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Sample records for bag filters carbon

  1. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...

  2. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo;

    2009-01-01

    As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...... filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...

  3. Dust filtration by means of compact filter bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filter materials used for separating particulate matter have been improved during the last few years and their scope of application has become much larger. One important innovation in this field are compact filter bags with a pleated surface; these bags have a porous self-supporting core covered by a microporous layer made of acrylic foam. A laboratory comparison between current tissue filters and the new compact bag filters revealed the latter to have a longer service life, a better compatibility with adhesive and wet dusts as well as an improved separation performance. (orig.)

  4. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  5. Comparative research on removing mercury by powder activated carbon on bag filter%纯活性炭粉末布袋脱汞的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振松; 杨国华; 黄三; 于建伟; 盛伟鹏; 谭均军

    2011-01-01

    For improving mercury removal efficiency of activated carbon(AC) injection upstream a bag filter and the utilization ratio of powder activated carbon(PAC), mercury removal experiments were conducted in a small-scale bag filter with pure PAC as the sorbent. The results indicate that the average mercury removal efficiency(AMRE) was 99.1% within 85 minutes for the first adsorption, and the adsorption time was 1335 minutes with removal efficiency above 75%. For comparison, other experiments were conducted using PAC mixed with different pro- portion of fly ash. The results show that the AMRE within 85 minutes for the first adsorption was only 19.3% and the removal efficiency fell to 0 after 165 minutes with fly ash as the sot- bent. The AMRE within 85 minutes for the first adsorption were 99.1~,95%, 85.3%, 79.7%, and 59.6%, and the mercury adsorption capacity with removal efficiency above 75% were 196.1 172.5, 133.8, 123.6, and 21.7 μg Hg/g AC for the PAC based sorbents mixed with the fly ash of 0, 20%, 50%, 80%, and95%, respectively. Hence, the mercury removal new technology by pure PAC on bag filter has better mercury removal efficiency and utilization ratio of PAC.%为解决布袋除尘器活性炭(AC)喷射脱汞传统技术中活性炭粉末利用率低、脱汞效率低的问题,提出了纯活性炭粉末一布袋脱汞新技术,采用纯活性炭粉末为吸附剂,进行了布袋脱汞实验研究,结果表明:纯活性炭粉末初次吸附的前85min的平均脱汞效率为99.1%,脱汞效率大于75%的累计吸附时间为1335min.为便于比较,进行了活性炭粉末掺杂不同比例飞灰的脱汞实验,结果表明:纯飞灰在初次吸附的前85min脱汞效率仅为19.3%,165min时脱汞效率已经下降为0.活性炭粉末掺杂飞灰比例分别为0,20%,50%,80%,95%时,初次吸附的前85min的平均脱汞效率分别为99.1%,95%,85.3%,79.7%,59.6%,每

  6. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter t...

  7. Multielectrode machine for making the cages of bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, F.I.; Arkov, V.G.; Boldyrev, A.F.; Sharenko, D.G.; Zhidkov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic multielectrode machine for making wire cages with an internal spiral. The machine automatically produces an endless cage from wire, joins the wires by multiple spot contact welding, and cuts it into pieces of desired length. The machine is illustrated and the method of making wire cages is demonstrated. The cages are used in bag filters of gas-cleaning systems. The machine can be used to form cages of 130-mm diameter from wires of 3-mm diameter. It is easy to operate and has a high output rate of 90m/h.

  8. Optical in-situ measurement of filter cake height during bag filter plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood Saleem; Gernot Krammer [Graz University of Technology (Austria). Institute for Apparatus Design, Particle Technology, and Combustion

    2007-04-15

    A pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter test facility is operated at conditions similar to those of the industrial bag filters. The facility is equipped with a stereo vision based optical system for in-situ cake height distribution measurements on the bag filter surface. Experimental data are presented and data evaluation procedures are discussed to elaborate the features of the measuring system. The results show that the cake height distribution becomes narrower towards the end of filtration cycles. A steep pressure drop rise is observed at the start of a filtration cycle in the absence of re-attachment and a non-uniform bag cleaning, which may be attributed to different cake properties. The specific cake resistance remains constant over the linear part of the pressure drop curve indicating a non-compressible cake formation. The analysis of residual cake patches shows a large number of small sized cake patches and a few large sized cake patches on the filter surface. The cake patch size increases with the cake formation. The fractal analysis of patches boundary indicates preferential cake formation at the boundary of the residual cake patches shortly after regeneration.

  9. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  10. The use of cellulase and filter bag technique to predict digestibility of forages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Z. M.; Ludwin, J.; Górka, P.;

    2014-01-01

    calculated for whole crop corn herbages, grass silages and clover silages. It can be concluded that the in vitro method presented in this study is a simple alternative for existing methods in which buffered rumen fluid is used. Using a standard enzyme available commercially worldwide may decrease variation...... between laboratories. Further, using filter bags and Daisy Incubator decreases labour costs and use of animals. Abbreviations AIC, akaike information criterion; ADF, acid detergent fibre; aNDF, neutral detergent fibre; AFBT, ANKOM filter bag technique; CP, crude protein; CS, subset ‘clover silages’; DK...

  11. Preliminary enviromagnetic comparison of the moss, lichen, and filter fabric bags to air pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Salo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.

  12. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer

  13. High-temperature high-pressure gas cleanup with ceramic bag filters. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, M.; Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Kuby, W.; Turner-Tamiyasu, E.

    1982-12-06

    Advanced processes designed for the efficient use of coal in the production of energy will benefit from, or even depend upon, highly efficient, economical, high-temperature removal systems for fine particulates. In the case of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), the hot gas cleanup device must operate at approximately 1600/sup 0/F. Existing commercial filter systems are temperature limited due to the filter material, but ceramic fibers intended for refractory insulation offer the promise of a practical high-temperature filter media if they can be incorporated into a design which combines filter performance with acceptable durability. The current work was initiated to further develop and demonstrate on a larger-scale basis, a ceramic fiber filtration system for application to coal-fired PFBC's. The development effort centered around the need to replace the knit metal wire scrim, used in earlier designs as support for the fine fiber ceramic mat filtration medium, with a corrosion-resistant material. This led to the selection of woven ceramic cloth for support of the mat layer. Because of the substantial difference in strength and other material properties between the metal and ceramic cloth, tests were necessary to optimize the filter; pulse parameters such as pulse duration, pulse pressure, and pulse injection orifice size; woven cloth mesh configuration; the technique for clamping the bag to the support; and similar structural, fluid, and control parameters. The demonstration effort included both tests to prove this concept in a real application and a systems analysis to show commercial feasibility of the ceramic filtration approach for hot gas cleanup in PFBC's. 12 references, 57 figures, 23 tables.

  14. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature.

  15. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD was used to research some key influence factors on pressure drop, such as porosity, outlet pressure of filter, inlet flow rate and viscosity of mother liquor. The simulation results indicated that with increasing porosity, outlet pressure, inlet flow rate and mother liquor viscosity, the pressure drop had increased after flowing through the filter bag.

  16. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  17. Chemical characterization of dust particles recovered from bag filters of electric arc furnaces for steelmaking: some factors influencing the formation of hexachlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtaka, Noriaki; Ohtsuka, Yasuo

    2010-11-15

    To make clear some factors controlling the formation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the process of electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, six dust samples recovered from different bag filters in commercial EAF steelmaking plants have been characterized with XRD, SEM-EPMA, XPS and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. These dust samples contain 1.9-8.0 mass% of chlorine element, and the XPS and TPD measurements exhibit that the Cl is enriched at the dust surface and composed of the inorganic and organic functionalities, part of the Cl being evolved as HCl in the temperature region of flue gas treatment. All of the samples also include 2.1-6.4 mass% of carbon element, and some of the C can release CO(2) in the TPD up to 300°C to form active carbon sites. The number is related closely to HCB concentration of each dust. Further, it is suggested that the Zn present in the samples consists of ZnFe(2)O(4), ZnO and surface ZnCO(3), and the dust with a larger content of the ZnCO(3) has a higher concentration of HCB. It is possible that HCB formation occurs via gas-solid-solid interactions among gaseous Cl-containing compounds in flue gas, active carbon sites and surface Zn-species produced in exhaust ducts and bag filters.

  18. Tea bag filter paper as a novel protective membrane for micro-solid phase extraction of butachlor in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelden, Tshering; Thammaknet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-01-01

    An innovative, cost-effective, simple, and environmental friendly tea bag filter paper protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique was developed for the first time with the aim to miniaturize and minimize the use of organic solvents for the extraction and determination of butachlor in aqueous samples. The μ-SPE device was produced by packing 3.0 mg of an easily synthesized new sorbent, hydroxyl-functionalized polypyrrole (OH-PPY), inside a small tea bag filter paper sachet (1.0 cm × 0.5 cm) that served as a protective envelope. Both the extraction and desorption procedures were facilitated by sonication. Due to the high porosity and the fast water absorption of the tea bag filter paper, the analyte could easily diffuse through and enhance the interaction with the sorbent. Under the optimized conditions for the GC-ECD and the μ-SPE, the limit of detection (S/N ≥ 3) was 2.0 μg L(-1) while the limit of quantitation (S/N ≥ 10) was 10.0 μg L(-1). The recoveries of the butachlor spiked at 0.050, 0.10, and 0.50 μg mL(-1) ranged from 77.9 ± 3.0 to 112.5 ± 2.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of butachlor in water samples from paddy cultivation sites. The levels found were from non-detectable to 24.71 ± 0.37 μg L(-1).

  19. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel;

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate three...... operating conditions: 1) switched off overnight; 2) airflow reduced to 10% overnight; and 3) continuous 100% operation. Outside air passed through the samples and the acceptability of the air after the filter was assessed by a panel of subjects. The results indicate that turning off the AHU or reducing...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...

  20. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Karissa Lyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Charlotte Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  1. Dust extraction from gas in cement kilns, using bag filters; Depoussierage des gaz de four cimentier par les filtres a manches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmegnies, M. [CALCIA, 78 - Guerville (France). Direction Technique

    1996-12-31

    After a review of regulations concerning cement plant emissions, the two main cement production techniques (dry and semi-dry processes) are described and the electrostatic and bag filter de-dusting techniques are compared. Examples of pilot applications of these techniques in two French cement plants are presented and operating results (performances, transient procedures, costs) are discussed

  2. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  3. Multum in Parvo: Explorations with a Small Bag of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJM Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 12 papers published between 1957 and 1972 are revisited. The papers had a common theme of the use of rebreathing carbon dioxide and explored a variety of topics in respiratory physiology. The first study established a method for the noninvasive and indirect estimation of arterial carbon dioxide pressure that was suitable for the routine clinical monitoring of respiratory failure and whose clinical utility remains to this day, but which also provided observations that were the stimulus for the studies that followed. The rate of rise in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 during rebreathing led to an analysis of body carbon dioxide storage capacity. Knowledge of carbon dioxide storage led to a method for quantifying lactate production in exercise without the need for blood sampling. The changes in ventilation that accompanied the increase in PCO2 provided the basis for a rapid method for measuring aspects of breathing control (Read's method, which was later modified to measure the ventilatory response to hypoxia. The physiology of breath-holding was explored through observations of the fall in breath-holding time as PCO2 climbed. Rebreathing also allowed increases in voluntary ventilation to be achieved without the development of alkalosis, leading to studies of maximal voluntary ventilation and respiratory muscle fatigue. Equilibration of PCO2 during rebreathing was used to measure mixed venous PCO2 during exercise and develop an integrated approach to the physiology of exercise in health and disease; alveolar-arterial disequilibrium in PCO2 during exercise was uncovered. Equilibration of PCO2, as well as PO2, during rebreathing of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas mixtures showed different time courses of venous gases at the onset of exercise. Starting with the rebreathing of carbon dioxide in oxygen mixtures in a small rubber bag, an astonishing range of topics in respiratory physiology was explored, with observations

  4. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefor...

  5. APPLICATION OF BAG FILTER TO BENFIELD DECARBONIZATION SOLUTION%袋式过滤器在苯菲尔脱碳溶液中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明光

    2011-01-01

    采用NOMEX材质的四袋悬盖式过滤器对苯菲尔脱碳溶液过滤器进行改造,投用后效果明显,滤袋中滤饼较多,杂质颗粒细,有部分有机杂质吸附。溶液消泡时间缩短,溶液中铁离子的含量有明显的降低,系统腐蚀减轻,药品损耗减少,改善了脱碳系统运行状况,NOMEX材质过滤袋可重复使用。%A filter for Benfield decarbonization solution is retrofitted by using a filter with 4-bags and a hinged cover made of NOMEX and effect is obvious after putting into use. There are more cakes in bags, particles of impurities are fine and some organic impu

  6. Tedlar bag sampling technique for vertical profiling of carbon dioxide through the atmospheric boundary layer with high precision and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristen; Jensen, Michael L; Balsley, Ben B; Davis, Kenneth; Birks, John W

    2004-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas other than water vapor, and its modulation by the biosphere is of fundamental importance to our understanding of global climate change. We have developed a new technique for vertical profiling of CO2 and meteorological parameters through the atmospheric boundary layer and well into the free troposphere. Vertical profiling of CO2 mixing ratios allows estimates of landscape-scale fluxes characteristic of approximately100 km2 of an ecosystem. The method makes use of a powered parachute as a platform and a new Tedlar bag air sampling technique. Air samples are returned to the ground where measurements of CO2 mixing ratios are made with high precision (< or =0.1%) and accuracy (< or =0.1%) using a conventional nondispersive infrared analyzer. Laboratory studies are described that characterize the accuracy and precision of the bag sampling technique and that measure the diffusion coefficient of CO2 through the Tedlar bag wall. The technique has been applied in field studies in the proximity of two AmeriFlux sites, and results are compared with tower measurements of CO2. PMID:15296321

  7. Evaluation of the effects of different filters and helium bag on the reduction of electron contamination in photon beam of Neptune linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin sparing is one of the most desirable characteristics of high energy photon beams. However, the photons emerging from the target of linacs are contaminated by secondary electrons as a result of their interactions with air, collimators, flattening filter and any other objects in their path. This phenomenon tends to increase the skin dose received by the patients. A practical and simple way to reduce the contribution of electron contamination is to place a sheet of medium to high Z material just after the secondary collimator. In this study, filters having different thickness and atomic number were applied and their effectiveness on the reduction of skin dose was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The filters of different thickness and atomic number were applied. The percent depth dose values were determined by the direct measurements made in a Scanditronix water phantom using a PTW 31006 Pin Point chamber having a sensitive volume of 0.015 cm3. A Perspex filter holder was made to be installed on the accessory slot. A plastic bag containing helium was also made using thin plastic sheet to study the effect of the helium bag when it replaces the air column between the head of the linac and the phantom. All of the measurements were carried out for the three field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm2. The setups were adjusted for SSD 100 cm. The ratio of the surface dose to maximum dose (Ds) was used as the criterion to determine the optimum filter. Results: The dosimetry results obtained in the water phantom indicated that a 0.4 mm thick Pb filter is the most effective one. This filter reduces the Ds for the field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm2 by 5.7, 7.9 and 9.6%, respectively. Also the simultaneous use of the optimum filter and He bag is more effective than the filter alone. It reduces the Ds by 6.3, 10.1 and 12.3% for the field sizes of 10*10,20*20 and 25*25 cm2, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the results of this work it is evident that the

  8. 脉冲袋式除尘器喷吹管非稳态数值模拟%Unsteady Numerical Simulation of Injection Pipe in Pulse Bag Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 王作杰; 汪钰; 陈军军

    2011-01-01

    Dust cleaning in bag filter is the filter regeneration process. Nozzle massflow and flow field distribution in the injection pipe is one of the important component parts in the pulse-jet cleaning system,which affects the dust cleaning performance directly. According to the characteristic of short jet time and quick velocity variation in the dust cleaning process,the unsteady flow field theoretical model of the injection pipe was established. Then,the numerical simulation on two kinds of injection pipes with different nozzle structures was implemented. Finally, distribution of nozzle massflow and static pressure, velocity over time was obtained. Guidance for design and optimization of the cleaning system in bag filter was provided by analyzing the two simulation results.%清灰是袋式除尘器的过滤再生循环过程,而喷吹管作为脉冲清灰系统的重要组成部件之一,其各个喷嘴流量及流场分布特性直接影响清灰性能.针对清灰过程喷吹时间短、速度变化快的特点,建立了喷吹管的非稳态流场理论模型,对2种喷嘴结构类型的喷吹管进行了数值模拟,分别得到并分析了其喷嘴出口质量流量分布情况、出口速度时间曲线及静压分布情况,为袋式除尘器清灰系统优化设计提供指导.

  9. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and polyim

  10. Pilot Study on Carbon-sand Filter for Sedimentation Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of dual function of integrating with activated carbon adsorption and quartz sand filtration in the carbon-sand filter can collaboratively remove organic matters and turbidity and also protect the bio-security, and the pilot test is carried out to optimize the process parameters. The pilot test results show that the thickness of the filter materials is preferably 1,300mm of the activated carbon, 500mm of uniform quartz sand; filtration rate can be 8-12m/h; filter cycle is 24-48h; when the water temperature is 21°C to 29°C, the biofilm formation period in the carbon-sand filter is 15 to 20 days; removal of the organic matters and nitrogen runs through the entire filter bed, and the nitrite is mainly oxidized on the upper side; when the operation is mature, the layer of filter materials can form the biofilm and zoogloea, with the dual function of micro-biological degradation and activated carbon adsorption.

  11. Multum in Parvo: Explorations with a Small Bag of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    EJM Campbell

    2001-01-01

    A collection of 12 papers published between 1957 and 1972 are revisited. The papers had a common theme of the use of rebreathing carbon dioxide and explored a variety of topics in respiratory physiology. The first study established a method for the noninvasive and indirect estimation of arterial carbon dioxide pressure that was suitable for the routine clinical monitoring of respiratory failure and whose clinical utility remains to this day, but which also provided observations that were the ...

  12. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  13. Nanoporous Carbon Nitride: A High Efficient Filter for Seawater Desalination

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weifeng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-01-01

    The low efficiency of commercially-used reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has been the main obstacle in seawater desalination application. Here, we report the auspicious performance, through molecular dynamics simulations, of a seawater desalination filter based on the recently-synthesized graphene-like carbon nitride (g-C2N) [Nat. Commun., 2015, 6, 6486]. Taking advantage of the inherent nanopores and excellent mechanical properties of g-C2N filter, highly efficient seawater desalination can be achieved by modulating the nanopores under tensile strain. The water permeability can be improved by two orders of magnitude compared to RO membranes, which offers a promising approach to the global water shortage solution.

  14. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93–106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100–200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake

  15. Rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter for water desalination

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Tu; Qiang Yang; Hualin Wang; Shaofan Li

    2016-01-01

    We have designed a porous nanofluidic desalination device, a rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter (RCNT-MF), for the reverse osmosis desalination that can turn salt water into fresh water. The concept as well as design strategy of RCNT-MF is modeled, and demonstrated by using molecular dynamics simulation. It has been shown that the RCNT-MF device may significantly improve desalination efficiency by combining the centrifugal force propelled reverse osmosis process and the porous CNT-based...

  16. Effect of activated carbon layer at sand-carbon filters vertical flow in domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wąsik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research concerning treatment of domestic sewage in sand filters of vertical flow with granular activated carbon layer. Removal of organic compounds and nitrogen from wastewater pre-treated in a septic tank, as well as total suspended solids at different hydraulic load of sand-carbon filters were specified. It was shown that favourable conditions for the development of both heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria were created in the double layer of sand and carbon filter with the upper layer of the activated carbon. For three-month cycle in the load range of 13-131 mm·d-1, mean effectiveness of BOD5, CODCr, N-NH4+ and total suspension were respectively 98%, 94%, 98% and 82%.

  17. Ultrathin diamond-like carbon films deposited by filtered carbon vacuum arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Fong, Walton; Kulkarni, Ashok; Ryan, Francis W.; Bhatia, C. Singh

    2001-07-13

    Ultrathin (< 5 nm) hard carbon films are of great interest to the magnetic storage industry as the areal density approaches 100 Gbit/in{sup 2}. These films are used as overcoats to protect the magnetic layers on disk media and the active elements of the read-write slider. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films can be produced by filtered cathodic arc deposition, but the films will only be accepted by the storage industry only if the ''macroparticle'' issue has been solved. Better plasma filters have been developed over recent years. Emphasis is put on the promising twist filter system - a compact, open structure that operates with pulsed arcs and high magnetic field. Based on corrosion tests it is shown that the macroparticle reduction by the twist filter is satisfactory for this demanding application, while plasma throughput is very high. Ultrathin hard carbon films have been synthesized using S-filter and twist filter systems. Film properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, wear, and corrosion resistance have been tested.

  18. Numerical study of the bag filter dust cleaning performance using response surface methodology%基于响应曲面法袋式除尘器清灰性能的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玉奇; 钱付平

    2012-01-01

    The dust cleaning flow field in the filter bag during pulse-jet dust cleaning process was calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method,using a two-dimensional,compressible and unsteady flow mathematical model.The peak pressure on the bag wall of the simulated values and experimental values were compared.The effect of the nozzle diameter,jet height,throat diameter of the venturi tube,venturi tube and bag length on the dust cleaning performance were studied with this numerical calculation model,based on the response surface methodology (RSM) using the statistical software Minitab V15,and the quadratic polynomial prediction model of the above five impact factors was also developed.The results show that the simulated values of the pressure peak are basically the same as the experimental values with the error around 10%,which verifies the reliability of the calculation model.In the five impact factors,the nozzle diameter,throat diameter of the venturi tube and bag length have significant effects on the dust cleaning performance of the bag filter.The performance is improved with the increasing nozzle diameter and diameter of the venturi tube,and improved then degraded with the increasing bag length.Within the size range in this study,the dust cleaning effect is the optimal when d=20 mm,d e=60 mm,and L=3360 mm.The conclusions is useful in improving the cleaning performance of the bag filter.%利用计算流体动力学(CFD)方法,采用二维、可压缩、非稳态流动数学模型,对袋式除尘器脉冲喷吹过程中滤袋内的清灰流场进行了数值模拟,比较了滤袋壁面压力峰值的模拟值和试验值.同时,利用该模型,基于响应曲面法并使用统计软件MinitabV15研究了喷嘴直径、喷吹高度、文丘里管喉管直径、文丘里管及布袋长度对袋式除尘器清灰性能的影响,并得出了这5个影响因子的二次多项式预测模型.结果表明,滤袋表面压力峰值的模拟值与试验值变化

  19. Rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingsong; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Hualin; Li, Shaofan

    2016-05-01

    We have designed a porous nanofluidic desalination device, a rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter (RCNT-MF), for the reverse osmosis desalination that can turn salt water into fresh water. The concept as well as design strategy of RCNT-MF is modeled, and demonstrated by using molecular dynamics simulation. It has been shown that the RCNT-MF device may significantly improve desalination efficiency by combining the centrifugal force propelled reverse osmosis process and the porous CNT-based fine scale selective separation technology.

  20. Rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter for water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingsong; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Hualin; Li, Shaofan

    2016-01-01

    We have designed a porous nanofluidic desalination device, a rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter (RCNT-MF), for the reverse osmosis desalination that can turn salt water into fresh water. The concept as well as design strategy of RCNT-MF is modeled, and demonstrated by using molecular dynamics simulation. It has been shown that the RCNT-MF device may significantly improve desalination efficiency by combining the centrifugal force propelled reverse osmosis process and the porous CNT-based fine scale selective separation technology. PMID:27188982

  1. Bans versus Fees: Disposable Carryout Bag Policies and Bag Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rebecca; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2015-01-01

    Using observational data on consumer carryout bag usage, we measure the effects of Disposable Bag Policies on bag demand. Our results show that plastic bag bans with paper bag fees eliminate use of disposable plastic bags and increase use of reusable bags. However, we find significant and undesired increases in paper bag demand. We compare our results to a study on bag fees and conclude the types of bags stores choose to sell in lieu of disposable plastic bags, as well as the price of alterna...

  2. Out of the Bag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Restricting the use of plastic shopping bags is China’s latest step to curb pollution While environment-conscious people identify themselves as non-users of plastic bags, Guo Geng,working at a nature reserve of deers in Beijing’s suburbs,stands out as a fighter against plastic bags. Since he started to work in 1998,Guo has seen David’s deer in his care dying from devouring waste plastic bags blown over

  3. Physicochemical and sensory changes in aged sugarcane spirit submitted to filtering with activated carbon filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane spirit is a drink considered as a national symbol of Brazil. It is produced by large producers and by about 30 thousand small and medium home-distilling producers dispersed throughout the country. The copper originating from the home-distillers can become a serious problem since at high concentrations in beverages it may cause serious human health problems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the activated carbon used in commercial filters on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of aged sugarcane spirit. Analyses of copper, dry extract, alcoholic degree, higher alcohols, volatile acids, aldehydes, esters, furfural, and methanol were performed. The sensory evaluation was performed by seven selected trained judges, who analyzed the yellow color, woody aroma and flavor, and intensity of alcoholic aroma and flavor of the cane spirit before and after the filtration process. The sensory tests were carried out using a 9 cm non-structured intensity scale. A reduction was observed in all compounds analyzed physicochemically, except for the esters, which increased after filtration. This increase is probably due to the esterification of the alcohols and acids present. According to the sensory results obtained, a reduction was observed in the intensity of the yellow color, aroma, and wood flavor characteristics, the major characteristics of the aging process.

  4. Design and Development of a High Efficiency CarbonGranular Bed Filter in Industrial Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济宇; 旷戈; 林诚

    2004-01-01

    The new dust removal technical route using the carbon-granular bed filter, packed of carbon particles with appropriate grade derive from an online-process vibration sieve, to replace the traditional baggy filter had been developed successfully for capturing the micro-carbon dusts produced from pulverization of petroleum coke,and the green close loop of carbon materials is thus completed in the combined pulverizing and classifying system and pulverized carbon dust removal process. The high dust removal efficiency greater than 99%, low outlet dust concentration less than 100 mg-m-S, low pressure drop through dust filtration chamber less than 980 Pa, simple and easy design, and flexible and stable operation were achieved also with the carbon-granular bed filter in both bench and industrial scale operations.

  5. Disconnected zigzag carbon nanotube as spin valve and spin filter predicted by first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Y., E-mail: minshiyi@gmail.com [School of Science, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226007 (China); Fang, J.H.; Dong, Z.C.; Zhong, C.G.; Chen, C.P. [School of Science, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226007 (China); Yao, K.L. [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-12-01

    The first-principles study of the spin-polarized transport of a disconnected zigzag carbon nanotube is reported. We find that the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio continuously increases and has no trend of decrease. For magnetic parallel configuration, the spin-filter ratio also increases with bias and eventually reaches 99.37%. Our results indicate that the disconnected zigzag carbon nanotubes can be used as a perfect spin-filter or spin valve.

  6. Treatment of hydroponic wastewater by denitrification filters using plant prunings as the organic carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Sukias, J P S

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using pre-treated plant liquors as organic carbon sources for the treatment of hydroponic wastewater containing high nitrate-N (>300 mg N/L). The waste plant material was pre-treated to extract organic carbon-rich liquors. When this plant liquor was used as an organic carbon source in denitrification filters at the organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate of 3C:N, nitrate removal efficiencies were >95% and final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently 140 mg/L) of organic carbon (fBOD5) remained in the final effluents. Therefore, a 'compromise' organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate (2C:N) was trialled, at which nitrate removal efficiencies were maintained at >85%, final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently below 45 mg N/L, and effluent fBOD5 concentrations were hydroponic wastewater in a denitrification filter. PMID:17714940

  7. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial activated carbon fiber filters using Sophora flavescens nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Hwang, Gi Byoung; Seo, SungChul; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2014-09-15

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters have a wide range of applications, including air purification, dehumidification, and water purification, due to their large specific surface area, high adsorption capacity and rate, and specific surface reactivity. However, when airborne microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi adhere to the carbon substrate, ACF filters can become a source of microbial contamination, and their filter efficacy declines. Antimicrobial treatments are a promising means of preventing ACF bio-contamination. In this study, we demonstrate the use of Sophora flavescens in antimicrobial nanoparticles coated onto ACF filters. The particles were prepared using an aerosol process consisting of nebulization-thermal drying and particle deposition. The extract from S. flavescens is an effective, natural antimicrobial agent that exhibits antibacterial activity against various pathogens. The efficiency of Staphylococcus epidermidis inactivation increased with the concentration of S. flavescens nanoparticles in the ACF filter coating. The gas adsorption efficiency of the coated antimicrobial ACF filters was also evaluated using toluene. The toluene-removal capacity of the ACF filters remained unchanged while the antimicrobial activity was over 90% for some nanoparticle concentrations. Our results provide a scientific basis for controlling both bioaerosol and gaseous pollutants using antimicrobial ACF filters coated with S. flavescens nanoparticles.

  8. Effects of ozonation and temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxy

  9. Effects of ozonation and temperature on biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxygen

  10. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  11. Integrating powdered activated carbon into wastewater tertiary filter for micro-pollutant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingyi; Aarts, Annelies; Shang, Ran; Heijman, Bas; Rietveld, Luuk

    2016-07-15

    Integrating powdered activated carbon (PAC) into wastewater tertiary treatment is a promising technology to reduce organic micro-pollutant (OMP) discharge into the receiving waters. To take advantage of the existing tertiary filter, PAC was pre-embedded inside the filter bed acting as a fixed-bed adsorber. The pre-embedding (i.e. immobilization) of PAC was realized by direct dosing a PAC solution on the filter top, which was then promoted to penetrate into the filter media by a down-flow of tap water. In order to examine the effectiveness of this PAC pre-embedded filter towards OMP removal, batch adsorption tests, representing PAC contact reactor (with the same PAC mass-to-treated water volume ratio as in the PAC pre-embedded filter) were performed as references. Moreover, as a conventional dosing option, PAC was dosed continuously with the filter influent (i.e. the wastewater secondary effluent with the investigated OMPs). Comparative results confirmed a higher OMP removal efficiency associated with the PAC pre-embedded filter, as compared to the batch system with a practical PAC residence time. Furthermore, over a filtration period of 10 h (approximating a realistic filtration cycle for tertiary filters), the continuous dosing approach resulted in less OMP removal. Therefore, it was concluded that the pre-embedding approach can be preferentially considered when integrating PAC into the wastewater tertiary treatment for OMP elimination. PMID:27082256

  12. Shopping-bag Ladies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达工

    2005-01-01

    Shopping-bag ladies don't beg publicly, but they do not refuse what is offered. Once a shopping-bag lady appears where you live, it is as hard to pass her by without giving her some money as it is to pay no attention to the collection box(功德箱) in church. And although you may not like it, if she chooses your doorway as her place to sleep,

  13. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-08-01

    The Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr's gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring-string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag-string-quark system.

  14. Removal of virus and toxin using heatable multi-walled carbon nanotube web filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hoon-Sik Jang; Sang Koo Jeon; Kwon-Sang Ryu; Seung Hoon Nahm

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have used a carbon nanotube (CNT) filter for pathogen removal and/or inactivation by means of electrochemical or electrochlorination. The large surface area, fine pore size and high electrical and thermal conductivity of CNTs make them suitable and distinct to use for the filtering and removal of pathogens. Here, we grew spin-capable multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and manufactured a web filter using the spun MWCNTs. Botulinum toxin type E light chain (BoT/E-LC) and vaccinia virus (VV...

  15. Improvement of spread-out Bragg peak flatness for a carbon-ion beam by the use of a ridge filter with a ripple filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yousuke; Takada, Yoshihisa; Hotta, Kenji; Tansho, Ryohei; Nihei, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yojiro; Nagafuchi, Kosuke; Kawai, Ryuichi; Tanabe, Masaki; Mizutani, Shohei; Himukai, Takeshi; Matsufuji, Naruhiro

    2012-03-21

    We have developed a novel design method of ridge filters for carbon-ion therapy using a broad-beam delivery system to improve the flatness of a biologically effective dose in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). So far, the flatness of the SOBP is limited to about ±5% for carbon beams since the weight control of component Bragg curves composing the SOBP is difficult. This difficulty arises from using a large number of ridge-bar steps (e.g. about 100 for a SOBP width of 60 mm) required to form the SOBP for the pristine Bragg curve with an extremely sharp distal falloff. Instead of using a single ridge filter, we introduce a ripple filter to broaden the Bragg peak so that the number of ridge-bar steps can be reduced to about 30 for SOBP with of 60 mm for the ridge filter designed for the broadened Bragg peak. Thus we can manufacture the ridge filter more accurately and then attain a better flatness of the SOBP due to well-controlled weights of the component Bragg curves. We placed the ripple filter on the same frame of the ridge filter and arranged the direction of the ripple-filter-bar array perpendicular to that of the ridge-filter-bar array. We applied this method to a 290 MeV u(-1) carbon-ion beam in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba and verified the effectiveness by measurements.

  16. Preparation and characterization of morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites from filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites with cablelike structure were prepared from filter paper template through the surface sol-gel process and carbothermal nitridation reaction. The resulting materials have a hierarchical structure originating from the morphology of cellulose paper. The aluminum nitride/carbon composites have the core-shell microstructure, the core is graphitic carbon, and the shell is aluminum nitride nanocoating formed by carbothermal nitridation reduction of alumina with the interfacial carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the structural morphology and phase compositions of the final products

  17. Gravitating lepton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, A., E-mail: burinskii@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system.

  18. Impacts of backwashing on granular activated carbon filters for advanced wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joshua; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-12-15

    The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed filters is a promising option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Frequent backwashing of the filter bed is inevitable, but its effect on potential filter stratification is not well understood yet and thus has been evaluated in the present study for two commercial GAC products. Backwashing of GAC filters was simulated with 10 or 100 filter bed expansions of 20 or 100% at backwash velocities of 12 and 40 m/h, respectively. Five vertical fractions were extracted and revealed a vertical stratification according to grain sizes and material densities. Sieve analyses indicated increasing grain sizes towards the bottom for one GAC while grain sizes of the other GAC were more homogeneously distributed throughout the filter bed. The apparent densities of the top sections were significantly lower than that of the bottom sections of both products. Comparative long term fixed bed adsorption experiments with the top and bottom sections of the stratified GAC showed remarkable differences in breakthrough curves of dissolved organic carbon, UV light absorption at 254 nm wavelength (UVA254) and OMP. GAC from the upper section showed constantly better removal efficiencies than GAC from the bottom section, especially for weakly adsorbing OMP such as sulfamethoxazole. Furthermore correlations between UVA254 reductions and OMP removals were found. PMID:26405842

  19. Impacts of backwashing on granular activated carbon filters for advanced wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joshua; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-12-15

    The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed filters is a promising option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Frequent backwashing of the filter bed is inevitable, but its effect on potential filter stratification is not well understood yet and thus has been evaluated in the present study for two commercial GAC products. Backwashing of GAC filters was simulated with 10 or 100 filter bed expansions of 20 or 100% at backwash velocities of 12 and 40 m/h, respectively. Five vertical fractions were extracted and revealed a vertical stratification according to grain sizes and material densities. Sieve analyses indicated increasing grain sizes towards the bottom for one GAC while grain sizes of the other GAC were more homogeneously distributed throughout the filter bed. The apparent densities of the top sections were significantly lower than that of the bottom sections of both products. Comparative long term fixed bed adsorption experiments with the top and bottom sections of the stratified GAC showed remarkable differences in breakthrough curves of dissolved organic carbon, UV light absorption at 254 nm wavelength (UVA254) and OMP. GAC from the upper section showed constantly better removal efficiencies than GAC from the bottom section, especially for weakly adsorbing OMP such as sulfamethoxazole. Furthermore correlations between UVA254 reductions and OMP removals were found.

  20. Gravitating lepton bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As is known, the gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of the Dirac electron is described by an over-extremal Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution which has the naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This space is regulated by the formation of a regular source based on the Higgs mechanism of broken symmetry. This source shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC-bag models, but has the important advantage, of being in accordance with gravitational and electromagnetic field of the external KN solution. The KN bag model is flexible. At rotations, it takes the shape of a thin disk, and similar to other bag models, under deformations it creates a string-like structure which is positioned along the sharp border of the disk.

  1. Microbial activity in granular activated carbon filters in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezev, A.

    2015-01-01

    The investigations described are carried out to analyse the microbiological processes in relation to the GAC characteristics and the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in Granular Activated Carbon filters (GACFs) in water treatment. The main goal of the study was to obtain a qualitative descrip

  2. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  3. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  4. Removal of virus and toxin using heatable multi-walled carbon nanotube web filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sik Jang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have used a carbon nanotube (CNT filter for pathogen removal and/or inactivation by means of electrochemical or electrochlorination. The large surface area, fine pore size and high electrical and thermal conductivity of CNTs make them suitable and distinct to use for the filtering and removal of pathogens. Here, we grew spin-capable multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs and manufactured a web filter using the spun MWCNTs. Botulinum toxin type E light chain (BoT/E-LC and vaccinia virus (VV were filtered using the MWCNT web filters and were evaporated and removed by applying direct current (DC voltage to both sides of the MWCNT webs, excluding electrochemical or electrochlorination. The filtering and removal of BoT/E-LC and VV were performed after seven layers of the MWCNT sheets were coated onto a silicon oxide porous plate. The electrical resistance of the webs in the seven layer sheet was 293 Ω. The temperature of MWCNTs webs was linearly increased to ∼300 °C at 210 V of DC voltage. This temperature was enough to remove BoT/E-LC and VV. From the SEM and XPS results, we confirmed that BoT/E-LC and VV on the MWCNT webs were almost removed by applying a DC voltage and that some element (N, Na, Cl, etc. as residues on the MWCNT webs remained.

  5. Removal of virus and toxin using heatable multi-walled carbon nanotube web filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hoon-Sik; Jeon, Sang Koo; Ryu, Kwon-Sang; Nahm, Seung Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have used a carbon nanotube (CNT) filter for pathogen removal and/or inactivation by means of electrochemical or electrochlorination. The large surface area, fine pore size and high electrical and thermal conductivity of CNTs make them suitable and distinct to use for the filtering and removal of pathogens. Here, we grew spin-capable multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) and manufactured a web filter using the spun MWCNTs. Botulinum toxin type E light chain (BoT/E-LC) and vaccinia virus (VV) were filtered using the MWCNT web filters and were evaporated and removed by applying direct current (DC) voltage to both sides of the MWCNT webs, excluding electrochemical or electrochlorination. The filtering and removal of BoT/E-LC and VV were performed after seven layers of the MWCNT sheets were coated onto a silicon oxide porous plate. The electrical resistance of the webs in the seven layer sheet was 293 Ω. The temperature of MWCNTs webs was linearly increased to ˜300 °C at 210 V of DC voltage. This temperature was enough to remove BoT/E-LC and VV. From the SEM and XPS results, we confirmed that BoT/E-LC and VV on the MWCNT webs were almost removed by applying a DC voltage and that some element (N, Na, Cl, etc.) as residues on the MWCNT webs remained.

  6. Analysis of nitrogen removal processes in a subsurface flow carbonate sand filter treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Søvik, Anne-Kristine; Holtan-Hartwig, Liv

    2005-01-01

    Controlled experiments were carried out in a mesoscale subsurface flow sand filter treating municipal wastewater from a single household. The system consisted of a 50 cm high vertical flow column (pre-filter) with unsaturated flow and a 3 m long horizontal subsurface flow unit (main filter) with saturated flow. Fluxes of nitrogen and carbon were analyzed in 4 different operating conditions (low and high loading, with and without the prefilter unit). Water samples were taken from the inlet, the outlet and within the sand filter at different depths and locations and analysed for water quality (Tot N, NO3-N, NH4-N, TOC, DOC, CODcr, BOD5, SS, pH, and EC) and dissolved gas content (N2O, CH4, and CO2). Emissions of N2O, CH4, and CO2 were measured with the closed-chamber technique adjacent to water quality sampling points. The results show that prefiltering in a vertical, unsaturated flow column changed the incoming ammonium to nitrate during low loading. During high loading part of the ammonium nitrified in the pre-filter was lost by denitrification. Within the horizontal main filter there were two pathways for the incoming nitrate: denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). PMID:15921289

  7. 微波消解-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定钢铁厂废旧除尘布袋中重金属%Determination of Metals in Waste Bag Filter of Steel Works by Microwave Digestion-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁寻安; 周云; 刘敬勇; 王江辉; 李磊; 马晓国

    2011-01-01

    A method of microwave digestion technique-flame atomic absorption spectrometry was proposed to determine the total contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in five different kinds of waste bag filters from a steel plant The digestion effects of the six acid systems on the heavy metals digestion were studied for the first time. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was between 1. 02% and 9. 35%, and the recovery rates obtained by standard addition method ranged from 87. 7% to 105. 6%. The results indicated that the proposed method exhibited the advantages of simplicity, speediness, accuracy and repeatability, and it was suitable for determining the metal elements of the waste bag filter. The results also showed that different digestion systems should be used according to different waste bag filters. The waste bag filter samples from different production processes had different metal elements content The Pb and Zn were the highest in the waste bag filters, while the Cu, Ni, Cd and Cr were relatively lower. These determination results provided the scientific data for further treatment and disposal of the waste bag filter.%采用微波消解一火焰原子吸收光谱法( FAAS)测定某钢铁公司五种废旧除尘布袋中Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd,Cr,Ni六种重金属元素总量,在国内首次研究了六种消解酸体系对废旧除尘布袋样品中重金属的消解效果.该方法的相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.02%~4.35%,平均回收率为87.7%~105.6%.研究表明,该方法操作简便、快速、准确、重复性好,适合于废旧除尘布袋中重金属含量的测定.试验分析结果表明,应根据不同布袋的特性差异,采用不同的消解体系;不同工序废旧除尘布袋样品中重金属含量差异较大,其中Pb、Zn元素含量最高,Cu,Ni,Cd,Cr等元素的含量相对较低.该测定结果为废旧除尘布袋的进一步处理处置研究提供了科学依据.

  8. The Effects of Boiling Time on the Determination of NDF and ADF in Corn Silage with the Filter Bag Technique%煮沸时间对滤袋法测定青贮玉米NDF和ADF含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫贵龙; 程成; 曹春梅; 刁其玉

    2012-01-01

    为探明煮沸时间对滤袋法测定青贮玉米的中性洗涤纤维(NDF)和酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)含量的影响,本研究以Van Soest传统方法所测结果为对照,对煮沸时间30、40、50、60、70、80、90、100、110、120、130min进行优选.结果显示,用滤袋法测定全株玉米青贮和不带穗玉米青贮NDF含量时分别以煮沸110和120min为宜,测定全株玉米青贮和不带穗玉米青贮ADF含量时分别以煮沸60和70 min为宜.可见,用滤袋法测定青贮玉米的NDF、ADF含量时,二者的适宜煮沸时间明显不同.%To study the effect of boiling time on the content of NDF and ADF in corn silage by the filter bag technique, the result got from traditional Van Soest method was used as a standard, the different boiling time (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130 min) were screened using the filter bag technique. The results showed that the optimum boiling time were 110 and 120 min for determination of NDF content in whole-plant corn silage and corn silage without ear, and 60 and 70 min were the optimum boiling time for determination of ADF content in whole-plant corn silage and corn silage without ear. Therefore, the optimum boiling time for determination of NDF content was very different from that for determination of ADF content in corn silage by the filter bag technique.

  9. Energy Efficient Indoor VOC Air Cleaning with Activated Carbon Fiber (ACF) Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the potential environmental and energy benefits of using activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters for air cleaning in HVAC systems. The parallel aims for the air cleaning system were to enable reduced indoor exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to simultaneously allow reduced rates and energy consumption for outdoor-air ventilation. We evaluated the use of ACF media to adsorb VOCs from indoor air during repeated simulated 12-hour to 24-hour periods of occupancy. ...

  10. Conversion of sand filters into activated carbon filters at the La Presa (Valencia) water works; Conversion de filtros de arena porcarbon activo en la ETAP de La Presa (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macian Cervera, V. J.; Monforte Monleon, L.; Ribera Orts, R.; Suris Jorda, J. I.; Klee, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    To improve the water quality at potable water treatment plant of La P esa (Valencia), the sand filters have been replaced for activated carbon filters. In the following review the results and conclusions of the direct sand filter conversion into activated carbon filters will be presented. The leads to a simple and fast solution to odour and taste removal, as well as dissolved organic matter, without investments in works at the water works. (Author)

  11. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  12. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy of biological samples on highly transparent carbon nanomembranes

    CERN Document Server

    Rhinow, Daniel; Weber, Nils-Eike; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Hampp, Norbert; Turchanin, Andrey; 10.1016/j.ultramic.2011.01.028

    2011-01-01

    Ultrathin carbon nanomembranes (CNM) comprising crosslinked biphenyl precursors have been tested as support films for energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) of biological specimens. Due to their high transparency CNM are ideal substrates for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) of stained and unstained biological samples. Virtually background-free elemental maps of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and ferritin have been obtained from samples supported by ~ 1 nm thin CNM. Furthermore, we have tested conductive carbon nanomembranes (cCNM) comprising nanocrystalline graphene, obtained by thermal treatment of CNM, as supports for cryoEM of ice-embedded biological samples. We imaged ice-embedded TMV on cCNM and compared the results with images of ice-embedded TMV on conventional carbon film (CC), thus analyzing the gain in contrast for TMV on cCNM in a quantitative manner. In addition we have developed a method for the preparation of vitrified specimens, sus...

  13. Bag-of-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciompi, Francesco; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst Th;

    2015-01-01

    informative plane to cut a 2-D view of the nodule in the 3-D image. We evaluate the descriptor on several nodule morphology classification problems, namely discrimination of nodules versus vascular structures and characterization of spiculation. We validate the descriptor on data from European screening......, obtaining a Bag-of-Frequencies, which is used to assign each spectra a label. The descriptor is obtained as the histogram of labels along all the spheres. Additional contributions are a technique to estimate the nodule size, based on the sampling strategy, as well as a technique to choose the most...

  14. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Qiwen, E-mail: fanqiwen0926@163.com [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(62), Beijing 102413 (China); Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(62), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2013-04-21

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ∼5μg/cm{sup 2} in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ∼4μg/cm{sup 2} in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine–saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ∼1μg/cm{sup 2} in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4 for the {sup 197}Au{sup −} (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) and {sup 63}Cu{sup −} (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp{sup 3} bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is 0.78.

  15. Cryptosporidium Removal from Runoff by Active Carbon Filter with Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of Cryptosporidium in runoff will contaminate the surrounding water body. Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and inactive Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts removal using an active carbon (AC filter with/without coal gangue from the runoff was evaluated. Chemical composition of coal gangue was determined, and its performance as a water treatment material was tested. Results showed SiO2 was the dominant chemical component of coal gangue. Removal was only 20% for microspheres and 24% for oocysts by AC filtration alone. The removal for both was increased to more than 98% by addition of coal gangue powder to the filter. Furthermore, gangue reuse turned commercially worthless material to a water treatment material as well helping prevent gangue from occupying agriculture/industry land.

  16. Solitons, monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)

  17. Nitrification and denitrification in biological activated carbon filter for treating high ammonia source water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang LIU; Xiaojian ZHANG; Zhansheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Since the ammonia in the effluent of the tradi-tional water purification process could not meet the supply demand, the advanced treatment of a high concentration of NH4+-N micro-polluted source water by biological activated carbon filter (BACF) was tested. The filter was operated in the downflow manner and the results showed that the remov-ing rate of NH4+-N was related to the influent concentration of NH4+-N. Its removing rate could be higher than 95% when influent concentration was under 1.0 mg/L. It could also decrease with the increasing influent concentration when the NH4+-N concentration was in the range from 1.5-to 4.9 mg/L and the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the infuent was under 10 mg/L, and the minimum removing rate could be 30%. The key factor of restricting nitrifcation in BACF was the influent DO. When the influent NH4+-N concentration was high, the DO in water was almost depleted entirely by the nitrifying and hetetrophic bacteria in the depth of 0.4 m filter and the filter layer was divided into aerobic and anoxic zones. The nitrification and degradation of organic matters existed in the aerobic zone, while the denitrification occurred in the anoxic zone. Due to the limited carbon source, the denitrification could not be carried out properly, which led to the accu-mulation of the denitrification intermediates such as NO2-. In addition to the denitrification bacteria, the nitrification and the heterotrophic bacteria existed in the anoxic zone.

  18. Simplified greywater treatment systems: Slow filters of sand and slate waste followed by granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Mariah Siebert; Pinheiro, Ivone Gohr; Conegero, Mariana Garcia

    2016-07-01

    One of the main actions of sustainability that is applicable to residential, commercial, and public buildings is the rational use of water that contemplates the reuse of greywater as one of the main options for reducing the consumption of drinking water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the efficiencies of simplified treatments for greywater reuse using slow sand and slow slate waste filtration, both followed by granular activated carbon filters. The system monitoring was conducted over 28 weeks, using analyses of the following parameters: pH, turbidity, apparent color, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), surfactants, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms. The system was run at two different filtration rates: 6 and 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences in the majority of the results when filtration rate changed from 6 to 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. The average removal efficiencies with regard to the turbidity, apparent color, COD and BOD were 61, 54, 56, and 56%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 66, 61, 60, and 51%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. Both systems showed good efficiencies in removing surfactants, around 70%, while the pH reached values of around 7.80. The average removal efficiencies of the total and thermotolerant coliforms were of 61 and 90%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 67 and 80%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. The statistical analysis found no significant differences between the responses of the two systems, which attest to the fact that the slate waste can be a substitute for sand. The maximum levels of efficiency were high, indicating the potential of the systems, and suggesting their optimization in order to achieve much higher average efficiencies. PMID:27045540

  19. Spin-Filter Effect Induced by Magnetic Edge States of Zigzag Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhan-Feng; LI Jian; SHEN Shun-Qing; LIU Wu-Ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ Spin-filter effect is predicted in a weak coupled junction composed of a nonmagnetic metal electrode and a zigzag carbon nanotube. This effect is induced by the magnetic edge states of the nanotube, and can produce spinpolarized current in the absence of an external magnetic field. We find that the spin polarization of the current changes its sign at the half-filling point of the nanotube, thus electric field control of spin transport can be realized. Furthermore, we find the coupling strength of the junction may cause a magnetic transition on the edge of the nanotube.

  20. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  1. The fuzzy bag model revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study a new version of the fuzzy bag model (FBM). The main point of this work is the inclusion of energy-momentum-conservation in the model. This feature is lacking in the original formulation, but it is of paramount importance to turn the model into a real bag model. In our version of the FBM, the size of the bag will be determined by the equilibrium of the outward pressure of the quarks with the inward pressure of the vacuum, just like in the MIT bag model. As a side remark, we note that a first consequence of our model is that the bag 'constant' B will not be a constant even for the ground state - it will be a function of the radial variable r. (author)

  2. Effect of biostimulation on biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon in biological granular activated carbon filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tihomirova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The addition of labile organic carbon (LOC to enhance the biodegradation rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in biological columns was studied. Acetate standard solution (NaAc and LB (Luria Bertrani medium were used as LOC as biostimulants in glass column system used for measurements of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC. The addition of LOC related with the increase of total DOC in sample. The concentration of BDOC increased up to 7 and 5 times and was utilized after 24 min. contact time. The biodegradation rate constant was increased at least 8 times during adaptation-biostimulation period. There was a strong positive correlation between the biodegradation rate constant and the concentration of BDOC. Biostimulation period ranged from 24 to 53 h for NaAc biostimulant and from 20 to 168 h for LB. The study has shown that LOC could be used as stimulator to enhance the biodegradation rate of DOC during biofiltration.

  3. BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTERS (BAFs FOR CARBON AND NITROGEN REMOVAL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELSHAFIE AHMED

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological aerated filters (BAFs are an emerging wastewater treatment technology designed for a wide range of municipal and industrial applications. This review paper presents and discusses of the influence C/N ratio, nitrification and denitrification principle, effect of pH, DO and alkalinity on the nitrification and denitrification systems, organic and hydraulic loading of BAF reactor, etc. Results from upflow and downflow biofilter pilot at different condition, with nitrification and denitrification are reviewed. Under the optimal conditions, significant amount of COD, ammonia-nitrogen and total nitrogen were removed. Removal rates based on reactor volume for different carbon-aceous COD and ammonia loading rate are reported. The BAF system for the nitrification and denitrification processes for carbon and nitrogen removal from the wastewater need to be evaluated and applied properly to protect of our environment and resources.

  4. Influence of feed size and distribution for determination of crude fiber by the national standard method and filter bag method and the difference of the two methods%饲料粒度及分布对国标法和滤袋法测定粗纤维的影响及两种方法的差异比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森; 张媛媛; 苏宇辰; 黄蔚霞; 张春华

    2015-01-01

    Wheat ,corn ,bran meal ,rapeseed meal ,cottonseed meal ,shotcrete corn bran and DDGS were ground by three different grind methods ,through 1 .0 mm sieve .Particle size was analyzed by a laser particle size analyzer .By using national standard method and the filter bag method ,crude fiber content of samples with different particle size was determined .The re‐sults showed that :different grinding methods led to different size and distribution of the sample ,for crude fiber content ,the national standard method and filter bag method by different grinding ways were no significant difference;samples of the same kind of granularity ,crude fiber content by the two methods had no significant difference .So to improve work efficiency ,filter bag could replace of national standard method for determination of crude fiber content in feed .%选用不同的研磨方式对小麦、玉米、麸皮、菜籽粕、棉籽粕、喷浆玉米皮和DDGS 7种样品进行粉碎处理,样品粉碎过1.0 mm的筛,并采用激光粒度仪对粒度的大小和分布进行分析测定。利用国标法和滤袋法两种方法对不同粒度样品的粗纤维含量进行测定。结果表明:不同粉碎方式导致样品的粒度大小及体积累积分布差异明显,不同方式粉碎的样品分别对国标法和滤袋法的结果有一定影响,但总体差异在可接受范围内;对同一种粒度样品,国标法和滤袋法两种方法测得粗纤维的结果影响差异不显著,滤袋法可替代国标法检测饲料中粗纤维的含量,以提高工作效率。

  5. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular.A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design.A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients. (paper)

  6. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevillot, L.; Stock, M.; Vatnitsky, S.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular. A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design. A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients.

  7. Metal-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by filter-arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are extensively utilized in the semiconductor, electric and cutting machine industries owing to their high hardness, high elastic modulus, low friction coefficients and high chemical stability. DLC films are prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition (BAD), sputter deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), cathodic arc evaporation (CAE), and filter arc deposition (FAD). The major drawbacks of these methods are the degraded hardness associated with the low sp3/sp2 bonding ratio, the rough surface and poor adhesion caused by the presence of particles. In this study, a self-developed filter arc deposition (FAD) system was employed to prepare metal-containing DLC films with a low particle density. The relationships between the DLC film properties, such as film structure, surface morphology and mechanical behavior, with variation of substrate bias and target current, are examined. Experimental results demonstrate that FAD-DLC films have a lower ratio, suggesting that FAD-DLC films have a greater sp3 bonding than the CAE-DLC films. FAD-DLC films also exhibit a low friction coefficient of 0.14 and half of the number of surface particles as in the CAE-DLC films. Introducing a CrN interfacial layer between the substrate and the DLC films enables the magnetic field strength of the filter to be controlled to improve the adhesion and effectively eliminate the contaminating particles. Accordingly, the FAD system improves the tribological properties of the DLC films

  8. Benefit-cost analysis of commercially available activated carbon filters for indoor ozone removal in single-family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, J R; Darling, E; Morrison, G; Siegel, J; Corsi, R L

    2016-06-01

    This study involved the development of a model for evaluating the potential costs and benefits of ozone control by activated carbon filtration in single-family homes. The modeling effort included the prediction of indoor ozone with and without activated carbon filtration in the HVAC system. As one application, the model was used to predict benefit-to-cost ratios for single-family homes in 12 American cities in five different climate zones. Health benefits were evaluated using disability-adjusted life-years and included city-specific age demographics for each simulation. Costs of commercially available activated carbon filters included capital cost differences when compared to conventional HVAC filters of similar particle removal efficiency, energy penalties due to additional pressure drop, and regional utility rates. The average indoor ozone removal effectiveness ranged from 4 to 20% across the 12 target cities and was largely limited by HVAC system operation time. For the parameters selected in this study, the mean predicted benefit-to-cost ratios for 1-inch filters were >1.0 in 10 of the 12 cities. The benefits of residential activated carbon filters were greatest in cities with high seasonal ozone and HVAC usage, suggesting the importance of targeting such conditions for activated carbon filter applications.

  9. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  10. New type adsorbent material of impregnated activated carbon fibers for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impregnated granular activated carbon bed filters have been used worldwide to treat nuclear power plant exhaust gases of containing iodine and extensive experimental studies have been conducted. It has been discovered that the impregnated granular activated carbon has some inherent defect such as the ignition temperature is lower, the adsorption efficiency and capacity were lower and affected strongly by relative humidity and the adsorption velocity is lower. A new type impregnated activated carbon fibers (IACF) material was developed. The IACF is a felt material which has a wealth of micropores, low apparent density, high chemical stability, significantly higher ignition temperature, low affinity for water, high adsorption velocity, and the shape of IACF can be tailored to achieve the best adsorption results. Therefore, the IACF is possessed of a high adsorption capacity and efficiency in high relative humidity (> 95% R.H.). According to the ASTM D 3803 method A test, the result showed that the adsorption efficiency of >99% in bed depth of 2.5 cm. In this work, the various surface structural parameters, surface chemical characteristics and adsorption dynamics were studied by the x-ray diffraction, infrared absorption, and x-ray photoelectron spectrometry method. The results show that the various characteristics of the IACF are better than existing nuclear grade granular activated carbon

  11. Effects of ozonation and temperature on biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. J. van der Aa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Four pilot (biological granular activated carbon ((BGAC filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM in (BGAC filters. Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, assimilable organic carbon (AOC and oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide were taken as indicators for NOM biodegradation. Ozonation stimulated DOC and AOC removal in the BGAC filters, but had no significant effect on oxygen removal and carbon dioxide production. The temperature had no significant effect on DOC and AOC removal, while oxygen removal and carbon dioxide production increased with increasing temperature. Multivariate linear regression was used to quantify these relations. In summer the ratio between oxygen consumption and DOC removal exceeded the theoretical maximum of 2.5 g O2·g C−1 and the ratio between carbon dioxide production and DOC removal exceeded the theoretical maximum of 3.7 g CO2·g C−1. Bioregeneration of large NOM molecules could explain this excesses and the non-correlation between DOC and AOC removal and oxygen removal and carbon dioxide production. However bioregeneration of large NOM molecules was considered not likely to happen, due to sequestration.

  12. Comparison of continuous and filter-based carbon measurements at the Fresno supersite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kihong; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Trimble, Dana L; Doraiswamy, Prakash; Park, Kihong; Arnott, W Pat; Stroud, Kenneth R; Bowers, Kenneth; Bode, Richard; Petzold, Andre; Hansen, Anthony D A

    2006-04-01

    Results from six continuous and semicontinuous black carbon (BC) and elemental carbon (EC) measurement methods are compared for ambient samples collected from December 2003 through November 2004 at the Fresno Supersite in California. Instruments included a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP; lambda = 670 nm); a dual-wavelength (lambda = 370 and 880 nm) aethalometer; seven-color (lambda = 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm) aethalometers; the Sunset Laboratory carbon aerosol analysis field instrument; a photoacoustic light absorption analyzer (lambda = 1047 nm); and the R&P 5400 ambient carbon particulate monitor. All of these acquired BC or EC measurements over periods of 1 min to 1 hr. Twenty-four-hour integrated filter samples were also acquired and analyzed by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) thermal/optical reflectance carbon analysis protocol. Site-specific mass absorption efficiencies estimated by comparing light absorption with IMPROVE EC concentrations were 5.5 m2/g for the MAAP, 10 m2/g for the aethalometer at a wavelength of 880 nm, and 2.3 m2/g for the photoacoustic analyzer; these differed from the default efficiencies of 6.5, 16.6, and 5 m2/g, respectively. Scaling absorption by inverse wavelength did not provide equivalent light absorption coefficients among the instruments for the Fresno aerosol measurements. Ratios of light absorption at 370 nm to those at 880 nm from the aethalometer were nearly twice as high in winter as in summer. This is consistent with wintertime contributions from vehicle exhaust and from residential wood combustion, which is believed to absorb more shorter-wavelength light. To reconcile BC and EC measurements obtained by different methods, a better understanding is needed of the wavelength dependence of light-absorption and mass-absorption efficiencies and how they vary with different aerosol composition.

  13. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r...

  14. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-01-01

    This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  15. Ammonium removal of drinking water at low temperature by activated carbon filter biologically enhanced with heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Duo-Ying; Huang, Xiao-Fei; Song, Yang

    2016-03-01

    We sought to confirm whether use of Acinetobacter strains Y7 and Y16, both strains of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria, was practical for removing ammonium (NH4 (+)-N) from drinking water at low temperatures. To test this, ammonium-containing drinking water was treated with strains Y7 and Y16 at 8 and 2 °C. Continuous ammonium treatment was conducted in order to evaluate the performance of three biologically enhanced activated carbon (BEAC) filters in removing ammonium. The three BEAC filters were inoculated with strain Y7, strain Y16, and a mixture of strains Y7 and Y16, respectively. A granular activated carbon (GAC) filter, without inoculation by any strains, was tested in parallel with the BEAC filters as control. The results indicated that NH4 (+)-N removal was significant when a BEAC filter was inoculated with the mixture of strains Y7 and Y16 (BEAC-III filter). Amounts of 0.44 ± 0.05 and 0.25 ± 0.05 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N were removed using the BEAC-III filter at 8 and 2 °C, respectively. These values were 2.8-4.0-fold higher than the values of ammonium removal acquired using the GAC filter. The synergistic effect of using strains Y7 and Y16 in concert was the cause of the high-ammonium removal efficiency achieved by using the BEAC-III filter at low temperatures. In addition, a high C/N ratio may promote NH4 (+)-N removal efficiency by improving biomass and microbial activity. This study provides new insight into the use of biofilters to achieve biological removal of ammonium at low temperature. PMID:26527340

  16. Final Technical Report [Carbon Data Assimilation with a Coupled Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    2013-08-30

    We proposed (and accomplished) the development of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach for the estimation of surface carbon fluxes as if they were parameters, augmenting the model with them. Our system is quite different from previous approaches, such as carbon flux inversions, 4D-­Var, and EnKF with approximate background error covariance (Peters et al., 2008). We showed (using observing system simulation experiments, OSSEs) that these differences lead to a more accurate estimation of the evolving surface carbon fluxes at model grid-scale resolution. The main properties of the LETKF-­C are: a) The carbon cycle LETKF is coupled with the simultaneous assimilation of the standard atmospheric variables, so that the ensemble wind transport of the CO2 provides an estimation of the carbon transport uncertainty. b) The use of an assimilation window (6hr) much shorter than the months-long windows used in other methods. This avoids the inevitable “blurring” of the signal that takes place in long windows due to turbulent mixing since the CO2 does not have time to mix before the next window. In this development we introduced new, advanced techniques that have since been adopted by the EnKF community (Kang, 2009, Kang et al., 2011, Kang et al. 2012). These advances include “variable localization” that reduces sampling errors in the estimation of the forecast error covariance, more advanced adaptive multiplicative and additive inflations, and vertical localization based on the time scale of the processes. The main result has been obtained using the LETKF-­C with all these advances, and assimilating simulated atmospheric CO2 observations from different observing systems (surface flask observations of CO2 but no surface carbon fluxes observations, total column CO2 from GoSAT/OCO-­2, and upper troposphere AIRS retrievals). After a spin-­up of about one month, the LETKF-­C succeeded in reconstructing the true evolving surface fluxes of carbon at a model grid

  17. Removal of microcystin-LR from spiked water using either activated carbon or anthracite as filter material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Simard, Marie-Christine; Sauvageau, Christine; Blais, Jean François

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (blue-green algae) in drinking water sources is a big concern for human health. Removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from drinking water was evaluated at the laboratory pilot scale using either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and compared with the treatment using anthracite as filter material. Virgin GAC was more effective at removing MC-LR (initial concentration ranging from 9 to 47 microg L(-1)) to reach the World Health Organization recommended level (1.0 microg L(-1)). When the GAC filter was colonized by bacteria, the filter became less effective at removing MC-LR owing to competitive reactions occurring between protein adsorption (released by bacteria) and MC-LR adsorption. Using PAC, the concentration of MC-LR decreased from 22 to 3 microg L(-1) (removal of 86% of MC-LR) by the addition of 100 mg PAC L(-1). PMID:22629609

  18. Influence of mechanical abrasion of carbon adsorbents on aerodynamic resistance of filters of system of ventilation of NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of mechanical abrasion of granules on aerodynamic resistance of different carbon adsorbents at conditions similar to work of filters AU-1500 is studied. The change of fractional composition of the probed adsorbents by abrasion is determined. The obtained experimental data allow making conclusion about practicability using mixture of adsorbent Norit with different fractional composition for renewal of adsorbers of ventilation system of NPS.

  19. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  20. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Uchida, S.

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  1. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, H; Shoji, T; Uchida, S

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  2. Influence of aging on the retention of elemental radioiodine by deep bed carbon filters under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No significant difference was found in the retention of I-131 loaded as I2, by various impregnated activated carbons that had been aged in the containment exhaust air of a pressurized water reactor over a period of 12 months. In all the cases, the I-131 passing through deep beds of carbon was in a nonelemental form. It was concluded that a minimum retention of 99.99%, as required by new guidelines for certain accident filters, can be equally well achieved with various carbons in deep beds

  3. A gravitating electroweak bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic (EM) field of electron is described by the Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole solution with a topological defect. Regularization of this defect by the Higgs field leads to the smooth source which shares much in common with the known MIT- and SLAC- bag models, but has the advantage, of matching gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the electron. This model is flexible, and the rotating KN bag takes the shape of a thin disk with a circular string positioned on the sharp border of the disk. We consider the lowest excitations of the KN solution and the corresponding deformations of the bag surface, setting a preliminary correspondence with electroweak sector of the SM.

  4. Controlling of crustacean zooplankton reproduction in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters by strengthen operation and management of conventional process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun; ZHANG Jin-song; LI Xiao-wei; HE Jun-guo

    2010-01-01

    To counter the mass reproduction and penetration of crustacean zooplankton in Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) filters which may result in the presence of organisms in potable water and water pollution,this paper analyzed the factors affecting organisms' reproduction in BAC filters.A comparative study was performed on the density and composition of crustacean zooplankton of the concerned water treatment units of two advanced water plants (Plant A and B) which with the same raw water and the same treatment technique in southern China.The results obtained show that the crustaceans' density and composition was very different between the sand filtered water of Plant A and Plant B.which Harpacticoida bred sharply in the sediment tanks and penetrated sand filter into BAC falters was the primary reason of crustaceans reproduce in BAC filters of Plant A.For prevention of the organisms reproduction in BAC,some strengthen measures was taken including pre-chlorination,cleaning coagulation tanks and sediment tanks completely,increasing sludge disposal frequency to stop organisms enter BAC filters,and the finished water quality was improved and enhanced.

  5. The multilayered structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Na

    2013-08-01

    The structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results of the plasmon excitation energy shift and through-thickness elemental concentration show a multilayered a-C film structure comprising an interface layer consisting of C, Si, and, possibly, SiC, a buffer layer with continuously increasing sp 3 fraction, a relatively thicker layer (bulk film) of constant sp 3 content, and an ultrathin surface layer rich in sp 2 hybridization. A detailed study of the C K-edge spectrum indicates that the buffer layer between the interface layer and the bulk film is due to the partial backscattering of C+ ions interacting with the heavy atoms of the silicon substrate. The results of this study provide insight into the minimum thickness of a-C films deposited by FCVA under optimum substrate bias conditions. Copyright © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  6. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  7. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  8. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can enda

  9. Isotopes Will Let the Cat Out of the Bag: A Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopic Analysis of Dry Cat Food Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanko, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    There are a plethora of healthy cat food brands that make a wide variety of claims about the nutrition of their product and the lack of nutrition of their competitors. The claims range from "No sugar or corn" to "Real meat is always the 1st ingredient". The two major disagreements in the cat food market are the nutritional value of corn and the realness of meat products. Here I present a carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic analysis of a wide range of dry cat food brands. The beginning assumption was brands with claims of no corn would be depleted in δ13C compared to brands with corn and brands with real meat as the 1st ingredient would be enriched in δ 15N compared to brands with meat as a lesser ingredient. Preliminary results show brands with no corn (δ13C ~ -22%) are depleted compared to brands with corn (δ13C ~ -17%), which is to be expected. However, brands that claim real meat is the 1st ingredient are slightly depleted (δ15N ~ 3.5%) compared to brands with proportionally less meat (δ15N ~ 5%); the opposite of what was anticipated. Also, the stable isotopes of three house cats, that were all fed the same dry diet (corn as major ingredient), were tracked over time as they were switched to a diet with no corn. Variation was present in the first round of analysis and persisted throughout the dietary change, suggesting individual cats may absorb nutrients from the identical diets differently.

  10. Effect of point-of-use, activated carbon filters on the bacteriological quality of rural groundwater supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    Synder, J W; Mains, C N; Anderson, R. E.; Bissonnette, G K

    1995-01-01

    The water quality of 24 rural, domestic groundwater supplies treated with point-of-use, powdered activated carbon (PAC) filters was monitored to determine how such treatment might impact the bacteriological quality of private, residential drinking water supplies. Heterotrophic-plate-count (HPC) and total coliform analyses were performed on raw, PAC-treated, and overnight or stagnant (first-draw) PAC-treated water samples. Densities of HPC bacteria were elevated by 0.86 and 0.20 orders of magn...

  11. Retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological activated carbon filters for drinking water and the impact on ammonia reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Shuili; Park, Heedeung; Liu, Guicai; Yuan, Qingbin

    2016-06-01

    Given the increasing discoveries related to the eco-toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in different ecosystems and with respect to public health, it is important to understand their potential effects in drinking water treatment (DWT). The effects of TiO2 NPs on ammonia reduction, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water were investigated in static and dynamic states. In the static state, both the nitrification potential and AOB were significantly inhibited by 100 μg L(-1) TiO2 NPs after 12 h (p  0.05). In the dynamic state, different amounts of TiO2 NP pulses were injected into three pilot-scale BAC filters. The decay of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters was very slow. Both titanium quantification and scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed the retention of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters after 134 days of operation. Furthermore, the TiO2 NP pulses considerably reduced the performance of ammonia reduction. This study identified the retention of TiO2 NPs in BAC filters and the negative effect on the ammonia reduction, suggesting a potential threat to DWT by TiO2 NPs.

  12. Retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological activated carbon filters for drinking water and the impact on ammonia reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Shuili; Park, Heedeung; Liu, Guicai; Yuan, Qingbin

    2016-06-01

    Given the increasing discoveries related to the eco-toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in different ecosystems and with respect to public health, it is important to understand their potential effects in drinking water treatment (DWT). The effects of TiO2 NPs on ammonia reduction, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water were investigated in static and dynamic states. In the static state, both the nitrification potential and AOB were significantly inhibited by 100 μg L(-1) TiO2 NPs after 12 h (p  0.05). In the dynamic state, different amounts of TiO2 NP pulses were injected into three pilot-scale BAC filters. The decay of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters was very slow. Both titanium quantification and scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed the retention of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters after 134 days of operation. Furthermore, the TiO2 NP pulses considerably reduced the performance of ammonia reduction. This study identified the retention of TiO2 NPs in BAC filters and the negative effect on the ammonia reduction, suggesting a potential threat to DWT by TiO2 NPs. PMID:26931341

  13. Dynamic vs. fixed bag filling: impact on cardiac output rebreathing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Beck, Kenneth C; Cass, Lauren M; Artal, Raul; Wagner, Peter D

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatability (2.77 multiplied by the within-subject SD)between two different rebreathing protocols on cardiac output ( ˙Q ), pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc). This study compared two bag volume protocols [Fixed Bag Volume (FBV) = bag volume fixed at 60% of forced vital capacity; Dynamic Bag Volume (DBV) = bag volume matched to tidal volume at each stage of exercise].Ten females (age = 27±8 yrs; ˙VO2, (peak)=2.5±0.6 L/min had measurements at rest (12%), 52%, 88%, and 100% of ˙VO2, (peak) on two study days. Neither the slope nor intercept of ˙Q vs. ˙VO2 were different between either bag volume protocols. The slope of DLCO vs. ˙Q was the same but the intercept was higher for the FBV protocol. The bag volume affected the slope and the intercept between DLNO vs. ˙Q (p DLNO (p ≤ 0.06). Measurement error was lower for Vc when using the FBV protocol (p = 0.02). Also, the pattern of bag volume used during rebreathing maneuvers affected the relation between DLNO vs. ˙Q more than it affected DLCO vs. ˙Q , or Vc vs. ˙Q. Additionally, the FBV protocol provided less measurement error for Vc compared to the DBV protocol [corrected].

  14. Carbon-cryogel hierarchical composites as effective and scalable filters for removal of trace organic pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Rosa; Ivanov, Alexander E; Mbundi, Lubinda; Hörberg, Sofia; Kozynchenko, Oleksandr P; Cragg, Peter J; Savina, Irina N; Whitby, Raymond L D; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Tennison, Stephen R; Jungvid, Hans; Cundy, Andrew B

    2016-11-01

    Effective technologies are required to remove organic micropollutants from large fluid volumes to overcome present and future challenges in water and effluent treatment. A novel hierarchical composite filter material for rapid and effective removal of polar organic contaminants from water was developed. The composite is fabricated from phenolic resin-derived carbon microbeads with controllable porous structure and specific surface area embedded in a monolithic, flow permeable, poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel. The bead-embedded monolithic composite filter retains the bulk of the high adsorptive capacity of the carbon microbeads while improving pore diffusion rates of organic pollutants. Water spiked with organic contaminants, both at environmentally relevant concentrations and at high levels of contamination, was used to determine the purification limits of the filter. Flow through tests using water spiked with the pesticides atrazine (32 mg/L) and malathion (16 mg/L) indicated maximum adsorptive capacities of 641 and 591 mg pollutant/g carbon, respectively. Over 400 bed volumes of water contaminated with 32 mg atrazine/L, and over 27,400 bed volumes of water contaminated with 2 μg atrazine/L, were treated before pesticide guideline values of 0.1 μg/L were exceeded. High adsorptive capacity was maintained when using water with high total organic carbon (TOC) levels and high salinity. The toxicity of water filtrates was tested in vitro with human epithelial cells with no evidence of cytotoxicity after initial washing. PMID:27472050

  15. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  16. Investigation on the Key Factors and the Solution for pH Value Decrease in Carbon Filter in O3-BAC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆少鸣; 陈江玲; 李芳

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to eliminate the decrease of effluent pH value in carbon filter in O3-biological activated carbon process. The influence factors were examined in a pilot test, and pH was adjusted in the pilot and waterworks. Results show that the carbon filter is an acid-base buffer system and the activated carbon is the key factor. Chemical functional groups on activated carbon surface present acid-base properties to buffer the water but decrease with time, so that effluent pH value decreases. The effects of ozone dosage, CO2 in the carbon filter, and the filter influent quality are negligible. A new method to adjust pH is developed:the activated carbon is first modified by soaking in sodium hydroxide solution to make its pH reach the desired value, and then the pH value of inflow is controlled to certain value by dosing lime in sand filter influent. The method is economical and effective.

  17. Abiotic and Biotic Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic Bags by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli; Marcos Rogério Tótola; Antônio Jacinto Demuner; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as su...

  18. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marinka D; Bosch, Tim; Eikhout, Sandra M; Vink, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can endanger safety, i.e., knives being used in opening, children swallowing the systems of sealing. To prevent these problems a new sealing system was developed. In this paper the opinion of shop assistants, consumers and experts on several bag sealing systems was studied. It appeared that for sealing plastic bags, adhesive tape with paper is the best out of 4 systems, closely followed by adhesive tape. It is discussed that for the elderly, there is still room for improvement in opening bag seals. PMID:16219161

  19. In-line filtration of SAG-M red cell concentrates prepared in top/bottom or conventional bag systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-01-01

    SAG-M RCCs were prepared in triple conventional or quadruple top/bottom bag systems and filtered at +4 degrees C using the in-line filter system Leucoflex LCR 4 Macopharma after 16-24-30 h of storage. Postfiltration WBC content was determined by Nageotte hemocytometer counting. The mean WBC content of the units prepared in conventional bag systems and filtered was higher than that of the units prepared in T/B bag systems. The best results could be obtained in T/B RCCs stored for 24 h; potassium and hemolysis levels were also improved. The Leucoflex LCR 4 in-line filter T/B system can be recommended for application in the clinical routine by virtue of the effective leukocyte elimination.

  20. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, M.D. de; T. Bosch; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can endanger safety, i.e., knives being used in opening, children swallowing the systems of sealing. To prevent these problems a new sealing system was developed. In this paper the opinion of shop assistan...

  1. An Economic Evaluation of Plastic Bag Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, several jurisdictions worldwide have implemented plastic bag regulations to curb environmentally deleterious effects of plastic bag production and consumption. The problems that each jurisdiction experience vary from place-to-place; as do the policy mechanisms set forth to combat these problems. Documentation of explicit economic rationality regarding these plastic bag regulations is scarce. This thesis sets out to fill some of that void. The thesis is organized as fol...

  2. Bag constant and deconfinement phase transition in the nontopological soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective potential in finite temperature and density nontopological soliton bag model is investigated. Based on this, the authors calculate the bag constant which depends on temperature and chemical potential. The property of deconfinement phase transition is analysed

  3. Color Based Bags-of-Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Martin; Lenz, Reiner

    In this paper we describe how to include high level semantic information, such as aesthetics and emotions, into Content Based Image Retrieval. We present a color-based emotion-related image descriptor that can be used for describing the emotional content of images. The color emotion metric used is derived from psychophysical experiments and based on three variables: activity, weight and heat. It was originally designed for single-colors, but recent research has shown that the same emotion estimates can be applied in the retrieval of multi-colored images. Here we describe a new approach, based on the assumption that perceived color emotions in images are mainly affected by homogenous regions, defined by the emotion metric, and transitions between regions. RGB coordinates are converted to emotion coordinates, and for each emotion channel, statistical measurements of gradient magnitudes within a stack of low-pass filtered images are used for finding interest points corresponding to homogeneous regions and transitions between regions. Emotion characteristics are derived for patches surrounding each interest point, and saved in a bag-of-emotions, that, for instance, can be used for retrieving images based on emotional content.

  4. SUBSTITUTION OF PLASTIC BAG BY JUTE BAG- CASE COMPANY REDQ : Support on Sustainable Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Afrin, Tania

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development is one of the most important issues in the world today. People can play an important role in the sustainable development in different ways regardless of their own position. This study focuses on finding out how plastic bags could be substituted by jute bags and how it would contribute to the sustainable development. In addition, the study focuses on answering the question if the idea of substituting plastic bags by jute bags would be a profitable business innovation. F...

  5. Effect of substrate bias in nitrogen incorporated amorphous carbon films with embedded nanoparticles deposited by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cell Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, National Physical Laboratory (C.S.I.R.), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India); Kumar, Sushil; Ishpal,; Srivastava, A.K.; Chouksey, Abhilasha; Tripathi, R.K.; Basu, A. [Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cell Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, National Physical Laboratory (C.S.I.R.), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer a-C: N films having nanoparticles were deposited by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc (FCJCA) technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of negative substrate bias on the properties of a-C: N films embedded with nanoparticles have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of a-C: N films deposited by FCJCA technique have been compared with ta-C: N films deposited by FCVA process. - Abstract: The properties of nitrogen incorporated amorphous carbon (a-C: N) films with embedded nanoparticles, deposited using a filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique, are reported. X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal an amorphous structure, but on closer examination the presence of clusters of nanocarbon single crystals with d-spacing close to diamond cubic-phase have also been identified. The effect of substrate bias on the microstructure, conductivity, activation energy, optical band gap, optical constants, residual stress, hardness, elastic modulus, plastic index parameter, percentage elastic recovery and density of states of a-C: N films have been studied and the properties obtained are found to depend on the substrate bias.

  6. The effect of substrate bias on titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite films have been deposited on silicon substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology, the effects of substrate bias on composition, structures and mechanical properties of the films are studied by scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nano-indentation. The results show that the Ti content, deposition rate and hardness at first increase and then decrease with increasing the substrate bias. Maximum hardness of the titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite film is 51 Gpa prepared at −400 V. The hardness enhancement may be attributed to the compressive stress and the fraction of crystalline TiC phase due to ion bombardment

  7. Application of a Fused Carbon Nanomaterial Filter for Lunar Dust Abatement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, will apply its patented carbon nanotube filtration technology for air and nanoscale particulate engine exhaust filtration to NASA's Lunar...

  8. Application of a Fused Carbon Nanomaterial Filter for Lunar Dust Abatement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Technologies will further test and develop its patented carbon nanotube filtration technology to NASA's Lunar Exploration challenges. This project focuses on...

  9. Enhancement of nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum YL104 immobilized on activated carbon filter sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Ren, Hengfei; Li, Zhenjian; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Yong; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-02-01

    The efficiency of current methods for industrial production of the enzyme nuclease P1 is limited. In this study, we sought to improve fermentation methods for the production of nuclease P1. An immobilized fermentation system using an activated carbon filter sponge as a carrier was used for the production of nuclease P1. In an airlift internal loop reactor (ALR), the fermentation performance of three different fermentation modes, including free-cell fermentation, repeated-batch fermentation, and semi-continuous immobilized fermentation, were compared. The fermentation kinetics in the fermentation broth of the three fermentation modes, including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH value, cell concentration, residual sugar concentration, and enzyme activity, were tested. The productivity of semi-continuous immobilized fermentation reached 8.76 U/mL/h, which was 33.3 and 80.2% higher than that of repeated-batch fermentation and free-cell fermentation, respectively. The sugar consumption of free-cell, repeated-batch, and semi-continuous immobilized fermentations was 41.2, 30.8, and 25.9 g/L, respectively. These results showed that immobilized-cell fermentation by using Penicillium citrinum with activated carbon filter sponge in an ALR was advantageous for nuclease P1 production, especially in the semi-continuous immobilized fermentation mode. In spite of the significant improvement in nuclease P1 production in semi-continuous immobilized fermentation mode, the specific activity of nuclease P1 was almost equal among the three fermentation modes.

  10. Care of Down and Synthetic Sleeping Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Hawks, Leona K.

    1990-01-01

    If your down or synthetic sleeping bag is treated properly, it will give you years of reliable service. If treated improperly, it can easily be ruined by just one small mistake. The following are some general tips concerning the proper use and care of your sleeping bag.

  11. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  12. The earliest mention of a black bag

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Antonis A. Kousoulis; Tsoucalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    A black bag, needed especially for home visits, has been used since the time of Hippocrates who, in his treatise “On good manners”, gave the first detailed description of a medical bag with guidelines for the required equipment and structure. Ancient Egyptian and Palestinian references also date back at least two millenniums.

  13. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  14. Vacuum-bag-only processing of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shad

    Ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode in conjunction with the amplitude of the reflected signal was used to measure flow rates of an epoxy resin film penetrating through the thickness of single layers of woven carbon fabric. Assemblies, comprised of a single layer of fabric and film, were vacuum-bagged and ultrasonically scanned in a water tank during impregnation at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. Measured flow rates were plotted versus inverse viscosity to determine the permeability in the thin film, non-saturated system. The results demonstrated that ultrasonic imaging in the C-scan mode is an effective method of measuring z-direction resin flow through a single layer of fabric. The permeability values determined in this work were consistent with permeability values reported in the literature. Capillary flow was not observed at the temperatures and times required for pressurized flow to occur. The flow rate at 65°C was predicted from the linear plot of flow rate versus inverse viscosity. The effects of fabric architecture on through-thickness flow rates during impregnation of an epoxy resin film were measured by ultrasonic imaging. Multilayered laminates comprised of woven carbon fabrics and epoxy films (prepregs) were fabricated by vacuum-bagging. Ultrasonic imaging was performed in a heated water tank (65°C) during impregnation. Impregnation rates showed a strong dependence on fabric architecture, despite similar areal densities. Impregnation rates are directly affected by inter-tow spacing and tow nesting, which depend on fabric architecture, and are indirectly affected by areal densities. A new method of predicting resin infusion rates in prepreg and resin film infusion processes was proposed. The Stokes equation was used to derive an equation to predict the impregnation rate of laminates as a function of fabric architecture. Flow rate data previously measured by ultrasound was analyzed with the new equation and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A fiber

  15. Friction properties of amorphous carbon ultrathin films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc and radio-frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The friction properties of ultrathin films of amorphous carbon (a-C) deposited on Si(100) substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc and radio-frequency sputtering were investigated by surface force microscopy. Deposition parameters yielding a-C films with high sp3 content were used to deposit films of thickness between 5 and 35 nm. The coefficient of friction of both types of a-C films was measured with a 1-μm-radius conical diamond tip and normal loads in the range of 20–640 μN. The results show a strong dependence of the friction properties on the surface roughness, thickness, and structure of the a-C films, which are influenced by the intricacies of the deposition method. The dependence of the coefficient of friction on normal load and the dominance of adhesion and plowing friction mechanisms are interpreted in terms of the through-thickness variation of carbon atom hybridization of the a-C films. - Highlights: • Comparison of nanoscale friction properties of ultrathin amorphous carbon films. • Friction dependence on film roughness, thickness, and structure (hybridization). • Effect of through-thickness changes in carbon atom hybridization on film friction. • Explanation of film friction trends in terms of competing friction mechanisms

  16. Friction properties of amorphous carbon ultrathin films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc and radio-frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlak, J.; Komvopoulos, K., E-mail: kyriakos@me.berkeley.edu

    2015-03-31

    The friction properties of ultrathin films of amorphous carbon (a-C) deposited on Si(100) substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc and radio-frequency sputtering were investigated by surface force microscopy. Deposition parameters yielding a-C films with high sp{sup 3} content were used to deposit films of thickness between 5 and 35 nm. The coefficient of friction of both types of a-C films was measured with a 1-μm-radius conical diamond tip and normal loads in the range of 20–640 μN. The results show a strong dependence of the friction properties on the surface roughness, thickness, and structure of the a-C films, which are influenced by the intricacies of the deposition method. The dependence of the coefficient of friction on normal load and the dominance of adhesion and plowing friction mechanisms are interpreted in terms of the through-thickness variation of carbon atom hybridization of the a-C films. - Highlights: • Comparison of nanoscale friction properties of ultrathin amorphous carbon films. • Friction dependence on film roughness, thickness, and structure (hybridization). • Effect of through-thickness changes in carbon atom hybridization on film friction. • Explanation of film friction trends in terms of competing friction mechanisms.

  17. Improved method for the determination of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon in natural water by silver filter filtration, wet chemical oxidation, and infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Brenton, R.W.; Kammer, J.A.; Jha, V.K.; O'Mara-Lopez, P. G.; Woodworth, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    Precision and accuracy are reported for the first time for the analysis of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon by silver membrane filtration followed by wet chemical oxidation. A water sample is pressure filtered through a 0.45-??m-pore-size, 47-mm-diameter silver membrane filter. The silver membrane filter then is cut into ribbons and placed in a flame-sealable glass ampule. The organic material trapped on the membrane filter strips is acidified, purged with oxygen to remove inorganic carbonates and volatile organic compounds, and oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) using phosphoric acid and potassium persulfate in the sealed glass ampule. The resulting CO2 is measured by a nondispersive infrared CO2 detector. The amount of CO2 is proportional to the concentration of chemically oxidizable nonpurgeable organic carbon in the environmental water sample. The quantitation and method detection limit for routine analysis is 0.2 mg/L. The average percent recovery in five representative matrices was 97 ?? 11%. The errors associated with sampling and sample preparation of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon are also described.Precision and accuracy are reported for the first time for the analysis of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon by silver membrane filtration followed by wet chemical oxidation. A water sample is pressure filtered through a 0.45-??m-pore-size, 47-mm-diameter silver membrane filter. The silver membrane filter then is cut into ribbons and placed in a flame-sealable glass ampule. The organic material trapped on the membrane filter strips is acidified, purged with oxygen to remove inorganic carbonates and volatile organic compounds, and oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) using phosphoric acid and potassium persulfate in the sealed glass ampule. The resulting CO2 is measured by a nondispersive infrared CO2 detector. The amount of CO2 is proportional to the concentration of chemically oxidizable nonpurgeable organic carbon in the environmental water sample

  18. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Transpiration of helium and carbon monoxide through a multihundred watt, PICS filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transpiration of CO through the Multihundred Watt (MHW) filter can be described by Fick's first law or as a first order, reversible reaction. From Fick's first law, a ''diffusion'' coefficient of 7.8 x 10-4 cm.L/sec (L is the average path length through the filter) was determined. For the first order reversible reaction, a rate constant of 0.0058 hr-1 was obtained for both the forward and reverse reactions (they were assumed to be equal). This corresponds to a half-life of 120 hr. It was also concluded that the rate constants and thus the transpiration rates, which were determined for the test, are smaller than those expected in the IHS. The effect of increasing the number of filters, changing the volumes, and increasing the temperature, changes the rate constant of the transpiration into the PICS to roughly 0.074 hr-1 (t/sub 1/2/ = 9.4 hr) and out of the PICS to 0.84 hr-1 (t/sub 1/2/ = 0.8 hr). Of the two suggested mechanisms for the generation of CO inside the IHS, the cyclic process requires a much larger rate of transpiration than the process requiring oxygen exchange of CO given off by the graphite. The data indicate that the cyclic process can provide the CO generation rates observed in the IHS gas taps if there is no delay in time for any other kinetic process involved in the formation of CO or CO2. Since the cyclic process (which requires the fastest rate of transpiration) appears possible, this study does not indicate which reaction is occurring but concludes both are possible

  20. Insulin binding to plastic bags: a methodologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowski, Z J; Nolph, K D; McGary, T J; Moore, H L; Collin, P; Ausman, R K; Slimack, W S

    1983-04-01

    A radiotracer method to assess insulin binding to commercially available plastic peritoneal dialysis solution containers was developed. A peritoneal dialysis bag (bag 2) was emptied and attached to another full bag (bag 1) of the same kind. In the syringe-to-bag method, bag 1 was symmetrically injected through the bag wall with four syringes containing dialysis solution and radioactive insulin, with or without regular insulin. The radioactivity in each syringe was measured with a gamma counter before injection, and all of the samples were counted afterwards directly in the syringes. Using a bag-to-bag transfer method, bag 1 was agitated, eight samples were taken from different parts through the wall, and then the contents were transferred to bag 2. Bag 2 was then agitated and eight samples were taken and counted. In the bag-pieces method, pieces of bag wall were cut and the radioactivity on the walls was measured to determine the amount of binding. The syringe-to-bag method gave negative results, severely underestimating the amount of insulin binding. The bag-to-bag transfer method yielded positive results in all instances. Increasing the amounts of regular insulin had no demonstrable impact on percent of binding. When the bag-to-bag method was compared with the bag-pieces method, it gave only slightly higher values; however, the bag-to-bag method was considered more reliable because the counting can be controlled more effectively. A 15-minute delay in sampling was not found to influence insulin binding. A reliable method of assessing insulin binding must be based on the following two principles: (1) The transfer of samples to intermediate containers should be avoided, and (2) radiotracer concentrations in the samples should be similar. PMID:6342377

  1. Impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bacterial communities of biological activated carbon filter intended for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyuan, Liu; Shuili, Yu; Heedeung, Park; Qingbin, Yuan; Guicai, Liu; Qi, Li

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are inevitably present in the aquatic environment owing to their increasing production and use. However, knowledge of the potential effects of TiO2 NPs on the treatment of drinking water is scarce. Herein, the effects of two types of anatase TiO2 NPs (TP1, 25 nm; TP2, 100 nm) on the bacterial community in a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter were investigated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis, ATP quantification, and 454 pyrosequencing analysis. Both TP1 and TP2 significantly inhibited the bacterial ATP level (p < 0.01) and induced a decrease in the abundance of bacterial 16S rDNA gene copies at doses of 0.1 and 100 mg L(-1). Simultaneously, the diversity and evenness of the bacterial communities were considerably reduced. The relative abundances of bacteria annotated to OTUs from Nitrospira class and Betaproteobacteria class decreased upon TiO2 NP treatment, whereas those of Bacilli class and Gammaproteobacteria class increased. TiO2 NP size showed a greater effect on the bacterial composition than did the dose based on Bray-Curtis distances. These findings identified negative effects of TiO2 NPs on the bacterial community in the BAC filter. Given the fact that BAC filters are used widely in drinking water treatment plants, these results suggested a potential threat by TiO2 NP to drinking water treatment system.

  2. Impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bacterial communities of biological activated carbon filter intended for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyuan, Liu; Shuili, Yu; Heedeung, Park; Qingbin, Yuan; Guicai, Liu; Qi, Li

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are inevitably present in the aquatic environment owing to their increasing production and use. However, knowledge of the potential effects of TiO2 NPs on the treatment of drinking water is scarce. Herein, the effects of two types of anatase TiO2 NPs (TP1, 25 nm; TP2, 100 nm) on the bacterial community in a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter were investigated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis, ATP quantification, and 454 pyrosequencing analysis. Both TP1 and TP2 significantly inhibited the bacterial ATP level (p < 0.01) and induced a decrease in the abundance of bacterial 16S rDNA gene copies at doses of 0.1 and 100 mg L(-1). Simultaneously, the diversity and evenness of the bacterial communities were considerably reduced. The relative abundances of bacteria annotated to OTUs from Nitrospira class and Betaproteobacteria class decreased upon TiO2 NP treatment, whereas those of Bacilli class and Gammaproteobacteria class increased. TiO2 NP size showed a greater effect on the bacterial composition than did the dose based on Bray-Curtis distances. These findings identified negative effects of TiO2 NPs on the bacterial community in the BAC filter. Given the fact that BAC filters are used widely in drinking water treatment plants, these results suggested a potential threat by TiO2 NP to drinking water treatment system. PMID:27126871

  3. Effect of biostimulation on biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon in biological filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tihomirova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The addition of labile organic carbon (LOC to enhance the biodegradation rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in biological columns was studied. Acetate standard solution (NaAc and Luria Bertrani (LB medium were used as LOC as biostimulants in glass column system used for measurements of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC. The addition of LOC related with the increase of total DOC in sample. The concentration of BDOC increased up to 7 and 5 times and was utilized after 24 min. contact time. The biodegradation rate constant was increased at least 26 times during adaptation-biostimulation period. There was a strong positive correlation between the biodegradation rate constant and the concentration of BDOC. Biostimulation period ranged from 24 to 53 h for NaAc biostimulant and from 20 to 168 h for LB. The study has shown that LOC could be used as stimulator to enhance the biodegradation rate of DOC during biofiltration.

  4. An inner filter effect based sensor of tetracycline hydrochloride as developed by loading photoluminescent carbon nanodots in the electrospun nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Zou, Hong Yan; Yang, Tong; Liu, Ze Xi; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-02-01

    The inner filter effect (IFE), which results from the absorption of the excitation or emission light by absorbers, has been employed as an alternative approach in sensing systems due to its flexibility and simplicity. In this work, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs), which were simply prepared through a new one-step microwave synthesis route, were loaded in electrospun nanofibers, and the obtained nanofibers were then successfully applied to develop a fluorescent IFE-based visual sensor for tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) sensing in milk. This developed visual sensor has high selectivity owing to the requirements of the spectral overlap between the CDs and Tc, showing high promise in sensing chemistry with an efficient response and economic effect. PMID:26781447

  5. Efficient organometallic spin filter between single-wall carbon nanotube or graphene electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koleini, Mohammad; Paulsson, Magnus; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of spin transport in a class of molecular systems consisting of an organometallic benzene-vanadium cluster placed in between graphene or single-wall carbon-nanotube-model contacts. Ab initio modeling is performed by combining spin density functional theory and noneq......We present a theoretical study of spin transport in a class of molecular systems consisting of an organometallic benzene-vanadium cluster placed in between graphene or single-wall carbon-nanotube-model contacts. Ab initio modeling is performed by combining spin density functional theory...

  6. An inner filter effect based sensor of tetracycline hydrochloride as developed by loading photoluminescent carbon nanodots in the electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Zou, Hong Yan; Yang, Tong; Liu, Ze Xi; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The inner filter effect (IFE), which results from the absorption of the excitation or emission light by absorbers, has been employed as an alternative approach in sensing systems due to its flexibility and simplicity. In this work, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs), which were simply prepared through a new one-step microwave synthesis route, were loaded in electrospun nanofibers, and the obtained nanofibers were then successfully applied to develop a fluorescent IFE-based visual sensor for tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) sensing in milk. This developed visual sensor has high selectivity owing to the requirements of the spectral overlap between the CDs and Tc, showing high promise in sensing chemistry with an efficient response and economic effect.The inner filter effect (IFE), which results from the absorption of the excitation or emission light by absorbers, has been employed as an alternative approach in sensing systems due to its flexibility and simplicity. In this work, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs), which were simply prepared through a new one-step microwave synthesis route, were loaded in electrospun nanofibers, and the obtained nanofibers were then successfully applied to develop a fluorescent IFE-based visual sensor for tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) sensing in milk. This developed visual sensor has high selectivity owing to the requirements of the spectral overlap between the CDs and Tc, showing high promise in sensing chemistry with an efficient response and economic effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures (Fig. S1-S9). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08177g

  7. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues. PMID:22717162

  8. Low powdered activated carbon concentrations to improve MBR sludge filterability at high salinity and low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remy, M.J.J.; Temmink, B.G.; Brink, van den P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that powdered activated carbon (PAC), when applied at very low dosages and long SRTs, reduces membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBRs). This effect was related to stronger flocs which are less sensitive to shear. Low temperature and high salt concentration ar

  9. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  10. Adapt Bagging to Nearest Neighbor Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Zhou; Yang Yu

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that in order to build a strong ensemble, the component learners should be with high diversity as well as high accuracy. If perturbing the training set can cause significant changes in the component learners constructed, then Bagging can effectively improve accuracy. However, for stable learners such as nearest neighbor classifiers, perturbing the training set can hardly produce diverse component learners, therefore Bagging does not work well. This paper adapts Bagging to nearest neighbor classifiers through injecting randomness to distance metrics. In constructing the component learners, both the training set and the distance metric employed for identifying the neighbors are perturbed. A large scale empirical study reported in this paper shows that the proposed BagInRand algorithm can effectively improve the accuracy of nearest neighbor classifiers.

  11. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag;...

  12. Intercomparison of tunable diode laser and gas filter correlation measurements of ambient carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Alan; Henry, Bruce; Parrish, David D.; Carpenter, James R.; Buhr, Martin P.

    An intercomparison that involved a standards intercomparison, interferant spiking tests and simultaneous ambient measurements was carried out between two CO measurement systems: a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) and a gas filter correlation, non-dispersive infrared absorption instrument (GFC). Both the TDLAS and the GFC techniques responded to CO. No major interferences were found for the TDLAS system; tested species included H 2O, O 3 and OCS. The GFC instrument exhibited no interference from H 2O or O 3, but only a relatively high upper limit could be placed on the O 3 interference. For CO measurements in ambient air at levels from 100 to 1500 ppbv, the results from the two instruments agreed within their combined uncertainties. On average the GFC technique was 6% higher than the TDLAS system, and there was no systematic, constant offset. The precision of the GFC instrument was about 10%, and the precision of the TDLAS system was better than 4%.

  13. Storage of canola in hermetic plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, R. E.; De la Torre, D. A.; Ochandio, D. C.; Cardoso, L. M.; Rodríguez, J.C.; Massigoge, J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the small size of the seed, canola (Brassica napus or Brassica campestris) offers different challenges in the harvest and the subsequent post-harvest operations. Often, in Argentina, farmers do not have enough permanent storage capacity so they overcome this deficit with the use of hermetic plastic bags (silobags). The objectives of this work were: 1) Determine the feasibility of the bagging and extraction processes of canola. 2) Monitoring the condition of canola by periodic measureme...

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic Bag Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this report is to establish a comparative study of traditional and biodegradable vest-plastic bag production through the utilization of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The measurements were made for the Ukrainian limited liability company “Polymer”, as a representative manufacturer, in order to calculate the environmental impact of plastic bag manufacturing, and identify the more environmental friendly item. This research is based on a literature review of the specia...

  15. Bagged barrier testing at overseas facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Humphreys; Terry O' Beirne [ACIRL (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    The bag-barrier system, invented by the South African group CSIR-Miningtek and now used in Australia, represents a significant change to the management of explosion suppression in underground coal mines. This report summarises the initial testing of the bagged barrier leading to its recent use in Australia, and details the latest results from testing in the multi-heading Lake Lynn Experimental Mine in USA.

  16. Designing a ridge filter based on a mouse foot skin reaction to spread out Bragg-peaks for carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Carbon-ion radiotherapy uses spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) to produce uniform biological effects within a target volume. The relative biological effectiveness is determined by the in vitro cell kill after a single dose is employed to design the SOBP. A question remains as to whether biological effects for in vivo tissues after fractionated doses are also uniform within the SOBP. Material and methods: Mouse foot skin was irradiated with fractionated doses of carbon ions at various linear energy transfer (LET) values. A new ridge filter was designed based on alpha and beta values for each LET to cause moderate skin reaction, and was studied concerning its uniformity. Results: The reciprocal total doses of intermediate-LET carbon ions and of reference gamma rays linearly increased with an increase of a dose per fraction in Fe-plots. As the single total dose of higher LET run off linearity, data obtained from 2 to 6 fractions were used to design a new ridge filter. The physical dose distribution of the new ridge filter was almost identical to, and indistinguishable from, the ridge filter designed based on the in vitro cell kill. Conclusions: The LET dependence of alpha is a principle of the biological factor to be used for designing spread-out Bragg peaks of carbon-ion radiotherapy

  17. Behavioral Response to Plastic Bag Legislation in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dikgang, Johane; Visser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of charges and standards in dealing with a common externality, plastic litter from shopping bags in Botswana. The country passed a plastic bag tax (effective 2007) to curb the plastic bag demand. Interestingly, the legislation did not force retailers to charge for plastic bags, which they did voluntarily at different prices. We assessed the environmental effectiveness and efficiency of the plastic bag legislation by analyzing consumers’ sensitivity to the impro...

  18. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  19. Dosimetric comparisons of carbon ion treatment plans for 1D and 2D ripple filters with variable thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbæk, Toke Printz; Weber, Uli; Santiago, Alina; Simeonov, Yuri; Fritz, Peter; Krämer, Michael; Wittig, Andrea; Bassler, Niels; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    A ripple filter (RiFi)-also called mini-ridge filter-is a passive energy modulator used in particle beam treatments that broadens the Bragg peak (BP) as a function of its maximum thickness. The number of different energies requested from the accelerator can thus be reduced, which significantly reduces the treatment time. A new second generation RiFi with 2D groove shapes was developed using rapid prototyping, which optimizes the beam-modulating material and enables RiFi thicknesses of up to 6 mm. Carbon ion treatment plans were calculated using the standard 1D 3 mm thick RiFi and the new 4 and 6 mm 2D RiFis for spherical planning target volumes (PTVs) in water, eight stage I non-small cell lung cancer cases, four skull base chordoma cases and three prostate cancer cases. TRiP98 was used for treatment planning with facility-specific base data calculated with the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT12A. Dose-volume-histograms, spatial dose distributions and dosimetric indexes were used for plan evaluation. Plan homogeneity and conformity of thinner RiFis were slightly superior to thicker RiFis but satisfactory results were obtained for all RiFis investigated. For the 6 mm RiFi, fine structures in the dose distribution caused by the larger energy steps were observed at the PTV edges, in particular for superficial and/or very small PTVs but performances for all RiFis increased with penetration depth due to straggling and scattering effects. Plans with the new RiFi design yielded for the studied cases comparable dosimetric results to the standard RiFi while the 4 and 6 mm RiFis lowered the irradiation time by 25-30% and 45-49%, respectively.

  20. The generalized fermion-bag approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to some four-fermion lattice field theories which we call the generalized fermion bag approach. The basic idea is to identify unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom that cause sign problems and collect them in a bag. Paired fermions usually act like bosons and do not lead to sign problems. A resummation of all unpaired fermion degrees of freedom inside the bag is sufficient to solve the fermion sign problem in a variety of interesting cases. Using a concept of duality we then argue that the size of the fermion bags is small both at strong and weak couplings. This allows us to construct efficient algorithms in both these limits. Using the fermion bag approach, we study the quantum phase transition of the 3D massless lattice Thirrring model which is of interest in the context of Graphene. Using our method we are able to solve the model on lattices as large as $40^3$ with moderate computational resources. We obtain the precise location of the quantum critical point and the values of the ...

  1. Air filtration in the free molecular flow regime: a review of high-efficiency particulate air filters based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Chunya; Zhang, Yingying; Wei, Fei

    2014-11-01

    Air filtration in the free molecular flow (FMF) regime is important and challenging because a higher filtration efficiency and lower pressure drop are obtained when the fiber diameter is smaller than the gas mean free path in the FMF regime. In previous studies, FMF conditions have been obtained by increasing the gas mean free path through reducing the pressure and increasing the temperature. In the case of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nanoscale diameters, it is possible to filtrate in the FMF regime under normal conditions. This paper reviews recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of air filtration in the FMF regime. Typical structure models of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters based on CNTs are introduced. The pressure drop in air filters operated in the FMF regime is less than that predicted by the conventional air filtration theory. The thinnest HEPA filters fabricated from single-walled CNT films have an extremely low pressure drop. CNT air filters with a gradient nanostructure are shown to give a much better filtration performance in dynamic filtration. CNT air filters with a hierarchical structure and an agglomerated CNT fluidized bed air filter are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for the application of CNTs in air filtration are discussed.

  2. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  3. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in Filtering Facepiece Respirators with an Active-Venting System: A Computational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Birgersson

    Full Text Available During expiration, the carbon dioxide (CO2 levels inside the dead space of a filtering facepiece respirator (FFR increase significantly above the ambient concentration. To reduce the CO2 concentration inside the dead space, we attach an active lightweight venting system (AVS comprising a one-way valve, a blower and a battery in a housing to a FFR. The achieved reduction is quantified with a computational-fluid-dynamics model that considers conservation of mass, momentum and the dilute species, CO2, inside the FFR with and without the AVS. The results suggest that the AVS can reduce the CO2 levels inside the dead space at the end of expiration to around 0.4% as compared to a standard FFR, for which the CO2 levels during expiration reach the same concentration as that of the expired alveolar air at around 5%. In particular, during inspiration, the average CO2 volume fraction drops to near-to ambient levels of around 0.08% with the AVS. Overall, the time-averaged CO2 volume fractions inside the dead space for the standard FFR and the one with AVS are around 3% and 0.3% respectively. Further, the ability of the AVS to vent the dead-space air in the form of a jet into the ambient - similar to the jets arising from natural expiration without a FFR - ensures that the expired air is removed and diluted more efficiently than a standard FFR.

  4. Combination of ozonation, activated carbon, and biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the performance and removal characteristics of organics, color, and genotoxicity by an integrated process including ozonation, activated carbon (AC), and biological aerated filter (BAF) for recycling biotreated dyeing wastewater (BTDW) collected from a cotton textile factory. Influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the range of 156 - 252 mg/L, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 13.5 - 21.7 mg/L, and color of 58 - 76° were observed during the 20-day continuous operation. Outflows with average COD of 43 mg/L, BOD5 of 6.6 mg/L, and color of 5.6° were obtained after being decontaminated by the hybrid system with ozone dosage of 0.25 mg O3applied/mg COD0, 40 min ozonation contact time, 30 min hydraulic retention time (HRT) for AC treatment, and 2.5 h HRT for BAF treatment. More than 82 % of the genotoxicity of BTDW was eliminated in the ozonation unit. The genotoxicity of the BAF effluent was less than 1.33 μg 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide/L. Ozonation could change the organics molecular structures, destroy chromophores, increase the biodegradability, and obviously reduce the genotoxicity of BTDW. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality.

  5. Time-windows-based filtering method for near-surface detection of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Fischer, M.L.

    2010-02-28

    We use process-based modeling techniques to characterize the temporal features of natural biologically controlled surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and the relationships between the assimilation and respiration fluxes. Based on these analyses, we develop a signal-enhancing technique that combines a novel time-window splitting scheme, a simple median filtering, and an appropriate scaling method to detect potential signals of leakage of CO{sub 2} from geologic carbon sequestration sites from within datasets of net near-surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements. The technique can be directly applied to measured data and does not require subjective gap filling or data-smoothing preprocessing. Preliminary application of the new method to flux measurements from a CO{sub 2} shallow-release experiment appears promising for detecting a leakage signal relative to background variability. The leakage index of ?2 was found to span the range of biological variability for various ecosystems as determined by observing CO{sub 2} flux data at various control sites for a number of years.

  6. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  7. Zero-point energy in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure

  8. The Bacterial Communities of Full-Scale Biologically Active, Granular Activated Carbon Filters Are Stable and Diverse and Potentially Contain Novel Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    LaPara, Timothy M.; Hope Wilkinson, Katheryn; Strait, Jacqueline M.; Hozalski, Raymond M.; Sadowksy, Michael J.; Hamilton, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of the full-scale biologically active, granular activated carbon (BAC) filters operated at the St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) was investigated using Illumina MiSeq analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These bacterial communities were consistently diverse (Shannon index, >4.4; richness estimates, >1,500 unique operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) throughout the duration of the 12-month study period. In addition, only modest shifts in t...

  9. Compact assembly generates plastic foam, inflates flotation bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Device for generating plastic foam consists of an elastomeric bag and two containers with liquid resin and a liquid catalyst. When the walls of the containers are ruptured the liquids come into contact producing foam which inflates the elastomeric bag.

  10. Jute:Change From Bags to Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Many people may be unfamiliar with jute,but everyone knows jute bag and hemp rope.For a long time,jute fiber only could be made into rough packing materials;it is difficult to be used widely for its characteristics.

  11. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  12. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  13. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  14. The Kindness in a Bag of Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小庆

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★☆☆词数:406建议阅读时间:10分钟Last Sunday, my son and I were in line at the Dollar store buying an assortment of products. In a line next to ours, a woman was waiting to make her 1 . She had a few necessities and one bag of chips.

  15. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filter Effective against Giardia Effective against parasites Carbon filter Water purifier EPA approved ( Caution: EPA does not approve ... as recommended by the manufacturer can cause a filter to fail. Healthy Water Links Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global ...

  16. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall...

  17. Plastic bag clip discovered in partial colectomy accompanying proposal for phylogenic plastic bag clip classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastrointestinal tract is frustrated due to radiographic translucency. This occult threat could likely be prevented by the design of gastrointestinally safe, plastic-bag-sealing devices. Presented here is a morphologically based classification of bag clips as a possible guide for determining the most hazardous varieties and to aid further discussions of their impact on health. PMID:22679182

  18. Plastic bag clip discovered in partial colectomy accompanying proposal for phylogenic plastic bag clip classification

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D.; Daniel, John; Hayashi, Edwin; Kvalstad, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag clip was incidentally found anchored in the mucosa of a partial colectomy specimen 2.6 cm proximal to a ruptured diverticulum for which the patient, a mentally retarded, diabetic, 58-year-old man, underwent surgery. Over 20 cases of accidental ingestion of plastic bag clips have been published. Known complications include small bowel perforation, obstruction, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic impaction. Preoperative diagnosis of plastic clips lodged in the gastroi...

  19. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or...

  20. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing bag limits. 660.721... Migratory Fisheries § 660.721 Recreational fishing bag limits. This section applies to recreational fishing... daily bag limit of fishing during one calendar day. Federal recreational HMS regulations are...

  1. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bag/possession limits. 640.23 Section 640... Measures § 640.23 Bag/possession limits. (a) EEZ off the southern Atlantic states, other than Florida. The daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic...

  2. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affecting § 622.39, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bag and possession limits. 622.39 Section... § 622.39 Bag and possession limits. (a) Applicability. (1) The bag and possession limits apply...

  3. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  4. 炭粒床高效工业除尘装置的设计与开发%Design and development of a high efficiency carbon-granular bed filter in industrial scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济宇; 旷戈; 林诚

    2004-01-01

    The new dust removal technical route using the carbon-granular bed filter,packed of carbon particles with appropriate grade derive from an online-process vibration sieve,to replace the traditional baggy filter had been developed successfully for capturing the micro-carbon dusts produced from pulverization of petroleum coke,and the green close loop of carbon materials is thus completed in the combined pulverizing and classifying system and pulverized carbon dust removal process.The high dust removal efficiency greater than 99%,low outlet dust concentration less than 100 mg.m-3,low pressure drop through dust filtration chamber less than 980 Pa,simple and easy design,and flexible and stable operation were achieved also with the carbon-granular bed filter in both bench and industrial scale operations.

  5. Dosimetric comparisons of carbon ion treatment plans for 1D and 2D ripple filters with variable thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Weber, Uli; Santiago, Alina; Simeonov, Yuri; Fritz, Peter; Krämer, Michael; Wittig, Andrea; Bassler, Niels; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2016-06-01

    A ripple filter (RiFi)—also called mini-ridge filter—is a passive energy modulator used in particle beam treatments that broadens the Bragg peak (BP) as a function of its maximum thickness. The number of different energies requested from the accelerator can thus be reduced, which significantly reduces the treatment time. A new second generation RiFi with 2D groove shapes was developed using rapid prototyping, which optimizes the beam-modulating material and enables RiFi thicknesses of up to 6 mm. Carbon ion treatment plans were calculated using the standard 1D 3 mm thick RiFi and the new 4 and 6 mm 2D RiFis for spherical planning target volumes (PTVs) in water, eight stage I non-small cell lung cancer cases, four skull base chordoma cases and three prostate cancer cases. TRiP98 was used for treatment planning with facility-specific base data calculated with the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT12A. Dose-volume-histograms, spatial dose distributions and dosimetric indexes were used for plan evaluation. Plan homogeneity and conformity of thinner RiFis were slightly superior to thicker RiFis but satisfactory results were obtained for all RiFis investigated. For the 6 mm RiFi, fine structures in the dose distribution caused by the larger energy steps were observed at the PTV edges, in particular for superficial and/or very small PTVs but performances for all RiFis increased with penetration depth due to straggling and scattering effects. Plans with the new RiFi design yielded for the studied cases comparable dosimetric results to the standard RiFi while the 4 and 6 mm RiFis lowered the irradiation time by 25-30% and 45-49%, respectively.

  6. Modeling the impact of drought on canopy carbon and water fluxes through parameter optimization using an ensemble Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ju

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil and atmospheric water deficits have significant influences on CO2 and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Model parameterization significantly affects the ability of a model to simulate carbon, water, and energy fluxes. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and observations of gross primary productivity (GPP and latent heat (LE fluxes were used to optimize model parameters significantly affecting the calculation of these fluxes for a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeastern China. The optimized parameters include the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax, the Ball-Berry coefficient (m and the coefficient determining the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to atmospheric water vapor deficit D0. Optimized Vcmax and m showed larger seasonal and interannual variations than D0. Seasonal variations of Vcmax and m are more pronounced than the interannual variations. Vcmax and m are associated with soil water content (SWC. During dry periods, SWC at the 20 cm depth can explain 61% and 64% of variations of Vcmax and m, respectively. EnKF parameter optimization improves the simulations of GPP, LE and sensible heat (SH, mainly during dry periods. After parameter optimization using EnKF, the variations of GPP, LE and SH explained by the model increased by 1% to 4% at half-hourly steps and by 3% to 5% at daily time steps. Efforts are needed to develop algorithms that can properly describe the variations of these parameters under different environmental conditions.

  7. The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  8. The Bacterial Communities of Full-Scale Biologically Active, Granular Activated Carbon Filters Are Stable and Diverse and Potentially Contain Novel Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPara, Timothy M; Hope Wilkinson, Katheryn; Strait, Jacqueline M; Hozalski, Raymond M; Sadowksy, Michael J; Hamilton, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial community composition of the full-scale biologically active, granular activated carbon (BAC) filters operated at the St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) was investigated using Illumina MiSeq analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These bacterial communities were consistently diverse (Shannon index, >4.4; richness estimates, >1,500 unique operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) throughout the duration of the 12-month study period. In addition, only modest shifts in the quantities of individual bacterial populations were observed; of the 15 most prominent OTUs, the most highly variable population (a Variovorax sp.) modulated less than 13-fold over time and less than 8-fold from filter to filter. The most prominent population in the profiles was a Nitrospira sp., representing 13 to 21% of the community. Interestingly, very few of the known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB; amoA genes, however, suggested that AOB were prominent in the bacterial communities (amoA/16S rRNA gene ratio, 1 to 10%). We conclude, therefore, that the BAC filters at the SPRWS potentially contained significant numbers of unidentified and novel ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms that possess amoA genes similar to those of previously described AOB. PMID:26209671

  9. Application of ultrafiltration and stable isotopic amendments to field studies of mercury partitioning to filterable carbon in lake water and overland runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, C.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Gilmour, C.; Branfireun, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    Results from pilot studies on colloidal phase transport of newly deposited mercury in lake water and overland runoff demonstrate that the combination of ultrafiltration, and stable isotope amendment techniques is a viable tool for the study of mercury partitioning to filterable carbon. Ultrafiltration mass balance calculations were generally excellent, averaging 97.3, 96.1 and 99.8% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total mercury (HgT), and methylmercury (MeHg), respectively. Sub nanogram per liter quantities of isotope were measurable, and the observed phase distribution from replicate ultrafiltration separations on lake water agreed within 20%. We believe the data presented here are the first published colloidal phase mercury data on lake water and overland runoff from uncontaminated sites. Initial results from pilot-scale lake amendment experiments indicate that the choice of matrix used to dissolve the isotope did not affect the initial phase distribution of the added mercury in the lake. In addition there was anecdotal evidence that native MeHg was either recently produced in the system, or at a minimum, that this 'old' MeHg partitions to the same subset of DOC that binds the amended mercury. Initial results from pilot-scale overland runoff experiments indicate that less than 20% of newly deposited mercury was transported in the filterable fraction (<0.7 ??m). There is some indication of colloidal phase enrichment of mercury in runoff compared to the phase distribution of organic carbon, but the mechanism of this enrichment is unclear. The phase distribution of newly deposited mercury can differ from that of organic carbon and native mercury, suggesting that the quality of the carbon (available ligands), not the quantity of carbon, regulates partitioning. Further characterization of DOC is needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  11. Inflatable bag with sealing and protection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inflatable bag consists of a textile casing in which a cylindrical pvc tyre with concave bottoms is inserted and glued to the casing. A sealing protective layer is provided on the outer periphery of the cylindrical part of the tyre. A tyre valve with flange and fixing ears and also a relief valve are provided in the concave bottom. The casing material, such as a layer of 0.5 to 5 mm silicone rubber bands is suitable for use in contact with austenitic materials. The bag completely seals spaces such as the mouths of steam generator tubes or collector branches in a nuclear power plant. Decontamination can easily be achieved by rinsing the surface with common means. (J.B.). 2 figs

  12. Process of nitrogen transformation and microbial community structure in the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier filled in biological aerated filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Li, Jinlong

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen pollutants in low-organic carbon wastewater are difficult to biodegrade. Therefore, the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier (FCBC) was firstly used as hydrogen producer in a biological-aerated filter (BAF) to make up for the lack of organic carbon in biological nitrogen removal. Physical and chemical properties of FCBC were detected and compared in this study. The nitrogen removal rate for low COD/TN ratio wastewater, nitrogen transformation process, and microbial communities in the FCBC filled in BAF were investigated. Results showed that the nitrogen removal rates was 0.38-0.41 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the FCBC filled BAF and reached 0.62 kg N m(-3) day(-1) within the filter depth of 60-80 cm, under the conditions of the dissolved oxygen 3.5 ± 0.2 mg L(-1) and the inlet pH 7.2 ± 0.1. Hydrogenophaga (using hydrogen as electron donor), Sphaerotilus (absorbing [Fe(3+)]), Nitrospira (nitrificaion), and Nitrosomonas (ammonia oxidation) were found to be the predominant genera in the reactor. The reaction schemes in the FCBC filled in BAF was calculated: hydrogen and [Fe(3+)] were produced by Fe(0)-C galvanic cells in the FCBC, ammonia was oxidized into nitrate by Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira genera, hydrogen was used as electron donors by Hydrogenophaga genus to reduce nitrate into N2, and [Fe(3+)] was partly absorbed by Sphaerotilus and diverted via sludge discharging.

  13. Moisture reduction of filter cake by improved filter design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.; Davis, S.S.; Garlick, L.D.

    1983-10-01

    With the redesign of the Agidisc filter, several improvements have been achieved as follows: Internal velocities of filtrate and air have been greatly reduced in the PIPPED sectors, ferrules, internal channels and filter valve. This will maximize pressure drop across the cake resulting in lower moistures and decreased wear. The PIPPED sector achieves better cake discharge because of the flexing action while increasing bag life. Moisture content reduction for the PIPPED sectors alone appear to have the potential for about 1 1/2 percentage points lower then redwood sectors. By indexing the two halves of the disc filter so each half discharges separately, shock wear on the cake conveyor should be reduced. More air volume will also go to less sectors resulting in better discharge. Using a sudden blow with a low pressure blower for cake discharge, energy consumption is reduced. Overall maintenance costs for the new design should be reduced through less wear due to appreciably reduced velocities.

  14. Consumption of Plastic bags and its Impact on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwat Afzal; Irfan Ali; Imdad Ali; M.Adil; Suman Gangwani; Faryal Shaikh

    2012-01-01

    The research was done on the consumption of plastic bags and its possible impact on environment. We considered the consumption of plastic bags as recycling, alternatives and disposal, and to be specific we defined environment impact on drainage and street waste. The respondents’ were the 20 years of age and older without any gender discrimination, and assumed to be users of plastic bags. The data was collected from the crowded shopping centers of city. Correlation and regression techniques we...

  15. Computer Forensic Using Lazy Local Bagging Predictors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Wei-dong; BAO Cheng-yi; ZHU Xing-quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of employ ensemble learning for computer forensic. We propose a Lazy Local Learning based bagging (L3B) approach, where base learners are trained from a small instance subset surrounding each test instance. More specifically, given a test instance x, L3B first discovers x's k nearest neighbours, and then applies progressive sampling to the selected neighbours to train a set of base classifiers, by using a given very weak (VW) learner. At the last stage, x is labeled as the most frequently voted class of all base classifiers. Finally, we apply the proposed L3B to computer forensic.

  16. The Kaon Bag Parameter at Physical Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Frison, Julien; Christ, Norman H; Garron, Nicolas; Mawhinney, Robert; Sachrajda, Chris T; Yin, Hantao

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results for the calculation of the Kaon Bag parameter $B_K$ in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD, using M\\"obius Domain Wall Fermion ensembles generated by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration. This computation is done directly at physical meson masses, so that we do not have to rely on chiral perturbation theory or any other mass extrapolation. In parallel, the four-quark operator is renormalised through the Rome-Southampton technique. Finally, we compare our value with previous results and draw some conclusions about the remaining dominant contributions in our error budget.

  17. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  18. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  19. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  20. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  1. 活性炭孔隙结构对活性炭过滤纸吸附性能的影响%Effect of Pore Structure of Activated Carbon on Performance of Activated Carbon Filter Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐爱民; 贾超锋; 刘泽明

    2011-01-01

    用氮气吸附法、扫描电镜对4种不同活性炭(木质活性炭AC1、AC2,煤质活性炭AC3,椰壳质活性炭AC4)的孔隙结构进行表征,通过抄纸方法制备活性炭过滤纸,用亚甲基蓝和苯酚吸附效率表征活性炭过滤纸的吸附性能,研究了活性炭孔隙结构对过滤纸吸附性能的影响.结果表明,两种木质活性炭的比表面积和总的孔容积较高,分别为1054 m2/g、1.165 cm3/g和1125 m2/g、1.083 cm3/g;4种活性炭微孔平均孔径相差不大,但两种木质活性炭的大中孔平均孔径较大;其中,木质活性炭AC2的微孔和大中孔孔容积均较大,孔径在0.64、1.2和2.3 nm附近的孔隙发达,具有较强的选择性吸收能力,用其抄造的过滤纸对亚甲基蓝和苯酚均有较好的吸附效率,3次过滤吸附效率分别为92.2%和93.8%.%The pore structures of four different types of activated carbons, which included two wood-based activated carbons AC1, AC2, one coal-based activated carbon AC3 and one coconut-shell-based activated carbon AC4, were characterized by nitrogen adsorption method and scanning electron microscope. The activated carbon filter papers were prepared by papermaking process. The adsorption performances of the filter papers were characterized by adsorption values of methylene blue and phenol. The effect of pore structure characteristics of activated carbon on performance of activated carbon filter papers was studied. The results showed that: Among the four types of activated carbons, two types of wood-based activated carbons have larger specific surface areas and higher total pore volume, which are 1054 mVg, 1.165 cm Vg and 1125 mVg, 1.083 cm Vg respectively. Though the micropores mean diameters of the four activated carbons are similar, the mesopores and macropores mean diameters of the two wood-based activated carbons AC1 and AC2 are larger. In pore structure of wood-based activated carbon AC2, the micropores, mesopores and macropores volumes ore higher

  2. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  3. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2) concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process. PMID:25419675

  4. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2 concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  5. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report

  6. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  7. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  8. Efficacy of electron beams in radiation disinfestation of jute bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiator generating electron radiation may be employed for radiation disinfestation of jute bags infested with larvae and adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuV., if they are created as separate units or small batches, containing up to 40 bags, and are irradiated with a 2 kGy dose. (author)

  9. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  10. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  11. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control sup

  12. Commander Brand stows trash in jettison bag on middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand disposes of empty food containers and dry trash in jettison bag and stows bag in middeck volume under MA73C control panel. Side hatch is visible behind Brand. Brand is wearing constant wear garment with communications kit assembly headset interface unit (HIU) and note pad strapped to his thighs.

  13. MICROWAVE POPCORN EMISSIONS RELEASED DURING COOKING AND BAG OPENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data are not currently available on the contaminants released when microwave popcorn, flavorings and bags are heated to microwave temperatures. Thus, the primary goal of this work is to identify and quantify contaminants emitted while popping and opening a bag of microwave popcor...

  14. Partial bosonization: The formalism of Cheshire Cat bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By bosonizing fermionic theories on only a part of space-time, one obtains idealized bag models where the physics is independent of the bag radius. Such ''Cheshire Cat Models (CCM's)'' were introduced in an earlier paper, where it was suggested that realistic bag models are in fact approximate CCM's. The present paper further explores Abelian CCM's in 1+1 dimensions. First, the boundary action for CCM's is derived in the Lagrangian formalism by demanding invariance under parity and chiral rotations. Next, a quantum reinterpretation of the classical Lagrangian bag boundary conditions is used to obtain the bosonic representation of fermions as soliton operators. Last, these soliton operators are used to construct CCM's in the Hamiltonian framework. The Cheshire Cat criterion - independence of the energy spectrum on the bag radius - is presented as the commuting of the energy and momentum operators for the model. (orig.)

  15. Bagging Support Vector Machines for Leukemia Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokmen Zararsiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is one of the most common cancer type, and its diagnosis and classification is becoming increasingly complex and important. Here, we used a gene expression dataset and adapted bagging support vector machines (bSVM for leukemia classification. bSVM trains each SVM seperately using bootstrap technique, then aggregates the performances of each SVM by majority voting. bSVM showed accuracy between 87.5% - 92.5%, area under ROC curve between 98.0% - 99.2%, F-measure between 90.5% - 92.7% and outperformed single SVM and other classification methods. We also compared our results with other study results which used the same dataset for leukemia classification. Experimental results revealed that bSVM showed the best performance and can be used as a biomarker for the diagnose of leukemia disease.

  16. Non-topological soliton bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilets, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs. (LEW)

  17. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45CaCl2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  18. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  19. Generation of soluble microbial products by bio-activated carbon filter during drinking water advanced treatment and its influence on spectral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of bio-activated carbon (BAC) filter, the water quality of influent and effluent treated with BAC in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) of Shanghai during 2015 was valued. Combining the results from UV254, SUVA254, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM), it is found that performance of BAC treatment will be affected by characteristics of activated carbon (AC), which is relevant to the type of activated carbon (including shape and operating time) in this study. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) shows that the humification index (HIX) and index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX) is a reliable indicator to descript the variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during BAC process. The pattern of variation in BIX and HIX implies that soluble microbial products (SMPs) are formed and humic-like substances are removed during BAC treatment, which is also confirmed by the change of peaks of FEEM in BAC effluent. Large, positive correlations between SUVA254 and disinfection by-products formation potential yield (DBPFP yield) demonstrate that UV-absorbing DOM is directly related to the generation of DBPs. Poor correlations of HIX with DBPFP suggest that non-humic substances with UV-absorbing properties play an important role in the generation of DBPs in water with low SUVA254. Finally, strong but negative correlations between BIX and DBPFP suggest that vigorous microbial metabolism of BAC results in a decrease in DBPFP. However, the DBPFP yield will be enhanced for the generation of SMPs by BAC, especially in summer. PMID:27436775

  20. Carbon Nanotube-Based Supercapacitors with Excellent ac Line Filtering and Rate Capability via Improved Interfacial Impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangom, Yverick; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-07-28

    We report the fabrication of high-performance, self-standing composite sp(2)-carbon supercapacitor electrodes using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as conductive binder. The 3-D mesoporous mesh architecture of CNT-based composite electrodes grants unimpaired ionic transport throughout relatively thick films and allows superior performance compared to graphene-based devices at an ac line frequency of 120 Hz. Metrics of 601 μF/cm(2) with a -81° phase angle and a rate capability (RC) time constant of 199 μs are obtained for thin carbon films. The free-standing carbon films were obtained from a chlorosulfonic acid dispersion and interfaced to stainless steel current collectors with various surface treatments. CNT electrodes were able to cycle at 200 V/s and beyond, still showing a characteristic parallelepipedic cyclic votammetry shape at 1 kV/s. Current densities are measured in excess of 6400 A/g, and the electrodes retain more than 98% capacity after 1 million cycles. These promising results are attributed to a reduction of series resistance in the film through the CNT conductive network and especially to the surface treatment of the stainless steel current collector.

  1. Cleanable sintered metal filters in hot off-gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filters with sintered metal elements, arranged as tube bundles with backflush air cleaning, are the equivalent of bag filters for high-temperature, harsh environments. They are virtually the only alternative for high-temperature off-gas systems where a renewable, highly efficient particle trap is required. Tests were conducted which show that the sintered metal elements installed in a filter system provide effective powder collection in high-temperature atmospheres over thousands of cleaning cycles. Such a sintered metal filter system is now installed on the experimental defense waste calciner at the Savannah River Laboratory. The experimental results included in this paper were used as the basis for its design

  2. Studies of diamond-like carbon and diamond-like carbon polymer hybrid coatings deposited with filtered pulsed arc discharge method for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Soininen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen free diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been the subject of investigation all around the world for the last 30 years. One of the major problems in producing of thick high-quality DLC coatings has been the inadequate adhesion of the deposited film to the substrate. This obstacle is finally overcome by depositing an intermediate adhesion layer produced with high energy (>2 keV) carbon plasma before application of a high-quality coating produced with a low energy unit. To the best ...

  3. Depth filters containing diatomite achieve more efficient particle retention than filters solely containing cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Buyel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g. when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m-2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m-2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  4. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  5. Fermion Bag Approach for Massive Thirring Model at Finite Density

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daming

    2016-01-01

    We consider the 2+1 dimensional massive Thirring model with one flavor at finite density. Two numerical methods, fermion bag approach and complex Langevin dynamics, are used to calculate the chiral condensate and fermion density of this model. The numerical results obtained by fermion bag approach are compared with those obtained by complex Langevin dynamics. They are also compared with those obtained under phase quenched approximation. We show that in some range of fermion coupling strength and chemical potential the sign problem in fermion bag approach is mild, while it becomes severe for the complex Langevin dynamics.

  6. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  7. Technical Note: A novel approach to estimation of time-variable surface sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using empirical orthogonal functions and the Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhuravlev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose an approach to solving a source estimation problem based on representation of carbon dioxide surface emissions as a linear combination of a finite number of pre-computed empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. We used National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES transport model for computing response functions and Kalman filter for estimating carbon dioxide emissions. Our approach produces results similar to these of other models participating in the TransCom3 experiment.

    Using the EOFs we can estimate surface fluxes at higher spatial resolution, while keeping the dimensionality of the problem comparable with that in the regions approach. This also allows us to avoid potentially artificial sharp gradients in the fluxes in between pre-defined regions. EOF results generally match observations more closely given the same error structure as the traditional method.

    Additionally, the proposed approach does not require additional effort of defining independent self-contained emission regions.

  8. The effect of operating conditions on resistance parameters of filter media and limestone dust cake for uniformly loaded needle felts in a pilot scale test facility at ambient conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Resistance parameters are essential for the prediction of pressure drop in bag filters. The reported values for limestone dust differ in magnitude and also depend on operating parameters. In this work, experimental data is provided from a pilot scale pulse-jet regenerated bag filter test facility for three types of needle felts using air and limestone dust at ambient conditions. Results reveal that specific resistance of filter media is independent of velocity while the specific resistance of...

  9. Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160032.html Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags Using ... 11 percent) suffered facial fractures -- nasal and mid-face fractures most often. Those most likely to suffer ...

  10. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniawan, A; Greaves, D M; Hann, M; Farley, F J M

    2016-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.

  11. Bag nyhederne - værdier, idealer og praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ida

    Hvorfor bliver nogle begivenheder til nyheder? Hvilke nyhedsværdier hersker på danske redaktioner? Bag nyhederne er en sociologisk undersøgelse af dansk nyhedskultur, der giver et indblik i hverdagens journalistiske praksis....

  12. Comparison of three methods in improving bag mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Leaving dentures in place in edentulous patients after inducing anesthesia improves bag-mask ventilation. However, placing folded compressed gauze in buccal space leads to more significant improvement in BMV compared to leaving dentures in place.

  13. Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Tmurbagan; LIU Guang-Zhou; ZHU Ming-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(p) decreases with baryon density p; this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever, which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii.

  14. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  15. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)

  16. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H. J.; Maslow, J. N.

    1980-09-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy.

  17. Assimilating AmeriFlux Site Data into the Community Land Model with Carbon-Nitrogen Coupling via the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, J. C.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M. D.; Stoeckli, R.; Thornton, P. E.; Hudiburg, T. M.; Thomas, C. K.; Martin, J.; Hill, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    The assimilation of terrestrial carbon, water and nutrient cycle measurements into land surface models of these processes is fundamental to improving our ability to predict how these ecosystems may respond to climate change. A combination of measurements and models, each with their own systematic biases, must be considered when constraining the nonlinear behavior of these coupled dynamics. As such, we use the sequential Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to assimilate eddy covariance (EC) and other site-level AmeriFlux measurements into the NCAR Community Land Model with Carbon-Nitrogen coupling (CLM-CN v3.5), run in single-column mode at a 30-minute time step, to improve estimates of relatively unconstrained model state variables and parameters. Specifically, we focus on a semi-arid ponderosa pine site (US-ME2) in the Pacific Northwest to identify the mechanisms by which this ecosystem responds to severe late summer drought. Our EnKF analysis includes water, carbon, energy and nitrogen state variables (e.g., 10 volumetric soil moisture levels (0-3.43 m), ponderosa pine and shrub evapotranspiration and net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide stocks and flux components, snow depth, etc.) and associated parameters (e.g., PFT-level rooting distribution parameters, maximum subsurface runoff coefficient, soil hydraulic conductivity decay factor, snow aging parameters, maximum canopy conductance, C:N ratios, etc.). The effectiveness of the EnKF in constraining state variables and associated parameters is sensitive to their relative frequencies, in that C-N state variables and parameters with long time constants require similarly long time series in the analysis. We apply the EnKF kernel perturbation routine to disrupt preliminary convergence of covariances, which has been found in recent studies to be a problem more characteristic of low frequency vegetation state variables and parameters than high frequency ones more heavily coupled with highly varying climate (e

  18. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR... Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam, USITC Publication 4144, Investigation Nos. 701... carrying merchandise from retail establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners....

  19. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the MIT Bag Model

    OpenAIRE

    Burkardt, Matthias; Jarrah, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Using the MIT bag model, we study the contribution from the gluon vector potential due to the spectators to the orbital angular momentum of a quark in the bag model. For $\\alpha_s = {\\cal O}(1)$, this spectator contribution to the quark orbital angular momentum in the gauge-covariant Ji decomposition is of the same order as the non gauge-covariant quark orbital angular momentum and its magnitude is larger for $d$ than for $u$ quarks and negative for both.

  20. Radiochemical Analyses of the Filter Cake, Granular Activated Carbon, and Treated Ground Water from the DTSC Stringfellow Superfund Site Pretreatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, B K; McConachie, W; Fischer, R; Sutton, M; Szechenyi, S

    2005-09-16

    The Department of Toxic Substance Control (DTSC) requested that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) evaluate the treatment process currently employed at the Department's Stringfellow Superfund Site Pretreatment Plant (PTP) site to determine if wastes originating from the site were properly managed with regards to their radioactivity. In order to evaluate the current management strategy, LLNL suggested that DTSC characterize the effluents from the waste treatment system for radionuclide content. A sampling plan was developed; samples were collected and analyzed for radioactive constituents. Following is brief summary of those results and what implications for waste characterization may be made. (1) The sampling and analysis provides strong evidence that the radionuclides present are Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). (2) The greatest source of radioactivity in the samples was naturally occurring uranium. The sample results indicate that the uranium concentration in the filter cake is higher than the Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) samples. (11 -14 and 2-6 ppm respectively). (3) No radiologic background for geologic materials has been established for the Stringfellow site, and comprehensive testing of the process stream has not been conducted. Without site-specific testing of geologic materials and waste process streams, it is not possible to conclude if filter cake and spent GAC samples contain radioactivity concentrated above natural background levels, or if radionuclides are being concentrated by the waste treatment process. Recommendation: The regulation of Technologically Enhanced, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (T-NORM) is complex. Since the results of this study do not conclusively demonstrate that natural radioactive materials have not been concentrated by the treatment process it is recommended that the DTSC consult with the Department of Health Services (DHS) Radiological Health Branch to determine if any further

  1. Bagged material palletizing robot system; Fukuromono paretaizu robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    This paper introduces a case of delivery of an industrial automation machinery fabricated by Meidensha, Inc. A robot was delivered as a robot system to automate the work of palletizing craft paper bags containing cement. While bags filled with cement and sewn on the openings with a sewing machine in the previous process are transported to the robot, a shaping machine makes the bag height aligned, and a bleeder machine pushes out unnecessary air in the bags. The robot stacks the bags on a pallet sequentially one by one. A pallet magazine supplies automatically a next pallet when stacking by the robot has been completed. Introduction of this system has achieved such effects as elimination of labor shortage, release from simple muscle work, and stabilization of palletizing accuracy. Major constituting devices include: a palletizing robot (VTR-1000Y), a bag transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer, a shaping machine, and a bleeding device), and a pallet transporting equipment (comprising a conveyer and an empty pallet magazine). (NEDO)

  2. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  3. Application of Geotextile Bag Dehydrated Soil to Dike Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱平; 闫澍旺; 刘润

    2004-01-01

    Using geotextile bag dehydrated soil to construct dikes for land reclamation to substitute conventional straw bags is an urgent need in Tianjin New Harbor, China. This paper introduces the method to build a dike for hydraulic filling. The soil for filling the geotextile bags was tested in wave trench; the stress developed during construction was calculated by establishing a numerical model and compared with the tensile strength of the geotextile; the stability and settlement of the dike were estimated by performing centrifuge tests. Through this study, the following information was obtained: 1) The cohesionless silt with plasticity index less than 10 is suitable for filling the geotextile bags. The geotextile bag dehydrated soil consolidated very quickly even under the action of wave force. 2) A numerical model was devised to find the limit injection height and to calculate the tensile stress developed in the geotextile bags when they were piled up to form the dike. The calculated stress was compared with the strength of the geotextile, showing that the design is reasonably safe. 3) Centrifuge test results show that the designed dike will be stable and the settlement of dike will be less than the design requirement.

  4. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G; Sharp, Thomas E; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-07-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of BAG3 in the homeostasis of myocytes and its role in the development of heart failure was evidenced by the finding that single allelic mutations in BAG3 were associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, significant decreases in the level of BAG3 have been found in end-stage failing human heart and in animal models of heart failure including mice with heart failure secondary to trans-aortic banding and in pigs after myocardial infarction. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the cellular biology and molecular regulation of BAG3 expression in order to design new therapies for the treatment of patients with both hereditary and non-hereditary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25925243

  5. Determination of Diclofenac on a Dysprosium Nanowire- Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Accomplished in a Flow Injection System by Advanced Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new detection technique called Fast Fourier Transform Square-Wave Voltammetry (FFT SWV is based on measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode, which is generated by a redox processes, is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve sensitivity. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires provide a more effective nanotube-like surface [1-4] so they are good candidates for use as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The redox properties of diclofenac were used for its determination in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for diclofenac determination was a 0.05 mol L−1 acetate buffer pH = 4.0. The drug presented an irreversible oxidation peak at 850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl on a modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential by about 100 mV. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased by application of a discrete Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, CDL of 2.0 × 10−9 M and an LOQ of 5.0 × 10−9 M were found for the determination for diclofenac. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of diclofenac was achieved in a commercial formulation.

  6. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  7. O3-BAC工艺炭滤池pH变化关键因素探究%STUDY ON THE KEY FACTORS OF CARBON FILTER PH VALUE CHANGES IN O3-BAC PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江玲; 陆少鸣

    2012-01-01

    针对南方湿热地区深度处理O3-生物活性炭(BAC)工艺炭滤池出水pH大幅降低问题,研究了主接触池O3投加量、炭滤池内的酸性气体CO2、炭滤池进水水质等因素对炭滤池出水pH的影响.结果表明,当主接触池O3投加量增加至5 mg·L-1时,炭滤池内pH无变化;炭滤池产生CO2对炭滤池pH的影响可忽略不计;但当炭滤池进水pH从6.10~9.10改变时,炭滤池出水pH维持在6.80~7.00.炭滤池是个酸碱缓冲系统,其关键作用的是活性炭自身.活性炭表面化学性质研究发现,活性炭表面含氧官能团具有两性性质,能中和水中的H+或OH-.且活性炭表面含氧官能团的数量随着其使用时间的延长而逐渐减少,从而使活性炭pH下降,致使炭滤池在长期使用过程中出现pH下降的现象.%It's a common problem that O3-BAC process carbon filter effluent pH reduced greatly in the hot and humid regions deep treatment. In Guangzhou , a tap water factory, the influence factors such as the ozone dosing quantity, acid gas CO2 in carbon filter, the effluent quality including pH change were researched. Test results showed that the ozone dosing quantity from 0 to 5 mg·L-1 didn't effect on carbon filter effluent pH; and the influence of the pH by acid gas CO2 from carbon filter could be negligible. But when influent pH changed from 6.10~9.10, carbon filter effluent pH, basically maintained in the range of 6.80~7.00. Carbon filter was a huge acid-base buffering system, and activated carbon was the key factor of pH change. Activated carbon surface chemical properties was studied, and it found that oxygen functional groups on activated carbon surface were decreased along with the extension use of activated carbon, thus to make activated carbon pH fall, and then to result in the phenomenon- the decline of pH in the carbon filter for a long time in the process.

  8. Structure of high-efficiency activated carbon filter and its application to treatment of electroplating wastewater%高效炭滤罐的结构及其在电镀废水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭扬波

    2015-01-01

    介绍了一种具有流化床结构的新型高效炭滤罐的主要结构,给出了该炭滤罐在电镀废水处理中应用的实例。采用该炭滤罐可提高活性炭的吸附效率,减轻操作的劳动强度。它可用于冶金、化工、医药、环保等行业的活性炭吸附、固液分离、气体净化、油水分离和噪声处理,是一种多用途的实用新型设备。%The structure of a novel high-efficiency activated carbon filter with fluidized bed was introduced. Its practical application to treatment of electroplating wastewater was presented. By using the given activated carbon filter, the absorption efficiency of activated carbon is increased, and the labor intensity during operation process is alleviated. The filter is a novel practical multipurpose equipment, which can be used for activated carbon adsorption, solid-liquid separation, gas purification, oil-water separation, and noise reduction in many fields, such as metallurgy, chemical industry, medicine, and environmental protection.

  9. Is Bagging Effective in the Classification of Small-Sample Genomic and Proteomic Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu TT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest recently in the application of bagging in the classification of both gene-expression data and protein-abundance mass spectrometry data. The approach is often justified by the improvement it produces on the performance of unstable, overfitting classification rules under small-sample situations. However, the question of real practical interest is whether the ensemble scheme will improve performance of those classifiers sufficiently to beat the performance of single stable, nonoverfitting classifiers, in the case of small-sample genomic and proteomic data sets. To investigate that question, we conducted a detailed empirical study, using publicly-available data sets from published genomic and proteomic studies. We observed that, under t-test and RELIEF filter-based feature selection, bagging generally does a good job of improving the performance of unstable, overfitting classifiers, such as CART decision trees and neural networks, but that improvement was not sufficient to beat the performance of single stable, nonoverfitting classifiers, such as diagonal and plain linear discriminant analysis, or 3-nearest neighbors. Furthermore, as expected, the ensemble method did not improve the performance of these classifiers significantly. Representative experimental results are presented and discussed in this work.

  10. Facile, green and clean one-step synthesis of carbon dots from wool: Application as a sensor for glyphosate detection based on the inner filter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Bi, Yidan; Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we reported a green route for the fabrication of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). Wool, a kind of nontoxic and natural raw material, was chosen as the precursor to prepare CDs via a one-step microwave-assisted pyrolysis process. Compared with previously reported methods for preparation of CDs based on biomass materials, this method was simple, facile and free of any additives, such as acids, bases, or salts, which avoid the complicated post-treatment process to purify the CDs. The CDs have a high quantum yield (16.3%) and their fluorescence could be quenched by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) based on inner filter effect (IFE). The presence of glyphosate could induce the aggregation of AgNPs and thus result in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched CDs. Based on this phenomenon, we constructed a fluorescence system (CDs/AgNPs) for determination of glyphosate. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the CDs/AgNPs system was proportional to the concentration of glyphosate in the range of 0.025-2.5μgmL(-1), with a detection limit of 12ngmL(-1). Furthermore, the established method has been successfully used for glyphosate detection in the cereal samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Facile, green and clean one-step synthesis of carbon dots from wool: Application as a sensor for glyphosate detection based on the inner filter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Bi, Yidan; Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we reported a green route for the fabrication of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). Wool, a kind of nontoxic and natural raw material, was chosen as the precursor to prepare CDs via a one-step microwave-assisted pyrolysis process. Compared with previously reported methods for preparation of CDs based on biomass materials, this method was simple, facile and free of any additives, such as acids, bases, or salts, which avoid the complicated post-treatment process to purify the CDs. The CDs have a high quantum yield (16.3%) and their fluorescence could be quenched by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) based on inner filter effect (IFE). The presence of glyphosate could induce the aggregation of AgNPs and thus result in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched CDs. Based on this phenomenon, we constructed a fluorescence system (CDs/AgNPs) for determination of glyphosate. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the CDs/AgNPs system was proportional to the concentration of glyphosate in the range of 0.025-2.5μgmL(-1), with a detection limit of 12ngmL(-1). Furthermore, the established method has been successfully used for glyphosate detection in the cereal samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27591613

  12. Carbon Sink Function of Filter-feeding Fish in Freshwater Fisheries%滤食性鱼类在淡水渔业中的碳汇作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中祥; 牟振波

    2011-01-01

    气候变暖威胁人类的生存与发展,减少CO2等温室气体的排放,发展低碳经济,缓解全球气候变暖的低碳经济是人类的共识。滤食性鱼类通过滤食浮游生物,间接降低大气中的CO2浓度而发挥碳汇作用。本文描述了一个不投饵的淡水生态系统的碳循环,探讨了滤食性鱼类在淡水生态系统中的碳汇作用,依据2009年全国水产养殖相关统计数据,估算了全国滤食性鱼类养殖的年碳汇量,为淡水渔业的低碳发展提供新思路,以推进现代化渔业的科学健康发展。%Climate warming has been a world-concerned global problem.It brings a series of serious consequences,greatly impacts human survival and development.To reduce carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate global warming,the development of the low carbon economy based on low energy consumption,low pollution and low emission has been our common sense.Fixing and sequestrating greenhouse gases by biological carbon sink is one of the most economical and effective ways.By filtering plankton,filter-feeding fish can reduce indirectly atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and exert carbon sink function.The paper described carbon cycle of freshwater ecosystem without feeding,and presented carbon sink function of filter-feeding fish.At last,carbon sink amount of filter-feeding fish is evaluated based on 2009 relevant statistics of Chinese aquaculture.The research will make a good preparation for low carbon development of freshwater fisheries,and impel the scientific and healthy development of modern fisheries.

  13. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Fate of Carbon in Deciduous Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, S.; Koerner, Ch. [University of Basel (Switzerland); Siegwolf, R.T.W.

    2004-03-01

    To study the allocation of recently fixed carbon (photo assimilates) in mature deciduous trees, we apply pulse labelling experiments by enclosing small branches in branch bags with highly {sup 13}C enriched CO{sub 2} (author)

  15. Filter-based measurements of UV-vis mass absorption cross sections of organic carbon aerosol from residential biomass combustion: Preliminary findings and sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.

    2016-10-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels is a major source of household energy in developing nations. Black (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols are the major PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) pollutants co-emitted during burning of these fuels. While the optical nature of BC is well characterized, very little is known about the properties of light-absorbing OC (LAOC). Here, we report our preliminary findings on the mass-based optical properties of LAOC emitted from the combustion of four commonly used solid biomass fuels - fuel-wood, agricultural residue, dung-cake, and mixed - in traditional Indian cookstoves. As part of a pilot field study conducted in central India, PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed for their absorbance spectra in the 300-900 nm wavelengths at 1 nm resolution using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The mean mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) of the emitted PM2.5 and OC, at 550 nm, were 0.8 and 0.2 m2 g-1, respectively, each with a factor of ~2.3 uncertainty. The mean absorption Ångström exponent (AǺE) values for PM2.5 were 3±1 between 350 and 550 nm, and 1.2±0.1 between 550 and 880 nm. In the 350-550 nm range, OC had an AǺE of 6.3±1.8. The emitted OC mass, which was on average 25 times of the BC mass, contributed over 50% of the aerosol absorbance at wavelengths smaller than 450 nm. The overall OC contribution to visible solar light (300-900 nm) absorption by the emitted particles was 26-45%. Our results highlight the need to comprehensively and accurately address: (i) the climatic impacts of light absorption by OC from cookstove emissions, and (ii) the uncertainties and biases associated with variability in biomass fuel types and combustion conditions, and filter-based measurement artifacts during determination of MAC values.

  16. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  17. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Bagged RBF Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with radial basis function classifier as the base learner. The proposed bagged radial basis function is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  19. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  20. The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.

  1. Linearized theory of inhomogeneous multiple 'water-bag' plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, H. W.; Berk, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Equations are derived for describing the inhomogeneous equilibrium and small deviations from the equilibrium, giving particular attention to systems with trapped particles. An investigation is conducted of periodic systems with a single trapped-particle water bag, taking into account the behavior of the perturbation equations at the turning points. An outline is provided concerning a procedure for obtaining the eigenvalues. The results of stability calculations connected with the sideband effects are considered along with questions regarding the general applicability of the multiple water-bag approach in stability calculations.

  2. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D.; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G.; Sharp, Thomas E.; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of B...

  3. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nuclon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of ~350 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS NN elastic scattering, Elab<=350 MeV. Coupling constants, form factors of renormalized OBE calculated from bag-model quark interchange. Phase shifts, deuteron parameters calculated from covariant partial-wave analysis.

  4. Modeling the impact of drought on canopy carbon and water fluxes for a subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation in southern China through parameter optimization using an ensemble Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ju

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil and atmospheric water deficits have significant influences on CO2 and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Model parameterization significantly affects the ability of a model to simulate carbon, water, and energy fluxes. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and observations of gross primary productivity (GPP and latent heat (LE fluxes were used to optimize model parameters significantly affecting the calculation of these fluxes for a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeastern China. The optimized parameters include the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax, the slope in the modified Ball-Berry model (M and the coefficient determining the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to atmospheric water vapor deficit (D0. Optimized Vcmax and M showed larger variations than D0. Seasonal variations of Vcmax and M were more pronounced than the variations between the two years. Vcmax and M were associated with soil water content (SWC. During dry periods, SWC at the 20 cm depth explained 61% and 64% of variations of Vcmax and M, respectively. EnKF parameter optimization improved the simulations of GPP, LE and SH, mainly during dry periods. After parameter optimization using EnKF, the variations of GPP, LE and SH explained by the model increased by 1% to 4% at half-hourly steps and by 3% to 5% at daily time steps. Further efforts are needed to differentiate the real causes of parameter variations and improve the ability of models to describe the change of stomatal conductance with net photosynthesis rate and the sensitivity of photosynthesis capacity to soil water stress under different environmental conditions.

  5. Facile and ultrasensitive fluorescence sensor platform for tumor invasive biomaker β-glucuronidase detection and inhibitor evaluation with carbon quantum dots based on inner-filter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuaimin; Li, Guoliang; Lv, Zhengxian; Qiu, Nannan; Kong, Weiheng; Gong, Peiwei; Chen, Guang; Xia, Lian; Guo, Xiaoxi; You, Jinmao; Wu, Yongning

    2016-11-15

    Early detection and diagnosis have great practical significances for the effective prevention and treatment of cancer. In this study, we developed a novel, facile and ultra-sensitive fluorescence assay for the determination of tumor invasive biomarker β-glucuronidase (GLU) based on the inner-filter effect (IFE). The nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) with green photoluminescence were employed as the fluorophore in IFE, and 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucuronide (PNPG) was used to act as GLU substrate, and GLU catalytic product (p-nitrophenol (PNP)) was capable of acting as the robust absorber in IFE to turn off the fluorescence of N-CQDs due to the complementary overlap between the absorption of PNP and the excitation of N-CQDs. Thus, signal of GLU activity could be recorded by the fluorescence intensity of N-CQDs. Unlike other fluorescence sensing mechanism such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) or photoinduced electron transfer (PET), IFE has no requirement for electron or energy transfer process or any chemical modification of fluorophore, which makes our assay more flexible and simple. The proposed method exhibited a good linear relationship from 1UL(-1) to 60UL(-1) (R(2)=0.9967) with a low detection limit of 0.3UL(-1). This method was also successfully applied to the analysis of serum samples and the inhibitor screening from natural product. The developed sensor platform was proven to be reliable, facile, sensitive, and selective, making it promising as a candidate for GLU activity detection in clinic tumor diagnose and anti-tumor drug screening. PMID:27196253

  6. Carbon dots-assisted colorimetric and fluorometric dual-mode protocol for acetylcholinesterase activity and inhibitors screening based on the inner filter effect of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Chen, Chuanxia; Sun, Jian; Yang, Xiurong

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we proposed an original and versatile dual-readout (colorimetric and fluorometric) protocol by means of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and fluorescent carbon dots (CDs), which was amenable to rapid, ultrasensitive assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and its inhibitors. The sensing mechanism was based on the non-fluorescence state of CDs resulting from the inner filter effect (IFE) of AgNPs and the specific AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCh) into thiocholine (TCh). Herein, the generated positively-charged and thiol-bearing TCh at trace concentration levels could trigger the aggregation of AgNPs through the well-known electrostatic and Ag-SH interactions, thereby turning the sensing solutions grey and recovering the IFE-quenched fluorescence simultaneously. Furthermore, the existence of IFE mechanism was conceivably confirmed by combining the zeta potentials, fluorescence spectra, UV-vis spectra, fluorescence lifetime and TEM measurements. As far as we know, the present study has reported the first dual-mode proposal for assessing AChE activity by using a CDs-based IFE sensing strategy, where the detection limit was as low as 0.021 mU mL(-1) and 0.016 mU mL(-1) by colorimetric and fluorometric measurements, respectively. On the other hand, the proposed assay was feasible to screen AChE inhibitors such as tacrine and carbaryl. Meanwhile, this rationally designed dual-mode sensing platform featured simplicity, rapidity, flexibility and diversity, which was demonstrated by the quantitative detection of spiked carbaryl in apple juice samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27099097

  7. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  8. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  9. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  10. The nucleon axial form factor in some bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute gsub(A)(qsup(2)) for various bag models, including effects of an additional central force and recoil. For a confinement radius R approximately 0.85 fm predictions reproduce the data up to q < 0.5 fm, but fall faster than the observed dipole behaviour beyond

  11. Spontaneous low-pressure headache complicating bag-piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alasdair; McAuley, David; Roxburgh, Richard

    2007-04-01

    We describe an interesting case of a 40-year-old lady who developed a spontaneous low-pressure headache whilst playing the bag-pipes. Playing wind instruments requires the generation of significant intra-thoracic pressure, which may have contributed to this musician's condition. PMID:17445112

  12. QCD Phase Transitions and Bag Constants at Finite Chemical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shu; GUO Hua; ZHAO En-Guang; L(U) Xiao-Fu

    2007-01-01

    The global colour model at finite temperature is further extended to study the systems at finite chemical potential. The deconfinement and chiral phase transition at finite chemical potential and at temperature T=0K are studied simultaneously. Meanwhile the evolution of the bag constants at finite chemical potential is calculated. The dependences of results on the model parameters are discussed in detail.

  13. OBE approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1981-09-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of ≈350 MeV.

  14. Effects of Different Fermentation Time, Packaging Color and Bag Sealing Applications on Packaged Corn Silage Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Karaşahin, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, effects of two different fermentation times (35 and 70 days), two different packaging colors (black and white) and two different sealing (thermal sealing without vacuum in single bag and vacuum binding with clip in first bag + thermal sealing in second bag) were investigated on packaged corn silage quality. According to research results, pH values increased and flieg scores decreased as fermentation time gets longer. The crude protein values obtained from white colored bags wer...

  15. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  16. 78 FR 28194 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004) (PRCB Order). FOR..., citing Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand, Inv. Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  17. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  18. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. PMID:27484248

  19. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  20. Effect of vacuum polarization in system of two three-phase chiral bags

    CERN Document Server

    Malakhov, I Y

    2002-01-01

    The self-consistent solutions describing the system of two interacting bags are obtained for the model of the three-phase chiral quark bags in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. Special attention thereby is paid to studying the role of the fermions vacuum polarization inside the bags in the system dynamics and the boson field connecting (interpolating) the bags is accounted for only at the single-boson exchange level. The renormalized complete energy of the system is studied as the function of the parameters characterizing the geometry of the problem and the bags additional characteristics originating in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case. It is shown that the vacuum polarization in the system of two three-phase bags leads to origination of strong nonlinear interaction at small distances whereby in dependence on the bags characteristics this may be both repulsion and attraction

  1. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  2. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  3. Empirical Analysis of Bagged SVM Classifier for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. A variety of techniques have been employed for analysis ranging from traditional statistical methods to data mining approaches. Bagging and boosting are two relatively new but popular methods for producing ensembles. In this work, bagging is evaluated on real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in conjunction with as the base learner. The proposed is superior to individual approach for data mining applications in terms of classification accuracy.

  4. Search for Flavoured Multiquarks in a Simple Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zouzou, S

    1993-01-01

    We use a bag model to study flavoured mesonic $(Qq\\bar q\\bar q)$ and baryonic $({\\overline Q}qqqq)$ states, where one heavy quark $Q$ is associated with light quarks or antiquarks, and search for possible stable multiquarks. No bound state is found. However some states lie not too high above their dissociation threshold, suggesting the possibility of resonances, or perhaps bound states in improved models.

  5. Bagged Boosted Trees for Classification of Ecological Momentary Assessment Data

    OpenAIRE

    Spanakis, Gerasimos; Weiss, Gerhard; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data is organized in multiple levels (per-subject, per-day, etc.) and this particular structure should be taken into account in machine learning algorithms used in EMA like decision trees and its variants. We propose a new algorithm called BBT (standing for Bagged Boosted Trees) that is enhanced by a over/under sampling method and can provide better estimates for the conditional class probability function. Experimental results on a real-world dataset show...

  6. P-matrix residues in the bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jaffe-Low prescription for extracting P-matrix residues from the bag model is discussed and an attempt is made to derive a better result. It is found that the Jaffe-Low result can be justifiably increased by a factor of 4/3, bringing it into better agreement with experiment. There remain large uncertainties surrounding the nature of corrections for quark and channel masses

  7. Electro membrane extraction using sorbent filled porous membrane bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-12-01

    Electro membrane extraction-solid-liquid phase microextraction (EME-SLPME) was developed for the first time to determine phenolic contaminants in water. The extraction system consisted of a solid/liquid interface that permitted a three-phase microextraction approach involving an aqueous sample (donor phase): an organic solvent-sorbent within a membrane bag, and an organic solvent (extractant phase), operated in a direct immersion sampling system. The sorbent, reduced graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol, synthesized using graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol by dispersing the graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol and chemically reducing it in aqueous solution. The prepared sorbent was dispersed in 1-octanol and the solution was immobilized by sonication in the membrane bag wall pores which was in contact with the aqueous donor solution and organic extractant solvent (1-octanol) in the main bag itself. The analytes were transported by application of an electrical potential difference of 100V across the sorbent/solvent phase from the aqueous sample into the organic extractant phase in the membrane bag. After extraction and derivatization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the derivatized analytes. This proposed EME-LSPME procedure provided high extraction efficiency with relative recoveries up to 99.6%. A linearity range of between 0.05 and 100μgL(-1) with corresponding coefficients of determination (r(2)) of between 0.987 and 0.996 were obtained. The limits of detection were in the range of between 0.003 and 0.053μgL(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolic contaminants from water sample. PMID:26530143

  8. Rationalerne bag de geografiske placeringer af vidensbaserede virksomheder i Danmark

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Miriam Lerkenfeld; Jensen, Jon Gudmann; Jensen, Maria Nymann; Nielsen, Ann Cecilie; Fabech, Maja Yoon

    2006-01-01

    Projektet handler om danske vidensvirksomheders rationaler bag den geografiske placering af disses afdelinger i Danmark. Dette belyses af to teorier, omhandlende den kreative klasse og kompetenceklynger, udarbejdet af henholdsvis Richard Florida og Michael Porter begge amerikanske teoretikere. Med et udgangspunkt i den kritiske realisme foretages selvstændigt bearbejdelse af allerede eksisterende empirisk materiale, i form af to rapporter der behandler den kreative klasses geografiske placeri...

  9. SOFT CLUSTERING BASED EXPOSITION TO MULTIPLE DICTIONARY BAG OF WORDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha, K. S.; B. Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Object classification is a highly important area of computer vision and has many applications including robotics, searching images, face recognition, aiding visually impaired people, censoring images and many more. A new common method of classification that uses features is the Bag of Words approach. In this method a codebook of visual words is created using various clustering methods. For increasing the performance Multiple Dictionaries BoW (MDBoW) method that uses more visual words from dif...

  10. Comparison of Three Methods in Improving Bag Mask Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Samad EJ Golzari; Hassan Soleimanpour; Hamidreza Mehryar; Shaker Salarilak; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Jafar Rahimi Panahi; Mohammadreza Afhami; Majid Sabahi; Zahra Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Increasedlife expectancy in populations has brought along specific new scenarios in the fields of medicine for the elderly; prevalence of physical complications such as edentulism and patients with dentures is growing. Management of anesthesia and ventilation in this group of patients has turned into a great challenge. Some researchers suggest dentures to be left in place during bag-mask ventilation; yet, no unanimous agreement exists in this regard. Methods: In a single bli...

  11. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  12. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  13. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  14. Results from the first year of operation of the EPRI high-sulfur spray dryer/fabric filter pilot unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, G.; Lepovitz, L. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (US)); Rhudy, R. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (US)); Cushing, K. (Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (US))

    1988-01-01

    The spray dryer/fabric filter pilot unit discussed in this paper provides an opportunity to characterize spray dryer and fabric filter performance under actual high-sulfer-coal flue gas conditions. This will provide design information for utilities that are contemplating new or retrofit installations of this technology to power plants firing high-sulfer coal. The paper provides a description of the spray dryer/fabric filter pilot unit process and equipment, then presents results through April 1988. The results presented document SO {sub 2} removal, particulate control performance, fabric filter pressure drop and bag characteristics. Other impacts of the spray dryer on the fabric filter are also discussed.

  15. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  16. SOFT CLUSTERING BASED EXPOSITION TO MULTIPLE DICTIONARY BAG OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Object classification is a highly important area of computer vision and has many applications including robotics, searching images, face recognition, aiding visually impaired people, censoring images and many more. A new common method of classification that uses features is the Bag of Words approach. In this method a codebook of visual words is created using various clustering methods. For increasing the performance Multiple Dictionaries BoW (MDBoW method that uses more visual words from different independent dictionaries instead of adding more words to the same dictionary was implemented using hard clustering method. Nearest-neighbor assignments are used in hard clustering of features. A given feature may be nearly the same distance from two cluster centers. For a typical hard clustering method, only the slightly nearer neighbor is selected to represent that feature. Thus, the ambiguous features are not well-represented by the visual vocabulary. To address this problem, soft clustering model based Multiple Dictionary Bag of Visual words for image classification is implemented with dictionary generated using modified Fuzzy C-means algorithm using R1 norm. A performance evaluation on images has been done by varying the dictionary size. The proposed method works better when the number of topics and the number of images per topics are more. The results obtained indicate that multiple dictionary bag of words model using fuzzy clustering increases the recognition performance than the baseline method.

  17. Development of filters and housings for use on active plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New designs of housings for conventional HEPA filters have been developed and are now in use. A further design is planned for future use. The main features to be developed are the engineering of double door systems to replace bag posting and other methods of filter changing which expose personnel to hazardous environments and the addition of a secondary containment to reduce the role of the gasket seal in the filtration efficiency. Also under development are circular geometry filters of HEPA standard which offer significant advantages over rectangular filters for applications requiring remote shielded change facilities. Two types of filter construction are being evaluated, conventional radial flow cartridge filters and spiral-wound, axial-flow filters. The application of circular filters for primary filter systems on active plant is in hand. A push-through change system has been developed for a new cell facility under construction at Harwell. Existing rectangular filters on a high activity cell are being replaced with clusters of small cartridge filters to overcome changing and disposal problems. A similar system but using 1700 m3/h filters for large volume off-gas treatment is also being studied. A remote change shielded filter installation is being developed for use in high alpha, beta, gamma extract systems. The design incorporates large cartridge filters in sealed drums with remote transfer and connection to duct work in the facility. A novel application of the use of double-lid technology removes the need for separate shut off dampers and enables the drums to be sealed for all transfer operations

  18. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period

  19. Microorganisms interacting in a bio filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba-Avila, M. D.; Flores-Tene, F. J.; Moreno-Terrazas, R.; Ramirez-Lopez, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    Biofilm microorganisms developed on a bio filter support media allow the metabolism of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to carbon dioxide and water. VOCs are present in polluted gaseous streams for varied industrial activities. The main objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms present in the biofilm developed on a bio filter support media using molecular biology techniques. (Author)

  20. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  1. BAG1: the guardian of anti-apoptotic proteins in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Aveic

    Full Text Available BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1 is a multifunctional protein that has been described to be involved in different cell processes linked to cell survival. It has been reported as deregulated in diverse cancer types. Here, BAG1 protein was found highly expressed in children with acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis, and in a cohort of leukemic cell lines. A silencing approach was used for determining BAG1's role in AML, finding that its down-regulation decreased expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, MCL1, and phospho-ERK1/2, all proteins able to sustain leukemia, without affecting the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. BAG1 down-regulation was also found to increase expression of BAG3, whose similar activity was able to compensate the loss of function of BAG1. BAG1/BAG3 co-silencing caused an enhanced cell predisposition to death in cell lines and also in primary AML cultures, affecting the same proteins. Cell death was CASPASE-3 dependent, was accompanied by PARP cleavage and documented by an increased release of pro-apoptotic molecules Smac/DIABLO and Cytochrome c. BAG1 was found to directly maintain BCL2 and to protect MCL1 from proteasomal degradation by controlling USP9X expression, which appeared to be its novel target. Finally, BAG1 was found able to affect leukemia cell fate by influencing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins crucial for AML maintenance.

  2. Non-Flammable Containment Bag and Enclosure Development for International Space Station Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Sunil; Cadogan, Dave; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) requires the use of a significant quantity of containment bags to hold specimens, equipment, waste, and other material. The bags are in many shapes and sizes, and are typically manufactured from polyethylene materials. The amount of bags being used on ISS has grown to the point where fire safety has become a concern because of the flammability of polyethylene. Recently, a new re-sealable bag design has been developed that is manufactured from a specialized non-flammable material called Armorflex 301 that was designed specifically for this application. Besides being non-flammable, Armorflex 301 is also FDA compliant, clear, flexible, and damage tolerant. The bags can be made with closure mechanisms that resemble ZipLoc® bags, or can be open top. Sample bags have been laboratory tested by NASA to verify materials properties, and evaluated by astronauts on the ISS in 2012. Flexloc bag manufacturing will commence in 2014 to support a transition away from polyethylene on ISS. In addition to re-sealable bags, other larger containment systems such as flexible gloveboxes, deployable clean rooms, and other devices manufactured from Armorflex 301 are being explored for use on ISS and in similar confined space locations where flammability is an issue. This paper will describe the development of the Armorflex 301 material, the Flexloc bag, and other containment systems being explored for use in confined areas

  3. Remoção de diclofenaco, ibuprofeno, naproxeno e paracetamol em filtro ecológico seguido por filtro de carvão granular biologicamente ativado Removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and paracetamol in ecological filter followed by granular carbon filter biologically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moço Erba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O filtro ecológico representa uma promissora tecnologia de tratamento, em razão desta não necessitar da aplicação de produtos químicos, além de sua constatada eficiência. Nele, estabelece-se entre os seres vivos a relação de cadeia alimentar. Inicialmente uma matriz aquosa foi acrescida de quatro fármacos (diclofenaco, naproxeno, ibuprofeno e paracetamol e posteriormente analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para avaliar a remoção desses compostos pelo filtro ecológico seguido pelo filtro de carvão granular biologicamente ativado. Parâmetros, entre eles turbidez, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, cor aparente e cor verdadeira, foram mensurados para verificar a eficiência dos filtros. Houve remoção de 97,43% do diclofenaco, 85,03% do ibuprofeno: 94,11% do naproxeno e 84,07% do paracetamol.The ecological filter represents a promising treatment technology, because this doesn't require the application of chemicals and is efficient. In it, is between living beings the relationship of the food chain. Initially an aqueous matrix was added to four drugs (diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen and paracetamol, and subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate the removal of these compounds by ecological filter followed by granular activated carbon filter biologically active. The pharmacological compounds and parameters such as turbity, total and fecal coliforms, apparent color and true color were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of filters. There was removal of the drugs applied and the parameters measured. The percentages of removal were 97,43% of diclofenaco,85,03% of ibuprofen, 94,11% of naproxen and 84,07% of paracetamol.

  4. Adsorption of gaseous pollutants on activated carbon filters. Modelling of the coupled exchanges of heat and mass; Adsorption de polluants gazeux sur des filtres de charbon actif. Modelisation des echanges couples de matiere et de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiani, E.

    2000-01-27

    The aim of this work is to remove gasoline and odorous molecules vapors. Thermodynamics and kinetics studies have been carried out; they concern the fixation of representative gases on activated carbons. Hydrogen sulfide and n-butane are chosen to represent the odorous molecules. Different activated carbons are considered: only the adsorbent impregnated by KOH has satisfying performance. The adsorption of hydrocarbons on a granulated activated carbon is studied on four original devices specifically perfected for this work: gravimetry, calorimetry, thermal measurements and gaseous phase chromatography. The gravimetric measurements are coupled to thermal measurements inside the granulates. Strong temperature variations have then been observed inside a granulate during the adsorption. These experimental results have been taken into account to adapt the classical Langmuir kinetic model. This new model allows to predict all the curves: setting / internal temperature variation for the adsorption of the hydrocarbons alone. The competitive nature of the adsorption sites allows then to explain qualitatively the adsorption of binary mixtures of hydrocarbons. At last, the classical Langmuir model allows to explain correctly the thermodynamic results, for the hydrocarbons alone or in binary mixture. The proposed modelling allows then to treat both on a kinetic and thermodynamic way the case of a non isothermal adsorption at the scale of an activated carbon granulate and to predict the phenomena at the filter scale. (O.M.)

  5. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziana Maria Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric insertions of nylon bags every 12 hours, and each bag contained 663 mg of feed samples in a proportion of 17 mg DM/cm². Feces and bags were collected directly from the stall floor immediately after excretion. There was no difference between the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates and hydrolysable carbohydrates of coastcross hay estimated with feces collection and mobile bags. Forage peanut showed high nutrients digestibility, with values close to those observed with alfalfa, indicating potential for use in diets for horses.

  6. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  7. Automotive Vehicle Including a Security Arrangement Provided with an Inflatable Protective Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Chevroulet, Tristan; Béroud, Jean-Claude

    1996-01-01

    The invention concerns an automotive vehicle. This vehicle comprises a dashboard , steering control handles distanced from the dashboard, the dashboard comprising a compartment closed by a flap and in which is arranged a protective bag of supple material at least partially gas-tight, the bag being coupled to a gas source and one or more accelerometers for automatically releasing the gas source in response to abnormal behaviour of the vehicle, in that the bag spreads out, in the inflated state...

  8. Psychological interventional approach for reduce resource consumption : Reducing plastic bag usage at supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtomo, Shoji; Ohnuma, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...

  9. Development and application of a resin-bag method to determine available nitrogen in forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, G.; Harrison, A.F.; Grimshaw, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    A resin-bag method was compared to a conventional KC1 extraction procedure for determining available nitrogen in forest soil. Under controlled growth room conditions, both the amounts of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen adsorbed by resin-bags and extracted by 6% KC1 correlated well with the uptake of nitrogen by birch seedlings from 6 widely differing soils. Also, resin-bags placed in situ under 5 differing forest stands and one upland grassland plot gave a close relationship b...

  10. 生物滴滤技术处理二硫化碳机理研究%Research on the Mechanism of the Treatment of Carbon Disulfide by Bio-trickling Filter Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许杰; 陶金; 王水平; 王贤斌

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the treatment of carbon disulfide by biotricking filter technology , a biotricking filter during the experiment was set up.In the process of experiment , the best operating conditions of microbial treatment of carbon disulfide to be obtained was as follows: the pH was 7.5 , the spray quantity was 1.5 L/h, the concentration of air was 101.15 mg/m3 , gas residence time was 68.67 s by simulation experiment at first.After that , the optimal conditions were studied.It was investigated that the carbon disulfide in the transformation mechanism of microorganisms was to generate SO 2-4 and CO2.%为了研究生物滴滤技术处理二硫化碳的机理,我们在实验过程中搭建了一座生物滴滤塔。在进行实验的过程中,我们首先通过实验模拟获得微生物处理二硫化碳的最佳运行条件是pH为7.5,喷淋量为1.5 L/h,进气浓度为101.15 mg/m3,气体停留时间为68.67 s。随后我们就在此最佳运行条件下进行研究,并最终探讨得知二硫化碳在微生物体内的转化机理是生成SO2-4和CO2。

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking and vacuum polarization in a bag

    CERN Document Server

    Yasui, S

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of a finite quark mass in the hedgehog configuration in the two phase chiral bag model. We discuss the chiral properties, such as the fractional baryon number and the chiral Casimir energy, by using the Debye expansion for the analytical calculation and the Strutinsky's smearing method for the numerical computation. It is shown that the fractional baryon number carried by massive quarks in the vacuum is canceled by that in the meson sector. A finite term of the chiral Casimir energy is obtained with subtraction of the logarithmic divergence term.

  12. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  13. Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an air to cloth ratio'') for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

  14. Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, R.L.

    1992-11-01

    The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an ``air to cloth ratio``) for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

  15. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (psocial and as a physical activity. PMID:27131182

  16. In-line monitor of plutonium holdup in glovebox filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in-line filter holdup monitoring system has been designed and installed in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Plutonium Processing Facility to detect plutonium buildup in a glovebox exhaust filter. The filter is located on top of a glovebox in which plutonium and uranium oxide and carbon are blended, milled, and prepared for making advanced fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel

  17. 净水厂生物活性炭池无脊椎动物群落结构研究%Study of the invertebrate community structure in a biological activated carbon filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤为; 王庆; 刘丽君; 杨宇峰

    2012-01-01

    调查了南方某净水厂生物活性炭(BAC)池中无脊椎动物的群落结构周年变化.共发现无脊椎动物26种(属或类).轮虫为优势类群,其次为桡足类及其无节幼体、枝角类、寡毛类.调查期间BAC池炭总管水中无脊椎动物的平均丰度是主臭氧后水的8.2倍,炭滤后水中无脊椎动物的平均丰度是炭滤前水的12~18.7倍.研究结果表明,BAC池是无脊椎动物滋生的重要场所.春夏两季BAC池中无脊椎动物增长较快,水温升高对BAC池中无脊椎动物滋生起促进作用.夏季和其他时期分别以桡足类和轮虫占据优势,存在着小型无脊椎动物(轮虫)向大型无脊椎动物(桡足类)演替的现象.%A study was carried out to investigate the invertebrate community structure changes in the biological activated carbon (BAC) filter of some water treatment plant in South China. Totally 26 kinds of invertebrate were discovered. Rotifers were dominant species, and the others are copepods, nauplii larvae, cladocerans, and oligochaetes in declining sequence. During the research, the average invertebrate abundance in the filter was 8. 2 times of that in post-inter-ozonation-water, and the average invertebrate abundance after filter was 12 to 18. 7 times of that before filter. The research showed that BAC filter was the major spot for invertebrate breeding. During summer and fall, the invertebrate in BAC grow faster than other seasons. The increase of water temperature could improve the invertebrate breeding. In summer and other seasons, the copepods and rotifer were the dominant species respectively, and the succession from small invertebrate (rotifer) to large invertebrate (copepods) also existed.

  18. Gaseous distension of the urinary bag during CO2 laparoscopy in the usual operative settings:Does the CO2 diffuse into the urinary bladder or is it a sign of urinary tract injury?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kahramanlker; Tuncay Ok; smail Temur; rfettin Hseyinolu; Kemal Kl; Barlas Sl

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare the amounts of any clinically detectable gas passage into the urinary bag in laparoscopic and open surgeries.Methods:Seventy-nine women were allocated into two surgical groups;Group1: carbon dioxide(CO2) laparoscopy(n=37) andGroup2: gasless laparoscopy or laparotomy(n=42).All patients had urinary catheter during the surgeries.After checking the tightness of the connection of the urinary catheter and bag operations were performed.At the end of each surgery the urine volumes were recorded.The bags were immersed into a water containing container with a volume scale.The volume rise of the container was recorded.The valve of the outlet of the bag was turned on under the water and any leakage of air bubbles was observed.The final volume of the container was recorded once again while the bag was still in the water.The two groups were compared by using theStudent’storMannWhitney U tests.Results:We did not observe and hence measure any gas accumulation in the urine bags of both groups.The women’s ages, total intraoperative urine volume, urine production rate and total operative times of the groups were not significantly different.The mean operative time was (82.98±62.14) min in open surgeries and(73.46±52.74) minutes inCO2 laparoscopic surgeries.The difference between the groups was not significant(P=0.468).Conclusions:Any gas accumulation in the urine bag duringCO2 laparoscopic surgery should raise the suspicion of urinary tract injury.Urinary catheterization helps to diagnose the unnoticed bladder injuries.

  19. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, BWF AMERICA, INC., GRADE 700 MPS POLYESTER FELT FILTER SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, through its Environmental Technology Verification Program, evaluated the performance of a bag house filtration product for use controlling PM2.5. The product was BWF America, Inc., filter fabric Grade 700 Polyester Felt. All tes...

  1. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  2. Optimal Gaussian Filter for Effective Noise Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil; Satish, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the knowledge of noise statistics contaminating a signal can be effectively used to choose an optimal Gaussian filter to eliminate noise. Very specifically, we show that the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) contaminating a signal can be filtered best by using a Gaussian filter of specific characteristics. The design of the Gaussian filter bears relationship with the noise statistics and also some basic information about the signal. We first derive a relationship...

  3. Implante de filtro de veia cava com uso de dióxido de carbono como meio de contraste: série de casos Carbon dioxide use as contrast for vena cava filter implantation: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Pessanha de Rezende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado do implante de filtro em veia cava inferior empregando angiografia digital por subtração com dioxide de carbono (CO2 como meio de contraste. MÉTODOS: No período de abril de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011, sete pacientes foram submetidos ao implante de filtro na veia cava inferior, utilizando-se CO2 como meio de contraste em subtração digital. Os pacientes apresentaram como critério de inclusão trombose venosa profunda no setor ilíaco-femoral e contraindicação à anticoagulação. RESULTADOS: Foi obtido sucesso técnico em todos os casos, com adequada visualização da veia cava e veias renais, não havendo complicações relacionadas ao uso do CO2 ou ao procedimento. CONCLUSÃO: O implante de filtro de veia cava utilizando o CO2 como meio de contraste é segura e efetiva em pacientes portadores de alergia ao contraste iodado ou com insuficiência renal não dialítica.OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of digital subtraction with carbon dioxide (CO2 for vena cava filter implant. METHODS: From April (2010 to February (2011, seven patients underwent inferior vena cava filter placement with digital subtraction angiography with the use of CO2 as contrast media. All patients had iliac and femoral deep venous thrombosis and contraindications for anticoagulation. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in all cases. Inferior vena cava e renal veins were identified in all cases. There were no evidences of complications related to the use of CO2 during or after the procedure. CONCLUSION: The placement of inferior vena cava filter with CO2 and digital subtraction angiography is safe and effective with good results in patients with renal insufficiency and allergy to iodine.

  4. CONTROL OF DBPs IN THE MID-POSITIONING ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER PROCESS%中置活性炭滤池工艺消毒副产物的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭键勇; 陆少鸣; 胡常浩; 刘金翠; 李少文

    2013-01-01

    中置活性炭滤池采用不同消毒工艺进行试验,考察其对出水消毒副产物的控制情况.结果表明,预臭氧投加量过大可能导致消毒副产物超标.在预臭氧投加量为0.3 mg/L时,后续处理采用中置曝气活性炭滤池,在砂滤池前加氯,可保证出水消毒副产物满足要求.当耐氯性微型水生动物难以控制时,可采用后臭氧消毒,臭氧投加量在1.0mg/L内,同时砂滤池后投加氯辅助消毒,既能控制消毒副产物,又可保证管网水质生物稳定性.%Different disinfection process was performed on mid-positioning activated carbon filter to investigate the removal of DBPs.The results show that the excessive preozone dosage may lead to exceed standard of DBPs.Under a preozone dosage of 0.3 mg/L and chlorination disinfection before sand filter, it can ensure that the effluent DBPs meet the requirement of standard.When the chlorine tolerance of aquatic micro-animals are hard to control, the post-ozonation disifection process could be adopted, with an ozone dosage within 1.0 mg/L and certain chlorine after the sand filter, which could both control DBPs and guarantee the network water safety.

  5. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  6. TREATMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS OF A NEWLY DEVELOPED REACTOR WITH SLUDGE SEPARATION FILTER AND AIRLIFT PUMP FOR CARBON AND NITROGEN REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient removal from sewage is one of the most urgently required issues from the viewpoint of prevention of eutrophication and preservation of water quality for water supply system. Among several nutrient removal methods, biological treatment, which is a modified activated sludge system, is widely applied. However, biological nitrogen removal process, which consists of nitrification and denitrification steps, needs opposite operations at several stages such as necessity of oxygen and requirement of electron donor of organic compounds. In this study, treatment characteristics of a reactor with both sludge separation filter and airlift pump are investigated. This reactor has sludge separation filter in the middle part and airlift pump that supplies oxygen and circulate liquid from aerobic zone to anoxic zone in order to cut down the required energy. From laboratory scale experiments, design and operational parameters are investigated and it is shown that NH4-N loading rate of 35 mgN/(L-media・hr at aerobic zone and DO loading rate of less than 0.15 kgDO/(kgMLSS・d to anoxic zone are required for stable treatment.

  7. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Mishra; Sunil Pandey,; Bhushan Patil; Mukeshchand Thukur; Ashmi Mewada; Madhuri Sharon; Maheshwar Sharon

    2014-01-01

    A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP) bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm) under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to ...

  8. Bcl-2 associated athanogene 5 (Bag5) is overexpressed in prostate cancer and inhibits ER-stress induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bag (Bcl-2 associated athanogene) family of proteins consists of 6 members sharing a common, single-copied Bag domain through which they interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp70. Bag5 represents an exception in the Bag family since it consists of 5 Bag domains covering the whole protein. Bag proteins like Bag1 and Bag3 have been implicated in tumor growth and survival but it is not known whether Bag5 also exhibits this function. Bag5 mRNA and protein expression levels were investigated in prostate cancer patient samples using real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. In addition immunohistological studies were carried out to determine the expression of Bag5 in tissue arrays. Analysis of Bag5 gene expression was carried out using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison test. The mean values of the Bag5 stained cells in the tissue array was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Functional studies of the role of Bag5 in prostate cancer cell lines was performed using overexpression and RNA interference analyses. Our results show that Bag5 is overexpressed in malignant prostate tissue compared to benign samples. In addition we could show that Bag5 levels are increased following endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induction, and Bag5 relocates from the cytoplasm to the ER during this process. We also demonstrate that Bag5 interacts with the ER-resident chaperone GRP78/BiP and enhances its ATPase activity. Bag5 overexpression in 22Rv.1 prostate cancer cells inhibited ER-stress induced apoptosis in the unfolded protein response by suppressing PERK-eIF2-ATF4 activity while enhancing the IRE1-Xbp1 axis of this pathway. Cells expressing high levels of Bag5 showed reduced sensitivity to apoptosis induced by different agents while Bag5 downregulation resulted in increased stress-induced cell death. We have therefore shown that Bag5 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and plays a role in ER-stress induced apoptosis. Furthermore we have identified GRP78/BiP as a novel

  9. Comparison and Optimization of Cellulose Carbon Source for Denitrification Filter%固体纤维素类废物作为反硝化碳源滤料的比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 郝瑞霞

    2013-01-01

    以棉花、稻草、稻壳、玉米芯这4种农业废弃物作为反硝化碳源和微生物载体,通过对静态释碳数量和质量、长期脱氮效果以及生物附着性能等方面的比较,旨在优选出适于再生水反硝化深度脱氮生物滤池的固体纤维素碳源滤料.结果表明,玉米芯初期可溶性有机物较多,易于微生物的附着和繁殖生长;且比其它3种碳源表现出更好的长期反硝化效果,2.5g玉米芯在46 d累计去除了284.544 g的硝氮;棉花、稻草前期处理效果较好,但长期反硝化能力不如玉米芯;稻壳的处理效果最差,几乎不能被微生物有效利用.因此,玉米芯更适用于再生水反硝化深度脱氮滤池的碳源滤料.%The quantity and quality of carbon released by four agriculture wastes included of cotton, rice hull, rice straw and corncob was analyzed for selecting a suitable cellulose filter medium as well as the carbon source in advanced denitrification of the reclaimed water. And the long-term denitrification efficiency and bio-attachment capability of four agriculture wastes was contrastively estimated by running denitrification experiments in laboratory scale. The results showed that DOM amount released by corncob was the highest at the beginning, and the DOM quality was also beneficial for microorganism growth and biofilm formation. The running denitrification experiments showed that corncob had better denitrification efficiency than that of other three carbon sources, and 284. 544 g nitrate was removed by 2. 5 g corncob within 46 days. Cotton and rice hull had better denitrification efficiency than corncob in the early time, but the long-term denitrification efficiency was lower than that of corncob. Rice straw can hardly be used by microorganism so as to have the lowest denitrification. Therefore, corncob was more suitable to be the denitrification biofilter filter medium and the carbon source in advanced denitrification of the reclaimed water.

  10. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224 (September 22, 2009). As explained in the... International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for...

  11. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009); see also Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand, 74 FR 31750 (July 2, 2009). \\1\\ On August... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia, 69 FR 48203 (August 9, 2004);...

  12. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  13. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine...

  14. 75 FR 22842 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63410). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis... imports from Vietnam of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs), provided for in subheading 3923.21.00...

  15. Bird-resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. Seed loss by bird damage was elimi...

  16. Effects of Density-Dependent Bag Constant and Strange Star Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-Er; GUO Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the emphasis on the effects of the density-dependent bag constant and the rotation of strange star the limiting mass of strange star is calculated. The obtained results show that the limiting mass and the corresponding radius of strange star increase as the rotation frequency increases, and tend to be lowered when the density-dependent bag constant is considered.

  17. Vertex decoupling and quark deconfinement in soliton bag model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the Matsubara Green's function method, the temperature dependence of coupling constant gqqδ in soliton bag mode is investigated. It is found gqqδ will decrease as temperature increases in high temperature region and will approach zero at critical temperature Tc. The quark deconfinement phase transition in soliton bag model is discussed

  18. Casimir bag energy in the stochastic approximation to the pure QCD vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D

    2007-01-01

    We study the Casimir contribution to the bag energy coming from gluon field fluctuations, within the context of the stochastic vacuum model (SVM) of pure QCD. After formulating the problem in terms of the generating functional of field strength cumulants, we argue that the resulting predictions about the Casimir energy are compatible with the phenomenologically required bag energy term.

  19. Effect of Nylon Bag and Protozoa on In Vitro Corn Starch Disappearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van J.T.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags wit

  20. Clinicopathologic significance of BAG1 and TIMP3 expression in colon carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of BAG1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in colon carcinoma and their correlation and clinicopathologic significance.METHODS: SABC immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 in 80 colon carcinoma tissues and 20 normal colonic mucosa.RESULTS: Positive rate of BAG1 in colon carcinoma tissue (80%) was notably higher compared to normal colonic mucosa (10%) (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in positive rate of TIMP3 in colon carcinoma tissue (43.75%) as compared with normal colonic mucosa (60%) (P > 0.05).Expression of BAG1 and TIMP3 was strongly associated with colon carcinoma differentiation, Duke's staging,lymph node metastasis and survival rate (P < 0.05), but not associated with gender and age. Moreover, BAG1 expression was not correlated with TIMP3.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that over-expression of BAG1 or attenuated expression of TIMP3 may play an important role in genesis and development of colon carcinoma. The protein expression levels of BAG1 and TIMP3 are related to the malignant degree, infiltration and metastasis of colon carcinoma. BAG1 and TIMP3 might be new biological parameters in predicting invasion and metastasis of colon carcinoma.

  1. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ..., 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review are currently... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010....

  2. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 76 FR 61076 (October 3, 2011). Based on a request for review... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping... retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. As...

  3. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224, 48226 (September 22, 2009).\\1\\ The...

  4. Earth bag dome workshop run by Paulina Wojciechowska – director of Earth Hands and Houses [lectures, research] Sussex, UK; 27 May 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M

    2010-01-01

    Construction of a small earth bag wall in south Sussex: constructing the formwork for entrance, preparing and filling earth bags, ramming layers of earth bags, plastering, artistic sculpturing of the exterior and interior.

  5. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  6. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  7. Change of MIT bag constant in nuclear medium and implication for the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified quark-meson coupling model, which features a density-dependent bag constant and bag radius in nuclear matter, is checked against the EMC effect within the framework of dynamical rescaling. Our emphasis is on the change in the average bag radius in nuclei, as evaluated in a local density approximation, and its implication for the rescaling parameter. We find that when the bag constant in nuclear matter is significantly reduced from its free-space value, the resulting rescaling parameter is in good agreement with that required to explain the observed depletion of the structure functions in the medium Bjorken x region. Such a large reduction of the bag constant also implies large and canceling Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter which are comparable to those suggested by the relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...... holds one of the longest and most complete time series of bagged game in the world. In the hunting season 2014/15 there were 178,000 hunting licence holders in Denmark so the annual data increment is considerable. Of course, the last 75 years has seen big changes in technology and communication, which...... is reflected in the methods of collecting the hunting statistics but the basic principle of every hunter reporting his/hers personal game bag every year still applies. From 1941 onwards annual reports were delivered on paper forms, and since year 2000 it has been possible to report electronically via...

  9. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages (i.e., activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design (N = 200 at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message condition than in the condition where only an environmental message was present. The combined normative message did result in the smallest uptake of free plastic bags compared to the injunctive and personal normative-only message, although these differences were not significant. Our findings imply that re-wording the supermarket’s environmental message by including normative information could be a promising way to reduce the use of free plastic bags, which will ultimately benefit the environment.

  10. Stability of the lepton bag model based on the Kerr–Newman solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, A., E-mail: bur@ibrae.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    We show that the lepton bag model considered in our previous paper [10], generating the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Kerr–Newman (KN) solution, is supersymmetric and represents a BPS-saturated soliton interpolating between the internal vacuum state and the external KN solution. We obtain Bogomolnyi equations for this phase transition and show that the Bogomolnyi bound determines all important features of this bag model, including its stable shape. In particular, for the stationary KN solution, the BPS bound provides stability of the ellipsoidal form of the bag and the formation of the ring–string structure at its border, while for the periodic electromagnetic excitations of the KN solution, the BPS bound controls the deformation of the surface of the bag, reproducing the known flexibility of bag models.

  11. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  12. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs.

  13. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  14. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  15. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent. PMID:16775394

  16. Active Optical Lattice Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Evans; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Govind Kannan; Jian Tong; Issa Panahi; Vishnupriya Govindan; L. Roberts Hunt

    2005-01-01

    Optical lattice filter structures including gains are introduced and analyzed. The photonic realization of the active, adaptive lattice filter is described. The algorithms which map between gains space and filter coefficients space are presented and studied. The sensitivities of filter parameters with respect to gains are derived and calculated. An example which is relevant to adaptive signal processing is also provided.

  17. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 53953 (September 2, 2010). The administrative... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit...

  18. Cost analysis of adult parenteral nutrition systems: three-compartment bag versus customized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berlana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenteral nutrition (PN is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or non-functioning intestine. Two all-in-one systems currently being used are customized formulations and three-compartment bags. Objective: To provide a systematic cost comparison of the two all-in-one PN systems: individualized (made from nutrient solutions versus commercialized (made from three-compartment bag, both prepared in hospital pharmacies. Setting: This study was conducted in three public Spanish hospitals. Method: We conducted a cost-minimization study to analyze prospectively the total cost of PN bags, accounting for all of the processes involved in preparing and delivering PN bags (cost of manpower, nutrition solutions, medical supplies and quality controls in three different healthcare settings. To compare therapeutic alternatives of equivalent nutritional value, the study was performed for the most frequently employed formulation and similar to commercial preparations. A univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of different rates of use of three-compartment PN bag. Results: 157 routine acts of PN bag preparation (65 customized and 92 three-compartment were observed and timed over 9 days. Total costs of the 157 PN bags were included in the study. Mean costs of customized bags were higher than three-compartment bags, 51.16 ± 5.63 € versus 39.69 ± 3.00 € respectively (p < 0.01. Manpower costs were responsible for the majority of the differences found (70%. The time to complete an adult bag for the hospital compounded system was a mean of 25.9 minutes longer than the three-compartment system. In scenarios using a three-compartment system for 30%, 70% and 90% of PN provision, a cost savings of 4.3%, 10.1% and 12.9% respectively could be achieved. Greatest rates of changing from customized bags (70% and 90%, in a hospital with 1,800 PN bags/year, might reduce the annual

  19. Glucose-Driven Fuel Cell Constructed from Enzymes and Filter Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Schirhagl, Romana; Zare, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    A glucose-driven enzymatic filter-paper fuel cell is described. A strip of filter paper coated with carbon nanotubes and the glucose oxidase enzyme functions as the anode of the enzyme fuel cell. Another strip of filter paper coated with carbon nanotubes and the laccase enzyme functions as the cathode. Between the anode and the cathode, a third…

  20. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  1. Automatic Bagging Machine for Cigarette%自动重袋包装机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮; 郭爱华; 孔晨曲; 李怀刚; 丁科; 李全华

    2011-01-01

    自动重袋包装机具有自动取袋、自动开袋、自动夹袋、自动充填等主要功能以及其他辅助功能,整个工序模仿人工套袋过程制定,并配套整形袋口装置使其在装袋完毕后能无缝对接折边机进入缝包机缝包.其中取袋及开袋等关键动作均由吸盘完成.%Automatic bagging machine has main function of fetching, opening, clipping and filling bag automatically and other functions, and the process of putting bag manually is imitated. E-quipped with flattening device for the mouth of bag, automatic bagging machine can make the filled bag going smoothly to folding machine and sewing machine. Actions of fetching, opening bags etc. are all finished by suckers.

  2. Anoxic incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags: a method for biogeochemical process studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JW; Thamdrup, B.; Jørgensen, BB

    2000-01-01

    Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head-space. Co......Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head......-space. Consequently, bag incubations of sediment combine the advantage of low heterogeneity in slurry incubations with the more natural conditions in jar and whole-core incubations. The bag material is a transparent laminated plastic comprised of Nylon, ethylenevinyl alcohol, and polyethylene with a low permeability...... for the studied gases: O-2, CO2, H2S, CH4, N-2, H-2, and He. Estimated fluxes of biologically active gases through the plastic bag during sediment incubation were insignificant compared to rates of microbial processes and to gas concentrations in coastal sediments. An exception was CH4, for which process...

  3. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug. PMID:25953689

  4. Gravitating bag as a coherent system of the point-like and dressed electron

    CERN Document Server

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational and electromagnetic fields of an electron correspond to over-rotating Kerr-Newman (KN) solution, which has a naked singular ring and two-sheeted topology. This solution is regularized by a solitonic source, in which singular interior is replaced by a vacuum bubble filled by the Higgs field in a false-vacuum state. Field model of this KN bubble has much in common with the famous MIT and SLAC bag models, but the geometry is "dual" (turned inside out), leading to consistency of the KN bag model with gravity. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is compliant to deformations, and under rotations it takes an oblate ellipsoidal form, creating a circular string along the border. Electromagnetic excitations of the KN bag generate stringy traveling waves which deform the bag, creating a traveling singular pole, included in a general bag-string-quark complex. The dressed electron may be considered in this model as a coherent excitation of this system, confining the point-like electron (as a quark) in st...

  5. Filter synthesis using Genesys S/Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    S/Filter includes tools beyond direct synthesis, including a wide variety of both exact and approximate equivalent network transforms, methods for selecting the most desirable out of potentially thousands of synthesized alternatives, and a transform history record that simplifies design attempts requiring iteration. Very few software programs are based on direct synthesis, and the additional features of S/Filter make it a uniquely effective tool for filter design.This resource presents a practical guide to using Genesys software for microwave and RF filter design and synthesis. The focus of th

  6. Thioflavin S (NSC71948) interferes with Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG-1)-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam; Crabb, Simon J; Johnson, Peter W M; Hague, Angela; Cutress, Ramsey; Townsend, Paul A; Ganesan, A; Packham, Graham

    2009-11-01

    The C-terminal BAG domain is thought to play a key role in BAG-1-induced survival and proliferation by mediating protein-protein interactions, for example, with heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70, and with RAF-1 kinase. Here, we have identified thioflavin S (NSC71948) as a potential small-molecule chemical inhibitor of these interactions. NSC71948 inhibited the interaction of BAG-1 and HSC70 in vitro and decreased BAG-1:HSC70 and BAG-1:HSP70 binding in intact cells. NSC71948 also reduced binding between BAG-1 and RAF-1, but had no effect on the interaction between two unrelated proteins, BIM and MCL-1. NSC71948 functionally reversed the ability of BAG-1 to promote vitamin D3 receptor-mediated transactivation, an activity of BAG-1 that depends on HSC70/HSP70 binding, and reduced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activate protein kinase. NSC71948 can be used to stain amyloid fibrils; however, structurally related compounds, thioflavin T and BTA-1, had no effect on BAG-1:HSC70 binding, suggesting that structural features important for amyloid fibril binding and inhibition of BAG-1:HSC70 binding may be separable. We demonstrated that NSC71948 inhibited the growth of BAG-1 expressing human ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells and wild-type, but not BAG-1-deficient, mouse embryo fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that NSC71948 may be a useful molecule to investigate the functional significance of BAG-1 C-terminal protein interactions. However, it is important to recognize that NSC71948 may exert additional "off-target" effects. Inhibition of BAG-1 function may be an attractive strategy to inhibit the growth of BAG-1-overexpressing cancers, and further screens of additional compound collections may be warranted.

  7. The effect of obstruction of bag surface on platelet concentrate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T L

    1983-01-01

    Platelet concentrates stored in bags (made of a plastic film incorporating a new plasticizer) on flat-bed agitators for up to 5 days were found to have accelerated pH decline when the surface of the bag was obstructed with added labels and an invoice on the non-labeled side. Without the over-labeling and invoice, only one of 20 concentrates had a pH below 6.0, even at very high concentrations of platelets. Blood banks experiencing problems with pH decline in the platelet concentrates being stored up to 5 days should consider eliminating surface obstruction on the bag. PMID:6679386

  8. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Kayleigh Jones; Wokje Abrahamse; De Groot, Judith I. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages ( i.e. , activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design ( N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message co...

  9. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  10. Degradation of plastic carrier bags in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. → Here we investigate breakdown of oxodegradable, compostable and conventional plastic bags. → Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks. → Approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. → Fouling by marine organisms substantially reduced the amount of UV-light reaching the plastic. - Abstract: There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. Use of polymers that degrade more quickly than conventional plastics presents a possible solution to this problem. Here we investigate breakdown of two oxo-biodegradable plastics, compostable plastic and standard polyethylene in the marine environment. Tensile strength of all materials decreased during exposure, but at different rates. Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks whereas approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. Some plastics require UV light to degrade. Transmittance of UV through oxo-biodegradable and standard polyethylene decreased as a consequence of fouling such that these materials received ∼90% less UV light after 40 weeks. Our data indicate that compostable plastics may degrade relatively quickly compared to oxo-biodegradable and conventional plastics. While degradable polymers offer waste management solutions, there are limitations to their effectiveness in reducing hazards associated with plastic debris.

  11. Bag-of-visual-ngrams for histopathology image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Monroy, A. Pastor; Montes-y-Gómez, Manuel; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes an extension of the Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) representation for image categorization (IC) of histophatology images. This representation is one of the most used approaches in several high-level computer vision tasks. However, the BoVW representation has an important limitation: the disregarding of spatial information among visual words. This information may be useful to capture discriminative visual-patterns in specific computer vision tasks. In order to overcome this problem we propose the use of visual n-grams. N-grams based-representations are very popular in the field of natural language processing (NLP), in particular within text mining and information retrieval. We propose building a codebook of n-grams and then representing images by histograms of visual n-grams. We evaluate our proposal in the challenging task of classifying histopathology images. The novelty of our proposal lies in the fact that we use n-grams as attributes for a classification model (together with visual-words, i.e., 1-grams). This is common practice within NLP, although, to the best of our knowledge, this idea has not been explored yet within computer vision. We report experimental results in a database of histopathology images where our proposed method outperforms the traditional BoVWs formulation.

  12. Transient response of the 'multiple water-bag' plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charge activates impulsively and then decays temporally within a MWB (multiple water-bag)-modelled warm plasma. The transient problem is formulated and asymptotically resolved for large time. The response potential comprises two characteristically distinct quantities W and WN: W is a superposition of spherically expanding, moderately attenuated Kelvin waves contributed by certain points on a subset of dispersion curves; WN is a superposition, associated with two other dispersion curves, of three spherical wavefunctions, one of which incorporates the Fresnel integrals. A transient state feature of the MWB discretization is the partitioning of the response field by growing (fast) fronts, (trailing) slow caustics and aj-surfaces, the fastest among these being an aN- surface (thermal front) which pushes back a quasi-static exterior. Contrary to expectations, there is no response jump across any of those growing partitions. Wavefunctions near the slow caustics possess Airy factors. A rest state ultimately develops behind the slowest slow caustic. An application is made to the fluid plasma. (author)

  13. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. PMID:26969058

  14. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature. PMID:26851461

  15. A rare case of blunt thoracoabdominal trauma with small bowel perforation from air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, A; Pezzatini, M; Conte, S; Mari, F; Milillo, A; Gasparrini, M; Marino, G; Catracchia, V; -Favi, F

    2009-05-01

    Vehicle collisions represent more than 75% of mechanism of blunt abdominal trauma. In spite of the incomparable improvement of car safety devices, recent studies pointed out that the air bags might cause injuries, specially when it is not associated with seatbelt. In fact, some studies pointed out that crash victims using air bags alone have increased injury severity, hospitalisations, thoracoabdominal procedure, and rehabilitation. Some of the most frequently injured organs reported from air bag deployment are the liver (38%), the spleen (23%) and digestive system (17%). Injury of the hollow viscera are far less common. In particular, blunt abdominal trauma resulting in small bowel perforation is an infrequent lesion. These injuries are difficult to diagnose because specific signs are poor and a delay in treatment increases mortality and morbidity of the patients. We describe a case of thoracoabdominal trauma that occurred during a head-on collision after an air bag deployment without seatbelt use.

  16. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  17. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  18. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  19. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, R; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  20. Introduction to Kalman Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Alazard, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document is an introduction to Kalman optimal Filtering applied to linear systems. It is assumed that the reader is already aware of linear servo-loop theory, frequency-domain Filtering (continuous and discrete-time) and state-space approach to represent linear systems. Generally, Filtering consists in estimating a useful information (signal) from a measurement (of this information) perturbed by a noise. Frequency-domain Filtering assumes that a frequency-domain separation exists between...

  1. Pharyngeal pumping inhibition and avoidance by acute exposure to high CO2 levels are both regulated by the BAG neurons via different molecular pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Sharabi, Kfir; Charar, Chayki; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a key molecule in many biological processes. Studies in humans, mice, D. melanogaster, C. elegans, unicellular organisms and plants have shed light on the molecular pathways activated by elevated levels of CO2. However, the mechanisms that organisms use to sense and respond to high CO2 levels remain largely unknown. Previous work has shown that C. elegans quickly avoid elevated CO2 levels using mechanisms that involve the BAG, ASE and AFD neurons via cGMP- and calcium-...

  2. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Ascaso; Valentín Huerva; Andrzej Grzybowski

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-t...

  3. Smaller self-inflating bags produce greater guideline consistent ventilation in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal bag ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has demonstrated detrimental physiological outcomes for cardiac arrest patients. In light of recent guideline changes for resuscitation, there is a need to identify the efficacy of bag ventilation by prehospital care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate bag ventilation in relation to operator ability to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rate, tidal volume and minute volume when using two different capacity self-inflating bags in an undergraduate paramedic cohort. Methods An experimental study using a mechanical lung model and a simulated adult cardiac arrest to assess the ventilation ability of third year Monash University undergraduate paramedic students. Participants were instructed to ventilate using 1600 ml and 1000 ml bags for a length of two minutes at the correct rate and tidal volume for a patient undergoing CPR with an advanced airway. Ventilation rate and tidal volume were recorded using an analogue scale with mean values calculated. Ethics approval was granted. Results Suboptimal ventilation with the use of conventional 1600 ml bag was common, with 77% and 97% of participants unable to achieve guideline consistent ventilation rates and tidal volumes respectively. Reduced levels of suboptimal ventilation arouse from the use of the smaller bag with a 27% reduction in suboptimal tidal volumes (p = 0.015 and 23% reduction in suboptimal minute volumes (p = 0.045. Conclusion Smaller self-inflating bags reduce the incidence of suboptimal tidal volumes and minute volumes and produce greater guideline consistent results for cardiac arrest patients.

  4. Plastic bag method for active sample loading into transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Hao; Isobe, Shigehito; Wang, Yongming; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei

    2011-01-01

    A plastic bag method was developed to observe air sensitive samples on microstructure and phases distribution without air exposure during holder transfer process into the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). As an example, a type of lithium aluminum hydride (Li3AlH6) was observed in TEM to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. Results show that plastic bag method is a simple and practical TEM transfer method utilized to reduce air contact for a series of air sensitive materials.

  5. Age bias in the bag of pink-footed geese : influence of flocking behaviour on vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) wintering in Denmark, The Netherlands and Belgium, the proportion of juveniles in the hunting bag is consistently higher than that observed in the autumn population. Such juvenile bias in the bag is usually ascribed to young geese lacking experience with hunting or disruption of juveniles from families. An alternative explanation may be that flocking behaviour of families make juveniles more vulnerable. Observations of morning fl...

  6. Environmental levy and green citizenship on plastic shopping bags behaviours in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Wing-sum.; 黃詠森.

    2012-01-01

    The Environmental Levy Scheme on Plastic Shopping was enforced in July 2009. The Levy aimed to create a direct fiscal disincentive to reduce the indiscriminate use of Plastic Shopping Bags and encourage consumers to switch to reusable shopping bags. In theory, fiscal instruments are more efficient and effective to change people’s behaviour, but its impacts towards attitude are still in question. Also, the level of green citizenship, which emphasising that people have the responsibility to pr...

  7. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Y. Dahmani; M Aznar; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-01-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags ident...

  8. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  9. The Nano-filters as the tools for the management of the water imbalance in the human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Kontar, V.

    2011-12-01

    ultra-thin nanoscale fibers, which filter out contaminants, plus active carbon granules, which kill bacteria. The carbon nano-tube as filters exhibit chemical-species selectivity with higher physical strength and higher temperature tolerance, more rugged process, more rapid filtration, regeneration via thermal means rather than physical removal and lowers costs. The nano-filters remove the toxic or unwanted bivalent ions (ions with 2 or more charges), such as lead, iron, nickel, mercury, etc. The nano-materials and nano-filters will help solve the problems of the water imbalance management in the human society. Therefore we are talking about some nano-applications on the session H138 "Imbalance of Water in Nature".

  10. Filtering in Finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautier, Delphine; Javaheri, Alireza; Galli, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present an introduction to various Filtering algorithms and some of their applications to the world of Quantitative Finance. We shall first mention the fundamental case of Gaussian noises where we obtain the well-known Kalman Filter. Because of common nonlinearities, we will be discussing the Extended Kalman Filter.

  11. Filter service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Cheryl L.; Nordyke, Daniel S.; Crandell, Richard A.; Tomlins, Gregory; Fei, Dong; Panov, Alexander; Lane, William H.; Habeger, Craig F.

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  12. HEPA filter encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  13. Direct interaction between BAG5 protein and Parkin protein%BAG5蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪晶; 郭纪锋; 江泓; 沈璐; 唐北沙

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨BAG5(BCL2-associated athanogene 5)蛋白与帕金森病相关蛋白Parkin之间是否存在相互作用,以及BAG5对Parkin蛋白水平的调控机制.方法:本研究首先运用GST pull-down技术及免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白在体内及体外是否存在相互作用;进一步构建BAG5的不同截短型,运用GST pull-down技术验证BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域;进而运用chase time技术验证BAG5对Parkin蛋白降解水平的调控;最后运用免疫共沉淀技术验证BAG5对Parkin降解水平的调控是通过何种机制进行的.结果:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白体内及体外均可以相互结合,且BAG5与Parkin的相互结合结构域存在于全长的4段BAG区域内;BAG5可以通过减少Parkin的降解而稳定细胞内Parkin蛋白的水平,且BAG5是通过减少Parkin通过泛素蛋白酶体降解系统(ubiquitin proteasome system,UPS)的降解从而增加Parkin蛋白的稳定性.结论:BAG5蛋白与Parkin蛋白可以相互结合,且BAG5蛋白可以通过UPS对Parkin的水平进行调节.

  14. Measuring the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of sleeping bags using a supine sweating fabric manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For testing the thermal insulation of sleeping bags, standard test methods and procedures using heated manikins are provided in ASTM F1720-06 and EN 13537:2002. However, with regard to the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, no instrument or test method has so far been established to give a direct measurement. In this paper, we report on a novel supine sweating fabric manikin system for directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags. Eleven sleeping bags were tested using the manikin under the isothermal condition, namely, both the mean skin temperature of the manikin and that of the environment were controlled to be the same at 35 °C, with the wind speed and ambient relative humidity at 0.3 m s−1 and 50%, respectively. The results showed that the novel supine sweating fabric manikin is reproducible and accurate in directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, and the measured evaporative resistance can be combined with thermal insulation to calculate the moisture permeability index of sleeping bags

  15. Source of Kerr-Newman solution as supersymmetric bag model: 50 years of the problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskii, A.

    The ultra extreme Kerr-Newman (KN) solution(a = J/m >> m) produces the gravitational and EM fields of the electron. It has a naked singular ring - a topological defect which may be regularized by a solitonic source forming the pseudo-vacuum bubble filled by Higgs condensate in a supersymmetric superconducting state. Structure and stability of this source is determined by Bogomolnyi equations as a BPS-saturated soliton. The Principal Null Congruences of the KN solution determine consistent embedding of the Dirac equation, which acquires the mass from the Higgs condensate inside the soliton, indicating that this soliton forms a bag model. Shape of this bag is unambiguously determined by BPS-bound. The bag turns out to be flexible and takes the form of a very thin disk, which is completed by a ring-string along its sharp boundary. The ring-string traveling waves generate extra deformations of the bag creating a circulating singular pole. Bag model of the KN source integrates the dressed and pointlike electron in a bag-string-quark system, which removes the conflict between gravity and the point-like electron of the Dirac theory.

  16. Regression Analysis of the Effect of Bias Voltage on Nano- and Macrotribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Ion-Plating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films are deposited by bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA technique with DC and pulsed bias voltage. The effects of varying bias voltage on nanoindentation and nanowear properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage of −50 V exhibited the greatest hardness at approximately 50 GPa, a low modulus of dissipation, low elastic modulus to nanoindentation hardness ratio, and high nanowear resistance. Nanoindentation hardness was positively correlated with the Raman peak ratio Id/Ig, whereas wear depth was negatively correlated with this ratio. These nanotribological properties highly depend on the films’ nanostructures. The tribological properties of the FCVA-DLC films were also investigated using a ball-on-disk test. The average friction coefficient of DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage was lower than that of DLC films deposited with pulse bias voltage. The friction coefficient calculated from the ball-on-disk test was correlated with the nanoindentation hardness in dry conditions. However, under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction coefficient and specific wear rate had little correlation with nanoindentation hardness, and wear behavior seemed to be influenced by other factors such as adhesion strength between the film and substrate.

  17. Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation - Case carrier bags; Liiketoiminnan sopeuttaminen ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnaen vaatimuksiin (OPTIKASSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Mattila, T.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Soukka, R. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Department of Energy and Environmental Technology (Finland)); Kujanpaeae, M. (KCL Science and Consulting, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Shopping bags have been a prominent topic of debate lately. Many countries have banned disposable bags or imposed a tax on them. The motives have been to avoid littering, reduce reliance on oil, and curb climate change. Restrictions are also justified by the accumulation of plastic garbage in the oceans, and by the damage to marine organisms. The environmental effects of production, use, and disposal of shopping bags are small compared with other consumption. However, the choice of a shopping bag is repeated every week, and the consumer is not sure about the consequences of each alternative. To reduce this uncertainty the OPTIKASSI study was made. The study called 'Adaptation of business activities to the requirements of climate change mitigation . case shopping bags, OPTIKASSI project' was implemented to study shopping bag alternatives in Finnish grocery stores, and the effects of the bags on climate change and the possibilities to mitigate them. Finnish Environment Institute and Lappeenranta University of Technology were responsible for the study, funded by Tekes ClimBus Programme, and the bag producers Suominen Flexible Packaging Ltd, Plastiroll Oy (Ltd), UPM-Kymmene LtdWisapaper and CabassiOy. The goal of the OPTIKASSI project was to compile lifecycle based information about the climate effects of the most typical shopping bags. It was also desirable to find the best consumption and waste management solutions for bags made of various materials. Products compared were plastic bags of virgin material, and of recycled material, paper bags, canvas bags, and shopping bags of biodegradable plastic. According to the results the shopping bags are an insignificant part of the climate effects of a Finnish household, but negligent use of bags may multiply the effects. Based on scenario, sensitivity, and ambiguity studies: garbage bags should be replaced by plastic bags, and the bins packed full and tight, incineration is not sensible; paper bags should be

  18. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  19. Ensacamento de frutos de pereira cv. Housui Bagging of nashi pear cv. Housui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dagoberto Faoro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de frutos de pêra japonesa cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta ensacados com diferentes tipos de sacos de papel e em duas épocas: 34 e 83 dias após a florada. O ensacamento não influenciou na firmeza, no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e no peso médio dos frutos. Sacos vermelhos não induziram aumento do pH da polpa, mas o uso de sacos duplos, sacos marrons, sacos de papel kraft marrons e sacos de pipoca brancos aumentaram significativamente o pH. Ao buscar-se maior precocidade de colheita, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de sacos pequenos de papel manteiga aos 34 dias após a floração e o uso de sacos grandes duplos ou sacos grandes marrons, 83 dias após a plena floração. O ensacamento 34 dias após a plena floração, com sacos grandes de papel duplo de cor marrom ou sacos de papel kraft marrons, ou ainda o uso de sacos pequenos parafinados transparentes de papel manteiga, aos 34 dias, seguidos pela colocação, aos 83 dias, dos dois tipos de sacos grandes citados anteriormente, resultaram em frutos de melhor qualidade externa (película de coloração homogênea e mais clara, lisa e com lenticelas pouco salientes. O uso de sacos vermelhos de papel manteiga e de sacos de pipoca brancos, com ou sem ensacamento prévio com sacos pequenos de papel manteiga parafinado, não resultaram em melhoria substancial da qualidade externa do fruto.The fruit quality of Nashi pears cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta have been evaluated after bagging with different paper bags at two bagging dates: 34 and 83 days after full bloom. The bagging did not affect the fruit firmness, the total soluble solids and the average fruit weight. Red bags did not affect the pH of the fruit flesh. However the fruit bagged with double bags of brown color, brown kraft paper and white popcorn paper increased the pH. In order to harvest precociously, the use of small transparent paraffin paper bags 34 days after full bloom

  20. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. ADHD classification using bag of words approach on network features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Dey, Soumyabrata; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Shah, Mubarak

    2012-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is receiving lots of attention nowadays mainly because it is one of the common brain disorders among children and not much information is known about the cause of this disorder. In this study, we propose to use a novel approach for automatic classification of ADHD conditioned subjects and control subjects using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of resting state brains. For this purpose, we compute the correlation between every possible voxel pairs within a subject and over the time frame of the experimental protocol. A network of voxels is constructed by representing a high correlation value between any two voxels as an edge. A Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach is used to represent each subject as a histogram of network features; such as the number of degrees per voxel. The classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We also investigate the use of raw intensity values in the time series for each voxel. Here, every subject is represented as a combined histogram of network and raw intensity features. Experimental results verified that the classification accuracy improves when the combined histogram is used. We tested our approach on a highly challenging dataset released by NITRC for ADHD-200 competition and obtained promising results. The dataset not only has a large size but also includes subjects from different demography and edge groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose BoW approach in any functional brain disorder classification and we believe that this approach will be useful in analysis of many brain related conditions.

  2. Damping performance of bean bag dampers in zero gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng

    2016-06-01

    Bean bag dampers (BBDs), developed from impact damping technology, have been widely applied in engineering field to attenuate the vibration of a structural system. The damping effect of a BBD on vibration control in ground gravity environments is good, but its performance in zero gravity environments is not clear, and there are few studies on it. Therefore, the damping effect of BBDs in zero gravity environments was investigated based on the discrete element method (DEM) in this paper. Firstly, a three-dimensional DEM model of a BBD was established, and the damping effects of the single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with BBDs and non-obstructive particle dampers (NOPDs) in zero gravity environments were compared. Moreover, the influences of the diameter of the inner ball, the tightness of BBD, the vibration frequency of SDOF system and the gap between BBD and cavity on the vibration reduction effect of BBD in zero gravity environments were also studied, and the results were compared with the system with BBD in ground gravity environments. There are optimum ranges of the diameter of the inner ball, tightness and gap for BBD, and the effects of these parameters on the damping performances of BBD in gravity and zero gravity environments are similar in evolving trends, and the values are without big differences in the optimum ranges. Thereby the parameter selection in BBD design in zero gravity environments is similar to that in gravity environments. However, the diameter of BBD should be a slightly larger than the size of the cavity when the structures with BBD work in zero gravity environments. The BBD is supposed to be picked tightly when the vibration frequency is high, and the BBD has better to be picked more tightly in zero gravity environments. These results can be used as a guide in the design of BBDs in zero gravity environments.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of 22 volatile organic compounds in cigarette smoke using gas sampling bags for high-throughput solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Maureen M; Chambers, David M; Pazo, Daniel Y; Moliere, Fallon; Blount, Benjamin C; Watson, Clifford H

    2014-07-15

    Quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke is necessary to establish smoke-related exposure estimates and evaluate emerging products and potential reduced-exposure products. In response to this need, we developed an automated, multi-VOC quantification method for machine-generated, mainstream cigarette smoke using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). This method was developed to simultaneously quantify a broad range of smoke VOCs (i.e., carbonyls and volatiles, which historically have been measured by separate assays) for large exposure assessment studies. Our approach collects and maintains vapor-phase smoke in a gas sampling bag, where it is homogenized with isotopically labeled analogue internal standards and sampled using gas-phase SPME. High throughput is achieved by SPME automation using a CTC Analytics platform and custom bag tray. This method has successfully quantified 22 structurally diverse VOCs (e.g., benzene and associated monoaromatics, aldehydes and ketones, furans, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, vinyl chloride, and nitromethane) in the microgram range in mainstream smoke from 1R5F and 3R4F research cigarettes smoked under ISO (Cambridge Filter or FTC) and Intense (Health Canada or Canadian Intense) conditions. Our results are comparable to previous studies with few exceptions. Method accuracy was evaluated with third-party reference samples (≤15% error). Short-term diffusion losses from the gas sampling bag were minimal, with a 10% decrease in absolute response after 24 h. For most analytes, research cigarette inter- and intrarun precisions were ≤20% relative standard deviation (RSD). This method provides an accurate and robust means to quantify VOCs in cigarette smoke spanning a range of yields that is sufficient to characterize smoke exposure estimates.

  4. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  5. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  6. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  7. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  8. 活性炭滤池中微生物特征及其对溶解性有机碳的去除作用%Characteristics of biomass in biological activated carbon(BAC)filters and its contribution to DOC removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雷; 王东升; 樊康平; 顾军农; 李涛

    2009-01-01

    采用异养菌总数计数(HPC)法检测了北京地区J水厂活性炭滤池中微生物量,并分析了活性炭滤池进出水中有机物的组成、活性炭的吸附作用及微生物作用对溶解性有机碳(DOC)去除的贡献率.结果表明,不同炭龄、不同运行周期活性炭滤池中的微生物量有显著的差异.由于溶解性可生物降解有机碳(BDOC)占溶解性有机碳(DOC)的比例较小,且受微生物数量、活性等因素的影响,微生物对DOC的去除效果极为有限,在1.5年和5年炭龄活性炭滤池中对DOC的去除率仅占总去除率的18.8%和26.4%.此外,微生物对较为敏感的嗅味物质2-MIB和geosmin去除作用也不显著,去除率在15%以下(初始浓度为100ng·L~(-1));在使用5年活性炭滤池中,微生物对2-MIB和geosmin去除率为12%和14%,分别占总去除率的32%和29%.因此,北京地区地表水净水厂活性炭滤池中微生物对有机物控制的贡献率较低,对DOC的去除主要以活性炭的吸附为主.%Heterotrophic plate count ( HPC ) determination is applied to measure the biomass on the carbon used in the biological activated carbon ( BAC ) filter in a water treatment plant in Beijing. The effect of the DOC component in the filtered water, the adsorption of active carbon, the biological activity, and their contribution to DOC removal is analyzed. The results indicate that the biomass fluctuates greatly with the service time of the carbon filter and the operation stage. The micro-biological degradation in BAC filters contributes little to the total DOC removal because of the low ratio of BDOC to DOC in the filtered water. The micro-biologically degraded DOC in the 1.5a-carbon filter comprises only 18.8% of total DOC removed, and 26.4% in the 5a-carbon filter. Furthermore, the micro-biological degradation process is not significant for odorous material removal and contributes 32% and 29% to the total removal of 2-MIB and geosmin, respectively, even in the 5a carbon

  9. EFFECT OF ANAEROBIOSIS ON FILTER MEDIA POLLUTANT RETENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the results of experiments conducted to determine if four potential filter media (sand, activated carbon, peat moss, and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated that permanent retention of heav...

  10. Numerical and experimental study of pulse-jet cleaning in fabric filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Andersen, B.; Nielsen, N. F.; Walther, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-jet cleaning and understanding of the complex physics are essential when designing fabric filters used for air pollution control. Today, low-pressure cleaning is of particular interest due to demand for reduced compressed air consumption. Pulse-jet cleaned fabric filters have been studied...... for many years by experimental investigation and to a limited extent by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The majority of the studies have focused on high-pressure cleaning systems, and the CFD models presented are so far two-dimensional (2D). In the work presented here, pulse-jet cleaning of low......-pressure fabric filters (2 bar) is studied using a full three-dimensional (3D) CFD model. Experimental results obtained in a pilot-scale test filter with 28 bags, in length of 10 m and in general full-scale dimensions of the cleaning system are used to verify the reliability of the present CFD model...

  11. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. PMID:26790603

  12. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  13. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter......The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  14. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  15. Cloning and functional analysis of FLJ20420: a novel transcription factor for the BAG-1 promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Liu

    Full Text Available BAG-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that interacts with a variety of cellular molecules to inhibit apoptosis. The mechanisms by which BAG-1 interacts with other proteins to inhibit apoptosis have been extensively explored. However, it is currently unknown how BAG-1 expression is regulated at the molecular level, especially in cancer cells. Here we reported to clone a novel down-regulated BAG-1 expression gene named FLJ20420 using hBAG-1 promoter as a probe to screen Human Hela 5' cDNA library by Southernwestern blot. The FLJ20420 gene encodes a ∼26-kDa protein that is localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. We proved that FLJ20420 protein can specially bind hBAG-1 promoter region by EMSA in vivo and ChIP assay in vivo. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of FLJ20420 transcriptional expression in normal human tissues (i.e., brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas and cervix, except for heart and skeletal muscles, which showed higher levels. Furthermore, enhanced FLJ20420 expression was observed in tumor cell lines (i.e., MDA468, BT-20, MCF-7, C33A, HeLa and Caski. Knockdown of endogenous FLJ20420 expression significantly increased BAG-1 expression in A549 and L9981 cells, and also significantly enhanced their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. A microarray assay of the FLJ20420 siRNA -transfectants showed altered expression of 505 known genes, including 272 upregulated and 233 downregulated genes. Finally, our gene array studies in lung cancer tissue samples revealed a significant increase in FLJ20420 expression in primary lung cancer relative to the paired normal lung tissue controls (p = 0.0006. The increased expression of FLJ20420 corresponded to a significant decrease in BAG-1 protein expression in the primary lung cancers, relative to the paired normal lung tissue controls (p = 0.0001. Taken together, our experiments suggest that FLJ20420 functions as a down-regulator of BAG-1 expression. Its abnormal

  16. Kalman Filter Neuron Training

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Haruhiko; KOYAMA, Shuhei; HONAMI, Nobuo; Kuwabara, Takao

    1991-01-01

    An attempt of implementing Kalman filter algorithm in the procedure for training the neural network was made and evaluated. The Kalman filter neuron training program (KNT) was coded. The performance of Kalman filter in KNT was compared to commonly used neuron training algorithm. The study revealed that KNT requires much less calculation time to accomplish neuron training than commonly used other algorithms do. KNT also gave much smaller final error than any other algorithms tested in this study.

  17. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  18. Can laptops be left inside passenger bags if motion imaging is used in X-ray security screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia eMendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e. 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat detection performance. An X-ray image interpretation test was created in four different versions, manipulating the factors packing condition (laptop and bag separate vs. laptop in bag and display condition (single vs. motion imaging. There was a highly significant and large main effect of packing condition. When laptops and bags were screened separately, threat item detection was substantially higher. For display condition, a medium effect was observed. Detection could be slightly enhanced through the application of motion imaging. There was no interaction between display and packing condition, implying that the high negative effect of leaving laptops in passenger bags could not be fully compensated by motion imaging. Additional analyses were carried out to examine effects depending on different threat categories (guns, improvised explosive devices, knives, others, the placement of the threat items (in bag vs. in laptop and viewpoint (easy vs. difficult view. In summary, although motion imaging provides an enhancement, it is not strong enough to allow leaving laptops in bags for security screening.

  19. [Awareness of the risk of air bag-associated injuries essential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnstig, Ulf; Haraldsson, Per-Olle; Polland, Werner; Sandström, Thomas

    2002-07-11

    Restraint systems, such as air bags and seat belts with pretensioners, reduce effectively the risk of serious injuries of car occupants. However, this equipment may have some adverse effects. In a frontal air bag deployment the cushion expands with a speed of about 200 km/h towards the driver. A person within the expansion zone, i.e. within 20 centimetres from the steering wheel hub, may experience a considerable injury risk. Short people, pregnant women and people "out of normal position" are especially at risk, as well as paramedics exposed for accidentally deployed air bags during rescue work. The gas generator in the air bag produces nitrogen in a chemical process. However, small amounts of NaOH (caustic soda) may leak out of the gas generator and may contaminate eyes and wounds and cause injuries and delay healing. The air bag gases may provoke an asthmatic attack in sensible individuals and a few will experience a hearing loss, often in the range of 4,000-6,000 Hz, from the sound impulse that may reach a level of 170 dB. Correct handling, based on a familiarity of the effects and side effects of modern restraint systems, would minimise the risk of adverse effects of this safety equipment. PMID:12170512

  20. Contributions from Goldstone-boson-exchange to baryon spectra in the MIT Bag Model

    CERN Document Server

    He, D H; Li, X Q; Shen, P N; He, Da-Heng; Ding, Yi-Bing; Li, Xue-Qian; Shen, Peng-Nian

    2005-01-01

    We discuss contributions of chiral bosons to baryon spectra in the MIT bag model. It is believed that within hadrons, chiral bosons are degrees of freedom which are independent of gluons to provide strong interactions between quarks. In the original MIT bag model, only interaction mediated by gluon exchanges was considered, by contrast, in this work we take into account the interaction mediated by the exchanges of chiral bosons $\\sigma$ and $\\pi^{(\\pm,0)}$. Then following the standard approach, we minimize the effective hamiltonian which includes both the contributions from gluon and chiral-boson exchanges with respect to the bag radius to obtain the effective radius. By re-fitting the spectra of baryons, we find that the contributions from the boson-exchange may be 40% of that from gluon-exchanges and meanwhile the bag constant $B$, the zero-point energy $z_0$ almost do not change. It indicates that in the original version of the MIT bag model, the intermediate-distance interaction due to the chiral-boson ex...

  1. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  2. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  3. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  4. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  5. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  6. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  7. Aqueous solubility speciation of Cr(VI) in ferrochrome bag filter dust / Willem Petrus Johannes van Dalen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dalen, Willem Petrus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The production of ferrochrome (FeCr) from chromite ore is a reducing process, whereby the Cr(III) and Fe(II) in the ore are reduced to metallic chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) in the final product. FeCr is mostly used for the production of stainless steel, which is a vital alloy in modern society. It is, however, impossible to exclude oxygen completely from all the high temperature steps during the production process and very small amounts of Cr(VI) are therefore formed, although not intended. Th...

  8. The Daala Directional Deringing Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Valin, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the deringing filter used in the Daala royalty-free video codec. The filter is based on a non-linear conditional replacement filter and is designed for vectorization efficiency. It takes into account the direction of edges and patterns being filtered. The filter works by identifying the direction of each block and then adaptively filtering along the identified direction. In a second pass, the blocks are also filtered in a different direction, with more conservative thresho...

  9. Improved HEPA Filter Technology for Flexible and Rigid Containment Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. A. Pinson

    1998-07-01

    Safety and reliability in glovebox operations can be significantly improved and waste packaging efficiencies can be increased by inserting flexible, lightweight, high capacity HEPA filters into the walls of plastic sheet barriers. This HEPA filter/barrier technology can be adapted to a wide variety of applications: disposable waste bags, protective environmental barriers for electronic equipment, single or multiple use glovebag assemblies, flexible glovebox wall elements, and room partitions. These reliable and inexpensive filtered barriers have many uses in fields such as radioactive waste processing, HVAC filter changeout, vapor or grit blasting, asbestos cleanup, pharmaceutical, medical, biological, and electronic equipment containment. The applications can result in significant cost savings, improved operational reliability and safety, and total waste volume reduction. This technology was developed at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in 1993 and has been used at ANL-W since then at the TRU Waste Characterization Chamber Gloveboxes. Another 1998 AGS Conference paper titled "TRU Waste Characterization Gloveboxes", presented by Mr. David Duncan of ANL-W, describes these boxes.

  10. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-23

    in process piping and materials, in excessive off-gas absorbent loading, and in undesired process emissions. The ash content of the coal is important as the ash adds to the DMR and other vessel products which affect the final waste product mass and composition. The amount and composition of the ash also affects the reaction kinetics. Thus ash content and composition contributes to the mass balance. In addition, sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and maybe silica and alumina in the ash may contribute to wall-scale formation. Sodium, potassium, and alumina in the ash will be overwhelmed by the sodium, potassium, and alumina from the feed but the impact from the other ash components needs to be quantified. A maximum coal particle size is specified so the feed system does not plug and a minimum particle size is specified to prevent excess elutriation from the DMR to the Process Gas Filter (PGF). A vendor specification was used to procure the calcined coal for IWTU processing. While the vendor supplied a composite analysis for the 22 tons of coal (Appendix A), this study compares independent analyses of the coal performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Three supersacks a were sampled at three different heights within the sack in order to determine within bag variability and between bag variability of the coal. These analyses were also compared to the vendor’s composite analyses and to the coal specification. These analyses were also compared to historic data on Bestac coal analyses that had been performed at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) between 2004-2011.

  11. Multi-water-bag models of ion temperature gradient instability in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion temperature gradient instabilities play a major role in the understanding of anomalous transport in core fusion plasmas. In the considered cylindrical geometry, ion dynamics is described using a drift-kinetic multi-water-bag model for the parallel velocity dependency of the ion distribution function. In a first stage, global linear stability analysis is performed. From the obtained normal modes, parametric dependencies of the main spectral characteristics of the instability are then examined. Comparison of the multi-water-bag results with a reference continuous Maxwellian case allows us to evaluate the effects of discrete parallel velocity sampling induced by the Multi-Water-Bag model. Differences between the global model and local models considered in previous works are discussed. Using results from linear, quasilinear, and nonlinear numerical simulations, an analysis of the first stage saturation dynamics of the instability is proposed, where the divergence between the three models is examined

  12. Modeling multiple visual words assignment for bag-of-features based medical image retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval methods, which represent an image as a collection of local features, such as image patch and key points with SIFT descriptor. To improve the bag-of-features method, we first model the assignment of local descriptor as contribution functions, and then propose a new multiple assignment strategy. By assuming the local feature can be reconstructed by its neighboring visual words in vocabulary, we solve the reconstruction weights as a QP problem and then use the solved weights as contribution functions, which results in a new assignment method called the QP assignment. We carry our experiments on ImageCLEFmed datasets. Experiments\\' results show that our proposed method exceeds the performances of traditional solutions and works well for the bag-of-features based medical image retrieval tasks.

  13. Inheritance patterns and phenotypic features of myofibrillar myopathy associated with a BAG3 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgerel, Zagaa; Sarkozy, Anna; Lee, Hee-Suk; McKenna, Caoimhe; Rankin, Julia; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Paola, Francalanci; D’Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico; Bushby, Kate; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2010-01-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by disintegration of myofibrils. The inheritance pattern in MFMs is commonly autosomal dominant, but there has been a striking absence of secondary cases noted in a BAG3-associated subtype. We studied three families with BAG3 p.Pro209Leu mutation showing a severe phenotype of myofibrillar myopathy and axonal neuropathy with giant axons. In one family, transmission to a pair of siblings has occurred from their asymptomatic father who showed somatic mosaicism. In two other families, neither of the parents was affected or showed detectable level of somatic mosaicism. These observations suggest that the BAG3 variant of MFM may result from a spontaneous mutation at an early point of embryonic development and that transmission from a mosaic parent may occur more than once. The study underlines the importance of parental evaluation as it may have implications for genetic counseling. PMID:20605452

  14. Calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y. N.; Hua, Y.

    A mathematical model of the geometry formation of an ACV bag-finger skirt is developed to determine skirt shape and its deflection for varying cushion pressures, and calculations for the reactions of supports of the rigid structure on the skirt at the inner and outer attachment points are obtained. The model assumption that the finger triangle of the two-dimensional bag-finger skirt turns around the inner attachment point with changing ratio of cushion pressure to bag pressure is confirmed by experiments using skirt rigs. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental results, and it is shown that when the cushion pressure is changing, the pressure ratio is the essential dimensionless parameter for the skirt geometry formation and its deflection, and for the forces acting on it.

  15. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  16. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Håkon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (ENKF), thereby yielding a multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLENKF) which has provably superior asymptotic cost to a given accuracy level. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  17. Internet Filtering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    We collected data on the methods, scope, and depth of selective barriers to Internet usage through networks in China. Tests conducted from May through November 2002 indicated at least four distinct and independently operable Internet filtering methods - Web server IP address, DNS server IP address, keyword, and DNS redirection with a quantifiable leap in filtering sophistication beginning in September 2002.

  18. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  19. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek A. Koziel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar® and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 µg m−3 and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 µg m−3, propionic (15,800 µg m−3, isobutyric (1,686 µg m−3, butyric (1,049 µg m−3, isovaleric (1,236 µg m−3, valeric (643 µg m−3, and hexanoic (2,158 µg m−3 was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry.

  20. Strategy for selecting disposable bags for cell culture media applications based on a root-cause investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Mahajan, Ekta; Shiratori, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The use of disposable bags for cell culture media storage has grown significantly in the past decade. Some of the key advantages of using disposable bags relative to non-disposable containers include increased product throughput, decreased cleaning validation costs, reduced risk of cross contamination and lower facility costs. As the scope of use of disposable bags for cell culture applications increases, problematic bags and scenarios should be identified and addressed to continue improving disposables technologies and meet the biotech industry's needs. In this article, we examine a cell culture application wherein media stored in disposable bags is warmed at 37°C before use for cell culture operations. A problematic bag film was identified through a prospective and retrospective cell culture investigation. The investigation provided information on the scope and variation of the issue with respect to different Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines, cell culture media, and application-specific parameters. It also led to the development of application-specific test methods and enabled a strategy for disposable bag film testing. The strategy was implemented for qualifying an alternative bag film for use in our processes. In this test strategy, multiple lots of 13 bag film types, encompassing eight vendors were evaluated using a three round, cell culture-based test strategy. The test strategy resulted in the determination of four viable bag film options based on the technical data. The results of this evaluation were used to conclude that a volatile or air-quenched compound, likely generated by gamma irradiation of the problematic bag film, negatively impacted cell culture performance.

  1. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  2. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  3. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  4. Filter Bank Fusion Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Chebira, Amina; Mixon, Dustin G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using oversampled filter banks. In this work, we first provide polyphase domain characterizations of filter bank fusion frames. We then use these characterizations to construct filter bank fusion frame versions of discrete wavelet and Gabor transforms, emphasizing those specific finite impulse response filters whose frequency responses are well-behaved.

  5. Implicit Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.

  6. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

  7. Upgrading of the Mono Media Filters in Water Treatment Plants by Changing Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackground and Objectives:Dual media filters have two different layer beds consist of sand and Anthracite. Advantage of dual media filters is longer run duration and more filtration rate. The purpose of this study was to achieve a performable model to improve single media Filters in water treatment plants."nMaterials and Methods: in this cross-sectional study, two pilots; mono and dual media were made and in a 5 month period samples taking were done. Total samples taken from input and output of each pilot, was 40. The samples then introduced for the measurment of turbidity and total organic carbon. Meanwhile the filters head loss also quantified in 40 times head loss measurement was done."nResults: Average turbidity removal in mono and two layer pilots were 63 and 65 percent respectively. Average removal of Total Organic Carbon in mono and two media pilots were 40 and 66 percent respectively. Head loss in dual and single media pilots were 0 .68 and 1.15 m respectively."nConclusion: Although average torbidity removal disparity between two pilots was not significant the amount of total organic carbon removed was considerable. Average head loss in single media pilot was more than dual media type. Ratio of UFRV in dual media to mono media filter was 51:30 it shows that filtration rate capacity will be improved up to70 percent by changing media type.

  8. Non-Abelian Cheshire Cat bag models in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Abelian Cheshire Cat models are investigated in their Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations. The Lagrangian bag boundary conditions are used to derive the form of non-Abelian soliton operators, through which fermions are represented in bosonic language. These soliton operators are then used to construct the boundary interaction in the Hamiltonian picture, wherein the bosonic sector is formulated by means of a current algebra involving anomalous commutators. The Hamiltonian and the momentum operator are shown to commute, thus implying that the Cheshire Cat criterion - the independence of the energy spectrum on the bag wall position - is fulfilled by the system. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of the mobile bag method for estimation of in vivo starch digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoorchi, Taghi; Lund, Peter; Larsen, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the ability of the in situ mobile nylon bag method for predicting small intestinal and total tract starch digestibility. Starch disappearance was measured for 18 samples of different cereals and legumes subjected to different physical and chemical processing methods...... with starch from barley, wheat, oats, ear maize and maize. Transit times of the mobile bags from duodenum to ileum were not significantly different between feeds. A weak positive correlation was found between in vivo small intestinal and total tract digestibility of starch and disappearance obtained using...

  10. Cultivation Experiment of Shiitake Strain Using UNICORN BAG%利用 UNICORN BAG 培养香菇菌种试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐年声; 焦海涛; 王群

    2001-01-01

    Culture shiitake strain using UNICORN BAGS with two types in t his experiment,the results showed that experimental bags with ventilating membra ne either had a good ventilated funciton or can protect from infection of weed f ungi,This bags are of filling simple and fast,inoculation convenient and easy,mo re mycelia sprout drops,and strain growing rapidly etc,and have a excellent apli cation prospects in strain making and cultivation of mushrooms.%本试验利用两种规格的UNICORN BAG培养香菇菌种,结果表明这种具有透气膜的塑料袋既有良好的透气性能,又能防止杂菌侵染,在菌种生产中具有装袋简单快速,接种方便容易,萌发点多,菌种成熟快等优点,具有极好的应用前景。

  11. 消化道肿瘤组织芯片中BAG-1的表达及意义分析%Expression and Significance of Apoptosis Related Gene BAG-1 in Digestive Tract Cancer by Tissue Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雨冬; 师建国; 闫庆国; 王明元; 王星

    2006-01-01

    目的检测抗凋亡基因BAG-1在多种消化道肿瘤中的表达,并讨论其意义.方法利用组织芯片,采用免疫组化DA-KO Envision法检测食道癌、胃癌、直肠癌及正常组织中BAG-1的表达.结果食道癌、胃癌及直肠癌组织中BAG-1的表达比其对应的正常组织为高(P<0.01).结论BAG-1在消化道肿瘤组织中表达高于正常组织,提示BAG1表达可能与消化道恶性肿瘤的发生有关.

  12. 77 FR 3035 - Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters® Bags & Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters Bags & Rolls AGENCY... announcing 2012 pricing for annual sets and the America the Beautiful Quarters Bags and Rolls. Please see...

  13. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse.... SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for Kennedy Half-Dollar bags and rolls, bronze..., Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20220;...

  14. 75 FR 14569 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Indonesia, 72 FR 60636 (October 25, 2007)). Disclosure We will disclose the calculations performed within... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 74 FR 55183 (October 27... establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners. Imports of merchandise included within the...

  15. Say Your Eco-friendly Slogan in 2008!——Take Cotton Bags Home and Become an Environmentalist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Take your own cotton shopping bags on your next trip to the supermarket and avoid excessive use of plastic bags. This has become the latest environmentally-friendly trend in China. A decree issued on January 8, 2008 by the General Office of the State Council banning the production, sales and use of ultra thin plastic grocery

  16. LCL Interface Filter Design for Shunt Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRICEANU, M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on finding the parameters of a second order interface filter connected between the power system and the shunt active filter based on switching frequency of the active filter. Many publications on power active filters include various design methods for the interface inductive filter which take into account the injected current and its dynamic. Compared to these ones, the approach presented in this paper is oriented toward the design of the interface filter starting from filter transfer functions by imposing the performances of the filter.

  17. In-the-bag intraocular lens placement via secondary capsulorhexis with radiofrequency diathermy in pediatric aphakic eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Luo

    Full Text Available Pediatric ophthalmologists increasingly recognize that the ideal site for intraocular lens (IOL implantation is in the bag for aphakic eyes, but it is always very difficult via conventional technique. We conducted a prospective case series study to investigate the success rate and clinical outcomes of capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation via secondary capsulorhexis with radiofrequency diathermy (RFD in pediatric aphakic eyes, in which twenty-two consecutive aphakic pediatric patients (43 aphakic eyes enrolled in the Childhood Cataract Program of the Chinese Ministry of Health were included. The included children underwent either our novel technique for secondary IOL implantation (with RFD or the conventional technique (with a bent needle or forceps, depending on the type of preoperative proliferative capsular bag present. In total, secondary capsulorhexis with RFD was successfully applied in 32 eyes (32/43, 74.4%, age 5.6±2.3 years, of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved in 30 eyes (30/43, 70.0%, but in the remaining 2 eyes (2/32, 6.2% the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus with a capsular bag that was too small. Secondary capsulorhexis with conventional technique was applied in the other 11 eyes (11/43, 25.6%, age 6.9±2.3 years, of which capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation were both achieved only in 3 eyes(3/43, 7.0%, and the IOLs were implanted in the sulcus in the remaining 8 eyes. A doughnut-like proliferative capsular bag with an extensive Soemmering ring (32/43, 74.4% was the main success factor for secondary capsulorhexis with RFD, and a sufficient capsular bag size (33/43, 76.7% was an additional factor in successful in-the-bag IOL implantation. In conclusion, RFD secondary capsulorhexis technique has 70% success rate in the capsular bag reestablishment and in-the-bag IOL implantation in pediatric aphakic eyes, particularly effective in

  18. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  19. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  20. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  1. Trajectory probability hypothesis density filter

    OpenAIRE

    García-Fernández, Ángel F.; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter for sets of trajectories. The resulting filter, which is referred to as trajectory probability density filter (TPHD), is capable of estimating trajectories in a principled way without requiring to evaluate all measurement-to-target association hypotheses. As the PHD filter, the TPHD filter is based on recursively obtaining the best Poisson approximation to the multitrajectory filtering density in the sense of minimising the K...

  2. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ascaso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed.

  3. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Prevention of Late IOL-Capsular Bag Complex Dislocation: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) subluxation is uncommon but represents one of the most serious complications following phacoemulsification. Late spontaneous IOL-capsular bag complex dislocation is defined as occurring three months or later following cataract surgery. Unlike early IOL dislocation, late spontaneous IOL dislocation is due to a progressive zonular dehiscence and contraction of the capsular bag many years what seemed to be uneventful surgery. In recent years, late in-the-bag IOL subluxation or dislocation has been reported with increasing frequency, having a cumulative risk of IOL dislocation following cataract extraction of 0.1% after 10 years and 1.7% after 25 years. A predisposition to zonular insufficiency and capsular contraction is identified in 90% of reviewed cases. Multiple conditions likely play a role in contributing to this zonular weakness and capsular contraction. Pseudoexfoliation is the most common risk factor, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Other associated conditions predisposing to zonular dehiscence are aging, high myopia, uveitis, trauma, previous vitreoretinal surgery, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes mellitus, atopic dermatitis, previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack, and connective tissue disorders. The recognition of these predisposing factors suggests a modified approach in cases at risk. We review certain measures to prevent IOL-bag complex luxation that have been proposed. PMID:26798506

  4. 75 FR 33772 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Malaysia, 69 FR 48203 (August 9, 2004). On August 3, 2009, we published in the Federal Register a notice of... from Malaysia, 69 FR 3557 (January 26, 2004). See also Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia, 69 FR 34128 (June 18, 2004)...

  5. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... instituted these reviews on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31750, July 2, 2009) and determined on October 5, 2009 that it would conduct full reviews (74 FR 54069, October 21, 2009). Notice of the scheduling of the... COMMISSION Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the...

  6. Polylactide-based renewable composites from natural products residues by encapsulated film bag: characterization and biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-San

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the biodegradability, morphology, and mechanical properties of composite materials consisting of acrylic acid-grafted polylactide (PLA-g-AA) and natural products residues (corn starch, CS) were evaluated. Composites containing acrylic acid-grafted PLA (PLA-g-AA/CS) exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties due to their greater compatibility with CS compared with PLA/CS. The feasibility of using PLA-g-AA/CS as a film bag material to facilitate the controlled release of an encapsulated phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) Burkholderia cepacia as a fertilizer use promoter was then evaluated. For purposes of comparison and accurate characterization, a PLA film bag was also assessed. The results showed that the bacterium completely degraded both the PLA and the PLA-g-AA/CS composite film bags, resulting in cell release. The PLA-g-AA/CS (20 wt%) film bags were more biodegradable than those made of PLA, and displayed a higher loss of molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity, indicating a strong connection between these characteristics and biodegradability. PMID:24751080

  7. Covariant momentum projection of the soliton bag: recoil corrections to the hadronic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A central problem in calculations based on relativistic bags is that of projection onto an eigenstate of zero momentum and the subsequent covariant boosting of that state to a non-zero momentum eigenstate. We are here particularly concerned with relativistic bag models. The prototype of such models is the MIT bag model. Along with a number of derivative models, it shares the common feature of a surface boundary condition to confine the quarks. The Lagrangian contains coordinates which describe the surface, but the time derivatives of these coordinates do not appear. This complicates quantization which can, however, be accomplished through the techniques of Dirac constraints. It is important to work in a fully quantum mechanical framework. A model which fulfills that requirement, is covariant, and is tractable is the soliton bag model of Freidberg and Lee. This is a model for the low energy properties of QCD in which hadrons appear as solitons in a scalar field with quarks trapped inside the structures. The soliton model, for the present discussion, contains (massless) quarks interacting with a nonlinear scalar field sigma; the momentum operator conjugate to sigma is π = sigma, and the two satisfy the usual canonical equal-time commutation reltions. 12 references

  8. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  9. Hvem sidder dér bag skærmen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Schaumburg-Müller, Peer

    2009-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i nutidens daytrader, der sidder ´"bag skærmen" og foretager talrige daglige køb og salg af børsnoterede aktier mv., analyseres det i artiklen, hvornår en sådan lovlig daytrading udarter til strafbar kursmanipulation. Nogle daytradere har ment, at hvis en ikke-professionel invest...

  10. 77 FR 33998 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... technological changes (e.g., consumer education on air bags and the importance of seat belts and putting..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues: Ms. Carla Rush, Office of... children, in relatively low speed crashes. It was shown that the majority of these fatalities...

  11. Hadron-quark phase coexistence in a hybrid MIT-Bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase transition of hadronic to quark matter and the boundaries of the hadron-quark coexistence phase are studied within the two Equation of State (EoS) models. The relativistic effective mean-field approach with constant and density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings is used to describe hadronic matter, and the MIT-Bag model is adopted to describe quark matter. The boundaries of the mixed phase for different Bag constants are obtained solving the Gibbs equations. We notice that the dependence on the Bag parameter of the critical temperatures (at zero chemical potential) can be well reproduced by a fermion ultrarelativistic quark gas model, without contribution from the hadron part. At variance, the critical chemical potentials (at zero temperature) are very sensitive to the EoS of the hadron sector. Hence, the contribution of the hadronic interaction is much more relevant for the determination of the transition to the quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density and low T. Moreover, in the low-temperature and finite chemical potential region no solutions of the Gibbs conditions are existing for small Bag-constant values, B 4. Isospin effects in asymmetric matter appear important in the high chemical-potential regions at lower temperatures, of interest for the inner-core properties of neutron stars and for heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. (orig.)

  12. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Jan; Detroyer, Daan; Bammens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome. PMID:26351597

  13. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Keer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES, INC., SL-90B 8 POCKET BAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of March 23-24, 1999, tests of Columbus Industries Inc's SL-90B 8 Pocket Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic pe...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI A-3000 5P BAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of March 24-25, 1999, tests of ATI's A-3000 5P Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic performance factor being ver...

  16. Influence of weather factors on population dynamics of two lagomorph species based on hunting bag records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rödel, H.; Dekker, J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Weather conditions can have a significant influence on short-term fluctuations of animal populations. In our study, which is based on time series of hunting bag records of up to 28 years from 26 counties of The Netherlands and Germany, we investigated the impact of different weather variables on ann

  17. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  18. Behaviour and Environment - A Behavioral Study of no Use of Plastic Bags' Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bragança de Matos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the environmental impact of current consumption patterns and the increasing centrality of this discourse in international environmentalism’s mainstream bring new perspectives and arguments concerning the consumerism of contemporary Western societies. From this perspective, the central question of this project was: “What is the intention of not using plastic bags?” Using as a theoretical reference the Planned Behavior Theory, which seeks to understand and predict human behavior in a general way from a reduced set of antecedent variables, we developed an intersectional survey consisting of 226 interviews. Data were processed by equations modeling and treated in Amos 16.0 software. The measurement model considered the mental constructions forming TCP. It was possible to identify as a major contribution of this study that the perceived behavioral control is the most influential factor on the intended not use of plastic bags, hindering the adoption of the behavior of not using plastic bags. Perhaps the fact that it is a settled habit, which involves several routine actions, such as the habit of going to the grocery store and have to plan in advance to take the alternative shopping bag or cart for packaging purchased products, or to count on ecological alternatives offered by commercial establishments, is a major and determining impediment for behavioral change.

  19. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... report regarding discussions held with third party experts concerning banking in Vietnam. See Memorandum.... Injury Test Because Vietnam is a ``Subsidies Agreement Country'' within the meaning of section 701(b) of... merchandise. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; Determinations, 74...

  20. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 45094... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). Rescission of Review...

  1. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 75 FR 48940 (August 12, 2010). These deposit requirements shall remain... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 53953 (September 2, 2010) (Preliminary Results), in the Federal... Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The period of review is August 1, 2008, through July 31,...

  2. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9, 2004). On September 22, 2009, we published a... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224, 48226 (September 22... FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). As explained in the February 12, 2010, memorandum from the...

  3. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR... Revocation in Part, 77 FR 59168 (September 26, 2012). On November 21, 2012, the petitioners withdrew their... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  4. 78 FR 28192 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The review covers 11 respondents. The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. We preliminarily find that subject merchandise has been sold at less than normal value by the companies subject to this......

  5. 78 FR 46319 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Taiwan: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience... from The Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members PCL Packaging, Inc... Republic of Vietnam, 75 FR 23667 (May 4, 2010) (PRCB Orders). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  6. Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Four methods for measuring quantities of 12 plant-available nutrients were compared using three sandy soils in a series of three experiments. Three of the methods use different ion-exchange resin forms-bags, capsules, and membranes-and the fourth was conventional chemical extraction. The first experiment compared nutrient extraction data from a medium of sand saturated with a nutrient solution. The second and third experiments used Nakai and Sheppard series soils from Canyonlands National Park, which are relatively high in soil carbonates. The second experiment compared nutrient extraction data provided by the four methods from soils equilibrated at two temperatures, "warm" and "cold." The third experiment extracted nutrients from the same soils in a field equilibration. Our results show that the four extraction techniques are not comparable. This conclusion is due to differences among the methods in the net quantities of nutrients extracted from equivalent soil volumes, in the proportional representation of nutrients within similar soils and treatments, in the measurement of nutrients that were added in known quantities, and even in the order of nutrients ranked by net abundance. We attribute the disparities in nutrient measurement among the different resin forms to interacting effects of the inherent differences in resin exchange capacity, differences among nutrients in their resin affinities, and possibly the relatively short equilibration time for laboratory trials. One constraint for measuring carbonate-related nutrients in high-carbonate soils is the conventional ammonium acetate extraction method, which we suspect of dissolving fine CaCO3 particles that are more abundant in Nakai series soils, resulting in erroneously high Ca2+ estimates. For study of plant-available nutrients, it is important to identify the nutrients of foremost interest and understand differences in their resin sorption dynamics to determine the most appropriate extraction method.

  7. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  8. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  9. Kalman Filtering in R

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Tusell

    2011-01-01

    Support in R for state space estimation via Kalman filtering was limited to one package, until fairly recently. In the last five years, the situation has changed with no less than four additional packages offering general implementations of the Kalman filter, including in some cases smoothing, simulation smoothing and other functionality. This paper reviews some of the offerings in R to help the prospective user to make an informed choice.

  10. The Band Pass Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano, Lawrence J.; Terry J. Fitzgerald

    1999-01-01

    The `ideal' band pass filter can be used to isolate the component of a time series that lies within a particular band of frequencies. However, applying this filter requires a dataset of infinite length. In practice, some sort of approximation is needed. Using projections, we derive approximations that are optimal when the time series representations underlying the raw data have a unit root, or are stationary about a trend. We identify one approximation which, though it is only optimal for one...

  11. Holographic interference filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Damon W.

    Holographic mirrors have wavelength-selection properties and thus qualify as a class of interference filters. Two theoretical methods for analyzing such structures are developed. The first method uses Hill's matrix method to yield closed-forms solutions in terms of the Floquet-Bloch waves within a periodic structure. A process is developed for implementing this solution method on a computer, using sparse-matrix memory allocation, numerical root-finding algorithms, and inverse-iteration techniques. It is demonstrated that Hill's matrix method is valid for the analysis of finite and multi-periodic problems. The second method of theoretical analysis is a transfer-matrix technique, which is herein termed thin-film decomposition. It is shown that the two methods of solution yield results that differ by, at worst, a fraction of a percent. Using both calculation techniques, a number of example problems are explored. Of key importance is the construction of a set of curves that are useful for the design and characterization of holographic interference filters. In addition to the theoretical development, methods are presented for the fabrication of holographic interference filters using DuPont HRF-800X001 photopolymer. Central to the exposure system is a frequency-stabilized, tunable dye laser. The types of filters fabricated include single-tone reflection filters, two types of multitone reflection filters, and reflection filters for infrared wavelengths. These filters feature index profiles that are not easily attainable through other fabrication methods. As a supplement to the body of the dissertation, the computer algorithms developed to implement Hill's matrix method and thin-film decomposition are also included as an appendix. Further appendices provide more information on Floquet's theorem and Hill's matrix method. A final appendix presents a design for an infrared laser spectrophotometer.

  12. Feedback Particle Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tao; Mehta, Prashant G.; Meyn, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    A new formulation of the particle filter for nonlinear filtering is presented, based on concepts from optimal control, and from the mean-field game theory. The optimal control is chosen so that the posterior distribution of a particle matches as closely as possible the posterior distribution of the true state given the observations. This is achieved by introducing a cost function, defined by the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence between the actual posterior, and the posterior of any particle....

  13. Filtered Social Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Niehaus

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is economically important but also typically incomplete: we "filter" our communication. This paper analyzes the consequences of filtering. In the model, homogeneous agents share knowledge with their peers whenever the private benefits exceed communication costs. The welfare implications of this transmission mechanism hinge on whether units of knowledge complement, substitute for, or are independent of each other. Both substitutability and complementarity generate externaliti...

  14. Filtering Solid Gabor Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Lagae, Ares; Drettakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Solid noise is a fundamental tool in computer graphics. Surprisingly, no existing noise function supports both high-quality anti-aliasing and continuity across sharp edges. In this paper we show that a slicing approach is required to preserve continuity across sharp edges, and we present a new noise function that supports anisotropic filtering of sliced solid noise. This is made possible by individually filtering the slices of Gabor kernels, which requires the proper treatment of phase. This ...

  15. Retina-inspired Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model “virtual retina”. This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatiotemporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina- insp...

  16. Selected solutions and design features from the design of remotely handled filters and the technology of remote filter handling. Previous operating experience with these components in the PASSAT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prototype filter offgas cleaning system for reprocessing plants (PASSAT) built at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center a fullscale filter cell with remotely handled filters for aerosol and iodine removal and the corresponding remote handling systems for exchange, bagging out, packaging and disposal of spent filter elements has been installed and run in trial operation since July 1978. The filters and the replacement techniques have been tested for the past two years or so and so far have always worked satisfactory over the test period involving some 150 replacement events. Neither wear nor corrosion phenomena were found in the filter housings and the replacement systems. The seals and clamping devices were selected so that during operation the prescribed leak rates of -3 Torr l/s were always maintained on the filter lid, the seat of the filter element and the cell lock. The total clamping loads for the filter element and the filter lid amount to approx. 20 kN. The force necessary to separate the filter element from the filter housing is approx. 3.5 kN. No ruptures of seals or gaskets were to be detected. The design of the filters and of the handling systems has been found satisfactorily in the cold test operation so far and can be recommended for use in nuclear facilities. In all experiments conducted until now PASSAT has worked without any failure. All operating data required in the specifications were met in the test period. The maximum pressure loss in the system with loaded filter elements amounts to some 3000 mm of water. After operation with iodine and NO/sub x/, plant components exposed to 100% relative humidity and condensate showed corrosion

  17. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  18. Contactor/filter improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  19. Miniaturized superconducting microwave filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present methods for the miniaturization of superconducting filters. We consider two designs of seventh-order bandpass Chebyshev filters based on lumped elements and a novel quasi-lumped element resonator. In both designs the area of the filters, with a central frequency of 2-5 GHz, is less than 1.2 mm2. Such small filters can be readily integrated on a single board for multi-channel microwave control of superconducting qubits. The filters have been experimentally tested and the results are compared with simulations. The miniaturization resulted in parasitic coupling between resonators and within each resonator that affected primarily the stopband and increased the bandwidth. The severity of the error depends on the design in particular, and was less sensitive when a groundplane was used under the inductances of the resonators. The best performance was reached for the quasi-lumped filter with central frequency of 4.45 GHz, quality factor of 40 and 50 dB stopband

  20. ''WATA water bag'' explosion protection; Konstruktiver Explosionsschutz vom Typ ''Wassertasche WATA''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, K.P. [Chemisch-Technischen Fabrikation Dr. Klaus Schulte GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-08-12

    The contribution describes the rapid quantitative spread of water bags as explosion protection system in Poland - the largest coal-producer in Europe - and analyses the reasons for this market penetration. The use of water bags in the neighbouring country - the Czech Republic - is used as a comparison. The success of the water bags is confirmed by the statements of various international experts. (orig.)