoma were analyzed. The plasmid transfection method was employed to upregulate the expression BAG3 and small RNA interference to downregulate the expression of BAG3 in SW1353 cells. The expression levels of BAG3 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the chondrosarcoma cell line when compared with the normal cartilage cell line. The immunohistochemistry results indicated that BAG3 protein was overexpressed in the tissue of human chondrosarcoma. Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of BAG3 was significantly increased in the different Enneking staging of patients with chondrosarcoma and Tumor staging, and there were no statistical differences in age, gender, histological classification and tumor size. In the in vitro experiments, the data revealed that BAG3 significantly promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation, colony‑formation, migration and invasion; however, it inhibited chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis. It was observed that BAG3 upregulated β‑catenin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, BAG3 induced the

  4. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca(2+) homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Arthur M; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D; Tilley, Douglas G; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2016-03-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and L-type Ca(2+) channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca(2+) channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca(2+)]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content but not Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca(2+) uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca(2+) entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca(2+) channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca2+ homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Arthur M.; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J.; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (LV) myocytes BAG3 co-localized with Na+-K+-ATPase and L-type Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma and t-tubules. BAG3 co-immunoprecipitated with β1-adrenergic receptor, L-type Ca2+ channels and phospholemman. To simulate decreased BAG3 protein levels observed in human heart failure, we targeted BAG3 by shRNA (shBAG3) in adult LV myocytes. Reducing BAG3 by 55% resulted in reduced contraction and [Ca2+]i transient amplitudes in LV myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol. L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content but not Na+/Ca2+ exchange current (INaCa) or SR Ca2+ uptake were reduced in isoproterenol-treated shBAG3 myocytes. Forskolin or dibutyrl cAMP restored ICa amplitude in shBAG3 myocytes to that observed in WT myocytes, consistent with BAG3 having effects upstream and at the level of the receptor. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were unaffected but APD50 and APD90 were prolonged in shBAG3 myocytes. Protein levels of Ca2+ entry molecules and other important excitation-contraction proteins were unchanged in myocytes with lower BAG3. Our findings that BAG3 is localized at the sarcolemma and t-tubules while modulating myocyte contraction and action potential duration through specific interaction with the β1-adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca2+ channel provide novel insight into the role of BAG3 in cardiomyopathies and increased arrhythmia risks in heart failure. PMID:26796036

  6. New machine learning tools for predictive vegetation mapping after climate change: Bagging and Random Forest perform better than Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Iverson; A.M. Prasad; A. Liaw

    2004-01-01

    More and better machine learning tools are becoming available for landscape ecologists to aid in understanding species-environment relationships and to map probable species occurrence now and potentially into the future. To thal end, we evaluated three statistical models: Regression Tree Analybib (RTA), Bagging Trees (BT) and Random Forest (RF) for their utility in...

  7. Comparison of organic matter degradation in several feedstuffs in the rumen as determined with the nylon bag and gas production techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, John W.; Van Gelder, Antonie H.; Bachmann, Herwig; Hindle, Vincent A.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) degradation of 21 feedstuffs was investigated with rumen fluid using a rumen in situ technique and a gas production technique. Fitting the nylon bag data to an exponential model showed that there was a high variation in the rate of OM degradation ranging from 1.7% h-1 for

  8. Homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A solution in the time of fiscal crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, George; Fotiadis, Kyriakos; Panagiotou, Dimitrios; Faitatzidou, Afroditi; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2015-05-01

    Due to the current economic crisis in Greece, major cutbacks on healthcare costs have been imposed, resulting in a shortage of surgical supplies, including laparoscopic materials. In an attempt to reduce costs, we developed a homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We used the polyethylene bag containing the catheter of a Redon drainage set. The bag was cut in half and pleated longitudinally; then, the gallbladder was placed in the bag and removed through the umbilicus with a grasping forceps. From September 2011 to June 2012, we used our homemade bag on 85 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No rupture, accidental opening, or bile leak was observed. The learning curve was found to be five cases. Our homemade specimen retrieval bag seems to be a safe, effective, and easy tool for tissue extraction. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate its full potential. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. On relation between the quark-gluon bag surface tension and the colour tube string tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the bag phenomenology of deconfining phase transition aiming to replenish it by introducing systematically the bag surface tension. Comparing the free energies of such bags and the strings confining the static quark-antiquark pair, we express the string tension in terms of the bag surface tension and the bulk pressure in order to estimate the bag characteristics using the lattice QCD (LQCD) data. Our analysis of the bag entropy density demonstrates that the surface tension coefficient is amazingly negative at the cross-over (continuous transition). The approach developed allows us to naturally account for an origin of a pronounced maximum (observed in the LQCD studies) in the behaviour of heavy quark-antiquark pair entropy. The vicinity of the (tri-)critical endpoint is also analyzed to clarify the meaning of vanishing surface tension coefficient.

  10. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziana Maria Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric insertions of nylon bags every 12 hours, and each bag contained 663 mg of feed samples in a proportion of 17 mg DM/cm². Feces and bags were collected directly from the stall floor immediately after excretion. There was no difference between the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates and hydrolysable carbohydrates of coastcross hay estimated with feces collection and mobile bags. Forage peanut showed high nutrients digestibility, with values close to those observed with alfalfa, indicating potential for use in diets for horses.

  11. Quark and gluon propagators in the spherical bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulish, Yu V [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Kharkov

    1983-12-01

    The quark and gluon propagators in a spherical cavity have been obtained by summation of the quark field modes (J-1/2, J is the total moment) and gluon field modes (J=1). The requirements for the spatial components of the gluon propagator Gsub(ik)(x, x') and the quark propagator S(x, x') to be Green functions of the wave equations result in the coincidence of directions for anti x and anti x' vectors. Relations have been derived which allow verification of the self-consistency of approximations used to calculate dynamic values.

  12. Quark and gluon propagators in the spherical bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    The quark and gluon propagators in a spherical cavity have been obtained by summation of the quark field modes (J-1/2, J is the total moment) and gluon field modes (J=1). The requirements for the spatial components of the gluon propagator Gsub(ik)(x, x') and the quark propagator S(x, x') to be Green functions of the wave equations result in the coincidence of directions for anti x and anti x' vectors. Relations have been derived which allow verification of the self-consistency of approximations used to calculate dynamic values

  13. Exactly solvable model of phase transition between hadron and quark-gluon-matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.; Petrov, V.K.; Shelest, V.P.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    An exactly solvable model of phase transition between hadron and quark-gluon matter is proposed. The hadron phase of this model is considered as a gas of bags filled by point massless constituents. The mass and volume spectrum of the bag is found. The thermodynamical characteristics of a bag gas in the neighbourhood of a phase transition point are ascertained in analytical form

  14. Short communication: measurements of methane emissions from feed samples in filter bags or dispersed in the medium in an in vitro gas production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, M; Krizsan, S J; Jančík, F; Huhtanen, P

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH4) emissions from different feeds when incubated within filter bags for in vitro analysis or directly dispersed in the medium in an automated gas in vitro system. Four different concentrates and 4 forages were used in this study. Two lactating Swedish Red cows were used for the collection of rumen fluid. Feed samples were milled to pass a 1.0-mm screen. Aliquots (0.5 g) of samples were weighed directly in the bottles or within the F 0285 filter bags that were placed in the bottles. Gas samples were taken during 24 and 48 h of incubation, and CH4 concentration was determined. The data were analyzed using a general linear model. Feeds differed significantly in CH4 emission both at 24 and at 48 h of incubation. The interaction between feed and method on methane emission in vitro was significant, indicating that the ranking of feeds was not consistent between the methods. Generally, greater amounts of CH4 were emitted from samples directly dispersed in the medium compared with those incubated within the filter bags, which could be a result of lower microbial activity within the filter bags. The ratio of CH4 to total gas was greater when the feeds were incubated within bags compared with samples directly dispersed in the medium. Incubating samples in filter bags during 48 h of incubation cannot be recommended for determination of CH4 emission of feeds in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Judith I.M. de Groot; Wokje Abrahamse; Kayleigh Jones

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages ( i.e. , activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design ( N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message cond...

  16. The Welsh Single-Use Carrier Bag Charge and behavioural spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gregory O.; Poortinga, Wouter; Sautkina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A Single-Use Carrier Bag Charge (SUCBC) requires bags to be sold for a small fee, instead of free of charge. SUCBCs may produce ‘spillover’ effects, where other pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours could increase or decrease. We investigate the 2011 Welsh SUCBC, and whether spillover occurs in other behaviours and attitudes. Using the Understanding Society Survey (n = 17,636), results show that use of own shopping bags increased in Wales, compared to England and Scotland. Increased use ...

  17. BAG3 promotes the phenotypic transformation of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Chang, Ye; Chen, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yintao; Sun, Guozhe; Yu, Shasha; Ye, Ning; Li, Chao; Sun, Yingxian

    2018-05-01

    Under normal physiological condition, the mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show differentiated phenotype. In response to various environmental stimuluses, VSMCs convert from the differentiated phenotype to dedifferentiated phenotype characterized by the increased ability of proliferation/migration and the reduction of contractile ability. The phenotypic transformation of VSMCs played an important role in atherosclerosis. Both Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and tumor necrosis factor-related apopt-osis inducing ligand (TRAIL) involved in apoptosis. The relationship between BAG3 and TRAIL and their effects the proliferation and migration in VSMCs are rarely reported. This study investigated the effects of BAG3 on the phenotypic modulation and the potential underlying mechanisms in primary rat VSMCs. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) and EdU incorporation. Cell migration was detected by wound healing, Transwell and RTCA. BAG3 and TRAIL were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting and the secreted proteins in the cultured media by dot blot. The expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages in cultured primary VSMCs. BAG3 promoted the proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. BAG3 significantly increased the expression of TRAIL while had no effects on its receptors. TRAIL knockdown or blocking by neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by BAG3. TRAIL knockdown exerted no obvious influence on the migration of VSMCs. Based on this study, we report for the first time that BAG3 was expressed in cultured primary rat VSMCs and the expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages. Furthermore, BAG3 promoted the proliferation of VSMCs via increasing the expression of TRAIL. In addition, we also demonstrated that BAG3 promoted the migration of VSMCs independent of TRAIL

  18. [Expression of BAG3 Gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Prognostic Value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua-Yuan; Fu, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jia-Dai; Chen, Ting-Mei; Qiao, Chun; Li, Jian-Yong; Liu, Peng

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the expression of BAG3 gene in acue myeloid leukemia (AML) and its prognostic value. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of BAG3 mRNA in 88 previously untreated AML patients. The corelation of BAG3 expression level with clinical characteristics and known prognostic markers of AML was analyzed. In 88 patients with AML, the expression of BAG3 mRNA in NPMI mutated AML patients was obviously lower than that in NPMI unmutated patients (P = 0.018). The expression level of BAG3 mRNA did not related to clinical parameters, such as age, sex, FAB subtype, WBC count, extra-modullary presentation, and to prognostic factors including cytogenetics, FLT3-ITD, c-kit and CEBPα mutation status (P > 0.05). The expression level of BAG3 had no obvious effect on complete remission (CR) of patients in first treatment. The expression level of BAG3 in non-M3 patients was higher than that in relapsed patients (P = 0.036). The expression level of BAG3 had no effect on overall survival (OS) of patients. The expression level of BAG3 does not correlated with known-prognostic markers of AML, only the expression level of BAG3 in NPM1 mutated patients is lower than that in NPM1 unmutated patients. The expression level of BAG3 has no effect on OS of AML patients, the BAG3 can not be difined as a prognostic marker in AML.

  19. Analysis of BAG3 plasma concentrations in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Parul U; Gaggin, Hanna K; Belcher, Arianna M; Harisiades, Jamie E; Basile, Anna; Falco, Antonia; Rosati, Alessandra; Piscione, Federico; Januzzi, James L; Turco, M Caterina

    2015-05-20

    BCL-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a protein implicated in the cardiomyocyte stress response and genesis of cardiomyopathy. Extracellular BAG3 is measurable in patients with heart failure (HF), but the relationship of BAG3 with HF prognosis is unclear. BAG3 plasma concentrations were measured in 39 acutely decompensated HF patients; the primary endpoint was death at 1 year. Baseline characteristics were compared by vital status and median BAG3 concentration. Correlation of BAG3 with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and other biomarkers was performed. Prognostic value was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. At baseline, median BAG3 was significantly higher in decedents (N=11) than survivors (N=28; 1489 ng/mL versus 50 ng/mL; P=0.04); decedents also had worse renal function and higher median natriuretic peptide (NP) and sST2. BAG3 was not significantly correlated with NPs, mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, sST2, or eGFR, however. Mortality was increased in patients with supra-median BAG3 (>336 ng/mL; 42.1% versus 15.0%, P=0.06). In age and LVEF-adjusted Cox proportional hazards, BAG3 remained a significant mortality predictor (HR=3.20; 95% CI=1.34-7.65; P=0.02); those with supra-median BAG3 had significantly shorter time-to-death (P=0.04). The stress response protein BAG3 is measurable in patients with ADHF and may be prognostic for death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing odorants recovery from a novel metallized fluorinated ethylene propylene gas sampling bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Wright, Donald; Kuhrt, Fred

    2015-12-01

    Industry-standard Tedlar bags for odor sample collection from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been challenged by the evidence of volatile organic compound (VOC) losses and background interferences. Novel impermeable aluminum foil with a thin layer of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film on the surface that is in contact with a gas sample was developed to address this challenge. In this research, Tedlar and metallized FEP bags were compared for (a) recoveries of four characteristic CAFO odorous VOCs (ethyl mercaptan, butyric acid, isovaleric acid and p-cresol) after 30 min and 24 hr sample storage time and for (b) chemical background interferences. All air sampling and analyses were performed with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Mean target gas sample recoveries from metallized FEP bags were 25.9% and 28.0% higher than those in Tedlar bags, for 30 min and 24 hr, respectively. Metallized FEP bags demonstrated the highest p-cresol recoveries after 30-min and 24-hr storage, 96.1±44.5% and 44.8±10.2%, respectively, among different types of sampling bags reported in previous studies. However, a higher variability was observed for p-cresol recovery with metallized FEP bags. A 0% recovery of ethyl mercaptan was observed with Tedlar bags after 24-hr storage, whereas an 85.7±7.4% recovery was achieved with metallized FEP bags. Recoveries of butyric and isovaleric acids were similar for both bag types. Two major impurities in Tedlar bags' background were identified as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol, while backgrounds of metallized FEP bags were significantly cleaner. Reusability of metallized FEP bags was tested. Caution is advised when using polymeric materials for storage of livestock-relevant odorous volatile organic compounds. The odorants loss with storage time confirmed that long-term storage in whole-air form is ill advised. A focused short-term odor sample containment should be

  1. A bag adapted for the handling of a filtering element or filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a transparent, flexible, synthetic plastics bag adapted to contain a filter element or filter unit so that the latter can be inserted into or removed from a filter casing or duct while being contained in the bag. The bag has a neck portion which is capable of being removably secured in an air-tight manner on to a part of the casing, and gloves or glove portions are provided in, or are formed in, the wall of the bag to permit handles on the filter element or unit to be grasped. (author)

  2. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using small meshed collecting bags on trawls to quantify trawls seabed disturbance of aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    impact on commercial fishing grounds. In this study we develop and test small-meshed collecting bags designed to retain juvenile fish and benthic megafauna. The collecting bags are mounted in the wings and body of the trawl. The catches in the collection bags provide information of the species and size...... in the mechanical effect, such as penetration depth of the ground gear of different trawl designs. Collecting bags are also mounted to the different sections of the trawl in pairs, one to collect the organisms that pass through the trawl meshes and one to collect the population. Standard selectivity analyses...

  4. A powder-free surgical glove bag for retraction of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Jørgen Bendix; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2005-08-01

    To test the use of a simple and cheap powder-free glove bag to extract the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The medical records of 142 consecutive patients who had their gallbladder removed using a powder-free glove bag were reviewed. No complications in the form of bile or stone spillage during extraction were observed. The absence of complications and the low cost make routine use of the glove bag a wise option for extracting the gallbladder during LC. The use of the glove bag seems to reduce the risk of contamination with bacteria, bile, and gallstones and may reduce contamination by malignant cells in case of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma.

  5. Cost analysis of premixed multichamber bags versus compounded parenteral nutrition: breakeven point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozat, Erkut; Korubuk, Gamze; Onar, Pelin; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2014-02-01

    Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial.

  6. Silencing of BAG3 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Fei; Wang, Geng; Ma, Zhifang; Ma, Yuebing; Wang, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has been reported to be involved in aggressive progression of many tumors. In the present study, we examined the expression of BAG3 in human cervical cancer (CC) tissues and investigated the role of BAG3 in SiHa and HeLa cell growth, migration, and invasion. Here, we found that most of CC tissues highly expressed the protein and mRNA of BAG3, while their expression was obviously lower in paired normal tissues (all p

  7. BAG3 regulates contractility and Ca2+ homeostasis in adult mouse ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Arthur M.; Gordon, Jennifer; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Myers, Valerie D.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Gao, Erhe; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Tomar, Dhanendra; Madesh, Muniswamy; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Koch, Walter J.; Su, Feifei; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is a 575 amino acid anti-apoptotic protein that is constitutively expressed in the heart. BAG3 mutations, including mutations leading to loss of protein, are associated with familial cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, BAG3 levels have been found to be reduced in end-stage non-familial failing myocardium. In contrast to neonatal myocytes in which BAG3 is found in the cytoplasm and involved in protein quality control and apoptosis, in adult mouse left ventricular (...

  8. BAG3 regulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huiyong; Xu, Haidong; Li, Zengjun; Zhen, Yanan; Wang, Bin; Huo, Shoujun; Xiao, Ruixue; Xu, Zhongfa

    2016-04-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has been reported to be elevated in various tumors. However, it is unclear whether BAG3 has a functional role in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we collected CRC samples and cell lines to validate the pathway by using gene and protein assays. RT-PCR showed that the expression of BAG3 mRNA in CRC tissues was obviously higher than that in non-tumor tissues (p BAG3 was found in most CRC tissues and strongly correlated with TNM stage (p = 0.001), differentiation (p = 0.003), and metastasis (p = 0.010). Low expression of BAG3 in HCT-8 significantly reduced cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. The analysis of in vitro cell showed that HCT-8 cells were exposed to si-BAG3, and its growth was inhibited depending on modulation of cell cycle G1/S checkpoints and cell cycle regulators, involving cyclin D1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1. Furthermore, suppression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by si-BAG3 is linked to the decreased expression of E-cadherin and the increased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, and MMP9. In conclusion, in the present study, we demonstrated that BAG3 overexpression plays a critical role in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of colorectal cancer. Our data suggests targeted inhibition of BAG3 may be useful for patients with CRC.

  9. WW domain of BAG3 is required for the induction of autophagy in glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Merabova, Nana; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Saribas, A Sami; Knezevic, Tijana; Gordon, Jennifer; Weaver, Michael; Landry, Jacques; Khalili, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co-chaperone family of proteins that associate with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of e...

  10. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  11. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  12. Stability of Reconstituted Telavancin Drug Product in Frozen Intravenous Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhengtian; Wong, Anissa; Raquinio, Elvira; Nguyen, Alice

    2015-07-01

    Intravenous (IV) infusions of telavancin for injection are generally administered in-hospital, but in some circumstances they may be administered in an outpatient environment. In that setting, antibiotics may be premixed and frozen. This study determined the chemical stability of nonpreserved telavancin in various commonly used reconstitution diluents stored in IV bags (polyvinyl chloride [PVC] and PVC-free) at -20°C (-4°F) without light. Telavancin (750 mg/vial) was reconstituted with 5% dextrose injection USP (D5W) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP (NS) to obtain drug solutions at approximately 15 mg/mL. Infusion solutions of telavancin at diluted concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL covering the range utilized in clinical practice were prepared in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags using D5W or NS solutions. The infusion solutions were stored under frozen conditions (-20°C ± 5°C [-4°F ± 41°F]) and the chemical stability was evaluated for up to 32 days. Telavancin concentration, purity, and degradant levels were determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Telavancin IV infusion solutions in D5W or NS at 0.6 mg/mL and 8 mg/mL and stored at -20°C (-4°F) met the chemical stability criteria when tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 32. The assayed telavancin concentration at each time point was within 97% to 103% of the initial mean assay value. The total degradants quantified by the HPLC stability-indicating method did not show any significant change over the 32-day study period. Telavancin IV infusion solutions (in D5W or NS) in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags were stable for at least 32 days when stored at -20°C (-4°F) without light. These results provide prolonged frozen stability data further to that previously established for 7 days under refrigerated conditions (2°C-8°C [36°F -46°F]), and for 12 hours at room temperature when diluted into IV bags containing D5W, NS, or lactated Ringer's solution.

  13. [Purple urine bag syndrome in elderly woman with nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alegría, A R; Vélez Díaz-Pallares, M; Moreno Cobo, Ma A; Arrieta Blanco, F; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity which typically affects elderly women with prolonged urinary catheterization and weakening chronic diseases. Other predisposing factors are previous urologic pathology, immobility syndrome and chronic constipation. The purple color is due to the presence of high loads of bacteria with sulphatase--phosphatase activity which develop in an alkaline environment as well as the presence of other factors. In the case we present the administration of nutritional supplements containing tryptophan conditioned the generation of this syndrome.

  14. Forex Market Prediction Using NARX Neural Network with Bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new methodfor predicting movements in Forex market based on NARX neural network withtime shifting bagging techniqueand financial indicators, such as relative strength index and stochastic indicators. Neural networks have prominent learning ability but they often exhibit bad and unpredictable performance for noisy data. When compared with the static neural networks, our method significantly reducesthe error rate of the responseandimproves the performance of the prediction. We tested three different types ofarchitecture for predicting the response and determined the best network approach. We applied our method to prediction the hourly foreign exchange rates and found remarkable predictability in comprehensive experiments with 2 different foreign exchange rates (GBPUSD and EURUSD.

  15. [Rhabdomyolysis after lifting IKEA bags in a man using sertraline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummen, Ingvild; Jensen, Thomas Giver

    2016-12-12

    We present a case of a 28-year-old male, using sertraline, who experienced progressive oedema in both upper extremities after having lifted two IKEA bags weighing 20 kg each from his car up to the third floor. Blood creatine kinase (CK) level was measured 5,260 U/l, and the patient was admitted for oral rehydration with the diagnosis rhabdomyolysis. The MRI showed swelling in the triceps muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles resulting in compression of the brachial vein. We discuss the pathomechanism behind the increased CK level and the swelling, and the possible effect sertraline may have had on the development of rhabdomyolysis.

  16. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    of statistical physics (model of a canonical ensemble) we developed statistics of the "bag-breakup" events and constructed sea spray generation function (SSGF) for the mechanism of "bag-breakup". The "bag breakup" SSGF is shown to be in reasonable agreement in magnitude with SSFGs considered as the most reliable source function for spume droplets. The new SSGF is employed for estimate of the new"bag-breakup" mechanism to momentum and energy exchange in marine atmospheric boundary layer at hurricane conditions. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (14-05-91767, 13-05-12093, 16-05-00839, 14-05-91767, 16-55-52025) and experiment and equipment was supported by Russian Science Foundation (Agreements 14-17-00667 and 15-17-20009 respectively), Yu.Troitskaya, A.Kandaurov and D.Sergeev were partially supported by FP7 collaborative Project No. 612610.

  17. Lipid globule size in total nutrient admixtures prepared in three-chamber plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David F; Thoma, Andrea; Franke, Rolf; Klütsch, Karsten; Nehne, Jörg; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2009-04-01

    The stability of injectable lipid emulsions in three-chamber plastic (3CP) bags, applying the globule-size limits established by United States Pharmacopeia ( USP ) chapter 729, was studied. A total of five premixed total nutrient admixture (TNA) products packaged in 3CP bags from two different lipid manufacturers containing either 20% soybean oil or a mixture of soybean oil and medium-chain-triglyceride oil as injectable lipid emulsions were tested. Two low-osmolarity 3CP bags and three high-osmolarity 3CP bags were studied. All products were tested with the addition of trace elements and multivitamins. All additive conditions (with and without electrolytes) were tested in triplicate at time 0 (immediately after mixing) and at 6, 24, 30, and 48 hours after mixing; the bags were stored at 24-26 degrees C. All additives were equally distributed in each bag for comparative testing, applying both globule sizing methods outlined in USP chapter 729. Of the bags tested, all bags from one manufacturer were coarse emulsions, showing signs of significant growth in the large-diameter tail when mixed as a TNA formulation and failing the limits set by method II of USP chapter 729 from the outset and throughout the study, while the bags from the other manufacturer were fine emulsions and met these limits. Of the bags that failed, significant instability was noted in one series containing additional electrolytes. Injectable lipid emulsions provided in 3CP bags that did not meet the globule-size limits of USP chapter 729 produced coarser TNA formulations than emulsions that met the USP limits.

  18. Medical emergencies facing general practitioners: Drugs for the doctor's bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General practitioners are frequently facing medical emergencies. In order to react properly and administer therapy on time, a general practitioner needs to prepare and keep with himself the appropriate set of drugs which could be effectively used for treatment of the emergencies. The following drugs should find their place in the doctor's bag: acetaminophen (for mild and moderate pain, and for fever, morphine (for severe pain, naloxone (for heroin poisoning, ceftriaxone (for meningococcal meningitis, albuterol (for bronchial asthma attack, hydrocortisone (for bronchial asthma attack, glucagon (for severe hypoglycemia, dextrose (for mild to moderate hypoglycemia, diazepam (for febrile convulsions or epileptic status, epinephrine (for anaphylaxis and cardiac arrest, atropine (for symptomatic bradicardia, chloropyramine (for acute allergy, aspirin (for acute myocardial infarction, nitroglycerine (for acute coronary syndrome, metoclopramide (for nausea and vomiting, haloperidol (for delirium, methylergometrine (for control of bleeding after delivery or abortion, furosemide (for acute pulmonary edema and flumazenil (for benzodiazepine poisoning. For each of the listed drugs a physician should well know the recommended doses, indications, contraindications and warnings. All of the listed drugs are either registered in Serbia or available through special import, so general practitioners may fill their bags with all necessary drugs and effectively and safely treat medical emergencies.

  19. Fragment size distribution in viscous bag breakup of a drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    In this study we examine the drop size distribution resulting from the fragmentation of a single drop in the presence of a continuous air jet. Specifically, we study the effect of Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh on the disintegration process. The regime of breakup considered is observed between 12 phase Doppler anemometry. Both the number and volume fragment size probability distributions are plotted. The volume probability distribution revealed a bi-modal behavior with two distinct peaks: one corresponding to the rim fragments and the other to the bag fragments. This behavior was suppressed in the number probability distribution. Additionally, we employ an in-house particle detection code to isolate the rim fragment size distribution from the total probability distributions. Our experiments showed that the bag fragments are smaller in diameter and larger in number, while the rim fragments are larger in diameter and smaller in number. Furthermore, with increasing We for a given Ohwe observe a large number of small-diameter drops and small number of large-diameter drops. On the other hand, with increasing Oh for a fixed We the opposite is seen.

  20. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65-85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Contamination control using portable glove bags and containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.

    1994-01-01

    Portable gloveboxes and containments have been used in the Navy Nuclear Power programs for many years. Their primary application has been to allow maintenance access to radioactive piping systems while limiting the spread of contamination to the immediate environment. The applications have spread to other areas of the nuclear industry and to other industries with similar contamination control problems. The general application is to keep the contaminants in, but other uses keep the contamination out. The devices can best be classified by material types and construction. They range from the relatively inexpensive polyethylene glove bags for asbestos removal to the semi-permanent aluminum and lexan hard-sided containment structures. There are free-standing open-quotes tentclose quotes structures, support ring devices and tube or bag designs. Only the cost seems to limit the size of these items. The key to the effective use of these devices lies in the planning and control of their application. Proper training of maintenance personnel will greatly facilitate their use, since the main objection seems to be in the exposure received during the rigging of these containments. When all of these considerations are accounted for, a program of contamination control can be quite successful. A brief description of the set-up and use of a specific application is described

  2. Bags and blogs: creating an ostomy experience for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Karen S

    2012-01-01

    There are well over three-quarters of a million people living in the United States with an ostomy. These individuals experience many physical and emotional challenges which nurses should address during the in-patient hospitalization experience. The purpose of this educational activity was to provide undergraduate nursing students with a simulated laboratory experience which allowed the student to discuss and experience some of the challenges of living with an ostomy. Small group work, an experiential learning activity, and blogging were used to foster the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective development of the nursing students. All 134 students participated in the small group work and blogging experience and over 100 students participated in the experiential learning activity of wearing an ostomy bag overnight with the bag containing a small amount of simulated fecal material. The impact of the simulated experience is evident in the depth of awareness and emotion expressed in the blogs. The students collectively acknowledged the value of the activity and the impact the gained awareness had on their careers as nurses. The use of social technology and the provision of learning activities, not available on the clinical unit, can have a significant impact on the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective development of nursing students. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  3. Subcellular localisation of BAG-1 and its regulation of vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation and involucrin expression in oral keratinocytes: Implications for oral carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, San San; Crabb, Simon J.; Janghra, Nari; Carlberg, Carsten; Williams, Ann C.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Packham, Graham; Hague, Angela

    2007-01-01

    In oral cancers, cytoplasmic BAG-1 overexpression is a marker of poor prognosis. BAG-1 regulates cellular growth, differentiation and survival through interactions with diverse proteins, including the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a key regulator of keratinocyte growth and differentiation. BAG-1 is expressed ubiquitously in human cells as three major isoforms of 50 kDa (BAG-1L), 46 kDa (BAG-1M) and 36 kDa (BAG-1S) from a single mRNA. In oral keratinocytes BAG-1L, but not BAG-1M and BAG-1S, enhanced VDR transactivation in response to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3. BAG-1L was nucleoplasmic and nucleolar, whereas BAG-1S and BAG-1M were cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic in localisation. Having identified the nucleolar localisation sequence in BAG-1L, we showed that mutation of this sequence did not prevent BAG-1L from potentiating VDR activity. BAG-1L also potentiated transactivation of known vitamin-D-responsive gene promoters, osteocalcin and 24-hydroxylase, and enhanced VDR-dependent transcription and protein expression of the keratinocyte differentiation marker, involucrin. These results demonstrate endogenous gene regulation by BAG-1L by potentiating nuclear hormone receptor function and suggest a role for BAG-1L in 24-hydroxylase regulation of vitamin D metabolism and the cellular response of oral keratinocytes to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . By contrast to the cytoplasmic BAG-1 isoforms, BAG-1L may act to suppress tumorigenesis

  4. Bcl-2 associated athanogene 5 (Bag5) is overexpressed in prostate cancer and inhibits ER-stress induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchmann, Anja; Roller, Corinna; Walther, Tamara Vanessa; Schäfer, Georg; Lehmusvaara, Sara; Visakorpi, Tapio; Klocker, Helmut; Cato, Andrew C B; Maddalo, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    The Bag (Bcl-2 associated athanogene) family of proteins consists of 6 members sharing a common, single-copied Bag domain through which they interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp70. Bag5 represents an exception in the Bag family since it consists of 5 Bag domains covering the whole protein. Bag proteins like Bag1 and Bag3 have been implicated in tumor growth and survival but it is not known whether Bag5 also exhibits this function. Bag5 mRNA and protein expression levels were investigated in prostate cancer patient samples using real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. In addition immunohistological studies were carried out to determine the expression of Bag5 in tissue arrays. Analysis of Bag5 gene expression was carried out using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison test. The mean values of the Bag5 stained cells in the tissue array was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Functional studies of the role of Bag5 in prostate cancer cell lines was performed using overexpression and RNA interference analyses. Our results show that Bag5 is overexpressed in malignant prostate tissue compared to benign samples. In addition we could show that Bag5 levels are increased following endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induction, and Bag5 relocates from the cytoplasm to the ER during this process. We also demonstrate that Bag5 interacts with the ER-resident chaperone GRP78/BiP and enhances its ATPase activity. Bag5 overexpression in 22Rv.1 prostate cancer cells inhibited ER-stress induced apoptosis in the unfolded protein response by suppressing PERK-eIF2-ATF4 activity while enhancing the IRE1-Xbp1 axis of this pathway. Cells expressing high levels of Bag5 showed reduced sensitivity to apoptosis induced by different agents while Bag5 downregulation resulted in increased stress-induced cell death. We have therefore shown that Bag5 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and plays a role in ER-stress induced apoptosis. Furthermore we have identified GRP78/BiP as a novel

  5. Earth bag dome workshop run by Paulina Wojciechowska – director of Earth Hands and Houses [lectures, research] Sussex, UK; 27 May 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.

    2010-01-01

    Construction of a small earth bag wall in south Sussex: constructing the formwork for entrance, preparing and filling earth bags, ramming layers of earth bags, plastering, artistic sculpturing of the exterior and interior.

  6. Towards a Light-weight Bag-of-tasks Grid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bašičević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of SIP protocol in the context of bag-of-tasks grid architecture. The SIP protocol has been used in the realization of the execution management service. The main idea is the use of stateful SIP proxy as a request broker. The paper provides a description of the concept, and the prototype system that has been built, as well as the calculation of estimated performance level and its relation to maximum RTT of grid system. The main advantage of this light-weight grid architecture is the reuse of a mature infrastructure. A short overview of some approaches to the mathematical modeling of computer grids is included.

  7. The hydrodynamics of air-filled bags for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greaves, Deborah; Hann, Martyn; Kurniawan, Adi

    of a fabric encased within an array of longitudinal tendons. In the first configuration, the bag is floating and ballasted such that it pierces the free surface. In the second configuration, the bag is completely submerged and connected at its top to a rigid float and at its bottom to a weight. In the third...

  8. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand would be likely... Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review). By... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review)] Polyethylene Retail...

  9. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  10. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  11. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  12. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  13. Postharvest storage quality of grapefruit placed in polyethylene bags with or without micro-perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washed ‘Marsh’ white grapefruit were placed in polyethylene (PE) bags (1 mil) with or without micro-perforation holes (representing 0.002% of the bag surface) and evaluated for juice quality, firmness, and the development of decay and disorders during storage for 30, 60, or 90 days at 50oF. Each tre...

  14. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  15. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  16. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-821] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  17. Stability of odorants from pig production in sampling bags for olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders P S; Feilberg, Anders; Jonassen, Kristoffer E N

    2011-01-01

    Odor from pig production facilities is typically measured with olfactometry, whereby odor samples are collected in sampling bags and assessed by human panelists within 30 h. In the present study, the storage stability of odorants in two types of sampling bags that are often used for olfactometry was investigated. The bags were made of Tedlar or Nalophan. In a field experiment, humid and dried air samples were collected from a pig production facility with growing-finishing pigs and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with an amperometric sulfur detector at 4, 8, 12, 28, 52, and 76 h after sampling. In a laboratory experiment, the bags were filled with a humid gas mixture containing carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, and sulfur compounds and analyzed with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of carboxylic acids, phenols, and indoles decreased by 50 to >99% during the 24 h of storage in Tedlar and Nalophan bags. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased by approximately 30% during the 24 h of storage in Nalophan bags, whereas in Tedlar bags the concentration of sulfur compounds decreased by bags, and the composition changes toward a higher relative presence of sulfur compounds. This can result in underestimation of odor emissions from pig production facilities and of the effect of odor reduction technologies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Recoil of the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and axial form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabucar, D.; Picek, I.

    1984-03-01

    A recent method of boosting the bag is extended to the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and developed for the calculation of low-energy nucleon form factors. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by the induced pseudoscalar form factor where both the inclusion of the pion field and the non-vanishing momentum transfer are necessary. (Auth.)

  19. Bird-resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. Seed loss by bird damage was elimi...

  20. Effects of Density-Dependent Bag Constant and Strange Star Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-Er; GUO Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the emphasis on the effects of the density-dependent bag constant and the rotation of strange star the limiting mass of strange star is calculated. The obtained results show that the limiting mass and the corresponding radius of strange star increase as the rotation frequency increases, and tend to be lowered when the density-dependent bag constant is considered.

  1. 75 FR 34699 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part AGENCY: Import... Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. The Department of Commerce is... Corporation (the petitioners) and by Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd., the Department of Commerce (the...

  2. The impact of habitual school bag carriage on the health of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School bag carriage represents a considerable daily occupational load for children. The carriage of heavy school bags is a suspected aetiological factor of the daily physical stress of school pupils which negatively impacts on the health of their vertebral column. The objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  3. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags

  4. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist Republic... carrier bags (PRCBs) from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). On April 26... to a U.S. industry. Pursuant to section 736(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act), the...

  5. Identification of control parameters for the sulfur gas storability with bag sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air samples containing sulfur compounds are often collected and stored in sample bags prior to analyses. The storage stability of six gaseous sulfur compounds (H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, DMDS and SO2) was compared between two different bag materials (polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyester aluminum (PEA))...

  6. Management of subluxated capsular bag-fixated intraocular lenses using a capsular anchor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, Yokrat; Naftali, Modi; Lapid Gortzak, Ruth; Assia, Ehud I.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of the capsular anchor (AssiAnchor) to manage a subluxated intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The anchor comprises 2 prongs that hold the anterior lens capsule and a central rod that is sutured to the scleral wall, enabling centration of the IOL-capsular bag complex. Six

  7. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY... on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The review covers 11 respondents. The... merchandise has been sold at less than normal value by the companies subject to this review. DATES: Effective...

  8. Effect of potassium and potting-bag size on foliar biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar fresh mass was significantly increased by the interaction between K concentration and potting-bag size. Growers may use a 5.3 mmol L−1 K concentration and a 5 L potting bag for optimum production of rose geranium under soil-less cultivation. Keywords: C:G ratio, enzyme activation, oil quality, potassium, rose ...

  9. BAG3 directly interacts with mutated alphaB-crystallin to suppress its aggregation and toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Hishiya

    Full Text Available A homozygous disruption or genetic mutation of the bag3 gene causes progressive myofibrillar myopathy in mouse and human skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder while mutations in the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB are reported to be responsible for myofibrillar myopathy. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3 directly binds to wild-type αB-crystallin and the αB-crystallin mutant R120G, via the intermediate domain of BAG3. Peptides that inhibit this interaction in an in vitro binding assay indicate that two conserved Ile-Pro-Val regions of BAG3 are involved in the interaction with αB-crystallin, which is similar to results showing BAG3 binding to HspB8 and HspB6. BAG3 overexpression increased αB-crystallin R120G solubility and inhibited its intracellular aggregation in HEK293 cells. BAG3 suppressed cell death induced by αB-crystallin R120G overexpression in differentiating C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Our findings indicate a novel function for BAG3 in inhibiting protein aggregation caused by the genetic mutation of CRYAB responsible for human myofibrillar myopathy.

  10. BAG3 elevation inhibits cell proliferation via direct interaction with G6PD in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De-Hui; Li, Si; Du, Zhen-Xian; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Bao-Qin; Li, Chao; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2016-01-05

    Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) contains multiple protein-binding motifs to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and/or other proteins, which is possibly ascribed to the multifaceted functions assigned to BAG3. The current study demonstrated that BAG3 directly interacted with glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). BAG3 suppressed the PPP flux, de novo DNA synthesis and cell growth in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The growth defect of HCCs with forced BAG3 expression can be rescued by enforced G6PD expression. However, BAG3 elevation did not cause a reduction in cellular NADPH concentrations, another main product of G6PD. In addition, supplement of nucleosides alone was sufficient to recover the growth defect mediated by BAG3 elevation. Collectively, the current study established a tumor suppressor-like function of BAG3 via direct interaction with G6PD in HCCs at the cellular level.

  11. Identification of BAG3 target proteins in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdiero, Francesca; Bello, Anna Maria; Spina, Anna; Capiluongo, Anna; Liuu, Sophie; De Marco, Margot; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Napolitano, Maria; Vuttariello, Emilia; Monaco, Mario; Califano, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Vinh, Joëlle; Chiappetta, Giovanni

    2018-01-30

    BAG3 protein is an apoptosis inhibitor and is highly expressed in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. We investigated the entire set of proteins modulated by BAG3 silencing in the human anaplastic thyroid 8505C cancer cells by using the Stable-Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture strategy combined with mass spectrometry analysis. By this approach we identified 37 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated proteins in BAG3-silenced cells. Many of these proteins are reportedly involved in tumor progression, invasiveness and resistance to therapies. We focused our attention on an oncogenic protein, CAV1, and a tumor suppressor protein, SERPINB2, that had not previously been reported to be modulated by BAG3. Their expression levels in BAG3-silenced cells were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, disclosing two novel targets of BAG3 pro-tumor activity. We also examined the dataset of proteins obtained by the quantitative proteomics analysis using two tools, Downstream Effect Analysis and Upstream Regulator Analysis of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Our analyses confirm the association of the proteome profile observed in BAG3-silenced cells with an increase in cell survival and a decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, and highlight the possible involvement of four tumor suppressor miRNAs and TP53/63 proteins in BAG3 activity.

  12. BAG3 Directly Interacts with Mutated alphaB-Crystallin to Suppress Its Aggregation and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishiya, Akinori; Salman, Mortada Najem; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.; Takayama, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    A homozygous disruption or genetic mutation of the bag3 gene causes progressive myofibrillar myopathy in mouse and human skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder while mutations in the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) are reported to be responsible for myofibrillar myopathy. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3 directly binds to wild-type αB-crystallin and the αB-crystallin mutant R120G, via the intermediate domain of BAG3. Peptides that inhibit this interaction in an in vitro binding assay indicate that two conserved Ile-Pro-Val regions of BAG3 are involved in the interaction with αB-crystallin, which is similar to results showing BAG3 binding to HspB8 and HspB6. BAG3 overexpression increased αB-crystallin R120G solubility and inhibited its intracellular aggregation in HEK293 cells. BAG3 suppressed cell death induced by αB-crystallin R120G overexpression in differentiating C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Our findings indicate a novel function for BAG3 in inhibiting protein aggregation caused by the genetic mutation of CRYAB responsible for human myofibrillar myopathy. PMID:21423662

  13. BAG3 promoted starvation-induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells via attenuation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Tian; Meng, Xin; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Kong, De-Hui; Wang, Hua-Qin; Du, Zhen-Xian

    2014-11-01

    BAG3 plays a regulatory role in a number of cellular processes. Recent studies have attracted much attention on its role in activation of selective autophagy. In addition, we have very recently reported that BAG3 is implicated in a BECN1-independent autophagy, namely noncanonical autophagy. The current study aimed to investigate the potential involvement of BAG3 in canonical autophagy triggered by Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS) starvation. Replacement of complete medium with EBSS was used to trigger canonical autophagy. BAG3 expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Autophagy was monitored using LC3-II transition and p62/SQSTM1 accumulation by Western blot, as well as punctate distribution of LC3 by immunofluorescence staining. Cell growth and apoptotic cell death was investigated using real-time cell analyzer and flowcytometry, respectively. BAG3 expression was potently reduced by EBSS starvation. Forced expression of BAG3 suppressed autophagy and promoted apoptotic cell death of thyroid cancer cells elicited by starvation. In addition, in the presence of autophagy inhibitor, the enhancing effect of BAG3 on apoptotic cell death was attenuated. These results suggest that BAG3 promotes apoptotic cell death in starved thyroid cancer cells, at least in part by autophagy attenuation.

  14. Commercial liquid bags as a potential source of venous air embolism in shoulder arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Luke; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Tucker, Bradford; Hetrick, Robin; Curry, Patrick; Williams, Gerald

    2010-09-01

    Venous air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of arthroscopy. Fatal venous air embolism has been reported with as little as 100 mL of air entering the venous system. During liquid-only arthroscopy, avenues for air introduction into the joint are limited. Therefore, we hypothesized that commercially prepared 3-L saline-solution bags are a source of potentially fatal amounts of gas that can be introduced into the joint by arthroscopic pumps. Eight 3-L arthroscopic saline-solution bags were obtained and visually inspected for air. The air was aspirated from four bags, and the volume of the air was recorded. A closed-system pump was prepared, and two 3-L bags were connected to it. The pump emptied into an inverted graduated cylinder immersed in a water bath. Both bags were allowed to run dry. Two more bags were then connected and also allowed to run dry. The air was quantified by the downward displacement of water. The experiment was then repeated with the four bags after the air had been aspirated from them. This experiment was performed at three institutions, with utilization of three pump systems and two brands of 3-L saline-solution bags. Air was visualized in all bags, and the bags contained between 34 and 85 mL of air. Arthroscopic pumps can pump air efficiently through the tubing. The total volumes of gas ejected from the tubing after the four 3-L bags had been emptied were 75, 80, and 235 mL. When bags from which the air had been evacuated were used, no air exited the system. Because a saline-solution arthroscopic pump is theoretically a closed system, venous air embolism has not been a concern. However, this study shows that it is possible to pump a fatal amount of air from 3-L saline-solution bags into an environment susceptible to the creation of emboli. Evacuation of air from the 3-L bags prior to use may eliminate this risk.

  15. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...... is reflected in the methods of collecting the hunting statistics but the basic principle of every hunter reporting his/hers personal game bag every year still applies. From 1941 onwards annual reports were delivered on paper forms, and since year 2000 it has been possible to report electronically via...... management is its ability to reflect changes in population size – at least for some game species – mainly on a nationwide scale, but for some of the more abundant species also on a regional scale. A few examples will be shown to illustrate this. Finally, a few suggestions for improvement of the bag record...

  16. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. [Evaluation of Storage Performance of Preserving Bags for Manually Separated Platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Xia; Duan, Lan; Wang, Jie-Xi; Wang, Yan; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Cai, Li-Na; Yi, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Ang, Jian-Wei; Han, Ying

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the storage performance of the domestically made platelet storage bags (experimental group) and the United States Trima set platelet storage bags (control group). The manually separated platelets were divided in two equal parts, which was added to control blood bags and experimental blood bags respectively, all samples were stored at a 22 °C ± 2 °C. The platelet count, mean volume, aggregation activity (ADP, THR), pH, glucose, lactate concentration, lactate dehydrogenase concentration, hypotonic shock reaction, CD62P and phosphatidic acid serine content were detected at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 of storage. There was no significant difference of platelet quality at day 5 after storage between the experimental group and the control group (T-test, P > 0.05). Two kinds of platelet storage bags have the similar storage performance.

  18. Assessment of the permeability properties of cryopreservation outer bags used in NHSBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, P; Rooney, P; Lomas, R; Kearney, J N

    2018-01-12

    This study was carried out to investigate leakage/transport across the bag material of six outer cryopreservation bags in common use within NHS Blood and Transplant. In order to do this two different leak testing procedures; coloured dye and hydrogen tracer gas, were used. The data obtained show that a coloured dye cannot permeate through the materials both at room temperature and following storage at liquid nitrogen temperature (- 196 °C). In addition, when filled with the smallest elemental molecule, hydrogen, in the form of a tracer gas, all of the bags only allowed trace amounts of hydrogen to escape, either through the seal or the bag material. The data indicated that each of the bag materials tested would be capable of preventing bacterial or viral cross-contamination as long as the material remained intact.

  19. Odour Samples Degradation During Detention in Tedlar® Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyłak-Szydłowski, Mirosław

    In indirect olfactometry analysis, to avoid condensation or adsorption processes during or storage of the sample, containers made of suitable materials should be used. Also, reaction between the chemicals during transport from the source of the odour to the research laboratory is an important process which can influence on examinations' results. Study included determination of the odour and compound concentrations of six gas mixtures. Gas samples were collected by silicone hoses into Tedlar ® bags and tested by Nasal Ranger, SM-100 olfactometers and Photovac Voyager gas chromatograph. Time of keeping gas in bags was 78 h, and concentration of compounds was measured every hour, eight times per day. For benzene, acetone, 1,1-dichloroethylene, c-1,2-dichloroethylene, t-1,2-dichloroethylene, methyl ethyl ketone and vinyl chloride, 100 % decrease of concentration has been noticed within 78 h of holding in the bag. Average rate of loss of most compounds concentration was from 0.01 to 2.50 % for the first 30 h and from 0.35 to 18.50 % during the last 48 h of examination. Decreasing of odour concentration measured by Nasal Ranger (NR) in all series was between 0.00 and 4.98 % till 30 h, between 1.91 and 100 % in the last 48 h of test and between 1.61 and 100 % in 78 h. In case of odour concentration measured by SM, those values were, respectively, 1.26-4.93 %, 1.39-4.93 % and 2.40-3.18 %. Values of average rate of intensity decreasing were, respectively, 0.77-1.75 %, 2.36-4.67 % and 1.18-2.07 %. Statistically significant correlation coefficients for compound concentrations and intensity, odour concentration obtained by SM-100 as well as NR were, respectively, 0.55-0.97, 0.47-0.99 and 0.37-0.98.

  20. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.