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Sample records for bag filters carbon

  1. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  2. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    was judged to be significantly better than the air downstream of the 6-month-old F7 filter, and was comparable to that from an unused F7 filter. Additionally, the combination filters removed more ozone from the air than the F7 filter, with their respective fractional removal efficiencies roughly scaling......As ventilation filters accumulate particles removed from the airstream, they become emitters of sensory pollutants that degrade indoor air quality. Previously we demonstrated that an F7 bag-type filter that incorporates activated carbon (a "combination filter") reduces this adverse effect compared...... to an equivalent filter without carbon. The aim of the present study was to examine how the amount of activated carbon (AC) used in combination filters affects their ability to remove both sensory offending pollutants and ozone. A panel evaluated the air downstream of four different filters after each had...

  3. Filtration of Oil-furnace Carbon Black Dust Particles from the Tail Gases by Filter Bags With PTFE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuzela, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the industrial production of oil furnace carbon black, tail gases containing oil-furnace carbon black dust particles are emitted to the atmosphere. In the carbon black plant, Petrokemija d. d., there are six exhaust stacks for tail gases. Each of them has installed process equipment for cleaning tail gases. Efficiency of cleaning mainly depends on equipment construction and cleaning technology. The vicinity of the town, quality of the air in the region of Kutina, regarding floating particles PM10, and corporate responsibility for further enviromental improvement, imposes development of new methods that will decrease the emmision of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the air. Combining centrifugal percipitator and filter, special construction of cyclofilter for filtration of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles from tail gases by using PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter bags, was designed. Developed filtration technique provides η = 99.9 % efficiency of filtration. Construction part of the filter contains the newest generation of PTFE membrane filter bags with the ability of jet pulse cleaning. Using the PTFE membrane filter bags technology, filtration efficiency for oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in tail gases of maximum γ=5mgm-3can be achieved. The filtration efficiency was monitored continuously measuring the concentration of the oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the tail gases with the help of in situ electronic probe. The accomplished filtration technology is the base for the installation of the PTFE membrane filter bags in the main operation filters which will provide better protection of the air in the town of Kutina against floating particles PM10.

  4. potential bag filter for volatile organic amines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VADDYPALLY SHIVAIAH

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... be described as a potential bag filter for volatile organic amines. Keywords. Volatile organic amines; hydrogen ..... this bag filter, which can capture volatile amines to form. Figure 8. Thermal ellipsoid plot of ..... huber H, Baumann M and Amann A 2013 Blood and breath levels of selected volatile organic ...

  5. A bag adapted for the handling of a filtering element or filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a transparent, flexible, synthetic plastics bag adapted to contain a filter element or filter unit so that the latter can be inserted into or removed from a filter casing or duct while being contained in the bag. The bag has a neck portion which is capable of being removably secured in an air-tight manner on to a part of the casing, and gloves or glove portions are provided in, or are formed in, the wall of the bag to permit handles on the filter element or unit to be grasped. (author)

  6. Off-gas filtration and releases: bag filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, D.M.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    During high-temperature incineration of radioactive waste, some metal oxides are volatilized and carried out with the off-gases. During cooling those oxides react with acidic components generated by the combustion of the fuel oil or of the waste itself. This results in a submicronic crystalline dust in which cesium isotopes are concentrated. Bag filters have been selected at S.C.K./C.E.N. to carry out the first step of dust separation. Two baghouses equipped with Teflon bags with a total filtering area of 100 m 2 have been installed. The bags are cleaned on line by compressed air backflow. The residual dust content is below 3 mg/m 3 , which is sufficiently low to be removed by HEPA filters. The baghouses were put into operation in October 1981 and since then have been on line for about 3000 hours. Some bags had to be replaced after a fire in mid-1983. (orig.)

  7. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  8. Improvement of cement plant dust emission by bag filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Purnomo, Chandra; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Alfisyah, Muziibu; Triyono

    2018-03-01

    The limestone quarry in PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (ITP) in Cirebon is considered as a complex quarry in terms of chemical composition and material hardness. From the beginning of the plant operation up to the end of 2015, the dust removal was rely on electrostatic precipitator (EP) system. Whenever limestone from specific quarry zones were incorporated into Raw Mill (RM) feed or there was an upset condition, the dust emission increased significantly. Beside higher demand of electricity, an EP system requires lower gas inlet temperature in order to remove the dust effectively which requires larger cooling water in the previous gas conditioning tower to cool down gas from 400 °C to about 100 °C. By considering the drawbacks, the EP system was replaced by a bag filter (BF) system. The BF allows higher temperature of gas inlet and it has higher dust removal efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of the two different dust removal systems is compared. The effect of process variables i.e. RM feed, kiln feed, inlet temperature and pressure, and small size particle fraction to the dust emission are studied by multivariate linier regression analysis. It is observed that the BF system can reduce significantly the dust emission from 30 to 6 mg/m3 and in the same time reducing CO2 emission by 0.24 ton/year from the electricity consumption saving.

  9. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  10. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Yihua Yin; Bin Yu; Jian Han

    2016-01-01

    The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the...

  11. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2. The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD.

  12. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Gwangjae; Noh, Jung-Hun; Yook, Se-Jin; Cho, So-Hye; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2). The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  13. Filter bag De-NOx system with powder type catalysts at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Heon; Kang, Pil-Sun; Yoo, Seung-Kwan; Yoon, Kyoon-Duk

    2010-01-01

    Combustion of carbon source materials (MSW, RDF, sludge, coal etc.) leads to the emission of harmful gaseous pollutants such as SO x , NO x , mercury, particulate matter, and dioxins etc. In particular, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from the solid waste incinerator remains a serious air pollution problem. The previous research concerns have focused mainly on NO x reduction of stationary sources at high temperature SCR or SNCR process. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH 3 is the most widespread system used to control NO x emissions. However, this process suffers from several disadvantages due to the use of thermo fragile honeycomb type module and high temperature (about 300 degree Celsius) operation which consumes additional heating energy. To overcome this hurdle, filter bag De-NO x system with powder type catalysts at low temperature (less than 200 degree Celsius) has been under investigation in recent years and looks interesting because neither additional heat nor honeycomb type modules are required. Filter bag and powder type catalysts are cheap and effective materials to remove NO x at low temperature. In this study, the selective catalytic reduction of NO x was carried out on a filter support reactor with 300 mesh powder type catalysts at low temperature. The experiments were performed by powder type MnO x and V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst at low temperature ranging between 130 and 250 degree Celsius. Also, the effect of SO 2 and H 2 O on the NO conversion was investigated under our test conditions. The powder type catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) for measuring the state of oxygen on the catalyst surface and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that NO conversion of the powder type V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst was 85 % at 200 degree Celsius under presence of oxygen and that of MnO x was 50 % at the same condition. From these results, the powder type V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst showed an excellent performance on the

  14. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  15. Preliminary enviromagnetic comparison of the moss, lichen, and filter fabric bags to air pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Salo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.

  16. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif [SYCON Energikonsult, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller (2-50 MW) biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology (electrostatic precipitators) quickly increases with decreased plant size. Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years. Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter (including an upstream skimmer) and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW. For plants smaller than 5-10 MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Following up cleaning interval and/or emission during operation time, gives information about the development of bag condition and necessary bag change can be foreseen. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation. This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer

  17. Eurobloodpack: a common European design for blood bag systems with integral leucodepletion filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, M J; De Korte, D; Chabanel, A; Hughes, W; Rowe, G P; Nicholson, G

    2011-10-01

    Three EBA specified blood bag configurations ('Eurobloodpack') are described which are capable of meeting >80% of its member's requirements. These include a 'top-and-top' and two 'bottom-and-top' packs enabling aseptic, pre-donation collection of up to 40 ml of samples, 427.5-522.5 ml of whole blood and the preparation of an extensive range of blood components. Features currently beyond the scope of ISO standardisation have been controlled including: anticoagulant and additive volumes; collection needle and sampling system; transfer tubing; cross-match line; base label; leucodepletion filter performance; compatibility of access ports and transfusion sets. Eurobloodpack has significant advantages for blood services and blood bag manufacturers. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Exploration of PM2.5 filtration property of filter bag for environment protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruitian; Zheng, Jinwei; Ni, Bingxuan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, filter bag of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) needle punched nonwoven for environment protection was investigated. The results showed that air permeability of sample was linear rise with the increase of the pressure drop. During the testing process, the residual pressure drop rose with the increase of cycles because of test dust attaching on the surface of the filter. The PM2.5 filtration efficiency was obtained of 99.854%, which was smaller than the dust filtration efficiency of 99.971% because of the fine particles taking larger proportion of the dust through the sample. Results show that this method of evaluating the PM2.5 filtration property is feasible.

  19. Evaluation of Microwave Steam Bags for the Decontamination of Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edward M.; Williams, Jessica L.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21525995

  20. Ridge filter design for carbon radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gata-Danil, G.; Parajpan, M.; Timoshenko, G.

    2008-01-01

    The design of a ridge filter intended for forming the uniform spread-out Bragg peak within a tumor at carbon radiotherapy is described. The computation of the ridge filter shape was carried out by an analytical algorithm and tested by MC simulation (GEANT4 code). Two kinds of the ridge filter were considered: stationary and movable. The influence on a ridge filter shape of the carbon beam energy and type of relative biological effectiveness dependence on the carbon ion linear energy transfer in tissue were examined

  1. Hydrogen venting characteristics of commercial carbon-composite filters and applications to TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, E.L.; Marshall, R.S.; Cappis, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    The generation of hydrogen (by radiolysis) and of other potentially flammable gases in radioactive wastes which are in contact with hydrogenous materials is a source of concern, both from transportation and on-site storage considerations. Because very little experimental data on the generation and accumulation of hydrogen was available in actual waste materials, work was initiated to experimentally determine factors affecting the concentration of hydrogen in the waste containers, such as the hydrogen generation rate, (G-values) and the rate of loss of hydrogen through packaging and commercial filter-vents, including a new design suitable for plastic bags. This report deals only with the venting aspect of the problem. Hydrogen venting characteristics of two types of commercial carbon-composite filter-vents, and two types of PVC bag closures (heat-sealed and twist-and-tape) were measured. Techniques and equipment were developed to permit measurement of the hydrogen concentration in various layers of actual transuranic (TRU) waste packages, both with and without filter-vents. A test barrel was assembled containing known configuration and amounts of TRU wastes. Measurements of the hydrogen in the headspace verified a hydrogen release model developed by Benchmark Environmental Corporation. These data were used to calculate revised wattage Emits for TRU waste packages incorporating the new bag filter-vent

  2. Carbon filter property detection with thermal neutron technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongbo; Han Jun; Li Wenjie

    2003-01-01

    The paper discussed the mechanism that the antigas property of the carbon filter will decrease because of its carbon bed absorbing water from the air while the carbon filter is being stored, and introduced the principle and method of detection the amount of water absorption with thermal neutron technique. Because some certain relation between the antigas property of the carbon filter and the amount of water absorption exists, the decrease degree of the carbon filter antigas property can be estimated through the amount of water absorption, offering a practicable facility technical pathway to quickly non-destructively detect the carbon filter antigas property

  3. Short communication: measurements of methane emissions from feed samples in filter bags or dispersed in the medium in an in vitro gas production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, M; Krizsan, S J; Jančík, F; Huhtanen, P

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH4) emissions from different feeds when incubated within filter bags for in vitro analysis or directly dispersed in the medium in an automated gas in vitro system. Four different concentrates and 4 forages were used in this study. Two lactating Swedish Red cows were used for the collection of rumen fluid. Feed samples were milled to pass a 1.0-mm screen. Aliquots (0.5 g) of samples were weighed directly in the bottles or within the F 0285 filter bags that were placed in the bottles. Gas samples were taken during 24 and 48 h of incubation, and CH4 concentration was determined. The data were analyzed using a general linear model. Feeds differed significantly in CH4 emission both at 24 and at 48 h of incubation. The interaction between feed and method on methane emission in vitro was significant, indicating that the ranking of feeds was not consistent between the methods. Generally, greater amounts of CH4 were emitted from samples directly dispersed in the medium compared with those incubated within the filter bags, which could be a result of lower microbial activity within the filter bags. The ratio of CH4 to total gas was greater when the feeds were incubated within bags compared with samples directly dispersed in the medium. Incubating samples in filter bags during 48 h of incubation cannot be recommended for determination of CH4 emission of feeds in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Karissa Lyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Charlotte Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  5. Dust extraction from gas in cement kilns, using bag filters; Depoussierage des gaz de four cimentier par les filtres a manches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmegnies, M. [CALCIA, 78 - Guerville (France). Direction Technique

    1996-12-31

    After a review of regulations concerning cement plant emissions, the two main cement production techniques (dry and semi-dry processes) are described and the electrostatic and bag filter de-dusting techniques are compared. Examples of pilot applications of these techniques in two French cement plants are presented and operating results (performances, transient procedures, costs) are discussed

  6. Thin carbon film serves as UV bandpass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Thin carbon film deposited on a 70 percent transparent screen provides a filter for narrow-band detectors in the extreme ultraviolet. The filter also suppresses scattered light and light of unwanted orders in vacuum spectrographs.

  7. Multum in Parvo: Explorations with a Small Bag of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJM Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 12 papers published between 1957 and 1972 are revisited. The papers had a common theme of the use of rebreathing carbon dioxide and explored a variety of topics in respiratory physiology. The first study established a method for the noninvasive and indirect estimation of arterial carbon dioxide pressure that was suitable for the routine clinical monitoring of respiratory failure and whose clinical utility remains to this day, but which also provided observations that were the stimulus for the studies that followed. The rate of rise in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 during rebreathing led to an analysis of body carbon dioxide storage capacity. Knowledge of carbon dioxide storage led to a method for quantifying lactate production in exercise without the need for blood sampling. The changes in ventilation that accompanied the increase in PCO2 provided the basis for a rapid method for measuring aspects of breathing control (Read's method, which was later modified to measure the ventilatory response to hypoxia. The physiology of breath-holding was explored through observations of the fall in breath-holding time as PCO2 climbed. Rebreathing also allowed increases in voluntary ventilation to be achieved without the development of alkalosis, leading to studies of maximal voluntary ventilation and respiratory muscle fatigue. Equilibration of PCO2 during rebreathing was used to measure mixed venous PCO2 during exercise and develop an integrated approach to the physiology of exercise in health and disease; alveolar-arterial disequilibrium in PCO2 during exercise was uncovered. Equilibration of PCO2, as well as PO2, during rebreathing of carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas mixtures showed different time courses of venous gases at the onset of exercise. Starting with the rebreathing of carbon dioxide in oxygen mixtures in a small rubber bag, an astonishing range of topics in respiratory physiology was explored, with observations

  8. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  9. Sulphur, nitrogen and carbon content of Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in the Naples urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation ability of the major elements sulphur, nitrogen and carbon by the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in Naples urban area,was investigated. Bags were exposed at the beginning of July 1999 and gathered in two subsequent moments: at the end of the dry season (after 10 weeks of exposure) and during the wet season (after 17 weeks of exposure), to include the effects of rainy conditions. Sulphur and N content of the lichen increased all over the exposure period, while the level of C did not change significantly either after 10 or 17 weeks of exposition. For the moss the S accumulation was limited to the dry period of exposure, whereas N and C content decreased with exposure. Results, in contrast with those obtained in a previous study on trace elements bioaccumulation [Adamo et al., Environmental Pollution, (2003) 122, 91-103], suggest that accumulation of gaseous pollutants is strongly influenced by biomonitor vitality and that lichen bags are a more reliable and effective tool for monitoring S, N and C atmospheric depositions in urban areas compared to moss bags, because of greater lichen resistance to dry and stressing conditions of urban environment. - The lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea is more effective than the moss Sphagnum capillifolium as S and N pollutants biomonitor

  10. Pilot Study on Carbon-sand Filter for Sedimentation Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of dual function of integrating with activated carbon adsorption and quartz sand filtration in the carbon-sand filter can collaboratively remove organic matters and turbidity and also protect the bio-security, and the pilot test is carried out to optimize the process parameters. The pilot test results show that the thickness of the filter materials is preferably 1,300mm of the activated carbon, 500mm of uniform quartz sand; filtration rate can be 8-12m/h; filter cycle is 24-48h; when the water temperature is 21°C to 29°C, the biofilm formation period in the carbon-sand filter is 15 to 20 days; removal of the organic matters and nitrogen runs through the entire filter bed, and the nitrite is mainly oxidized on the upper side; when the operation is mature, the layer of filter materials can form the biofilm and zoogloea, with the dual function of micro-biological degradation and activated carbon adsorption.

  11. Potential bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Tomio, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, relativistic confining potential models, endowed with bag constants associated to volume energy terms, are investigated. In contrast to the usual bag model, these potential bags are distinguished by having smeared bag surfaces. Based on the dynamical assumptions underlying the fuzzy bag model, these bag constants are derived from the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. Explicit expressions for the single-quark energies and for the nucleon bag constant are obtained by means of an improved analytical version of the saddle-point variational method for the Dirac equation with confining power-law potentials of the scalar plus vector (S + V) or pure scalar (S) type

  12. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Brugger, Ronald P.

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  13. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  14. Soumen Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Soumen Bag. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 133-168. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari scripts · Soumen Bag Gaurav Harit · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The past few decades have witnessed an intensive research on ...

  15. Rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingsong; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Hualin; Li, Shaofan

    2016-01-01

    We have designed a porous nanofluidic desalination device, a rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter (RCNT-MF), for the reverse osmosis desalination that can turn salt water into fresh water. The concept as well as design strategy of RCNT-MF is modeled, and demonstrated by using molecular dynamics simulation. It has been shown that the RCNT-MF device may significantly improve desalination efficiency by combining the centrifugal force propelled reverse osmosis process and the porous CNT-based fine scale selective separation technology. PMID:27188982

  16. SU-F-T-515: Increased Skin Dose in Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Due to Carbon Fiber Couch and Vacuum Bag Immobilization Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, D; Zhao, Z; Wang, X; Yang, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To measure the surface dose for supine craniospinal irradiation employing posterior beams, treating through an imaging couch and BlueBag immobilization device. Methods: The percentage depth dose (PDD) in the buildup region of a clinical 6 MV photon beam was measured using an Advanced Markus parallel plate ionization chamber in a solid water phantom. The PDD from a 10×10 cm{sup 2} anterior beam was measured at 100 cm SSD, simulating a traditional prone craniospinal technique. The measurements were compared to commissioning and treatment planning system data. The PDD was also measured in a posterior setup with the phantom surface laying directly on the Brainlab carbon fiber imaging couch, with the phantom surface 100 cm from the source, simulating a supine craniospinal setup. The posterior measurements were repeated with a BlueBag vacuum immobilization device between the couch and phantom, with thicknesses of 1.7 cm and 5 cm. The PDD from a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field and a typical 6×30 cm{sup 2} craniospinal field were also compared. The PDDs were normalized at 5 cm to reflect typical craniospinal prescription dose normalization. Results: The measured PDD curve from the anterior setup agreed well with commissioning and treatment planning data, with surface doses of 19.9%, 28.8% and 27.7%, respectively. The surface doses of the 10×10 cm{sup 2} and 6×30 cm{sup 2} fields delivered through the imaging couch were both 122.4%. The supine setup yielded surface doses of 122.4%, 121.6%, and 119.6% for the couch only, 1.7 cm bag, and 5 cm bag setups, respectively. Conclusion: Delivering craniospinal irradiation through a carbon fiber couch removes the majority of skin sparing. The addition of a vacuum bag immobilization device restores some skin sparing, but the magnitude of this effect is negligible.

  17. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a Chinese steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Ning, Xun-an; Liao, Xikai; Lin, Meiqing; Liu, Jingyong; Wang, Jianghui

    2013-09-01

    The environmental risk of exposure to six heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd) found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a steel plant was estimated based on the mineralogical compositions, total concentrations and speciation of the metals in the fly ashes. The results indicated that the fly ashes mainly consisted of hematite, magnetite, cyanite, spinel, coesite and amorphous materials. The concentrations of Zn and Pb were much higher than that of other materials. After Zn and Pb, Ni was present in the highest concentration, followed by Cu, Cr and Cd. Each heavy metal was distributed differently in fly ashes. The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the active fraction were very high, and ranged from 64.83 to 81.96%, 34.48 to 82.4% and 6.92 to 79.65% respectively, while Cu, Cr and Ni were mainly present in the residual fraction. The risk assessment code (RAC) values of fly ashes showed that the Zn and Cd present in the H3 sample presented a very high risk, with RAC values greater than 50%. The Cu present in the H3 sample, Cd in the H2 sample and Zn in the H4 and H5 samples presented a high risk. The Pb present in the H2 sample, Cd in the H4 sample, Ni in the H1 and H5 samples, and Zn in the H1 sample presented a medium risk. A low risk was presented by the Cu present in the H1, H2, H4 and H5 samples, the Pb in the H1, H3 and H5 samples, the Cd in the H1 and H5 samples, and the Ni in the H2 sample. No risk was presented by Cr in any sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bag facaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Susanne; Sjøstedt, Lotte Ebsen

    Bag facaden er et task-baseret materiale der går bag om danskerne kulturelt og sprogligt. Det henvender sig til spor 3-learnere på de sidste trin, men kan i nogle klasser godt anvendes tidligere. Teksterne i bogen er autentiske dagbogsnotater skrevet af danskere i alle aldre. Den nærværende og...... eller hun er i sin sprogtilegnelse og i sit behov for viden om dansk kultur og samfund. Derudover forbereder det fint learneren til almenprøve 2 og DUF eksamen, både hvad angår indhold og arbejdsformer. I forløb hvor der stiles mod folkeskolens afgangseksamner er Bag facaden relevant som supplerende...

  19. Sourav Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Sourav Bag. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 128 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 339-347 Regular Articles. On the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene Oxide:Does the nature of nitrogen really control the activity towards oxygen ...

  20. Urine drainage bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leg bag ... the catheter from your bladder into the leg bag. Your leg bag will be attached to you all day. You ... freely with it. You can hide your leg bag under skirts, dresses, or pants. They come in ...

  1. Parameters of Fuzzy Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Mesiar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A revised definition for fuzzy bags is reviewed, developing the concept of bags given by Delgado et al. 2009 from which each bag has two parts, function and summary information. Then, the definitions of fuzzy bag expected value, bag entropy and bag similarity are introduced. By some examples, the new concepts are illustrated.

  2. Physicochemical and sensory changes in aged sugarcane spirit submitted to filtering with activated carbon filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane spirit is a drink considered as a national symbol of Brazil. It is produced by large producers and by about 30 thousand small and medium home-distilling producers dispersed throughout the country. The copper originating from the home-distillers can become a serious problem since at high concentrations in beverages it may cause serious human health problems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the activated carbon used in commercial filters on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of aged sugarcane spirit. Analyses of copper, dry extract, alcoholic degree, higher alcohols, volatile acids, aldehydes, esters, furfural, and methanol were performed. The sensory evaluation was performed by seven selected trained judges, who analyzed the yellow color, woody aroma and flavor, and intensity of alcoholic aroma and flavor of the cane spirit before and after the filtration process. The sensory tests were carried out using a 9 cm non-structured intensity scale. A reduction was observed in all compounds analyzed physicochemically, except for the esters, which increased after filtration. This increase is probably due to the esterification of the alcohols and acids present. According to the sensory results obtained, a reduction was observed in the intensity of the yellow color, aroma, and wood flavor characteristics, the major characteristics of the aging process.

  3. The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts: carbon nanotubes as energy landscape filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Clare L; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts are investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. Inorganic nanotubular structures, whose morphologies can be rationalized in terms of the folding, or the removal of sections from, planes of square nets are found to form. The formation mechanisms are found to follow a 'chain-by-chain' motif in which the structures build systematically from charge neutral M-X-M-Xc chains. The formation mechanisms are rationalized in terms of the ion-ion interactions (intra-chain and inter-chain terms). In addition, the mechanisms of filling are discussed in terms of a 'hopping' between basins on the underlying energy landscape. The role of the carbon nanotube as an energy landscape filter is discussed.

  4. Assessment and Comparison of New and Old Carbon Filters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the proportion of chlorine, TOC and THMs' before and after the GAC filters. It also compared the removal efficiency of two weeks and four year GAC filters and finally evaluated the effectiveness of steam regeneration of GAC. Samples were taken from before the treatment plant and influent and effluent of ...

  5. Effects of ozonation and temperature on biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxygen

  6. Effects of ozonation and temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and

  7. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  8. Investigation of compaction and permeability during the out-of-autoclave and vacuum-bag-only manufacturing of a laminate composite with aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Erin

    Both industry and commercial entities are in the process of using more lightweight composites. Fillers, such as fibers, nanofibers and other nanoconstituents in polymer matrix composites have been proven to enhance the properties of composites and are still being studied in order to optimize the benefits. Further optimization can be studied during the manufacturing process. The air permeability during the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) cure method is an important property to understand during the optimization of manufacturing processes. Changes in the manufacturing process can improve or decrease composite quality depending on the ability of the composite to evacuate gases such as air and moisture during curing. Therefore, in this study, the axial permeability of a prepreg stack was experimentally studied. Three types of samples were studied: control (no carbon nanofiber (CNF) modification), unaligned CNF modified and aligned CNF modified samples.

  9. Preparation and characterization of morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites from filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Xue Tao; Jin Zhihao; Qiao Guanjun

    2008-01-01

    Morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites with cablelike structure were prepared from filter paper template through the surface sol-gel process and carbothermal nitridation reaction. The resulting materials have a hierarchical structure originating from the morphology of cellulose paper. The aluminum nitride/carbon composites have the core-shell microstructure, the core is graphitic carbon, and the shell is aluminum nitride nanocoating formed by carbothermal nitridation reduction of alumina with the interfacial carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the structural morphology and phase compositions of the final products

  10. Assessment and Comparison of New and Old Carbon Filters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ... end of one steam regeneration cycle for EBCT of 2.41. This suggests that steam regeneration is only partially recovering THMs adsorption capacity. . Key words: Granular activated carbon (GAC), Multi-component Adsorption, Treatment Plant,. Bromoform, De-chlorination and Trihalomethanes (THMs). 1. INTRODUCTION.

  11. Estimation of Organic and Elemental Carbon using FT-IR absorbance spectra from PTFE Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Reggente, Matteo; Dillner, Ann; Takahama, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbon and elemental carbon are major components of atmospheric PM. Typically they are measured using destructive and relatively expensive methods (e.g., TOR). We aim to reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks using FT-IR spectra of ambient PTFE filters and PLS regression. We achieve accurate predictions for models (calibrated in 2011) that use samples collected at the same or different sites of the calibration data set and in a different year (2013).

  12. 3D Carbon Nanotube Networks as Mechanical, Electrical and Photovoltaic Transducer and Superhydrophobic Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    catalytic supports [10], and super capacitors [11]. In this research field, CNTs based architectures are the focus of intense research activity [2], since... super - hydrophobic filter Abstract In this project we have demonstrated that is possible to synthesize three-dimensional networks consisting of...possible to directly synthesize three dimensional carbon networks consisting of random interconnected nanostructures. The pristine CNT sponges are super

  13. Use of Blood-soaked Cellulose Filter Paper for Measuring Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Todd M; Templeton, Megan; Castellini, J Margaret; Wells, Randall; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Berner, James

    2018-04-01

      We explored the use of filter paper soaked in whole blood for measuring carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes, often used in feeding ecology or diet studies, to better understand drivers of exposure to contaminants. Our results showed no statistically or biologically relevant differences in C and N stable isotope measures between our gold standard (whole blood with anticoagulant) and eluates from processed, blood-soaked filter paper. Our data supported the effectiveness of using filter paper for assessing C and N stable isotopes in blood to address feeding ecology and other uses. The ease of sampling and processing should allow blood-soaked filter paper to be used in sampling of live (e.g., captured, stranded) and lethally taken (e.g., hunter-killed) wild vertebrates.

  14. Multi-wavelength Characterization of Brown and Black Carbon from Filter Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. M.; Yatavelli, R. L. N.; Chen, L. W. A. A.; Gyawali, M. S.; Arnott, W. P.; Wang, X.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) scatters and absorbs solar radiation and thereby affects visibility, the Earth's radiation balance, and properties and lifetimes of clouds. Understanding the radiative forcing (RF) of PM is essential to reducing the uncertainty in total anthropogenic and natural RF. Many instruments that measure light absorption coefficients (βabs [λ], Mm-1) of PM have used light at near-infrared (NIR; e.g., 880 nm) or red (e.g., 633 nm) wavelengths. Measuring βabs over a wider wavelength range, especially including the ultraviolet (UV) and visible, allows for contributions from black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and mineral dust (MD) to be differentiated. This will help to determine PM RF and its emission sources. In this study, source and ambient samples collected on Teflon-membrane and quartz-fiber filters are used to characterize and develop a multi-wavelength (250 - 1000 nm) filter-based measurement method of PM light absorption. A commercially available UV-visible spectrometer coupled with an integrating sphere is used for quantifying diffuse reflectance and transmittance of filter samples, from which βabs and absorption Ǻngström exponents (AAE) of the PM deposits are determined. The filter-based light absorption measurements of laboratory generated soot and biomass burning aerosol are compared to 3-wavelength photoacoustic absorption measurements to evaluate filter media and loading effects. Calibration factors are developed to account for differences between filter types (Teflon-membrane vs. quartz-fiber), and between filters and in situ photoacoustic absorption values. Application of multi-spectral absorption measurements to existing archived filters, including specific source samples (e.g. diesel and gasoline engines, biomass burning, dust), will also be discussed.

  15. Dynamical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results

  16. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  17. Manufacturing and shear response characterization of carbon nanofiber modified CFRP using the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only cure process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Erin E; Wallace, Landon F; Hickman, Gregory J S; Hsiao, Kuang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testing was used to study the in-plane shear performance of [± 45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC) surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  18. Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  19. Removal of virus and toxin using heatable multi-walled carbon nanotube web filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sik Jang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have used a carbon nanotube (CNT filter for pathogen removal and/or inactivation by means of electrochemical or electrochlorination. The large surface area, fine pore size and high electrical and thermal conductivity of CNTs make them suitable and distinct to use for the filtering and removal of pathogens. Here, we grew spin-capable multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs and manufactured a web filter using the spun MWCNTs. Botulinum toxin type E light chain (BoT/E-LC and vaccinia virus (VV were filtered using the MWCNT web filters and were evaporated and removed by applying direct current (DC voltage to both sides of the MWCNT webs, excluding electrochemical or electrochlorination. The filtering and removal of BoT/E-LC and VV were performed after seven layers of the MWCNT sheets were coated onto a silicon oxide porous plate. The electrical resistance of the webs in the seven layer sheet was 293 Ω. The temperature of MWCNTs webs was linearly increased to ∼300 °C at 210 V of DC voltage. This temperature was enough to remove BoT/E-LC and VV. From the SEM and XPS results, we confirmed that BoT/E-LC and VV on the MWCNT webs were almost removed by applying a DC voltage and that some element (N, Na, Cl, etc. as residues on the MWCNT webs remained.

  20. Analysis of up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter technology in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoming; Liu, Jincui; Li, Shaowen; Biney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Problems have been found in the traditional post-positioned down-flow biological activated carbon filter (DBACF), such as microorganism leakage and low biodegradability. A pilot test was carried out to place a BACF between the sediment tank and the sand filter; a new technology of dual media up-flow aerated biological activated carbon filter (UBACF) was developed. Results showed that in terms of the new process, the up-flow mode was better than the down-flow. Compared with the DBACF, the problem of microorganism leakage could be well resolved with the UBACF process by adding disinfectant before the sand filtration, and a similar adsorption effect could be obtained. For the tested raw water, the COD(Mn) and NH3-N removal rate was 54.6% and 85.0%, respectively, similar to the waterworks with the DBACF process. The UBACF greatly enhanced oxygen supply capability and mass transfer rate via aeration, and the NH3-N removal ability was significantly improved from 1.5 mg/L to more than 3 mg/L. Influent to the UBACF with higher turbidity could be coped with through the primary filtration of the ceramisite layer combined with fluid-bed technology, which gave the carbon bed a low-turbidity environment of less than 1.0 NTU. The backwashing parameters and carbon abrasion rate of the two processes were almost the same.

  1. Evaluation and Certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in Activated Carbon Ion Exchange Filters for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Cox, Trey; Larner, Katherine; Carter, Donald; Kouba, Coy

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the infiltration of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) and other organosilicon containing species through the Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds), an alternate activated carbon was found to replace the obsolete Barnabey Cheney 580-26 activated carbon. The carbon that removed the most organosilicon compounds in testing1 was a synthetic activated carbon named Schunk 4652 which later became Ambersorb 4652. Since activated carbon has a large capacity for iodine (I2), and is used in the Activated Carbon Ion Exchange (ACTEX) filters on the International Space Station (ISS), testing was performed on the Ambersorb 4652 carbon to determine the effectiveness of the material for use in ACTEX filters to remove iodine. This work summarizes the testing and the certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in the ACTEX filters for the ISS.

  2. Examining responses of ecosystem carbon exchange to environmental changes using particle filtering mathod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Attention has been paid to the agricultural field that could regulate ecosystem carbon exchange by water management and residual treatments. However, there have been less known about the dynamic responses of the ecosystem to environmental changes. In this study, focussing on paddy field, where CO2 emissions due to microbial decomposition of organic matter are suppressed and alternatively CH4 emitted under flooding condition during rice growth season and subsequently CO2 emission following the fallow season after harvest, the responses of ecosystem carbon exchange were examined. We conducted model data fusion analysis for examining the response of cropland-atmosphere carbon exchange to environmental variation. The used model consists of two sub models, paddy rice growth sub-model and soil decomposition sub-model. The crop growth sub-model mimics the rice plant growth processes including formation of reproductive organs as well as leaf expansion. The soil decomposition sub-model simulates the decomposition process of soil organic carbon. Assimilating the data on the time changes in CO2 flux measured by eddy covariance method, rice plant biomass, LAI and the final yield with the model, the parameters were calibrated using a stochastic optimization algorithm with a particle filter method. The particle filter method, which is one of the Monte Carlo filters, enable us to evaluating time changes in parameters based on the observed data until the time and to make prediction of the system. Iterative filtering and prediction with changing parameters and/or boundary condition enable us to obtain time changes in parameters governing the crop production as well as carbon exchange. In this study, we focused on the parameters related to crop production as well as soil carbon storage. As the results, the calibrated model with estimated parameters could accurately predict the NEE flux in the subsequent years. The temperature sensitivity, denoted by Q10s in the decomposition rate of

  3. Cryptosporidium Removal from Runoff by Active Carbon Filter with Coal Gangue

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Lu; Tao Yuan; Baojun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Transport of Cryptosporidium in runoff will contaminate the surrounding water body. Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and inactive Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts removal using an active carbon (AC) filter with/without coal gangue from the runoff was evaluated. Chemical composition of coal gangue was determined, and its performance as a water treatment material was tested. Results showed SiO2 was the dominant chemical component of coal gangue. Removal was only 20% for microspheres and 24% for...

  4. Development of biomass in a drinking water granular active carbon (GAC) filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Silvana; Boller, Markus; Köster, Oliver; Helbing, Jakob; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-12-01

    Indigenous bacteria are essential for the performance of drinking water biofilters, yet this biological component remains poorly characterized. In the present study we followed biofilm formation and development in a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter on pilot-scale during the first six months of operation. GAC particles were sampled from four different depths (10, 45, 80 and 115 cm) and attached biomass was measured with adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. The attached biomass accumulated rapidly on the GAC particles throughout all levels in the filter during the first 90 days of operation and maintained a steady state afterward. Vertical gradients of biomass density and growth rates were observed during start-up and also in steady state. During steady state, biomass concentrations ranged between 0.8-1.83 x 10(-6) g ATP/g GAC in the filter, and 22% of the influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed. Concomitant biomass production was about 1.8 × 10(12) cells/m(2)h, which represents a yield of 1.26 × 10(6) cells/μg. The bacteria assimilated only about 3% of the removed carbon as biomass. At one point during the operational period, a natural 5-fold increase in the influent phytoplankton concentration occurred. As a result, influent assimilable organic carbon concentrations increased and suspended bacteria in the filter effluent increased 3-fold as the direct consequence of increased growth in the biofilter. This study shows that the combination of different analytical methods allows detailed quantification of the microbiological activity in drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of creating active carbon from cigarette filter waste using microwave-induced KOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Yanuar; Umar, Lazuardi

    2017-05-01

    For the first time, cigarette filter waste, which is an environmental hazardous material, is used as basic material prepared for creating activated carbon (AC) via KOH chemical activation using a microwave input power of 630 W and irradiation time of 20 minutes. Active carbon was characterized by TGA, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and absorption of methylene blue (MB). The results of x-ray diffraction showed that active carbon has a semi-crystalline structure with peaks of 2θ of 22.87° and 43.70°. Active carbon microstructure analysis showed that the layer height (Lc ) is inversely proportional to the width of the layer (La ), and the distance between the two layers is d002 and d100 , which depends significantly on the ratio of AC: KOH. It was found that the optimum BET surface area and adsorption capacity for MB were 328.13 m2 / g and 88.76 m2 / g, respectively. The results revealed the potential to prepare activated carbon from cigarette filter waste using microwave irradiation.

  6. B P Bag

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. B P Bag. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2012 pp 1-5. Structural and optical characterization of thick and thin polycrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma activated CVD · S K Pradhan B Satpati B P Bag T Sharda.

  7. Estimating particulate black carbon concentrations using two offline light absorption methods applied to four types of filter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Pamela M.; Tremper, Anja H.; Nicolosi, Eleonora M. G.; Quincey, Paul; Fuller, Gary W.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate black carbon has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Additional black carbon measurements would aid a better understanding of population exposure in epidemiological studies as well as the success, or otherwise, of relevant abatement technologies and policies. Two light absorption measurement methods of particles collected on filters have been applied to four different types of filters to provide estimations of particulate black carbon concentrations. The ratio of transmittance (lnI0/I) to reflectance (lnR0/R) varied by filter type and ranged from close to 0.5 (as expected from simple theory) to 1.35 between the four filter types tested. The relationship between light absorption and black carbon, measured by the thermal EC(TOT) method, was nonlinear and differed between filter type and measurement method. This is particularly relevant to epidemiological studies that use light absorption as an exposure metric. An extensive archive of filters was used to derive loading factors and mass extinction coefficients for each filter type. Particulate black carbon time series were then calculated at locations where such measurements were not previously available. When applied to two roads in London, black carbon concentrations were found to have increased between 2011 and 2013, by 0.3 (CI: -0.1, 0.5) and 0.4 (CI: 0.1, 0.9) μg m-3 year-1, in contrast to the expectation from exhaust abatement policies. New opportunities using archived or bespoke filter collections for studies on the health effects of black carbon and the efficacy of abatement strategies are created.

  8. Cryptosporidium Removal from Runoff by Active Carbon Filter with Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of Cryptosporidium in runoff will contaminate the surrounding water body. Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and inactive Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts removal using an active carbon (AC filter with/without coal gangue from the runoff was evaluated. Chemical composition of coal gangue was determined, and its performance as a water treatment material was tested. Results showed SiO2 was the dominant chemical component of coal gangue. Removal was only 20% for microspheres and 24% for oocysts by AC filtration alone. The removal for both was increased to more than 98% by addition of coal gangue powder to the filter. Furthermore, gangue reuse turned commercially worthless material to a water treatment material as well helping prevent gangue from occupying agriculture/industry land.

  9. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  10. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy of biological samples on highly transparent carbon nanomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinow, Daniel; Bueenfeld, Matthias; Weber, Nils-Eike; Beyer, Andre; Goelzhaeuser, Armin; Kuehlbrandt, Werner; Hampp, Norbert; Turchanin, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Ultrathin carbon nanomembranes (CNM) comprising crosslinked biphenyl precursors have been tested as support films for energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) of biological specimens. Due to their high transparency CNM are ideal substrates for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) of stained and unstained biological samples. Virtually background-free elemental maps of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and ferritin have been obtained from samples supported by ∼1 nm thin CNM. Furthermore, we have tested conductive carbon nanomembranes (cCNM) comprising nanocrystalline graphene, obtained by thermal treatment of CNM, as supports for cryoEM of ice-embedded biological samples. We imaged ice-embedded TMV on cCNM and compared the results with images of ice-embedded TMV on conventional carbon film (CC), thus analyzing the gain in contrast for TMV on cCNM in a quantitative manner. In addition we have developed a method for the preparation of vitrified specimens, suspended over the holes of a conventional holey carbon film, while backed by ultrathin cCNM. -- Research highlights: → We examine ultrathin carbon nanomembranes (CNM) as supports for biological TEM. → CNM comprise crosslinked biphenyl precursors. → CNM supports enable background-free elemental mapping of heavy and light elements. → We perform cryoEM of ice-embedded biological samples on graphene-like conductive CNM.

  11. MODELING REFLECTANCE AND TRANSMITTANCE OF QUARTZ-FIBER FILTER SAMPLES CONTAINING ELEMENTAL CARBON PARTICLES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL/OPTICAL ANALYSIS. (R831086)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A radiative transfer scheme that considers absorption, scattering, and distribution of light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) particles collected on a quartz-fiber filter was developed to explain simultaneous filter reflectance and transmittance observations prior to and during...

  12. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  13. BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTERS (BAFs FOR CARBON AND NITROGEN REMOVAL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELSHAFIE AHMED

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological aerated filters (BAFs are an emerging wastewater treatment technology designed for a wide range of municipal and industrial applications. This review paper presents and discusses of the influence C/N ratio, nitrification and denitrification principle, effect of pH, DO and alkalinity on the nitrification and denitrification systems, organic and hydraulic loading of BAF reactor, etc. Results from upflow and downflow biofilter pilot at different condition, with nitrification and denitrification are reviewed. Under the optimal conditions, significant amount of COD, ammonia-nitrogen and total nitrogen were removed. Removal rates based on reactor volume for different carbon-aceous COD and ammonia loading rate are reported. The BAF system for the nitrification and denitrification processes for carbon and nitrogen removal from the wastewater need to be evaluated and applied properly to protect of our environment and resources.

  14. Estimation of Surface CO2 Flux Using a Carbon Tracking System Based on Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kim, H. M.; Cho, C. H.; Boo, K. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of the surface CO2 flux is crucial to understand the mechanism of surface carbon source and sink. In Asia, there are large uptake regions such as forests in boreal and temperate regions. In this study, to diagnose the surface CO2 flux in the globe and Asia, CO2 observations were assimilated in the CarbonTracker developed by NOAA. The CarbonTracker is an inverse modeling system that estimates the surface CO2 flux using an ensemble Kalman filter with atmospheric CO2 measurements as a constraint. First, the capability of CarbonTracker as an analysis tool for estimating surface CO2 flux in Asia was investigated. Different from the CarbonTracker developed by NOAA, a nesting domain centered on Asia was used with additional observations in Asia. In addition, a diagnostic tool to calculate the effect of individual CO2 observations on estimating the surface CO2 flux was developed using the analysis sensitivity to observation and information content in the CarbonTracker framework. The results showed that CarbonTracker works appropriately for estimating surface CO2 flux. The nesting domain centered in Asia produces a detailed estimate of the surface CO2 fluxes and exhibited better agreement with the CO2 observations in Asia. Additional observations provide beneficial impact on the estimated surface CO2 flux in Asia and Europe. The analysis sensitivity showed seasonal variations with greater sensitivities in summer and lower sensitivities in winter. Strong correlation exists between the information content and the optimized surface CO2 flux.

  15. Metal-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by filter-arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, K.-W.; Chen, Y.-C.; Lin, T.-N.; Wang, D.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are extensively utilized in the semiconductor, electric and cutting machine industries owing to their high hardness, high elastic modulus, low friction coefficients and high chemical stability. DLC films are prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition (BAD), sputter deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), cathodic arc evaporation (CAE), and filter arc deposition (FAD). The major drawbacks of these methods are the degraded hardness associated with the low sp 3 /sp 2 bonding ratio, the rough surface and poor adhesion caused by the presence of particles. In this study, a self-developed filter arc deposition (FAD) system was employed to prepare metal-containing DLC films with a low particle density. The relationships between the DLC film properties, such as film structure, surface morphology and mechanical behavior, with variation of substrate bias and target current, are examined. Experimental results demonstrate that FAD-DLC films have a lower ratio, suggesting that FAD-DLC films have a greater sp 3 bonding than the CAE-DLC films. FAD-DLC films also exhibit a low friction coefficient of 0.14 and half of the number of surface particles as in the CAE-DLC films. Introducing a CrN interfacial layer between the substrate and the DLC films enables the magnetic field strength of the filter to be controlled to improve the adhesion and effectively eliminate the contaminating particles. Accordingly, the FAD system improves the tribological properties of the DLC films

  16. Effect of filter vent blocking on carbon monoxide exposure from selected lower tar cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, C T; Kozlowski, L T; Parsa, P

    1999-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of blocking filter vents on carbon monoxide (CO) exposure under ad lib smoking conditions. In Study 1, 12 daily cigarette smokers smoked cigarettes from the brands Now (1 mg tar by the FTC Method) and Marlboro Lights (10 mg tar) under each of two vent-blocking conditions (unblocked and finger blocked). Blocking filter vents with fingers led to an 85% increase in CO for the brand Now, but had no added effect on CO exposure from the Marlboro Lights. In Study 2, another 12 daily cigarette smokers smoked cigarettes from each of four additional brands: Carlton (1 mg tar), Now (2 mg tar), Virginia Slims Ultra-lights (5 mg tar), and Virginia Slims Lights (8 mg tar). Blocking filter vents with the lips caused all four brands to produce equal CO exposures. Blocking vents increased smokers' exposure to CO by 239% when smoking Carltons and by 44% when smoking Nows. No significant increases in CO with blocking were found for either of the Virginia Slims brands. These results suggest that the degree to which a brand is ventilated determines whether that brand is susceptible to increased CO yields as a result of vent blocking.

  17. Radioactive Material Containment Bags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The audit was requested by Senator Joseph I. Lieberman based on allegations made by a contractor, Defense Apparel Services, about the Navy's actions on three contracts for radioactive material containment bags...

  18. A Machine-Learning and Filtering Based Data Assimilation Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Harp, D. R.; Lin, Y.; Keating, E. H.; Pawar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring is a crucial aspect of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) risk management. It has gained importance as a means to ensure CO2 is safely and permanently stored underground throughout the lifecycle of a GCS project. Three issues are often involved in a monitoring project: (i) where is the optimal location to place the monitoring well(s), (ii) what type of data (pressure, rate and/or CO2 concentration) should be measured, and (iii) What is the optimal frequency to collect the data. In order to address these important issues, a filtering-based data assimilation procedure is developed to perform the monitoring optimization. The optimal monitoring strategy is selected based on the uncertainty reduction of the objective of interest (e.g., cumulative CO2 leak) for all potential monitoring strategies. To reduce the computational cost of the filtering-based data assimilation process, two machine-learning algorithms: Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) are used to develop the computationally efficient reduced-order-models (ROMs) from full numerical simulations of CO2 and brine flow. The proposed framework for GCS monitoring optimization is demonstrated with two examples: a simple 3D synthetic case and a real field case named Rock Spring Uplift carbon storage site in Southwestern Wyoming.

  19. Influence of thermal heating on diamond-like carbon film properties prepared by filtered cathodic arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamnualthong, N.; Siangchaew, K.; Limsuwan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon (ta-DLC) films were deposited on magnetic recording heads using the filtered cathodic arc method. The deposited film thickness was on the order of several nanometers. The DLC films were then annealed to 100 °C–300 °C for 30 and 60 min, and the structure of the ta-DLC films was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, where the gross changes were observed in the Raman D and G peaks. Detailed interpretation concluded that there was sp 2 clustering as a function of temperature, and there was no sp 3 -to-sp 2 conversion after heating up to 300 °C. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that oxidation of both the ta-DLC film and the adhesion layer occurs at 300 °C. Additionally, more film wear was observed with heating as measured by a nanoindenter. - Highlights: • Tetrahedral-amorphous diamond-like carbon (ta-DLC) by filtered cathodic arc • ta-DLC used in magnetic recording head as head overcoat • ta-DLC thickness range of less than 2 nm • ta-DLC property dependence on heating • Temperature effect range of up to 300 °C

  20. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  1. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  2. Use of pliable bags in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, G.; Jacquet, M.A.; Sharif, A.; Engler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Pliable plastic bags have been used to replace glass or plastic vials for liquid scintillation counting. The two major advantages of this method are the lower cost of the plastic bags and the fact that, per sample, the radioactive waste is significantly reduced. The following parameters have been checked: the impermeability of the bags to various scintillator mixtures and the fact that neither the irregular shape of the bags nor their position in the counting chamber had any effect on the results of the counting. The latter was also constant with time, at least over a period of 10 days. The technique has been used to count the radioactivity of 3 H-DNA precipitates prepared from bacteria and lymphocytes and deposited on filters impregnated with only 200 μl scintillator. It is a method that can be applied to the counting of any samples deposited on filters and insoluble in scintillator. (author)

  3. Gravitating lepton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system

  4. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Heck

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON, five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  5. Final Technical Report [Carbon Data Assimilation with a Coupled Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    2013-08-30

    We proposed (and accomplished) the development of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach for the estimation of surface carbon fluxes as if they were parameters, augmenting the model with them. Our system is quite different from previous approaches, such as carbon flux inversions, 4D-­Var, and EnKF with approximate background error covariance (Peters et al., 2008). We showed (using observing system simulation experiments, OSSEs) that these differences lead to a more accurate estimation of the evolving surface carbon fluxes at model grid-scale resolution. The main properties of the LETKF-­C are: a) The carbon cycle LETKF is coupled with the simultaneous assimilation of the standard atmospheric variables, so that the ensemble wind transport of the CO2 provides an estimation of the carbon transport uncertainty. b) The use of an assimilation window (6hr) much shorter than the months-long windows used in other methods. This avoids the inevitable “blurring” of the signal that takes place in long windows due to turbulent mixing since the CO2 does not have time to mix before the next window. In this development we introduced new, advanced techniques that have since been adopted by the EnKF community (Kang, 2009, Kang et al., 2011, Kang et al. 2012). These advances include “variable localization” that reduces sampling errors in the estimation of the forecast error covariance, more advanced adaptive multiplicative and additive inflations, and vertical localization based on the time scale of the processes. The main result has been obtained using the LETKF-­C with all these advances, and assimilating simulated atmospheric CO2 observations from different observing systems (surface flask observations of CO2 but no surface carbon fluxes observations, total column CO2 from GoSAT/OCO-­2, and upper troposphere AIRS retrievals). After a spin-­up of about one month, the LETKF-­C succeeded in reconstructing the true evolving surface fluxes of carbon at a model grid

  6. Final report on "Carbon Data Assimilation with a Coupled Ensemble Kalman Filter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Kang, Ji-Sun; Fung, Inez

    2014-07-23

    We proposed (and accomplished) the development of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach for the estimation of surface carbon fluxes as if they were parameters, augmenting the model with them. Our system is quite different from previous approaches, such as carbon flux inversions, 4D-Var, and EnKF with approximate background error covariance (Peters et al., 2008). We showed (using observing system simulation experiments, OSSEs) that these differences lead to a more accurate estimation of the evolving surface carbon fluxes at model grid-scale resolution. The main properties of the LETKF-C are: a) The carbon cycle LETKF is coupled with the simultaneous assimilation of the standard atmospheric variables, so that the ensemble wind transport of the CO2 provides an estimation of the carbon transport uncertainty. b) The use of an assimilation window (6hr) much shorter than the months-long windows used in other methods. This avoids the inevitable “blurring” of the signal that takes place in long windows due to turbulent mixing since the CO2 does not have time to mix before the next window. In this development we introduced new, advanced techniques that have since been adopted by the EnKF community (Kang, 2009, Kang et al., 2011, Kang et al. 2012). These advances include “variable localization” that reduces sampling errors in the estimation of the forecast error covariance, more advanced adaptive multiplicative and additive inflations, and vertical localization based on the time scale of the processes. The main result has been obtained using the LETKF-C with all these advances, and assimilating simulated atmospheric CO2 observations from different observing systems (surface flask observations of CO2 but no surface carbon fluxes observations, total column CO2 from GoSAT/OCO-2, and upper troposphere AIRS retrievals). After a spin-up of about one month, the LETKF-C succeeded in reconstructing the true evolving surface fluxes of carbon at a model grid resolution. When

  7. The quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Kuti, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quark bag model is reviewed here with particular emphasis on spectroscopic applications and the discussion of exotic objects as baryonium, gluonium, and the quark phase of matter. The physical vacuum is pictured in the model as a two-phase medium. In normal phase of the vacuum, outside hadrons, the propagation of quark and gluon fields is forbidden. When small bubbles in a second phase are created in the medium of the normal phase with a characteristic size of one fermi, the hadron constituent fields may propagate inside the bubbles in normal manner. The bubble (bag) is stabilized against the pressure of the confined hadron constituent fields by vacuum pressure and surface tension. Inside the bag the colored quarks and gluons are governed by the equations of quantum chromodynamics. (Auth.)

  8. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  9. Polaromonas and Hydrogenophaga species are the predominant bacteria cultured from granular activated carbon filters in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Identification of the predominating cultivable bacteria in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in a variety of water treatment plants for selecting representative strains to study the role of bacteria in the removal of dissolved organic matter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates

  10. The cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in the bag model, in which the constraints of chiral symmetry are explicitly included are reviewed. The model leads to a new understanding of the Δ-resonance. The connection of the theory with current algebra is clarified and implications of the model for the structure of the nucleon are discussed

  11. Book Bag Buddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  12. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  13. A bag with soft surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il-Tong Cheon.

    1991-02-01

    The MIT bag has a sharply edged surface. It seems to be unnatural. Taking vector mesons into account, we discuss effects of a smooth surface of the bag constructed by superposition of the MIT bags with various radii on the baryon magnetic moments. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Performance of PICS bags under extreme conditions in the sahel zone of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoua, Ibrahim B; Bakoye, Ousmane; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-03-01

    Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4.5 months of storage compared to the initial values. By contrast, woven bags stored inside or outside side by side with PICS bags showed several-fold increases in insects present in or on the grain and significant losses in grain weight. Grain stored inside in PICS bags showed no reduction in germination versus the initial value but there was a small but significant drop in germination of grain in PICS bags held outside (7.6%). Germination rates dropped substantially more in grain stored in woven bags inside (16.1%) and still more in woven bags stored outside (60%). PICS bags held inside and outside retained their ability to maintain internal reduced levels of oxygen and elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions degraded the external polypropylene outer layer of the PICS triple-layer bag. Even so, the internal layers of polyethylene were more slowly degraded. The effects of exposure to sunlight, temperature and humidity variation within the sealed bags are described.

  15. Organic carbon recovery modeling for a rotating belt filter and its impact assessment on a plant-wide scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behera, Chitta Ranjan; Santoro, Domenico; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we perform a systematic plant-wide assessment of the organic carbon recovery concept on wastewater treatment plants by an advanced cellulose recovery enabling technology called rotating belt filter (RBF). To this end, first, an empirical model is developed to describe organic carbon...... not increase the greenhouse gas (N2ON2O) emission. Further sensitivity analysis indicates that the impact of the organic carbon recovery concept depends on the wastewater characteristics, especially the cellulose content and its biodegradability. Overall, the organic carbon recovery technology can be used...... to provide plant specific improvements achieved by maximizing organic carbon recovery in the form of methane gas or enhancing nitrogen removal depending on the treatment plant operation objectives and priorities....

  16. Cathodoluminescence of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Meng-Wen; Jao, Jui-Yun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Jen; Yang, Yu-Hsiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Li-Shin; Shieu, F.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Shih, Han C., E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, 55 Hwa Kang Road, Yang Ming Shan, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of the DLC:Cr films dependent on the flow rates of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/Ar have been achieved in our FCVA plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amorphous DLC:Cr have high sp{sup 2} content can be completely converted to nanocrystalline Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of doping with Cr is apparently to change the band structure of the DLC and its consequent cathodoluminescence property. - Abstract: Cr doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Cr) film was synthesized in various flow rates of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/Ar under a substrate voltage of -50 V at 500 Degree-Sign C by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma. This work has found that the structure of the films was correlated to the flow rate of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/Ar but the luminescence properties are similar. The cathodoluminescence spectra of DLC:Cr films obtained at 1.9-2.4 eV verifies that the luminescence from the films is in the visible region. The incorporation of Cr into the carbon network results in red emission shifted to 1.99 eV and the orange emission (2.03 eV) also appeared due to the transitions between chromium-related electron levels and {sigma}* states. The peak at 2.10 eV may result from the defects of the structures in DLC:Cr films.

  17. Monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    From chapter III to chapter V properties of U(1) monopole are discussed by calculating radiative capture of an electron by a monopole, the scattering cross section of an electron by a dyon, and the bound state properties of the electron-dyon system. The Lipkin-Weisberger-Peshkin difficulty is overcome by an introduction of a small magnetic moment of the electron. In chapter VI, the linear deformation of the Prasad-Sommerfield solution of the t'Hooft Polyakov monopole is discussed, where we found all the deformed solutions analytically. In chapter VII and VIII, the question of a deformed bag and properties of an excited bag are discussed. The excited D-state is mixed with S-state to give the correct value of g/sub A/. Initially, in chapter II, energy ratios for trimuons produced through a heavy-lepton cascade decay are calculated

  18. The multilayered structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Na

    2013-08-01

    The structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results of the plasmon excitation energy shift and through-thickness elemental concentration show a multilayered a-C film structure comprising an interface layer consisting of C, Si, and, possibly, SiC, a buffer layer with continuously increasing sp 3 fraction, a relatively thicker layer (bulk film) of constant sp 3 content, and an ultrathin surface layer rich in sp 2 hybridization. A detailed study of the C K-edge spectrum indicates that the buffer layer between the interface layer and the bulk film is due to the partial backscattering of C+ ions interacting with the heavy atoms of the silicon substrate. The results of this study provide insight into the minimum thickness of a-C films deposited by FCVA under optimum substrate bias conditions. Copyright © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  19. The effect of optimization and the nesting domain on carbon flux analyses in Asia using a carbon tracking system based on the ensemble Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Kim, Hyun Mee; Cho, Chun-Ho

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the surface carbon flux in Asia and investigate the effect of the nesting domain on carbon flux analyses in Asia, two experiments with different nesting domains were conducted using the CarbonTracker developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. CarbonTracker is an inverse modeling system that uses an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate surface carbon fluxes from surface CO2 observations. One experiment was conducted with a nesting domain centered in Asia and the other with a nesting domain centered in North America. Both experiments analyzed the surface carbon fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2006. The results showed that prior surface carbon fluxes were underestimated in Asia compared with the optimized fluxes. The optimized biosphere fluxes of the two experiments exhibited roughly similar spatial patterns but different magnitudes. Weekly cumulative optimized fluxes showed more diverse patterns than the prior fluxes, indicating that more detailed flux analyses were conducted during the optimization. The nesting domain in Asia produced a detailed estimate of the surface carbon fluxes in Asia and exhibited better agreement with the CO2 observations. Finally, the simulated background atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the experiment with the nesting domain in Asia were more consistent with the observed CO2 concentrations than those in the experiment with the nesting domain in North America. The results of this study suggest that surface carbon fluxes in Asia can be estimated more accurately using an EnKF when the nesting domain is centered in Asian regions.

  20. Retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological activated carbon filters for drinking water and the impact on ammonia reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Shuili; Park, Heedeung; Liu, Guicai; Yuan, Qingbin

    2016-06-01

    Given the increasing discoveries related to the eco-toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in different ecosystems and with respect to public health, it is important to understand their potential effects in drinking water treatment (DWT). The effects of TiO2 NPs on ammonia reduction, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water were investigated in static and dynamic states. In the static state, both the nitrification potential and AOB were significantly inhibited by 100 μg L(-1) TiO2 NPs after 12 h (p  0.05). In the dynamic state, different amounts of TiO2 NP pulses were injected into three pilot-scale BAC filters. The decay of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters was very slow. Both titanium quantification and scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed the retention of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters after 134 days of operation. Furthermore, the TiO2 NP pulses considerably reduced the performance of ammonia reduction. This study identified the retention of TiO2 NPs in BAC filters and the negative effect on the ammonia reduction, suggesting a potential threat to DWT by TiO2 NPs.

  1. Use of an external organic carbon source in the removal of nitrates in bio-sand filters (BSFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mutsvangwa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bio-sand filters (BSFs are point-of-use (POU potable water filtration systems commonly used in low-income communities at household level. The principle of operation is similar to that of a slow sand filter and the major difference is that they are operated intermittently at the POU. It is one of the emerging low-cost technologies which makes use of readily and locally available construction materials but is poor in the removal of nitrates. In order to enhance the removal of nitrates through denitrification, a modified BSF with ethanol as an external carbon source at C  /  N ratios of 1.1 and 1.8 was investigated. In the absence of an external carbon source, the nitrate removal efficiency was 32 %, whilst removal efficiencies at C   /   N ratios of 1.1 and 1.8 were 44 and 53 % respectively. The inflow rate reduced significantly from an initial flow rate of 0.04 to 0.01 m3 h−1. The reduction in the inflow rate was mainly due to the growth of the biological layer on the filter media. The study showed that the use of an external carbon source like ethanol in bio-sand filtration enhances the removal of nitrates in potable water.

  2. Bag model with diffuse surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The constraint of a sharp bag boundary in the bag model is relaxed in the present work. This has been achieved by replacing the square-well potential of the bag model by a smooth scalar potential and introducing a term similar to the bag pressure term. The constraint of the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is used to obtain an expression for the added bag pressure term. The model is then used to determine the static properties of the nucleon. The calculation shows that the rms charge radius and the nucleon magnetic moment are larger than the corresponding bag model values. Also, the axial vector coupling constant and the πNN coupling constant are in better agreement with the experimental values

  3. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.; Goldflam, R.

    1983-09-01

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  4. The Enhanced Speed Bag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    July–August 2015 Army Sustainment46 The enhanced speed bag sys-tem (ESBS) is a cutting-edge piece of equipment. Its pur- pose is to facilitate...reasonable speed (20 knots). The ESBS enables Sol- diers to conduct quick and accurate resupply operations while avoiding enemy small-arms fire and...Afghanistan, from December 2014 to January 2015. ESBS Specifications The ESBS is composed of the The Enhanced Speed Bag System The enhanced speed bag

  5. Structural, nanomechanical and variable range hopping conduction behavior of nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by the ambient environment assisted filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Rawal, Ishpal; Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Opto-Electronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films are grown by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc process. • Effect of gaseous environment on the properties of carbon films has been studied. • The structural and nanomechanical properties of carbon thin films have been studied. • The VRH conduction behavior in nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been studied. - Abstract: This paper reports the deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline carbon thin films by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique assisted with three different gaseous environments of helium, nitrogen and hydrogen. All the films are nanocrystalline in nature as observed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) measurements, which suggests that the nanocrystallites of size ∼10–50 nm are embedded though out the amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that the film deposited under the nitrogen gaseous environment has the highest sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio accompanied with the highest hardness of ∼18.34 GPa observed from the nanoindentation technique. The film deposited under the helium gaseous environment has the highest ratio of the area under the Raman D peak to G peak (A{sub D}/A{sub G}) and the highest conductivity (∼2.23 S/cm) at room temperature, whereas, the film deposited under the hydrogen environment has the lowest conductivity value (2.27 × 10{sup −7} S/cm). The temperature dependent dc conduction behavior of all the nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been analyzed in the light of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism and observed that all the films obey three dimension VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport.

  6. Effects of pyrolysis conditions on the porous structure construction of mesoporous charred carbon from used cigarette filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi Soltani, Salman; Yazdi, Sara Kazemi; Hosseini, Soraya

    2014-06-01

    One-step pyrolysis was applied to synthesize mesoporous charred carbon from used cigarette filters. Proximate analysis suggested that cigarette filters are decent carbon precursors due to their moderate carbon (around 11 %) and low ash (around 0.1 %) contents. To investigate the effects of pyrolysis parameters on porous surface area, a full factorial design of experiment including heating rate, soaking time and pyrolysis temperature was used with each factor at three levels. The analysis of variance revealed that the temperature and heating rate had the most significant effects on total surface area of the synthesized carbon. Response surface model (RSM) was applied to best fit a surface through the experimental data. It was seen that the quadratic RSM model with a reasonable R 2 value of 63 % was the best developed model. The maximum BET surface area (597 m2/g) was reached at a pyrolysis temperature of 900 °C when the precursor was heated at 5 °C/min and hold at this temperature for 3 h. The produced N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm showed a certain degree of mesoporosity in the charred carbon with an average pore size of 3.32 nm calculated by Barrett-Joyner-Halenda method. Scanning electron microscopy also showed the presence of macroporosity on the charred carbon surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of acidic surface functional groups such as carboxyl and phenol which were accordingly confirmed by Boehm titration. In addition, Boehm titration showed that the produced carbon's surface was more acidic than basic in nature.

  7. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Uchida, S.

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  8. Tap water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Moen PureTouch filters remove impurities from tap water without removing fluoride. These carbon block filters consist of finely powdered activated carbon that is combined with a plastic binder material and heated to form a hollow cylinder. The blocks are further wrapped with material to improve performance and reduce clogging. The filters are available with different filtering capabilities (Table 1). The filters mount in the faucet spout or under the sink.

  9. Bag pigtråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    2015-01-01

    BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider......BogFeature om Inger Bjørn Knudsen: Bag Pigtråd - Rom flygtningelejr 1945-1948. Udg. af Lemvig Museum, 2014. 80 sider...

  10. Fun and Functional Shopping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Barbara Downing

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with her school's interest in becoming more "green," this author designed an art project using inexpensive, sturdy, reusable grocery bags. In this article, she describes the different design concepts and art media used by each grade in decorating these bags. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  11. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  12. Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of mainstream whole smoke and smoke condensate from a cigarette containing a novel carbon filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombick, D W; Bombick, B R; Ayres, P H; Putnam, K; Avalos, J; Borgerding, M F; Doolittle, D J

    1997-09-01

    A novel carbon filter has been developed which primarily reduces the amount of certain vapor phase constituents of tobacco smoke with greater efficiency than the charcoal filters of cigarettes currently in the market. In vitro indicators of genotoxic and cytotoxic potential were used to compare the cigarette smoke condensate (particulate phase) or whole cigarette smoke (vapor phase and particulate phase) from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter with smoke condensate or whole smoke from commercial or prototype cigarettes not containing the novel carbon filter. Ames bacterial mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and neutral red cytotoxicity assays in CHO cells were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the cigarette smoke condensates. SCE and neutral red cytotoxicity assays were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the whole smoke. As expected, the novel carbon filter did not significantly affect the genotoxic or cytotoxic activity of the smoke condensate, although we did observe that the use of low-nitrogen tobacco reduced the mutagenicity of the condensate in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. However, the whole smoke from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter demonstrated significant reductions in genotoxic and cytotoxic potential compared to cigarettes without the novel carbon filter. The toxicity of the smoke was correlated (r = 0.7662 for cytotoxicity and r = 0.7562 for SCE induction) to the aggregate mass of several vapor phase components (acetone, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, ammonia, NOx, HCN, benzene, isoprene, and formaldehyde) in the smoke of the cigarettes utilized in this study. In conclusion, this novel carbon filter, which significantly reduced the amount of carbonyls and other volatiles in mainstream cigarette smoke, resulted in significant reductions in the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the smoke as measured

  13. Bagging constrained equity premium predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r......The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... return problem. In an empirical application using the data set of Campbell and Thompson (2008), we show that we can improve the forecast performance further by smoothing the restriction through bagging....

  14. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  15. A high efficient nanostructured filter based on functionalized carbon nanotube to reduce the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefian, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Filtration efficiency of Pd and Ni loaded single-walled carbon nanotubes via the applicability of the adsorption process for the removal NNK, the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, from tobacco smoke were investigated using first-principles calculations. The thermal and mechanical stability of designed nanostructured filter could allow them to compete with typical commercially used. It is expected that the removal efficiency of the proposed nanostructured filter could also provide a promising adsorbent candidate in removing the environmental pollutant. The suggested separation mechanism in this study was discussed with frontier molecular orbital theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses and the density of states in the density functional theory framework. Finally, by the Bader theory of atoms in molecules (AIM), the topological properties of the electron density contributions for intermolecular and intramolecular interactions has been analyzed. Calculations show that the transition metal-loaded SWCNT exhibit strong affinity toward the NNK molecules.

  16. The electrocatalytic oxidation of carbohydrates at a nickel/carbon paper electrode fabricated by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yingyi; Wang, Tong; Su, Wen; Yu, Yanan; Hu, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    The direct electrochemical behaviour of carbohydrates at a nickel/carbon paper electrode with a novel fabrication method is investigated. The investigation is used for verification the feasibility of using monosaccharides and disaccharides in the application of fuel cell. The selected monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose; the disaccharides are sucrose, maltose and lactose. The modified nickel/carbon paper electrode was prepared using a filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique. The morphology image of the nickel thin film on the carbon paper surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The existence of nickel was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle measurement was also used to characterize the modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was employed to evaluate the electrochemical behaviour of monosaccharides and disaccharides in an alkaline aqueous solution. The modified electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activities towards carbohydrates. In addition, the stability of the nickel/carbon paper electrode with six sugars was also investigated. The good catalytic effects of the nickel/carbon paper electrode allow for the use of carbohydrates as fuels in fuel cell applications

  17. Characterization of water commercial filters based on activated carbon for water treatment of the Tumbes river – Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Silupú García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Comercial activated carbon samples (A, B, C, and D used in filters for the treatment of water were characterized and evaluated in the decontamination of heavy metals present in river water and in the elimination of coliform microorganisms. The carbon samples had microporous and mesoporous structures. Surface areas of between 705 and 906 m2/g were found. The carbons samples were amorphous and the presence of antibacterial agents such as Ag, Cl, Cu, and Si was detected. It was determined that for As and Pb, whose initial concentrations in contaminated water (water of the Tumbes river-Peru were 56.7 and 224.0 μg/L, respectively, the percentage of adsorption was close to 100%. The relationship between point of zero charge pH of the activated carbons and pH of the river water during the experiments plays a determinant role in the adsorption of the analyzed elements. The antibacterial capacity was evaluated satisfactorily against the following strains of fecal gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922™, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC® 14028™, and Shigella flexneri (ATCC® 12022™. This ability is based on the surface presence in the carbons of the mentioned antibacterial agents.

  18. Impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bacterial communities of biological activated carbon filter intended for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyuan, Liu; Shuili, Yu; Heedeung, Park; Qingbin, Yuan; Guicai, Liu; Qi, Li

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are inevitably present in the aquatic environment owing to their increasing production and use. However, knowledge of the potential effects of TiO2 NPs on the treatment of drinking water is scarce. Herein, the effects of two types of anatase TiO2 NPs (TP1, 25 nm; TP2, 100 nm) on the bacterial community in a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter were investigated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis, ATP quantification, and 454 pyrosequencing analysis. Both TP1 and TP2 significantly inhibited the bacterial ATP level (p treatment, whereas those of Bacilli class and Gammaproteobacteria class increased. TiO2 NP size showed a greater effect on the bacterial composition than did the dose based on Bray-Curtis distances. These findings identified negative effects of TiO2 NPs on the bacterial community in the BAC filter. Given the fact that BAC filters are used widely in drinking water treatment plants, these results suggested a potential threat by TiO2 NP to drinking water treatment system.

  19. Application of a Fused Carbon Nanomaterial Filter for Lunar Dust Abatement, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, will apply its patented carbon nanotube filtration technology for air and nanoscale particulate engine exhaust filtration to NASA's Lunar...

  20. Application of a Fused Carbon Nanomaterial Filter for Lunar Dust Abatement, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Technologies will further test and develop its patented carbon nanotube filtration technology to NASA's Lunar Exploration challenges. This project focuses on...

  1. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  2. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  3. 21 CFR 878.4100 - Organ bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organ bag. 878.4100 Section 878.4100 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4100 Organ bag. (a) Identification. An organ bag is a device that is a flexible plastic bag intended to be used as a temporary receptacle for an...

  4. Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.

    1983-08-01

    This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models

  5. 7 CFR 201.41 - Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bags. 201.41 Section 201.41 Agriculture Regulations of... Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.41 Bags. (a) For lots of six bags or less, each bag shall be sampled. A total of at least five trierfuls shall be taken. (b) For lots of more than six bags...

  6. Quark structure of nucleons: the third bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1983-01-01

    The soliton bag model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is discussed. Unlike the other bag models, it treats the confining bag as a fully dynamical object. A scalar soliton field is introduced to effect confinement. The combined quark-soliton system (plus gluons, Higgs fields, counter terms) is described by a Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The standard bag models do not have a complete Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. The resulting bag can undergo oscillations, rotations and dynamical distortions

  7. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. SU-F-J-28: Development of a New Imaging Filter to Remove the Shadows From the Carbon Fiber Grid Table Top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehana, W [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Yokohama National University, Yokohama, kanagawa (Japan); Nagao, T [Yokohama National University, Yokohama, kanagawa (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For the image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), the shadows caused by the construction of the treatment couch top adversely affect the visual evaluation. Therefore, we developed the new imaging filter in order to remove the shadows. The performance of the new filter was evaluated using the clinical images. Methods: The new filter was composed of the band-pass filter (BPF) weighted by the k factor and the low-pass filter (LPF). In the frequency region, the stop bandwidth were 8.3×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on u direction and 11.1×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on v direction for the BPF, and the pass bandwidth were 8.3×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on u direction and 11.1×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on v direction for the LPF. After adding the filter, the shadows from the carbon fiber grid table top (CFGTT, Varian) on the kV-image was removed. To check the filter effect, we compared the clinical images, which are thorax and thoracoabdominal region, with to without the filter. The subjective evaluation tests was performed by adapting a three-point scale (agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree) about the 15 persons in the department of radiation oncology. Results: We succeeded in removing all shadows of CFGTT using the new filter. This filter is very useful shown by the results of the subjective evaluation having the 23/30 persons agreed to the filtered clinical images. Conclusion: We concluded that the proposed method was useful tool for the IGRT and the new filter leads to improvement of the accuracy of radiation therapy.

  9. Improved method for the determination of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon in natural water by silver filter filtration, wet chemical oxidation, and infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Brenton, Ronald W.; Kammer, James A.; Jha, Virenda K.; O'Mara-Lopez, Peggy G.; Woodworth, Mark T.

    1999-01-01

    Precision and accuracy are reported for the first time for the analysis of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon by silver membrane filtration followed by wet chemical oxidation. A water sample is pressure filtered through a 0.45‐μm‐pore‐size, 47‐mm‐diameter silver membrane filter. The silver membrane filter then is cut into ribbons and placed in a flame‐sealable glass ampule. The organic material trapped on the membrane filter strips is acidified, purged with oxygen to remove inorganic carbonates and volatile organic compounds, and oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) using phosphoric acid and potassium persulfate in the sealed glass ampule. The resulting CO2 is measured by a nondispersive infrared CO2 detector. The amount of CO2 is proportional to the concentration of chemically oxidizable nonpurgeable organic carbon in the environmental water sample. The quantitation and method detection limit for routine analysis is 0.2 mg/L. The average percent recovery in five representative matrices was 97 ± 11%. The errors associated with sampling and sample preparation of nonpurgeable suspended organic carbon are also described.

  10. Quark bag coupling to finite size pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kam, J.; Pirner, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A standard approximation in theories of quark bags coupled to a pion field is to treat the pion as an elementary field ignoring its substructure and finite size. A difficulty associated with these treatments in the lack of stability of the quark bag due to the rapid increase of the pion pressure on the bad as the bag size diminishes. We investigate the effects of the finite size of the qanti q pion on the pion quark bag coupling by means of a simple nonlocal pion quark interaction. With this amendment the pion pressure on the bag vanishes if the bag size goes to zero. No stability problems are encountered in this description. Furthermore, for extended pions, no longer a maximum is set to the bag parameter B. Therefore 'little bag' solutions may be found provided that B is large enough. We also discuss the possibility of a second minimum in the bag energy function. (orig.)

  11. Transpiration of helium and carbon monoxide through a multihundred watt, PICS filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The transpiration of CO through the Multihundred Watt (MHW) filter can be described by Fick's first law or as a first order, reversible reaction. From Fick's first law, a ''diffusion'' coefficient of 7.8 x 10 -4 cm.L/sec (L is the average path length through the filter) was determined. For the first order reversible reaction, a rate constant of 0.0058 hr -1 was obtained for both the forward and reverse reactions (they were assumed to be equal). This corresponds to a half-life of 120 hr. It was also concluded that the rate constants and thus the transpiration rates, which were determined for the test, are smaller than those expected in the IHS. The effect of increasing the number of filters, changing the volumes, and increasing the temperature, changes the rate constant of the transpiration into the PICS to roughly 0.074 hr -1 (t/sub 1 / 2 / = 9.4 hr) and out of the PICS to 0.84 hr -1 (t/sub 1/2/ = 0.8 hr). Of the two suggested mechanisms for the generation of CO inside the IHS, the cyclic process requires a much larger rate of transpiration than the process requiring oxygen exchange of CO given off by the graphite. The data indicate that the cyclic process can provide the CO generation rates observed in the IHS gas taps if there is no delay in time for any other kinetic process involved in the formation of CO or CO 2 . Since the cyclic process (which requires the fastest rate of transpiration) appears possible, this study does not indicate which reaction is occurring but concludes both are possible

  12. The Multifunctional Protein BAG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie D. Myers, MS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The B-cell lymphoma 2–associated anthanogene (BAG3 protein is expressed most prominently in the heart, the skeletal muscle, and in many forms of cancer. In the heart, it serves as a co-chaperone with heat shock proteins in facilitating autophagy; binds to B-cell lymphoma 2, resulting in inhibition of apoptosis; attaches actin to the Z disk, providing structural support for the sarcomere; and links the α-adrenergic receptor with the L-type Ca2+ channel. When BAG3 is overexpressed in cancer cells, it facilitates prosurvival pathways that lead to insensitivity to chemotherapy, metastasis, cell migration, and invasiveness. In contrast, in the heart, mutations in BAG3 have been associated with a variety of phenotypes, including both hypertrophic/restrictive and dilated cardiomyopathy. In murine skeletal muscle and vasculature, a mutation in BAG3 leads to critical limb ischemia after femoral artery ligation. An understanding of the biology of BAG3 is relevant because it may provide a therapeutic target in patients with both cardiac and skeletal muscle disease.

  13. Efficient organometallic spin filter between single-wall carbon nanotube or graphene electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koleini, Mohammad; Paulsson, Magnus; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of spin transport in a class of molecular systems consisting of an organometallic benzene-vanadium cluster placed in between graphene or single-wall carbon-nanotube-model contacts. Ab initio modeling is performed by combining spin density functional theory and noneq......We present a theoretical study of spin transport in a class of molecular systems consisting of an organometallic benzene-vanadium cluster placed in between graphene or single-wall carbon-nanotube-model contacts. Ab initio modeling is performed by combining spin density functional theory...

  14. Estimating marine biogeochemical rates of the carbonate pH system—A Kalman filter tested

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Grégoire, M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) or pCO2, and pH or total alkalinity (TA), are useful indices of marine chemical, physical and biological processes operating on varying time-scales. Although these properties are increasingly being monitored at high frequency, they have

  15. Extraction and detection of pesticide residues from air filter inserts using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemanian, T.S.; Robins, W.H.; Lee, R.N.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-10-01

    Trace quantities of airborne herbicide residues were collected on adsorbent bed cartridges and were subsequently extracted from the adsorbent using supercritical carbon dioxide. An apparatus was constructed to facilitate the extraction and recovery of the desired analytes. The resulting extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Results are presented for a series of analytes representative of common commercial pesticides or herbicides.

  16. Fabrication of nitrogen-containing diamond-like carbon film by filtered arc deposition as conductive hard-coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Imai, Takahiro; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yushi; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Habuchi, Hitoe; Kiyohara, Shuji; Ito, Mikio; Yick, Sam; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Phil

    2018-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, which are amorphous carbon films, have been used as hard-coating films for protecting the surface of mechanical parts. Nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) films are expected as conductive hard-coating materials. N-DLC films are expected in applications such as protective films for contact pins, which are used in the electrical check process of integrated circuit chips. In this study, N-DLC films are prepared using the T-shaped filtered arc deposition (T-FAD) method, and film properties are investigated. Film hardness and film density decreased when the N content increased in the films because the number of graphite structures in the DLC film increased as the N content increased. These trends are similar to the results of a previous study. The electrical resistivity of N-DLC films changed from 0.26 to 8.8 Ω cm with a change in the nanoindentation hardness from 17 to 27 GPa. The N-DLC films fabricated by the T-FAD method showed high mechanical hardness and low electrical resistivity.

  17. Bag-like contaminant control work module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.; Jacobson, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A bag-like contaminant control work module is formed from a flexible impervious membrane which is inflated inside of an enclosed workspace to protect workers in the module from contaminants. The workspace, such as in a nuclear power steam generator, has a portal or manway opening into the workspace into which the module is secured by a module passageway. The module includes one or more glove boxes, in which the workers perform their assigned tasks after passing through the passageway and portal. The module includes one or more absolute filters allowing passage of air flow through the module passageway and into the workspace only through the filters. The module may include an auxiliary passageway secured to the outside of the module passageway and also secured in the portal opening and through which items can be passed back and forth to the worker in the glove box from outside the portal. The module is invertible so that it can be pulled out of the workspace trapping all the contaminants therein and disposed of without handling the contaminants

  18. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  19. ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS SACKING THE ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Gogte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is oriented on analysis impacts of plastic bags on environment. In this paper is analyzed did plastic bags are so harmful, and what are the main ingredients of it. One part of this paper is oriented on effects of plastic bags and management of their usage. There is also made comparative analysis between impacts of plastic and paper bags on environment.

  20. 21 CFR 880.6050 - Ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice bag. 880.6050 Section 880.6050 Food and Drugs....6050 Ice bag. (a) Identification. An ice bag is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the... the body. The device may include a holder that keeps the bag in place against an external area of the...

  1. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  2. Quantization of bag-like solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breit, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The method of collective coordinates is used to quantize bag-like solitons formed by scalar and spinor fields. This method leads to approximate wave functions for quarks in the bag that are orthogonal to the translational modes. Solutions are given for the MIT bag limit of the fields. (orig.)

  3. Massless quark wavefunction in the deformed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.P.; Park, B.Y.; Koh, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    The quark wavefunctions inside the deformed bag are obtained using a modified linear boundary condition stemming from the MIT bag Lagrangian with an additional term. We propose an exact method to obtain the quark wavefunction even for a spheroidally deformed bag. (Author)

  4. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode.

  5. Deformable bag model of hadrons, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich

    1983-05-01

    As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable.

  6. A deformable bag model of hadrons, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ui, Haruo; Saito, Koich

    1983-01-01

    As a generalization of the MIT spherical bag model, we construct the spheroidal bag model of hadron with an arbitrary eccentricity. This generalization is made by slightly modifying the MIT linear boundary condition: The linear boundary condition is examined in detail. Our model always satisfies two necessary requirements of the MIT bag model - i.e., n.j = 0, no quark colour flux leaves the bag, and q-barq = 0, the scalar density of quark should vanish on the bag surface- and it reduces to the MIT spherical bag model in the limit of zero-eccentricity. Lagrangian formalism of our model is briefly described. The eigenfrequencies of a single massless quark confined in this spheroidal bag are numerically calculated. We obtain the level-splitting of the excited quark orbits, which is just analogous to the well-known Nilsson's splitting of single particle orbits in deformed nuclei. By using the numerical results of the lowest orbit, the effect of the bag-deformation on the mass of low-lying hadrons is estimated. It is found that, although the spherical bag is stable, the quark bag is extremely soft against the quadrupole deformation. Brief discussions are added on the mechanisms which make the spherical bag more stable. (author)

  7. Sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates in landfill leachate using sand, activated carbon and peat filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Moona, Nashita; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Björklund, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Landfill leachates are repeatedly found contaminated with organic pollutants, such as alkylphenols (APs), phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at levels exceeding water quality standards. It has been shown that these pollutants may be present in the colloidal and truly dissolved phase in contaminated water, making particle separation an inefficient removal method. The aim of this study was to investigate sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), selected APs, bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates and PAHs from landfill leachate using sand, granulated activated carbon (GAC) and peat moss filters. A pilot plant was installed at an inactive landfill with mixed industrial and household waste and samples were collected before and after each filter during two years. Leachate pre-treated in oil separator and sedimentation pond failed to meet water quality standards in most samples and little improvement was seen after the sand filter. These techniques are based on particle removal, whereas the analysed pollutants are found, to varying degrees, bound to colloids or dissolved. However, even highly hydrophobic compounds expected to be particle-bound, such as the PHCs and high-molecular weight PAHs, were poorly removed in the sand filter. The APs and BPA were completely removed by the GAC filter, while mass balance calculations indicate that 50-80% of the investigated phenols were removed in the peat filter. Results suggest possible AP degradation in peat filters. No evidence of phthalate degradation in the landfill, pond or the filters was found. The PHCs were completely removed in 50% and 35% of the measured occasions in the GAC and peat filters, respectively. The opposite trend was seen for removal of PAHs in GAC (50%) and peat (63%). Oxygenated PAHs with high toxicity were found in the leachates but not in the pond sediment. These compounds are likely formed in the pond water, which is alarming because sedimentation ponds are commonly used

  8. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Cierniak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG. The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD. It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE, assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  9. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Mateusz; Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Bastian, Niels-Uwe

    2018-02-01

    A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG). The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag) improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  10. Removal of bisphenol A by electrochemical carbon-nanotube filter: Influential factors and degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Ahmed Refaat; Rahaman, Md Saifur

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical with hazardous health effects that is largely used in the manufacture of extensively used products including adhesives, plastics, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings, and epoxy resin, and is reported to exist in nature in an accumulative manner. In this study, both pristine and boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were employed as filtration and electrochemical filtration materials, resulting in a significant removal of bisphenol A with identical performance for both MWNTs types. It was shown that the presence of salt is not critical for the greatest contaminant removal efficiency, likely due to the vital role of other electroactive species (e.g. reactive oxygen species). Near complete removal of 1 mg L -1 bisphenol A at 2 and 3 V of applied DC potentials was achieved, indicating that the electrochemical filtration process is voltage dependent at both 2 and 3 V. Increasing the residence time by 7.4 fold (from 2.0 to 14.9 s) resulted in a significant removal of bisphenol A and its toxic byproducts, up to 424 min of electrochemical filtration time at 3 V of applied potential. Based on these results, electrochemical filtration using MWNTs is considered a promising technology for the removal of the accumulative bisphenol A and the reduction of its hazardous effects in waters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. In-line filtration of SAG-M red cell concentrates prepared in top/bottom or conventional bag systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-01-01

    SAG-M RCCs were prepared in triple conventional or quadruple top/bottom bag systems and filtered at +4 degrees C using the in-line filter system Leucoflex LCR 4 Macopharma after 16-24-30 h of storage. Postfiltration WBC content was determined by Nageotte hemocytometer counting. The mean WBC content of the units prepared in conventional bag systems and filtered was higher than that of the units prepared in T/B bag systems. The best results could be obtained in T/B RCCs stored for 24 h; potassium and hemolysis levels were also improved. The Leucoflex LCR 4 in-line filter T/B system can be recommended for application in the clinical routine by virtue of the effective leukocyte elimination.

  12. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  13. Fluorescent carbon dots nanosensor for label-free determination of vitamin B12 based on inner filter effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Longhua; Yang, Hongmei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2018-03-01

    A simple and effective fluorescent assay for the determination of vitamin B12 was developed. In this study, carbon dots (CDs) were prepared by one-pot hydrothermal method and directly used as a fluorophore in the inner filter effect (IFE). Both of the maximum absorption peak of vitamin B12 and excitation maxima of CDs are located at 360 nm, hence, the excited light of CDs can be absorbed by vitamin B12, resulting in the fluorescence reduction of CDs. And the fluorescence intensity of CDs decreases with the increasing concentration of vitamin B12. This IFE-based sensing strategy shows a good linear relationship between the normalized fluorescence intensity and the concentration of vitamin B12 ranging from 0 to 60 μM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Furthermore, this proposed approach was successfully applied to vitamin B12 sensing in injections. This IFE sensing platform based on various fluorescent nanomaterials has a high promise for the detection of other biomolecules due to its inherent convenience.

  14. Combination of ozonation, activated carbon, and biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the performance and removal characteristics of organics, color, and genotoxicity by an integrated process including ozonation, activated carbon (AC), and biological aerated filter (BAF) for recycling biotreated dyeing wastewater (BTDW) collected from a cotton textile factory. Influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the range of 156 - 252 mg/L, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 13.5 - 21.7 mg/L, and color of 58 - 76° were observed during the 20-day continuous operation. Outflows with average COD of 43 mg/L, BOD5 of 6.6 mg/L, and color of 5.6° were obtained after being decontaminated by the hybrid system with ozone dosage of 0.25 mg O3applied/mg COD0, 40 min ozonation contact time, 30 min hydraulic retention time (HRT) for AC treatment, and 2.5 h HRT for BAF treatment. More than 82 % of the genotoxicity of BTDW was eliminated in the ozonation unit. The genotoxicity of the BAF effluent was less than 1.33 μg 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide/L. Ozonation could change the organics molecular structures, destroy chromophores, increase the biodegradability, and obviously reduce the genotoxicity of BTDW. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality.

  15. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  16. Analysis of a classical chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, H.

    1985-01-01

    The author studies a classical chiral bag model with a Mexican hat-type potential for the self-coupling of the pion fields. He assumes a static spherical bag of radius R, the hedgehog ansatz for the chiral fields and that the quarks are all in the lowest lying s state. The author has considered three classes of models, the cloudy or pantopionic bags, the little or exopionic bags and the endopionic bags, where the pions are allowed all through space, only outside the bag and only inside the bag respectively. In all cases, the quarks are confined in the interior. He calculates the bag radius R, the bag constant B and the total ground state energy R for wide ranges of the two free parameters of the theory, namely the coupling constant λ and the quark frequency omega. The author focuses the study on the endopionic bags, the least known class, and compares the results with the familiar ones of other classes

  17. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  18. A rotating bag model for hadrons. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    The MIT bag model is modified in order to describe rotational motion of hadrons. It has a kind of 'diatomic molecular' structure; The rotational excitation of the MIT bag is described by the polarized two colored sub-bags which are connected with each other by the gluon flux. One sub-bag contains a quark and the other has an antiquark for mesons. For baryons, the latter sub-bag contains the remaining two quarks instead of the antiquark. The Regge trajectories of hadrons are explained qualitatively by our new model with the usual MIT bag parameters. In particular the Regge slopes are reproduced fairly well. It is also pointed out that the gluon flux plays an important role in the rotational motion of hadrons. (author)

  19. Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)

  20. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  1. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  2. Development of a new test system to determine penetration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes through filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently used in numerous industrial and biomedical applications. Recent studies suggest that workers may be at risk of adverse health effects if they are exposed to CNTs. A National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) survey of the carbonaceous nanomaterial industry found that 77% of the companies used respiratory protection. Elastomeric half-mask respirators and filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are commonly used. Although numerous respirator filtration studies have been done with surrogate engineered nanoparticles, such as sodium chloride, penetration data from engineered nanoparticles such as CNTs are lacking. The aims of this study were to develop a new CNT aerosol respirator testing system and to determine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) penetration through FFRs. A custom-designed CNT aerosol respirator testing system (CNT-ARTS) was developed which was capable of producing a sufficient amount of airborne MWCNTs for testing of high efficiency FFRs. The size distribution of airborne MWCNTs was 20-10,000 nm, with 99% of the particles between 25 and 2840 nm. The count median diameter (CMD) was 209 nm with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.98. This particle size range is similar to those found in some work environments (particles ≤6000 nm). The penetration of MWCNTs through six tested FFR models at two constant flow rates of 30 and 85 LPM was determined. Penetration at 85 LPM (0.58-2.04% for N95, 0.15-0.32% for N99, and 0.007-0.009% for P100 FFRs) was greater compared with the values at 30 LPM (0.28-1.79% for N95, 0.10-0.24% for N99, and 0.005-0.006% for P100 FFRs). The most penetrating particle size through all six tested FFR models was found to be in the range of 25-130 nm and 35-200 nm for the 30-LPM and 85-LPM flow rates, respectively.

  3. Recent status of the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    In this note, recent status of the chiral bag model is presented. As it combines the MIT quark bag model and the Skyrme model, the chiral bag model interpolates the two models smoothly as a function of the chiral bag radius R. The correct limit of R → ∞ is reproduced by including the higher order terms in the Ω expansion of the cranking method. It resolves the so-called small g A problem in a class of models where the semiclassical method is used. (author)

  4. Urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites for detecting transfusion of autologous blood stored in plasticizer-free bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) efficiently increases sport performance and is the most challenging doping method to detect. Current methods for detecting this practice center on the plasticizer di(2-ethlyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which enters the stored blood from blood bags. Quantification of this plasticizer and its metabolites in urine can detect the transfusion of autologous blood stored in these bags. However, DEHP-free blood bags are available on the market, including n-butyryl-tri-(n-hexyl)-citrate (BTHC) blood bags. Athletes may shift to using such bags to avoid the detection of urinary DEHP metabolites. A clinical randomized double-blinded two-phase study was conducted of healthy male volunteers who underwent ABT using DEHP-containing or BTHC blood bags. All subjects received a saline injection for the control phase and a blood donation followed by ABT 36 days later. Kinetic excretion of five urinary DEHP metabolites was quantified with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, considerable levels of urinary DEHP metabolites were observed up to 1 day after blood transfusion with BTHC blood bags. The long-term metabolites mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl) phthalate were the most sensitive biomarkers to detect ABT with BTHC blood bags. Levels of DEHP were high in BTHC bags (6.6%), the tubing in the transfusion kit (25.2%), and the white blood cell filter (22.3%). The BTHC bag contained DEHP, despite being labeled DEHP-free. Urinary DEHP metabolite measurement is a cost-effective way to detect ABT in the antidoping field even when BTHC bags are used for blood storage. © 2015 AABB.

  5. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  6. 19 CFR 148.83 - Diplomatic and consular bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diplomatic and consular bags. 148.83 Section 148... bags. (a) Diplomatic bags. The contents of diplomatic bags are restricted to diplomatic documents and articles intended exclusively for official use and packages constituting the diplomatic bag must bear...

  7. Color anomaly in a hybrid bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Rho, M.; Zahed, I.

    1991-01-01

    We show that color can escape from a QCD bag if we allow for a pseudoscalar singlet coupling at the surface, much like the baryon number in chiral bag models. To enforce total confinement of color an additional boundary term is suggested. (orig.)

  8. 15 CFR 740.14 - Baggage (BAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage (BAG). 740.14 Section 740.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... Baggage (BAG). (a) Scope. This License Exception authorizes individuals leaving the United States either...

  9. Nuclear matter as an MIT bag crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Derreth, C.; Schaefer, A.; Greiner, W.

    1986-01-01

    An MIT bag crystal model of nuclear matter is formulated. The energy bands of the quarks are calculated as a function of the overlap between adjacent bags. A clear indication of substantial overlap is found. Accordingly, infinite nuclear matter is more similar to a quark gas than to a nucleonic structure. (author)

  10. Bosonization relations as bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Zahed, I.

    1984-10-01

    The more sophisticated bag models of hadrons become, the less precisely they seem to determine the bag radius. Idealizing this situation leads to the concept of exact bag models - ''Cheshire Cat'' models, CCM'S - where the physics is completely insensitive to changes in the bag radius. CCM's are constructed explitly in 1+1-dimensions, where exact bosonization relations are known. In the formalism of bag models, these relations appear as boundary conditions which ensure that the shifting of the bag wall has no physical effect. Other notable features of 1+1-dimensional CCM's are: (i) Fermion number, though classically confined, can escape the bag via a vector current anomaly at the surface. (ii) Essentially the same boundary action works for a variety of models and its symmetries determine those of the external boson fields. Remarkably enough, this 1+1-dimensional boundary action has precisely the same form as the one used in 3+1-dimensional chiral bag models, lending support to the belief that the latter are indeed approximateCCM's. These 1+1-dimensional results are expected to provide useful guidelines in the attempt to, at least approximately, besonize 3+1-dimensional QCD. (orig.)

  11. Seasonal-related effects on ammonium removal in activated carbon filter biologically enhanced by heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen; Li, Wei-Guang; Gong, Xu-Jin; Huang, Xiao-Fei; Fan, Wen-Biao; Zhang, Duoying; Yao, Peng; Wang, Xiao-Ju; Song, Yang

    2017-08-01

    To determine the potential effects of seasonal changes on water temperature and water quality upon removal of ammonium and organic carbon pollutants and to characterize the variations in microbial characteristics, a pilot-scale activated carbon filter biologically enhanced with heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria was investigated for 528 days. The results show that 69.2 ± 28.6% of ammonium and 23.1 ± 11.6% of the dissolved organic carbon were removed by the biologically enhanced activated carbon (BEAC) reactor. It is shown that higher biodegradable dissolved organic carbon enhances ammonium removal, even at low temperatures. The C/N ratio consumed by the BEAC reactor reached a steady value (i.e., 3.3) after 2 months of operation. Despite seasonal fluctuations and competition of the indigenous community, the heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. HRBLi 16 and Acinetobacter harbinensis strain HITLi 7) remained relatively stable. The amount of carbon source was the most significant environmental parameter and dramatically affected the microbial community compositions in the BEAC reactor. The present study provides new insights into the application of a BEAC reactor for ammonium removal from drinking water, resisting strong seasonal changes.

  12. Process of nitrogen transformation and microbial community structure in the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier filled in biological aerated filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Li, Jinlong

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen pollutants in low-organic carbon wastewater are difficult to biodegrade. Therefore, the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier (FCBC) was firstly used as hydrogen producer in a biological-aerated filter (BAF) to make up for the lack of organic carbon in biological nitrogen removal. Physical and chemical properties of FCBC were detected and compared in this study. The nitrogen removal rate for low COD/TN ratio wastewater, nitrogen transformation process, and microbial communities in the FCBC filled in BAF were investigated. Results showed that the nitrogen removal rates was 0.38-0.41 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the FCBC filled BAF and reached 0.62 kg N m(-3) day(-1) within the filter depth of 60-80 cm, under the conditions of the dissolved oxygen 3.5 ± 0.2 mg L(-1) and the inlet pH 7.2 ± 0.1. Hydrogenophaga (using hydrogen as electron donor), Sphaerotilus (absorbing [Fe(3+)]), Nitrospira (nitrificaion), and Nitrosomonas (ammonia oxidation) were found to be the predominant genera in the reactor. The reaction schemes in the FCBC filled in BAF was calculated: hydrogen and [Fe(3+)] were produced by Fe(0)-C galvanic cells in the FCBC, ammonia was oxidized into nitrate by Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira genera, hydrogen was used as electron donors by Hydrogenophaga genus to reduce nitrate into N2, and [Fe(3+)] was partly absorbed by Sphaerotilus and diverted via sludge discharging.

  13. 3D analysis of the morphology and spatial distribution of nitrogen in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Ileana; Ersen, Ovidiu; Arenal, Raul; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Messaoudi, Cédric; Chizari, Kambiz; Janowska, Izabela; Pham-Huu, Cuong

    2012-06-13

    We present here the application of the energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) in the tomographic mode to determine the precise 3D distribution of nitrogen within nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). Several tilt series of energy-filtered images were acquired on the K ionization edges of carbon and nitrogen on a multiwalled N-CNT containing a high amount of nitrogen. Two tilt series of carbon and nitrogen 2D maps were then calculated from the corresponding energy-filtered images by using a proper extraction procedure of the chemical signals. Applying iterative reconstruction algorithms provided two spatially correlated C and N elemental-selective volumes, which were then simultaneously analyzed with the shape-sensitive reconstruction deduced from Zero-Loss recordings. With respect to the previous findings, crucial information obtained by analyzing the 3D chemical maps was that, among the two different kind of arches formed in these nanotubes (transversal or rounded ones depending on their morphology), the transversal arches contain more nitrogen than do the round ones. In addition, a detailed analysis of the shape-sensitive volume allowed the observation of an unexpected change in morphology along the tube axis: close to the round arches (with less N), the tube is roughly cylindrical, whereas near the transversal ones (with more N), its shape changes to a prism. This relatively new technique is very powerful in the material science because it combines the ability of the classical electron tomography to solve 3D structures and the chemical selectivity of the EFTEM imaging.

  14. Material evaluation for bagging of cantaloupe melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pradi Vendruscolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate different materials for field bagging with respect to the physicochemical changes caused in cantaloupe melon fruits. The study was conducted in a protected environment in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. The experiment consisted of five treatments, with bagging of cantaloupe melon fruits with four materials (newspaper, Kraft paper, NWF, and polyethylene and a control treatment without bagging, in a randomized block design with five replications of one plant with a fruit each. Fruits were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. Number of days from bagging to harvest was also recorded and visual aspects of the fruit were observed. The materials as well as the time interval between the bagging and harvest affect physicochemical characteristics such as accumulation of soluble solids and thickness of the green pulp halo and visual aspects of the fruit. This study recommends bagging cantaloupe melons using white non-woven fabric or to not use the technique at all, under the conditions similar to those used in the study. In addition, using polyethylene for the bagging of fruit is not recommended, because this material has a deleterious effect on the characteristics essential for commercialization of melons.

  15. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear surface vibrations in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio, L.

    1984-01-01

    The main difficulties found in the hadron bag models are reviewed from the original version of the MIT bag model. Following, with the aim to answer two of the main difficulties in bag models, viz., the parity and the divergence illness, a dynamical model is presented. In the model, the confinement surface of the quarks (bag) is treated like a real physical object which interacts with the quarks and is exposed to vibrations. The model is applied to the nucleon, being observed that his spectrum, in the first excited levels, can be reproduced with resonable precision and obeying to the correct parity order. In the same way that in a similar work of Brown et al., it is observed to be instrumental the inclusion of the effect due to pions. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) 2015 Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) hardware and software capabilities, including portable electronic devices (PEDs) used as EFBs, as of July 2015. This document updates and replaces the Volpe Centers previous EFB ind...

  18. Electronic flight bag (EFB) : 2010 industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) systems and capabilities, as of June 2010. This document updates and replaces the April 2007 EFB Industry Review (Yeh and Chandra, 2007). As with the previous industry survey, the focu...

  19. Design-A-Bag Competition 2012

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia nahakunsti osakonna tudengid Kadri Paloveer, Inga Radikainen ja Mari Maripuu pälvisid Hong-Kongis korraldataval "DESIGN-A-BAG 2012" konkursil tihedas rahvusvahelises konkurentsis mitmeid preemiaid

  20. Multi-monopoles and magnetic bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    By analogy with the multi-vortices, we show that also multi-monopoles become magnetic bags in the large n limit. This simplification allows us to compute the spectrum and the profile functions by requiring the minimization of the energy of the bag. We consider in detail the case of the magnetic bag in the limit of vanishing potential and we find that it saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound and there is an infinite set of different shapes of allowed bags. This is consistent with the existence of a moduli space of solutions for the BPS multi-monopoles. We discuss the string theory interpretation of our result and also the relation between the 't Hooft large n limit of certain supersymmetric gauge theories and the large n limit of multi-monopoles. We then consider multi-monopoles in the cosmological context and provide a mechanism that could lead to their production

  1. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to gasoline...

  2. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for..., provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the bags; (b) A...

  3. 49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag; (2...

  4. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  5. An alternative approach to heavy quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baacke, J.; Kasperidus, G.

    1980-01-01

    We discuss a formulation of quark bags where the quark wave function depends only on the relative coordinate and the bag boundary is fixed with respect to the center of mass of the quark system. For technical reasons we have to restrict ourselves to a heavy quark-antiquark system in an s-wave with spherical boundary. A phenomenological application to quarkonium states encourages further investigation of the approach. (orig.)

  6. Bag-out material handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  7. Bag-out material handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brak, S.B.

    1982-02-26

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  8. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. The quark mass and baryon numbers of empty chiral bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Zalewski, K.

    1984-01-01

    We show that for spherical chiral bags the baryon number of the Dirac vacuum inside the bag does not depend on quark masses. Thus, the sum of the baryon numbers of an empty chiral bag and the skyrmion surrounding the bag is an integer, which depends on the boundary condition on the surface of the bag. This extends the result obtained by Goldstone and Jaffe for massless quarks. (orig.)

  10. The Sydney Contained In Bag Morcellation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Joanne B; Kanade, Trupti; Choi, Sarah; Tsai, Brian P; Rosen, David M; Cario, Gregory M; Chou, Danny

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a modification of the Shibley single-port technique suitable for morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy in a contained environment within the abdominal cavity [1]. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using descriptive text and an educational video. In light of recent concern about the use of power morcellators and increasing the risk of disseminating occult leiomyosarcomatous myoma fragments throughout the abdominal cavity, we propose this new technique for management of morcellation of large myomatous uteri after total laparoscopic hysterectomy, to contain the morcellation process and minimize the risk. This technique, which we have coined "Sydney Contained in Bag Morcellation" involves introduction of a sterile plastic bag (Dual Drawstring Bag, 460 × 460 mm; Southern Cross Hospital Supplies, Northmead, NSW, Australia) before introducing an optical port and the power morcellator. Before insertion this bag is modified in several ways to facilitate bag opening and specimen retrieval. The dual drawstring is removed and replaced with a 150-cm length of PDS I (polydioxanone) suture material as the new drawstring, with its exit at the mouth of the bag in the 6 o'clock position. Five stay sutures are placed around the bag mouth, corresponding to the 12, 1, 5, 7, and 11 o'clock positions. This assists with opening the mouth of the bag intraabdominally and enables orientation to be maintained. The bag is then inserted in a McCartney tube (Gates Healthcare, Cheshire, UK). Corresponding slits are made in the tip of the tube to enable the end of the stay sutures to be securely held in place during tube insertion. These ends are then retrieved using atraumatic graspers and exteriorized and clipped alongside their corresponding port sites. After hysterectomy the uterus is placed in the bag, and the stay sutures maintain the mouth opening. The bag is closed and its mouth exteriorized onto the abdominal wall at the site

  11. Evaluation the effect of breathing filters on end-tidal carbon dioxide during inferior abdominal surgery in infants and changes of tidal volume and respiratory rate needs for preventing of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Parvin; Abooei, Mohsen; Shafa, Amir; Karbalaei, Mahboobeh; Babaei, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prevent of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO 2) with changing of vital capacity and respiratory rate when using of birthing filter in infants. In a randomized clinical trial study, ninety-four infant' patients were studied in three groups. Basic values, such as peak inspiratory pressure, tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, and partial pressure of ET CO 2 (PETCO 2 ) level had been evaluated after intubation, 10 min after intubation and 10 min after filter insertion. In the first group, patients only observed for changing in ETCO 2 level. In the second and the third groups, respiratory rates and tidal volume had been increased retrospectively, until that ETCO 2 ≤35 mmHg was received. We used ANOVA, Chi-square, and descriptive tests for data analysis. P Tidal volume 10 min after filter insertion was statistically higher in Group 3 (145.0 ± 26.3 ml) versus 129.3 ± 38.9 ml in Group 1 and 118.7 ± 20.8 ml in Group 2 ( P = 0.02). Furthermore, respiratory rate at this time was statistically higher in Group 2 (25.82 ± 0.43) versus Groups 1 and 3 (21.05 ± 0.20 ml and 21.02 ± 0.60 ml, respectively) ( P = 0.001). Minute volume and PETCO 2 level were statistically significant between Group 1 and the other two groups after filter insertion ( P = 0.01 and P = 0.00,1 respectively). With changing the vital capacity and respiratory rate we can control PETCO 2 level ≤35 mmHg during using of birthing filters in infants. We recommend this instrument during anesthesia of infants.

  12. Evaluation the effect of breathing filters on end-tidal carbon dioxide during inferior abdominal surgery in infants and changes of tidal volume and respiratory rate needs for preventing of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to prevent of increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2with changing of vital capacity and respiratory rate when using of birthing filter in infants. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, ninety-four infant' patients were studied in three groups. Basic values, such as peak inspiratory pressure, tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, and partial pressure of ET CO2 (PETCO2 level had been evaluated after intubation, 10 min after intubation and 10 min after filter insertion. In the first group, patients only observed for changing in ETCO2level. In the second and the third groups, respiratory rates and tidal volume had been increased retrospectively, until that ETCO2 ≤35 mmHg was received. We used ANOVA, Chi-square, and descriptive tests for data analysis. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Tidal volume 10 min after filter insertion was statistically higher in Group 3 (145.0 ± 26.3 ml versus 129.3 ± 38.9 ml in Group 1 and 118.7 ± 20.8 ml in Group 2 (P = 0.02. Furthermore, respiratory rate at this time was statistically higher in Group 2 (25.82 ± 0.43 versus Groups 1 and 3 (21.05 ± 0.20 ml and 21.02 ± 0.60 ml, respectively (P = 0.001. Minute volume and PETCO2level were statistically significant between Group 1 and the other two groups after filter insertion (P = 0.01 and P = 0.00,1 respectively. Conclusion: With changing the vital capacity and respiratory rate we can control PETCO2level ≤35 mmHg during using of birthing filters in infants. We recommend this instrument during anesthesia of infants.

  13. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  14. Influence of geometry calibration in the determination of gamma emitters in active carbon filters; Influencia de la geometria de calibracion en la determinacion de emisores gamma en filtros de carbon activo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurado Tarrago, M.; Tent Petrus, J.

    2013-07-01

    Testing laboratories participate in external quality controls. For these controls are useful it is necessary to eliminate factors that can introduce sources of variability in the results. A factor to consider in this paper as a source of variability is the calibration geometry chosen for the correct quantification of the activity concentrations. This work contains the results of the intercomparison exercise and from them analysed the effect of the geometry of calibration used in the quantification of activity concentrations present in the activated carbon filter. (Author)

  15. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  16. Performance testing of the new AMPAC fire debris bag against three other commercial fire debris bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutters, Michiel M P; Dogger, Judith; Hendrikse, Jeanet N

    2012-09-01

    Fire debris evidence is collected and stored in a wide range of containers, including various polymer bags. Four different polymer bags have been investigated, including the NYLON, DUO, ALU, and AMPAC bags. The latter is the successor of the Kapak Fire DebrisPAK™. Microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the bags. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate performance parameters such as background volatiles, leak rate, cross-contamination, recovery, and sorption. The NYLON bag was susceptible for leakage and cross-contamination and showed decreased recoveries. The DUO and ALU bags showed some background volatiles, sorption, and poor recoveries. The AMPAC bag performed excellent: low background, no leakage or cross-contamination, good recoveries, and only traces of sorption. Heat sealing proved to be the best method of closure. Preliminary studies on AMPAC bags showed that polyethylene clamps are easy to use on-site and preserve ignitable liquids adequately for a limited period of time. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Phase transitions of doped carbon in CrCN coatings with modified mechanical and tribological properties via filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, J.J. [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang, H.Q. [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qin, L.Z., E-mail: qin8394@163.com [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Liao, B.; Liang, H. [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, B. [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The CrCN coatings were fabricated onto Si (1 1 1) wafers and SUS304 stainless steel plates using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) technique under different flow ratios of N{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas mixture. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the coatings were characterized. It was found that the grain size reduce with increasing carbon content, which makes the CrCN coatings refined and smooth. The quasi-one-dimensional carbolite phase was also found in CrN host lattice with C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content ranging from 5% to 20%, and it will be evolved into amorphous carbon and amorphous CN{sub x} phases as C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content exceeds 20%. Moreover, we examined the mechanical and tribological properties of the CrCN coatings, and the experimental results confirmed that the friction coefficient of the coatings descend to the lowest value as 0.39 with 30% C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content, due to the graphite (sp{sup 2} C−C) phase embed in CrN host lattice; while the chromium carbon (Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}) and diamond (sp{sup 3} C−C) phases may give rise to the increase of the coating hardness with the highest value at 23.97 GPa under 20% C{sub 2}H{sub 2} content.

  18. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  19. EMC effect and multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of 9q- and 12q bags in niclei the form factors of light nuclei at large momentum transfers and structure functions of deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei are described. It is shown that the existing experimental data can be described in a unified way provided the momentum distribution of quarks in multiquark bags at k 0 has the exponential form PSIsub(q)sup(2)(k) approximately esup(-k/k 0 ) with the parameter k 0 approximately 50-60 MeV. Theoretical results agree well the EMC experimental data on the ratio of the iron and deuteron structure functions with the 20% admixture of 12q-bags in the Fe nucleus

  20. An Empirical Model for Carbon Recovery in a Rotating Belt Filter and Its Application in the Frame of Plantwide Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behera, Chitta Ranjan; Daynouri-Pancino, Farnaz; Santoro, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    and nutrient recovery in comparison to a conventional PC. Moreover, it is also believed that the RBF can fractionate carbon (enrichment of cellulose, namely toilet paper) based on particulate size, more efficiently than a PC. It is, therefore, necessary to understand and quantify the uniqueness of the RBF...

  1. Comparative Study of Predeposit and Bedside Leucodepletion Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A; Khetarpal Sm, A; Jetley, S

    2010-04-01

    Removal of leucocytes from cellular blood components is associated with reduction of several transfusion associated adverse reactions. A total of 400 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) were subjected to leucodepletion at room temperature and 4°C using different commercially available prestorage and bedside filters (Terumo Penpol Immugard III and Pall Medical BPF-4). Pre-filtration and post-filtration parameters were compared to assess the efficacy of prestorage leucodepletion vis-à-vis bedside leucodepletion and the requirement of universal leucodepletion. Mean post-filtration red cell recovery ranged from 88.49-93.49% with all bags showing more than 85% red cell recovery. Mean post-filtration residual leucocyte count ranged from 0.205 × 10(6)-0.338 × 10(6)/bag with all bags showing more than log 3 leucoreduction. Prestorage leucoreduction achieved by the polyurethane filter was better than that achieved by the polyester filter. Red cell recovery with the bedside filters at room temperature was significantly less than that with prestorage filters at either temperature. This study suggests that prestorage leucoreduction is preferable over bedside leucoreduction and that polyurethane filters are better than polyester filters since leucodepletion achieved with the former is higher. We recommend selective log 3 leucodepletion using polyurethane prestorage filters for patients with specific indications.

  2. Zero-point energy in bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The zero-point (Casimir) energy of free vector (gluon) fields confined to a spherical cavity (bag) is computed. With a suitable renormalization the result for eight gluons is E = + 0.51/a. This result is substantially larger than that for a spherical shell (where both interior and exterior modes are present), and so affects Johnson's model of the QCD vacuum. It is also smaller than, and of opposite sign to, the value used in bag model phenomenology, so it will have important implications there. 1 figure

  3. The composition of air in sleeping bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, S. D.; Nolan, R. W.; Cottle, W. H.; Cattroll, S. W.

    1988-03-01

    The effects of sleeping with one's head inside a conventional arctic sleeping bag at -20°C on body temperature and on the composition of air breathed were investigated. There was little effect on body temperature and concentrations of O2 and CO2 levelled off at approximately 16% and 4%, respectively. Changes in the composition of the air breathed by persons using a vapour-barrier sleeping bag and an experimental water-vapour-impermeable liner were also monitored. Concentrations of O2 and CO2 of approximately 11% and 6%, respectively, were observed. The possible effects of breathing such air on sleep and thermoregulation are discussed.

  4. Waste product profile: Plastic film and bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Plastic film is recycled by being pelletized following a granulation or densifying process. Manufacturing and converting plants are the major sources of plastic film for recycling because they can supply sufficient amounts of clean raw material of a known resin type. Post-consumer collection programs are more recent. They tend to focus on businesses such as grocery stores that are large generators of plastic bags. In this case, the recycling process is more complex, requiring sorting, washing, and removal of contaminants as a first step. Curbside collection of plastic bags is rare.

  5. Labor development strategy in the bag industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to formulate strategies for improving the labor competencies in the bag industry in Kudus Regency. The data comprise business players, which will be analyzed using the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the proper strategy for improving employment in the bag industry is growth and build strategy. Growth and development strategy are intensive actions undertaken through the development of labor competencies to improve the quality of output. It can be made with creating learning resources by designing methods and trainings refer to the Competency Based Training (CBT.

  6. Wien filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis

  7. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  8. FILTER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  9. Nocturnal carbon efflux: reconciliation of eddy covariance and chamber measurements using an alternative to the u*-threshold filtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsel, Eva Van.; Leuning, Ray; Cleugh, Helen A.; Suni, Tanja; Keith, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Micro meteorological measurements made on single towers often underestimate nighttime respiration of terrestrial ecosystems because they cannot account for vertical and horizontal advection, thereby causing systematic errors in estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange. We show that there is a maximum in the sum of the turbulent flux and change in storage of CO 2 in the early evening, R max , that is in close agreement with concurrent and independent estimates of net carbon exchange from soil and plant chambers. We hypothesize that the peak occurs because there is a time delay between the onset of radiative cooling and the development of temperature gradients that are strong enough to initiate thermally-driven horizontal and vertical flows that remove the stored CO 2 . We propose taking advantage of this time delay to develop relationships between R max and soil temperature and moisture. The new parameterization leads to realistic values of nighttime respiration, and therefore to improved estimates of net ecosystem exchange

  10. Technical Note: A novel approach to estimation of time-variable surface sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using empirical orthogonal functions and the Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhuravlev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose an approach to solving a source estimation problem based on representation of carbon dioxide surface emissions as a linear combination of a finite number of pre-computed empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. We used National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES transport model for computing response functions and Kalman filter for estimating carbon dioxide emissions. Our approach produces results similar to these of other models participating in the TransCom3 experiment.

    Using the EOFs we can estimate surface fluxes at higher spatial resolution, while keeping the dimensionality of the problem comparable with that in the regions approach. This also allows us to avoid potentially artificial sharp gradients in the fluxes in between pre-defined regions. EOF results generally match observations more closely given the same error structure as the traditional method.

    Additionally, the proposed approach does not require additional effort of defining independent self-contained emission regions.

  11. Filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuo; Nagao, Koji; Akiyama, Toshio; Tanaka, Fumikazu; Osumi, Akira; Hirao, Yasuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    The filter unit is used by attaching to a dustproof mask, and used in a radiation controlled area such as in a nuclear power plant. The filter unit comprises sheet-like front and back filtering members disposed vertically in parallel, a spacer for keeping the filtering members to a predetermined distance and front and back covering members for covering the two filtering members respectively. An electrostatic filter prepared by applying resin-fabrication to a base sheet comprising 100% by weight of organic fibers as fiber components, for example, wool felt, synthetic fiber non-woven fabric, wool and synthetic fiber blend non-woven fabric and then electrifying the resin is used for the filtering members. Then, residue of ashes can be eliminated substantially or completely after burning them. (I.N.)

  12. Bag formation in three-quark chromostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By constructing explicit projection operators for the irreducible SU(n) representations, we demonstrate in the static quark limit, with the renormalization group improved effective Lagrangian, that bag formation occurs in the color singlet channel of the three-quark system. Non-linear but Abelian field equations are derived which, when solved, will allow the determination of an effective potential in this case

  13. Power morcellation in a specimen bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Miller, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    To show a technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon specimen bag. Step-by-step explanation of the technique. The Food and Drug Administration recently warned against the use of electromechanical power morcellation for hysterectomy and myomectomy because of potential tissue dissemination within the abdomen and pelvis. If the tumor is malignant, this technique increases the staging of the patient and may further warrant re-operation and chemotherapy. If the tumor is benign, the patient is at risk for parasitic myomas that may lead to, but are not limited to, pain and/or bowel obstruction. To reduce the preceding risks, we reviewed the techniques of power morcellation within a specimen bag used by other surgeons across the United States. This technique was modified to incorporate a more durable bag made out of rip-stop nylon. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy during power morcellation was performed, along with an introduction to incorporating power morcellation of multiple myomas during a laparoscopic myomectomy. This technique of power morcellation within a rip-stop nylon bag minimizes the risk of inadvertent tissue spread. This allows the patient an opportunity to undergo minimally invasive surgery for hysterectomy and myomectomy. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  15. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for paper bags. 178.521 Section 178.521...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.521 Standards for paper bags. (a) The following are identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water...

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Stainless Steel Filters for Control of Particulate Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    bolts and nuts on both the front and back of the filter housing connection. 2. The start-up sequence is followed. The Facility Net program is...The bolts and nuts are removed, and the filter is agi- tated to release the majority of dust collected inside the filter. The collec- tion bag is...deviation was more than 10% from the initial clean data, the filter was cleaned again and the process repeated. Initially, a simple soapy soak was

  17. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated with...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...

  19. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  20. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film...

  1. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology and investigates the possible function of the air bags found on the nestlings of Monteiro's Hornbill Tockus monteiri. These air bags increased in size with age and mass of the nestling until 14 d of age, and then decreased in size. By 20 d of age, the air bags were absent. Histological ...

  2. On the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    We give a rederivation, generalization and interpretation of the result of Goldstone and Jaffe on the vacuum baryon number in the chiral bag model. Our results are based on considering the bag model as a theory of free quarks, massless inside and infinitely massive outside the bag. (orig.)

  3. 50 CFR 622.39 - Bag and possession limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating as a charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (iii) Red... charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. (iv) Snappers, combined... a charter vessel or headboat. The bag limit for such captain and crew is zero. In addition, within...

  4. A new carbon-based magnetic material for the dispersive solid-phase extraction of UV filters from water samples before liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction is one of the most promising new extraction methods for liquid samples before ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. Several types of materials, including carbonaceous ones, have been prepared for this purpose. In this paper, for the first time, the preparation, characterization, and sorption capability of Fe 3 O 4 -graphitized carbon black (mGCB) composite toward some compounds of environmental interest were investigated. The synthesized mGCB consisted of micrometric GCB particles with 55 m 2  g -1 surface area bearing some carbonyl and hydroxyl functionalities and the surface partially decorated by Fe 3 O 4 microparticles. The prepared mGCB was firstly tested as an adsorbent for the extraction from surface water of 50 pollutants, including estrogens, perfluoroalkyl compounds, UV filters, and quinolones. The material showed good affinity to many of the tested compounds, except carboxylates and glucoronates; however, some compounds were difficult to desorb. Ten UV filters belonging to the chemical classes of benzophenones and p-aminobenzoates were selected, and parameters were optimized for the extraction of these compounds from surface water before UHPLC-MS/MS determination. Then, the method was validated in terms of linearity, trueness, intra-laboratory precision, and detection and quantification limits. In summary, the method performance (trueness, expressed as analytical recovery, 85-114%; RSD 5-15%) appears suitable for the determination of the selected compounds at the level of 10-100 ng L -1 , with detection limits in the range of 1-5 ng L -1 . Finally, the new method was compared with a published one, based on conventional solid-phase extraction with GCB, showing similar performance in real sample analysis. Graphical Abstract Workflow of the analytical method based on magnetic solid-phase extraction followed by LC-MS/MS determination.

  5. Separating DDTs in edible animal fats using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction with activated carbon filter, Toyobo-KF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2006-09-01

    A technique is presented for the economical, routine, and quantitative analysis of contamination by dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) [pp'-DDT, pp'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloreothane in beef tallow and chicken fat samples, based on their separation using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction with Toyobo-KF, an activated carbon fiber. Toyobo-KF is a newly applied MSPD sorbent, and it is followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. The resulting analytical performance parameters [recoveries of spiked DDTs (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg/g) > or = 81%, with relative standard deviations of < or = 8% (n = 5), and quantitation limits < or = 0.03 microg/g], with minimal handling and cost-efficiency, indicate that the present MSPD-HPLC method may be a useful tool for routine monitoring of DDT contamination in meat.

  6. Determination of Diclofenac on a Dysprosium Nanowire- Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Accomplished in a Flow Injection System by Advanced Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new detection technique called Fast Fourier Transform Square-Wave Voltammetry (FFT SWV is based on measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode, which is generated by a redox processes, is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve sensitivity. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires provide a more effective nanotube-like surface [1-4] so they are good candidates for use as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The redox properties of diclofenac were used for its determination in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for diclofenac determination was a 0.05 mol L−1 acetate buffer pH = 4.0. The drug presented an irreversible oxidation peak at 850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl on a modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential by about 100 mV. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased by application of a discrete Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, CDL of 2.0 × 10−9 M and an LOQ of 5.0 × 10−9 M were found for the determination for diclofenac. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of diclofenac was achieved in a commercial formulation.

  7. Wien filter

    OpenAIRE

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis such that electric and magnetic forces induced by the respective fields and exerted on an electrically charged particle moving substantially along the fileter axis at a certain velocity

  8. Cleanable sintered metal filters in hot off-gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Filters with sintered metal elements, arranged as tube bundles with backflush air cleaning, are the equivalent of bag filters for high-temperature, harsh environments. They are virtually the only alternative for high-temperature off-gas systems where a renewable, highly efficient particle trap is required. Tests were conducted which show that the sintered metal elements installed in a filter system provide effective powder collection in high-temperature atmospheres over thousands of cleaning cycles. Such a sintered metal filter system is now installed on the experimental defense waste calciner at the Savannah River Laboratory. The experimental results included in this paper were used as the basis for its design

  9. The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  10. Contained Morcellation for Laparoscopic Myomectomy Within a Specially Designed Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P G; Thomas, Manju; Das, Tanuka; Patil, Saurabh; Garg, Reena

    2016-02-01

    A technique of contained morcellation of uterine myomas within a bag specially designed for 2-port morcellation during laparoscopic myomectomy is described. Ten patients underwent in-bag morcellation of myomas with a tissue isolation bag (MorSafe) between November 2014 and January 2015. The MorSafe tissue isolation bag is a retort-shaped bag made of medical-grade flexible plastic material with the wider opening of 134 mm in diameter and the tail end measuring 4 mm in diameter, allowing easy accomodation of specimens up to 12 cm in diameter. This technique involves placing the myomas into the isolation bag within the abdomen, exteriorizing the tail end of the bag, insufflating the bag within the peritoneal cavity, and morcellating the myomas under vision. Demographic and perioperative characteristics were studied. The mean operative time was 117 minutes (range, 75-195 minutes), the mean time for specimen introduction into the bag was 12.5 minutes (range, 7-22 minutes), and the mean time for morcellation and bag removal was 24.8 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). There were no complications related to the in-bag morcellation technique, and there was no visual evidence of damage to the isolation bag. In-bag morcellation using this new bag is a feasible technique for morcellating uterine myomas in a contained manner and may provide an option to minimize the risks of open power morcellation while preserving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A portable synthesis of water-soluble carbon dots for highly sensitive and selective detection of chlorogenic acid based on inner filter effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Yusheng; Pan, Shuang; Yang, Jidong; Yan, Jingjing; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Qianqian; Hu, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a simple and facile hydrothermal method for synthesis of water-soluble carbon dots (CDs) with malic acid and urea, and were then employed as a high-performance fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive determination of chlorogenic acid (CGA) based on inner filter effect. The as-synthesized CDs was systematically characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, spectrofluorophotometry, and the results indicated that the sizes of CDs were mainly distributed in the range of 1.0 nm-3.0 nm with an average diameter of 2.1 nm. More significantly, the as-prepared CDs possessed remarkable selectivity and sensitivity towards CGA with the linear range of 0.15 μmol L- 1-60 μmol L- 1 and the detection limit for CGA was 45 nmol L- 1 (3σ/k). The practical applications of CDs for detection of CGA have already been successfully demonstrated in Honeysuckle. This sensitive, selective method has a great application prospect in the pharmaceutical and biological analysis field owing to its simplicity and rapidity for the detection of CGA.

  12. Facile, green and clean one-step synthesis of carbon dots from wool: Application as a sensor for glyphosate detection based on the inner filter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Bi, Yidan; Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bo; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we reported a green route for the fabrication of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). Wool, a kind of nontoxic and natural raw material, was chosen as the precursor to prepare CDs via a one-step microwave-assisted pyrolysis process. Compared with previously reported methods for preparation of CDs based on biomass materials, this method was simple, facile and free of any additives, such as acids, bases, or salts, which avoid the complicated post-treatment process to purify the CDs. The CDs have a high quantum yield (16.3%) and their fluorescence could be quenched by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) based on inner filter effect (IFE). The presence of glyphosate could induce the aggregation of AgNPs and thus result in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched CDs. Based on this phenomenon, we constructed a fluorescence system (CDs/AgNPs) for determination of glyphosate. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the CDs/AgNPs system was proportional to the concentration of glyphosate in the range of 0.025-2.5μgmL(-1), with a detection limit of 12ngmL(-1). Furthermore, the established method has been successfully used for glyphosate detection in the cereal samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Are there multiquark bags in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Scmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are presented favouring the idea that multiquark bags do eXist in nuclei. Such hypothesis makes possible to reveal the relationship among three different scopes of phenomena: deep inelastic scattering of leptons by nUclei, large q 2 (where q 2 is a square of momentum transfer) behaviour of the form factors of light nuclei and yield of cumulative proton.s

  14. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  15. Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-09-01

    Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise

  16. 76 FR 47641 - Pagani Automobili SpA; Denial of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... advanced air bag requirements of FMVSS No. 208 are costs that all entrants to the U.S. automobile... carbon chassis for maximum protection, and the chassis also incorporates the monocoque protective ``cell'' design. Enhanced by a metal roll cage and alloy front and rear chassis subframes, the vehicle provides a...

  17. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators' mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  18. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sugiura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Under laboratory conditions, all bagworm larvae were attacked by carabid adults, but successfully defended themselves against the predators’ mandibles using their own bags. The portable bags, which are composed mainly of host plant twigs, may function as a physical barrier against predator mandibles. To test this hypothesis, I removed the twig bags and replaced some with herb leaf bags; all bag-removed larvae were easily caught and predated by carabids, while all bag-replaced larvae could successfully defend themselves against carabid attacks. Therefore, various types of portable bags can protect bagworm larvae from carabid attacks. This is the first study to test the defensive function of bagworm portable bags against invertebrate predators.

  19. BAG-1 haplo-insufficiency impairs lung tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero Guadalupe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70 that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signaling pathways. Evidence that BAG-1 expression is frequently altered in human cancers, in particular in breast cancer, relative to normal cells has been put forward but the notion that overexpression of BAG-1 contributes to poor prognosis in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Methods We have evaluated the effect of BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice in a model of non-small-cell lung tumorigenesis with histological and molecular methods. We have generated mice heterozygous for BAG-1, carrying a BAG-1 null allele, that in addition express oncogenic, constitutively active C-Raf kinase (SP-C C-Raf BxB in type II pneumocytes. SP-C C-Raf BxB mice develop multifocal adenomas early in adulthood. Results We show that BAG-1 heterozygosity in mice impairs C-Raf oncogene-induced lung adenoma growth. Lung tumor initiation was reduced by half in BAG-1 heterozygous SP-C C-Raf BxB mice compared to their littermates. Tumor area was reduced by 75% in 4 month lungs of BAG-1 haploinsufficient mice compared to mice with two BAG-1 copies. Whereas BAG-1 heterozygosity did not affect the rate of cell proliferation or signaling through the mitogenic cascade in adenoma cells, it increased the rate of apoptosis. Conclusion Reduced BAG-1 expression specifically targets tumor cells to apoptosis and impairs tumorigenesis. Our data implicate BAG-1 as a key player in oncogenic transformation by Raf and identify it as a potential molecular target for cancer treatment.

  20. Filter-based measurements of UV-vis mass absorption cross sections of organic carbon aerosol from residential biomass combustion: Preliminary findings and sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.

    2016-10-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels is a major source of household energy in developing nations. Black (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols are the major PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) pollutants co-emitted during burning of these fuels. While the optical nature of BC is well characterized, very little is known about the properties of light-absorbing OC (LAOC). Here, we report our preliminary findings on the mass-based optical properties of LAOC emitted from the combustion of four commonly used solid biomass fuels - fuel-wood, agricultural residue, dung-cake, and mixed - in traditional Indian cookstoves. As part of a pilot field study conducted in central India, PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed for their absorbance spectra in the 300-900 nm wavelengths at 1 nm resolution using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The mean mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) of the emitted PM2.5 and OC, at 550 nm, were 0.8 and 0.2 m2 g-1, respectively, each with a factor of ~2.3 uncertainty. The mean absorption Ångström exponent (AǺE) values for PM2.5 were 3±1 between 350 and 550 nm, and 1.2±0.1 between 550 and 880 nm. In the 350-550 nm range, OC had an AǺE of 6.3±1.8. The emitted OC mass, which was on average 25 times of the BC mass, contributed over 50% of the aerosol absorbance at wavelengths smaller than 450 nm. The overall OC contribution to visible solar light (300-900 nm) absorption by the emitted particles was 26-45%. Our results highlight the need to comprehensively and accurately address: (i) the climatic impacts of light absorption by OC from cookstove emissions, and (ii) the uncertainties and biases associated with variability in biomass fuel types and combustion conditions, and filter-based measurement artifacts during determination of MAC values.

  1. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  2. Influence of Type and Amount of Carbon in Cigarette Filters on Smokers’ Mouth Level Exposure to “Tar”, Nicotine, 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Isoprene, and Acrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nother Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons are effective adsorbents for many volatile organic compounds and are used in cigarette filters to remove selected smoke toxicants. Polymer-derived carbon is more effective in removing many vapour phase toxicants found in cigarette smoke than coconut-shell-derived carbon. We compared mouth-level exposure to “tar”, nicotine and five vapour phase constituents (1,3- butadiene, benzene, toluene, isoprene, acrylonitrile in two groups of Romanian smokers of 4-mg or 8-mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO “tar” bands. Test cigarettes with 4 and 8 mg ISO “tar” were manufactured for the study with two target levels of polymer-derived carbon (30 mg and 56 mg, along with control cigarettes containing a target level of 56 mg of coconut-shell-derived carbon in both “tar” bands. No significant differences were found between mouth-level exposure to “tar” or nicotine yields obtained from control and test products (p > 0.05 in either ISO “tar” band. Mouth-level exposure to each of the five vapour phase constituents was significantly lower from the test products with polymer-derived carbon (p < 0.0001 than from control cigarettes with coconut-shell-derived carbon, by an average of 25% with 30 mg polymer-derived carbon and around 50% with 56 mg. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016 40-53

  3. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Wiktorsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  4. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  5. Role of blood bag temperature indicators in maintaining patent temperature of the returned unused blood bags in blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurasyikin, Y; Leong, C F; Fadhlullah, T M; Hafiz, W M; Nadiah, Z; Atieqah, A N; Ling, T J; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the temperature chain of red blood cells (RBC) returned unused blood bags using blood temperature indicator and ascertain the factors like transportation time, type, size of coolant box and number of bags per box. A total of 250 blood bags with the indicator were observed for the temperature changes with other factors like transportation time, type and size of coolant box and number of bags per box. The recordings were performed at several checkpoints located between the blood bank and the wards. Out of the 250 bags, 74 (29.6%) showed colour changes in which 64 (86.3%) were returned unused (RU) blood bags. The transportation time for these 74 bags was 818.3 ± 941.643 min, significantly higher than bags without colour changes, (p=0.02). Interestingly, 71.4% of the colour changes occurred within the ward. The 7 litre coolant box with an average of 1-5 blood bags per box had a statistically significant higher percentage of colour change with 59.2% compared to the 5 litre coolant box (p=0.05). This study showed that the temperature chain of blood bags was often not well maintained. These results could be mainly due to the non-adherence to the standard operating procedure (SOP) of blood transfusion and the usage of non-standardized coolant boxes.

  6. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  7. Carbon dots for fluorescent detection of α-glucosidase activity using enzyme activated inner filter effect and its application to anti-diabetic drug discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Weiheng [Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Wu, Di [School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Xia, Lian [Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Chen, Xuefeng [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xian 710021 (China); Li, Guoliang, E-mail: 61254368@163.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xian 710021 (China); Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Qiu, Nannan [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Chen, Guang; Sun, Zhiwei; You, Jinmao [Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis of Shandong Province, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: wuyongning@cfsa.net.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Centre for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2017-06-22

    Recently, α-glucosidase inhibitor has been widely used in clinic for diabetic therapy. In the present study, a facile and sensitive fluorescent assay based on enzyme activated inner filter effect (IFE) on nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) was first developed for the detection of α-glucosidase. The N-doped CDs with green emission were prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis and gave the fluorescence quantum yield of 30%, which were used as the signal output. Through α-glucosidase catalysis, 4-nitrophenol was released from 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (NGP). Interestingly, the absorption of 4-nitrophenol and the excitation of CDs were completely overlapping. Due to its great molar absorptivity, 4-nitrophenol was capable of acting as a powerful absorber to affect the fluorescent signal of CDs (i.e. IFE). By converting the absorption signals into fluorescence signals, the facile fluorescence assay strategy could be realized for α-glucosidase activity sensing, which effectively avoided the complex modification of the surface of CDs or construction of the nanoprobes. The established IFE-based sensing platform offered a low detection limit of 0.01 U/mL (S/N = 3). This proposed sensing approach has also been expanded to the inhibitor screening and showed excellent applicability. As a typical α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose was investigated with a low detection limit of 10{sup −8} M. This developed method enjoyed many merits including simplicity, lost cost, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity, which also provided a new insight on the application of CDs to develop the facile and sensitive biosensor. - Highlights: • Green N-doped CDs were first prepared by a facile synthesis process. • IFE-based sensor without covalent linking or surface modifications was developed. • The method was successfully applied to α-glucosidase detection. • The method can be employed for sensitive screening of anti-diabetes drugs.

  8. Modeling the impact of drought on canopy carbon and water fluxes for a subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation in southern China through parameter optimization using an ensemble Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ju

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil and atmospheric water deficits have significant influences on CO2 and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Model parameterization significantly affects the ability of a model to simulate carbon, water, and energy fluxes. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and observations of gross primary productivity (GPP and latent heat (LE fluxes were used to optimize model parameters significantly affecting the calculation of these fluxes for a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeastern China. The optimized parameters include the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax, the slope in the modified Ball-Berry model (M and the coefficient determining the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to atmospheric water vapor deficit (D0. Optimized Vcmax and M showed larger variations than D0. Seasonal variations of Vcmax and M were more pronounced than the variations between the two years. Vcmax and M were associated with soil water content (SWC. During dry periods, SWC at the 20 cm depth explained 61% and 64% of variations of Vcmax and M, respectively. EnKF parameter optimization improved the simulations of GPP, LE and SH, mainly during dry periods. After parameter optimization using EnKF, the variations of GPP, LE and SH explained by the model increased by 1% to 4% at half-hourly steps and by 3% to 5% at daily time steps. Further efforts are needed to differentiate the real causes of parameter variations and improve the ability of models to describe the change of stomatal conductance with net photosynthesis rate and the sensitivity of photosynthesis capacity to soil water stress under different environmental conditions.

  9. Properties of the cloudy bag in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the pion mode softening, the pion field of the clody bag in the nuclear matter increases if the nuclear density increases. This causes in its turn the decreasing of the bag size and at a sufficiently large density of the nuclear matter lead to absolute instability of the cloudy bag-nucleon, which means the transition of the nuclear matter in another nonnucleon phase

  10. Reducing single-use plastic shopping bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2017-12-01

    In the USA, local governments have the primary responsibility to manage MSW. However, local governments lack the authority to explicitly shift costs or responsibility back onto the producer for specific problem wastes. A particularly problematic waste for local governments is the single-use plastic bag. In 2014, in the USA, 103.465 billion single-use plastic shopping bags were consumed. Because of their extremely low recyclability rate, plastic bags remain a significant source of land-based litter and marine debris and impair stormwater management systems. They also reduce the effectiveness of automated recycling systems. In response, local governments increasingly have adopted a variety of measures specifically intended to reduce the store-level consumption of single-use shopping bags in 5 major categories: bans, imposition of fees and taxes, establishing minimum product design of bags, requiring consumer education, and mandating retailer take-back programs. As of September 2017, there were 271 local governments in the USA with plastic bag ordinances covering 9.7% of the nation's population. The majority (95%) of the ordinances is a ban on single-use plastic bags; 56.9% of these bans also include a mandatory fee on paper and/or reusable bags. For the fee-based ordinances, the mode is $0.10 per bag; every tax/fee ordinance allows retailers to retain some or all the collected fee. As local governments continue to increase their actions on plastic bags, 11 states have enacted laws to prohibit local governments from regulating single-use plastic bags. Because of the success with single-use bags, local governments are also enacting similar ordinances on single-use expanded polystyrene consumer products and other single-use plastic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toponium Tests Of Top-Quark Higgs Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, Alick L.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that top quarks, or very massive fourth generation quarks, might surround themselves with a Higgs "bag" of deformation of the Higgs expectation value from its vacuum magnitude. In this paper we address the question of whether such nonlinear Higgs-top interaction effects are subject to experimental test. We first note that if top quarks were necessarily accompanied by Higgs "bags", then top quark weak decay would involve the sudden disruption of the Higgs "bag", ...

  12. Structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.

    1989-07-13

    We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).

  13. Two cases of death due to plastic bag suffocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K; Beng, O B

    2001-01-01

    Deaths due to plastic bag suffocation or plastic bag asphyxia are not reported in Malaysia. In the West many suicides by plastic bag asphyxia, particularly in the elderly and those who are chronically and terminally ill, have been reported. Accidental deaths too are not uncommon in the West, both among small children who play with shopping bags and adolescents who are solvent abusers. Another well-known but not so common form of accidental death from plastic bag asphyxia is sexual asphyxia, which is mostly seen among adult males. Homicide by plastic bag asphyxia too is reported in the West and the victims are invariably infants or adults who are frail or terminally ill and who cannot struggle. Two deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia are presented. Both the autopsies were performed at the University Hospital Mortuary, Kuala Lumpur. Both victims were 50-year old married Chinese males. One death was diagnosed as suicide and the other as sexual asphyxia. Sexual asphyxia is generally believed to be a problem associated exclusively with the West. Specific autopsy findings are often absent in deaths due to plastic bag asphyxia and therefore such deaths could be missed when some interested parties have altered the scene and most importantly have removed the plastic bag. A visit to the scene of death is invariably useful.

  14. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  15. Radiative decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachenko, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A new model of radiative π-meson decays of vector mesons in the chiral bag model is proposed. The quark-π-meson interaction has the form of a pseudoscalar coupling and is located on the bag surface. The vector meson decay width depends on the quark masses, the π-meson decay constant, the radius of the bag, and the free parameter Z 2 , which specifies the disappearance of the bag during the decay. The obtained results for the omega- and p-decay widths are in satisfactory agreement with the experiment

  16. Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus PLO6 using oxo-biodegradable plastics as a carbon and energy source. Oxo-biodegradable polymers contain pro-oxidants that accelerate their physical and biological degradation. These polymers were developed to decrease the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To study the degradation of the plastic polymers, oxo-biodegradable plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days, and fragments of these bags were used as substrates for P. ostreatus. We observed that physical treatment alone was not sufficient to initiate degradation. Instead, mechanical modifications and reduced titanium oxide (TiO2 concentrations caused by sunlight exposure triggered microbial degradation. The low specificity of lignocellulolytic enzymes and presence of endomycotic nitrogen-fixing microorganisms were also contributing factors in this process.

  17. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report

  18. Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner.

  19. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin-incorporated (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deltamethrin-incorporated polypropylene (PP) bag, ZeroFly® Storage Bag, is a new technology to reduce postharvest losses caused by stored-product insect pests. ZeroFly bags filled with untreated maize were compared to PP bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl ...

  20. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  1. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control

  2. 50 CFR 660.721 - Recreational fishing bag limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Santa Barbara County) to the U.S.-Mexico border. (2) Twenty-five albacore tuna if any part of the... HMS. The bag limits include fish taken in both state and Federal waters. (a) Albacore Tuna Daily Bag... recreational fisherman may take or retain no more than: (1) Ten albacore tuna if any part of the fishing trip...

  3. Storage quality and marketability potential of bagged silage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagged sole maize and maize–cowpea silages in three bag sizes were assessed at 42 and 282 d post-ensiling for sensory and chemical quality. A survey of dairy farmers on silage use and preferences was conducted in the Chikwaka communal area and Marirangwe small-scale commercial farming area. Only silage ...

  4. Behaviour of hadron matter within the bag model: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberson, G.; Savatier, F.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum theory of the vibrating bag developed in I, it is worked out the partition function of a gas of hadronic bags. This is done within the small deformation, Van der Waals approximation. The outcome is in full agreement with a previous, less elaborate model of deconfinement phase transition

  5. On the quantisation of one-dimensional bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairley, G.T.; Squires, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    The quantisation of one-dimensional MIT bags by expanding the fields as a sum of classical modes and truncating the series after the first term is discussed. The lowest states of a bag in a world containing two scalar quark fields are obtained. Problems associated with the zero-point oscillations of the field are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Light hadrons in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A version of the bag model with broken chiral symmetry is proposed. A satisfactory description of the experimental data on light hadrons including the pion is obtained. The estimate of the pion-nucleon σ term is given in the framework of this model. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated. The centre-of-mass motion problem in bag models is discussed

  7. Investigating Comfort Temperatures and Heat Transfer in Sleeping Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trevor; Hill, Lara

    2017-01-01

    After many years of confusion, thermal performance of sleeping bags has now been quantified and unified using expensive test techniques. Based on Newton's law of cooling, we present a simple inexpensive test and model to check manufacturers' claims on the temperature performance of a range of modern sleeping bags.

  8. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  9. Chiral bag model with constituent quarks: topological and nontopological decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, I.Yu.; Sveshnikov, K.A.; Fedorov, S.M.; Khalili, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The three-phase modification of the hybrid chiral bag containing along with asymptotic freedom and hadronization phases and also intermediate phase of the constituent quarks is considered. The self-consistent solutions of the equations of the model in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case are determined with an account of the fermion vacuum polarization effects. The bag renormalized complete energy is studied as a function of the parameters characterizing the bag geometry and its topological (baryon) charge. It is shown that for nonzero topological charge there exists the whole series of configurations representing the local minima of the bag complete energy and containing all three phases, whereas the bag energy minimum in the nontopological case corresponds to zero dimensions of the area corresponding to asymptotic freedom phase [ru

  10. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r......The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... by smoothing the restriction through bagging....

  11. Vector meson decays in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Jennings, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Vector meson decays are examined in a model where a confined quark and antiquark annihilate, producing a pair of elementary pseudoscalar mesons. Two versions of the pseudoscalar meson-quark interaction are employed, one where the coupling is restricted to the bag surface and one where it extends throughout the bag volume. Energy conservation is ensured in the model through insertion of exponential factors containing the bag energy at each interaction vertex. To guarantee momentum conservation, a wave-packet description is utilized in which the decay widths are normalized by a factor involving the overlap of the initial bag state with the confined qanti q state of zero momentum. With either interaction, the model yields a value for the p-width that exceeds the empirical width by a factor two. For the Ksup(*) and PHI mesons, the computed widths depend strongly on the interaction employed. Implications of these results for chiral bag models are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  13. Process and device for changing a filter located in a vessel without breaking the confinement of the contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Georges.

    1982-01-01

    From the non contaminated area, the filter is enclosed in a leak tight bag which is affixed to the outside periphery of a supporting frame. The filter is placed in the bottom of the bag which is then welded in two places, a cut is then made between the two welds to achieve a sealed membrane separating the two halves of the vessel. An additional supporting frame is then placed on the frame. The new filter is secured in place and the sealed membrane is withdrawn from the contaminated part of the vessel [fr

  14. Modulation of Huntingtin Toxicity by BAG1 is Dependent on an Intact BAG Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Bähr

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington´s disease, one of the so-called poly-glutamine diseases, is a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by formation of cytosolic and nuclear inclusion bodies and progressive neurodegeneration. Recently, we have shown that Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG1, a multifunctional co-chaperone, modulates toxicity, aggregation, degradation and subcellular distribution in vitro and in vivo of the disease-specific mutant huntingtin protein. Aiming at future small molecule-based therapeutical approaches, we further analysed structural demands for these effects employing the C-terminal deletion mutant BAGDC. We show that disruption of the BAG domain known to eliminate intracellular heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 binding and activation also precludes binding of Siah-1 thereby leaving nuclear huntingtin translocation unaffected. At the same time BAGDC fails to induce increased proteasomal huntingtin turnover and does not inhibit intracellular huntingtin aggregation, a pre-requisite necessary for prevention of huntingtin toxicity.

  15. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  16. Non-topological soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilets, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Friedberg-Lee soliton model, which effects confinement by a quantal scalar field, is discussed. The Lagrangian for the non-topological soliton model is the usual QCD Lagrangian supplemented by a non-linear scalar sigma field term. Static solutions to the field equations are considered in the mean field approximation. Small amplitude oscillations are discussed. Quantum alternatives to the mean field approximation are also considered. Methods of momentum projection and Lorentz boost are described, and the generator coordinate method is discussed. Calculations of the N-N interaction are reviewed briefly. Also discussed is one-gluon exchange, as well as the pion and dressing of the baryons. The hadron states are summarized. One loop quantum corrections are discussed briefly. Work in progress is mentioned in the areas of N-anti N annihilation, the many bag problem, and a Pauli equation for the nucleon. 31 refs

  17. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  18. Pion and an improved static bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.F.; Johnson, K.

    1980-04-01

    Quark-model calculations involve an extended static object localized in space. We introduce new methods, involving momentum-space wave packets, which account for this localization. These methods have little effect on heavy states, whose sizes are large compared to their Compton size 1/m, but are very important for light particles such as the pion. In this treatment the pion's mass is naturally very small, and, in order to connect with a spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, we require that m/sub ..pi../ vanish when the light quarks are massless. Expanding about this limit (and also readjusting the fit to other hadrons), we obtain m/sub q/=(m-italic/sub u/+m/sub d/)/2=33 MeV. We calculate F/sub ..pi../ approx. = 145 MeV (using a normalization such that F/sub ..pi../ vertical-bar /sub exp/=93 MeV), F/sub K//F/sub ..pi../ approx. = 1, and various corrections to static properties of baryons. In addition we explore the relationship of our methods with chiral perturbation theory, deriving the formula m/sub ..pi../ /sup 2/=(m-italic/sub u/+m/sub d/) < ..pi..(p) vertical-bar q-bar(0)q(0) vertical-bar ..pi..(p) > in the appropriate approximation and commenting on the quark mass obtained from the nucleon's sigma term. Finally we discuss the bag model's use of the scalar density q-barq as an order parameter describing the separation of the spontaneously broken vacuum phase from the perturbative vacuum of the bag's interior.

  19. Eyeglass Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  20. What do middle school children bring in their bag lunches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F; Pelletier, Robin L; Powers, Holly S; Marshall, Simon J; Zive, Michelle M; Elder, John P

    2002-04-01

    Limited documentation exists on nutritional characteristics of bag lunches, although about 30% of adolescents take them. This study describes: (a) the prevalence of different types of foods in bag lunches, (b) the number of kilocalories, percentage of kilocalories from fat, amount of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sugar, and (c) the differences related to gender and grade. In 24 middle schools, observations were made on 1,381 bag lunches (about 58 per school) during one semester. The most common bag lunch components were beverages and sandwiches. Fruits were more common than vegetables; non-chip snacks and chips were more common than cookies, candy, and cakes/pies. Bag lunches averaged 596.2 kcal (29.7% from fat), 20.8 g of total fat, 6.2 g of saturated fat, 32.6 mg of cholesterol, and 21.3 g of sugar. Boys' bag lunches had significantly more kilocalories, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and percentage of energy from fat than girls' lunches. Significant grade differences were found only for total fat and cholesterol, with seventh graders bringing more than sixth graders. More research on the nutritional quality of foods brought to school in bag lunches is important for gaining a better understanding about how to improve students' nutrition. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  1. Bogota Bag in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome at Kathmandu Model Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bijendra Dhoj; Koirala, Udaya; Upadhyaya, Amit M; Joshi, Arbin; Dhital, Saroj

    2017-09-08

    The gold standard of quick and definitive treatment of Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is surgical decompression by opening the abdomen and leaving it open until intra-abdominal pressure decreases. Temporary abdominal closure techniques are used to postpone definite closure until predisposing factors causing pathologic elevation of intra-abdominal pressure are resolved.This study aim to analyze feasibility of Bogota Bag placement as a way of temporary abdominal closure. Cases admitted in the period of eight years that were diagnosed to have or at risk to develop ACS and managed with 'Bogota Bag', irrespective of primary diagnosis were reviewed retrospectively. Cause of ACS, reasons to place Bogota bag, its complications and final outcome in terms of mortality related or not related with Bogota Bag placement were assessed. Total of ten patients had placement of Bogota Bag in the period of eight years. Laparotomy for bowel perforation with peritonitis was the most common primary condition contributing to ACS. Bogota bag was placed in two cases after emergency decompression as a therapeutic measure whereas others were done as prophylactic measure. There were two mortalities (20%) which were not directly related to abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdomen closure with Bogota Bag for patients with ACS or likely to develop ACS is a feasible technique with minimal procedure related morbidities.

  2. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  3. PICS bags safely store unshelled and shelled groundnuts in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baributsa, D; Baoua, I B; Bakoye, O N; Amadou, L; Murdock, L L

    2017-05-01

    We conducted an experiment in Niger to evaluate the performance of hermetic triple layer (Purdue Improved Crop Storage- PICS) bags for the preservation of shelled and unshelled groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. Naturally-infested groundnut was stored in PICS bags and woven bags for 6.7 months. After storage, the average oxygen level in the PICS bags fell from 21% to 18% (v/v) and 21%-15% (v/v) for unshelled and shelled groundnut, respectively. Identified pests present in the stored groundnuts were Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). After 6.7 months of storage, in the woven bag, there was a large increase in the pest population accompanied by a weight loss of 8.2% for unshelled groundnuts and 28.7% for shelled groundnut. In PICS bags for both shelled and unshelled groundnuts, by contrast, the density of insect pests did not increase, there was no weight loss, and the germination rate was the same compared to that recorded at the beginning of the experiment. Storing shelled groundnuts in PICS bags is the most cost-effective way as it increases the quantity of grain stored.

  4. Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy

  5. Connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, M.; Bertrand, P.; Feix, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    The connection between hydrodynamic, water bag and Vlasov models is still under consideration with numerical experiments. For long wavelength, slightly non linear excitations and initial preparations such as the usual adiabatic invariant Pn -3 is space independent, the hydrodynamic model is equivalent to the water bag, and for long wavelengths a nice agreement is found with the full numerical solution of the Vlasov equation. For other initial conditions when the water bag cannot be defined, the hydrodynamic approach does not represent the correct behaviour. (author)

  6. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Wirzba, A.

    1987-05-01

    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  7. Development of cleanable HEPA filters - recleaning of deep pleated HEPA filters by flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Fine particle dusts with diameters less than about 2 μm, often emitted from high temperature industrial processes, cannot be sufficiently well removed from gas streams using current methods. Frequently concentrated in this small size range are heavy metals, the emission of which poses a growing environmental threat in the form of soil contamination. Current HEPA filter technology, via removal efficiencies for submicron particles some of three orders of magnitude above those of bag filters or electrostatic precipitators, offers the potential for practically eliminating fine particle emissions. A cost effective means of high efficiency gas cleaning, with total operating expenses comparable to those of conventional methods for larger particles, is offered by the development of cleanable HEPA filter units. In case of recleaning HEPA filter media by reverse flow at 1 m/s the stable filtration of fine particle dusts with diameters > 0.3 μm may be possible. Experimental investigations had been performed concerning the dependance of static pressure inside a filter pleat from several pleat configurations and the recleaning device during the recleaning process. The results are compared with a model predicting pressure and velocity profiles inside a filter pleat during the recleaning by reverse flow. Results from field tests with an improved filter configuration are also presented. (orig.) [de

  8. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  9. Remoção de diclofenaco, ibuprofeno, naproxeno e paracetamol em filtro ecológico seguido por filtro de carvão granular biologicamente ativado Removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and paracetamol in ecological filter followed by granular carbon filter biologically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moço Erba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O filtro ecológico representa uma promissora tecnologia de tratamento, em razão desta não necessitar da aplicação de produtos químicos, além de sua constatada eficiência. Nele, estabelece-se entre os seres vivos a relação de cadeia alimentar. Inicialmente uma matriz aquosa foi acrescida de quatro fármacos (diclofenaco, naproxeno, ibuprofeno e paracetamol e posteriormente analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para avaliar a remoção desses compostos pelo filtro ecológico seguido pelo filtro de carvão granular biologicamente ativado. Parâmetros, entre eles turbidez, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, cor aparente e cor verdadeira, foram mensurados para verificar a eficiência dos filtros. Houve remoção de 97,43% do diclofenaco, 85,03% do ibuprofeno: 94,11% do naproxeno e 84,07% do paracetamol.The ecological filter represents a promising treatment technology, because this doesn't require the application of chemicals and is efficient. In it, is between living beings the relationship of the food chain. Initially an aqueous matrix was added to four drugs (diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen and paracetamol, and subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate the removal of these compounds by ecological filter followed by granular activated carbon filter biologically active. The pharmacological compounds and parameters such as turbity, total and fecal coliforms, apparent color and true color were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of filters. There was removal of the drugs applied and the parameters measured. The percentages of removal were 97,43% of diclofenaco,85,03% of ibuprofen, 94,11% of naproxen and 84,07% of paracetamol.

  10. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  11. S-shaped magnetic macroparticle filter for cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    A new magnetic macroparticle filter design consisting of two 90 o filters forming an S-shape is described. Transport properties of this S-filter are investigated using Langmuir and deposition probes. It is shown that filter efficiency is product of the efficiencies of two 90 o filters and the deposition rate is still acceptably high to perform thin film deposition. Films of amorphous hard carbon have been deposited using a 90 o filter and the S-filter, and macroparticle content of the films are compared

  12. Kluster Bag of Word Menggunakan Weka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tari Mardiana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bidang pengolahan bahasa alami dan sistem temu balik informasi, representasi sebuah data teks sangat penting untuk mendukung proses analisis data statistik di dalamnya. Data teks dengan bentuk tidak terstruktur dapat direpresentasikan secara sederhana menggunakan sekumpulan set kata yang disebut bag-of-words dan belum memiliki label atau kelas tertentu. Data unsupervised atau objek-objek yang belum memiliki label dapat dikelompokan menggunakan klustering berdasarkan kemiripan satu objek dengan objek lain. Artikel ini membahas perbandingan hasil pengelompokan unsupervised data menggunakan algoritma kluster yang tersedia pada tools Weka, yaitu SimpleKMeans, X-Means, dan Farthest First. SimpleKMeans dan XMeans digunakan untuk mengolah dataset dan mengelompokan berdasarkan jumlah kluster tetap yang digunakan, sedangkan Farthest First akan meletakan semua pusat kluster pada titik terjauh dari pusat kluster yang sudah ada untuk mengelompokan data. Dataset berasal dari UCI machine learning dengan menggunakan 3 koleksi data, yaitu Enron Email, NIPS Proceedings, dan Daily Kos Blog entries. Performa dataset diuji dengan berbagai masukan parameter yang berbeda meliputi jumlah kluster hingga evaluasi sum squared error (SSE, serta iterasi selama proses pengolahan data. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat dijadikan acuan untuk menentukan algoritma dan parameter yang sesuai untuk melakukan pengelompokan data yang tidak memiliki label.

  13. Adsorption of gaseous pollutants on activated carbon filters. Modelling of the coupled exchanges of heat and mass; Adsorption de polluants gazeux sur des filtres de charbon actif. Modelisation des echanges couples de matiere et de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiani, E.

    2000-01-27

    The aim of this work is to remove gasoline and odorous molecules vapors. Thermodynamics and kinetics studies have been carried out; they concern the fixation of representative gases on activated carbons. Hydrogen sulfide and n-butane are chosen to represent the odorous molecules. Different activated carbons are considered: only the adsorbent impregnated by KOH has satisfying performance. The adsorption of hydrocarbons on a granulated activated carbon is studied on four original devices specifically perfected for this work: gravimetry, calorimetry, thermal measurements and gaseous phase chromatography. The gravimetric measurements are coupled to thermal measurements inside the granulates. Strong temperature variations have then been observed inside a granulate during the adsorption. These experimental results have been taken into account to adapt the classical Langmuir kinetic model. This new model allows to predict all the curves: setting / internal temperature variation for the adsorption of the hydrocarbons alone. The competitive nature of the adsorption sites allows then to explain qualitatively the adsorption of binary mixtures of hydrocarbons. At last, the classical Langmuir model allows to explain correctly the thermodynamic results, for the hydrocarbons alone or in binary mixture. The proposed modelling allows then to treat both on a kinetic and thermodynamic way the case of a non isothermal adsorption at the scale of an activated carbon granulate and to predict the phenomena at the filter scale. (O.M.)

  14. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may transport...

  15. Deformation of the Bag Skirt of ACV in Heave Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Hiromitsu; Matsuo, Hideo; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Shintarou; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito

    A method to predict the change of the cushion pressure and the bag skirt configuration of ACV in heave is proposed. It is a quasistatic analysis based on the analysis of the skirt configuration in static operation that was proposed by the present authors. The cushion pressure depends on the velocity of motion as well as the hoverheight. It is higher in the downward motion than in the upward motion with the same hoverheight. As the model approaches the ground surface, the bag skirt is pushed outwards and also upwards but the hoverheight still decreases. This produces the increase of the cushion pressure that also flattened the configuration of the bag. The outward displacement of the bag produces the additional increase of the cushion base area and increases the restoring force. The stability is then increased.

  16. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.J.; Maslow, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)

  17. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The process known as double bag vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (DBVARTM) was developed by NASA to help deplete by products. To date, the NASA DBVARTM process...

  18. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape......A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...... and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape....

  19. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000 system.

  20. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  1. Properties of hybrid stars in an extended MIT bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Tmurbagan; Liu Guangzhou; Zhu Mingfeng

    2009-01-01

    The properties of hybrid stars are investigated in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) and an MIT bag model with density-dependent bag constant to describe the hadron phase (HP) and quark phase (QP), respectively. We find that the density-dependent B(ρ) decreases with baryon density ρ; this decrement makes the strange quark matter become more energetically favorable than ever; which makes the threshold densities of the hadron-quark phase transition lower than those of the original bag constant case. In this case, the hyperon degrees of freedom can not be considered. As a result, the equations of state of a star in the mixed phase (MP) become softer whereas those in the QP become stiffer, and the radii of the star obviously decrease. This indicates that the extended MIT bag model is more suitable to describe hybrid stars with small radii. (authors)

  2. The effects of four agrobotanical extracts and three types of bags on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Shaki area of Oyo State, Nigeria and treated with extracts from Azadiractha indica (neem) leaf, Xylopia aethiopica(uda) pod, Occimum graticimum (nche anwu) leaf and Zingiber officinale (ginger) stem tuber. The storage bags were 0.05mm gauge polythene bags, 0.05mm gauge polythene-lined-jute bags and jute bags.

  3. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. The notice did not include the... bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of...

  4. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From... Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags...

  5. Electricity Demand Projection Using a Path-Coefficient Analysis and BAG-SA Approach: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Path-coefficient analysis is utilized to investigate the direct and indirect effects of economic growth, population growth, urbanization rate, industrialization level, and carbon intensity on electricity demand of China. To improve the projection accuracy of electricity demand, this study proposes a hybrid bat algorithm, Gaussian perturbations, and simulated annealing (BAG-SA optimization method. The proposed BAG-SA algorithm not only inherits the simplicity and efficiency of the standard BA with a capability of searching for global optimality but also enhances local search ability and speeds up the global convergence rate. The BAG-SA algorithm is employed to optimize the coefficients of the multiple linear and quadratic forms of electricity demand estimation model. Results indicate that the proposed algorithm has higher precision and reliability than the coefficients optimized by other single-optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, or bat algorithm. And the quadratic form of BAG-SA electricity demand estimation model has better fitting ability compared with the multiple linear form of the model. Therefore, the quadratic form of the model is applied to estimate electricity demand of China from 2016 to 2030. The findings of this study demonstrate that China’s electricity demand will reach 14925200 million KWh in 2030.

  6. C-Bag Consolidation: An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    AND SAFETY STOCK ANALYSIS GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...i.e. pilots, firefighters) was excluded from this research. Any items found in both the A-bag and C-bag (helmet, web belt, canteen , etc.) were also...M8 detector paper booklet, M9 detector paper roll, M258A1 or M291 decontamination kit, M295 decontamination kit, a web belt, canteen , M1 canteen

  7. BoR: Bag-of-Relations for Symbol Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent; Lamiroy , Bart

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we address a new scheme for symbol retrieval based on bag-of-relations (BoRs) which are computed between extracted visual primitives (e.g. circle and corner). Our features consist of pairwise spatial relations from all possible combinations of individual visual primitives. The key characteristic of the overall process is to use topological relation information indexed in bags-of-relations and use this for recognition. As a consequence, directional relati...

  8. Bagworm bags as portable armour against invertebrate predators

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as “portable armour” against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a po...

  9. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  10. Comment on bag models with spontaneously broken color symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A recently suggested field-theoretic bag model, where gluons are confined via a Higgs mechanism, is discussed. It is found that the proposed model creates gluon boundary conditions that break global SU/sub c/(3) invariance. A modified scheme that removes this anomaly is suggested. However, some severe generic problems remain. Examples are the lack of a suppression mechanism for states with open color and the large surface energy of the bag states

  11. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  12. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  13. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  15. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  16. Development of filters and housings for use on active plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.; Pratt, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    New designs of housings for conventional HEPA filters have been developed and are now in use. A further design is planned for future use. The main features to be developed are the engineering of double door systems to replace bag posting and other methods of filter changing which expose personnel to hazardous environments and the addition of a secondary containment to reduce the role of the gasket seal in the filtration efficiency. Also under development are circular geometry filters of HEPA standard which offer significant advantages over rectangular filters for applications requiring remote shielded change facilities. Two types of filter construction are being evaluated, conventional radial flow cartridge filters and spiral-wound, axial-flow filters. The application of circular filters for primary filter systems on active plant is in hand. A push-through change system has been developed for a new cell facility under construction at Harwell. Existing rectangular filters on a high activity cell are being replaced with clusters of small cartridge filters to overcome changing and disposal problems. A similar system but using 1700 m 3 /h filters for large volume off-gas treatment is also being studied. A remote change shielded filter installation is being developed for use in high alpha, beta, gamma extract systems. The design incorporates large cartridge filters in sealed drums with remote transfer and connection to duct work in the facility. A novel application of the use of double-lid technology removes the need for separate shut off dampers and enables the drums to be sealed for all transfer operations

  17. Extended Stability of Epinephrine Hydrochloride Injection in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags Stored in Amber Ultraviolet Light-Blocking Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Edward T; Ho, Kang C; Lyda, Clark; Fullmer, Beth A; Oldland, Alan R; Kiser, Tyree H

    2017-09-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of epinephrine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags for up to 60 days. Methods: Dilutions of epinephrine hydrochloride to concentrations of 16 and 64 µg/mL were performed under aseptic conditions. The bags were then placed into ultraviolet light-blocking bags and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) or under refrigeration (3°C-5°C). Three samples of each preparation and storage environment were analyzed on days 0, 30, 45, and 60. Physical stability was performed by visual examination. The pH was assessed at baseline and upon final degradation evaluation. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of epinephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To determine the stability-indicating nature of the assay, degradation 12 months following preparation was evaluated. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Results: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. At days 30 and 45, all bags had less than 10% degradation. At day 60, all refrigerated bags had less than 10% degradation. Overall, the mean concentration of all measurements demonstrated less than 10% degradation at 60 days at room temperature and under refrigeration. Conclusion: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride bags stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was stable up to 45 days at room temperature and up to 60 days under refrigeration.

  18. A validation study of new cryopreservation bags for implementation in a blood and marrow transplant laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Gregory J; Wilson, Emily; Isom, Scott; Hurd, David D

    2011-06-01

    A new cryopreservation bag for hematopoietic cell transplantation requires validation as a safe alternative to the bag currently being used in the laboratory. The new bag was validated using both laboratory and clinical criteria. Laboratory validation proceeded using paired samples of mononuclear cells processed using standard procedures. Cells cryopreserved in the new and old bags were compared for viability, cell counts, CD34 enumeration, colony-forming unit assays, and bag integrity. After completion of laboratory investigations, engraftment with the new bags was followed and compared to historical engraftment using the old bags. There were no significant differences between the old and new bags detected using laboratory studies. Bag integrity was equivalent. The validation data suggested impaired cell function after cryopreservation in the new bags, but there were no significant differences in engraftment potential using either material. Days to engraftment was longer using the new bags, but statistical analysis revealed an association with CD34 dose and not with cryopreservation bag type. The new bags were noninferior to the old bags. A change in cryopreservation bag type may appear to affect cell function and potentially affect engraftment. Multiple analyses may be needed to understand the effect of cell processing changes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. Dust removal and filter technology. Entstaubungs- und Filtertechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, H.W. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). DMT-Institut fuer Staubbekaempfung, Gefahrstoffe und Ergonomie); Henke, B. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). DMT-Institut fuer Staubbekaempfung, Gefahrstoffe und Ergonomie)

    1991-01-01

    New approaches were adopted in filter technology to respond to technological changes in mechanized mining and to allow perfect dust removal in keeping with occupational hygiene requirements. Self-supporting filter materials based on ceramic fibres and synthetic granulates were taken to develop filter elements allowing lamination to enhance their separation-active surface area. Filter materials made from thermally fixed fibre nonwovens were processed to form plicated filter bags of the same structural volume but with a surface area increased by a factor of 2.5. Integrated inlet nozzles were developed to allow these elements to be cleaned of dust deposits. These nozzles were also studied in basic filter-technology tests. A test rig supplied design findings which were included in a study to develop new generations of dedusters. A reduction of design volume and an increase of through-put rate greater than 20% could be predicted. Service tests with modified filter materials were run for ventilation-air dust dust removal both for whole faces and for face segments. The benefits of filter technology for face, face opening and drifting were highlighted. New methods for wetting and transport of the dust removed from the dedusters were developed. New concepts of exhaust-air filter separators allow flat storage bunkers to be used in pneumatic conveyance of building materials at the face. (orig.)

  20. Leucoreduced platelet concentrates in additive solution: an evaluation of filters and storage containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.; Pietersz, R.; Reesink, H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AND OBJECTIVE: Buffy coat (BC) pooling sets are integrated systems, consisting of a pooling bag, a filter and a platelet storage container, for the production of leucoreduced platelet concentrates (LR-PCs) from pooled BCs. It was our aim to compare various pooling sets that are currently

  1. Burns From Hot Wheat Bags: A Public Safety Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Amprayil, Mathew; Solanki, Nicholas S.; Greenwood, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Wheat bags are therapeutic devices that are heated in microwaves and commonly used to provide relief from muscle and joint pain. The Royal Adelaide Hospital Burns Unit has observed a number of patients with significant burn injuries resulting from their use. Despite their dangers, the products come with limited safety information. Methods: Data were collected from the Burns Unit database for all patients admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags from 2004 to 2009. This was analyzed to determine the severity of the burn injury and identify any predisposing factors. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperature of wheat bags when heated to determine their potential for causing thermal injury. Results: 11 patients were admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags. The median age was 52 years and the mean total body surface area was 1.1%. All burns were either deep dermal (45.5%) or full thickness (54.5%). Ten patients required operative management. Predisposing factors (eg, neuropathy) to thermal injury were identified in 7 patients. The experimental study showed that hot wheat bags reached temperatures of 57.3°C (135.1°F) when heated according to instructions, 63.3°C (145.9°F) in a 1000 W microwave and 69.6°C (157.3°F) on reheating. Conclusions: Hot wheat bags cause serious burn injury. When heated improperly, they can reach temperatures high enough to cause epidermal necrosis in a short period of time. Patients with impaired temperature sensation are particularly at risk. There should be greater public awareness of the dangers of wheat bag use and more specific safety warnings on the products. PMID:21915357

  2. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  3. Improved bag models of P-wave baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Wong Chunwa

    1988-01-01

    Problems in two previous bag-model calculations of P-wave baryon states are pointed out. The two-body matrix elements used in one of these models, the Myhrer-Wroldsen bag model, have now been revised and corrected by Myhrer, Umino and Wroldsen. We use their corrected matrix elements to construct simple bag models in which baryon masses are stabilized against collapse by using a finite pion size. We find that baryon masses in both ground and excited states can be fitted with the same model parameters. Models with small-bag baryons of the type proposed by Brown and Rho are then obtained. Typical bag radii are 0.5 fm for N, 0.6 fm for Δ and 0.7 fm for P-wave nonstrange baryons. In these models, the mixing angles are still unsatisfactory, while inadequacy in the treatment of center-of-mass motion found in an earlier paper persists. These results are briefly discussed. especially in connection with skyrmion models. (orig.)

  4. Maximum Mass of Hybrid Stars in the Quark Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdyan, G. B.; Vartanyan, Yu. L.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of model parameters in the equation of state for quark matter on the magnitude of the maximum mass of hybrid stars is examined. Quark matter is described in terms of the extended MIT bag model including corrections for one-gluon exchange. For nucleon matter in the range of densities corresponding to the phase transition, a relativistic equation of state is used that is calculated with two-particle correlations taken into account based on using the Bonn meson-exchange potential. The Maxwell construction is used to calculate the characteristics of the first order phase transition and it is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the baryon concentrations of the coexisting phases grow monotonically as the bag constant B increases. It is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the maximum mass of a hybrid star increases as the bag constant B decreases. For a given value of the bag parameter B, the maximum mass rises as the strong interaction constant αs increases. It is shown that the configurations of hybrid stars with maximum masses equal to or exceeding the mass of the currently known most massive pulsar are possible for values of the strong interaction constant αs > 0.6 and sufficiently low values of the bag constant.

  5. Performance of triple bagging hermetic technology for postharvest storage of cowpea grain in Niger

    KAUST Repository

    Baoua, Ibrahim B.

    2012-10-01

    Triple bagging technology for protecting postharvest cowpea grain from losses to the bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is currently being adopted on a fairly large scale in ten West and Central African countries, including Niger. The triple bag consists of two inner high-density polyethylene bags acting as oxygen barriers, which in turn are encased in an outer woven polypropylene bag that serves primarily for mechanical strength. These hermetic bags, available in either 50 or 100 kg capacity, are called Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) bags. Adoption of PICS technology in West and Central Africa has been driven by its effectiveness, simplicity, low cost, durability, and manufacture within the region. From surveys on adoption we discovered that farmers have begun to re-use bags they had used the previous year or even the previous two years. In the present study, we compared the performance of three different types of PICS bags: (1) new 50 kg (2) new 100 kg bags and (3) once-used 50 kg bags, all filled with naturally infested untreated cowpeas. In these PICS bags the O 2 levels within the bags initially fell to about 3 percent (v/v) while the CO 2 rose to nearly 5 percent (v/v). After five months of storage, new and used 50 kg bags and new 100 kg bags preserved the grain equally well. There were greatly reduced numbers of adults and larvae in the PICS bags versus the controls, which consisted of grain stored in single layer woven bags. The proportion of grain having C. maculatus emergence holes after five months of storage in PICS bags was little changed from that found when the grain was first put into the bags. The PICS technology is practical and useful in Sahelian conditions and can contribute to improved farmers\\' incomes as well as increase availability of high quality, insecticide-free cowpea grain as food. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Aqueous solubility of Cr(VI) compounds in ferrochrome bag filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of ferrochrome (FeCr) is a reducing process. However, it is impossible to completely exclude oxygen from all of the high-temperature production process steps, which may lead to unintentional formation of small amounts of Cr(VI). The majority of Cr(VI) is associated with particles found in the off-gas of the ...

  7. The use of cellulase and filter bag technique to predict digestibility of forages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Z. M.; Ludwin, J.; Górka, P.

    2014-01-01

    , Denmark; DM, dry matter; FIN, Finland; GS, subset ‘grass silages’; IVDMD, in vitro dry matter digestibility; MSPE, mean square prediction error; ND, neutral detergent solution; OMD, organic matter digestibility; R2, coefficient of determination; RSD, residual standard deviation; WCB, subset ‘whole crop...

  8. Aqueous solubility of Cr(VI) compounds in ferrochrome bag filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... pH ≤ 9) only effectively extract and treat the water-soluble Cr(VI) compounds, which merely represented approximately 31% of the total Cr(VI) ... extraction buffer, to quantitatively extract all Cr(VI) in the BFD samples, including ..... magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), silicon (Si) and zinc (Zn), were present in ...

  9. Sensorineural Hearing Loss due to Air Bag Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ohki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of the air bag in a passenger vehicle accident rarely causes otologic injuries. However, sensorineural hearing loss induced by air bag deployment is extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the English literature. A 38-year-old man involved in a traffic accident while driving his car at 40 km/hour presented with right sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus, without associated vertigo. Pure-tone audiometry demonstrated elevated thresholds of 30 dB and 25 dB at 4 kHz and 8 kHz, respectively, on the right side. Air bag deployment in car accidents is associated with the risk of development of sensorineural hearing loss.

  10. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  11. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  12. Pioneras del punk: el caso de Alice Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya Alonso Alconada; Ángel Chaparro Sainz

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a la música chicana Alice Bag como una de las figuras influyentes en la temprana escena punk de Los Ángeles, California, quien ayudó a abrir el camino a una afluencia mayor de mujeres en la música punk, poniendo así algunos temas feministas en primera línea. De este modo, trataremos de ampliar el ámbito de estudio del punk. Tanto su autobiografía Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011) y su casi recién estrenado LP Alice Bag (2016)...

  13. Punk Pioneers : Chicana Alice Bag as a Case in Point

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Alconada, Soraya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present Chicana punk musician Alice Bag as one of the main female figures who exerted a great influence on the early punk scene of Los Angeles, California, and thus helped to pave the way for a wider influx of female musicians within punk and to put some feminist issues at the forefront. By doing so, we will try to broaden the social and cultural understanding of punk music. Both Bag's autobiography Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011) and her last L...

  14. Pion-nucleon scattering in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Pion-nucleon scattering in the (3.3) resonance region in the framework of chiral bag model(CBM) is considered. The effective Hamiltonian of πNΔ-system in the framework of the CBM contains πNN, πNΔ, πΔΔ interaction terms with the formfactor which is essentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The iteration of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3.3) and (3.1) scattering where the values of the parameters agree with CBM [ru

  15. Pion-nucleon scattering in the Chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israilov, Z.Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effective hamiltonian of the πNΔ-system in the framework of the Chiral Bag Model (CBM) contains πNN-, πNΔ-, πΔΔ-interaction terms with a form factor which is esstentially dependent on the size and shape of the quark bag. The interation of the Born graphs of this model provides successful description of the (3,3) and (3,1) phase shifts [in the (3,3) resonance region] where the values of the paramters agree with the CBM. (orig.)

  16. Elemental evaluation in plastic garbage bags purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, using the EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Cavagis, Alexandre D.M.; Menegario, Amauri A.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic garbage bags have been used for packing household waste in Piracicaba city and nearby cities broadly. Many of these bags are made from recycled polymers and the presence of harmful elements is a matter of concern. In this work fourteen plastic garbage bags of different brands and colors were purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo. For the analysis, the samples in triplicate were cut into 47 mm diameter circle and attached into acrylic holder and analyzed directly by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF. The excitation was carried out using an X-ray tube Mo target and Zr filter (15 kV / 25 mA) under non-vacuum. The characteristic X-rays were detected by a semiconductor detector Si(Li), coupled to a multichannel analyzer system. The acquisition time was 500 s and the X-ray spectra were deconvulated by the AXIL software. For quantification it was used a standard set produced by the MicroMatter/USA and the absorption effect was corrected by the known chemical composition matrix technique, in which allowed the determination of K, Ca Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr by Kα lines and Pb by the line Lα simultaneously. The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing a certified reference material (NIST air particulate on filter media, SRM2783). The limits of detection (LD) for these elements were: K - 38.9; Ca - 19.4; Ti - 7.1; Cr - 3.1; Mn - 2.1; Fe - 1.5; Cu - 0.86; Zn - 0.85; Sr - 4.6 and Pb - 2.8 μg g -1 . Some elements showed minimum and/or maximum concentrations well above the LDs, as K: -1 . (author)

  17. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  18. WW domain of BAG3 is required for the induction of autophagy in glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabova, Nana; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Saribas, A Sami; Knezevic, Tijana; Gordon, Jennifer; Weaver, Michael; Landry, Jacques; Khalili, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, selective degradation pathway of cellular components that is important for cell homeostasis under healthy and pathologic conditions. Here we demonstrate that an increase in the level of BAG3 results in stimulation of autophagy in glioblastoma cells. BAG3 is a member of a co-chaperone family of proteins that associate with Hsp70 through a conserved BAG domain positioned near the C-terminus of the protein. Expression of BAG3 is induced by a variety of environmental changes that cause stress to cells. Our results show that BAG3 overexpression induces autophagy in glioma cells. Interestingly, inhibition of the proteasome caused an increase in BAG3 levels and induced autophagy. Further analysis using specific siRNA against BAG3 suggests that autophagic activation due to proteosomal inhibition is mediated by BAG3. Analyses of BAG3 domain mutants suggest that the WW domain of BAG3 is crucial for the induction of autophagy. BAG3 overexpression also increased the interaction between Bcl2 and Beclin-1, instead of disrupting them, suggesting that BAG3 induced autophagy is Beclin-1 independent. These observations reveal a novel role for the WW domain of BAG3 in the regulation of autophagy. PMID:25204229

  19. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  20. EXPLORING THE EFFECT OF BAG-OF-WORDS AND BAG-OF-BIGRAM FEATURES ON TURKISH WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION

    OpenAIRE

    İLGEN, Bahar; ADALI, Eşref

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection in Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is as important as the selection of algorithm to remove sense ambiguity. Bag-of-word (BoW) features comprise the information of neighbors around the ambiguous target word without considering any relation between words. In this study, we investigate the effect of BoW features and Bag-of-bigrams (BoB) on Turkish WSD and compare the results with the collocational features. The results suggest that BoW features yield better accuracy for all the...

  1. Performance of PrekotAC Filter Aids on Pressure Drop across Two Different Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the performance of formulated PrekotAC filter aids on pressure drop across two different types of filter media, i.e polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polyimide (P84 was carried out in a laboratory scale fabric filtration system. Filter aids is applied in order to prolong the lifespan of the fabric filter by reducing the pressure drop across a filter cake. PrekotAC which is a combination of 90%wt activated carbon and 10%wt PreKotTM was tested under various material loadings of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/mm2 at a constant filtration velocity of 5 m/min across its cake and filter media. The results showed that PrekotAC presents a lower pressure drop across the P84 compared to PTFE filter media under various material loadings. This is because of its different characteristics that effect the porosity of the filter media and allow a higher volumetric airflow passing through, resulting in lower pressure drop compared to PTFE filter media. In addition, the diversity in terms of particle size distribution of the formulated PrekotAC that increase its permeability property helps to reduce the pressure drop across the media and its filter cake. Thus, PrekotAC has a promising characteristic as a two in one filter aids, a pre-coating and adsorbent material for fabric filtration system.

  2. 76 FR 30102 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... establishments, e.g., garbage bags, lawn bags, trash-can liners. As a result of changes to the Harmonized Tariff... individual examination. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, et al.: Final Results of Antidumping...

  3. 77 FR 25684 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Bags From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. The period of review is August 1, 2010... 25685

  4. The hydrodynamics of air-filled bags for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greaves, Deborah; Hann, Martyn; Kurniawan, Adi

    air-filled bag to capture energy from the waves and three different configurations are compared. In each of the three device configurations, expansion and contraction of the bag in waves create a reciprocating air flow via a turbine between the bag and another volume. The bags are all in the form...... of a fabric encased within an array of longitudinal tendons. In the first configuration, the bag is floating and ballasted such that it pierces the free surface. In the second configuration, the bag is completely submerged and connected at its top to a rigid float and at its bottom to a weight. In the third...... configuration, the bag is fixed at its bottom and free at the top. A series of tests at approximately 1:20 scale in the laboratory was conducted to investigate the static behaviour of the bags in still water and their dynamic response in waves. Numerical models are developed for each configuration...

  5. Dynamics of cesium-134 and biomass in treated and untreated turkey oak leaf-litter bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, J.M.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Litter bags were prepared from leaves harvested in late fall from turkey oak trees (Quercus laevis) tagged with 134 Cs. Untreated bags and bags treated by soaking in 1000 ppM HgCl 2 were placed in the field on Dec. 7, 1974. Five bags of each treatment were retrieved at 7-, 14-, and 30-day intervals as the experiment progressed. Treated bags remained free of visible fungal hyphae growth for 12 weeks. Untreated bags had lost more weight but less 134 Cs than treated bags after 14 and 56 days, respectively. After 9 months, untreated bags had lost 33% weight and 90% 134 Cs. Although 134 Cs is rapidly leached from litter (ecological half-life approximately equal to 12 weeks), some is retained by fungal hyphae on leaf-litter surfaces. This mechanism of mineral retention in the litter layer could represent adaptation at the ecosystem level for nutrient conservation

  6. Nonlinear cloudy bag model in the meson mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the cloudy bag model for the nucleon, including the essentially nonlinear interaction of the quarks with the meson field. From the boundary conditions, which guarantee the stability of the bag, we obtain equations for the size R of the bag, for the momentum p of the quarks, and for the mean pion field var-phi. We obtain an expression for the total energy E of the bag nucleon. By taking the appropriate averages of all the relations the calculations reduce to the case of a spherically symmetric bag. We show that in the general nonlinear cloudy bag model in question the equations for R, p, and var-phi have a simultaneous solution which corresponds to the absolute minimum of the bag energy E and, consequently, that there exists a stable equilibrium state of the bag nucleon

  7. Preliminary evaluation of advanced air bag field performance using event data recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-31

    This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the field performance of occupant restraint systems designed with advanced air bag features including those specified in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 for advanced air bags, throug...

  8. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  9. Neither hollow-fibre membrane filters nor activated-charcoal filters remove fluoride from fluoridated tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hideki; Yaegaki, Ken; Tanaka, Tomoko; Sato, Tsutomu; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Imai, Toshio; Murata, Takatoshi; Herai, Mayumi

    2008-06-01

    Previous reports of the reduction of fluoride concentrations in fluoridated water by domestic water treatment systems have indicated that further supplementation with fluoride is required. However, the absorption of fluoride by filters has not yet been directly identified. If these filters do not absorb fluoride, further fluoride supplementation may increase fluorosis. In this study, we determined whether filtering systems absorb fluoride ions. We directly measured the amounts of fluoride absorbed by activated-carbon filters or hollow-fibre membrane filters using pyrohydrolysis of the filters and flow-injection analysis, the sensitivity of which is more than 100 times greater than that of conventional methods. We made fluoride solutions of pure or tap water and determined changes in fluoride concentration as a result of filtering with a fluoride electrode. Hollow-fibre membrane filters did not affect fluoride concentrations in the fluoridated water, but activated-carbon filters removed some fluoride, especially from the pure-water solution. Filtering a pure-water solution with a fluoride concentration of 0.8 mg F/L reduced the fluoride concentration until 210 L of the solution had been filtered. However, filtering a tap-water solution of 0.8 mg F/L reduced the fluoride concentration only until 8 L had been filtered. The concentration of absorbed fluoride in the filter at 10 L of filtration was 4.7 mg/kg activated carbon. Further fluoride supplementation of fluoridated water should not be necessary, regardless of whether an activated-carbon or hollow-fibre membrane filter is installed on a domestic water treatment system.

  10. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  11. Glucose-Driven Fuel Cell Constructed from Enzymes and Filter Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Schirhagl, Romana; Zare, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    A glucose-driven enzymatic filter-paper fuel cell is described. A strip of filter paper coated with carbon nanotubes and the glucose oxidase enzyme functions as the anode of the enzyme fuel cell. Another strip of filter paper coated with carbon nanotubes and the laccase enzyme functions as the cathode. Between the anode and the cathode, a third…

  12. Bagged K-means clustering of metabolome data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J. A.; van den Berg, R. A.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Clustering of metabolomics data can be hampered by noise originating from biological variation, physical sampling error and analytical error. Using data analysis methods which are not specially suited for dealing with noisy data will yield sub optimal solutions. Bootstrap aggregating (bagging) is a

  13. Instant Bag-of-Words served on a laptop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.; de Rooij, O.; Odijk, D.; Smeulders, A.; Worring, M.; De Natale, F.G.B.; Del Bimbo, A.

    2011-01-01

    This demo showcases our realtime implementation of concept classification using the Bag-of-Words method embedded within MediaTable, our interactive categorization tool for large multimedia collections. MediaTable allows the users to open images from disk or download these directly from the internet.

  14. Occurrence and recalcitrance of polyethylene bag waste in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recycling of used pure water sachets which yielded useful products such as water seal, polyethylene bags and jerry can covers, appears to be the only option of checking environmental pollution caused by this product as microbial degradation proved ineffective. Key words: Biodegradation, polyethylene, waste, recycling, ...

  15. Gyro-water-bag approach in nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (MHD, gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge computer resource request. An unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically-confined plasmas. The present paper addresses the derivation of the nonlinear gyro-water-bag model, its quasilinear approximation and their numerical approximations by Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes respectively.

  16. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  17. Real-time detection of abandoned bags using CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidyakin, S. V.; Vishnyakov, B. V.

    2017-06-01

    The problem of automatic abandoned bag detection is of the great importance for ensuring security in the public areas. At the same time emergency situations occur rarely in the large-scale video surveillance systems. Therefore it is important to keep false alarms low maintaining high accuracy of detection. The approach that satisfies mentioned requirements for abandoned bag detection in complex environments is proposed. It consists of two blocks. The first block does the preliminary detection of abandoned bags on pixel level by background modelling via Gaussian mixture model. It ensures high speed and precise positioning of the bounding boxes on the objects of interest. The second part performs the bag recognition on a region level via a compact convolutional neural network. Using of the convolutional neural network is a key component to success. All processing happens on a central processing unit. The proposed approach is suitable for systems (microcomputers), which do not have powerful graphical subsystems. The experiments have been conducted on the real-world scenes. Obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is efficient and provides acceptable quality characteristics.

  18. A bagging approach to network intrusion detection | Adetunmbi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presences of these flaws make a secured system a mirage for now, hence the need for intrusion detection system. In this paper, an ensemble approach – Bagging was used on five different machine learning techniques to improve accuracy of classifiers. Machine learning seeks for methods of extracting hidden pattern ...

  19. MIT bag model and the spin structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Afsar (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1989-07-01

    The expressions for the total probabilities of the u and d quarks to have spins parallel or antiparallel to the spin of the parent proton are obtained in the MIT bag model. These are then used to study the spin structure of the nucleon. (author).

  20. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  1. Bag facaden : subjektive og symbolske dynamikker i institutionelle moderniseringsprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    Moderniseringens tale har mange toner. Der høres mange stemmer og ses mange aktører på `moderniseringsarenaen'. Afhandlingen Bag facaden handler om moderniseringen af den offentlige sektor. Eller mere præcist socialpædagogiske institutioner i den sociale sektor. Afhandlingen giver stemmer til...

  2. The neutron electric dipole moment in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Miller, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM), using the cloudy bag model (CBM) shows that two CP-violating effects (a quark mass term and a pion-quark interaction) have contributions that are about equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign. This cancellation allows the upper limit on the θ parameter to increase by about an order of magnitude. (orig.)

  3. Clinical efficacy of a tea-bag formulation of Cryptolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a tea bag formulation of the root of C. sanguinolenta. Design: This is a prospective descriptive open trial. Setting: Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu, Mamprobi and Dansoman Polyclinics. Subjects: Forty-four subjects with uncomplicated malaria were recruited for ...

  4. Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: The need for reducing plastic shopping bag use and disposal in Africa. S Rayne. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  5. Market Efficiency of Hessian Cloth and Sacking Bags' Transferable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market Efficiency of Hessian Cloth and Sacking Bags' Transferable Specific Delivery Contract transactions in a Regional Commodity Exchange in West Bengal, India. ... KCA Journal of Business Management ... The price stabilization function of the commodity futures market is conditioned upon the efficiency of the market.

  6. Micro-mesh fabric pollination bags for switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollination bags for making controlled crosses between switchgrass plants were made from a polyester micro-mesh fabric with a mesh size of 41 µm which is smaller than the mean reported 43 µm diameter of switchgrass pollen. When used in paired plant crosses between switchgrass plants, the mean amoun...

  7. Review of safety reports involving electronic flight bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) are a relatively new device used by pilots. Even so, 37 safety-related events involving EFBs were identified from the public online Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database as of June 2008. In addition, two accid...

  8. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Case Report | Gandhi | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon phenomenon reported mostly in chronically constipated, institutionalized females on an indwelling catheter. It can often cause tremendous distress among health care providers. Though the condition is generally described as benign, it should draw immediate attention to ...

  9. The Effectiveness of a Collector Bag for Measurement of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of collector bag and its correlation with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) variations. This study, carried on 100 women referred for admission to labor ward of Shohada hospital in Orumeyeh City, Iran, ...

  10. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  11. REMOVAL OF CYANOBACTERIA USING CONTINUOUS BACKWASHING FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Coelho Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming the cyanobacteria removal, the present research utilized the upflow double filtration as water treatment system (continuous backwashing filter and conventional ascendant filter, with filtration rate of 150 m³ (m² d-1 in both filters. The treatment tested was: coagulant addition in both filters inlet. The parameters evaluated were: turbidity, apparent color, true color, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, absorbance at 254 nm, chlorophyll a, cyanobacteria density and loss of load. The double filtration system has proven efficient to the cyanobacteria removal and worthwhile in terms of operational services, once it lessens the second filter washings, which allows obtaining a filtration period up to 293 h and a significant increase in the effective water production.

  12. Study of the reduction mechanism of ironsands with addition of blast furnace bag dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiangdong; Chen, Yunfei; Liu, Yiran

    2018-02-01

    To improve the reduction properties of ironsands carbon-containing briquettes, the behavior of ironsand during reduction by the addition of blast furnace bag dust (BFBD) is studied using a high temperature resistance furnace, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the reduction mechanism is discussed in this study. The results showed that the reduction level and compressive strength of ironsand carbon-containing briquettes could be promoted by increasing the proportion of BFBD. When the addition rate of BFBD was 31.25%, the metallization rate and compressive strength increased from 82.1% and 21.5 N/a to 91.4% and 172.5 N/a, respectively. Metallic iron reduced from BFBD particles favored the carbon gasification reaction, which enhanced the internal CO concentration, and then promoted the FeTiO3 reduction to Fe in ironsand. Meanwhile, a large amount of the liquid phase generated during the reduction process also favored Fe2+ diffusion, spread of iron joined crystals and the growth of crystals, which resulted in the improvement of the compressive strength of the ironsand carbon-containing briquettes.

  13. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand would be likely... Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review). By...

  14. Method of reusably sealing a silicone rubber vacuum bag to a mold for composite manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, John (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A silicone rubber vacuum bag for use in composite article manufacture is reusably sealed to a mold, without mechanical clamping means. The mold-mating portion of the bag is primed with a silicone rubber adhesive, which is cured thereto, and a layer of semiadhesive sealer is applied between the primed mold-mating portion of the bag and the mold.

  15. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...

  16. 77 FR 69927 - Safety Advisory Notice: Safety Advisory for Shippers and Carriers of Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Air Bags AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Safety... (NHTSA) that counterfeit air bags have been sold as replacement parts to consumers and repair... transportation risks when compared to air bags manufactured through legitimate means. Therefore, PHMSA is issuing...

  17. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for... August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual...

  18. 78 FR 65426 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ...: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating certified-advanced air bags. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags. DATES: Comments must be received...

  19. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  20. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... Department is issuing a countervailing duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the.... See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3730 - Piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins as components of bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bags. 178.3730 Section 178.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... pyrethrins as components of bags. Piperonyl butoxide in combination with pyrethrins may be safely used for insect control on bags that are intended for use in contact with dried feed in compliance with §§ 561.310...

  2. 77 FR 2959 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9, 2004). On August 1, 2011...

  3. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import..., the Department of Commerce (the Department) published Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand... 351.224(c) from the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members, Hilex Poly...

  4. 78 FR 76280 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the... determines that imports of unfinished polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9...

  5. 75 FR 16428 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY... producers and exporters of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... September 4, 2009. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

  6. 75 FR 34699 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Bags from Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part AGENCY: Import... of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from... Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members, Hilex Poly Co., LLC, and Superbag...

  7. 75 FR 23673 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Thai Plastic Bags Group (TPBG). See Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value... Bags from Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  8. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122- 34124 (June 18... Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The period of review (POR...

  9. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 14569... Value, 75 FR 16431 (April 1, 2010), and Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of... Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the Socialist Republic...

  10. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ...., comprise the Thai Plastic Bags Group. See Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less than Fair Value... Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The review covers five...

  11. 76 FR 12700 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123 (June 18, 2004). The... Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. We gave interested parties an...

  12. Can "contamination" occur in body bags?-The example of background fibres in body bags used in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendener, Giuliana; Moret, Sébastien; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Roux, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Impurities that are transferred to a crime scene or a body can have a significant negative impact on the investigation if the existence of the contamination is not known, and the source of the contamination is not identified. Forensic consumables, such as DNA swabs, have been known to have caused contaminations, wrongfully linking crimes throughout Europe. In that context, this study focused on body bags, widely used to transfer a corpse from the crime scene to the morgue. Our preliminary survey showed that several countries and Australian Jurisdictions are conducting the sampling of trace evidence at the morgue after the transportation of the body. Potential impurities present in body bags could thus interfere with pertinent traces. The aim of this work was to qualify and quantify the background contamination of trace evidence in body bags used within Australia. Fifteen body bags from four Australian Jurisdictions or laboratories were searched for micro traces. Impurities such as fibres and unidentified particles were detected in each examined body bag, with an estimated average of 3603 coloured fibres and 1429 unidentified particles. This number of fibres is similar to the amount found on a vinyl cinema seat in other studies. Various other contaminants such as pieces of fabric, hairs, parts of insects or feathers were also observed. It is hypothesised that these impurities are introduced during the manufacturing process. This high number of impurities can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading investigative leads. This paper presents an overview of the problems these impurities can cause and proposes several strategies to prevent future issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of bag-valve-mask ventilation by paramedics in simulated chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jan; Weidelt, Lena; Gray, Stuart A; Brinker, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Bag-valve-mask ventilation is a key component of life support, but only one handheld resuscitator is designed to operate in contaminated or toxic atmospheres. After Institutional Review Board approval, the efficacy of this device was evaluated. The distal trachea of a Laerdal Airway Management Trainer was connected to a mechanical Draeger Volumeter 3000, to enable determination of the minute volume delivered by BVM ventilation. Nineteen paramedics wearing chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) protective equipment were asked to ventilate this modified airway trainer, either with or without a CBRN filter attached to the inlet filtration system of the AMBU Mark III Resuscitator. The maximum levels of minute ventilation achieved were compared. Values are given as mean +/-SD. A paired t-test was used to detect any differences between the two groups, p-values of CBRN training. The maximum minute volume achieved without the filter was 9.5 +/-2.7 l/min. Use of the inlet CBRN filtration system reduced the maximum minute volume to 6.3 +/-2.0 l/min, reduction: 23%. The achieved maximum minute volumes ranged from 15 to 4.9 l/min in the controls and from 9.8 to 1.4 l/min in the CBRN group. Four paramedics were unable to achieve a minute volume >5 l/min in the CBRN group, one participant failed to achieve that value in the control group. The inherent breathing resistance of the CBRN filter appears to reduce the inflow of air into the self-inflatable bag. This delay in refilling may have resulted in a reduced achievable minute volume. The range of maximum minute volumes observed in both groups highlights the need for continuous BVM ventilator training.

  14. Granular filters for water treatment: heterogeneity and diagnostic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose

    in a proactive manner. They can also be used to optimize the filtration process. However, further research is necessary to relate the information obtained through the tools to specific causes. New tools such as the total dissolved gas probe, salt tracers and ammonium profiles are presented. Potential tools from......Rapid granular filters are the most commonly used filters in drinking water treatment plants and are the focus of this PhD study. They are usually constructed with sand, anthracite, activated carbon, garnet sand, and ilmenite and have filtration rates ranging from 3 to 15 m/h. Filters are often...... and reliable filter performance, and water quality compliance. A salt tracer tool is developed to be used in full-scale filters to investigate the heterogeneity of the filter bed. The tool allows the pore velocity to be estimated in different locations of the filter bed during the duration of a filter run...

  15. Non-leptonic hyperon decays and the chiral meson coupling to bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, D.; Tadic, D.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperon nonleptonic decays have been analyzed using a chiral-bag model instead of the MIT-bag model which was used in earlier analyses. The adopted theoretical formalism allows a step by step comparison between the new and the old approaches. The results are in agreement with the calculation which has used chiral model in its cloudy-bag variant. Chiral-bag model based theoretical predictions are not significantly different from the old MIT-bag model based results. Theory can account for overall gross features of the hyperon nonleptonic decays but not for the fine details like the exact, almost vanishing, value of the A(Σsub(+) + ) amplitude. (orig.)

  16. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  17. Dimerization Products of Chloroprene are Background Contaminants Emitted from ALTEF (Polyvinylidene Difluoride) Gas Sampling Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae; Fan, Maomian; Martin, Jennifer A; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2017-01-01

    Gas sampling bags have been used for collecting air samples. Tedlar bags are most commonly used, but bleed background chemicals such as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol. It is often necessary to remove the contaminant by flushing the bags with pure nitrogen or air. In this study, we identified four chloroprene dimerization products as background contaminants emitted from ALTEF bags that are made of a proprietary polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). No monomer chloroprene was detected in the bags analyzed. All of the dimers gradually increased once bags were filled with nitrogen due to diffusion from the bag surface. Flushing the bags with nitrogen reduced their concentrations, but was not effective for removing the contaminants. When the bags that had been flushed with nitrogen 5 times were left for 24 h, they increased again, indicating that the dimers were constantly emitted from the ALTEF bag surface. To our knowledge, these compounds have never been demonstrated in ALTEF or other PVDF bags. Our finding indicates that ALTEF might be incorporated with Neoprene (chloroprene-based polymer) during its manufacturing process.

  18. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  19. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  20. Impact of low filter resistances on subjective and physiological responses to filtering facepiece respirators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J Roberge

    Full Text Available Ten subjects underwent treadmill exercise at 5.6 km/h over one hour while wearing each of three identical appearing, cup-shaped, prototype filtering facepiece respirators that differed only in their filter resistances (3 mm, 6 mm, and 9 mm H2O pressure drop. There were no statistically significant differences between filtering facepiece respirators with respect to impact on physiological parameters (i.e., heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels, tympanic membrane temperature, pulmonary function variables (i.e., tidal volume, respiratory rate, volume of carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, or ventilation, and subjective ratings (i.e., exertion, thermal comfort, inspiratory effort, expiratory effort and overall breathing comfort. The nominal filter resistances of the prototype filtering facepiece respirators correspond to airflow resistances ranging from 2.1 - 6.6 mm H2O/L/s which are less than, or minimally equivalent to, previously reported values for the normal threshold for detection of inspiratory breathing resistance (6 - 7.6 mm H2O/L/sec. Therefore, filtering facepiece respirators with filter resistances at, or below, this level may not impact the wearer differently physiologically or subjectively from those with filter resistances only slightly above this threshold at low-moderate work rates over one hour.

  1. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  2. Comparison of cryopreservation bags for hematopoietic progenitor cells using a WBC-enriched product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Hazelaar, Sandra; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Weggemans, Margienus; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) are stored in cryopreservation bags that are resistant to liquid nitrogen. Since Cryocyte bags of Baxter (B-bags) are no longer available, an alternative bag was sought. Also, the influence of freezing volume was studied. Miltenyi Biotec (MB)- and MacoPharma (MP)-bags passed the integrity tests without failure. Comparing MB- and MP-bags with B-bags, no difference in WBC recovery or viability was found when using a WBC-enriched product as a "dummy" HPC product. Further, a freezing volume of 30 mL resulted in better WBC recovery and viability than 60 mL. Additonal studies using real HPC might be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  4. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...

  5. UV holographic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyashova, Zoya N.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to UV holographic filter's manufacturing, when the filters are the volume reflection holograms, working in UV region in the second Bragg diffraction order, is offered. The method is experimentally realized for wavelength of 266 nm.

  6. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  7. Regression Analysis of the Effect of Bias Voltage on Nano- and Macrotribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Ion-Plating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films are deposited by bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA technique with DC and pulsed bias voltage. The effects of varying bias voltage on nanoindentation and nanowear properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage of −50 V exhibited the greatest hardness at approximately 50 GPa, a low modulus of dissipation, low elastic modulus to nanoindentation hardness ratio, and high nanowear resistance. Nanoindentation hardness was positively correlated with the Raman peak ratio Id/Ig, whereas wear depth was negatively correlated with this ratio. These nanotribological properties highly depend on the films’ nanostructures. The tribological properties of the FCVA-DLC films were also investigated using a ball-on-disk test. The average friction coefficient of DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage was lower than that of DLC films deposited with pulse bias voltage. The friction coefficient calculated from the ball-on-disk test was correlated with the nanoindentation hardness in dry conditions. However, under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction coefficient and specific wear rate had little correlation with nanoindentation hardness, and wear behavior seemed to be influenced by other factors such as adhesion strength between the film and substrate.

  8. Pioneras del punk: el caso de Alice Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Alonso Alconada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a la música chicana Alice Bag como una de las figuras influyentes en la temprana escena punk de Los Ángeles, California, quien ayudó a abrir el camino a una afluencia mayor de mujeres en la música punk, poniendo así algunos temas feministas en primera línea. De este modo, trataremos de ampliar el ámbito de estudio del punk. Tanto su autobiografía Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011 y su casi recién estrenado LP Alice Bag (2016 abarcan temas relacionados con la condición de las mujeres chicanas, convirtiendo al punk en una poderosa plataforma de la que se ayuda para articular conceptos feministas y étnicos.

  9. Quantum fluctuations in the bag and nucleon observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Vento, V.

    1982-03-01

    A time-dependent, perturbative formalism is developed to describe the effect of quantum fluctuations of the quark fields inside a hadronic bag on physical observables. This formalism differs from previous ones in that (1) all contributions to second order in the QCD coupling constant are generated systematically and included in the numerical treatment; (2) the intermediate sums are carried out over a full set of states consistent with parity and SU(2) coupling rules. After removing the logarithmic divergences arising from the intermediate state sums in the 1-body terms and applying a finite renormalization, the second order fluctuation corrections to several proton and neutron observables are computed. The results obtained are significantly different from those obtained in earlier calculations. In no case considered are the calculated corrections sufficient to account for existing discrepancies between empirical values and lower order hadronic bag results for nucleon observables

  10. BAG5 regulates PTEN stability in MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome10 (PTEN is a tumor-suppressing lipid phosphatase that isfrequently absent in breast tumors. Thus, the stability of PTENis essential for tumor prevention and therapy. The ubiquitinproteasomepathway has an important role in regulating thefunctions of PTEN. Specifically, carboxyl terminus Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP, the E3 ubiquitin ligase of PTEN, canregulate PTEN levels. In this study, we report that BCL-2-associated athanogene 5 (BAG5, a known inhibitor of CHIPactivity, reduces the degradation of PTEN and maintains itslevels via an ubiquitylation-dependent pathway. BAG5 isidentified as an antagonist of cell tumorigenicity. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 490-494

  11. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Dilraj S; Ward, Joel; Lee, Regent; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  12. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S. Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue and indirubin (red pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  13. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes that are......OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...

  14. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  15. Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats | Otsyina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical manifestations due to presence of plastic bags in the rumen of goats were studied. Sixteen (16) one year old male (castrate) small East African goats with an average weight of 24.5kg were used for the study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 4 animals each (n=4). Three of the groups had, 129g, 258g and ...

  16. Quark matter revisited with non-extensive MIT bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro H. G.; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Deppman, Airton; Menezes, Débora P.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed.

  17. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  18. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  19. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  20. Quark matter revisited with non-extensive MIT bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Pedro H.G.; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Menezes, Debora P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed. (orig.)

  1. Bag-of-Temporal-SIFT-Words for Time Series Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly , Adeline; Malinowski , Simon; Tavenard , Romain; Guyet , Thomas; Chapel , Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Time series classification is an application of particular interest with the increase of data to monitor. Classical techniques for time series classification rely on point-to-point distances. Recently, Bag-of-Words approaches have been used in this context. Words are quantized versions of simple features extracted from sliding windows. The SIFT framework has proved efficient for image classification. In this paper, we design a time series classification scheme that bui...

  2. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huffman Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  3. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Emilie

    2018-03-01

    Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  4. HEPA filter encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  5. Filter service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Cheryl L [Peoria, IL; Nordyke, Daniel S [Arlington Heights, IL; Crandell, Richard A [Morton, IL; Tomlins, Gregory [Peoria, IL; Fei, Dong [Peoria, IL; Panov, Alexander [Dunlap, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL; Habeger, Craig F [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  6. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  7. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  8. The ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' air-filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berliner, P.; Ohlmeyer, M.; Stotz, W.

    1976-01-01

    Increasing requirements for exhaust-air filter systems used in nuclear facilities induced the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung to develop the ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' HEPA filter system. This novel development has profited by experience gained in previous incidents as well as by maitenance and decontamination work performed with different HEPA filter systems. The proved ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' system takes equally into account the demands for optimum safety, maximum efficiency and economy, and is distinguished by the following features: (1) The air current is defected by 180 0 in the casing. Deflection causes quite a number of improvements, results in substantial reduction of space requirements, and avoids the dispersion of pollutants to the clean-air side. Besides, the HEPA filter is protected from damage by condensed particles or foreign materials entrained; (2) The ''Nuclear-Karlsruhe'' system allows gas-tight filter replacement. Special replacement collars have been provided at the casing, which allow the tight fastening of replacement bags which are self-locking. (3) In-place testing in the operating condition can be carried out very conveniently because the air is deflected. Minimum leaks in the filter medium or in the filter gasket can be detected by the high-sensitivity visual oil-thread test, which makes leaks distinctly visible as oil mist threads through a transparent front window provided on the clean-air side. The test takes only some minutes and its sensitivity is hardly matched by any other technique. (4) The clamping mechanism is installed outside the casing, i.e. outside the polluted or aggressive media. The contact force is spring-loaded absolutely uniformly to the circular filter gasket. (5) For practical and econmic reasons the filter casings can be locked individually so as to be gas-tight. (6) The entire system is made of stainless or coated steel and metal parts which are corrosion and fire-resistant. (author)

  9. The boron filter for the ROSAT X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.-H.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Snowden, S. L.; Maier, H. J.; Frischke, D.

    1991-05-01

    We have developed multilayered films composed of boron carbide and carbon, which serve as spectral filters in the focal plane of the Wolter type I X-ray telescope on board the X-ray astronomy satellite ROSAT (Röntgensatellit). We describe the manufacturing process and qualification measurements of the filters and present the resulting performance data. Finally the pulse height spectrum of the active star AR Lac observed by ROSAT with and without boron filter will be shown.

  10. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  11. Exhaust gas filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tadamasa; Hiraki, Akimitsu.

    1993-01-01

    A filter material formed by joining glass clothes to both surfaces of a glass fiber non-woven fabric is used. The filter material is disposed at the inside of a square filter material support frame made of stainless steel. The filter material is attached in a zig-zag manner in the flowing direction of the exhaust gases so as to increase the filtration area. Separators, for example, made of stainless steel are inserted between the filter materials. The separator is corrugated so as to sandwich and support the filter materials from both sides by the ridged crests. The longitudinal bottom of the separator formed by corrugating it defines a flow channel of the exhaustion gases. The longitudinal bottom is also used as a channel for back blowing air. With such a constitution, combustion gases of radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes can be completely filtered. In addition, a back wash can be conducted under high temperature. (I.N.)

  12. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  13. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiao-yun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pesticide; different portions of the fruit, crop varieties and so on. The way of applying pesticide had great impact on pesticide residue, pesticide application after bagging could largely reduce the pesticide residue, and pesticide application before bagging could increase pesticide residues; The four factors including pesticide appliacation dosage, the type of pesticides and fruit portion and fruit varieties on the effects of pesticide residues, had interaction each other. The pesticide applying several times, bagging could significantly reduce pesticide residues and control within the security level. Different bagging materials could reduce pesticide residues, but the impact on pesticide residues had no significant difference. More bagging layers caused less pesticide residues.

  14. Comparison of bacterial attachment to platelet bags with and without preconditioning with plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Correa, M; Kalab, M; Yi, Q-L; Eltringham-Smith, L J; Sheffield, W P; Ramirez-Arcos, S

    2017-07-01

    Canadian Blood Services produces apheresis and buffy coat pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) stored in bags produced by two different manufacturers (A and B, respectively), both made of polyvinyl chloride-butyryl trihexyl citrate. This study was aimed at comparing Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to the inner surface of both bag types in the presence or absence of plasma factors. Sets (N = 2-6) of bags type A and B were left non-coated (control) or preconditioned with platelet-rich, platelet-poor or defibrinated plasma (PRP, PPP and DefibPPP, respectively). Each bag was inoculated with a 200-ml S. epidermidis culture adjusted to 0·5 colony-forming units/ml. Bags were incubated under platelet storage conditions for 7 days. After culture removal, bacteria attached to the plastic surface were either dislodged by sonication for bacterial quantification or examined in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Higher bacterial adhesion was observed to preconditioned PC bags than control containers for both bag types (P 0·05). By contrast, a significant increase in bacterial adherence was observed to type A bags compared with type B bags in the absence of plasma (P platelet collection bags depends on the presence of plasma factors. Future efforts should be focused on reducing plasma proteins' attachment to platelet storage containers to decrease subsequent bacterial adhesion. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of the trunk in malignant tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianxin; Wu Yuqi; Huang Jun; Lin Chengguang; Liu Hui; Huang Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of vacuum bag immobilization of thorax and pelvis for patients with malignant tumors. Methods: Of 714 patients (fields) chosen randomly, 582(fields) were immobilized with vacuum bag, while the other 132 (fields) used only sand bags, tapes, and other simple immobilizing devices. The field movements were measured and compared before and after the setup, along with 56 patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Results: The variance of movement before and after the setup was 6.7% for patients with vacuum bag , while that was 26.5% for patients without the vacuum bag. It was even 32.1% for patients immobilized twice with vacuum bag. Conclusions: The variance of movement decreases significantly with vacuum bag immobilization. It should be used as frequently as possible. As the variance of movement rises obviously when vacuum bag is used twice, the semi-soft vacuum bag should be prepared afresh and checked under the simulator before the second use. (authors)

  16. Leachables from saline-containing IV bags can alter therapeutic protein properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Judy Y; Xiao, Nina J; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jennifer; Hoff, Ed; Russell, Stephen J; Katta, Viswanatham; Shire, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the cause of the observed instability of dulanermin in 100 ml polyolefin (PO) infusion bags containing saline. Diluted dulanermin in IV bags was collected and frozen prior to analysis by size exclusion chromatography. The UV absorption profiles of the IV bag solutions were characterized by using spectrophotometry. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measured the metal content. Leachables from IV bags were identified by LC-UV-high resolution MS/MS analysis. An elevated loss of dulanermin monomers was observed only in 100 ml PO bags. These IV bag solutions have a compound that contains zinc and has absorbance at 320 nm. This compound was identified to be 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and its zinc salt and was found to come from the stopper used in the 100 ml PO bags. The manufacturer has subsequently corrected this problem by using non-latex components in the 100 ml PO IV bag. End-users need to be aware that IV bags made from a particular polymer by the same manufacturer may contain components or use a manufacturing process that results in a different product. Analysis of samples after freezing and thawing proved to be useful in identifying potential incompatibility of dulanermin in the IV bags.

  17. Warming preterm infants in the delivery room: polyethylene bags, exothermic mattresses or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa K; O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2011-12-01

    To compare the admission temperature of infants treated with polyethylene bags alone to infants treated with exothermic mattresses in addition to bags in the delivery room. We prospectively studied infants born at bags at birth. Some infants were also placed on mattresses. Admission axillary temperatures were measured in all infants on admission to the neonatal intensive care. We compared the temperatures of infants treated with bags alone to those treated with mattresses and bags. We studied 43 infants: 15 were treated with bags while 28 were treated with a bag and mattress. Mean admission temperature was similar between the groups. Hypothermia and hyperthermia occurred more frequently in infants treated with a bag and mattress, and more infants treated with a bag had admission temperatures 36.5-37.5°C. The use of exothermic mattresses in addition to polyethylene bags, particularly in younger, smaller newborns, may result in more hypothermia and hyperthermia on admission. A randomised controlled trial is necessary to determine which strategy results in more infants having admission temperatures in the normal range. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Anterior haptic flexing and in-the-bag subluxation of an accommodating intraocular lens due to excessive capsular bag contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gregory D; Werner, Liliana; Neuhann, Tobias; Tetz, Manfred; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of the hydrophilic acrylic Tetraflex accommodating intraocular lens (IOL), with subsequent development of capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL subluxation. Contraction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis resulted in significant anterior flexing of the lens haptic component. Explantation of the IOL-capsular bag complex was required 7 years after implantation. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated multiple areas of thick anterior subcapsular fibrosis. Pseudoexfoliative material was present throughout the surface of the lens capsule. Intraocular lenses manufactured from hydrophilic acrylic material are highly flexible and may be more susceptible to capsule contraction, even in the absence of predisposing ocular and systemic conditions. This case highlights the importance of developing guidelines regarding patient screening and selection for the appropriate use of accommodating and other highly flexible IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  20. Performance comparison of plastic shopping bags in modern and traditional retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radini, F. A.; Wulandari, R.; Nasiri, S. J. A.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Followed by implementation of paid plastic bag policy in Indonesia’s modern and traditional retail, community question related to plastic shopping bag performance arise. But, there is limited information about it. Therefore, the assessment of the performance to compare between plastic shopping bags in modern retail and traditional retail should be interesting. The observation performance of plastic shopping bag were weight holding capacity, tear resistant and elongation. This performance were tested using Universal Testing Machine. Physical and physico-chemical properties also identified to determine factor affecting the performance of plastic shopping bag. The physical properties were analysed using visual and thickness gauge to see the colour and measure the thickness. The analysis of physico-chemical properties were carried out using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermal Gravimetry Analysis), Furnace and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy) to identify the materials, also its melting and decomposition temperature. The result showed that the performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag appears only in the performance of elongation. The elongation of modern retail plastic bag is 121 - 413%, while traditional has 170 - 609%. According to physico-chemical test result, modern retail and traditional retail plastic bag contain polyethylene as main material and has melting temperature in the range of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) melting temperature. However, modern retail plastic bag has 18.31 - 33.87% of inorganic filler percentage, whereas the traditional retail plastic bag has 0.35 - 9.85%. This inorganic filler percentage probably a contributing factor in the elongation performance difference between modern retail plastic bag with traditional retail plastic bag.

  1. Impact of storage environment on the efficacy of hermetic storage bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Brett; Woloshuk, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Small hermetic bags (50 and 100 kg capacities) used by smallholder farmers in several African countries have proven to be a low-cost solution for preventing storage losses due to insects. The complexity of postharvest practices and the need for ideal drying conditions, especially in the Sub-Sahara, has led to questions about the efficacy of the hermetic bags for controlling spoilage by fungi and the potential for mycotoxin accumulation. This study compared the effects of environmental temperature and relative humidity at two locations (Indiana and Arkansas) on dry maize (14% moisture content) in woven polypropylene bags and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) hermetic bags. Temperature and relative humidity data loggers placed in the middle of each bag provided profiles of environmental influences on stored grain at the two locations. The results indicated that the PICS bags prevented moisture penetration over the three-month storage period. In contrast, maize in the woven bags increased in moisture content. For both bag types, no evidence was obtained indicating the spread of Aspergillus flavus from colonized maize to adjacent non-colonized maize. However, other storage fungi did increase during storage. The number of infected kernels did not increase in the PICS bags, but the numbers in the woven bags increased significantly. The warmer environment in Arkansas resulted in significantly higher insect populations in the woven bags than in Indiana. Insects in the PICS bags remained low at both locations. This study demonstrates that the PICS hermetic bags are effective at blocking the effects of external humidity fluctuations as well as the spread of fungi to non-infected kernels.

  2. Liquid Desiccant Regenerable Filters For Indoor Environmental Quality and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slayzak, Steven; Blake, Dan; Ryan, Joe; Vinzant, Todd

    2003-01-01

    .... Regenerable filters are an area of technical need. The proposed concept has the potential to advance the state-of-the-art in CBR filtration and should, at a minimum, drastically extend the service lives of HEPA/carbon systems...

  3. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  4. The diffuse ensemble filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new class of ensemble filters, called the Diffuse Ensemble Filter (DEnF, is proposed in this paper. The DEnF assumes that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble are uncorrelated with the latter ensemble and have infinite variance. The assumption of infinite variance corresponds to the limit of "complete lack of knowledge" and differs dramatically from the implicit assumption made in most other ensemble filters, which is that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble have vanishing errors. The DEnF is independent of the detailed covariances assumed in the space orthogonal to the ensemble space, and reduces to conventional ensemble square root filters when the number of ensembles exceeds the model dimension. The DEnF is well defined only in data rich regimes and involves the inversion of relatively large matrices, although this barrier might be circumvented by variational methods. Two algorithms for solving the DEnF, namely the Diffuse Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF and the Diffuse Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (DETKF, are proposed and found to give comparable results. These filters generally converge to the traditional EnKF and ETKF, respectively, when the ensemble size exceeds the model dimension. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the DEnF eliminates filter collapse, which occurs in ensemble Kalman filters for small ensemble sizes. Also, the use of the DEnF to initialize a conventional square root filter dramatically accelerates the spin-up time for convergence. However, in a perfect model scenario, the DEnF produces larger errors than ensemble square root filters that have covariance localization and inflation. For imperfect forecast models, the DEnF produces smaller errors than the ensemble square root filter with inflation. These experiments suggest that the DEnF has some advantages relative to the ensemble square root filters in the regime of small ensemble size, imperfect model, and copious

  5. The Nano-filters as the tools for the management of the water imbalance in the human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Kontar, V.

    2011-12-01

    ultra-thin nanoscale fibers, which filter out contaminants, plus active carbon granules, which kill bacteria. The carbon nano-tube as filters exhibit chemical-species selectivity with higher physical strength and higher temperature tolerance, more rugged process, more rapid filtration, regeneration via thermal means rather than physical removal and lowers costs. The nano-filters remove the toxic or unwanted bivalent ions (ions with 2 or more charges), such as lead, iron, nickel, mercury, etc. The nano-materials and nano-filters will help solve the problems of the water imbalance management in the human society. Therefore we are talking about some nano-applications on the session H138 "Imbalance of Water in Nature".

  6. Roughage digestion evaluation in horses with total feces collection and mobile nylon bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziana Maria Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of roughages in horses with total feces collection and mobile bags. Two trials were carried out simultaneously. The first trial evaluated the digestibility of nutrients of coastcross hay (Cynodon dactylon cv. coastcross with total feces collection. The second trial assessed the digestibility of nutrients of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, peanut (Arachis pintoi and coastcross hay with mobile bags. This trial was conducted with gastric insertions of nylon bags every 12 hours, and each bag contained 663 mg of feed samples in a proportion of 17 mg DM/cm². Feces and bags were collected directly from the stall floor immediately after excretion. There was no difference between the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates and hydrolysable carbohydrates of coastcross hay estimated with feces collection and mobile bags. Forage peanut showed high nutrients digestibility, with values close to those observed with alfalfa, indicating potential for use in diets for horses.

  7. On relation between the quark-gluon bag surface tension and the colour tube string tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the bag phenomenology of deconfining phase transition aiming to replenish it by introducing systematically the bag surface tension. Comparing the free energies of such bags and the strings confining the static quark-antiquark pair, we express the string tension in terms of the bag surface tension and the bulk pressure in order to estimate the bag characteristics using the lattice QCD (LQCD) data. Our analysis of the bag entropy density demonstrates that the surface tension coefficient is amazingly negative at the cross-over (continuous transition). The approach developed allows us to naturally account for an origin of a pronounced maximum (observed in the LQCD studies) in the behaviour of heavy quark-antiquark pair entropy. The vicinity of the (tri-)critical endpoint is also analyzed to clarify the meaning of vanishing surface tension coefficient.

  8. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  9. Psychological interventional approach for reduce resource consumption : Reducing plastic bag usage at supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtomo, Shoji; OHNUMA, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the reduction of plastic bag usage at supermarkets. Many behaviors leading to potential damage to the environment may be unintentional. This study applied a dual motivation model to plastic bag usage and examined the effects of an intervention aimed at promoting pro-environmental behavior. A voice prompt intervention was implemented in Japanese supermarkets. In the first (control) week, shoppers were given free plastic bags by the cashier. In the sec...

  10. The contamination of intravenous fluids by writing on the infusion bag: Fact or fiction?

    OpenAIRE

    James Daniel Langston; William Patrick Monaghan; Mellissa Bush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction -Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether Sharpie® brand black permanent marker ink will permeate through intravenous infusion bags. The practice of writing directly on infusion bags is a frequent yet controversial practice. There are no known written standards that exist which pertain to this practice. Methods – Five types of intravenous bags containing different solutions marked with black ink from a fine point felt tipped Sharpie® marker. Sample extraction oc...

  11. Deformed bags of quarks and spin-isospin properties of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1988-01-01

    Good fits to the magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H are obtained when the nucleonic bags consisting of 3-quarks each are assumed to be deformed. Gamow-Teller strengths as well magnetic dipole strengths residing in the low energy and the ..delta.. - sectors are obtained. If, as manifested in the EMC effect, the bags expand in the nuclear medium, then the net deformation of a bag must also decrease in nuclei.

  12. Pionic corrections to the MIT bag model: The (3,3) resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theberge, S.; Thomas, A.W.; Miller, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    By incorporating chiral invariance in the MIT bag model, we are led to a theory in which the pion field is coupled to the confined quarks only at the bag surface. An equivalent quantized theory of nucleons and Δ's interacting with pions is then obtained. The pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in this model is found to give a good fit to experimental data on the (3,3) resonance, with a bag radius of about 0.72 fm

  13. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. Variational Bayesian Filtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2008), s. 5020-5030 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian filtering * particle filtering * Variational Bayes Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/AS/smidl-variational bayesian filtering.pdf

  16. Punk Pioneers: Chicana Alice Bag as a Case in Point

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Alconada, Soraya; Chaparro Sainz, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present Chicana punk musician Alice Bag as one of the main female figures who exerted a great influence on the early punk scene of Los Angeles, California, and thus helped to pave the way for a wider influx of female musicians within punk and to put some feminist issues at the forefront. By doing so, we will try to broaden the social and cultural understanding of punk music. Both Bag’s autobiography Violence Girl, From East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage (2011) and her last L...

  17. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  18. Use of Vacuum Bagging for Fabricating Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Christopher L.; Simon, Andrew J.; Liu, Wei; Fredrickson, Carl; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel thermal bonding method for thermoplastic microfluidic devices. This simple method employs a modified vacuum bagging technique, a concept borrowed from the aerospace industry, to produce conventional thick substrate microfluidic devices, as well as multi-layer film devices. The bonds produced using this method are superior to those obtained using conventional thermal bonding methods, including thermal lamination, and are capable of sustaining burst pressures in excess of 550 kPa. To illustrate the utility of this method, thick substrate devices were produced, as well as a six-layer film device that incorporated several complex features. PMID:25329244

  19. [Purple urine bag syndrome in elderly woman with nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alegría, A R; Vélez Díaz-Pallares, M; Moreno Cobo, Ma A; Arrieta Blanco, F; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity which typically affects elderly women with prolonged urinary catheterization and weakening chronic diseases. Other predisposing factors are previous urologic pathology, immobility syndrome and chronic constipation. The purple color is due to the presence of high loads of bacteria with sulphatase--phosphatase activity which develop in an alkaline environment as well as the presence of other factors. In the case we present the administration of nutritional supplements containing tryptophan conditioned the generation of this syndrome.

  20. Forex Market Prediction Using NARX Neural Network with Bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi Nima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new methodfor predicting movements in Forex market based on NARX neural network withtime shifting bagging techniqueand financial indicators, such as relative strength index and stochastic indicators. Neural networks have prominent learning ability but they often exhibit bad and unpredictable performance for noisy data. When compared with the static neural networks, our method significantly reducesthe error rate of the responseandimproves the performance of the prediction. We tested three different types ofarchitecture for predicting the response and determined the best network approach. We applied our method to prediction the hourly foreign exchange rates and found remarkable predictability in comprehensive experiments with 2 different foreign exchange rates (GBPUSD and EURUSD.

  1. Inscription Image Retrieval Using Bag of Visual Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, N.; Indu, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a technique for efficient and veracious retrieval of ancient inscriptions and manuscripts from a large database of images by using the Bag of Visual Words (BoVW) technique. The proposed method can be used to recognize inscription images across the world. SURF (speeded up robust features) is used as an image feature extractor. A visual vocabulary is created by representing the image as a histogram of visual words which helps in the retrieval process. Usage of SURF ensures scalability, faster processing better results with darkened and blurred images. We demonstrate the method on a combination of 300 inscriptions images comprising of several inscription around the world.

  2. Stability of Reconstituted Telavancin Drug Product in Frozen Intravenous Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhengtian; Wong, Anissa; Raquinio, Elvira; Nguyen, Alice

    2015-07-01

    Intravenous (IV) infusions of telavancin for injection are generally administered in-hospital, but in some circumstances they may be administered in an outpatient environment. In that setting, antibiotics may be premixed and frozen. This study determined the chemical stability of nonpreserved telavancin in various commonly used reconstitution diluents stored in IV bags (polyvinyl chloride [PVC] and PVC-free) at -20°C (-4°F) without light. Telavancin (750 mg/vial) was reconstituted with 5% dextrose injection USP (D5W) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP (NS) to obtain drug solutions at approximately 15 mg/mL. Infusion solutions of telavancin at diluted concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL covering the range utilized in clinical practice were prepared in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags using D5W or NS solutions. The infusion solutions were stored under frozen conditions (-20°C ± 5°C [-4°F ± 41°F]) and the chemical stability was evaluated for up to 32 days. Telavancin concentration, purity, and degradant levels were determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Telavancin IV infusion solutions in D5W or NS at 0.6 mg/mL and 8 mg/mL and stored at -20°C (-4°F) met the chemical stability criteria when tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 32. The assayed telavancin concentration at each time point was within 97% to 103% of the initial mean assay value. The total degradants quantified by the HPLC stability-indicating method did not show any significant change over the 32-day study period. Telavancin IV infusion solutions (in D5W or NS) in both PVC and PVC-free IV bags were stable for at least 32 days when stored at -20°C (-4°F) without light. These results provide prolonged frozen stability data further to that previously established for 7 days under refrigerated conditions (2°C-8°C [36°F -46°F]), and for 12 hours at room temperature when diluted into IV bags containing D5W, NS, or lactated Ringer's solution.

  3. [Rhabdomyolysis after lifting IKEA bags in a man using sertraline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummen, Ingvild; Jensen, Thomas Giver

    2016-12-12

    We present a case of a 28-year-old male, using sertraline, who experienced progressive oedema in both upper extremities after having lifted two IKEA bags weighing 20 kg each from his car up to the third floor. Blood creatine kinase (CK) level was measured 5,260 U/l, and the patient was admitted for oral rehydration with the diagnosis rhabdomyolysis. The MRI showed swelling in the triceps muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles resulting in compression of the brachial vein. We discuss the pathomechanism behind the increased CK level and the swelling, and the possible effect sertraline may have had on the development of rhabdomyolysis.

  4. Skylab 4 crewmen passing trash bags in to the OWS waste disposal tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Two Skylab 4 crewmen are seen passing trash bags through the trash airlock of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The trash airlock leads to the OWS waste disposal tank. Astronaut William R. Pogue, Skylab 4 pilot, holds onto the OWS crew quarters ceiling as he prepares to jump onto the OWS airlock hatch cover to force another trash bag further down into the airlock. Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, Skylab 4 commander, is assisting. Carr is holding onto the trash bags. A third trash bag is floating in the zero-gravity environment near Pogue's right leg. The wardroom can be seen behind Pogue.

  5. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using small meshed collecting bags on trawls to quantify trawls seabed disturbance of aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    impact on commercial fishing grounds. In this study we develop and test small-meshed collecting bags designed to retain juvenile fish and benthic megafauna. The collecting bags are mounted in the wings and body of the trawl. The catches in the collection bags provide information of the species and size...... in the mechanical effect, such as penetration depth of the ground gear of different trawl designs. Collecting bags are also mounted to the different sections of the trawl in pairs, one to collect the organisms that pass through the trawl meshes and one to collect the population. Standard selectivity analyses...

  7. Evidence for the Role of BAG3 in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrir, Farzaneh G; Knezevic, Tijana; Gupta, Manish K; Gordon, Jennifer; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M; Khalili, Kamel

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities impact the development of myofibrillar myopathies. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria from cells is of great importance toward understanding the molecular events involved in the genesis of cardiomyopathy. Earlier studies have ascribed a role for BAG3 in the development of cardiomyopathy in experimental animals leading to the identification of BAG3 mutations in patients with heart failure which may play a part in the onset of disease development and progression. BAG3 is co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which has been shown to modulate apoptosis and autophagy, in several cell models. In this study, we explore the potential role of BAG3 in mitochondrial quality control. We demonstrate that siRNA mediated suppression of BAG3 production in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs) significantly elevates the level of Parkin, a key component of mitophagy. We found that both BAG3 and Parkin are recruited to depolarized mitochondria and promote mitophagy. Suppression of BAG3 in NRVCs significantly reduces autophagy flux and eliminates clearance of Tom20, an essential import receptor for mitochondria proteins, after induction of mitophagy. These observations suggest that BAG3 is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis under stress conditions, and disruptions in BAG3 expression impact cardiomyocyte function. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 797-805, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cost analysis of premixed multichamber bags versus compounded parenteral nutrition: breakeven point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozat, Erkut; Korubuk, Gamze; Onar, Pelin; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2014-02-01

    Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial.

  9. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  10. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  11. Independent task Fourier filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  12. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed......Filtering every global constraint of a CPS to are consistency at every search step can be costly and solvers often compromise on either the level of consistency or the frequency at which are consistency is enforced. In this paper we propose two randomized filtering schemes for dense instances...

  13. Magnetic filtration process, magnetic filtering material, and methods of forming magnetic filtering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Serrano, Patricia; Tsouris, Constantino; Contescu, Cristian I; McFarlane, Joanna

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides magnetically responsive activated carbon, and a method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon. The method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon typically includes providing activated carbon in a solution containing ions of ferrite forming elements, wherein at least one of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +3 and at least a second of the ferrite forming elements has an oxidation state of +2, and increasing pH of the solution to precipitate particles of ferrite that bond to the activated carbon, wherein the activated carbon having the ferrite particles bonded thereto have a positive magnetic susceptibility. The present invention also provides a method of filtering waste water using magnetic activated carbon.

  14. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of pulse-jet cleaning in fabric filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Andersen, B.; Nielsen, N. F.; Walther, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-jet cleaning and understanding of the complex physics are essential when designing fabric filters used for air pollution control. Today, low-pressure cleaning is of particular interest due to demand for reduced compressed air consumption. Pulse-jet cleaned fabric filters have been studied....... The validated CFD model reveals the strong compressible effects, a highly transient behaviour, the formation of compressible vortex rings and the shock cell phenomenon within the overexpanded supersonic jet. The cleaning nozzles and venturi design aid or oppose the pulse-pressure within the bags, and this plays...

  16. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65-85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical emergencies facing general practitioners: Drugs for the doctor's bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General practitioners are frequently facing medical emergencies. In order to react properly and administer therapy on time, a general practitioner needs to prepare and keep with himself the appropriate set of drugs which could be effectively used for treatment of the emergencies. The following drugs should find their place in the doctor's bag: acetaminophen (for mild and moderate pain, and for fever, morphine (for severe pain, naloxone (for heroin poisoning, ceftriaxone (for meningococcal meningitis, albuterol (for bronchial asthma attack, hydrocortisone (for bronchial asthma attack, glucagon (for severe hypoglycemia, dextrose (for mild to moderate hypoglycemia, diazepam (for febrile convulsions or epileptic status, epinephrine (for anaphylaxis and cardiac arrest, atropine (for symptomatic bradicardia, chloropyramine (for acute allergy, aspirin (for acute myocardial infarction, nitroglycerine (for acute coronary syndrome, metoclopramide (for nausea and vomiting, haloperidol (for delirium, methylergometrine (for control of bleeding after delivery or abortion, furosemide (for acute pulmonary edema and flumazenil (for benzodiazepine poisoning. For each of the listed drugs a physician should well know the recommended doses, indications, contraindications and warnings. All of the listed drugs are either registered in Serbia or available through special import, so general practitioners may fill their bags with all necessary drugs and effectively and safely treat medical emergencies.

  18. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  19. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  20. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis procedure for interdigital filters with shorted-pin feeds is developed by relating the coupling factors and external Qs to the physical structure of the filter. This new procedure is easily understood and applied, extremely flexible...

  1. China exported birefringent filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Mao, Weijun; Lu, Haitian; Zhu, Yong

    2001-09-01

    Since 1960s, Nanjing Astronomical Instrument Research center of CAS have been developing the birefringent filters for China solar observatories, the most famous one in the world is the 0.15Å(0.12Å)/5324Å(4861Å) filter for the 35cm Solar Magnetic Field Telescope of the Huairou Solar Station of Beijing Observatory. The big success in the field of Lyot filter has been proved by the international solar physics circle, since 1988, Japanese and Korean astronomers have been paying a lot of orders for making Lyot filters from China, up to now we have exported 11 sets of such sophisticated optical instruments, they have been used for routine solar observations in the observatories and planetaria in the two countries. We also begin to repair old Lyot filters made by Germany and France from foreign countries, as India and Germany.

  2. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  3. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  4. A Comb Filter Design Method Using Linear Phase FIR Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yosuke; Kawamura, Arata; Iiguni, Youji

    This paper proposes a comb filter design method which utilizes two linear phase FIR filters for flexibly adjusting the comb filter's frequency response. The first FIR filter is used to individually adjust the notch gains, which denote the local minimum gains of the comb filter's frequency response. The second FIR filter is used to design the elimination bandwidths for individual notch gains. We also derive an efficient comb filter by incorporating these two FIR filters with an all-pass filter which is used in a conventional comb filter to accurately align the nulls with the undesired harmonic frequencies. Several design examples of the derived comb filter show the effectiveness of the proposed comb filter design method.

  5. Involvement of Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins in the neuroprotection by rasagiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Feng; He, Shuang; Kang, Ji-Feng; Xu, Qian; Hu, Ya-Cen; Zhang, Hai-Nan; Wang, Chun-Yu; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2015-01-01

    Rasagiline, a novel monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, has a mild to moderate effect in relieving Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms as well as unique neuroprotective effects. Previous studies demonstrated rasagiline protect neurons by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins. Our study aimed to study whether Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG)-family proteins, which were reported closely associated with neurodegenerative disease, were involved in the neuroprotective effect of rasagiline. We found that after the administration of 1-methy1-4-phenvl-1,2,3,6-tetrahvdropvridine (MPTP), BAG2 and BAG5 proteins were up-regulated in the substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons of PD mouse model. A further increase of BAG2 and BAG5 was detected after intragastric administration of rasagiline to post-MPTP lesioned mice. Thus, the current study proved the association of BAG family proteins with PD, and suggested the involvement and a positive role of BAG2, BAG5 in the neuroprotection of rasagiline. These preliminary results implicate a novel pathway for further study on neuroprotection of rasagiline.

  6. The Dual Codebook : Combining Bags of Visual Words in Image Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Jonathan L.; Okafor, Emmanuel; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two conventional bag of words approaches, using two basic local feature descriptors, to perform image classification. These approaches are compared to a novel design which combines two bags of visual words, using two different feature descriptors. The

  7. The impact of color on bag-of-words based object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojas Vigo, D.A.; Khan, F.S.; van de Weijer, J.; Gevers, T.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years several works have aimed at exploiting color information in order to improve the bag-of-words based image representation. There are two stages in which color information can be applied in the bag-of-words framework. Firstly, feature detection can be improved by choosing highly

  8. 75 FR 33772 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Bags From Malaysia: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Malaysia. The review covers one... published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on PRCBs from Malaysia. See Antidumping Duty...

  9. 75 FR 61128 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... Department published its preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Malaysia. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter. The period...

  10. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See...

  11. Fatality Reduction by Air Bags: Analyses of Accident Data through Early 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The fatality risk of front-seat occupants of passenger cars and light trucks equipped with air bags is compared to the corresponding risk in similar vehicles without air bags, based on statistical analysis of Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS)dat...

  12. 46 CFR 59.15-10 - Bagged or blistered shell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bagged or blistered shell plates. 59.15-10 Section 59.15... shell plates. (a) When the shell plates of cylindrical boilers which are exposed to the radiant heat of... boiler. (b) Where the shell plate is bagged due to overheating, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...

  13. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a plug-in hybrid electric car. The basis of the petition was... developing advanced air bag systems. \\2\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007... air bag system development and testing, it was requesting that the exemption be for ``a period of one...

  14. Management of subluxated capsular bag-fixated intraocular lenses using a capsular anchor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, Yokrat; Naftali, Modi; Lapid Gortzak, Ruth; Assia, Ehud I.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the use of the capsular anchor (AssiAnchor) to manage a subluxated intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The anchor comprises 2 prongs that hold the anterior lens capsule and a central rod that is sutured to the scleral wall, enabling centration of the IOL-capsular bag complex. Six

  15. Microbiology of feed samples incubated in nylon bags in the rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Nylon bag technique, mesh size, microbiology of feed samples, ruminal bacteria, viable counts, ciliate protozoa lntroduction. The insita nylon bag technique has been used extensively for feed evaluation and estimating rates of degradation of different dietary components in the rumen. Although this technique has ...

  16. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  17. The microenvironment within and pollen transmission through paper and polyethylene sorghum pollination bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmissio...

  18. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  19. Postharvest storage quality of grapefruit placed in polyethylene bags with or without micro-perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washed ‘Marsh’ white grapefruit were placed in polyethylene (PE) bags (1 mil) with or without micro-perforation holes (representing 0.002% of the bag surface) and evaluated for juice quality, firmness, and the development of decay and disorders during storage for 30, 60, or 90 days at 50oF. Each tre...

  20. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...