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Sample records for baeacris pseudopunctulatus orthoptera

  1. Análisis morfológico del sistema reproductor femenino de Baeacris punctulatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae Morphological analysis of the female reproductive system in Baeacris punctulatus (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Melanoplinae

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    Adriana A. Michel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg es una especie de importancia económica, de amplia distribución en Sudamérica. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio anatomo-histológico de los órganos reproductivos internos, en hembras silvestres y obtenidas en cámara de cría. El estudio permitió determinar particularidades histomorfológicas, en ovarios, glándulas accesorias, oviductos laterales y oviducto medio, relacionadas con la génesis y transferencia de las gametas y la ovoposición. Se caracteriza la espermateca por la morfología externa y la histología de sus regiones, se compara con especies emparentadas. El tipo de espermateca observada en B. punctulatus no se incluye en las clasificaciones de esta estructura realizadas para Orthoptera. Se describe la morfología de la cámara genital, se definen por sus características anatomo-histológicas las regiones destinadas a la cópula y ovoposición y a la fecundación del ovocito. Se aportan datos para la comprensión integral del sistema biológico reproductivo y el análisis sistemático de los Acrididae.ABSTRACT. Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg is an economical important species widely distributed in Southamerica. In the present contribution an anatomical-histological study of the internal reproductive organs from females collected in the wild and also laboratory raid was carried out. The present study allowed us to determine histomorphologic particularities in the ovaries, accessory glands, lateral oviducts and medial oviduct related with gamete genesis and transference and oviposition. The spermathecal organ is characterized by its external morphology and histology of its regions and compare to closely related species. The type of spermatheca observed in Baeacris punctulatus is not included in the current classification of Orthoptera. The morphology of the genital chamber and regions used in breeding, oviposition and fecundation of oocytes are described and characterized by

  2. Análisis morfológico del sistema reproductor femenino de Baeacris punctulatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae) Morphological analysis of the female reproductive system in Baeacris punctulatus (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Melanoplinae)

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    Adriana A. Michel; Héctor R. Terán

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN. Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg) es una especie de importancia económica, de amplia distribución en Sudamérica. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio anatomo-histológico de los órganos reproductivos internos, en hembras silvestres y obtenidas en cámara de cría. El estudio permitió determinar particularidades histomorfológicas, en ovarios, glándulas accesorias, oviductos laterales y oviducto medio, relacionadas con la génesis y transferencia de las gametas y la ovoposición. Se c...

  3. Spore loads of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in heavily infected grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) of the Argentine Pampas and Patagonia.

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    Plischuk, Santiago; Bardi, Christian J; Lange, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Paranosema locustae, an entomopathogen of grasshoppers and locusts, remains the only microsporidium registered as a biocontrol agent. After introductions from North America, it became established in grasshopper communities of Argentina. We measured the infection intensity of field collected, heavily infected male and female adults of individuals belonging to six grasshopper species, five melanoplines (Melanoplinae) (Baeacris pseudopunctulatus, Dichroplus maculipennis, Dichroplus vittatus, Neopedies brunneri, Scotussa lemniscata), and one gomphocerine (Gomphocerinae) (Staurorhectus longicornis). Average spore load among heavily infected grasshoppers ranged from 8.7±0.5×10(7) to 1.1±0.7×10(9). Only females of B. pseudopunctulatus and S. longicornis showed significantly higher spore loads than the males. PMID:23796497

  4. ¿La práctica de la siembra directa en cultivos de soja favorece las poblaciones de acridios (Orthoptera: Acrididae en el partido de Benito Juárez?

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    Daniel SCUFFI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el desarrollo del cultivo de soja en siembra directa en el partido de Benito Juárez, y que algunos autores sostienen que esta práctica favorece los acridios, se evaluó la riqueza de especies y la abundancia en soja con siembra directa y convencional. Se registraron siete especies (Aleuas lineatus Stål, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner, Baeacris pseudopunctulatus (Ronderos, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner y Scotussa lemniscata (Stål. La riqueza de especies acumulada en los diferentes cultivos fue similar (p> 0,05. En soja de primera con siembra directa, se registraron 2,3 ± 0,19 especies, en soja de primera con siembra convencional 1,45 ± 0,15 especies y en soja de segunda con siembra directa 2,25 ± 0,28 especies. Dichroplus elongatus fue la especie más abundante en todos los cultivos y en todos los momentos. Las restantes presentaron baja abundancia y se registraron en algunos momentos. No existió diferencia (p> 0,05 en la abundancia de tucuras entre los cultivos y en las diferentes fechas de muestreo. La baja riqueza de especies registrada estaría relacionada con la baja diversidad vegetal de los cultivos. Este estudio no mostró diferencias en la abundancia y riqueza de especies de acuerdo a la labranza utilizada.

  5. Gafanhotos (Orthoptera, Acridoidea em áreas de cerrados e lavouras na Chapada dos Parecis, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in native savanna and crop areas in Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Wanderlei Dias Guerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gafanhotos (Orthoptera, Acridoidea em áreas de cerrados e lavouras na Chapada dos Parecis, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foi determinada a composição e abundância de espécies de gafanhotos usando amostragem com rede entomológica durante 3 anos de estudo na Chapada dos Parecis, estado de Mato Grosso. O levantamento foi feito em áreas de lavouras e com vegetação ainda nativa (cerrados com, respectivamente, 56 e 59 locais inventariados em cada ambiente. Foram coletados 3.031 indivíduos de gafanhotos de 64 espécies distribuídas entre as famílias e subfamílias: Acrididae (49: Gomphocerinae (21, Ommatolampinae (10, Melanoplinae (6, Acridinae (4 Leptysminae (3, Copiocerinae (3, Proctolabinae (1 e Cyrtacanthacridinae (1; Romaleidae (1: Romaleinae (13 e Ommexechidae (1: Ommexechinae (2, além de 1550 ninfas. A diversidade de espécies foi maior no cerrado (61 do que nas lavouras (16, ocorrendo o inverso com relação à abundância onde as espécies Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg, 1824 e Orphulella punctata (De Geer, 1773 predominaram representando 49,5% do total de indivíduos coletados em toda a Chapada dos Parecis e, juntas, somam 78,8% da abundância registrada nas áreas de lavouras e tem potencial de se tornarem pragas.Grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in native savanna and crop areas in Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We determined the composition and abundance of grasshoppers using sweep net sampling during three years at the Parecis Plateau, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The survey was done in areas with crops and native vegetation (savanna with, respectively, 56 and 59 sites available in each environment. 3.031 individuals of grasshoppers were collected from 64 species distributed among the following families and subfamilies: Acrididae (49: Gomphocerinae (21, Ommatolampinae (10, Melanoplinae (6, Acridinae (4 Leptysminae (3, Copiocerinae (3, Proctolabinae (1 and Cyrtacanthacridinae (1; Romaleidae (1: Romaleinae

  6. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

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    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  7. Orthoptera, Blattodea and Mantodea of Vrachanska Planina Mountains

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    ALEXI POPOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available So far, 81 species of the orthopterid orders are found in Vrachanska Planina according to the published and original data (Orthoptera – 79 species, Blattodea and Mantodea – one species each. Other 6 species of Orthoptera have been recorded in the areas up to 5 km beyond the borders of the mountain. First records from Vrachanska Planina are reported here for 1 order, 1 superfamily, 2 families, 5 subfamilies, 8 tribes, 16 genera, 3 subgenera and 31 species. Published and original material of 70 species is checked and identified. A subspecies is synonymized: Ephippiger ephippiger ephippiger (Fiebig, 1784 (= Ephippiger ephippiger balkanicus Andreeva, 1985, syn. n.. Typical mountain species with a lower limit of distribution in Bulgaria running through the highest ridge of Vrachanska Planina are Psorodonotus fieberi, Gomphocerus sibiricus and Myrmeleotettix maculatus. The reported species are divided in 25 categories by chorology and 14 categories by origin. Most numerous according to chorotypes are the Eurosiberian (20 % followed by the Central and South European (16 % species as well as according to origin the Siberian (23 % followed by the Central European (19 % faunal elements. Endemic taxa of Orthoptera in Vrachanska Planina are 1 genus, 5 species and 1 subspecies, one of which is Bulgarian endemic species and the remaining taxa are Balkan endemics. The northernmost, westernmost, easternmost and southernmost localities in the ranges of 1 genus and 4 species are situated in Vrachanska Planina. The investigated area lies at the northern or eastern range limits of other 3 genera, 2 species and 1 subspecies. Leptophyes discoidalis and Miramella sp. are among the rarest species of Orthoptera in Bulgaria.

  8. De kleine wrattenbijter Gampsocleis glabra herontdekt in Nederland (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

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    Berg, van der, C.J.; Haveman, R.; Hornman, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gampsocleis glabra rediscovered in the Netherlands (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) Until recently, Gampsocleis glabra was considered to be extinct in the Netherlands since 1987. In 1999, this species was found in large accounts at the military firing range Oldebroek in the province of Gelderland. Gampsocleis glabra seems to prefer open heath (Genisto-Callunetum danthonietosum) and grassland communities (Galia hercynici-Festucetum ovinae) with a low moss abundance. On the Oldebroekse Heide the veg...

  9. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae)

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    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae) ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae), Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae) and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae) comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, wi...

  10. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae

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    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, with rarefaction curves. The number of plant species eaten by A. dilecta was greater than that of nine other grasshopper species of the same sub-family (Rhachicreagra spp. but was lower then two others (Microptylopteryx hebardi Rehn, 1905 and Rhachicreagra astytophallus Jago & Rowell, 1981. This results are discussed in view of the broad geographical range and possession of developed wings by A. dilecta, which contrasts with most Ommatolampinae grasshoppers.

  11. Temporal-spatial dynamics in orthoptera in relation to nutrient availability and plant species richness.

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    Rob J J Hendriks

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability in ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last century. Excess reactive nitrogen deposition is known to negatively impact plant communities, e.g. by changing species composition, biomass and vegetation structure. In contrast, little is known on how such impacts propagate to higher trophic levels. To evaluate how nitrogen deposition affects plants and herbivore communities through time, we used extensive databases of spatially explicit historical records of Dutch plant species and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets, a group of animals that are particularly susceptible to changes in the C:N ratio of their resources. We use robust methods that deal with the unstandardized nature of historical databases to test whether nitrogen deposition levels and plant richness changes influence the patterns of richness change of Orthoptera, taking into account Orthoptera species functional traits. Our findings show that effects indeed also propagate to higher trophic levels. Differences in functional traits affected the temporal-spatial dynamics of assemblages of Orthoptera. While nitrogen deposition affected plant diversity, contrary to our expectations, we could not find a strong significant effect of food related traits. However we found that species with low habitat specificity, limited dispersal capacity and egg deposition in the soil were more negativly affected by nitrogen deposition levels. Despite the lack of significant effect of plant richness or food related traits on Orthoptera, the negative effects of nitrogen detected within certain trait groups (e.g. groups with limited disperse ability could be related to subtle changes in plant abundance and plant quality. Our results, however, suggest that the changes in soil conditions (where many Orthoptera species lay their eggs or other habitat changes driven by nitrogen have a stronger influence than food related traits. To fully evaluate the negative effects of nitrogen

  12. Grasshoppers, Crickets and Katydids (Insecta: Orthoptera) of Cuba: an annotated checklist.

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    Yong, Sheyla; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2014-07-07

    An annotated list of the Cuban fauna of Orthoptera is presented. For each species we include details of valid names, synonyms, type specimens (type category, sex, locality and depository), geographic distribution and bibliographic references. Clarifying notes are added, as well as comments on the species considered doubtful. A total of 140 species included in 62 genera, 31 subfamilies and 12 families make up the known Cuban fauna of Orthoptera. The family Episactidae, the acridid subfamily Ommatolampidinae with 3 unknown genera, 3 unknown genera of Tettigoniidae (Conocephalinae) and 1 undescribed new genus of Tetrigidae (Cladonotinae) are here recorded for the first time from Cuba. Syntypes are designated for Hygronemobius histrionicus Zayas.

  13. Weather-dependent microhabitat use by Tetrix tenuicornis (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae).

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    Musiolek, David; Kočárek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    For ectothermic animals, selection of a suitable microhabitat is affected by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Also important is the trade-off between those microhabitats with optimal microclimatic conditions and food availability vs. those with the lowest level of competition and lowest risk of predation. Central European species of groundhoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) live in locations with small-scale mosaics of patches formed by bare ground, moss cushions and vascular plants (grasses and forbs). Our research focused on the effects of selected weather components (current temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure and sunlight) on specific microhabitat selection by adults (during the reproductive season) and by the last-instar nymphs (during the non-reproductive season) of the groundhopper Tetrix tenuicornis. Using experimental conditions, we determined that microhabitat use by T. tenuicornis is sex-specific and that microhabitat preference differs between adults and nymphs. We suppose that microhabitats are used according to groundhopper current needs in relation to each habitat's suitability for maintaining body temperature, food intake and reproductive behaviour. Microhabitat preferences were significantly associated with temperature and atmospheric pressure. Changes in atmospheric pressure signal changes in weather, and insects respond to increases or decreases in pressure by adjusting their behaviour in order to enhance survival. We propose that, under low atmospheric pressure, T. tenuicornis actively seeks microhabitats that provide increased protection from adverse weather. PMID:27437707

  14. Effects of Climate Change and Various Grassland Management Practices on Grasshopper (Orthoptera Assemblages

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    Zoltán Kenyeres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different grassland management practices on Orthoptera assemblages inhabiting humid grassland areas was studied since 2003 to 2011. The examined sites were within the protected area of Balaton Uplands National Park. The physiognomy and climatic conditions of the studied habitats were similar but their land use types were significantly different. After the preliminary analyses of Nonmetric multidimensional scaling, neighbour joining clustering, and Spearman rank correlation, we examined the possible effects of such independent variables as land use (nonmanagement, mowing, grazing, microclimate (humidity and temperature, regional macroclimate (annual and monthly mean temperatures and rainfall, using General Linear Mixed Models, and canonical correlation analysis. Our results showed that the effect of grassland management practices on the organization of Orthoptera assemblages was at least as important as that of macro- and microclimate. Furthermore, grassland management could intensify the influence of several local and regional parameters. These results can help finding the most suitable type of grassland management to conserve the grasshopper assemblages.

  15. Hydrolutos piaroa sp.n. (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae), a new semiaquatic Lutosini species from south-western Venezuelan lowland streams.

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    Derka, Tomáš; Svitok, Marek; Fedor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolutos piaroa, a new species of Lutosini (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) from Tobogán de la Selva (Puerto Ayacucho region, SW Venezuela) is described and figured. Inhabiting aquatic environment it represents an unusual orthopteran with sternal and pleural area covered by fine microtrichia, forming a plastron. This is the first known Hydrolutos species sampled in lowland streams of Venezuelan Guayana. PMID:27395849

  16. First record of the subfamily Proctolabinae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Acrididae from Argentina Primer registro de la subfamilia Proctolabinae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Acrididae para la Argentina

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    Christian Bardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution records for the first time the subfamily Proctolabinae from Argentina. This subfamily contains 29 genera and 209 species restricted to the Neotropics with only one genus, Eucephalacris Descamps, reaching south as far as Mato Grosso in Brazil and northern Paraguay. Specimens belonging to Eucephalacris borellii (Giglio-Tos were collected in Misiones province. The presence of this species registered herein raises to eleven the number of Acrididae subfamilies known to occur in the country, and highlights the importance of conducting surveys of Acridoidea and Orthoptera in general, in diverse regions of Argentina. Brief diagnoses and illustrations of the characters that allowed the identification of the genus and species are also given in this contribution.Esta contribución registra por primera vez la subfamilia Proctolabinae para la Argentina. La subfamilia Proctolabinae contiene 29 géneros y 209 especies restringidas a la región Neotropical, con sólo uno de sus géneros, Eucephalacris Descamps, que llega al sur hasta Mato Grosso en Brasil y el norte de Paraguay. Ejemplares pertenecientes a Eucephalacris borellii (Giglio-Tos fueron colectados en el departamento de Guaraní, provincia de Misiones. La presencia de Eucephalacris borellii, registrada en este trabajo, eleva a once el número de subfamilias de Acrididae presentes en la Argentina, y destaca la necesidad de realizar relevamientos sobre la diversidad de Acridoidea y de Orthoptera en general, en diversas regiones de nuestro país. También se brindan en esta contribución una breve diagnosis e ilustraciones de los caracteres que permiten la identificación del género y de la especie.

  17. Similarities and differences in the peering-jump behavior of three grasshopper species (Orthoptera: Caelifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl Kral

    2008-01-01

    The peering-jump behavior was studied for the common field grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus, the meadow grasshopper C. parallelus and the alpine grasshopper Miramella alpina (Orthoptera, Caelifera). It was found that immediately before jumping M.alpina executes primarily unilateral object-related peering movements, with approximately twice the amplitude and velocity of the predominantly bilateral object-related peering movements of the other two species. Whereas M. alpina almost always jumped toward the black stripes in the experimental arena, the other species jumped toward both the blacks tripes and the white spaces between them. All three species preferred the same pattern of black stripes, which permitted them to view one black stripe frontally, with an additional black stripe to the left and right, in the lateral visual field. The similarities and differences in the peering-jump behavior of the three grasshopper species is discussed with regard to visual perception (parallax cues) and environmental adaptation.

  18. Male Responses to Conspecific Advertisement Signals in the Field Cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

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    Jang, Yikweon

    2011-01-01

    In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals. PMID:21283758

  19. Male responses to conspecific advertisement signals in the field cricket Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae.

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    Yikweon Jang

    Full Text Available In many species males aggregate and produce long-range advertisement signals to attract conspecific females. The majority of the receivers of these signals are probably other males most of the time, and male responses to competitors' signals can structure the spatial and temporal organization of the breeding aggregation and affect male mating tactics. I quantified male responses to a conspecific advertisement stimulus repeatedly over three age classes in Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera: Gryllidae in order to estimate the type and frequency of male responses to the broadcast stimulus and to determine the factors affecting them. Factors tested included body size, wing dimorphism, age, and intensity of the broadcast stimulus. Overall, males employed acoustic response more often than positive phonotactic response. As males aged, the frequency of positive phonotactic response decreased but that of the acoustic response increased. That is, males may use positive phonotaxis in the early stages of their adult lives, possibly to find suitable calling sites or parasitize calling males, and then later in life switch to acoustic responses in response to conspecific advertisement signals. Males with smaller body size more frequently exhibited acoustic responses. This study suggests that individual variation, more than any factors measured, is critical for age-dependent male responses to conspecific advertisement signals.

  20. Effect of food plants on the volume of repellent secretion obtained in adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

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    Idowu, A B; Idowu, O A

    2001-06-01

    The volume of secretion obtained from adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) was influenced by the type of food plants. Insects fed on leaves of cassava Manihot esculenta, bitter leaves Vernonia amygdalina, and a mixture of M. esculenta and Acalypha wilkesiana gave a good volume of secretion while Chromolaena odorata, Elaeis guinensis, Aspilia africana and Citrus sinensis did not favour secretion production. No significant difference was recorded in the volume of secretion obtained from Z. variegatus from the two seasons irrespective of the food plant. Similarly, food plants gave no significant difference on the volume of secretion between the two seasons. PMID:11935920

  1. Mitochondrial genomes of four katydids (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae): New gene rearrangements and their phylogenetic implications.

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    Yang, Jing; Ye, Fei; Huang, Yuan

    2016-01-10

    Phaneropteridae is a family of Orthoptera that displays an amazing amount of diversity in terms of both forms and species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of two bush katydids: Ruidocollaris obscura and Kuwayamaea brachyptera (Phaneropterinae), and two true katydids: Orophyllus montanus and Phyllomimus detersus (Pseudophyllinae), to obtain further insight into the characteristics of the katydid mitogenomes and to investigate the taxonomic status of subfamily Pseudophyllinae and the diversity of gene arrangements among Phaneropteridae. The following general genomic characteristics were observed in the four katydids: a longer length of the mitogenomes (16,007bp-16,667bp) compared with Caelifera, abundant intergenic spacers, and accepted atypical initiation codons (GTG and TTG, found in cox1, nad1 and nad2). A new orientation of the gene arrangement "trnM-trnI-trnQ" was identified in P. detersus, which is the first representative of Polyneoptera found to carry this gene cluster. Large identical fragments (492bp) were detected in control region 1 (CR1) and control region 2 (CR2) of R. obscura. The high similarity of the duplicated CRs is likely due to a recent gene duplication or concerted evolution. Analyses of the duplicated CRs revealed one conserved stem-loop (on the N-strand) located in the identical sequences of both CRs that might be linked to replication initiation. Phylogenetic analyses based on 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes from 20 Ensiferan species yielded the identical topologies between two different methods (maximum likelihood and bayesian inference). The newly sequenced Pseudophyllinae species was placed as the sister group of Phaneropterinae, and Mecopodinae clustered with Pseudophyllinae+Phaneropterinae. Additionally, we speculate that the species in Ruidocollaris and Sinochlora, as well as their closely related genera, may have undergone numerous rearrangement events. PMID:26410415

  2. Oxidative stress related enzymes in response to chromium (Ⅵ) toxicity in Oxya chinensis ( Orthoptera : Acridoidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-jun; ZHANG Feng; LIU Xue-mei; GUO Ya-ping; MA En-bo

    2005-01-01

    The toxic effects of Cr(Ⅵ) on antioxidant enzymes of Oxya chinensis(Orthoptera: Acridoidae) were determined. Changes in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase(GPx) were measured in O. chinensis insects injected with Cr(Ⅵ). Fifth-nymphs of O. chinensis insects were injected with Cr(Ⅵ) with different concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375, 450 mg/kg of body weight). The results showed that Cr(Ⅵ) led to the change of SOD, CAT, and GPx activities at different concentrations, which revealed that: (1) The oxidative stress of SOD increased with the increase of Cr (Ⅵ)concentration. (2) With the increase of Cr (Ⅵ) concentrations, CAT activities for females increased at lower concentrations, but decreased at higher concentration range, which indicated that antioxidant system of O. chinensis was not influenced by the presence of Cr (Ⅵ). A very similar response to Cr(Ⅵ) effect for males indicated that Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations were not high enough to damage O. chinensis in terms of CAT. (3) The GPx activity for females increased in all treatments, which revealed that the damage power of Cr(Ⅵ)was increased with the increase of Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations in terms of GPx, but the effect was not so remarkable. There was not a consistent trend of GPx activities for males in all treatments of Cr(Ⅵ). Cr(Ⅵ)-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes were different for SOD, CAT and GPx, of which the tendency was that activities generally changed with increase of concentrations of Cr(Ⅵ) suggesting SOD, CAT, and GPx could serve as indices of oxidative stress to some extent.

  3. Remote sensing for environmental control of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) in Apulia (Italy)

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    Belviso, Luciano

    Background. Dociostaurus maroccanus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) is a locust widely spread all over the Mediterranean region. This insect is linked to particular oviposition sites (pseudosteppa or garigue). When locusts become adults, they feed on cultivated crops, expanding on wide areas of vegetations and farmlands, threatening economical operators of agriculture and food processing. In the past years, observation attempts have been made, however, the localization of concentrations of locusts as well as their egg-pods is extremely difficult. Moreover, most of the affected areas are under the protection of National Parks Authorities that makes unacceptable any chemical pesticide treatment. The objective of this study, carried out by the University of Bari, is to obtain a behavioural model of locusts propagation using data from remote sensing, in order to predict locusts concentration and promptly act with appropriate biological countermeasures, like enthomopathogenous fungi. Data evaluation. Although insects are affected by climate changes and meteo factors, it is extremely difficult to assess their precise behaviour and the relations among different environmental factors and the global insect population. The infestation of the past years is probably due to the increase of annual temperature means but no explicit relation is currently known. Considering this phenomenon affects wide areas, remote sensing represent the only applicable solution to obtain precise data concerning land coverage, surface temperature, incidence of solar radiation as well as atmospheric contribution. After data collection, clusters are selected using neural networks methods in order to classify big territories. At present, experiments (using MODIS, ASTER, ENVISAT) show that wide areas can be grouped in just a few clusters with some of them suitable for locusts life. In the next months further investigation will be performed to refine the classification procedure. Metamodeling techniques

  4. La tribu Insarini (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Phaneropteridae: tercera contribución a la organización supragenérica de los faneropterinos neotropicales

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    Cadena–Castañeda, O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Insarini (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Phaneropteridae: third contribution to the supra–generic organization of neotropical Phaneropterinae The tribe Insarini is delimited in this contribution to four genera: Arethaea, Brachyinsara, Insara and Psilinsara. A table to separate these genera is provided. The generic boundaries are not well delimited in this tribe. The genus Callinsara n. syn. is synonymized under Sictuna, which in in turn is moved to the group Plagiopleurae. The tribal boundaries of Insarini and Pycnopalpini are discussed.

  5. Ocorrência do gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae atacando plantas de eucalipto em Minas Gerais Coconut tree grashopper, Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae feeding on eucalyptus trees in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os danos causados pelo gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae em plantas de eucalipto, no município de Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em junho de 2001. As amostragens foram realizadas, contando-se o número total de plantas por linha e o de plantas atacadas por classe de desfolha de 10%, a cada dez linhas de plantio, em cinco talhões de eucalipto com sinais de ataque desse gafanhoto. Calculou-se a porcentagem de desfolha por talhão e por planta de eucalipto. A porcentagem de desfolha por planta na área atacada foi de 3,70%, variando de 0,84 a 7,93%, enquanto a de plantas atacadas por talhão foi de 4,80%, variando de 1,88 a 11,54%. Os danos causados por E. cristata não justificaram medidas de controle, mas foram feitas avaliações para acompanhar a evolução do ataque desse inseto, cujas populações reduziram-se a níveis inexpressivos após 30 dias de sua constatação nesse plantio de eucalipto.Damage caused by the coconut tree grasshopper, Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae was evaluated in an eucalyptus plantation in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June 2001. Samplings were obtained by counting the number of plants per line and the number of defoliated plants in classes of 10% in 10 planting lines of five blocks of an eucalyptus plantation. Mean percentage of defoliation per plant in the area attacked by this pest was 3.70%, varying from 0.84 to 7.93%, while the number of plants attacked by eucalyptus block was 4.80%, varying from 1.88 to 11.54%. Damage by E. cristata did not justify control measures. Evaluation of this insect showed that its population was reduced to inexpressive numbers 30 days after it was found in this eucalyptus plantation.

  6. A new Cephalobium Cobb (Nematoda, Cephalobiidae, a parasite of Anurogryllus Muticus (De Geer (Orthoptera, Gryllidae from Argentina

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    Nora B. Camino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cephalobium from Gorina, La Plata, Argentina, parasiting nymphs of Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer (Orthoptera, Gryllidae is described and illustrated. This nematode can be characterized by having the stoma longer than broad, the glottoid apparatus anisoglottid and anisomorphic, divided into two portions, one with cuticularized walls and the other with three simple dorsal teeth. The male is further characterized by the presence of two long and separated spicules and short gubernaculum without any projection. Genital papillae are arranged in five postanal pairs.Uma espécie nova do gênero Cephalobium (Nematoda, Cephalobiidae, parasita de Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer (Ortoptera, Gryllidae de Gorina, La Plata, Argentina, é descrita e ilustrada. Este nematoda pode ser caracterizado por apresentar estoma mais longo que largo, o aparelho glottoideo anisoglottideo e anisomórfico, dividido em duas porções, uma com paredes quitinizadas e a outra com três dentes dorsais simples. O macho possui espículas longas e separadas e o gubernáculo curto sem qualquer projeção. As papilas genitais estão organizadas em cinco pares pós-anais.

  7. Forms of Melanoplus bowditchi (Orthoptera: Acrididae) collected from different host plants are indistinguishable genetically and in aedeagal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Mustafa, Fatima; Kneeland, Kate M; Brust, Mathew L; Hoback, W Wyatt; Kamble, Shripat T; Foster, John E

    2014-01-01

    The sagebrush grasshopper, Melanoplus bowditchi Scudder (Orthoptera: Acrididae), is a phytophilous species that is widely distributed in the western United States on sagebrush species. The geographical distribution of M. bowditchi is very similar to the range of its host plants and its feeding association varies in relation to sagebrush distribution. Melanoplus bowditchi bowditchi Scudder and M. bowditchi canus Hebard were described based on their feeding association with different sagebrush species, sand sagebrush and silver sagebrush, respectively. Recently, M. bowditchi have been observed feeding on other plant species in western Nebraska. We collected adult M. bowditchi feeding on four plant species, sand sagebrush, Artemisia filifolia, big sagebrush, A. tridentata, fringed sagebrush, A. frigidus, and winterfat, Krascheninnikovia lanata. We compared the specimens collected from the four plant species for their morphological and genetic differences. We observed no consistent differences among the aedeagal parameres or basal rings among the grasshoppers collected from different host plants. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers were used to test the genetic relationships among the grasshoppers. Analysis of Molecular Variance and distance-based Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean dendrogram failed to reveal significant differences. Although the forms showed behavioral and minor color and size differences, the genetic data suggest all forms under study likely interbreed, which indicates they are a single species instead of four species or subspecies. These results indicate that host plant use may influence melanopline phenotype and suggest the need of further genetic analysis of subspecies recognized based on morphology, distribution, and ecology. PMID:24949237

  8. Forms of Melanoplus bowditchi (Orthoptera: Acrididae collected from different host plants are indistinguishable genetically and in aedeagal morphology

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    Muhammad Irfan Ullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sagebrush grasshopper, Melanoplus bowditchi Scudder (Orthoptera: Acrididae, is a phytophilous species that is widely distributed in the western United States on sagebrush species. The geographical distribution of M. bowditchi is very similar to the range of its host plants and its feeding association varies in relation to sagebrush distribution. Melanoplus bowditchi bowditchi Scudder and M. bowditchi canus Hebard were described based on their feeding association with different sagebrush species, sand sagebrush and silver sagebrush, respectively. Recently, M. bowditchi have been observed feeding on other plant species in western Nebraska. We collected adult M. bowditchi feeding on four plant species, sand sagebrush, Artemisia filifolia, big sagebrush, A. tridentata, fringed sagebrush, A. frigidus, and winterfat, Krascheninnikovia lanata. We compared the specimens collected from the four plant species for their morphological and genetic differences. We observed no consistent differences among the aedeagal parameres or basal rings among the grasshoppers collected from different host plants. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers were used to test the genetic relationships among the grasshoppers. Analysis of Molecular Variance and distance-based Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean dendrogram failed to reveal significant differences. Although the forms showed behavioral and minor color and size differences, the genetic data suggest all forms under study likely interbreed, which indicates they are a single species instead of four species or subspecies. These results indicate that host plant use may influence melanopline phenotype and suggest the need of further genetic analysis of subspecies recognized based on morphology, distribution, and ecology.

  9. How many mechanosensory organs in the bushcricket leg? Neuroanatomy of the scolopidial accessory organ in Tettigoniidae (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Riesterer, Anja S; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The subgenual organ and associated scolopidial organs are well studied in Orthoptera and related taxa. In some insects, a small accessory organ or Nebenorgan is described posterior to the subgenual organ. In Tettigoniidae (Ensifera), the accessory organ has only been noted in one species though tibial sensory organs are well studied for neuroanatomy and physiology. Here, we use axonal tracing to analyse the posterior subgenual organ innervated by the main motor nerve. Investigating seven species from different groups of Tettigoniidae, we describe a small group of scolopidial sensilla (5-9 sensory neurons) which has features characteristic of the accessory organ: posterior tibial position, innervation by the main leg nerve rather than by the tympanal nerve, orientation of dendrites in proximal or ventro-proximal direction in the leg, and commonly association with a single campaniform sensillum. The neuroanatomy is highly similar between leg pairs. We show differences in the innervation in two species of the genus Poecilimon as compared to the other species. In Poecilimon, the sensilla of the accessory organ are innervated by one nerve branch together with the subgenual organ. The results suggest that the accessory organ is part of the sensory bauplan in the leg of Tettigoniidae and probably Ensifera. PMID:26627978

  10. Niveles de esporulación experimentales y naturales de Nosema locustae (Microsporidia en especies de tucuras y langostas (Orthoptera: Acridoidea de la Argentina Levels of experimental and natural sporulation of Nosema locustae (Microsporidia in grasshopper and locust species (Orthoptera: Acridoidea of Argentina

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    Carlos E. Lange

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosema locustae Canning, un patógeno intracelular esporogénico del cuerpo graso de ortópteros utilizado para el control biológico de acridios, se estableció en ciertas comunidades de éstos de la Argentina luego de ser introducido hace poco más de 20 años. En el presente estudio se midieron, siguiendo metodología estandarizada para la estimación del número de esporos por insecto individual afectado, los niveles de esporulación alcanzados por N. locustae en tres especies de acridios naturalmente infectados [ Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg] y en seis especies infectadas experimentalmente [ Dichroplus maculipennis Blanchard, Dichroplus schulzi Bruner, D. elongatus, B. punctulatus, Ronderosia bergi Stal, Schistocerca cancellata (Serville]. Los niveles de esporulación fueron importantes en todas las especies de la subfamilia Melanoplinae (el promedio varió entre 2 x 10(8 y 3,2 x 10(9, mientras que la producción de esporos fue rara (9,5 % de los ejemplares infectados y baja (máxima de 9,6 x 10(6 en S. cancellata. No ocurrió desarrollo de infección en el acridio Romaleidae Elaeochlora viridicata (Serville. Los valores de esporulación alcanzados en los melanoplinos concuerdan con el establecimiento de N. locustae en comunidades de acridios de la Argentina, pues una alta disponibilidad de unidades infectivas transmisibles (propágulos es un factor central para la transmisión y persistencia de una enfermedad en una población de insectos susceptibles. Aunque los niveles de esporulación más elevados se alcanzaron en D. maculipennis, R. bergi parece, por la falta de diapausa embrionaria obligatoria en su ciclo y por su comportamiento poco reactivo que facilita el manejo de la colonia, la especie más adecuada de las probadas en este estudio para la producción in vivo de N. locustae.Nosema locustae Canning, an intracellular sporogenic pathogen of the fat body of orthopterans

  11. La tribu Pycnopalpini n. trib. (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Phaneropteridae: segunda contribución a la organización supragenérica de los faneropterinos neotropicales

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    Cadena–Castañeda, O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Pycnopalpini n. trib. (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Phaneropteridae: second contribution to neotropical Phaneropterinae The new tribe Pycnopalpini is proposed, based on morphological similarity among the genera Hetaira, Pycnopalpa, Topana (Pycnopalpina n. subtr., Dolichocercus, Oxyprorella, Theia, and TheiellaTheia unicolor, Theia bifurcata n. sp., Theiella amazonica n. sp., Theiella andina n. sp., and D. santanderensis n. sp. from Colombia, and D. costaricensis n. sp. from Costa Rica. Hetaira (Atopana morona and Hetaira (Atopana varia are recorded from the Colombian Amazon, where both species seem to occur sympatrically. Theia peruviana n. comb. is also recorded from the Colombian Amazon, where it seems to occur sympatrically with T. bifurcata. The paper contains additional new combinations, and Oxyprorella gregoirea syn. n. is a new synonym for Insara bolivari. This contribution reconsiders the neotropical subfamily Phaneropterinae, aiming to establish the limits of the tribes and genera of this subfamily.

  12. A new species of Blatticola Schwenk, 1926 (Oxyurida, Thelastomatidae a parasite of Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer, 1773 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae from Argentina

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    María Fernanda Achinelly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blatticola cristovata n. sp. (Oxyurida, Thelastomatidae a parasite of the cricket Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer, 1773 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae from Argentina, is described and illustrated. This is the first species of the genus Blatticola found parasitizing cricket. This new species is characterized in females by having the cuticle annulated through the body length, the mouth opening is subtriangular and surrounded by eight cephalic papillae, the stoma is short with three pairs placed in two rows of cuticular sclerotised plates, amphids in small pore shaped, oesophagus is divided into three parts, anterior cylindrical corpus, isthmus distinct, and basal bulb valved, the nerve ring is situated around the middle of corpus, the intestine is wide broad anteriorly, oval eggs, smooth shell, with a straight side, and the other side with a band running longitudinally. Males with one pair of preanal, one pair of adanal and two pairs of postanal papillae, and the tail appendage short, conical and pointed.Una nueva especie Blatticola cristovata n. sp. (Oxyurida, Thelastomatidae parásita del grillo Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer, 1773 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae en Argentina, se describe e ilustra. Esta es la primera especie del género Blatticola que se encontró parasitando a grillos. Esta nueva especie se caracteriza por tener las hembras la cutícula anillada a lo largo de todo el cuerpo, la abertura bucal triangular rodeada por ocho papilas cefálicas, el estoma corto con tres pares de placas esclerotizadas dispuestas en dos líneas, anfidios pequeños en forma de poro, esofago dividido en tres partes, una anterior con un corpus cilíndrico, un istmo distintivo, y un bulbo basal con valvas, el anillo nervioso situado rodeando el corpus, el intestino ensanchado anteriormente, huevos ovales, de cáscara lisa, con un lado recto y el otro con una cresta longitudinal. Macho con un par de papilas preanal, uno adanal y dos pares de papilas postanales, y ap

  13. Understanding the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the context of evolutionary history: Phylogeography and landscape genetics of a southern California endemic Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Weissman, D.B.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbanization are the most pervasive threats to biodiversity in southern California. Loss of habitat and fragmentation can lower migration rates and genetic connectivity among remaining populations of native species, reducing genetic variability and increasing extinction risk. However, it may be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehistoric fragmentation due to previous natural geological and climatic changes. To address these challenges, we examined the phylogenetic and population genetic structure of a flightless insect endemic to cismontane southern California, Stenopelmatus 'mahogani' (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggest that diversification across southern California began during the Pleistocene, with most haplotypes currently restricted to a single population. Patterns of genetic divergence correlate with contemporary urbanization, even after correcting for (geographical information system) GIS-based reconstructions of fragmentation during the Pleistocene. Theoretical simulations confirm that contemporary patterns of genetic structure could be produced by recent urban fragmentation using biologically reasonable assumptions about model parameters. Diversity within populations was positively correlated with current fragment size, but not prehistoric fragment size, suggesting that the effects of increased drift following anthropogenic fragmentation are already being seen. Loss of genetic connectivity and diversity can hinder a population's ability to adapt to ecological perturbations commonly associated with urbanization, such as habitat degradation, climatic changes and introduced species. Consequently, our results underscore the importance of preserving and restoring landscape connectivity for long-term persistence of low vagility native species. Journal compilation ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini) e descrição de três novos gêneros

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa; Gervásio Silva Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini) e descrição de três novos gêneros. Os gêneros sulamericanos de Abracrini Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris gen. nov., Robustusacris gen. nov., e Arimacris gen. nov. são revisados, descritos, redescritos e redefinidos. Quatro espécies são novas combinações: Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898) comb. nov., Liebermannacris punctifrons (Stål,187...

  15. Catalogue of type specimens of the Collection of Invertebrates of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera

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    José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of the type specimens of Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Zoraptera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to December, 2007. A total of eight holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of nine species of Isoptera; three holotypes and one paratype of three species of Mantodea; five holotypes and five lots of paratypes of five species of Mecoptera; eight holotypes and five lots of paratypes of eleven species of Orthoptera; three holotypes, three neotypes and two lots of paratypes of seven species of Plecoptera; six holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of ten species of Trichoptera; and two holotypes and three lots of paratypes of three species of Zoraptera, are listed. Specific names are listed alphabetically within the family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data and remarks when appropriate.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até dezembro de 2007. É relacionado um total de sete holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Isoptera; três holótipos e um parátipo de três espécies de Mantodea; cinco holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de cinco espécies de Mecoptera; oito holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de 11 espécies de Orthoptera; três holótipos, três neótipos e dois lotes de parátipos de sete espécies de Plecoptera; seis holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de dez espécies de Trichoptera; e dois holótipos e três lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Zoraptera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do

  16. Duração do ciclo de vida de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Leptysminae e aspectos de seu comportamento alimentar na Amazônia central Life cycle of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Leptysminae and aspects of its food behavior at Central Amazonia

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    Maria de Fátima Vieira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O gafanhoto Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Leptysminae completa seu ciclo de vida em Eichhornia (Pontederiaceae. Em experimentos ao ar livre, durante o período da enchente, foi verificado que a cópula pode durar entre 40 a 120 minutos. Cada postura tem em média 13,4 ovos (+/- 3,2 e o período de incubação durou 34,1 dias (+/- 1,97. A duração média do desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto foi de 156,2 dias, sendo 34,1 do estágio de ovo, 53,4 do estágio ninfal e 68,7 do estágio adulto. Alimentou-se de 6 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas dentre as 13 oferecidas. Ninfas (N e Adultos (A sobreviveram mais dias em Pistia stratiotes (N = 43 % até 30 dias e A =1 % até 27 dias e Pontederia sp. (N = 85 % e A = 40 % até 24 dias que em Limnobium sp. (N =13% e A =10 % até 12 dias, Ludwigia sp. (N =3 % até 24 dias e A =15 % até 9 dias, Azolla sp. (N =35 % até 9 dias e A =15 % até 12 dias e Paspalum repens (N =3 % até 21 dias e A =5 % até 24 dias.Life cycle of the grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Leptysminae is dependent on Eichhornia (Pontederiaceae. Experiments were carried outdoors during receding water, the Mating last for about 40 and 120 minutes. The ootheca has an average of 13.4 (+/- 3.2 eggs. Incubation lasted for 34.1 days (+/- 1.97. Mean durations of total development from egg to adult was 156.2 days, being 34.1 in the egg stage, 53.4 in the ninphal stage, and 68.7 in the adult stage. Nymphs (N and adults (A accepted only six aquatic macrophytes out of 13 species offered during 30 days; survived more time in Pistia stratiotes (N = 43 %, 30 days and A = 1 %, 27 days and Pontederia sp. (N = 85 % and A = 40 % until 24 days than Limnobium sp. (N =13% and A =10 % until 12 dias, Ludwigia sp. (N =3 %, 24 days and A =15 %, 9 days Azolla sp. (N =35 %, 9 days and A =15 %, 12 days and Paspalum repens (N =3 %, 21 days and A =5 %, 24 days.

  17. The level of DNA damage in adult grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) following dimethoate exposure is dependent on the insects' habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Kubok, Magdalena; Dziewięcka, Marta; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The comet assay was used to study the DNA damage that was induced by dimethoate in the hemocyte cells of adult Chorthippus biguttulus grasshoppers (Insecta: Orthoptera) that originated from two sites with varying levels of pollution. The primary focus of the study was to examine whether continuous exposure to environmental stress can modify the effect of pesticides on genome stability. After three days of acclimation to laboratory conditions, the level of DNA damage in the hemocytes of Bow-winged grasshoppers was within a similar range in the insects from both areas. However, the level of DNA damage following dimethoate treatment was significantly higher in the insects from the reference area (Pogoria) than in the individuals from the heavily polluted location (Szopienice). Four hours after pesticide treatment, the Tail DNA (TDNA) in the hemocytes of the male and female specimens from Pogoria was as high as 75% and 50% respectively, whereas the values in males and females from Szopienice only reached 30% and 20%, respectively. A rapid decrease in DNA damage was observed in both populations 24 h after the pesticide application. The habitat of an insect (site), the administration of the dimethoate (treatment), and the period following the application of the pesticide (time), all significantly influenced the levels of DNA damage. No interactions related to TDNA were observed between the variables 'sex' and 'treatment'. Similarly, the variable 'sex', when analyzed alongside 'treatment' and 'site' (the area from which the insects were collected), or 'treatment' and 'time' had no influence on TL. Exposure to dimethoate undoubtedly contributed to the formation of DNA damage in the hemocytes of adult C. biguttulus. However, the level of damage was clearly dependent on the place where the insects were captured. PMID:27213568

  18. Study on Phylogenesis of Orthoptera Inferred from MtDNA%基于线粒体基因对直翅目昆虫系统发育学的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婷婷; 陈光

    2011-01-01

    简要概述了线粒体基因组的结构和特点,同时基于线粒体基因组中的13个蛋白编码基因,选螳螂目、蜚蠊目、等翅目及螳脩目的5个种为外群,对直翅目34个种进行系统发育学研究.结果表明直翅目与外群分开,形成单系群.直翅目内部形成螽亚目与蝗亚目2个单系群.在螽亚目内部形成螽次亚目与蟀次亚目2个分支,且驼螽总科与螽斯总科形成姐妹群,但蚁蟋科与蝼蛄科形成1支,并不支持蟋蟀总科的单系性.在蝗亚目内部形成(蚤蝼总科+(牛蝗总科+(锥头蝗总科+蝗总科)))的系统进化关系.%The Orthoptera, belonging to the Arthropoda, is one of the largest orders among the Insecta. Mitochondrial DNA has been widely used in insect phylogenetic studies and proved to be an efficient maker in this field. This paper introduces the structure and characters of the mitochondrial genome. The phylogenetic relationships of 34 species from Orthoptera and 5 outgroup species (Mantodea, Blattaria, Isoptera, and Mantophasmatodea) were performed based on the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes. The monophyly of the Orthoptera is strongly supported, with its two suborders, Caelifera and Ensifera, being recovered as monophyletic respectively. Within Ensifera, it is subdivided into Grylloidea and Tet-tigonioidea. The superfamily of Rhaphidophoridae is a sister group to Tettigoniidae. The monophyly of Grylloidea is not recovered because Myrmecophilidae and Gryllotalpidae cluster together. The system evolution relationship of the superfamilies within Caelifera is formed (Tridactyloidea + ( Pneumoridea + (Pyr-gomorphoidea + Acridoidea) ) ) .

  19. Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini e descrição de três novos gêneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisão dos gêneros Sitalces, Eusitalces e Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini e descrição de três novos gêneros. Os gêneros sulamericanos de Abracrini Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris gen. nov., Robustusacris gen. nov., e Arimacris gen. nov. são revisados, descritos, redescritos e redefinidos. Quatro espécies são novas combinações: Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898 comb. nov., Liebermannacris punctifrons (Stål,1878 comb. nov., Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913 comb. nov., e Arimacris trinitatis (Bruner, 1906 comb. nov., todas removidas de Sitalces Stål, 1878. Nove espécies são novos sinônimos: Sitalces robustus Bruner, 1908 (de S. volxemi Stål, 1878; S. infuscatus Bruner, 1908, S. nudus Bruner, 1908, S. ovatipennis Bruner, 1908, S. madeirensis Rehn, 1916 (de Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898; S. rubripes Hebard, 1924 (de Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913; E. amazonicus Günther, 1940 e S. apolinari Hebard, 1923 (de Eusitalces vittatus Bruner, 1911; E. rubripes Günther, 1940 (de P. vulneratus (Bruner,1919. Lectótipos e paralectótipos são designados. São fornecidas chaves para identificação, medidas, mapa de distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos gêneros e espécies.Revision of the genera Sitalces, Eusitalces and Parasitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini and description of three new genera. The South American Abracrini genera Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris gen. nov., Robustusacris gen. nov., and Arimacris gen. nov. are reviewed, described, redescribed and redefined. Four species are new combinations: Liebermannacris dorsualis (Giglio-Tos, 1898 comb. nov., Liebermannacris punctifrons (Stål,1878 comb. nov., Arimacris trinitatis (Bruner, 1906 comb. nov., and Robustusacris balzapambae (Rehn, 1913 comb. nov., all removed of Sitalces Stål, 1878. Nine species

  20. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  1. Monitoring of insects with public participation (MIPP; EU LIFE project 11 NAT/IT/000252: overview on a citizen science initiative and a monitoring programme (Insecta: Coleoptera; Lepidoptera; Orthoptera

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    Franco Mason

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The LIFE project “MIPP” - Monitoring of Insects with Public Participation (11 NAT/IT/000252 is focused on selected insect species (five Coleoptera, three Lepidoptera, one Orthoptera, all included in the annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive (HD 92/43/EEC. One important aim is a citizen science initiative where every person may become a citizen scientist and collect faunistic data on the above species throughout Italy. Another objective of the project MIPP is the development of standard methods for monitoring the conserva- tion status of the five target beetle species. One innovative method employed is a sniffer-dog (“Osmodog”, trained to find the rare and endangered hermit beetle, Osmoderma eremita, which lives in veteran, hollow trees. The dog detects the strong smell of mature peach produced by adult males and an odor produced by the larvae. Another objective of the project MIPP is the dissemination of topics such as HD, Natura 2000, importance of dead-wood, Life projects, insect monitoring and conservation.

  2. 利用线粒体16S rRNA 基因全序列分析直翅目主要类群的系统发生关系%Phylogenetic relationships among Orthoptera insect groups based on complete sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱明; 黄原

    2012-01-01

    In order to reconstruct a robust phylogenetic relationship among major groups of Orthoptera and to explore the phylogenetic utility and performance of 16S Ribosomal RNA gene, complete sequences of 16S Ribosomal RNA were sequenced from 18 species in 9 families and 4 superfamilies of Orthoptera, and analyzed with other 40 species that have been completely sequenced. The result showed that the average length of 16S Ribosomal RNA was 1 310 bp. The positions of Tridactuloidea and Gryllotalpidae in Orthoptera were uncertain based on the 16S rRNA data, and the phylogenetic relationships of other major groups in Orthoptera were rather robust. Except for Oedipodidae and Gomphoceridae, Acrididae, Catantopidae, and Arcypteridae in Xia's taxonomic system were not monophyletic groups, and the genetic distances among the five groups were small. This indicates that the five families should be combined into one family. The genetic distances among Pamphagidae, Chrotogonidae, and Pyigomorphidae were also small. The loops of 16S rRNA gene could provide more information than stems when they were used for phylogenetic analysis. Complete sequence of 16S rRNA gene can be used to reconstruct robust phylogenetic relationship at the taxonomic category of species, genera, and suborder in Orthop-tera, but lack of resolution at family and superfamily levels.%为了构建稳健的直翅目主要类群间的系统发生关系并探讨16S rRNA 基因序列在构建直翅目昆虫不同分类阶元系统发生关系时的可行性、功效以及性能,文章测定了直翅目4 总科9 科18 种昆虫的16S rRNA 基因全序列,联合已知该基因全序列的其他40 种昆虫,构建了直翅目主要类群之间的系统发生关系,并分析了16S rRNA 基因全序列的系统发生性能和功效.结果表明,直翅目昆虫的16S rRNA 基因全长平均为1 310 bp; 除生活方式特化的蚤蝼总科和蝼蛄总科的地位无法确定外,直翅目其他主要类群

  3. A new species in the genus Chorthippus (Orthoptera:Arcypteridae) from northwest of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China%新疆西北部雏蝗属—新种记述(直翅目:网翅蝗科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延峰; 郑哲民

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a new species of Chorthippus wenquanensis sp.nov.(Orthoptera:Arcypteridae) is described from the Northwest of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.The new species is allied to C rufitibialus Zheng,Ma & Wang 1996.It differs from the latter in male as follows:longitudinal diameter of eye 1.8-1.9 times subocular furrow; widest of pronotum between lateral carinae 2.0 times narrowest; arolium between claws small,slightly not reaching half length of claws; basal part of hind tibia yellowish brown,not black; claws pale blue in basal part.The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology,Shaanxi Normal University.%记述采自新疆西北部网翅蝗科雏蝗属Chorthippus1新种,即温泉雏蝗Chorthippus wenquanensis sp.nov..新种近似于黄胫雏蝗C.rufitibialus,与后者的主要区别为(♂):复眼纵径约为眼下沟长度的1.8-1.9倍;前胸背板侧隆线间最宽处为最狭处的2.0倍;后足跗节爪间中垫小,略短于爪长的一半;后足胫节基部黄褐色,非黑色;爪基部淡蓝色.模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所标本室.

  4. 宽翅曲背蝗受精囊形态与超微结构观察%Morphology and ultrastructure of the spermatheca of Pararcyptera microptera meridionalis (Orthoptera: Arcypterinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柯; 杨宇菁; 毛蕾; 张晋辉

    2016-01-01

    [Aim] To ascertain the morphology,organization structure and ultrastructure of the spermatheca in females of Pararcyptera microptera meridionalis (Orthoptera:Arcypterinae) for providing a better understanding of the functions of insect spermatheca.[Methods] The morphology,organization structure and ultrastructure of spermatheca of mated female adults of P.m.meridionalis were examined by means of the light and transmission electron microscopy.[Results] The spermatheca is composed of a seminal receptacle,mainly serving for storage of spermatozoa,and a long spermathecal duct.Histologically,both parts have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina,epithelium,and cuticular intima.The epithelium is made up of three cell types,i.e.,epithelial cells,gland cells and duct cells.Each gland cell has a reservoir lined with microvilli.The secretions of gland cell are released into the reservoir through which it reaches the spermathecal lumen via the secretory duct formed by the duct cell.[Conclusion] Regional differences in the ultrastructure of the cuticular intima and the reservoir in gland cell imply that the seminal receptacle and the spermathecal duct carry out different functions.The ultrastructural features revealed that epithelial cells are involved in the function of support,secretion and absorption.%[目的]明确宽翅曲背蝗Pararcyptera microptera meridionalis雌虫受精囊的形态、组织结构与超微结构,为更好地认识昆虫受精囊的功能提供依据.[方法]本研究以宽翅曲背蝗已交配雌成虫为实验材料,利用光学显微镜和透射电子显微镜观察其受精囊的形态、组织结构和超微结构.[结果]宽翅曲背蝗受精囊由一个端囊和一条长的受精囊管组成,端囊用于储存精子.端囊和受精囊管有相似的组织学结构,由外到内依次为肌肉层、基膜、上皮层及表皮内膜.上皮层含上皮细胞、腺细胞和导管细胞3种细胞类型.腺细胞具有一个被有微绒毛

  5. 基于线粒体ND2基因的直翅目部分种类分子系统发育分析%The Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Some Species of Orthoptera Based on Mitochondrial ND2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 黄原

    2012-01-01

    The complete sequences of ND2 gene from 39 Orthoptera species were sequenced in this study and those of 41 species down loaded from GenBank were used to construct the robust phylogenetic relationships of these Orthoptera species and to explore their phylogenetic utility and performance. The results indicated that the complete sequence length of ND2 gene was 996 - 1 029 bp with average length of 1 020 bp, A + T content was 73% . The SH test of phylogenetic trees reconstructed using four methods showed that the maximum likelihood tree from RAxML method was not significantly different from that of maximum parsimony or Bayesian method, but was significantly different from that of maximum likelihood method using the PAUP* . The Orthoptera showed monophyly, while Acrididae, Arcypteridae, Gomphocerinae and Catantopidae were not monophyletic groups; meanwhile the relationship between Pyrgomorphidae and Chrotogonjdae was much closer, which was consistent with the Otte' s classification system, and thus we suggested to merge them as one family. Some disputes still existed on the status of the Pamphagidae. Ensifera was divided into two branches. Gryllotalpidae and Gryllidae were grouped into one clade with high confidence, and the Tettigoniidae was regarded as anott independent clade.%测定了39种直翅目昆虫线粒体ND2基因全长序列,联合GenBank中41种直翅目昆虫的ND2基因序列,探讨ND2基因在解决直翅目系统发育分析上的功效,为建立直翅目的主要类群之间稳定的系统发育关系提供更多的数据.研究结果表明,直翅目昆虫的ND2基因序列全长为996~1029bp,平均长度为1020bp,A+T含量平均为73%.用贝叶斯法(Bayesian,BI)、最简约法(maximumparsimony,MP)和最大似然法(maximumlikelihood,ML)构建系统树,SH检验显示,RAxML法构建的ML树似然值最大,与PAUP*的ML法构建的ML树差异显著,而与贝叶斯树和简约树没有明显差异.所有系统树都显示直翅目为单系群;而

  6. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) biodiversity and grassland ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-WEI GUO; HONG-CHANG LI; YA-LING GAN

    2006-01-01

    Interesting results may arise by combining studies on the structure and function of ecosystems with that of biodiversity for certain species. Grasshopper biodiversity is the result of the evolution of grassland ecosystems; however, it also impacts on the structure and the function of those ecosystems. We consider there to be a close relationship between the health of grassland ecosystems and grasshopper biodiversity. The main problems involved in this relationship are likely to include: (i) grasshopper biodiversity and its spatial pattern; (ii) the effect of grasshopper biodiversity on the ecological processes of grassland ecosystems; (iii) the biodiversity threshold of grasshopper population explosions;(iv) the relationship between grasshopper biodiversity and the natural and human factors that affect grassland ecosystems; and (v) grasshopper biodiversity and the health of grassland ecosystems. The solutions to these problems may provide sound bases for controlling disasters caused by grasshoppers and managing grassland ecosystems in the west of China. In this paper, we introduced two concepts for grasshopper biodiversity, that is, "spatial pattern" and "biodiversity threshold". It is helpful to understand the action of the spatial pattern of grasshopper biodiversity on the ecological processes of grassland ecosystems and the effect of this spatial pattern on the health of those ecosystems, owing to the fact that, in the west of China, grasslands are vast and grasshoppers are widely distributed. Moreover, we inferred that the change in the level of component richness at each type of grasshopper biodiversity can make an impact on grassland ecosystems, and therefore, there is likely to be a threshold to grasshopper biodiversity for the stability and the sustainability of those ecosystems.

  7. Notes on southern Africa Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Sia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David B; Bazelet, Corinna S

    2013-02-18

    The Old World Jerusalem cricket (JC) subfamily Siinae contains one genus, Sia, with two subgenera: Sia (Sia) with two fully winged species from southeast Asia, and Sia (Maxentius) with four wingless species from southern Africa. Because there is a dearth of published data about the behavior and biology of these insects, we present new field and laboratory research on southern African Sia (Maxentius), gather museum and literature information, and present guidelines for collecting and rearing specimens. While we make no taxonomic decisions, this review should be useful for future studies, including a needed taxonomic revision. We also compare results from these southern African JCs with recent investigations on related New World taxa, where fascinating biological traits and extensive cryptic biodiversity have been uncovered. DNA analysis reveals that these Old and New World JCs are polyphyletic.

  8. Autosomal rearrangement in Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Zefa

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Gryllus assimilis L. has a karyotype of 2n = 29 (X0, male and 30 (XX, female. The above karyotype was encountered along with another in which 2n = 28 (X0, male and 2n = 29 (XX, female in a population from the outskirts of Rio Claro city (São Paulo State, Brazil. Of eight specimens studied, five had the heterozygous karyotype involving a translocation and three had the basic karyotype. There were no individuals homozygous for the rearrangement. The heterozygous karyotype was the result of a chromosomal rearrangement between chromosome pairs 6 and 10, both of which were initially submetacentric. The members of the sixth pair normally have two constrictions in the small arm, with a satellite at the chromosome tip. The chromosome of the tenth pair involved in the translocation was generally submetacentric and probably underwent a pericentric inversion which transported the centromere to a subterminal position before being translocated. In this case, the long arm of the inverted chromosome of the tenth pair was translocated with the satellite of a member of the sixth pair.A espécie Gryllus assimilis L. apresenta 2n = 29, X0 (macho e 2n = 30, XX (fêmea, porém em alguns indivíduos coletados na cidade de Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil, foram encontrados dois cariótipos distintos: o cariótipo básico e outro rearranjado, com 2n = 28, X0 e 2n = 29, XX. O rearranjo foi interpretado como sendo autossômico e heterozigoto, caracterizado pela translocação envolvendo dois pares de homólogos submetacêntricos: o par 10, que possivelmente tem um dos elementos com uma inversão pericêntrica, e o par 6, que possui em seu braço curto duas constrições secundárias, diferenciando satélites em suas extremidades.

  9. Autosomal rearrangement in Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Zefa

    1999-01-01

    Gryllus assimilis L. has a karyotype of 2n = 29 (X0, male) and 30 (XX, female). The above karyotype was encountered along with another in which 2n = 28 (X0, male) and 2n = 29 (XX, female) in a population from the outskirts of Rio Claro city (São Paulo State, Brazil). Of eight specimens studied, five had the heterozygous karyotype involving a translocation and three had the basic karyotype. There were no individuals homozygous for the rearrangement. The heterozygous karyotype was the result of...

  10. A history of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    Published claims in 1887-1903 that the mole cricket Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty) occurs in Puerto Rico all seem to be derived from a misidentification made by Agustín Stahl, a medical practitioner and collector of natural history objects, published in 1882. That species does not seem now to occur in Puerto Rico and almost certainly never did. However, the opportunity still exists for it to colonize by wind-assisted flight from islands to the southeast just as we believe did the mole cricke...

  11. Hormetica luteomarginata, a new Blattid (Orthoptera) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, C.F.A.

    1949-01-01

    While studying the small but interesting collection of Blattidae, submitted to me for study by Mr. C. Willemse of Eygelshoven (L.), I found a new Blattid for which I propose the name Hormetica luteomarginata nov. spec. The new species is represented in the Willemse collection by two male specimens.

  12. NEW RECORD OF DOLICHOPODA FROM NORTHERN IRAN (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The record of a new sample of Dolichopoda from Northern Iran is reported. The morphological study of this material allowed the authors to attribute the studied specimens to D. Hyrcana Bey-Bienko, 1969, whose geographic distribution now extends eastwards to the Alborz Mountains in North Iran.

  13. A NEW SPECIES OF DNOPHERULA FROM KENYA (Orthoptera, Acrididae

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    G.H Schmidt

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Dnopherula Karsch, 1896 (Gomphocerinae, Acrididae was collected in Kenya, near Nairobi on grassland under bushes. The fronto-vertical angle of both sexes was much greater than 450 indicating a geophilous behaviour. The tiny insects have short antennae, swollen hind femora, specially in male, and strongly curved spurs on hind tibiae. The fastigium verticis had a parabolic shape, prozona and metazona of pronotum of equal length, median carina straight, lateral carina incurved, pronotal disc constricted, and lateral carina cut by transverse sulculi.

  14. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Apalacris Walker (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z M; Lin, L L; Niu, Y

    2016-02-01

    The research history of the genus Apalacris is reviewed; a key to all known species of the genus is given, and one new species, Apalacris eminifronta n. sp., and one new combination, Apalacris maculifemura (Lin & Zheng), are described. The new species is very closely related to Apalacris antennata Liang, but differs in the following characters: (1) tegmen longer, reaching apex of hind femur; (2) basal part of inner side of hind femur orange red; (3) frontal ridge more protruded, obviously depressed under median ocellus in lateral view; and (4) epiphallus bridge prominent, ancora shorter than anterior projection. PMID:26514365

  15. A new genus Mesophlaeoba (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae from India

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    H. Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Acridinae, Mesophlaeoba Kumar and Usmani gen. n. based on type species Mesophlaeoba usmanii Kumar and Usmani sp. n., is described and illustrated from India. The description was based on both conventional morphological and genital characters. The new genus is closely related to Phlaeoba Stal, 1861 but differs from it in presence of filiform antennae, absence of median carinula of fastigium of vertex and rounded posterior margin of pronotum.

  16. Complex mating behavior in Adelosgryllus rubricephalus (Orthoptera, Phalangopsidae, Grylloidea Comportamento Complexo de Acasalamento em Adelosgryllus rubricephalus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Zefa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the mating behavior of Adelosgryllus rubricephalus Mesa & Zefa, 2004. In trials carried out in laboratory we verified the following mating sequence: (1 sexual recognition by antennation; (2 courtship with male turning his abdomen towards the female, performing mediolateral antennae vibration, jerking its body antero-posteriorly and stridulating intermittently, while receptive female drums on the male's abdomen tip, cerci and hind-tibia with her palpi or foretarsi; the male then stops and stays motionless for some seconds, extrudes the spermatophore and both restart the behavioral sequence described above; (3 copulation: male underneath female; with his tegmina inclined forward, and joins his genitalia to the female's to promote sperm transference ; the female steps off the male, occurring a brief end-to-end position; (4 postcopulation: without guarding behavior; male retains the spermatophore and eats it. We quantified elapsed time of each behavioral sequence and discussed its implications in the observed mating behavior.Descrevemos o comportamento reprodutivo de Adelosgryllus rubricephalus Mesa & Zefa, 2004. Em observações realizadas em laboratório verificamos a seguinte seqüência no comportamento de acasalamento: (1 reconhecimento sexual por antenação; (2 corte, em que o macho volta seu abdômen em direção à fêmea, vibra as antenas médio-lateralmente, treme o corpo ântero-posteriormente e estridula intermitentemente, enquanto a fêmea receptiva toca a ponta do abdômen, os cercos e os fêmures posteriores do macho, com seus palpos ou tarsos anteriores; o macho então fica imóvel por alguns segundos, expõe o espermatóforo e ambos retomam a seqüência comportamental descrita acima; (3 cópula: o macho coloca-se sob a fêmea, com suas tégminas inclinadas para frente, anexa sua genitália à dela e promove a transferência do esperma; a fêmea desce de cima do macho e ocorre brevemente a posição "end-to-end" durante a separação do casal; (4 pós-cópula: não há comportamento de guarda; o macho retém o espermatóforo e o ingere. Quantificamos o intervalo de tempo das principais etapas do acasalamento e discutimos suas possíveis implicações no comportamento observado.

  17. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691

  18. Re-Visiting Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Relationships in the Genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Balázs Kolics; Zoltán Ács; Dragan Petrov Chobanov; Kirill Márk Orci; Lo Shun Qiang; Balázs Kovács; Előd Kondorosy; Kincső Decsi; János Taller; András Specziár; László Orbán; Tamás Müller

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbel...

  19. The attraction of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) to different types of lure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, A B; Akinsete, A

    2001-06-01

    Zonocerus variegatus is a common grasshopper in parts of west and equtorial Africa. The distribution in Nigeria extends from the lowland rainforest zone to the savannah in the north. The influence of lure on the behaviour of grasshopper inside cages (120 insect per cage) was investigated. Nymphs and adults of Zonocerus variegatus responded positively to intact leaves, crushed leaves and inflorescence of the common compositae weed Chromolaena odorata inside muslin bags, and intact plants. There were significant differences in the attraction recorded for starved nymphs, fed nymphs and starved adults. Attraction was more to intact leaves and is by olfaction. The increase in the attraction of starved nymphs is time dependent. Attraction to plant parts ceased after the plants were dried for 24 and 48 hours at room temperature and when plants were placed in transparent polythene bags. Gut motility and gut activity were higher during the day than at night. Nymphs, adults and egg pods placed separately inside muslin bags were not attractive to adults or nymphs. PMID:11935919

  20. Sex ratios in juveniles and adults of Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard and Borellia bruneri (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dichroplus maculipennis and Borellia bruneri are two of the 18 grasshopper species of actual or potential economic relevance as pests in Argentina. The objective of this study was to estimate the sex ratios for adults and older nymphs of D. maculipennis and B. bruneri in the field, and analyze possible temporal variations. The study was conducted during seven seasons (2005-06 to 2011-12 in representative plant communities of the southern Pampas region. A total of 4536 individuals of D. maculipennis, and 6038 individuals of B. bruneri were collected. The sex ratio registered in older nymphs for D. maculipennis and B. bruneri did not deviate from a 1:1 ratio (p > 0.05, suggesting that these species have such a primary sex ratio. However, a significant bias in sex composition in adults of both species was observed (p < 0.05. The sex ratio in adults of D. maculipennis was different in five of the 18 sampling dates carried out. In three sampling dates it was biased toward males, while in the other two it was biased toward females. Taking into account the sex ratio by sampling season, significant differences were recorded in two seasons. In 2007-08 the sex ratio was biased toward males (1 F:2.26 M, while in 2008-09 it was biased toward females (1.35 F:1 M. The sex ratio in adults of B. bruneri was always biased toward males (p < 0.05. We conclude that results obtained in this study indicate that various factors like differential survival, dispersion, predation, among others, could have modified the primary sex ratio in these species.

  1. Little walking leaves from southeast Ecuador: biology and taxonomy of Typophyllum species (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Pterochrozinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Eight katydid species of the leaf-mimicking specialist genus Typophyllum were found in the southeast of Ecuador in an area comprising part of the eastern Andean cordillera and foothills toward the Cordillera del Cóndor in elevations between 850 and 3000 m. They are described along with the peculiar calling songs and other interesting aspects of their biology. Three of these species are new: T. morrisi sp. nov., T. onkiosternum sp. nov. and T. vignoni sp. nov. A fourth species represented by a single male is possibly new as well. In males and females of a species considered as identical with T. egregium Hebard 1924, which was previously known from a unique female specimen, was found a remarkable variation of coloration, in addition to the striking sexual dimorphism typical for the genus, with the females being twice as large as the small males. The latter is related to the curious mating behaviour, which is documented for this species and T. erosifolium Walker 1870. The two other species found in the region are T. bolivari Vignon 1925 and T. mortuifolium Walker 1870. The calling songs of four species were recorded. In T. erosifolium and T. morrisi sp. nov. the sounds are almost pure sine waves at the lower boundary of ultrasound. In T. egregium and T. onkiosternum sp. nov. the spectrum of the carrier frequency is broader, which might be related to lower and denser vegetation at higher elevation. Based on the intraspecific variety found in T. egregium and T. erosifolium, which includes variation in tegmina shape and venation pattern, are established several syonymies among Typophyllum species from western South America. T. erosifolium is found to be identical with T. peruvianum Pictet 1888 syn. nov. Additionally are considered identical T. inflatum Vignon 1925 and T. gibbosusm Vignon 1925 syn. nov., T. trigonum Vignon 1925 and T. quadriincisum Vignon 1925 syn. nov., and finally T. lacinipenne Enderlein 1917 and T. acutum Vignon 1925 syn. nov. and T. undulatum Caudell 1918 syn. nov. The discussion treats the problematic taxonomy of the little walking leaves, bioacoustics, the pre-copulatory riding behaviour, the sophisticated mimesis, and very briefly the uncertain position within the katydid phylogeny. PMID:26623843

  2. Extent and divergence of heteroplasmy of the DNA barcoding region in Anapodisma miramae (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ah Rang; Kim, Min Jee; Park, In Ah; Kim, Kee Young; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-09-01

    A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is widely used as a molecular marker for species identification in animals, also termed a DNA barcode. However, the presence of more than one sequence type in a single individual, also known as heteroplasmy, is one of the shortcomings of barcode identification. In this study, we examined the extent and divergence of COI heteroplasmy, including nuclear-encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs), at the genomic-DNA level from 13 insect species including orthopteran Anapodisma miramae, and a long fragment of mitochondrial DNA and cDNA from A. miramae as templates. When multiple numbers of clones originated from genomic DNA were sequenced, heteroplasmy was prevalent in all species and NUMTs were observed in five species. Long fragment DNA (∼13.5 kb) also is a source of heteroplasmic amplification, but the divergent haplotypes and NUMTs obtained from genomic DNA were not detected in A. miramae. On the other hand, cDNA was relatively heteroplasmy-free. Consistently, one dominant haplotype was always obtained from the genomic DNA-origin clones in all species and also from the long fragment- and cDNA-origin clones in the two tested individuals of A. miramae. Furthermore, the dominant haplotype was identical in sequence, regardless of the DNA source in A. miramae. Thus, one possible solution to avoid the barcoding problem in relationship to heteroplasmy could be the acquisition of multiple numbers of barcoding sequences to determine a dominant haplotype that can be assigned as barcoding sequence for a given species. PMID:25835040

  3. Taxonomic recovery of the ant cricket Myrmecophilus albicinctus from M. americanus (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Takashi; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myrmecophilus americanus and Myrmecophilus albicinctus are typical myrmecophilous insects living inside ant nests. These species are ecologically important due to the obligate association with tramp ant species, including harmful invasive ant species. However, the taxonomy of these “white-banded ant crickets” is quite confused owing to a scarcity of useful external morphological characteristics. Recently, Myrmecophilus albicinctus was synonymized with Myrmecophilus americanus regardl...

  4. Exposure to exogenous enkephalins disrupts reproductive development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Insecta: Orthoptera.

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    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk, methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk, and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Pamphagidae (Acridoidea, Orthoptera) from China based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Chuan Zhang; Hong-Yan Han; Hong Yin; Xin-Jiang Li; Zhan Yin; Xiang-Chu Yin

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Pamphagidae were examined using cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅱ (COII) mtDNA sequences (684 bp). Twenty-seven species of Acridoidea from 20 genera were sequenced to obtain mtDNA data, along with four species from the GenBank nucleotide database. The purpose of this study was analyzing the phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies within Pamphagidae and interpreting the phylogenetic position of this family within the Acridoidea superfamily. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. The 684 bp analyzed fragment included 126 parsimony informative sites. Sequences diverged 1.0%-l1.1% between genera within subfamilies, and 8.8%-12.3% between subfamilies. Amino acid sequence diverged 0-6.1% between genera within subfamilies, and 0.4%-7.5% between subfamilies. Our phylogenetic trees revealed the monophyly of Pamphagidae and three distinct major groups within this family. Moreover, several well supported and stable clades were found in Pamphagidae. The global clustering results were similar to that obtained through classical morphological classification: Prionotropisinae, Thrinchinae and Pamphaginae were monophyletic groups. However, the current genus Filchnerella (Prionotropisinae) was not a monophyletic group and the genus Asiotmethis (Prionotropisinae) was a sister group of the genus Thrinchus (Thrinchinae). Further molecular and morphological studies are required to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the genera Filchnerella and Asiotmethis.

  6. New taxa and notes on some Landrevinae (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) from Malay Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-01-01

    Here, taxonomic notes on species from three genera of bark crickets are presented.  A new locality is recorded for Duolandrevus (Bejorama) parvulus Gorochov, 2016: Singapore. Two new species of Landrevinae are described: one species of Endodrelanva Gorochov, 1999 from Singapore: Endodrelanva jimini sp. nov.; one species of Odontogryllodes Chopard, 1969 from Fraser's Hill, Peninsular Malaysia: Odontogryllodes gratus sp. nov. The male of Odontogryllodes latus Chopard, 1969 is also described for the first time and female is redescribed. Keys to all known species of Endodrelanva and Odontogryllodes is provided. PMID:27615991

  7. Taxonomic and Functional Resilience of Grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Caelifera) to Fire in South Brazilian Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, C P R; Podgaiski, L R; Costa, M K M; Mendonça, M D S

    2016-08-01

    Fire is a frequent disturbance in grassland ecosystems enabling variability in habitat characteristics and creating important environmental filters for community assembly. Changes in vegetation have a large influence on herbivore insect assemblages. Here, we explored the responses of grasshoppers to disturbance by fire in grasslands of southern Brazil through a small-scale experiment based in paired control and burned plots. The resilience of grasshoppers was assessed by monitoring changes to their abundance, taxonomic, and functional parameters along time. Burned patches have been already recolonized by grasshoppers 1 month after fire and did not differ in terms of abundance and richness from control areas in any evaluated time within 1 year. Simpson diversity decreased 1 month after fire due to the increased dominance of Dichroplus misionensis (Carbonell) and Orphulella punctata (De Geer). In this period, grasshoppers presented in average a smaller body and a larger relative head size; these are typically nymph characteristics, which are possibly indicating a preference of juveniles for the young high-quality vegetation, or a diminished vulnerability to predation in open areas. Further, at 6 months after fire grasshoppers with smaller relative hind femur and thus lower dispersal ability seemed to be benefitted in burned patches. Finally, 1 year after fire grasshoppers became more similar to each other in relation to their set of traits. This study demonstrates how taxonomic and functional aspects of grasshopper assemblages can be complementary tools to understand their responses to environmental change. PMID:26957086

  8. Contact mechanics of pad of grasshopper (Insecta: ORTHOPTERA) by finite element methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI ZhenDong; GORB Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    During locomotion, insect feet endure dramatic impact force and generate adhesive force which is controlled by the architecture of the foot. The patterns of smooth attachment pads in insect feet vary widely among insect orders and families. The functional significance of the micro-structure and geo-metric design of insect feet remains largely unknown. In this study, we developed a two-dimensional finite element model of a grasshopper's attachment pad. Realistic geometric microstructure and mate-rial properties are applied in the biomechanical analysis of the structural behavior during contact. Here we use scanning electronic microscopy to study the microstructure of the grasshopper's pad, and then use the finite element method to calculate the deformation vector fields, contact stiffness, contact area, function of the airbag and strain fields during the contact process. The results reveal that the geometric design and material topology of a grasshopper's pads are very effective in reducing contact stiffness, increasing contact area and generating high friction force during the contact procedure. The rod-containing structure supporting the soft exocuticle makes the pads highly adaptive to various surfaces and decreases the stress inside the pads.

  9. Improving the degree-day model for forecasting Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen (Orthoptera: Acridoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongbing Tu

    Full Text Available The degree-day (DD model is an important tool for forecasting pest phenology and voltinism. Unfortunately, the DD model is inaccurate, as is the case for the Oriental migratory locust. To improve the existing DD model for this pest, we first studied locust development in seven growth chambers, each of which simulated the complete growing-season climate of a specific region in China (Baiquan, Chengde, Tumotezuoqi, Wenan, Rongan, Qiongzhong, or Qiongshan. In these seven treatments, locusts completed 0.95, 1, 1.1, 2.2, 2.95, 3.95, and 4.95 generations, respectively. Hence, in the Baiquan (700, Rongan (2400, Qiongzhong (3200, and Qiongshan (2400 treatments, the final generation were unable to lay eggs. In a second experiment, we reared locusts for a full generation in growth chambers, at different constant temperatures. This experiment provided two important findings. First, temperatures between 32 and 42°C did not influence locust development rate. Hence, the additional heat provided by temperatures above 32°C did not add to the total heat units acquired by the insects, according to the traditional DD model. Instead, temperatures above 32°C represent overflow heat, and can not be included when calculating total heat acquired during development. We also noted that females raised at constant 21°C failed to oviposit. Hence, temperatures lower than 21°C should be deducted when calculating total heat acquired during adult development. Using our experimental findings, we next micmiked 24-h temperature curve and constructed a new DD model based on a 24-h temperature integral calculation. We then compared our new model with the traditional DD model, results showed the DD deviation was 166 heat units in Langfang during 2011. At last we recalculated the heat by our new DD model, which better predicted the results from our first growth chamber experiment.

  10. Evolution of novel signal traits in the absence of female preferences in Neoconocephalus katydids (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae.

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    Sarah L Bush

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND SIGNIFICANCE: Communication signals that function to bring together the sexes are important for maintaining reproductive isolation in many taxa. Changes in male calls are often attributed to sexual selection, in which female preferences initiate signal divergence. Natural selection can also influence signal traits if calls attract predators or parasitoids, or if calling is energetically costly. Neutral evolution is often neglected in the context of acoustic communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a signal trait that appears to have evolved in the absence of either sexual or natural selection. In the katydid genus Neoconocephalus, calls with a derived pattern in which pulses are grouped into pairs have evolved five times independently. We have previously shown that in three of these species, females require the double pulse pattern for call recognition, and hence the recognition system of the females is also in a derived state. Here we describe the remaining two species and find that although males produce the derived call pattern, females use the ancestral recognition mechanism in which no pulse pattern is required. Females respond equally well to the single and double pulse calls, indicating that the derived trait is selectively neutral in the context of mate recognition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that 1 neutral changes in signal traits could be important in the diversification of communication systems, and 2 males rather than females may be responsible for initiating signal divergence.

  11. New field data for old museum specimens: A peculiar cricket (Grylloidea, Orthoptera from SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero, Pedro J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We obtained the first records of Sciobia (Thilptoblemus natalia in Europe after a single record from Algeciras (Spain, about one century ago. We found the species in Tarifa, Benelup-Casas Viejas and Alcalá de los Gazules (Cádiz province in plots with open land and herbaceous vegetation of wasteland, cattle states, edges of agricultural land, and hedgerows of pathways and local roads. The species may be common locally, in late spring. It may coexist with Sciobia (Thliptoblemus caliendrum although the later presents a wider ecological spectrum whereas S. (T. natalia prefers dense vegetation in more humid soils. Acoustic analyses indicate that the song of both species are very different, making field identification feasible. S. (T. natalia may however easily go unnoticed among populations of the more conspicuous S. (T. caliendrum. We discuss possible reasons why this species has gone unnoticed so far and factors that may pose at risk the maintenance of its populations.Obtenemos las primeras observaciones of Sciobia (Thilptoblemus natalia en Europa después de un único registro de Algeciras hace casi un siglo. Hemos encontrado la especie en Tarifa, Benalup-Casas Viejas y Alcalá de los Gazules (provincia de Cádiz en terrenos abiertos con vegetación herbácea de baldíos, fincas ganaderas y bordes de parcelas agrícolas, caminos y carreteras. Puede ser localmente común a finales de primavera y coexistir con Sciobia (Thliptoblemus caliendrum, especie de más amplio espectro ecológico mientras que S. (T. natalia muestra preferencia por vegetación más densa en suelos más húmedos. El análisis del canto de ambas especies muestra notables diferencias y su identificación en el campo es posible, aunque S. (T. natalia puede pasar desapercibida entre poblaciones de la especie más conspicua, S (T. caliendrum. Discutimos las razones por las que la especie ha pasado desapercibida hasta ahora y los factores que pueden poner en riesgo el mantenimiento de sus poblaciones.

  12. A new subfamily of the grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea:Gomphoceridae) from the Tibetan Plateau of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Chuan Zhang; Yu-Long Zhang; Xiang-Chu Yin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new subfamily,a new genus and a new species,that is,Pacrinae subfam.nov.,Pacris gen.nov and Pacris xizangensis sp.nov in Gomphoceridae.The new subfamily is allied to Orinhippinae of Gomphoceridae and it differs from the latter by wings and tympanum absent.The new genus is similar to Orinhippus Uvarov,1921 but differs from the latter in: (i) foveolae absent; (ii) tegmina absent; (iii) tympanum absent;(iv) hind margin ofpronotum with incised in the middle.Type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University,Baoding,China.

  13. Toxicological and biochemical characterizations of malathion sensitivity in two field populations of Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI-LING YANG; HAI-HUA WU; YA-PING GUO; EN-BO MA

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate comparative toxicity of malathion in the two populations of the grasshopper Oxya chinensis, collected from Daixian and Fanshi of Shanxi province, China.General esterases and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the two populations were characterized and compared. LD50 of the Daixian population (7.58μg/g body weight) was 2.02-fold higher than that of the Fanshi population (3.75 μg/g body weight). General esterase-specific activities in the Daixian population were 1.91, 1.10 and 1.85-fold higher than those in the Fanshi population, when α-NA, α-NB and β-NA were used as a substrate, respectively.Kinetic studies of general esterase showed that Vmax values of general esterases hydrolyzing α-NA, α-NB and β-NA in the Daixian population were 2.15-, 1.12-, and 1.47-fold,respectively, higher than those in the Fanshi population. The AChE activity of the Fanshi population was 1.54-fold higher than that of the Daixian population. Kinetic analysis of AChE showed that significant differences were presented between the two populations in the Km values; and the Vmax value in the Fanshi population was higher than that in the Daixian population. Inhibition studies of AChE indicated that AChE from the Daixian population was 2.56-, 2.80-, and 2.29-fold less sensitive to inhibition by paraoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon,and demeton-S-methyl, respectively, than that from the Fanshi population. These biochemical characterizations of general esterases and AChE were consistent with malathion bioassay in the two populations. It is inferred that the reduced sensitivity of altered AChE and increased general esterase activities play an important role in the differences of insusceptibility of Oxya chinensis to malathion between the two populations.

  14. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.

  15. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Kolics

    Full Text Available Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.

  16. Spreading of heterochromatin and karyotype differentiation in two Tropidacris Scudder, 1869 species (Orthoptera, Romaleidae

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    Marília de França Rocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropidacris Scudder, 1869 is a genus widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region where speciation was probably promoted by forest reduction during the glacial and interglacial periods. There are no cytogenetic studies of Tropidacris, and information allowing inference or confirmation of the evolutionary events involved in speciation within the group is insufficient. In this paper, we used cytogenetic markers in two species, T. collaris (Stoll, 1813 and T. cristata grandis (Thunberg, 1824, collected in different Brazilian biomes. Both species exhibited 2n=24,XX for females and 2n=23,X0 for males. All chromosomes were acrocentric. There were some differences in the karyotype macrostructure, e.g. in the chromosome size. A wide interspecific variation in the chromosome banding (C-banding and CMA3/DAPI staining indicated strong differences in the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences. Specifically, T. cristata grandis had a higher number of bands in relation to T. collaris. FISH with 18S rDNA revealed two markings coinciding with the NORs in both species. However, two analyzed samples of T. collaris revealed a heterozygous condition for the rDNA site of S10 pair. In T. collaris, the histone H3 genes were distributed on three chromosome pairs, whereas in T. cristata grandis, these genes were observed on 14 autosomes and on the X chromosome, always in terminal regions. Our results demonstrate that, although the chromosome number and morphology are conserved in the genus, T. cristata grandis substantially differs from T. collaris in terms of the distribution of repetitive sequences. The devastation and fragmentation of the Brazilian rainforest may have led to isolation between these species, and the spreading of these repetitive sequences could contribute to speciation within the genus.

  17. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ of Stenopelmatus (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2008-11-01

    Stenopelmatidae (or "Jerusalem crickets") belong to the atympanate Ensifera, lacking hearing organs in the foreleg tibiae. Their phylogenetic position is controversial, either as a taxon in Tettigonioidea or within the clade of Gryllacridoidea. Similarly, the origin of tibial auditory systems in Ensifera is controversial. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal structures of the proximal tibiae of Stenopelmatus spec. with the hypothesis that internal sensory structures are similar to those in tympanate Ensifera. In Stenopelmatus the complex tibial organ consists of three neuronal parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and a third part with linearly arranged neurons. This tripartite organization is also found in tympanate Ensifera, verifying our hypothesis. The third part of the sense organ found in Stenopelmatus can be regarded by the criterion of position as homologous to auditory receptors of hearing Tettigonioidea. This crista acustica homolog is found serially in all thoracic leg pairs and contains 20 +/- 2 chordotonal neurons in the foreleg. The tibial organ was shown to be responsive to vibration, with a broad threshold of about 0.06 ms(-2) in a frequency range from 100-600 Hz. The central projection of tibial sensory neurons terminates into two equally sized lobes in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center. The data are discussed comparatively to those of other Ensifera and mapped phylogenetically onto recently proposed phylogenies for Ensifera. The crista acustica homolog could represent a neuronal rudiment of a secondarily reduced ear, but neuronal features are also consistent with an evolutionary preadaptation. PMID:18729154

  18. Ensemble forecasting shifts in climatically suitable areas for Tropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diniz, J.A.F.; Nabout, J.C.; Bini, L.M.;

    2010-01-01

    1. The effects of climate change on species' ranges have been usually inferred using niche-based models creating bioclimatic envelopes that are projected into geographical space. Here, we apply an ensemble forecasting approach for niche models in the Neotropical grasshopper Tropidacris cristata (...... approaches to understand the origins of uncertainty in studies assessing species responses to climate change in the tropics......1. The effects of climate change on species' ranges have been usually inferred using niche-based models creating bioclimatic envelopes that are projected into geographical space. Here, we apply an ensemble forecasting approach for niche models in the Neotropical grasshopper Tropidacris cristata...... (Acridoidea: Romaleidae). A novel protocol was used to partition and map the variation in modelled ranges due to niche models, Atmosphere-Ocean Global Circulation Models (AOGCM), and emission scenarios. 2. We used 112 records of T. cristata and four climatic variables to model the species' niche using five...

  19. Phylogenetic analyses of some genera in Oedipodidae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) based on 16S mitochondrial partialgene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Chu Yin; Xin-Jiang Li; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hong Yin; Cheng-Quan Cao; Bao-Hua Ye; Zhan Yin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the 16S mitochondrial partial gene sequences of 29 genera, containing 26 from Oedipodidae and one each from Tanaoceridae, Pyrgomorphidae and Tetrigidae (as outgroups), the homologus sequences were compared and phylogenetic analyses were performed. A phylogenetic tree was inferred by neighbor-joining (N J). The results of sequences compared show that: (i) in a total of 574 bp of Oedipodidae, the number of substituted nucleotides was 265 bp and the average percentages ofT, C, A and G were 38.3%,11.4%, 31.8% and 18.5%, respectively, and the content of A+T (70.1%) was distinctly richer than that of C+G (29.9%); and (ii) the average nucleotide divergence of 16S rDNA sequences among genera of Oedipodidae were 9.0%, among families of Acridoidea were 17.0%, and between superfamilies (Tetrigoidea and Acridoidea) were 23.9%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree indicated: (i) the Oedipodidae was a monophyletic group, which suggested that the taxonomic status of this family was confLrrned; (ii) the genus Heteropternis separated from the other Oedipodids first and had another unique sound-producing structure in morphology, which is the type-genus of subfamily Heteropterninae; and (iii) the relative intergeneric relationship within the same continent was closer than that of different continents, and between the Eurasian genera and the African genera, was closer than that between Eurasians and Americans.

  20. New species of Eidmanacris Chopard, 1956 from Brazil (Orthoptera: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, Lucas Denadai; Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; De Mello, Francisco De A G

    2015-09-15

    With 15 described species, Eidmanacris is one of the largest Luzarinae genera from South America. In Brazil, 12 species occur in two large biomes, the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. Here, we describe four new species of Eidmanacris from Brazil: E. bernardii Nihei & de Mello, n. sp., E. papaveroi Nihei & de Mello, n. sp., E. simoesi Nihei & de Mello, n. sp., and E. eliethae Nihei & de Mello, n. sp., from Cerrado (E. bernardii n. sp.), and the other from Atlantic Forest. The type material is deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP) and the Zoology Department Insect Colletion (Coleção de Insetos do Departamento de Zoologia), Botucatu campus of São Paulo State University, UNESP.

  1. Montane and coastal species diversification in the economically important Mexican grasshopper genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    The genus Sphenarium (Pyrgomorphidae) is a small group of grasshoppers endemic to México and Guatemala that are economically and culturally important both as a food source and as agricultural pests. However, its taxonomy has been largely neglected mainly due to its conserved interspecific external morphology and the considerable intraspecific variation in colour pattern of some taxa. Here we examined morphological as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to assess the species boundaries and evolutionary history in Sphenarium. Our morphological identification and DNA sequence-based species delimitation, carried out with three different approaches (DNA barcoding, general mixed Yule-coalescent model, Bayesian species delimitation), all recovered a higher number of putative species of Sphenarium than previously recognised. We unambiguously delimit seven species, and between five and ten additional species depending on the data/method analysed. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus strongly support two main clades, one exclusively montane, the other coastal. Divergence time estimates suggest late Miocene to Pliocene ages for the origin and most of the early diversification events in the genus, which were probably influenced by the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A series of Pleistocene events could have led to the current species diversification in both montane and coastal regions. This study not only reveals an overlooked species richness for the most popular edible insect in Mexico, but also highlights the influence of the dynamic geological and climatic history of the region in shaping its current diversity. PMID:25593084

  2. Effect of temperature on efficacy of insecticides to differential grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Edelson, J V

    2004-10-01

    The effect of temperature on activity of insecticides for controlling grasshoppers in leafy green vegetables was evaluated. Insecticides evaluated had differing modes of action and included diflubenzuron, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana, spinosad, endosulfan, esfenvalerate, and naled. We evaluated these insecticides for efficacy to third instars of differential grasshopper, Melanoplus differentialis (Thomas), at temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. In the laboratory, treatment with esfenvalerate resulted in 100% mortality at temperatures of 10 to 35 degrees C, and efficacy was not temperature dependent. Treatment with spinosad resulted in similar mortality as with esfenvalerate at all temperatures except 10 degrees C. The activity of B. bassiana was greatest at 25 degrees C and was adversely affected by high and low temperatures. Treatment with diflubenzuron resulted in increased mortality at high temperatures, and at 35 degrees C its activity was similar to that of esfenvalerate and spinosad. The activity of azadirachtin ranged from 19 to 31% and was not influenced by temperature. In field studies, spinosad, diflubenzuron, and esfenvalerate provided differing levels of mortality both at application and when nymphs were exposed to 1-h-old residues. However, only spinosad and diflubenzuron provided similar levels of mortality when nymphs were exposed to 24-h-old residues. The residual activity of endosulfan, naled, esfenvalerate, and spinosad decreased with increasing time (0-24 h) after exposure to sunlight and high summer temperatures. Compared with other insecticides, naled had a short residual activity period and activity was dependent upon immediate contact with the nymphs or their substrate. B. bassiana was inactive under high temperatures and intense sunlight as occurs in summer. PMID:15568348

  3. Meconema Meridionale Costa, 1860 (Orthoptera: Tettigonioidea: Meconematidae – The First Record In Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This first record of Meconema meridionale in Poland comes from Kraków, where several specimens were observed in the urban greenery of a housing estate in the autumn of 2013. A total of 24 adult specimens were collected, most of them within a relatively small area in the city district of Prądnik Czerwony, and two in the district of Podgórze. All specimens were recorded in circumstances indicating a relatively recent accidental introduction of this species.

  4. Mechanical Vectors Enhance Fungal Entomopathogen Reduction of the Grasshopper Pest Camnula pellucida (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica J; Saums, Marielle; Belovsky, Gary E

    2015-02-01

    Mounting scientific evidence indicates that pathogens can regulate insect populations. However, limited dispersal and sensitivity to abiotic conditions often restricts pathogen regulation of host populations. While it is well established that arthropod biological vectors increase pathogen incidence in host populations, few studies have examined whether arthropod mechanical vectors (an organism that transmits pathogens but is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen) influence host-pathogen dynamics. The importance of mechanical dispersal by ant scavengers, Formica fusca (L.), in a grasshopper-fungal entomopathogen system was investigated. We examined the ability of ants to mechanically disperse and transmit the pathogen, Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) pathotype 1, to its host, the pest grasshopper Camnula pellucida (Scudder), in a series of laboratory experiments. Fungal spores were dispersed either externally on the ant's body surface or internally through fecal deposition. In addition, a third of all grasshoppers housed with fungal-inoculated ants became infected, indicating that ants can act as mechanical vectors of E. grylli. The effect of ant mechanical vectors on E. grylli incidence was also examined in a field experiment. Ant access to pathogen-exposed experimental grasshopper populations was restricted using organic ant repellent, thereby allowing us to directly compare mechanical and natural transmission. Ants increased grasshopper pathogen mortality by 58%, which led to greater pathogen reductions of grasshopper survival than natural transmission. Taken together, our results indicate that ants enhance E. grylli reduction of grasshopper pest numbers. Therefore, mechanical transmission of pathogens may be an important overlooking component of this grasshopper-fungal pathogen system. PMID:26308817

  5. Antennal sensilla of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in relation to food preferences and habits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hu-Hai Chen; Yun-Xian Zhao; L E Kang

    2003-12-01

    The external structure, i.e. number and distribution of sensillae on male and female antennae of 12 species of grasshoppers belonging to Pamphaginae, Catantopinae, Oedipodinae and Gomphocerinae in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Five major types of antennal sensillae were detected – trichoid, long basiconic, short basiconic, slender and short basiconic, and coeloconic sensillae. Total number of antennal sensillae varied among different sexes, subfamilies, feeding groups, life forms and eco-forms. Males showed significantly more sensillae than females, due to presence of more short basiconic and coeloconic sensillae. Species under Catantopinae showed more long basiconic sensillae than the others. The Oedipodinae had the highest number of slender and short basiconic sensillae and coeloconic sensillae, followed by Catantopinae and Gomphocerinae; while Pamphaginae had the fewest. The total number of sensillae showed the same trend for these two types amongst the subfamilies as well, species which prefer habits on the ground possessed fewer antennal sensillae than species which prefer to stay on plants. The maximal number of antennal sensillae were observed in hygrophytous species, Chorthippus albomarginatus, in the 12 grasshopper species investigated, although the data is not statistically significant. The general trend which emerged was that species feeding on grass possessed more antennal sensillae, particularly coeloconic sensillae, compared to other feeding group species.

  6. Effects of mating status on copulation investment by male bushcricket Gampsocleis gratiosa (Tettigoniidae, Orthoptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yong; KANG Le

    2006-01-01

    Male's copulation investment, including spermatophore and sperm investment were very high in the Chinese bushcricket Gampsocleis gratiosa. The effects of mating status of both males and females on male's copulation investment were examined in this study. The fresh weight of spermatophylax increased positively with the weight of males' body. This indicated that the nutritional investment during copulation depended on male's quality. Spermatophore investment showed insignificant differences in every copulation protocols. This finding supported the paternal investment hypothesis, that is, males contributed to their offspring with little attention to their partners. Sperm releasing per ejaculation varied significantly among the trials. Males decreased 54.19% sperm in second mating than in its first mating, demonsrated that males regarded the first mating highly, and were more prudent in subsequent mating. These males' strategies may contribute to the viability of the offspring.

  7. [Biomass of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in wetlands of Northeast Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Luciana Irene; Celeste Franceschini, María; Guadalupe Poi, Alicia Susana; Laura de Wysiecki, María

    2015-03-01

    The estimation of biomass in insect populations is a key factor to quantify the available resources and energy fluxes in ecosystems food webs. Cornops aquaticum is a common herbivore in Eichhornia plants in wetlands of Northeast Argentina. We aimed to analyse its biomass variation, related to the different grasshopper age categories populations in two host-plants: Eichhornia azurea and Eichhornia crassipes. For this, standard samplings of C. aquaticum populations were carried out with an entomological net of 70 cm diameter in two wetlands with E. azurea and E. crassipes, in Corrientes and Chaco Provinces; besides, dry weight was also obtained (directly and indirectly), and a regression model to indirectly estimate the biomass from a linear dimension measure (hind femur length) is proposed. A total of 2307 individuals were collected and separated in different age categories; their abundance and linear dimension data were obtained. The model proposed was InDM=lna+b*lnH (where DM=dry mass, a and b are constants and H=hind femur length) (R2 = 0.97). The population biomass variations of C. aquaticum were due to the relative abundance of each age category and the grasshopper individual dry weight. No significant differences were found between populations biomasses obtained by direct and indirect methods in E. azurea and E. crassipes floating meadows. This model made easier the C. aquaticum biomass calculation for both individuals and the population, and accelerated the processing of high number of samples. Finally, high biomass values of populations and individual age category (especially in adults) emphasize the importance of C. aquaticum as a consumer and a resource for predators on Eichhornia floating meadows food webs. PMID:26299119

  8. Studies on taxonomy and distribution of Acridoidea (Orthoptera of Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Usmani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven species of locusts and grasshoppers representing 26 genera, four tribes and 12 subfamilies belonging to the families Pyrgomorphidae, Catantopidae and Acrididae are reported from different localities of Bihar. Their distinguishing characters and bio-ecological data are provided along with keys to tribes and subfamilies. This paper comprising of distribution and field observation along with taxonomy of Acridoid fauna is the first of its kind from the state.

  9. Body Size Adaptations to Altitudinal Climatic Variation in Neotropical Grasshoppers of the Genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Sanabria-Urbán

    Full Text Available Altitudinal clines in body size can result from the effects of natural and sexual selection on growth rates and developing times in seasonal environments. Short growing and reproductive seasons constrain the body size that adults can attain and their reproductive success. Little is known about the effects of altitudinal climatic variation on the diversification of Neotropical insects. In central Mexico, in addition to altitude, highly heterogeneous topography generates diverse climates that can occur even at the same latitude. Altitudinal variation and heterogeneous topography open an opportunity to test the relative impact of climatic variation on body size adaptations. In this study, we investigated the relationship between altitudinal climatic variation and body size, and the divergence rates of sexual size dimorphism (SSD in Neotropical grasshoppers of the genus Sphenarium using a phylogenetic comparative approach. In order to distinguish the relative impact of natural and sexual selection on the diversification of the group, we also tracked the altitudinal distribution of the species and trends of both body size and SSD on the phylogeny of Sphenarium. The correlative evidence suggests no relationship between altitude and body size. However, larger species were associated with places having a warmer winter season in which the temporal window for development and reproduction can be longer. Nonetheless, the largest species were also associated with highly seasonal environments. Moreover, large body size and high levels of SSD have evolved independently several times throughout the history of the group and male body size has experienced a greater evolutionary divergence than females. These lines of evidence suggest that natural selection, associated with seasonality and sexual selection, on maturation time and body size could have enhanced the diversification of this insect group.

  10. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  11. First song descriptions of some Anatolian species of Tettigoniidae Krauss, 1902 (Orthoptera, Ensifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Şirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen endemic and two sub-endemic species belonging to three subfamilies of Tettigoniidae (Tettigoniinae, Bradyporinae and Saginae were sampled during field trips throughout the different ranges of Anatolia between the years of 2004 and 2013. Acoustic parameters of these 16 species affiliated to 8 genera (Anterastes, Apholidoptera, Gampsocleis, Parapholidoptera, Pezodrymadusa, Psorodonotus, Bradyporus and Saga have been described for the first time in this study. Acoustical analysis showed that song characters are species-specific in the genera Saga and Psorodonotus. On the other hand, we could not find big differences among species of the genus Pezodrymadusa and Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis species-group.

  12. First song descriptions of some Anatolian species of Tettigoniidae Krauss, 1902 (Orthoptera, Ensifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şirin, Deniz; Taylan, Mehmet Sait; Mol, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fourteen endemic and two sub-endemic species belonging to three subfamilies of Tettigoniidae (Tettigoniinae, Bradyporinae and Saginae) were sampled during field trips throughout the different ranges of Anatolia between the years of 2004 and 2013. Acoustic parameters of these 16 species affiliated to 8 genera (Anterastes, Apholidoptera, Gampsocleis, Parapholidoptera, Pezodrymadusa, Psorodonotus, Bradyporus and Saga) have been described for the first time in this study. Acoustical analysis showed that song characters are species-specific in the genera Saga and Psorodonotus. On the other hand, we could not find big differences among species of the genus Pezodrymadusa and Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis species-group. PMID:24478585

  13. Chromosomal basis for a bilateral gynandromorph in Pycnogaster inermis (Rambur, 1838) (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco, P.; Cabrero, J.; Camacho, J P M; F. Pascual

    1995-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic analyses of a spontaneous gynandromorph of Pycnogaster inermis, found in a natural population in the Spanish Sierra Nevada, have shown that the left side was male and the right side female, with almost perfect bilateral symmetry. Ventral valves of the ovipositor were very short, appearing as two spurs; dorsal valves were longer but still shorter than normal. The specimen had an apparently normal testis on the left side and a well-developed ovary on the right side...

  14. Taxonomic Review Of The Genus Yunnantettix (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae From The Oriental Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storozhenko S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic review of the genus Yunnantettix Zheng, 1995 is given. It is similar to Aspiditettix Liang, 2009, Pseudepitettix Zheng, 1995, and Epitettix Hancock, 1907. Yunnantettix is the most similar to Aspiditettix in the general appearance, the rugose disc of the pronotum, and the bisinuate lateral lobe of the pronotum, and diff erent from it by the completely reduced hind wing and the position of the antennal socket. Yunnantettix is similar to Pseudepitettix and Epitettix in the moderately widened frontal ridge and low median carina of pronotum, but diff erent from the latter by the presence of the narrow tegmen and a shallow yet distinct tegminal (upper sinus on the pronotal lateral lobe. Originally, Yunnantettix is a monotypic genus (type species: Yunnantettix bannaensis Zheng, 1995 from South China. Two species are additionally included to this genus: Yunnantettix elytratus (Günther, 1939, comb. n. (= Epitettix elytratus Günther, 1939 from India and Yunnantettix thaicus, sp. n. from Th ailand. Th e new species diff ers from all other species of this genus by the shallow excision on apex of the posterior pronotal process and by the external lateral pronotal carina, arch-like and strongly curved upward above the tegmen. A key to the species and redescription of the genus Yunnantettix are provided.

  15. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ of Stenopelmatus (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Stenopelmatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2008-11-01

    Stenopelmatidae (or "Jerusalem crickets") belong to the atympanate Ensifera, lacking hearing organs in the foreleg tibiae. Their phylogenetic position is controversial, either as a taxon in Tettigonioidea or within the clade of Gryllacridoidea. Similarly, the origin of tibial auditory systems in Ensifera is controversial. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal structures of the proximal tibiae of Stenopelmatus spec. with the hypothesis that internal sensory structures are similar to those in tympanate Ensifera. In Stenopelmatus the complex tibial organ consists of three neuronal parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and a third part with linearly arranged neurons. This tripartite organization is also found in tympanate Ensifera, verifying our hypothesis. The third part of the sense organ found in Stenopelmatus can be regarded by the criterion of position as homologous to auditory receptors of hearing Tettigonioidea. This crista acustica homolog is found serially in all thoracic leg pairs and contains 20 +/- 2 chordotonal neurons in the foreleg. The tibial organ was shown to be responsive to vibration, with a broad threshold of about 0.06 ms(-2) in a frequency range from 100-600 Hz. The central projection of tibial sensory neurons terminates into two equally sized lobes in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center. The data are discussed comparatively to those of other Ensifera and mapped phylogenetically onto recently proposed phylogenies for Ensifera. The crista acustica homolog could represent a neuronal rudiment of a secondarily reduced ear, but neuronal features are also consistent with an evolutionary preadaptation.

  16. Hearing in mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Forrest, T G; Hoy, R R

    1998-06-01

    We have studied auditory responses in two species of mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii and S. abbreviatus) to determine (1) whether they show sensitivity to ultrasound, (2) whether their hearing (at both low and high frequencies) is based on the same neural circuitry as that of true crickets, and (3) whether ultrasound sensitivity in different mole cricket species varies with their ability to fly. S. borellii are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies. There is evidence of a segregation of frequency bands in prothoracic auditory neurons. There are two pairs of omega neurons (ONs) with similar morphology to ON1 of true crickets. The two pairs of ONs differ in tuning. One pair has two sensitivity peaks: at the frequency of the calling song of this species (3 kHz), and in the ultrasonic range (25 kHz). The other pair lacks the high-frequency sensitivity and responds exclusively to frequencies in the range of the species song. These two types are not morphologically distinguishable. In S. abbreviatus, only one class of ON was found. S. abbreviatus ONs are narrowly tuned to the frequency of the species' calls. A T-neuron had the best ultrasonic frequency sensitivity in S. borellii. This cell showed a broad tuning to ultrasonic frequencies and was inhibited by low-frequency stimuli. A morphologically similar neuron was also recorded in S. abbreviatus, but lacked the high-frequency sensitivity peak of that in S. borellii. We also assessed the responses of flying S. borellii to ultrasound using field playbacks to free-flying animals. The attractiveness of broadcast calling song was diminished by the addition of an ultrasound signal, indicating that S. borellii avoid high-frequency sound. The results indicate that mole crickets process low-frequency auditory stimuli using mechanisms similar to those of true crickets. They show a negative behavioural response to high-frequency stimuli, as do true crickets, but the organization of ultrasound-sensitive auditory circuitry in mole crickets differs from that of true crickets.

  17. Morphological and physiological regeneration in the auditory system of adult Mecopoda elongata (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Silke; Butler, Casey S; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    Orthopterans are suitable model organisms for investigations of regeneration mechanisms in the auditory system. Regeneration has been described in the auditory systems of locusts (Caelifera) and of crickets (Ensifera). In this study, we comparatively investigate the neural regeneration in the auditory system in the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata. A crushing of the tympanal nerve in the foreleg of M. elongata results in a loss of auditory information transfer. Physiological recordings of the tympanal nerve suggest outgrowing fibers 5 days after crushing. An anatomical regeneration of the fibers within the central nervous system starts 10 days after crushing. The neuronal projection reaches the target area at day 20. Threshold values to low frequency airborne sound remain high after crushing, indicating a lower regeneration capability of this group of fibers. However, within the central target area the low frequency areas are also innervated. Recordings of auditory interneurons show that the regenerating fibers form new functional connections starting at day 20 after crushing.

  18. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do pantanal de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I., E-mail: fateca@gmail.com.b, E-mail: marinez@ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia e Conservacao da Biodiversidade; Battirola, Leandro D., E-mail: ldbattirola@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Sinop, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Naturais, Humanas e Sociais; Lhano, Marcos G., E-mail: marcos@ufrb.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Ambientais e Biologicas

    2010-07-15

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  19. Análise cladística e biogeográfica dos gêneros do grupo Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini Cladistic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of the group Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma análise cladística do relacionamento entre as espécies sul-americanas do grupo Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 e Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 é apresentada. A análise incluiu 14 espécies com três grupos-externos e 34 caracteres morfológicos. A monofilia do grupo é suportada por três sinapomorfias com índices de consistência e retenção de 100%: prozona maior que a metazona, borda posterior do pronoto não angulada e placa supranal mais curta em relação aos cercos. A análise resultou em um único cladograma: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Comentários biogeográficos são apresentados e relacionados com padrões pré-estabelecidos.A cladistic analysis of the relationships among the species of the South American genera of the group Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 and Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 is presented. The analysis included 14 species with three outgroups and 34 morphological characters. The monophyly of the group is supported by three sinapomorphies with 100% consistency and retention indices: prozona larger than the metazona, posterior border of the pronotum not angulated and supranal plate shorter than cerci. The analysis resulted in a single cladogram: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Biogeographic comments are presented and related with pre-established standards.

  20. Longevity and fecundity of Dichroplus maculipennis (Orthoptera, Acrididae at non-outbreaking and outbreaking situations Longevidade e fecundidade de Dichroplus maculipennis (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae em situações de "non-outbreaking" e "outbreaking"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dichroplus maculipennis is one of the most characteristic and damaging grasshopper species of Argentina, mainly in areas of the Pampas and Patagonia regions. We estimated and compared the longevity and fecundity of adult female D. maculipennis under controlled conditions (30ºC, 14L:10D, 40% RH from individuals collected as last instar nymphs (VI in the field and with a known recent history of low and high density conditions. Densities of D. maculipennis at the collecting sites were 0.95 individuals per m² in 2006 and 46 ind/m² in 2009, representing non-outbreaking and outbreaking situations, respectively. Adult female longevity in 2006 (67.96 ± 3.2 days was significantly higher (p 0.05. The fecundity curves showed that the highest values were at weeks 11 and 13 for the 2006 females, and at week 6 for those of 2009. Since the daily oviposition rate at low and high densities was not significantly different, the diminished fecundity rate at high density is attributable to their reduced longevity.O gafanhoto Dichroplus maculipennis é um dos mais característicos e prejudiciales da Argentina, principalmente nas regiões das Pampas e da Patagonia. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar e comparar a longevidade e fecundidade das fêmeas adultas do D. maculipennis sob condições controladas (30ºC, 14 luz: 10 obscuridad, 40% RH a partir do indivíduos coletados em campo como ultimo estadio ninfal (VI e con historia recente conocida de baixas e altas densidades. As densidades de D. maculipennis nos locais de coleta foram de 0.95 indivíduos por m² em 2006 e 46 indivíduos/m² em 2009, representando situações de "non-outbreaking" e "outbreaking", respectivamente. A longevidade das fêmeas adultas em 2006 (67.96 ± 3.2 dias foi significamente maior (p 0.05. No entanto, as baixas taxas de fecundidade das fêmeas em densidades elevadas, se devem, provavelmente à longevidade reduzida.

  1. Análise cladística e biogeográfica dos gêneros do grupo Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini) Cladistic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of the group Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa; Augusto Ferrari; Gervásio Silva Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Uma análise cladística do relacionamento entre as espécies sul-americanas do grupo Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 e Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006) é apresentada. A análise incluiu 14 espécies com três grupos-externos e 34 caracteres morfológicos. A monofilia do gr...

  2. Infectividad de Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) en la "tucura quebrachera" Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae) en laboratorio Infectivity of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) to the 'quebrachera' grasshopper, Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Lange; Christian Bardi; Santiago Plischuk

    2008-01-01

    Siguiendo el procedimiento estándar de inocular por vía oral ninfas de tercer estadio con 105 esporos cada una, se determinó la infectividad del microsporidio Paranosema locustae (Canning), un patógeno desarrollado para el control biológico a largo plazo de tucuras, respecto del Romaleidae Tropidacris collaris (Stoll), especie que en años recientes ha demandado una mayor aplicación de insecticidas para su control. La proporción de insectos que desarrolló infección fue baja (38 %; n = 50), la ...

  3. Infectividad de Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia en la "tucura quebrachera" Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae en laboratorio Infectivity of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia to the 'quebrachera' grasshopper, Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae, in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lange

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo el procedimiento estándar de inocular por vía oral ninfas de tercer estadio con 105 esporos cada una, se determinó la infectividad del microsporidio Paranosema locustae (Canning, un patógeno desarrollado para el control biológico a largo plazo de tucuras, respecto del Romaleidae Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, especie que en años recientes ha demandado una mayor aplicación de insecticidas para su control. La proporción de insectos que desarrolló infección fue baja (38 %; n = 50, la producción de esporos en ellos fue casi nula (sólo dos infecciones traza y no se observaron signos o síntomas típicos asociados a infecciones fuertes. Dado que una alta producción de unidades infectivas transmisibles (esporos es normalmente necesaria para la persistencia de una enfermedad infecciosa (con transmisión horizontal predominante en la población del huésped, se estima que P. locustae no sería una alternativa eficaz para el control de T. collaris.Following the standard procedure of orally inoculating third-instar nymphs with 105 spores each, the infectivity of the microsporidium Paranosema locustae (Canning, a pathogen developed for the long-term control of grasshoppers, to Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, was determined. In recent years, T. collaris has demanded a heavier use of insecticides for its control. The proportion of insects that developed infection was low (38 %; n = 50, the level of spore production was almost nil (only two trace infections, and typical signs or symptoms associated with heavy infections were not observed. Since a high production of infective transmissible units (spores is normally needed for an infectious disease with predominant horizontal transmission to be able to persist in the population of the host, it is inferred that P. locustae would not be an efficacious alternative for the control of T. collaris.

  4. Comparison of the olfactory sensitivity of two sympatric steppe grasshopper species (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to plant volatile compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Huhai; ZHAO; Yunxian; KANG; Le

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female Oedipodinae grasshoppers, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus B.-Bienko and Angaracris barabensis Pall to 37 plant volatile compounds were recorded. The two species have sympatric distribution and synchronous seasonal activity in Inner Mongolia Grasslands. They have different host plant preference with Oedaleus decorus asiaticus graminivorous and A. barabensis forbivorous. The EAG response profiles to 37 compounds of the two species and their both sexes were similar. Most of the green leaf volatiles elicited higher EAG responses in both species and sexes than terpenic compounds and some aromatic compounds. Strong EAG responses were elicited by 6-carbon alcohols (1-hexanol, Z-hexen-2-ol-1, E-2-hexen-1-ol, E-hexen-3-ol-1), aldehyde (E-2-hexen-1-al), ester (Z-hexen-3-yl acetate), and 7-carbon alcohols (1-heptanol) in both species and sexes. Monoterpenes with functional groups of alcohols and aldehydes were more stimulating than other monoterpenes tested. The sesquiterpenes tested elicited relatively low responses. Benzaldehyde elicited the highest responses for both species among aromatic components. Oedaleus decorus asiaticus showed higher EAG responses than A. barabensis to the green leaf volatiles, 1-decanol, 1-nonanol, 1-pentanol, hexanal, Z-hexen-3-yl acetate and to the sesquiterpenes (-)-trans-caryophyllene. Males have higher responses than females in Oedaleus decorus asiaticus. No sexual difference was observed in A. barabensis. Dose-dependent responses to six selected chemicals were observed from females. In both species, all the chemicals tested elicit EAG responses at concentration between 103 mol/L and 102 mol/L, except that the responses of A. barabensis to terpineol had a threshold concentration of 102 mol/L benzaldehyde and 1-hexanol had the highest slopes in dose curves, while 1-octen-3-ol showed the smallest slope in responses to the six chemicals tested. Comparative studies on the responses of two antennal sections and the whole antenna to six selected chemicals were carried out using females of both species. A significant EAG response was only recorded from the distal part of the antenna and not from the proximal seven segments.

  5. Comparison of the olfactory sensitivity of two sympatric steppe grasshopper species (Orthoptera:Acrididae) to plant volatile compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huhai; ZHAO Yunxian; KANG Le

    2004-01-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female Oedipodinae grasshoppers, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus B.-Bienko and Angaracris barabensis Pall to 37 plant volatile compounds were recorded. The two species have sympatric distribution and synchronous seasonal activity in Inner Mongolia Grasslands. They have different host plant preference with Oedaleus decorus asiaticus graminivorous and A. barabensis forbivorous. The EAG response profiles to 37 compounds of the two species and their both sexes were similar. Most of the green leaf volatiles elicited higher EAG responses in both species and sexes than terpenic compounds and some aromatic compounds. Strong EAG responses were elicited by 6-carbon alcohols (1-hexanol, Z-hexen-2-ol-1, E-2-hexen-1-ol, E-hexen-3-ol-1), aldehyde (E-2-hexen-1-al), ester (Z-hexen-3-yl acetate), and 7-carbon alcohols (1-heptanol) in both species and sexes. Monoterpenes with functional groups of alcohols and aldehydes were more stimulating than other monoterpenes tested. The sesquiterpenes tested elicited relatively low responses. Benzaldehyde elicited the highest responses for both species among aromatic components. Oedaleus decorus asiaticus showed higher EAG responses than A. barabensis to the green leaf volatiles, 1-decanol, 1-nonanol, 1-pentanol, hexanal, Z-hexen-3-yl acetate and to the sesquiterpenes (-)-trans-caryophyllene. Males have higher responses than females in Oedaleus decorus asiaticus. No sexual difference was observed in A. barabensis. Dose-dependent responses to six selected chemicals were observed from females. In both species, all the chemicals tested elicit EAG responses at concentration between 103 mol/L and 102 mol/L, except that the responses of A. barabensis to terpineol had a threshold concentration of 102 mol/L benzaldehyde and 1-hexanol had the highest slopes in dose curves, while 1-octen-3-ol showed the smallest slope in responses to the six chemicals tested. Comparative studies on the responses of two antennal sections and the whole antenna to six selected chemicals were carried out using females of both species. A significant EAG response was only recorded from the distal part of the antenna and not from the proximal seven segments.

  6. Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramløv, Hans; Wharton, David A.; Wilson, Peter W.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There...... was no recrystallization inhibition in weta haemolymph or in insect ringer controls. Recrystallization inhibition was present in the nematode supernatant but this was destroyed by heating and was absent in controls.P. davidisurvives intracellular freezing and recrystallization inhibition may be...

  7. Humidity and seasonality drives body size patterns in males of the bush cricket Isophya rizeensis Sevgili, 2003 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlar, Selim S; Karacaoğlu, Cağaşan; Kuyucu, A Cem; Sağlam, Ismail K

    2014-04-01

    Two primary patterns of body size variation have been recorded in ectotherms in relation to latitudinal/altitudinal shifts. In some, body size increases with increasing latitude/altitude whereas, in others, body size decreases with increasing latitude/altitude. This clinal variation is generally assumed to be caused by local adaptation to environmental conditions however the selective variable(s) (temperature, humidity, diet quality, etc.) is still heavily debated. Here we investigate geographic variation in body size of dark and pale color morphs of males of the bush-cricket Isophya rizeensis collected from 15 locations along an elevation gradient ranging from 350 to 2 500 m. Using an information theoretical approach we evaluate the relative support of four different hypotheses (the temperature size rule, the moisture gradient hypothesis, the seasonal constraint hypothesis, and the primary productivity hypothesis) explaining body size variation along the altitudinal gradient. Body size variation in pale color morphs showed a curvilinear relationship with altitude while dark color morphs showed no variation in body size. Body size variation in pale color morphs was highly correlated with precipitation and temperature seasonality values thus giving strong support for the moisture gradient and seasonal constraint hypothesis. Our results reinforce the importance of gradients in humidity and seasonality over temperature in the creation of altitudinal body size clines and the role of selection for resistance to stress factors in the establishment of these clines. Whether a body size cline is observed or not might also depend on the phenotypic properties of the individuals, like coloration. PMID:23956203

  8. Adaptive strategies of overwintering adults: Reproductive diapause and mating behavior in a grasshopper,Stenocatantops splendens (Orthoptera: Catantopidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Hong Zhu; Shuang-Shuang Cui; Yong-Sheng Fan; Zhiwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    To understand the adaptive strategies of the overwintering adults of Stenocatantops splendens,the mechanism of maintenance and termination of the reproductive diapause,the variation in mortality between overwintering females and males,and the mating strategy of the males were investigated.The results indicated that the adult reproductive diapause in natural conditions was mainly regulated by photoperiod in the fall-long photoperiods promoted reproductive development and short photoperiods maintained reproductive diapause,and the sensitivity of the overwintering adults to photoperiod was over before the end of the winter.When transferred from natural conditions to controlled laboratory conditions on dates from September through February,pre-oviposition became increasingly shorter with increasingly deferred transfer dates regardless of photoperiod conditions.The adults treated with low temperature for 30 days in September through November had significantly shorter pre-oviposition,suggesting that low temperatures in winter had an important role in the termination of reproductive diapause.The female had a significantly lower supercooling point than the male,which was related to their lower mortality after winter.In addition,observations of wild populations of the species indicated that mating behavior prior to winter and the duration of pre-mating period were not affected by photoperiod; mating and sperm transfer were mostly completed by November.Compared with females only mating before winter,females mating in the spring had shorter life span,longer pre-oviposition,lower hatching rate and laid fewer egg pods while showing no significant difference with regard to ovipositional interval,per pod number of eggs and nymph dry weight.

  9. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpo Yang

    Full Text Available Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1α, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1α, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1α and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts.

  10. Phylogenetic relationship of 16 Oedipodidae species (Insecta: Orthoptera) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI-MENG LU; YUAN HUANG

    2006-01-01

    The sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of 16 Oedipodidae species were amplified and sequenced. All sequences were aligned and analyzed and the phyloge netic relationships were inferred. The properties of 16S gene in Oedipodidae showed typical patterns of many insects such as a high A+T content and variable distance-dependent transition/transversion ratios. The 0.2 weight for sites of loops may be advisable for phylogeny reconstruction using the maximum parsimony method. The phylogenetic analysis results do not support the current subfamily classification systems of Oedipodidae. Bryodemellinae and Bryodeminae are closely related and should be merged as one subfamily. The status of Oedipodinae and Locustinae is also problematic.

  11. First record of Saga pedo (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae in Suceava County with notes on its distribution in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The predatory bush-cricket Saga pedo Pallas, 1771 is mentioned for the first time from“Fâneţele Seculare Ponoare” Bosanci Natural Reserve, located few kilometers south of Suceava city,Suceava county (Romania. The general distribution of this species in eastern Romania is also discussedin this paper.

  12. Dichroplus vittatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) follows the converse to Bergmann's rule although male morphological variability increases with latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidau, C J; Martí, D A

    2007-02-01

    Geographic body size variation was analysed in males and females of 19 populations of the South American grasshopper Dichroplus vittatus Bruner spanning 20 degrees of latitude and 2700 m of altitude. Using mean and maximum body length of each sex and factors obtained from principal components analyses of six morphometric linear characters it was shown that D. vittatus followed the converse to Bergmann's rule latitudinally but not altitudinally where no significant trends were observed. For males, variability of body size increased with latitude but not with altitude. Both types of trends were significantly correlated with mean annual temperature and minimum annual temperature (positive correlations), and two estimators of seasonality, the coefficients of variation of mean annual temperature (negative) and mean annual precipitation (positive). Some allometric relationships also showed geographic variation. It is suggested that the observed decrease in size with latitude together with the increase in morphological variability is a consequence of a number of factors: the shortening of the growing season southwards; the increasing seasonality and climatic unpredictability; and the fact that the species exhibits protandry which contributes to smaller and more variable size in males and smaller but more constant body size in females. PMID:17298684

  13. Measurements of the diet in two species of Troglophilus Krauss, 1879 cave crickets from Italian subterranean habitats (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of two populations of cave crickets, Troglophilus cavicola from Veneto, northern Italy and Troglophilus andreinii from Apulia, southern Italy, were studied by analyzing faecal and gut contents. The results obtained document different food preferences in these two species. In the Troglophilus cavicola population arthropod remains were dominant in the diet, whereas in the T. andreinii population vegetables (green and fibres were the more abundant food category. Furthermore, study of the overlap of food resource exploitation among age and sex sub-samples seems to indicate a separation of diet among the young instars and other age classes of the populations. Differences in diet between males and females were observed only in the population of T. andreinii.

  14. Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) select vegetation patches in local-scale responses to foliar nitrogen but not phosphorus in native grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viviana Loaiza; Jayne L. Jonas; Anthony Joern

    2011-01-01

    Key elements such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are often limiting relative to the nutritional needs of herbivores that feed on them. While N often limits insect herbivores in natural terrestrial ecosystems, the effect of P is poorly studied in the field, even though compelling hypotheses from the ecological stoichiometry literature predict its importance. We evaluated small-scale spatial distributions of, and herbivory by, grasshoppers among neighboring plots that vary in foliar-N and -P in tallgrass prairie.Grasshopper densities were 67% greater in N-fertilized plots but detected no effect to grasshopper densities from P-fertilizer. Leaf damage to the dominant grass Andropogon gerardii was 32% greater in N-fertilized plots, but no response to foliar-P was detected.Herbivore damage to a common forb, goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis), was not strongly linked by fertilizer treatments, although there was increased leaf damage in N-fertilizer treatments when no P was applied (a significant N × P interaction). Under field conditions at local scales, we conclude that spatially heterogeneous distributions of grasshoppers are primarily affected by foliar-N in host plants with little evidence that P-levels contribute to the spatial patterns.

  15. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera. PMID:20886622

  16. Infectividad de Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia en la “tucura quebrachera” Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. LANGE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo el procedimiento estándar de inocular por vía oral ninfas de tercer estadio con 105 esporos cada una, se determinó la infectividad del microsporidio Paranosema locustae (Canning, un patógeno desarrollado para el control biológico a largo plazo de tucuras, respecto del Romaleidae Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, especie que en años recientes ha demandado una mayor aplicación de insecticidas para su control. La proporción de insectos que desarrolló infección fue baja (38 %; n = 50, la producción de esporos en ellos fue casi nula (sólo dos infecciones traza y no se observaron signos o síntomas típicos asociados a infecciones fuertes. Dado que una alta producción de unidades infectivas transmisibles (esporos es normalmente necesaria para la persistencia de una enfermedad infecciosa (con transmisión horizontal predominante en la población del huésped, se estima que P. locustae no sería una alternativa eficaz para el control de T. collaris.

  17. Uma nova espécie do gênero Temnomastax (Temnomastacinae, Eumastacidae, Orthoptera da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan S. Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Temnomastax apresenta atualmente sete espécies, sendo amplamente distribuídas pelo domínio Cerrado, na América do Sul. Neste trabalho, uma oitava espécie, Temnomastax spielmanni sp. nov., é descrita para a região Amazônica brasileira. A diagnose da nova espécie baseia-se em caracteres do complexo fálico e em características morfológicas externas. Temnomastax spielmanni sp. nov. apresenta semelhança com Temnomastax beni Rehn & Rehn, 1942, que ocorre em território boliviano, mas pode ser diferenciada por alguns caracteres externos. O complexo fálico de T. spielmanni sp. nov. apresenta caracteres ainda não descritos em Temnomastacinae; tal fato reforça a necessidade da revisão taxonômica dessa subfamília, o que poderá esclarecer as relações filogenéticas existentes.

  18. Organization of some repetitive DNAs and B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Leptysminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Allison; Loreto, Vilma; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryotes and are usually heterochromatic and rich in repetitive DNAs. Here we describe characteristics of a B chromosome in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) through classical cytogenetic methods and mapping of some repetitive DNAs, including multigene families, telomeric repeats and a DNA fraction enriched with repetitive DNAs obtained from DOP-PCR. Eumastusia koebelei koebelei presented 2n=23, X0 and, in one individual, two copies of the same variant of a B chromosome were noticed, which are associated during meiosis. The C-positive blocks were located in the pericentromeric regions of the standard complement and along the entire length of the B chromosomes. Some G+C-rich heterochromatic blocks were noticed, including conspicuous blocks in the B chromosomes. The mapping of 18S rDNA and U2 snDNA revealed only autosomal clusters, and the telomeric probe hybridized in terminal regions. Finally, the DOP-PCR probe obtained from an individual without a B chromosome revealed signals in the heterochromatic regions, including the entire length of the B chromosome. The possible intraspecific origin of the B chromosomes, due to the shared pool of repetitive DNAs between the A and B chromosomes and the possible consequences of their association are discussed. PMID:27551344

  19. Habitat association and seasonality in a mosaic and bimodal hybrid zone between Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I Bailey

    Full Text Available Understanding why some hybrid zones are bimodal and others unimodal can aid in identifying barriers to gene exchange following secondary contact. The hybrid zone between the grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi contains a mix of allopatric parental populations and inter-mingled bimodal and unimodal sympatric populations, and provides an ideal system to examine the roles of local selection and gene flow between populations in maintaining bimodality. However, it is first necessary to confirm, over a larger spatial scale, previously identified associations between population composition and season and habitat. Here we use cline-fitting of one morphological and one song trait along two valley transects, and intervening mountains, to confirm previously identified habitat associations (mountain versus valley and seasonal changes in population composition. As expected from previous findings of studies on a smaller spatial scale, C. jacobsi dominated mountain habitats and mixed populations dominated valleys, and C. brunneus became more prevalent in August. Controlling for habitat and incorporating into the analysis seasonal changes in cline parameters and the standard errors of parental trait values revealed wider clines than previous studies (best estimates of 6.4 to 24.5 km in our study versus 2.8 to 4.7 km in previous studies and increased percentage of trait variance explained (52.7% and 61.5% for transects 1 and 2 respectively, versus 17.6%. Revealing such strong and consistent patterns within a complex hybrid zone will allow more focused examination of the causes of variation in bimodality in mixed populations, in particular the roles of local selection versus habitat heterogeneity and gene flow between differentiated populations.

  20. Potential of the desert locust schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an unconventional source of dietary and therapeutic sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects are increasingly being recognized not only as a source of food to feed the ever growing world population but also as potential sources of new products and therapeutic agents, among which are sterols. In this study, we sought to profile sterols and their derivatives present in the desert locu...

  1. Assessing the sensitivity of Melanoplus frigidus (Orthoptera:Acrididae) to different weather conditions: A modeling approach focussing on development times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver-D. Finch; J(o)rg L(o)ffler; Roland Pape

    2008-01-01

    The temperature and soil moisture conditions as well as vegetation patterns were studied to describe the habitat and to model the life cycle of Melanoplusfrigidus, a true alpine grasshopper of the Scandes. In the low alpine belt of the Norwegian Scandes the species colonizes only the warmest microhabitats with maximum soil surface temperatures of 31℃. Vegetation of these habitats consists of shrub-rich heath dominated by Vaccinium myrtillus and Calluna vulgaris. Using continuously measured temperature data, the development times for four different seasons were modeled and related to field observations. The maximum delay of adult molt was estimated to amount to 3 weeks, the delay being determined by the variation in spring temperature conditions between different years. The possibilities of using M. frigidus as an indicator organism of climate change effects on alpine zoo-coenoses of the Scandes are discussed.

  2. Two new species and key to four species of the genus Humphaplotropis from China (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae, Pamphaginae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yong-Chao; Shi, Jian-Ping; Dai, Li

    2015-10-14

    Two new species i.e.: Humphaplotropis xiai sp. nov. and Humphaplotropis hebeiensis sp. nov. of the genus Humphaplotropis Xiao, Yin et Yin, 2013, are described from Hebei and Jiangsu, China in this paper. The new species Humphaplotropis xiai sp. nov. differs all known species of the genus by the abdomen like sawtooth in lateral view. The new species Humphaplotropis hebeiensis sp. nov. is similar to Humphaplotropis culaishanensis Lin, Cao et Yin, 2014, but differs from the latter by: lateral carinae of frontal ridge parallel; anterior margin of pronotum with acute angular in the middle, the apex reaching the hind margin of eyes; tegmina wider, cover 4/5 tympanum. Hind tibia yellow brown on upper side; epiphallus with 44 spikes, ancorae oblique inward distinctly, both posterior projections shorter than median projection. Type specimens are deposited in the Shanghai Entomological Museum, C.A.S., Shanghai and Natural Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei China respectively.

  3. Organization of some repetitive DNAs and B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Leptysminae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Allison; Loreto, Vilma; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryotes and are usually heterochromatic and rich in repetitive DNAs. Here we describe characteristics of a B chromosome in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) through classical cytogenetic methods and mapping of some repetitive DNAs, including multigene families, telomeric repeats and a DNA fraction enriched with repetitive DNAs obtained from DOP-PCR. Eumastusia koebelei koebelei presented 2n=23, X0 and, in one individual, two copies of the same variant of a B chromosome were noticed, which are associated during meiosis. The C-positive blocks were located in the pericentromeric regions of the standard complement and along the entire length of the B chromosomes. Some G+C-rich heterochromatic blocks were noticed, including conspicuous blocks in the B chromosomes. The mapping of 18S rDNA and U2 snDNA revealed only autosomal clusters, and the telomeric probe hybridized in terminal regions. Finally, the DOP-PCR probe obtained from an individual without a B chromosome revealed signals in the heterochromatic regions, including the entire length of the B chromosome. The possible intraspecific origin of the B chromosomes, due to the shared pool of repetitive DNAs between the A and B chromosomes and the possible consequences of their association are discussed. PMID:27551344

  4. The subgenual organ complex in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae): comparative innervation and sensory evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Stritih, Nataša; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the non-hearing cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae) is investigated for the neuronal innervation pattern and for organs homologous to the hearing organs in related taxa. We analyse the innervation pattern of the sensory organs (SGO and intermediate organ (IO)) and its variability between individuals. In T. neglectus, the IO consists of two major groups of closely associated sensilla with different positions. While the distal-most sensilla superficially resemble tettigoniid auditory sensilla in location and orientation, the sensory innervation does not show these two groups to be distinct organs. Though variability in the number of sensory nerve branches occurs, usually either organ is supplied by a single nerve branch. Hence, no sensory elements clearly homologous to the auditory organ are evident. In contrast to other non-hearing Ensifera, the cave cricket sensory structures are relatively simple, consistent with a plesiomorphic organization resembling sensory innervation in grasshoppers and stick insects. PMID:26064547

  5. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera.

  6. Female monopolization and paternity assurance in South American crickets (Orthoptera, Grylloidea: mating plugs, extra claspers and forced copulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. de Mello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first three cases in which male crickets monopolize females by means of mating plugs. The origin of the plugs vary among the cases (i.e., they are not homologous. Female monogamy is assured by the permanent presence of the plug attached to their genitalia after first mating, while males are potentially polygamous. The presence of an additional clasping structure and the occurrence of forced copulation are also described.Este trabalho descreve os primeiros três casos em que grilos machos monopolizam suas fêmeas através de plugues de acasalamento. A origem dessas estruturas varia entre os casos (i.e., não há homologia entre as mesmas. A monogamia feminina é assegurada pela presença permanente do plugue de acasalamento aderido a sua genitália após a primeira cópula, enquanto que os machos são potencialmente poligâmicos. Descrevem-se ainda a presença de clásper adicional e a ocorrência de cópulas forçadas.

  7. First record of Saga pedo (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) in Suceava County with notes on its distribution in Eastern Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Emilian Pricop; Bogdan-Mihai Negrea; Irinel E. Popescu; Ionuţ Ştefan Iorgu

    2012-01-01

    The predatory bush-cricket Saga pedo Pallas, 1771 is mentioned for the first time from“Fâneţele Seculare Ponoare” Bosanci Natural Reserve, located few kilometers south of Suceava city,Suceava county (Romania). The general distribution of this species in eastern Romania is also discussedin this paper.

  8. Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Evidence of last-male sperm precedence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Dushimirimana

    2012-02-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk. males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria.

  9. Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): Evidence of last-male sperm precedence

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Dushimirimana; Thierry Hance; David Damiens

    2012-01-01

    Summary The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk.) males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sper...

  10. New species of Zygoclistron Rehn, 1905 (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae: Copiocerinae) in the central corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe a new species of Copiocerinae, Zygoclistron ruschii Silva n. sp., from Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil, collected from the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi in the Santa Teresa municipality, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diagnosis of this new species is based on phallic complex and terminalia characters. PMID:27395585

  11. New data on morphometrics, distribution and ecology of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1849 (Orthoptera, Acrididae in Spain: is maghrebi a well defined subespecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied different populations of Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859 in Spain assigned to subspecies maghrebi by Fernandes (1968 and obtained some new records for the species. To see if maghrebi is a consistent taxon for the Iberian populations, we performed a morphometric analysis involving 53 individuals from different origins considering body size (front of the head to tip of the abdomen; the shape of pronotum and presence of a second anterior notch or sulcus; length of the antennae and epiphallum, according to the characters used to define subspecies maghrebi. If maghrebi is consistent, we would expect intermediate sizes between wagneri and rogenhoferi, the other two well separated subspecies considered for M.w. However, in our measurements we obtained that body size is not intermediate between M. w. wagneri and M. w. rogenhoferi contrary to expectations if assuming the existence of maghrebi. Body size is similar to wagneri and further, we recorded some of the smallest individuals described so far. Also, the pronotum varied widely across and within populations showing different phenotypes that formerly were used to separate maghrebi and wagneri. Taking into account body size, pronotum, length of antenna and epiphallum, we think that differences between the studied Spanish populations and wagneri form are not enough to assign the studied populations to maghrebi. In the studied area, M.w. shows a narrow ecological niche inhabiting shores or proximities of hipersaline lagoons wherever Suaeda vera (Forsskål 1791, Chenopodiacea is present, M.w. uses this plant as refuge and food. The species also inhabits bare saline low grounds with scattered S vera. It presents a markedly discontinuous and patchy distribution in Spain, showing up punctually, where the microhabitat is appropriate. We obtained a morphometric variability with a significant association between body size and locality, and between body size and the colour of posterior wings in males. Because of its wide range disjunction, its discontinuous regional distribution and morphological variability, we believe that M.w. is an interesting species to investigate possible substructuring of populations in which we probably may recognize ecological forms or varieties that deserve deeper and further study.Estudiamos distintas poblaciones de Mioscirtus wagneri (Kittary, 1859, considerado como M. w. maghrebi por Fernandes (1968 en España, con algunas nuevas citas para la especie. Para dilucidar si el taxón maghrebi es consistente en nuestras poblaciones, realizamos un análisis morfométrico de 53 ejemplares considerando los mismos caracteres utilizados para establecer dicha subespecie, a citar: tamaño del cuerpo, relieve y forma del pronoto, longitud de la antena y forma del epifalo. El tamaño de los individuos de nuestras poblaciones no es intermedio entre las formas conocidas de M. w. wagneri y M. w. rogenhoferi Saussuare, 1888, como cabría esperar asumiendo la existencia de maghrebi. Nuestras poblaciones no se apartan del tamaño de wagneri e incluso encontramos las menores tallas descritas para este taxón. El relieve del pronoto, y en particular la presencia de un segundo surco, el anterior, es muy variable abarcando en una misma población fenotipos dispares utilizados anteriormente para separar las formas maghrebi y wagneri. Las diferencias entre el tamaño del cuerpo, el pronoto, la longitud de la antena y la forma del epifalo no nos parecen suficientes para asignar como maghrebi al conjunto de las poblaciones estudiadas y separarlas de la subespecie nominada wagneri. M.w. es una especie de requerimientos ecológicos muy restringidos. La hemos encontrado a orillas de lagunas hipersalinas y siempre dependiendo de Suaeda vera (Forsskål, 1791 Chenopodiacea que utiliza como refugio y alimento, en particular en suelos desnudos y salitrosos donde predominan manchas de esa planta. Su distribución regional es marcadamente discontinua y muy puntual, presentándose allí donde el hábitat le es propicio. Aunque el análisis es preliminar, encontramos una variabilidad morfométrica y una asociación del tamaño corporal con la localidad, y del tamaño corporal con la coloración de las alas posteriores en los machos. Debido a su distribución geográfica disjunta, localmente discontinua, y a la variabilidad morfométrica encontrada en sus poblaciones, creemos que M. w. es una especie interesante para investigar la posible subestructuración de sus poblaciones en las cuales es posible se reconozcan diversas formas o variedades ecológicas lo que merece mayor investigación.

  12. Effects of a methanolic extract of the plant Haplophyllum tuberculatum and of teflubenzuron on female reproduction in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Oedipodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheuk, Fatma; Cusson, Michel; Doumandji-Mitiche, Bahia

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a methanolic extract of the plant Haplophyllum tuberculatum (ME-Ht) and of teflubenzuron (TFB) were compared on several reproductive variables and ecdysteroid titers in the females of Locusta migratoria. The test products were administered orally to newly emerged females at doses of 1500 (ME-Ht) and 10μg/female (TFB). The methanolic extract and TFB had comparable effects on several of the variables examined. Both significantly delayed the first oviposition and reduced fecundity and fertility. ME-Ht and TFB also displayed similar effects on ovarian growth, vitellogenesis and ecdysteroid titers. Both treatments induced a drop in hemolymph protein levels as well as a reduction in vitellogenin uptake by oocytes. This delay in oogenesis was accompanied by a resorption of terminal oocytes. However, whereas TFB completely blocked egg hatch, ME-Ht only had a modest inhibitory effect on this variable. Hemolymph and ovarian ecdysteroid titers, as measured by radioimmunoassay, were similar and low in both control and treated females, except for a peak observed only in control females at the end of vitellogenesis. We discuss the functional significance of the observed effects in the context of the putative modes of action of the methanolic plant extract and TFB. PMID:22206884

  13. Comparative Studies of Substrate and Inhibitor Specificity of Glutathione S-Transferases in Six Tissues of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-hua; ZHU Kun-yan; GUO Ya-ping; ZHANG Xiao-min; MA En-bo

    2008-01-01

    Specific activity, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) towards three substrates, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), and p-nitrobenzene chloride (pNBC) were investigated in six tissues (foregut, midgut, hindgut, fat body, hemolymph, and muscle) of Oxya chinensis. In addition, the inhibition in vitro (ethacrynic acid, and Cibacron Blue 3GA) of Oxya chinensis in the six tissues was also investigated. Glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in all the six tissues examined. The rank order of GST activities towards CDNB was fat body > midgut > hindgut > muscle > foregut > hemolymph both in females and males. Glutathione 5-transferase activities in the fat body in females and males were 1.3- to 10.4-fold and 1.1- to 10.0-fold higher than those in the other tissues. The rank order of GST activities towards the other substrates changed slightly. From these results, it was inferred that GSTs in the fat body and midgut played important roles in detoxifying xenobiotics including insecticides and plant allelochemicals in O. chinensis. In the three substrates examined, CDNB seemed to be the best substrate, followed by pNBC and DCNB. The kinetic parameters of GSTs were different among the six tissues. This suggested that GSTs in different tissues have various affinities and catalytic efficiency to substrates. In vitro inhibition study showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) values of the two inhibitors to GSTs from the six tissues were different. The results suggested that the two inhibitors have different inhibition potency to GSTs from the different tissues. The observed changes in kinetic parameters and inhibition in vitro among the six tissues of the insect might suggest that the number and structure of isoenzymes and their rate of expression varied for the different tissues.

  14. Descripción de una nueva especie de Ctenodecticus Bolívar, 1876, de Sierra Nevada, España (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Decticinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascual, Felipe

    1978-01-01

    A new species of the genus Ctenodecticus Bolívar, Ct. granatensis n. sp., from the Sierra Nevada, Spain, is described. It is compared with Ct. masferreri Bolívar, and a key to the Iberian species of the genus is given.

  15. Clarification of the katydid genus Uchuca Giglio-tos, 1898 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): A new species in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gustavo Costa; Sovano, Rafael Segtowick Da Silva; Gutjahr, Ana Lúcia Nunes

    2016-01-01

    This paper accomplishes three tasks: Firstly, description of a new species, Uchuca almeirina sp. nov., from the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, specifically from Monte Dourado, Almeirim, Pará. Secondly, it is proposed that Uchuca macroptera Montealegre-Z & Morris, 2003 be made a synonym of Uchuca ferreirai (Piza, 1976). Thirdly, a compilation of the generic distribution is presented, which includes new records of Uchuca amacayaca Montealegre-Z & Morris (2003) in Brazil and Uchuca similis Montealegre-Z & Morris (2003) in Colombia and Brazil, and the amplification of the occurrences of U. ferreirai. PMID:27470824

  16. Convergent and divergent patterns of morphological differentiation provide more evidence for reproductive character displacement in a wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Jae

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ecological character displacement, traits involved in reproductive isolation may not evolve in arbitrary directions when changes in these traits are by-products of adaptation to an ecological niche. In reproductive character displacement, however, selection acts directly on reproductive characters to enhance the degree of reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. Thus, the direction of change in reproductive characters may be arbitrary in relation to changes in other morphological characters. We characterized both tegminal characters and characters indicative of body size in sympatric and allopatric populations of Gryllus fultoni, a species displaying character displacement in its calling song characters in areas of sympatry with G. vernalis populations, to infer the nature and direction of selection acting on reproductive and morphological characters in sympatry. Results Except for mirror area, the number of teeth in a file, and ovipositor length of G. fultoni, all male and female morphological characters in G. fultoni and G. vernalis exhibited a uniform tendency to decrease in size with increasing latitude. There was no significant variation in female morphological characters between sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations. However, males of sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations significantly differed in head width, hind femur length, and mirror area even after controlling for clinal factors. Head width and hind femur length of G. fultoni were more similar to those of G. vernalis in sympatric populations than in allopatric populations, resulting in morphological convergence of G. fultoni and G. vernalis in sympatry. However, the mirror area of G. fultoni displayed the divergent pattern in relation to the sympatric G. vernalis populations. Conclusion Divergence-enhancing selection may be acting on mirror area as well as calling song characters, whereas local adaptation or clinal effects may explain variation in other morphological characters in sympatric populations of G. fultoni. This study also suggests that structures and behaviors that directly enhance reproductive isolation may evolve together, independently of other morphological traits.

  17. Comparisons of Properties of Acetylcholinesterase from Two Field-Collected Populations of Oxya chinensis Thunberg (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and the Role of Acetylcholinesterase in the Susceptibility to Malathion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-hua; YANG Mei-ling; GUO Ya-ping; MA En-bo

    2005-01-01

    In this study, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was extracted from two field-collected populations of Oxya chinensis (Xinxiang City, Henan Province and Changzhi City, Shanxi Province). AChE activities were decreased when concentrations of ATC increased, showing a characteristic phenomenon of substrate inhibition at high concentration in both populations. Such inhibition occurred at relatively low concentration for AChE from Xinxiang population but relatively high for AChE from Changzhi population. The kinetic study showed that there were no significant differences between the two populations in the Km values. The Km value in Changzhi population was only 1.09-fold higher than that in Xinxiang population. However,significant differences were observed between the two populations in Vmax values. The Vmaxvalue in Changzhi population was 1.32-fold higher than that in Xinxiang population. The inhibition study in vitro showed that the AChE from both populations exhibited similar rank order in sensitivity to inhibition by three OPs, as determined by comparison of their bimolecular rate constants (ki), from the most potent inhibition to the least was chlopyrifos-oxon > paraoxon >demeton-s-methyl for AChE from the two populations and that the ki values in Xinxiang population were lower than those in Changzhi population. The I50 values of AChE from Xinxiang population were 4.84-, 2.66-, and 1.92-fold less sensitive to inhibition by paraoxon, chlopyrifos-oxon, and demeton-s-methyl. These results were consistent with the results in bioassay. It is inferred that AChE insensitivity to OP insecticides plays an important role in the differences of insusceptibility of Oxya chinensis to malathion between the two populations.

  18. A test of Allen's rule in ectotherms: the case of two south American Melanopline Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with partially overlapping geographic ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidau, Claudio J; Martí, Dardo A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the geographic variation of three morphometric characters in relation to body size in two South American grasshoppers (Acrididae), Dichroplus vittatus Bruner and D. pratensis Bruner to test Allen's rule in these ectotherms. Since both species follow the converse to Bergmann's rule owing to latitudinal and/or altitudinal variation in time available for growth and reproduction, geographic variation in body size proportions of protruding parts may obey to differential allometric growth in different geographic areas. Alternatively, it could reflect true Allenian variation related to thermoregulation. Body proportions were studied by correlation/regression analyses with geographic and climatic variables. In D. pratensis, body proportions increased with latitude and decreased with altitude. These results probably obey to the effects of water balance and seasonality on final body size, and on the allometric growth of the three studied characters not being related to thermoregulation. In D. vittatus, a generally non-significant trend towards the decrease of the mean proportions of all three characters with increasing latitude was observed. Nevertheless, also in this species, it is probable that the environmental gradient responds to seasonality factors (although not to water balance) that affect the length of growing season and, in consequence, body size and its allometric relationships. We conclude that the regularities in the geographic distribution of body proportions of D. pratensis and D. vittatus do not follow Allen's rule in the sense of thermoregulation, and result from variables that determine growing season length and the allometric growth of different body parts. PMID:18813738

  19. New data on the “silver-bell cricket” (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), a forgotten and overlooked cricket subject to a high risk of extinction in western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, P.J.; Llorente, V.

    2008-01-01

    Gryllodinus kerkennensis (Finot, 1893) presents a disjunct distribution in the Southern part of the Western Palearctic from North Africa up to Central Asia inhabiting arid, semidesert or desert land mostly associated with saline soils near water sources of lagoons or river beds depressions. The species was not recorded in Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula) since 1936 and up to now it is currently excluded from all red list books for Orthopteran conservation. In this paper w...

  20. Neuroanatomy and physiology of the complex tibial organ of an atympanate ensiferan, Ametrus tibialis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888) (Gryllacrididae, Orthoptera) and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy and physiology of the complex tibial organ of an atympanate ensiferan, the Gryllacridid Ametrus tibialis. This represents the first analysis of internal mechanoceptors in Gryllacridids. The complex tibial organ is tripartite consisting of a subgenual organ, intermediate organ and a homologue organ to the crista acustica of tympanate ensiferan taxa of Tettigoniidae, Haglidae, and Anostostomatidae. The crista homologue contains 23 +/- 2 receptor neurons in the foreleg. It is associated with the leg trachea and found serially in all three thoracic leg pairs. Central projections of the sensory nerve of the complex tibial organ bifurcate in two lobes in the prothoracic ganglion, which do not reach the midline. The axonal endings project into the mVAC, the main vibratory-auditory neuropile of Ensifera. Recordings of the tibial nerve show that the tibial organ is sensitive to vibrational stimuli with a minimum threshold of 0.02 to 0.05 ms(-2) at 200-500 Hz, but rather insensitive to airborne sound. The main function of the tibial organ is therefore vibration sensing, although the specific function of the crista homologue remains unclear. The presence of the crista acustica homologue is interpreted in phylogenetic context. Because ensiferan phylogeny is unresolved, two alternative scenarios can be deduced: (a) the crista homologue is a precursor structure which was co-opted as an auditory system and represent a morphologically highly specialized structure before acquisition of its new function; (b) a previously functional tibial ear is evolutionary reduced but the neuronal structures are maintained. Based on comparison of neuroanatomical details, the crista acustica homologue of A. tibialis could present the neuronal complement of an ear evolutionary precursor structure, which was successively made sensitive to airborne sound by elaboration of cuticular tympana, auditory spiracle and trachea for sound propagation. PMID:18230969

  1. Microsatellite organization in the grasshopper Abracris flavolineata (Orthoptera: Acrididae revealed by FISH mapping: remarkable spreading in the A and B chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Milani

    Full Text Available With the aim of acquiring deeper knowledge about repetitive DNAs chromosomal organization in grasshoppers, we used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH to map the distribution of 16 microsatellite repeats, including mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotides, in the chromosomes of the species Abracris flavolineata (Acrididae, which harbors B chromosome. FISH revealed two main patterns: (i exclusively scattered signals, and (ii scattered and specific signals, forming evident blocks. The enrichment was observed in both euchromatic and heterochromatic areas and only the motif (C30 was absent in heterochromatin. The A and B chromosomes were enriched with all the elements that were mapped, being observed in the B chromosome more distinctive blocks for (GA15 and (GAG10. For A complement distinctive blocks were noticed for (A30, (CA15, (CG15, (GA15, (CAC10, (CAA10, (CGG10, (GAA10, (GAC10 and (GATA8. These results revealed an intense spreading of microsatellites in the A. flavolineata genome that was independent of the A+T or G+C enrichment in the repeats. The data indicate that the microsatellites compose the B chromosome and could be involved in the evolution of this element in this species, although no specific relationship with any A chromosome was observed to discuss about its origin. The systematic analysis presented here contributes to the knowledge of repetitive DNA chromosomal organization among grasshoppers including the B chromosomes.

  2. Two New Species of Tetrigidae (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea) from Fujian Province%福建省蚱科二新种 (直翅目: 蚱总科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑哲民; 李恺

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, two new species of Tetrigidae are described. Type specimens are kept in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University. 1. Teredorus fujianensis, sp. nov. (Figs.1~3)   This new species is allied to Teredorus albimarginus Zheng et Zhou, but differs in: 1) in profile, vertex not protruding before the eyes; 2) frontal ridge arc protruding between the base of antennae; 3) antenna inserted below the lower margin of eye; 4) total length of pronotum longer than the length ofpronotum which exceed the top of hind femur about 3.0~3.3 times (♂) or 5 times (♀); 5) length of elytra larger than its width about 1.87 times; 6) the width of middle femur as wide as the width of elytra.   Length of body: ♂7.0 mm~7.5 mm, ♀9.5 mm. Length of pronotum:♂10.5 mm~11.0 mm, ♀ 10 mm. Length of hind femur: ♂ 5 mm~6 mm, ♀ 6.5 mm.   Holotype ♂, paratypes 5♂♂, 1♀, Fujian: Minhou, 20-Ⅶ-1999, collected by Li Kai. 2. Coptotettix minhouensis, sp. nov. (Figs.4~6)   This new species is allied to Coptotettix huanjiangensis Zheng et Jiang and Coptotettix annandalei Hancock. It differs from the both in: 1) width of vertex as wide as the width of an eye; 2) posterior angles of the lateral lobes of the pronotum round. It differs from the former in: 1) median carina of pronotum distinct in the whole length; 2) hind process reaching the top of hind femur. It differs from the latter by the hind wing not reaching the top of hind process.   Length of body: ♀ 10 mm. Length of pronotum: ♀ 9.5 mm, Length of hind femur: ♀ 6 mm.   Holotype ♀, paratype 1♀, Fujian: Minhou, 20-Ⅶ-1999, collected by Li Kai.%记述采自福建省蚱科昆虫2新种,即福建尖顶蚱Teredorus fujianensis, sp. n. 及闽侯柯蚱Coptotettix minhouensis, sp. n.。 模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所。

  3. TWO NEW SPECIES OF TETRIGIDAE FROM RUILI OF YUNNAN PROVINCE (ORTHOPTERA)%云南省瑞丽蚱科昆虫二新种(直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧晓红

    2011-01-01

    记述采自云南省德宏州瑞丽蚱科2新种,即瘤背柯蚱Coptotettix toruliclosalis sp.nov.及郑氏台蚱Formosatettix zhengi sp.nov..前者模式标本保存于西南林业大学标本馆及陕西师范大学动物研究所昆虫标本室,后者模式标本保存于西南林业大学标本馆.%In the present paper, two new species of Tetrigidae are described, they are Coptotettix torulidosalis sp. Nov. And Formosatettix zhengi sp. Nov. Type specimens of the former new species are deposited in the Museum of Southwest Forestry University and Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University, the later type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Southwest Forestry University.Coptotettix torulidosalis sp. Nov. (Figs 1 - 3)This new species is allied to Coptotettix huanjiangensisZheng et Jiang, 1994, but differs in: 1) antennaeinserted lower one third of anterior margin of eyes; 2)disc of pronotum with numerous small tubercles; 3)midkeel of pronotum complete; 4) humeral angle arc;5) lower margin of midfemur straight.Length of body: ♂ 6 6 - 8 mm, ♀8-9 mm.Length of pronotum: ♂ 6. 0 - 6. 5 mm, ♀ 7 - 8 mm.Length of hind femur; ♂ 5.0 -5.5 mm, ♀6.0- 6. 2 mm.Holotype ♀ , Yunnan, Ruli (24°06'N, 97°50'E;alt. 1 394 m), 2 Aug. 2010, collected by WU Yu-Xi.Paratypes: 13 ♂ ♂ , 31 ♀ ♀ , same data as holotype;16 ♂ ♂ , 15 ♀ ♀ , Yunnan, Ruli, alt. 1 142 m, 1 Aug. 2010, collected by WU Yu-Xi.Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Latin "torul' and "dorsalis".Formosatettix zhengi sp. Nov. ( Figs 4 - 5 )This new species is allied to Formosatettix cangshanensis Zheng et Mao, 1997, but differs in: 1) anterior margin of vertex straight; 2) width of vertex 1. 7 times the width of an eye; 3) vertex and frontal ridge forming an obtuse angle in profile; 4) anterior margin of pronotum sharp angular; 5) lateral keels contracted back ward in prozona; 6) hind process reaching two third of hind femur; 7) lower margin of midfemur straight.♀ : length of body 8 mm, length of pronotum 7 mm, length of hind femur 4 mm.Holotype ♀ , Ruli, Yunnan (24°04'N, 97°49'E; alt. 1 142 m), 1 Aug. 2010, collected by WU Yu-Xi.Etymology. This new species is named in honor of Professor ZHENG Zhe-Min for outstanding contribution to the systematic entomology.

  4. A primary record of Tetrigoidea from Huangshan, Anhui proviince (Orthoptera)%安徽省黄山地区蚱总科的初步纪录(直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑哲民; 查岭生

    2011-01-01

    记录了在黄山地区蚱总科3科5种昆虫,并记述一新种即驼背蚱Tetrix gibbosa sp.nov..该新种近似于巍山蚱Tetrix wershanensis Zheng et Mao及仿蚱Tetrix simulans(B.-Bienko,).其区别于二者为:1)头顶前缘平直;2)侧面观前胸背板上缘球形隆起;3)后突到达后足股节2/3处;4)后翅短,仅达后足股节基部1/3处.新种的模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所昆虫标本室.%This paper deals with five species of Tetrigoidea from Huangshan area, Which belongs in 3 families, among them, one species is described as new to science. Type specimina are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University. Tetrix gibbosa sp. nov. , this new species is allied to Tetrir weishanensis Zheng et Mao,2002 and Tetrir simulans (B. -Bienko, 1920). It differs from both in: 1) anterior margin of vertex straight; 2) upper margin of pronotum spherical in profile; 3) hind process of pronotum reaching two third of hind femur; 4) hind wing short, reaching basal one third of hind femur. It differs from the former in: 1) width of vertex 1. 5 times than that of an eye; 2) humeral angle arc; 3) top of hind process sharp rounded. Length of body: ♂ 8~8. 2 mm; Length of pronotum:♂ 6.8~7 mm;Length of hind femur: ♂6~6,3 mm. Holotype ♂ , Anhui: Huangshan, 118°2′E,30°1′N, 20-V-2010, collecte by Zha Lingsheng; paratype 1 ♂, same data as holotype. Etymology:The specific name is derived from the Latin "gibbosus".

  5. Two New Species of Tetrigoidea (Orthoptera) from Guangdong Province%广东省蚱总科二新种记述(直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹成全; 郑哲民

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Tetrigoidea are described. Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University.1. Mazarredia serrifemura Zheng et Cao, sp. Nov. (Figs. 1, 2)This new species is allied to Mazarredia guangxiensis Zheng et Jiang, 1998 and Mazarredia jiangxiensis Zheng et Shi, 2009. It differs from both in: 1) width of vertex 1.25 times the width of an eye; 2) hind process of pronotum nearly reaching top of hind tibia; 3) width of midfemur equal to the width of tegmina; 4) lower outer side of hind femur black; 5) hind tibia black. It differs from M. Guangxiensis in: 1) humeral angle obtuse angular; 2) with a pair short longitudinal keels between shoulders. It differs from M. Guangxiensis in: 1) antennae inserted under the lower margin of eyes; 2) lateral keels of prozona contract backward.Length of body: ♂10.00 mm; length of pronotuom: ♂ 14.00 mm; length of hind femur: ♂7.00 mm.Holotype: ♂. Ruyuan County, Guangdong Province, 800 m, 24°53'N, 113°01'E; 24- Ⅷ-2010; collected by HUANG Cheng-jun.Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the Latin "serri" and "femur".2. Formosatettix nanlingensis Zheng et Cao, sp. Nov. (Figs. 3-5)This new species is allied to Formosatettix formosanus (Shiraki, 1906), but differs in: 1) width of vertex 2 times the width of an eye; 2) hind process reaching knee of hind femur; 3) lower margins of fore and middle femur straight; 4) hind tibia black, basal part light color; 5) size larger, length of body 14.00 mm.Length of body:♂11.00 mm, ♂14.00 mm; length of pronotum: ♂9.00 mm, ♂10.00 mm; length of hind femur: ♂6.00 mm; ♂7.50 mm.Holotype: ♂, Ruyuan County, Guangdong Province, 800 m, 24°53'N, 113o01'E; 24-V1D-2010; collected by HUANG Cheng-jun; Paratpype: 1$, same data as holotype.Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the type locality "Nanling" and the suffix "-ensis" indicating "residing in".%记述采自广东省北部南岭山区蚱总科2新种,即短翼蚱科的齿股玛蚱Mazarredia serrifemura,sp.nov.及蚱科的南岭台蚱Formosatettix ngnlingensis,sp.nov..模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所.

  6. Bioelimination of 51Cr and 85Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (orthoptera: blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum) are described when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of 51Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. The authors did not find a significant mite effect on 85Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. The results indicated that assimilated 85Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated 85Sr, which was lost by defecation

  7. Bioelimination of 51Cr and 85Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Orthoptera: Blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum), when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of 51Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. We did not find a significant mite effect on 85Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. Our results indicated that assimilated 85Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated 85Sr was lost by defecation

  8. Host-herbivore studies of Stenoscepa sp. (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae), a high-Ni herbivore of the South African Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD; MICHEAL A. DAVIS; MICHAEL A. WALL; KEVIN BALKWILL

    2007-01-01

    Nymphs of Stenoscepa sp. feed on leaves of the Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii at serpentine sites in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. These sites contain Ni hyperaccumulators, Ni accumulators, and plants with Ni concentrations in the normal range. We conducted studies to: (i) determine the whole-body metal concentration of nymphs (including those starved to empty their guts); (ii) compare Stenoscepa sp. nymphs against other grasshoppers in the same habitat for whole-body metal concentrations; and (iii)compare the suitability of Ni hyperaccumulator and Ni accumulator plants as food sources for Stenoscepa sp. and other grasshoppers. Stenoscepa nymphs had extremely high whole-body Ni concentrations (3 500μg Ni/g). This was partly due to food in the gut, as starved insects contained less Ni (950μg Ni/g).Stenoscepa nymphs survived significantly better than other grasshoppers collected from either a serpentine or a non-serpentine site when offered high-Ni plants as food. In a host preference test among four Berkheya species (two Ni hyperaccumulators and two Ni accumulators), Stenoscepa sp. preferred leaves of the Ni hyperaccumulator species. A preference experiment using leaves of three Senecio species (of which one species, Senecio coronatus, was represented by both a Ni hyperaccumulator and a Ni accumulator population) showed that Stenoscepa sp. preferred Ni accumulator Senecio coronatus leaves to all other choices. We conclude that Stenoscepa sp. is extremely Ni-tolerant. Stenoscepa sp. nymphs prefer leaves of hyperaccumulator Berkheya species, but elevated Ni concentration alone does not determine their food preference. We suggest that the extremely high whole-body Ni concentration of Stenoscepa nymphs may affect food web relationships in these serpentine communities.

  9. 湖南省蚱总科的调查(直翅目)%A survey of Tetrigoidea from Hunan province (Orthoptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑哲民

    2014-01-01

    5 families,19 genera and 36 species of Tetrigoidea from Hunan province are recorded in the present study,among them three species are new to science,i.e.Mazarredia hupingshanen-sis sp.nov.,Mazarredia hunanensis sp.nov.and Aalatettix hupingshanensis sp.nov. Mazarredia hupingshanensis sp.nov.is allied to Mazarredia convexa Deng,Zheng & Wei, 2007,but differs in:1)width of frontal ridge which between antennae is wider than that of first segment of antenna;2)upper margin of pronotum with slightly wave-like in profile;3)hind process of pronotum reaching the top of hind femur;4)lower margin of midfemur straight;5) lower outer side of hind femur with no black;6)hind tibia with brown. Length of body:♂6 mm;length of pronotum:♂6 mm;length of hind femur:♂5 mm. Holotype ♂,Hunan:Shimen(Hupingshan),17-Sept.-2004,collected by Wang Ji-Liang. Mazarredia hunanensis sp.nov.is allied to Mazarredia platynota Zheng et Ou,2010,but differs in:1 )vertex and frontal ridge forming an obtuse rounded in profile;2)frontal ridge slightly concave before lateral oculus in profile;3)lateral oculus being in the middle of the anteri-or margin of eyes;4)upper margin of pronotum slightly wave-like before shoulders and straight behind it in profile;5)width of midfemur is narrower than the width of tegmina;6)lower outer side of hind femur with no black;7)hind tibia brown. Length of body:♀9 mm;length of pronotum:♀10 mm;length of hind femur:♀5.2 mm. Holotype ♀,Hunan:Yuangling,1-Sept.-2004,collected by Wang Ji-Liang. Aalatettix hupingshanensis sp.nov.is allied to Aalatettix leshanensis Zheng,Cao & Chen, 2011 and Aalatettix cangshanensis Zheng,Lin & Zhang,2013.It differs from both in:1)vertex and frontal ridge forming a rounded in profile;2)upper margin of pronotum nearly straight in profile;3)hind process of pronotum reaching knee of hind femur.The new species also differs from A.cangshanensis in:1)vertex protruding before the anterior margin of eyes in dorsal view;2)lower margin of midfemur with wave-like structure.The new species also differs from A.les-hanensis in the width of frontal ridge which between antennae is larger than that of first segment of antenna. Length of body: ♂ 10 mm; length of pronotum: ♂ 8.8 mm; length of hind femur:♂5.5 mm. Holotype ♂,Hunan:Shimen(Hupingshan),17-Sept.-2004,collected by Wang Ji-Liang.%系统报道湖南省蚱总科名录并3新种,即壶瓶山玛蚱 Mazarredia hupingshanensis sp.nov.、湖南玛蚱 Mazarredia hunanensis sp.nov.及壶瓶山无翅蚱 Aalatettix hupingshanensis sp.nov.壶瓶山玛蚱近似于凸背玛蚱 M.convexa Deng,zheng & Wei,2007,主要区!为:1)颜面隆起在触角之间部分的宽度与触角基节等宽;2)侧面观背板上缘微波状;3)后突到达后足股节顶端;4)中足股节下缘平直;5)后足股节下侧外面非黑色;6)后足胫节褐色.湖南玛蚱近似于平背玛蚱 M.platynota Zheng et Ou,2010,主要区!为:1)侧面观头顶与颜面隆起形成钝圆形;2)侧面观颜面隆起在侧单眼前略凹陷;3)侧单眼位于复眼前缘的中部;4)侧面观背板上缘在肩部前略波状,在肩部后平直;5)中足股节宽小于前翅宽;6)后足股节下侧外面非黑色;7)后足胫节褐色.壶瓶山无翅蚱蚱近似于乐山无翅蚱 Aalatettix leshanensis Zheng,Cao&chen,2011及苍山无翅蚱 A.cangshanensis Zheng ,Lin &Zhang,2013,其区别于两者为:1)侧面观头顶与颜面隆起形成圆形;2)侧面观前胸背板上缘近平直;3)后突到达后足股节膝部.该新种又区别于苍山无翅蚱为:1)头顶突出于复眼之前;2)中足股节下缘波状.该新种又区别于乐山无翅蚱为颜面隆起在触角之间部分的宽度略大于触角基节宽.

  10. New data on the “silver-bell cricket” (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, a forgotten and overlooked cricket subject to a high risk of extinction in western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gryllodinus kerkennensis (Finot, 1893 presents a disjunct distribution in the Southern part of the Western Palearctic from North Africa up to Central Asia inhabiting arid, semidesert or desert land mostly associated with saline soils near water sources of lagoons or river beds depressions. The species was not recorded in Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula since 1936 and up to now it is currently excluded from all red list books for Orthopteran conservation. In this paper we report a few and localised populations of this cricket in Castilla-La Mancha inhabiting sandy shores of hiper-saline lagoons. We also provide information on its biometrics, phenology, ecology and behaviour including data of all collection specimens of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN. Because of its audible and particular song, we propose campaigns of night listening points to search for this species in other potential sites where it could be present. We believe that this species may be subject to a high risk of extinction in the Iberian Peninsula, and thus in the whole Western Europe. This is because of their restricted populations and the fragility of its specific habitat. We propose an urgent integral protection and the inclusion of the species in the lists of highly endangered invertebrate species.

    Gryllodinus kerkennensis (Finot, 1893 presenta una distribución disjunta a lo largo de la franja meridional y occidental del Paleártico, desde África del Norte hasta Asia Central, habitando zonas áridas, desiertos o semi-desiertos, principalmente asociado a suelos salinos próximos a masas de agua de lagunas o depresiones de cuencas fluviales. Esta especie no se registraba en Europa occidental (Península Ibérica desde 1936 y en la actualidad está excluida de todas las listas de libros rojos para la conservación de Ortópteros. En este trabajo describimos varias poblaciones aisladas de este grillo en Castilla-La Mancha en orillas arenosas de lagunas hipersalinas. También proporcionamos información sobre su biometría, fenología, ecología y conducta incluyendo datos sobre la colección entera de especímenes depositados en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN. Debido a su canto audible y muy particular, proponemos campañas de puntos nocturnos de escucha para rastrear la presencia de esta especie en otros posibles lugares donde aún pudiera estar presente. Creemos que esta especie pudiera estar en alto riesgo de extinción en la Península Ibérica, y por tanto en toda Europa Occidental debido a lo localizado de sus poblaciones y a la fragilidad de su hábitat específico. Por todo ello proponemos su protección integral y urgente debiéndose incluir en las listas de especies de invertebrados altamente amenazados.

  11. Weighing costs and benefits of mating in bushcrickets (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, with an emphasis on nuptial gifts, protandry and mate density

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    Lehmann Gerlind U C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual selection is a major force driving evolution and is intertwined with ecological factors. Differential allocation of limited resources has a central role in the cost of reproduction. In this paper, I review the costs and benefits of mating in tettigoniids, focussing on nuptial gifts, their trade-off with male calling songs, protandry and how mate density influences mate choice. Tettigoniids have been widely used as model systems for studies of mating costs and benefits; they can provide useful general insights. The production and exchange of large nuptial gifts by males for mating is an important reproductive strategy in tettigoniids. As predicted by sexual selection theory spermatophylax size is condition dependent and is constrained by the need to invest in calling to attract mates also. Under some circumstances, females benefit directly from the nuptial gifts by an increase in reproductive output. However, compounds in the nuptial gift can also benefit the male by prolonging the period before the female remates. There is also a trade-off between adult male maturation and mating success. Where males mature before females (protandry the level of protandry varies in the direction predicted by sperm competition theory; namely, early male maturation is correlated with a high level of first inseminations being reproductively successful. Lastly, mate density in bushcrickets is an important environmental factor influencing the behavioural decisions of individuals. Where mates are abundant, individuals are more choosey of mates; when they are scarce, individuals are less choosey. This review reinforces the view that tettigoniids provide excellent models to test and understand the economics of matings in both sexes.

  12. Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae em um Lago de Várzea na Amazônia Central, Brasil

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    Carlos Elias BRAGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La tucura Neotropical, Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, vive asociada a las macrófitas de la familia Pontederiaceae, de las cuales se alimenta. En los lagos de la Amazonia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (camalote o aguape constituye la planta huésped más importante de esta tucura. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la fenología de los adultos y las ninfas de C. aquaticum en los camalotales de E. crassipes, en relación al régimen hidrológico de la Amazonia Central. Los muestreos se realizaron entre los meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007, en el Lago Camaleón (03o17’05”S 60o11’11”O en la Várzea de la Amazonia Central. Los individuos fueron capturados desde una embarcación a motor, utilizando una red entomológica de 70 cm de diámetro. Durante este estudio, se capturaron un total de 850 ejemplares (296 adultos y 554 ninfas. Se observó que la abundancia y la biomasa de los adultos y de las ninfas de C. aquaticum, así como la planta huésped, están estrechamente relacionados con la oscilación estacional del nivel del río (pulso de inundación.

  13. Une nouvelle espèce de Steropleurus Bolivar, 1878 (Orthoptera) des Pyrénées françaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.; Jeekel, C.A.W.

    1964-01-01

    En montant de Bourg Madame (Pyrénées Orientales) au Col de Puymorens en Cerdagne française on passe, sur l’éboulis de la falaise dans la vallée du Carol, les champs cultivés de Courbasil. Un peu en aval du village le long de la route nationale 20, on trouve des champs abandonnés où la végétation est

  14. 短星翅蝗生物学与生态学特性研究%Biological and ecological characteristics of Calliptamus abbreviatus Ikonnikov (Orthoptera:Catantopidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏淑花; 黄文广; 张蓉; 高立原; 于钊; 朱猛蒙

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] To systematically study the biological and ecological characteristics of Calliptamus abbreviatus Ikonnikov, including life history, morphological characteristics, host selection, daily food ingestion, developmental duration, developmental threshold and effective accumulated temperature. [Methods] By a combination of field and laboratory research,including providing C. abbreviatus with food in captivity. Experimental results were calculated based on the law of effective accumulative temperature. [Results] This locust species had only one generation per year, and overwintered as eggs in soil. Eggs began to hatch in the second ten days of June of the following year, with the hatching peak in the first ten days of July. Adults occurred in the first ten days of August, and the peak period of laying occurred from the first ten days to the latter part of the second ten days of September. C. abbreviatus prefered feeding on Artemisia frigida, Potentilla acaulis and Potentilla acaulis, but fed relatively little on Lespedeza bicolor, and only occasionally on Artemisia scoparia. It did not feed at all on Stipa bungeana, Leymus secalinus and Echinochloa crusgalli. Consumption and approximate digestion increased with age, and were significantly higher in female adults than in males. The developmental duration of every stage reduced with increasing temperature from 18℃ to 33℃. Excessively high or low temperatures were unfavorable to survival. Nymphs could not molt at 13℃, and adults could not mate or lay eggs at 18℃.. However, the preoviposition period at 33Ԩwas 5 d longer than that at 28℃. [Conclusion] The information obtained on the biological and ecological characteristics of C. abbreviatus should improve the forecast parameters for pest and provide a better basis for developing effective monitoring and early warning systems.%【目的】系统研究短星翅蝗Calliptamus abbreviatus Ikonnikov的生活史、形态特征、食性、食量、发育历期、发育起点温度和有效积温等生物学和生态学特性。【方法】田间和室内相结合,利用笼罩供食法进行各项试验和有效积温法则等相关方法计算结果。【结果】短星翅蝗1年发生1代,以卵在土中越冬。竖年6月中旬开始孵化出土,7月上旬为孵化出土盛期。8月上旬始见成虫,8月下旬开始交配产卵,9月上、中旬为产卵盛期;喜食冷蒿Artemisia frigida、星毛委陵菜Potentilla acaulis、阿尔泰狗哇花Heteropappus altaicus,少食胡枝子Lespedeza bicolor,偶食猪毛蒿Artemisia scoparia,不食长茅草Stipa bungeana、赖草Leymus secalinus、稗草Echinochloa crusgalli等禾本科植物;食量和近似消化力均随着龄期的增长而增大,雌成虫显著高于雄成虫;在18~33℃的温度范围内,各龄期的发育历期均随着温度的升高而缩短。高温和低温均不利于短星翅蝗生长发育,若虫在13℃温度下不能蜕皮发育,成虫在18℃温度下不能交配产卵,33℃下的产卵前期比28℃下延长5 d。【结论】系统掌握了短星翅蝗的生物学与生态学特性,将丰富其测报参数,为优化其监测预警技术提供依据。

  15. New and little known Orthoptera (Ensifera and Caelifera) from the Ñambí River Natural Reserve, Nariño, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Gutiérrez, Yeisson; Bacca, Tito

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the Orthopterans from the Ñambí River Natural reserve is presented. A total of 26 species were studied, five new species are herein described: Championica nambiensis n. sp., Cocconotus awa n. sp., Cocconotus levyi n. sp. (Tettigoniidae: Pseudophyllinae), Antillicharis kwaiker n. sp. (Gryllidae) and Brachybaenus nariniensis n. sp. (Gryllacrididae). Three species are recorded from Colombia for the first time (Legua crenulata, Uvaroviella (Holacla) nebulosa and Anabropsis alata) and seven species are new records for Nariño department (Allotettix peruvianus, Ripipteryx ecuadoriensis, Neoconocephalus affinis, Anaulacomera poculigera, Orophus conspersus, Orophus tessellatus and Neocurtilla hexadactyla). Further comments on species distribution and taxonomy are given. PMID:27615970

  16. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venanzetti Federica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead.

  17. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Venanzetti Federica; Johnsen Arild; Martinsen Lene; Bachmann Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH) ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Resul...

  18. Comparative Study of Malathion Toxicity and General Esterases in Larvae and Adults from a Field Population of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg)(Orthoptera:Acridoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-hua; YANG Mei-ling; GUO Ya-ping; MA En-bo

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of Oxya chinensis to malathion was compared in larvae and adults from a field population, collected from Jinyuan outskirt, Shanxi Province. The results showed that Oxya chinensis was more susceptible to malathion in the adult stage than in the larval stage. The LD50 values for malathion susceptibility of Oxya chinensis were 4.94 and 2.44 mg g-1 body weight in the larvae and adults respectively. The results indicated that the larvae were 2.02-fold less susceptible to malathion than the adults. The general esterases and the kinetics were characterized and compared between the two life stages and between females and males. Larval preparations of Oxya chinensis were more active than adult preparations in females and males. The larvae showed 1.18-, 1.49-, and 1.17-fold higher specific activities than the adults in females with α -NA, α -NB and β -NA respectively. In males, the ratios were 1.34-, 1.70-, and 1.06-fold. Female preparations were more active than those of males in the adults. The reverse results were observed in the larvae where male preparations were more active than female preparations. Kinetic studies showed that Km values of general esterases hydrolyzing α -NA, α -NB, and β -NA in the adult stage were 1.36-, 1.32- and 1.39-fold respectively, higher than those in the larval stage in females. In males, the ratios were 1.24-, 2.14-, and 1.20-fold. The esterase from male insects had a higher affinity (lower Km value) to the substrate than those from females. The results also showed that the Vmax values of general esterase hydrolyzing α -NA, α -NB, and β -NA in the two stages were similar. From the results of bioassays and biochemical analyses, it has been inferred that a higher level of resistance to malathion in larvae than in adults would appear to result from differences in the expression of resistance mechanisms in these two life stages. Enhanced esterase activities appeared to play a major role in resistance to malathion in both larvae and adults. From the analysis of inhibition in vitro, the esterases in the two life stages were B-type,and carboxylesterases were predominant enzymes in the composition of the esterases in the two stages.

  19. Sistemas de Información Geográfica y Teledetección en Entomología: Aplicación en tucuras y langostas (Orthoptera: Acridoidea Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing in Entomology: studies in grasshoppers and locusts (Orthoptera: Acridoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marta Cigliano

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, relativamente reciente, de dos tecnologías de análisis de patrones espaciales, como son los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG y la teledetección, ha abierto nuevos caminos en estudios sobre entomología aplicada. Los SIG han facilitado a entomólogos y ecólogos el análisis de aquellos patrones espaciales complejos que presentan una variación temporal. Tal vez uno de los principales usos de los SIG dentro de la entomología aplicada está vinculado con el estudio de las relaciones entre las explosiones poblacionales de insectos ("outbreaks" y las variables ambientales. Las explosiones poblacionales de acridios, tanto de especies de langostas como de tucuras, son ejemplos típicos de la dinámica espacial de insectos que ocurre a gran escala y que se ve afectada por condiciones locales que varían en el tiempo. Debido a estas características este grupo de insectos plaga ha sido objeto de análisis y aplicación de estas nuevas herramientas. En este trabajo se brindan los conceptos básicos de los SIG y la teledetección y se lleva a cabo una revisión de su utilidad en entomología aplicada, utilizando los estudios de su aplicación en acridios como ejemplo.The advent of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing has made the analysis of complex spatial patterns an attainable reality for entomologists and ecologists. Within the general area of applied insect entomology, perhaps one of the major uses of GIS is the one that relates insect outbreaks to environmental features of the landscape. Outbreaks of grasshoppers and locusts are typical examples of large-scale spatial dynamics that are affected by local conditions that fluctuate with time. Factors affecting the numerical fluctuations in grasshopper and locust populations are usually variables that have both spatial and temporal characteristics and thus can be mapped and incorporated into a GIS. Following a brief introduction to GIS and remote sensing, a revision of different uses of GIS on applied entomology of grasshoppers and locusts is given in this paper.

  20. Caracterización de las comunidades de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea del partido de Benito Juárez, sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea community structure in Benito Juárez county, in outhern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura de Wysiecki

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la riqueza, densidad, constancia y distribución de especies de acridios, en distintas comunidades vegetales (1997-2002 en el partido de Benito Juárez, sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las comunidades vegetales se categorizaron en pastizales nativos, comunidades halófilas, pasturas sin disturbio, pasturas con moderado disturbio y pasturas con alto disturbio. En total se registraron 23 especies de acridios. Los melanoplinos dominaron en casi todas las comunidades vegetales, excepto en las halófilas que se caracterizaron por la presencia de un acridino, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner. La riqueza de especies promedio por sitio por año, varió entre 2,10 ± 0,60 especies en las pasturas con moderado disturbio y 6,20 ± 0,58 especies en las comunidades halófilas. La riqueza de especies acumulada fue de 17 en los pastizales nativos, 14 en las comunidades halófilas, 19 en las pasturas sin disturbio, 18 en las pasturas con moderado disturbio y 14 en las pasturas con alto disturbio. La densidad promedio de acridios fue máxima en el 2001 y 2002. Dichroplus pratensis Bruner y Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos dominaron en los pastizales nativos y en las pasturas con alto disturbio, C. pallidinota en las comunidades halófilas, D. elongatus y Scotussa lemniscata (Stål en las pasturas sin disturbio y en las pasturas con moderado disturbio. La estructura taxonómica de las comunidades de acridios fue constante en los pastizales nativos, las comunidades halófilas y las pasturas. Hubo pocas especies de amplia distribución e intermedias y las raras fueron las más numerosas. De las 23 especies registradas en todos los sitios, D. elongatus fue la única de amplia distribución. Históricamente, para la zona de estudio, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanch fue señalada como la especie dominante. Sin embargo, nuestros resultados sugieren que en la actualidad la especie dominante es D. elongatus. Si bien resulta imposible conocer las causas que motivaron este cambio en la dominancia ya que no se cuenta con datos históricos, no pueden descartarse entre otros factores, eventuales cambios climáticos, campañas acridianas y contra otras plagas y el cambio en los patrones del uso de la tierra ocurridos en las últimas décadas en el área de estudio.The structure of grasshopper communities was studied at different sites in Benito Juárez county, Buenos Aires province, Argentina, over a six-year period (1997-2002. The sites were classified into five categories of disturbance: native grasslands, halophilous communities, pastures, moderately and highly disturbed pastures. A total of 23 grasshopper species was collected. Melanoplinae was the most abundant subfamily in all sites, except for halophilous communities that were characterized by the presence of one Acridinae species, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner. Average species richness per site and per year, ranged from 2.10 ± 0.60 species in moderately disturbed pastures to 6.20 ± 0.58 species in halophilous communities. Cumulative species richness was: 17 in native grasslands, 14 in halophilous communities, 19 in undisturbed pastures, 18 in moderately disturbed pastures and 14 in highly disturbed pastures. Mean density was significantly higher in 2001 and 2002 than in the remaining years. The most abundant species were Dichroplus pratensis Bruner and Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos in native grasslands and highly disturbed pastures; C. pallidinota in halophilous communities and D. elongatus - Scotussa lemniscata (Stål in undisturbed and moderately disturbed pastures. Along the study, the taxonomic structure of the grasshopper assemblages was significantly constant in native grasslands, halophilous communities and undisturbed pastures. The pattern of species distribution showed few species widely or intermediately distributed, whereas numerous species were rare. Among the 23 species collected, D. elongatus was the most broadly distributed of all. Historically, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanch. has been known as the most conspicuous species in the studied

  1. Variación temporal de la riqueza, composición y densidad de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea en diferentes comunidades vegetales del Sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires Temporal variation in grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea richness, composition, and density in grasslands of the southern Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los acridios figuran entre los invertebrados herbívoros dominantes en la mayoría de los sistemas de pastizal. Si bien, en Argentina, la importancia económica de estos insectos ha sido reconocida desde el siglo XIX, aún se desconocen aspectos importantes de la biología y ecología de la mayoría de las especies. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue determinar cómo la riqueza de especies, la composición y la densidad de acridios variaron en las comunidades vegetales más características del Sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires, durante cinco temporadas sucesivas (2005-06 hasta 2009-10, un área históricamente afectada por estos insectos. Se colectó un total de 22especies. La riqueza de acridios fue similar entre las diferentes comunidades vegetales, observándose una disminución significativa de la misma durante la última temporada de muestreo. La densidad total de acridios aumentó significativamente en todas las comunidades vegetales durante el estudio, alcanzando niveles de explosión poblacional (“outbreak” en las últimas dos temporadas. En la de 2009-10, la densidad fue ocho veces mayor que en 2005-06. Las especies que más aportaron a este aumento en la densidad fueron Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard y Borellia bruneri (Rehn. Dichroplus maculipennis resurgió como el acridio plaga más perjudicial en la región Pampeana, con el desarrollo de un “outbreak” de magnitud histórica, se registraron, en algunos sitios, densidades de hasta 75 ind/m².Grasshoppers are among the dominant invertebrate herbivores in most grassland habitats. The economic importance of grasshoppers has been recognized in Argentina since the XIX century, but many aspects of the biology and ecology of most species remain unknown. The main objective of this study was to determine how grasshopper species richness, composition, and density varied among characteristic plant communities during five successive seasons (2005-06 to 2009-10 in grasslands of the southern Buenos Aires province, an area historically affected by these insects. Twenty two species were collected. Grasshopper species richness was similar between different plant communities and showed a significant decrease in the final year of sampling. The overall density increased significantly in all plant communities during the study, reaching outbreak levels in the last two seasons. Density was over eight times higher in 2009-10 than in 2005-06. The greatest contribution to the increase in density observed was by Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard and Borellia bruneri (Rhen. Dichroplus maculipennis re-emerged as the most serious grasshopper pest in the Pampas, developing an outbreak of historical magnitude that included high densities of up to75 ind/m².

  2. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-06-21

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.

  3. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-01-01

    Axylus group is used to include the five genera Axylus Stål, 1877, Anthracites Redtenbacher, 1891 sensu stricto, Eucoptaspis Willemse, 1966, Eulobaspis gen. nov., and Heminicsara Karny, 1912. It is mainly based on a combination of the characters shape of pronotum, spiniform meso- and metasternal lobes, and similar basic ground plans of the male cerci, titillators and female subgenital plates. The five genera together with two superficially similar genera Euanthracites gen. nov. and Sulasara gen. nov. are fully revised. Papuacites gen. nov. is proposed for two New Guinean species formerly included in Anthracites. Nicsara Walker, 1869 is restricted to Australian species; Spinisternum Willemse, 1942 is synonymised with Heminicsara Karny, 1912; Odontocoryphus Karny, 1907 based on two nymphs is synonymised with Macroxiphus Pictet, 1888; Pseudoliara Karny, 1907 described after one nymph is regarded incertae sedis. 40 new combination of species are proposed: Axylus bimaculatus (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., A. inferior (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. inflatus (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. loboensis (De Haan, 1842) comb. nov., A. minutus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., A. nigrifrons (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. philippinus (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., A, taylori (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., and A. thoracicus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov. (all from Nicsara); Euanthracites apoensis (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., E. femoralis (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., E. rufus (Ingrisch, 1998) comb. nov., and E. tibialis (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Eucoptaspis inexpectatus (Willemse, 1953) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus Karny, 1907); Eulobaspis dehaani (Karny, 1920) comb. nov., E. emarginata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. moluccana (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., E. personata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. quadrimaculata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. rotundata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., and E. strigatipes (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Eulobaspis lobaspoides (Karny, 1907) comb. nov. and E. ornata (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov. (from Axylus); Heminicsara excisa (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., H. insulana (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. schlaginhaufeni (Karny, 1912) comb. nov., and H. viridipes (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Heminicsara castaneipictus (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov., H. insularis (Willemse, 1942) comb. nov., and H. palauensis (Vickery & Kevan, 1999) comb. nov. (from Spinisternum); Heminicsara decipiens (Karny, 1926) comb. nov. and H. griffinii (Karny, 1911) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus); Heminicsara novaeguineae (Willemse, 1966) comb. nov. (from Eucoptaspis); Sulasara aethiops (Karny, 1931) comb. nov., S. karnyi (Willemse, 1932) comb. nov., and Sulasara sarasini (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Papuacites nigrifrons (Karny, 1912) comb. nov. and P. nakanaiensis (Naskrecki & Rentz, 2010) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Paramacroxiphus multispinosa (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Palaeoagraecia globiceratus Vickery & Kevan, 1999 comb. nov. (from Macroxiphus). Odontocoryphus pullus Karny, 1907 becomes a new synonym of Macroxiphus sumatranus sumatranus (Haan, 1842). 87 species are described as new: nine species in Axylus: A. brachypterus sp. nov., A. dulang sp. nov., A. furcatus sp. nov., A. mengkoka sp. nov., A. montanus sp. nov., A. negros sp. nov. , A. superior sp. nov., A. totop sp. nov. , A. unicolor sp. nov.; six species in Anthracites: A. bilineatus sp. nov., A. flagellatus sp. nov., A. pyramidalis sp. nov., A. romblon sp. nov., A. sinuatus sp. nov., A. unispinus sp. nov.; four species in Euanthracites: E. bispinus sp. nov., E. eboreus sp. nov., E. ile sp. nov., E. uru sp. nov.; six species in Eucoptaspis: E. adonara sp. nov., E. hexamaculatus sp. nov., E. remotus sp. nov., E. stylatus sp. nov., E. trapezoides sp. nov., E. wawo sp. nov.; eight species in Eulobaspis: E. bacan C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. baduri sp. nov., E. buruensis sp. nov., E. ceramica C.Willemse & Ingrisch sp. nov., E. morotai sp. nov., E. sudirman sp. nov., E. ternate sp. nov., E. variata sp. nov.; 51 species in Heminicsara: H. albatros sp. nov., H. albipuncta sp. nov., H. albogeniculata Naskrecki & Ingrisch sp. nov., H. alticola sp. nov., H. ammea sp. nov., H. anggi sp. nov., H. bilobata sp. nov., H. cingima sp. nov., H. comprima sp. nov., H. coriformis sp. nov., H. corneli sp. nov., H. cyclops sp. nov., H. despecta Naskrecki & Ingrisch sp. nov., H. dilatata sp. nov., H. dividata sp. nov., H. dobo sp. nov., H. elongata Naskrecki & Ingrisch sp. nov., H. furcata sp. nov., H. gibba sp. nov., H. gugusu Naskrecki & Ingrisch sp. nov., H. illugi sp. nov., H. jacobii Karny, 1912, H. jayawijaya sp. nov., H. kelila sp. nov., H. kolombangara sp. nov., H. lamas Naskrecki & Ingrisch sp. nov., H. longiloba sp. nov., H. lord sp. nov., H. malu sp. nov., H. mamberamo sp. nov., H. manus sp. nov., H. montana sp. nov., H. nigra sp. nov., H. nomoensis sp. nov., H. obiensis sp. nov., H. ohu sp. nov., H. pak sp. nov., H. parallela Naskrecki & Ingrisch sp. nov., H. pinniger sp. nov., H. popoman sp. nov., H. rugosa sp. nov., H. scutula sp. nov., H. sica sp. nov., H. sinewit sp. nov., H. siwi sp. nov., H. stylata sp. nov., H. tabtab sp. nov., H. truncata Naskrecki & Ingrisch sp. nov., H. tumulus sp. nov., H. umasani sp. nov., H. wanuma sp. nov., H. zugi sp. nov.; and three species in Sulasara: S. armata sp. nov., S. renschi sp. nov., S. tambu sp. nov. PMID:26624732

  4. The Pygmy Grasshoppers and Four New Species of Tetrigoidea(Orthoptera)from Yulongxueshan Region in Northwestern Yunnan%滇西北玉龙雪山地区蚱总科昆虫及四新种(直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑哲民; 欧晓红

    2010-01-01

    记述2005-2006年在云南省玉龙雪山地区调查的蚱总科昆虫3科8属19种,其中包括4新种,即短翅蚱Tetrix brevipennis,sp.nov.、白斑台蚱Formosatettix albomaculata,sp.nov.、雪山台蚱Formosatettix xueshanensis,sp.nov.及丽江悠背蚱Euparatettix lijiangensis,sp.nov..模式标本保存于西南林学院标本馆昆虫标本室及陕西师范大学动物研究所.

  5. Review of the genus Endoreticulatus (Microsporidia, Encephalitozoonidae) with description of a new species isolated from the grasshopper Poecilimon thoracicus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and transfer of Microsporidium itiiti Malone to the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarska, Daniela K; Radek, Renate; Huang, Wei-Fong; Takov, Danail I; Linde, Andreas; Solter, Leellen F

    2015-01-01

    The historic genus Pleistophora (Plistophora) is a highly polyphyletic clade with invertebrate Microsporidia reassigned to several new genera since the 1980s. Two genera, Endoreticulatus and Cystosporogenes, clearly separate into distinct but closely related clades based on small subunit ribosomal RNA analysis but are included in different families that are each polyphyletic. A microsporidium with morphology resembling the Endoreticulatus/Cystosporogenes clade was isolated from the grasshopper Poecilimon thoracicus from a site in Northwest Bulgaria. It produced intense infections in the digestive tract of the host but no behavioral changes were noted in infected individuals. Prevalence of the microsporidium increased over the active feeding season yearly. Mature spores were oval and measured 2.58±0.21 μm×1.34±0.24 μm, with 16 to approximately 32 spores in a parasitophorous vacuole. The spores were uninucleate and polar filament coils numbered 8-9 situated in a single row. The spore polaroplast consisted of an anterior lamellar section and a posterior vesicular section, and the posterior vacuole was reduced. Analyses of a 1221 bp partial SSU-rRNA sequence indicated that the isolate is more closely related to the Endoreticulatus clade than to Cystosporogenes, but shows earlier phylogenetic separation from species infecting Lepidoptera and represents a new species, Endoreticulatus poecilimonae. To compare sequences of Endoreticulatus spp. from Lepidoptera to those infecting other insect orders, an isolate, Microsporidium itiitiMalone (1985), described from the Argentine stem weevil, Listronotus bonariensis, was sequenced. Like the grasshopper isolate, the weevil isolate is closely related but basal to the lepidopteran Endoreticulatus clade. The original description combined with the new sequence data confirms species status and permits transfer of the isolate from Microsporidium, a genus erected for microsporidian species of uncertain taxonomic status, to Endoreticulatus. PMID:25450951

  6. 臭腹腺蝗(直翅目:锥头蝗科)胃盲囊的异速生长和功能特性%Allometric growth and performance of the gastric caeca of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassey E. AKPAN; Tony G. OKORIE

    2003-01-01

    通过对臭腹腺蝗Zonocerus variegatus(直翅目:锥头蝗科)6个若虫期及成虫期主消化道和胃盲囊分段进行解剖和测量,对其胃盲囊的异速生长和功能特性进行了研究.结果表明,胃盲囊和主消化道的生长是不同速的.胃盲囊前段较后段生长速率更高,但两者生长速率显著相关.消化道和胃盲囊的平均长度亦显著相关.随年龄增长,消化道的生长速率降低,而胃盲囊的生长速率上升.与胃盲囊前段功能相同,胃盲囊后段亦具有消化和吸收功能,被认为能在营养缺乏的旱季起到增加肠胃吸收面的功能.%The allometry, growth and activities of the gastric caeca of Zonocerus variegatus ( L. ) were determined to find outthe functions of its posterior caeca which are unknown. This was done by dissecting out the gut and measuring the main gut re-gions and the gastric caeca in the six nymphal stages and adult. The gut consists of three main regions; the crop, ventriculus,with gastric caeca attached at anterior rim, and the hindgut. Each set of caeca consists of a long anteriorly pointed arm and ashort posteriorly pointed arm. The growth of the caeca relative to the main gut was allometric. The anterior caeca had highergrowth ratios than the posterior caeca and both were highly correlated. The relationship between gut and caeca mean length washighly significant. The mean gut length and age were significantly correlated with growth rate exponent < 1 indicating a decreas-ing growth increment with age. The mean caeca length and age were highly correlated with growth exponent > 1 indicating an in-creasing growth with age. Females had higher mean lengths than males and this was highly significant ( P < 0.05). Males hadhigher growth ratios than females except at growth centres. The growth patterns of the caeca for wet and dry seasons were similarwith a single growth centre. But the mean length of the caeca was significantly different between wet and dry season's insectsfrom the fourth instar to adult. The posterior caeca was considered a complementary structure to the anterior caeca. They performthe same function of digestion and absorption of food. The posterior caeca is concluded additional device to increase the surfacearea of the ventriculus to cope with low nutrient status of herbivory.

  7. 中国南部斑腿蝗科四属昆虫的支序生物地理学研究%Cladistic Biogeography of Four Grasshopper Genera(Catantopidae:Orthoptera) from the South of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许升全; 郑哲民; 李后魂

    2003-01-01

    在中国南部斑腿蝗科4属昆虫种间系统发育关系及物种地理分布研究的基础上,划分出10个特有分布区.用支序生物地理学软件COMPONENT 2.0,处理了上述蝗虫种间系统发育关系和地理分布资料所组成的数据,以明确各特有分布区的历史生物地理学关系.结果表明,10个特有分布区形成的先后是:云南南部和黄土高原两个分布区,海南岛区,东部山地区,台湾岛区;云贵高原、云南北部和秦巴山区几乎是同时形成的,而华南和江南丘陵区形成最晚.

  8. 中国四川台蚱属一新种记述(直翅目,蚱总科,蚱科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS FORMOSATETTIX TINKHAM FROM SICHUAN, CHINA (ORTHOPTERA, TETRIGOIDEA, TETRIGIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林敏平; 韦仕珍; 邓维安

    2013-01-01

    记述采自四川西昌台蚱属Formosatettix 1新种,黑斑台蚱Formosatettix nigrbnaculata sp.nov..模式标本保存在陕西师范大学动物所标本室.黑斑台蚱,新种Formosatettix nigrimaculatus sp.nov.(图1~3)本种与Formosatettix xianggelila Zheng et Ou,2004和Formosatettix gonggashanensis Zheng,1992相似,主要的区别如下:头顶为1复眼的1.3倍;头顶与颜面隆起组成圆角形;颜面隆起在侧单眼前直,不凹陷;中足股节下缘平直.正模♂,四川西昌(泸山),海拔2 200 m,2011-07-30,邓维安采.副模1♀,同正模.词源:新种种名源自拉丁文nigri(黑色的)和maculatus (斑纹),意指前胸背板肩后具1对黑斑.%A new species of the genus Formosatettix Tinkham,F.nigrimaculatus sp.nov.is described from Lushan,Xichang,Sichuan,China.The new species is similar to F.xianggelila Zheng et Ou,2004 and F.gonggashanensis Zheng,1992 but differs in:vertex 1.3 times width of an eye; vertex and frontal ridge forming obtuse-rounded in profile; frontal costa not concave between lateral ocelli; lower margins of middle femora straight.The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi'an,China.

  9. Ultrastructure of Four Types of Antennal Sensilla in Locusta migratoria manilensis (Insecta, Orthoptera)%东亚飞蝗四种类型的触角感受器超微结构(昆虫纲,直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 张善干; 张龙

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructures of different types of antennal sensilla in Locusta migratoria manilensis were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. There are four types of sensilla on its antenna: namely, sensilla basiconica, sensilla trichodea,sensilla coeloconica and sensilla chaetica. Sensilla basiconica have two subtypes: subtype A has thin cuticular wall perforated by numerous pores and more than 100 dendritic branchings, each of which contains 1~5 microtubules. Subtype B has also thin wall but much fewer(less than 6) dendritic branchings. Sensilla trichodea are single-walled and grooved. There are relatively few pores on the wall. More than 20 dendrites, each of which contains 1~5 microtubules, can be found in the sensillar lumen. Sensilla coeloconica are situated in pits on the antennal surface and divided into two subtypes: subtype A has grooved surface and double sensillar walls perforated by radial pores and 6~7 dendrites. Subtype B contains 4 dendrites with non-grooved, non-porous single wall. Sensilla chaetica have a thick non-porous wall and contain 5 dendrites sent to a terminal pore. The functions of four types of sensilla were discussed that sensilla basiconica and sensilla trichodea are olfactory sensilla; sensilla coeloconica may be respond to chemo-, hygroand thermostimulation and sensilla chaetica are possibly gustatory or mechanoreceptors.%利用扫描电镜和透射电镜观察了东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)不同类型触角感受器的超微结构.在触角上存在4种类型的感受器:锥形感受器、毛形感受器、腔锥形感受器和刺形感受器.锥形感受器分为两个亚型:A亚型壁薄多孔,有100多个树突分枝,每个分枝有l~5个微管;B亚型壁薄,只有少于6个树突分枝.毛形感受器单壁,壁上有沟和小孔,孔数相对较少.对感受器腔中有超过20个的树突,每一树突中含有1~5个微管.腔锥形感受器位于触角表皮凹陷当中,含两个亚型:A亚型双壁,壁上有沟和放射状的孔,6~7个树突.B亚型含4个树突,单壁,壁上无孔无沟.刺形感受器壁厚无孔,有5个树突连接顶端小孔.对感受器的功能讨论认为:锥形和毛形感受器是嗅觉感受器;腔锥形感受器可能感受化学和温湿度刺激;刺形感受器可能是味觉或机械感受器.

  10. A SURVEY OF TETRIGOIDEA FROM EMEISHAN, SICHUAN, CHINA (ORTHOPTERA) WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES%峨眉山地区蚱总科的初步调查及二新种记述(直翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹成全; 郑哲民

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with 20 species of Tetrigoidea from Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China which belong to 12 genera in 4 families, two species of them are described as new species, Scelimena brevispina sp. Nov. And Tetrix latipalpa sp. Nov. The female of Mazarredia arcusihumeralis Zheng, Li and Shi, 2003 is found and described. Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal Universityand College of Chemistry and Life Science, Leshan Teachers College.1 Scelimena brevispina Zheng et Cao, sp. Nov.(Figs 1-3)This new species is allied to Scelimena spicupennis Zheng et Ou, 2003, but differs in: 1) having a triangular obtuse process in the middle of anterior margin of pronotum; 2) lateral lobe spine of pronotum short; 3) anterior margin of pronotum concave in the middle; 4) a pair of parallel short keels between shoulders; 5 ) hind wing reaching the top of hind process; 6) hind tibia black with two light rings in the middle.Length of body: ♂ 11.0 - 11.5 mm, ♀ 15 -16 mm; length of pronotum: ♂ 19. 0 - 19. 5 mm, ♀ 24 -25 mm; length of hind femur: ♂ 7. 0 -7. 2 mm, ♀ 8-9 mm.Holotype ♀, Sichuan, Mt. Emei (29°60'N, 103°48'E; alt. 630 m), 15 Aug. 2010, collected by TONG Ghao. Paratypes: 1 ♂ , 1 ♀ , same data as holotype; 1 ♂ , 1 ♀ , Sichuan, Mt. Emei, alt. 550 -600 m, 10-11 Aug. 2010, coUected by TONG Chao.Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Latin " brev" and " spin".2 Tetrix latipalpa Zheng et Cao, sp. Nov. (Figs 4 -6) This new species is allied to Tetrix brachynota Zhenget Deng, 2005 and Tetrix changckunensis Wang, Wang and Ren, 2005, but differs from both in: 1 ) the frontal ridge concave before eyes in profile; 2) width of vertex 1.66 times of the eye; 3) hind process of pronotum reaching middle of hind femur; 4 ) width of midfemur equal to the width of tegmina. It differs from Tetrix brachynota in: 1) hind wing reaching top of hind process; 2) vertex and frontal ridge forming a ritght angle in profile; 3 ) lower margin of midfemur straight; 4) a triangular process in the middle of hind margin of subgenital plate of female. It differs from Tetrix changchunensis in the hind wing reaching two thirds of hind femur.♀ . Length of body 10 mm; length of pronotum 7. 5 mm; length of hind femur 7 mm.Holotype ♀, Sichuan, Mt. Emei (29°60'N, 103°48'E; alt. 630 m), 16 Aug. 2010, collected by TONG Chao.Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Latin "lati' and "palp".%报道了采自四川峨眉山地区蚱总科20种,分属于4科12属,其中有2新种和1个雌性新发现,即短刺刺翼蚱Scelimena brevispina sp.nov.和宽须蚱Tetrix latipalpa sp.nov.,并有弧肩玛蚱Mazarredia arcusihumeralis Zheng et al雌性新发现.新种的模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所及乐山师范学院化学与生命科学学院.

  11. 云南省西部地区蚱总科四新种记述(直翅目)%Four New Species of Tetrigoidea (Orthoptera) from Western Area in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑哲民; 欧晓红

    2011-01-01

    记述采自云南省西部地区蚱总科4新种,包括刺翼蚱科的盈江羊角蚱Criotettix yingjiangensis,sp.nov.和长背优角蚱Eucriotettix longidorsalis,sp.nov.,短翼蚱科的黑胫玛蚱Mazarredia nigritibia,sp.nov.及腾冲波蚱Bolivaritettix tengchongensis,sp.nov..模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所及西南林业大学标本馆.%Four new species of Tetrigoidea are described: Criotettix yingjiangensis sp. nov., Eucriotettix longidorsalis, sp. nov., Mazarredia nigritibia, sp. nov. and Bolivaritettix tengchongensis, sp. nov.. Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University and the Museum of Southwest Forestry University.1. Criotettix yingjiangensis, sp. nov. (Figs. 1, 2)This new species is allied to Criotettix latifemurus Deng, Zheng et Wei, 2007 and Criotettix ruliensis Zheng et Ou, 2009. It differs from these two species in: 1) hind angle spine of lateral lobe of pronotum short; 2) hind process surpassing the top of hind femur; 3) hind wing reaching knee of hind femur; 4) width of midfemur equal to the width of tegmina; 5) lower outer side of hind femur black. It also differs from C. latifemurus in: 1) anterior margin of vertex straight; 2) length of middle segment of antennae 5 times its width; 3) midkeel of pronotum complete.Length of body: ♂8.0 mm; length of pronotum: ♂9.0 mm; length of hind femur: ♂5.0 mm.Holotype: ♂, Yingjiang, Yunnan Province, 1 321 m, 24°36'N, 97°38'E, 29-Ⅶ-2010, collected by WU Yu-xi.Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the type locality "Yingjiang".2. Eucriotettix longidorsalis, sp. nov. (Figs. 3-5)This new species is allied to Eucriotettix wuliangshanensis Zheng et Ou, 2003, but differs in: 1) width of frontal ridge sulcus equal to the width of basal segment of antenna; 2) hind process of pronotum nearly reaching the top of hind tibia; 3) hindwing not reaching the top of hind process; 4) lower margin of midfemur straight; 5) hind tibia black, with a light ring near the basal part.Length of body: ♀13.0 mm; length of pronotum: ♀18.5 mm; length of hind femur: ♀8.0 mm.Holotype: ♀, Longlin, Yunnan Province, 1 883 m, 24°31'N, 98°51'E, 04-Ⅷ-2010, collected by WU Yu-xi.Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the Greek for"long" and "dorsal".3. Mazarredia nigritibia, sp. nov. (Figs. 6-8)This new species is allied to Mazarredia strictivertex Deng, et al, 2007, but differs in: 1) width of an eye 1.4 times the width of vertex; 2) hind process of pronotum reaching two-thirds of hind tibia; 3) disc of pronotum with few small tubercles; 4) apex of subgenital plate of male not sharp; 5) length of upper valvue of ovipositor 2.6 times its width; 6) hind tibia black.Length of body: ♂7.0 mm, ♀9.0 mm; length of pronotum: ♂11.0 mm, ♀13.0 mm; length of hind femur: ♂4.0 mm, ♀5.0 mm.Holotype: $, Ruili, Yunnan Province, 1 394 m, 24°06'N, 97°50'E, 02-Ⅷ-2010, collected by WU Yu-xi; Paratpype: 1♂, the same data as holotype.Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the Latin "nigri" and "tibia".4. Bolivaritettix tengchongensis, sp. nov. (Figs. 9, 10)This new species is allied to Bolivaritettix luteolineatus Zheng et Ou, 2003, but differs in: 1) antennae inserted lower one-third of anterior margin of eyes; 2) hind process of pronotum reaching basal one-third of hind tibia; 3) length of pronotum 7.3 times the part surpassing the hind femur; 4) lower margin of midfemur straight; 5) disc of pronotum with numerous fine tubercles; 6) the lower outer side of hind femur black; 7) disc of pronotum without a yellow longitudinal stripe.Length of body: ♂7.0-8.0 mm; length of pronotum: ♂10.5-11.0 mm; length of hind femur: ♂5.0-5.5 mm.Holotype: ♂, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, 1 206 m, 24°47'N, 98°18'E, 26-Ⅶ-2010, collected by WU Yu-xi; Paratype: 1♂, the same data as holotype.Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the type locality "Tengchong".

  12. 中国斑腿蝗科二新种记述(直翅目,蝗总科)%DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF CATANTOPIDAE FROM CHINA (ORTHOPTERA, ACRIDOIDEA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅鹏; 郑哲民

    2004-01-01

    记述了中国斑腿蝗科2新种:红股蹦蝗Sinopodisma rufofemoralis sp.nov.(正模♂,副模6♂♂,2♀♀,广西融安元宝山);钝齿卵翅蝗Caryanda obtusidentata sp.nov.(正模♂,副模4♂♂,2♀♀,湖南宜章莽山自然保护区泽子坪).新种的模式标本均保存于湖南师范大学生命科学学院动物标本馆.%Two new species of Catantopidae, namely Caryanda obtusidentata sp. nov. and Sinopodisma rufofemoralis sp.nov. are described in the present paper. The former was collected from the Yuanbao Mountains in Rong'an County of Guangxi Province; the latter from Mangshan Natural Reserve iu Yizhang County of Hunan Province. Type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University.

  13. 中国卵翅蝗属一新种记述(直翅目,蝗总科)%DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CAR YANDA ST(A)L FROM CHINA (ORTHOPTERA, ACRIDOIDEA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽霞; 傅鹏; 郑哲民

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Caryanda Stal of Catantopidae, namely C. quadridenta sp. nov., is described in the present paper. Type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University.%记述了中国斑腿蝗科卵翅蝗属1新种:四齿卵翅蝗C.quadridenta sP.nov..正模♂,副模9♂♂,10♀♀,中国重庆市四面山,海拔900m,2003-08-06,黄建华采.新种模式标本均保存于湖南师范大学生命科学学院动物标本馆.

  14. Composição e Diversidade da Fauna de Grilos (Orthoptera: Grylloidea) em um Fragmento de Floresta Pluvial Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Santos Oliveira; Matheus Mendes; Marcelo Duarte; William Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo foi analisar a fauna de grilídeos, sua relação com diferentes composições vegetais, o nível de serapilheira e os efeitos da sazonalidade. Foram realizadas quatro coletas, nas quatro estações do ano, entre abril de 2008 e março de 2009. Foram coletados 503 grilídeos com armadilhas de solo, em oito pontos de coleta. Os insetos coletados foram identificados os seguintes gêneros Anurogryllus, Anurogryllus, Argizala, Hygronemobius, Nemobius, Odontogryllus e Pteronemobius. Os grilídeos n...

  15. Composição e Diversidade da Fauna de Grilos (Orthoptera: Grylloidea em um Fragmento de Floresta Pluvial Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to analyze the fauna of cricket, its relation with different plant compositions, litter level and seasonality effects. Four collections were performed, in four season of the year, between April 2008 and March 2009. It was collected 503 crickets using soil traps, in eight sampling points. The insects collected were identified as the genera Anurogryllus, Argizala, Hygronemobius, Nemobius, Odontogryllus e Pteronemobius. The crickets have no affinity with uncovered soil, decreasing significantly in more impacted places. The litter level did not affect the abundance and the seasonal changes shown importance in the population variation, however, diversity and dominance showed fidelity to environmental changes even in lower abundance. These results show that crickets may be environmental indicators due to the answers the changes in environment.

  16. Corrigendum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the article "Host-herbivore studies of Stenoscepa sp. (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae), a high-Ni herbivore of the South African Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae)" by Robert S. Boyd, Micheal A.

  17. 基于16S rDNA序列探讨中国剑角蝗科的单系性及其六属的系统发育关系%A phylogenetic analysis of six genera of Acrididae and monophyly of Acrididae in China using 16S rDNA sequences (Orthoptera, Acridoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙正莉; 蒋国芳; 霍光明; 刘殿锋

    2006-01-01

    In Xia's system, the family Acrididae has long been recognized as a natural, monophyletic group, which contain six subfamilies in China. However, there has been much dispute over its monophyly. To investigate its monophyly and phylogenetic relationships among six genera Carsula, Phlaeoba, Mongolotettix, Gelastorhinus, Acrida, and Gonista within this family, we sequenced 450 bp fragments of 16S rRNA gene sequences of 14 recognized species and downloaded the sequences of another grasshopper Acrida turrita and two Tetrigidae species from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood using the Tetrigidae species as outgroup. The monophyly of Acrididae was not supported in all analyses. The phylogenetic trees did not agree with the Chinese traditional classifications, but they just agreed well with Kevan's, which is popular in western countries. This prompt that the Chinese system must be earnestly improved and consummated. However, monophyly of genus Acrida was strongly supported. Leptacrinae was closely related to the species of the Chinese Catantopidae, not to Acrididae. Although gene sequences obtained from Acrida rufipes and Acrida shanghaica were identical, we could not conclude that they are the same species [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52 (2): 302 - 308, 2006].%在中国学者夏凯龄的分类系统中,剑角蝗科Acrididae一直被看作是单系群,包含6个亚科.但是,近年来的研究对其单系性争议较大.为探讨其单系性和剑角蝗属等6属的系统发育关系,我们测定了剑角蝗科14种蝗虫的16S rRNA基因部分序列,并从GenBank中下载了1种蝗虫的同源序列.以蚱科的2个种作外群,用NJ、MP及ML法重建系统发生树.由三棵分子系统树中得出的系统发生关系与中国的分类系统差别较大,都不支持剑角蝗科是单系群,但与国外Kevan的系统相一致,提示我们国内的分类系统亟待修改和完善.长腹蝗亚科与斑腿蝗科的亲缘关系要近于与剑角蝗科的其他种类的关系.另外,尽管所测的红足剑角蝗和上海剑角蝗的16S rDNA的片段序列完全相同,我们仍不能断定二者是同一个物种[动物学报52(2):302-308,2006].

  18. 基于 cox1基因全序列的癞蝗科部分类群系统发育关系分析%Molecular Phylogeny of Pamphagidae (Acridoidea, Orthoptera) from China Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase l Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫卫; 郝金凤; 赵晓雅; 温翠娇; 张道川

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Pamphagidae were examined using cy-tochrome oxidase subunit l (cox1) gene sequences. Eleven species of Pamphagidae from 7 genera were sequenced to obtain mtDNA data, along with 2 species from the GenBank nucleotide database. The results of sequence comparisons showed the cox1 gene is 1 534 bp in length, including 326 varible sites and 211 parsimonious information sites. The percentage of A+T is 67.1% in the nucleotide sequences, showing a strong AT bias. Genetic distances among subfamilies are 0.08. Using Locusta migratoria as outgroup, the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with NJ, MP, ML and Bayesian inferences, and the results showed that the clustering results were approximately identical to that of classical morphological classification. Thrinchinae and Pamphaginae were a monophyletic group, respectively. Two species of the genus Asiotmethis of Prionotropisinae did not get together with other species of Prionotropisinae, classification position of Asiotmethis should be further discussed by both genetic markers and morphological features. The current genus Filchnerel a of Prionotropisinae was not a monophyletic group.%该研究测定了我国癞蝗科7属11种昆虫细胞色素氧化酶 I(cox1)基因全序列,并联系从 GenBank下载的贺兰短鼻蝗、红缘疙蝗的 cox1基因全序列进行序列分析,结果表明,除宽纹蠢蝗外 cox1基因全序列均为1534 bp,其中有326个变异位点,211个简约信息位点;A+T平均含量为67.1%,碱基组成具有AT偏斜;遗传距离分析发现,遗传距离0.08可以将癞蝗科很好的分为4个组。以飞蝗为外群,用 NJ、MP、ML和贝叶斯法重建了癞蝗科的系统发育树,结果显示,锯癞蝗亚科的短鼻蝗属、突鼻蝗属、疙蝗属和贝蝗属4属8种蝗虫聚为一支,但短鼻蝗属的单系性未得到支持,癞蝗亚科的2种笨蝗聚为一支,蠢蝗亚科的宽纹蠢蝗为一支,与形态分类学将我国癞蝗科分为3个亚科的结果一致。锯癞蝗亚科的2种波腿蝗组成一支,没有和锯癞蝗亚科的其他种类聚在一起,波腿蝗属的分类地位有待进一步研究。

  19. Cladistic Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationships among 11 Genera of Family Oedipodidae from China (Orthoptera:Acridodiea)%中国斑翅蝗科(直翅目:蝗总科)11属的系统发育关系支序分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文强; 印红

    2004-01-01

    在比较形态学研究的基础上,本文选择了25个性状,利用Hennig86程序包,以支序分析探讨了中国斑翅蝗科11属昆虫间的系统发育关系.结果表明:斑翅蝗科11属昆虫可分为3支:由小车蝗属(11)与车蝗属(4)和飞蝗属(5)这一对姐妹群组成第1支,相互间关系不明确的尖翅蝗属(9)和绿纹蝗属(10)组成第2支,剩余的赤翅蝗属(12)、束颈蝗属(14)、疣蝗属(13)、异痂蝗属(6)、痂蝗属(7)及皱膝蝗属(8) 6属构成第3支,其中痂蝗属与皱膝蝗属为1对姐妹群,它俩的最近共同祖先与异痂蝗属构成姐妹群关系,然后依次与疣蝗属、束颈蝗属、赤翅蝗属分别构成关系上渐远的单系群.它们的亲缘关系可表示为:((11(4,5))(9 ,10(12(14(13(6(7,8))))))).

  20. Cladistic Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationships among the Species of Oedaleus (Orthoptera:Oedipodidae)%小车蝗属Oedaleus Fieber昆虫的种间系统发育关系支序分析(直翅目:斑翅蝗科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉振民; 胡玉琴; 乔永民

    2000-01-01

    在已有比较形态学研究的基础上,本文选择了19个性状,利用PAUP程序,以支序分析探讨了小车蝗属昆虫的种间系统发育关系.结果红胫小车蝗(1)与黄胫小车蝗(2)的亲缘关系很近,是1对姐妹群,亚洲小车蝗(3)、黑条小车蝗(4)、红翅小车蝗(5)、隆叉小车蝗(6)这4个种之间的相互关系比较近,它们的亲缘关系可表示为:(((3,6)4)5),而台湾小车蝗(7)与其它种类的亲缘关系均较远.

  1. 贵州冷水河自然保护区赫蚱属一新种(直翅目:蚱总科:刺翼蚱科)%A new species in the genus Hebarditettix (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea: Scelimenidae) from the Lengshuihe Nature Preserve, Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查岭生; 于凤明; 文庭池; Kevin D.HYDE

    2016-01-01

    在对采自贵州冷水河自然保护区的昆虫标本鉴定过程中,发现赫蚱属1新种:深谷赫蚱Hebarditettix vallis Zha&Wen sp.nov.,在此予以描述并附插图.该新种近似于尖刺赫蚱H.armatus (Hancock),主要区别:1)触角明显着生于复眼下缘之下,最长一节长度仅为宽的6倍;2)肩部之间的短纵隆线不明显;3)前足股节下缘具2小齿,中足股节和前翅可见部分等宽;4)背板后突短,仅到达后足胫节的2/5.文中给出了该属已知种类的检索表.

  2. A REVIEW OF THE GENUS EUPARATETTIX HANCOCK (ORTHOPTERA,TETRIGIDAE) FROM CHINA WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES%中国悠背蚱属的分类研究及二新种记述(直翅目,蚱科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑哲民; 曾慧花; 欧晓红

    2011-01-01

    The genus Euparatettix Hancock, 1904 from China is reviewed, with fifty six species recorded,including two new species: Euparatettix zayuensis sp.nov. and Euparatettix jinghongensis sp. nov. A key to Chinese species of Euparatettix is given. Type specimens are kept in the Institute of Zoology, Sbaanxi Normal University.Euparatettix zayuensis sp. nov. ( Figs 1 - 3 )This new species is allied to Euparatettix brachyptera Zheng et Mao, 2002 and Euparatettix rongshuiensis Zheng, 2005. It differs from species the former in: l )hind process reaching knee of hind femur; 2 ) top of hind process sharp; 3 ) hind tibia brown. It differs from the latter species in: 1 ) anterior margin of vertex slighfly protruding before eyes; 2) vertex and frontal ridge forming an obtuse angular in profile; 3 ) lower outer side of hind femur not black.♀ length of body 10. 0 - 10. 2 mm, length of pronotum 8.0 - 8. 4 mm, length of hind femur 5.5 -6. 0 mm.Holotype ♀, Xizang, Zayu (97°5'N, 28°8'E),5 July 2005, collected by SHI Al-Min. Paratype 1 ♀,same data as holotype.Etymology. The specific name is derived from the type locality “Zayu”.Euparatettix jinghongensis sp. nov. ( Figs 4 - 5 )This new species is allied to Euparatettix planipedonoides Zheng et Jiang, 2003, but differs in: 1 )vertex and frontal ridge forming a round shape in profile; 2 ) frontal ridge not concave before lateral ocular; 3 ) hind process reaching middle of hind tibia;4) humeral angle obtuse angular; 5 ) width of midfemur 1.3 times of elytra; 6 ) in the lateral parts of pronotum with two triangular black specks.♂ length of body 7. 0 - 7.2 mm, length of pronotum 8.0 -8.4 mm, length of hind femur 4. 0 -4. 5 mm.Holotype ♂ , Yunnan, Jinghong ( 100° 9' N,22°E), 20 July 2005, collected by NIU Yao.Paratypes 2 ♂♂ , same data as holotype.Etymology. The specific name is derived from the type locality “Jinghong”.%记述中国悠背蚱属56种,内有2新种,即察隅悠背蚱Euparatettix zayuensis sp.nov.及景洪悠背蚱Euparatettix jinghongensis sp.nov..附有中国悠背蚱属分种检索表和分布.模式标本保存于陕西师范大学动物研究所.

  3. A taxonomic study of the genus Tuarega Uvarov, 1943 with descriptions of two new species from Sahara (Orthoptera: Acridoidea, Pamphagidae, Prionotropisinae)%土尔蝗属分类研究及撒哈拉地区二新种记述(直翅目:蝗总科:癞蝗科:锯癞蝗亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印象初; 李新江

    2011-01-01

    本文对土尔蝗属Tuarega Uvarov,1943进行了分类研究,记述了撒哈拉地区2新种--撒哈拉土尔蝗Tuarega sahara sp.nov.和巴氏土尔蝗Tuarega parisi sp.nov.,并编制了该属3个已知种的检索表.新种模式标本保存于西班牙国立自然博物馆(Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales).%This paper deals with a taxonomic study of the genus Tuarega Uvarov, 1943, with 2 new species, namely Tuarega sahara sp.nov.and Tuarega parisi sp.nov., from Sahara described.T.sahara sp.nov.is similar to T.insignis ( Lucas, 1851 ), but it differs from the latter in four characters: the widest width of pronotum longer than length of metazona, median vein of tegmen not combined with cubital vein, radius vein of tegmen with 5 branches, cubital vein of tegmen with 2 branches.T.parisi sp.nov.is similar to T.insignis, but it differs from the latter in four characters: the widest width of pronotum longer than length of metazona, median vein of tegmen not combined with cubital vein, median vein of tegmen with 2 branches, eubital vein of tegmen with 2 branches.It is also similar to T.sahara sp.nov., but it differs from the latter by radius vein of tegmen with 7 branches and median vein of tegmen with 2 branches.A key to all known species of Tuarega is given.The type speeimens are deposited in the Spanish National Museum of Natural Sciences ( Museo Nacional de Cieneias Naturales, MNCN).

  4. Relationship between the spatial pattern of nymph and adult abundance of Oedaleus asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and topography in the alpine grassland in the upper reaches of Heihe River analyzed with the GAM model%黑河上游天然草地亚洲小车蝗蝗蝻与成虫多度分布与地形关系的GAM分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军霞; 赵成章; 殷翠琴; 李丽丽; 侯兆疆; 张静

    2012-01-01

    环境异质性是生物空间格局形成与维持的重要条件,蝗虫的空间分布是物种长期适应自然环境的结果,反映了蝗虫与生存环境的协同进化机制.在2009年7-8月野外调查的基础上,借助GIS和S-PLUS 8.0软件,利用广义相加模型(GAM)研究了祁连山北坡黑河上游亚洲小车蝗Oedaleus asiaticus蝗蝻与成虫多度分布与海拔、坡向、坡度和剖面曲率等6类地形因子之间的关系.结果表明:亚洲小车蝗蝗蝻与成虫的多度分布与地形因子关系的GAM模型具有不同的模型结构、模拟效果以及结果的稳定性,能够较好地体现二者所受地形因子影响的差异.各地形因子对亚洲小车蝗蝗蝻与成虫多度的影响不尽相同,海拔对二者的多度分布起主导控制作用,蝗蝻与成虫的多度均随海拔的升高大体呈现倒“V”型变化趋势,但蝗蝻在海拔梯度上的分布上限明显大于成虫.成虫主要集中分布在剖面曲率<0的区域,蝗蝻主要集中分布在南坡与西南坡.亚洲小车蝗蝗蝻与成虫对环境选择的异质性属性,使蝗蝻和成虫在相同地形要素的分布格局存在明显差异.%The environmental heterogeneity is an important mechanism underlying the formation and maintenance of bio-geographic pattern. The spatial pattern of grasshopper species is the result of long-term adaptation in nature, reflecting the co-evolution mechanisms with which grasshoppers adapt to the habitats. Through field survey from July to August, 2009, by using the GIS and S-PLUS 8. 0, we developed the GAM model for the relationship between nymph and adult adundance of Oedaleus asiaticus and topographic indices in the upper reaches of Heihe River on the northern slope of the Qilian Mountains. The topographic indices included elevation, direction, slope, position, profile and plane. The results showed that the structure and D2 values of models were different for 0. asiaticus nymphs and adults, so was the model stability in modeling, indicating their differences in response to the gradients of topographic indices. The gradient analysis in this model showed that the locust nymphs and adults were distributed in a wide range of environments, in different gradients of elevation, direction, slope, position, profile and plane, and in all land positions. However, it does not mean that the distribution of locust nymphs and adults is equally affected by each factor, or has a uniform distribution probability in the whole environmental range. The GAM modeling indicated that the distribution of locust nymphs and adults were mainly controlled by the elevation. With the elevation increasing, the abundance of locust nymphs and adults showed an upside-down "V" trend, but the upper limit of elevation for distribution of the locust nymphs was higher than that of adults. Adults had higher abundance in the whole regions, but they were mainly located in the region where the profile is less than 0, while the nymphs mainly concentrated in the south and southwest slopes, which was consistent with the actual observation results. The heterogeneity of 0. asiaticus in selecting habitats made the spatial pattern of locust nymphs and adults in the same terrain obviously different.

  5. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) density on natural grasslands in upper reaches of Heihe River, Northwest China in relation with topography: An analysis with generalized additive models (GAM)%黑河上游天然草地蝗虫密度与地形关系的GAM分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽丽; 赵成章; 殷翠琴; 王大为; 张军霞

    2012-01-01

    The environmental heterogeneity caused by topographical diversity is an important mechanism of the formation and maintenance of bio-geographic spatial distribution pattern at mi-cro-scale, and also, the prerequisite for the difference in the distribution of species richness. With the help of GIS and S-Plus, the GAM model was used to study the topographic indices af-fecting the distribution of grasshopper on the natural grasslands in the upper reaches of Heihe River on the northern slope of Qilian Mountains from July to August 2009, and the relationship between the regional grasshopper number and terrain complexity was also studied, based on the quantitative analysis of the topographic variation characteristics. The topographical factors affect-ing the grasshopper density were in the order of aspect > elevation > slope > position > plane cur-vature > profile curvature. The distribution of grasshopper was almost balanced at different gradi-ents of position, plane curvature, and profile curvature, and presented a quadratic parabola dis-tribution at different gradients of aspect and slope and an "S" distribution at different gradients of evaluation. There was a higher grasshopper density in the whole region, but the grasshopper was mainly distributed in the region with an altitude of 2550-2650 m, and concentrated in the north-west and west aspect, which was consistent with the actual observation. The relationships be-tween the grasshopper density and terrain factors and the distribution of the grasshopper indicated that the redistribution of water and heat conditions due to topographic factors caused the diversifi- cation and fragmentation of the distribution pattern of the grasshopper.%地形差异性导致的环境异质性是小尺度范围内生物空间格局形成与维持的重要机制之一,也是导致物种密度分布差异的前提条件.借助GIS和S-Plus软件,利用广义可加模型(GAM)于2009年7-8月对影响蝗虫分布的地形因子进行了研究,在定量分析黑河上游祁连山区北坡地形特征的基础上,研究了该区域蝗虫密度与地形之间的关系.结果表明:蝗虫密度受地形因子影响的顺序为坡向>海拔>坡度>坡位>平面曲率>剖面曲率;蝗虫密度在坡位、平面曲率以及剖面曲率各个梯度上的分布比较均衡,在坡向和坡度梯度上呈二次抛物线分布,在海拔梯度上呈“S”曲线分布;从分布区域上来看,蝗虫主要分布在海拔2550~2650 m区域,坡向上则主要集中在西北坡和西坡,与实际观测情况一致.蝗虫密度与地形因子之间的相互关系及其分布状态反映了地形特征对水热等条件的影响,使蝗虫分布格局呈现多元化和以及破碎化状态.

  6. Species richness of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae ) on natural grasslands in relation with topography in the upper reaches of Heihe River, western China analyzed with generalized additive models (GAMs)%黑河上游天然草地蝗虫物种丰富度与地形关系的GAM分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽丽; 赵成章; 殷翠琴; 王大为; 张军霞

    2011-01-01

    The environmental heterogeneity caused by topographical diversity is an important mechanism underlying the formation and maintenance of bio-geographic pattern of diversity distribution at the micro-scale , and the prerequisite for the difference in species richness. With the help of GIS and S-Plus, the GAM model was used to study topographic indexes influencing the distribution of grasshopper from July to August, and the relationship between the regional locust richness and terrain complexity was also studied based on the quantitative analysis of topographic variation characteristics of the upper reaches of the Heihe River on the northern slope of the Qilian Mountains. The results showed that in total 13 species (including 3 149 individuals) belonging to 3 families and 10 genera were collected in 36 samples. The order that the richness of grasshopper was influenced by topographical factors was elevation > slope > aspect > profile > plane > position. Grasshopper distribution was almost balanced in the plane of curvature and the gradient profile curvature, and presented a two parabola distribution in elevation, slope and the whole position of slope gradient, showing a decreasing trend. On the regional distribution, there were higher richness of grasshoppers in the whole regions, but they were mainly located in the region with altitudes of 2 600 - 2 700 m, and mainly concentrated in the northwest and west slopes, which was consistent with actual observation. The relationship between grasshopper richness and terrain factors as well as the grasshopper distribution indicates that the redistribution of water and heat conditions due to topographical factors caused the diversification and fragmentation of grasshopper distribution patterns.%地形差异性导致的环境异质性为小尺度范围内生物空间格局的形成与维持提供了一种重要机制,是形成物种丰富度差异性的前提条件.借助GIS和S-PLUS软件,利用广义可加模型(GAM)于7-8月对影响蝗虫分布的地形因子进行了研究,在定量分析黑河上游祁连山区北坡地形的海拔分异特征的基础上研究了该区域蝗虫的丰富度与地形复杂度的关系.结果表明:在36个样方中共采集蝗虫3 149头,隶属于3科10属13种;蝗虫丰富度受地形[因子影响的顺序为海拔>坡向>坡度>剖面曲率>平面曲率>坡位;蝗虫的分布在平面曲率和剖面曲率各个梯度上的分布比较均衡,在海拔、坡向以及坡位的每个梯度上呈二次抛物线分布,坡度上呈递减趋势;从分布的区域上来看,蝗虫在整个区域都有较高的丰富度,但主要分布在海拔2 600~2 700 m区域,坡向上则主要集中在西北坡和西坡,与实际观测情况相一致.蝗虫丰富度与地形因子之间的相互关系以及分布状态,反映了地形因子对水热条件的重分配使蝗虫分布格局出现多元化以及破碎化.

  7. 长颚斗蟋长翅和短翅型雌成虫飞行肌发育、生殖力及寿命的比较%Comparison of flight muscle development, fecundity and longevity between long-winged and short-winged female adults of Velarifictorus asperses (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杨; 朱道弘; 赵吕权

    2012-01-01

    To understand the ecological significance of wing dimorphism in a cricket species, Velarifictorus asperses ( Walker) , the development of flight muscles and ovary, fecundity and longevity in long-winged ( LW) and short-winged ( SW) female adults of this cricket bred in the laboratory were compared. On the day of emergence, LW females had better-developed flight muscles than SW females, and the weight of their flight muscles was 38. 68 ±9. 15 mg and 17. 53 ±4. 44 mg, respectively. No significant difference was observed in ovary mass between LW and SW females ( P > 0.05 ) , and the weight of them was 4.69 ± 1.04 mg and 4.88 ±0.97 mg, respectively. Within 8 days after emergence, the weight of the LW females' flight muscles increased 48. 9% , while the weight of the SW females' ovaries increased up to 93.5 ± 11.7 mg, which was about 4.5 times higher than that of the LW females. The SW females were observed to reproduce earlier and had higher total number of eggs laid than the LW females, but the significant difference in number of eggs laid was only found in early adulthood ( P 0.05 ). In addition, some LW females had their flight muscles histolyzed from day 12 after emergence, and the ovaries developed faster than the LW females with fully-developed flight muscles. These results suggest that a physiological trade-off between the development of flight muscles and reproductive organs existed in female V. Asperses, which may cause a differentiation of life history strategy among LW and SW females,that is to say, the LW females are able to fly and the SW females benefit more in reproduction, and the histolysis of flight muscles might be a physiological signal for LW females to switch from fly to reproductive development.%为探讨长颚斗蟋Velarifictorus asperses( Walker)翅型分化的生态学意义,对室内饲养获得的长翅和短翅型雌成虫飞行肌和卵巢的发育,以及长、短翅型雌成虫的生殖力和寿命进行了比较研究.结果表明:羽化当日,长翅型雌成虫飞行肌重38.68 ±9.15 mg,显著高于短翅型的17.53 ±4.44 mg (P <0.05);而二者卵巢重量无显著差异(P>0.05),分别为4.69±1.04 mg和4.88 ±0.97 mg.羽化后8d内,长翅型雌成虫飞行肌重量增加了48.9%,短翅型雌成虫 飞行肌重量无明显增加;而短翅型雌成虫卵巢的重量增加至93.5±11.7 mg,约为长翅型雌成虫的4.5倍.短翅型雌成虫的产卵前期显著短于长翅型,其早期产卵量及总产卵量亦显著高于长翅型;而两翅型雌成虫中后期产卵量及寿命无显著差异(P>0.05).此外,长翅型雌成虫在羽化后12 d开始发生飞行肌的降解,飞行肌降解个体的卵巢重量显著高于未降解个体,与短翅型相似.结果提示,飞行肌与生殖系统的发育之间存在资源分配的权衡关系(trade-off),且这种资源分配的差异可能会导致长翅型与短翅型个体在生活史策略上出现分化,即长翅型个体具有飞行能力,而短翅型个体则在生殖方面获得更高的收益,且飞行肌的降解可能是长翅型个体由飞行转向生殖发育的生理信号.

  8. 臭腹腺蝗(直翅目:锥头蝗科)消化道对食物储存、消化和吸收相适应的显微结构%Microstructural adaptation of Zonocerus variegates (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) gut for food storage,digestion and absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bassey E. AKPAN; Tony G. OKORIE

    2005-01-01

    显微观察发现臭腹腺蝗Zonocerus variegatrs(直翅目:锥头蝗科)嗉囊、中肠和后肠的肠壁结构有所不同.嗉囊为空时纵向折叠.中肠上皮层的厚度随龄期有明显变化,1龄和2龄时明显大于3龄、4龄和5龄.后肠具有帮助消化和吸收的功能.%Micromorphological examination of the gut wall of Zonocerus variegatus has shown variations in the wall structure of the crop, midgut and hindgut. The crop is folded longitudinally when empty. It is lined luminally by a cuticular layer. Behind this layer there are small polyhedral cells made into clusters by the longitudinal fold. Three to five fat bundles of striated muscles surround the crop. The midgut which consists of anterior gastric caeca, posterior gastric caeca and ventriculus is cuticle free. Its epithelium is of columnar cells with brush borders. The midgut cells were classified into regenerative, young, resting, extruding and erupting cells depending on the characteristics of their nuclei. The resting cells were the most abundant (42.59 % ). Anterior gastric caeca, posterior gastric caeca and ventriculus had similar cells. There was a significant difference in the thickness of the epithelia of the six nymphal stages (P < 0.05), being thinner at first and second instar nymphs than third, fourth and fifth. The mean thickness of epithelia of sixth instar nymphs observed at 2 day intervals were the same. The hindgut has cuticular layer too,but the underlying epithelium is of columnar cells. The hindgut cells are therefore presumed to help in digestion and absorption of food. Storage, digestive and absorptive functions performed in the pre-hindgut region are suggested to be summarised by the hindgut activities.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of five subfamilies of the Acrididae(Orthoptera:Acridoidea) based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences%基于线粒体基因Cytb和COI的蝗科中五亚科分子系统发育关系分析(直翅目:蝗总科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乃馨; 封霞; 蒋国芳; 方宁; 轩文娟

    2008-01-01

    The homologus sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes were sequenced in 17 species representing five subfamilies (belonging to family Acrididae):Melanoplinae,Catantopinae, Cyrtacanthacridinae,Oedipedinae and Gomphocerinae from China.The concatenated sequence from both genes was 1 998 bp in length,consisting of 1 266 bp and 732 bp for COI and Cytb respectively.In the concatenated sequence, A + T content was about 72.13%,and C + G only 27.87%.There are 889 sites conserved,1 109 sites were variable,and 838 sites were parsimony-informative in the variable sites.Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with maximum parsimony,neighbor-joining,and maximum likelihood using Erianthus versicolor and Erianthus sp.of the Eumastacoidea as outgroups.Our results showed that the monophyly of the subfamilies Gomphocerinae and Catantopinae were not supported here.The phylogenetic trees did not entirely agree with the international taxonomic system of grasshoppers.The subfamily Oedipodinae clustered as one clade,which was supported as a monophyletic group.Based on the close relationships among four subfamilies,Gomphocerinae,Catantopinae,Cyrtacanthacridinae and Melanoplinae,we suggest that the four subfamilies should be considered to merge into one subfamily.Simultaneously,we found it was not very dependable to infer the phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies within the Acrididae based on the concatenated sequence from Cytb and COI genes.%本研究基于Cytb基因和COI基因的部分序列来推断17种蝗虫之间的系统发育关系.这17种蝗虫均采自国内,代表了蝗科(Acrididae)5个亚科:黑蝗亚科(Melanoplinae)、斑腿蝗亚科(Catantopinae)、刺胸蝗亚科(Cyrtacanthacridinae)、斑翅蝗亚科(Oedipodinae)和大足蝗亚科(Gomphocerinae).采用联合序列方法进行分析,结果显示:Cytb和COI联合序列长度为1 998 bp,其中A和T总含量为72.13%,G和C总含量为27.87%.联合序列共包含了889个保守位点,1 109个变异位点,在这些变异位点中有838个简约信息位点.系统发生树采用邻接法(NJ)、最大简约法(MP)和最大似然法(ML)进行构建.使用蜢总科的变色乌蜢Erianthus versicolor和Erianthus sp.两个种作为外群.结果表明:大足蝗亚科和斑腿蝗亚科的单系性没有得到支持.斑翅蝗亚科内部各种聚成一个大支,在本研究中该亚科的单系性得到支持,与前人的研究结论相同.大足蝗亚科、斑腿蝗亚科、刺胸蝗亚科和黑蝗亚科这4科关系非常近,可以考虑将其合并为一个亚科.同时,我们发现基于Cytb和COI基因联合序列推断蝗科内各亚科间的系统发生关系并不十分可靠.

  10. 臭腹腺蝗(直翅目: 锥头蝗科)中肠内营养物-水分的流动和吸收%Nutrient-water fluxes and uptake along the midgut of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Circulation of water and nutrients in the midgut of Zonocerus variegatus was studied to determine the flux pattern and its possible implication in the adaptation of the insect to hydrogen cyanide. Histological sections of midgut cells were observed. Gradients of K+, Na+ and protein along midgut were determined. The permeability of midgut segments to K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and methyl blue was observed. The midgut (ventriculus and gastric caeca) was histologically similar, and made of columnar cells with striated borders. The nutrients varied in concentration in the different midgut segments. The substances tested for permeability passed through the midgut segments. It was concluded that the entire midgut was involved in food and water absorption. There was no counter flow of fluids from the posterior midgut as in most orthopterans. One-way movement of the gut contents prevents accumulation of toxic substances to injurious levels, enabling the insect to favourably tolerate hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves.%对臭腹腺蝗Zonocerus variegatus中肠内水分和营养物的流动和吸收进行了研究,以期确定其流动模式及在该虫对氰化氢适应方面的意义.对中肠细胞进行了组织切片观察;测定了K+, Na+和蛋白质沿中肠的浓度梯度,并观察了中肠对K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+和甲基蓝的通透性.结果表明,中肠(胃和胃盲囊)组织上结构相似,均由具有纹状边缘的柱状细胞构成.营养物质在中肠不同部分的浓度不同.测试物在整个中肠中流动,中肠各段均参与了食物和水分的吸收.臭腹腺蝗肠内没有像大多数直翅目昆虫那样自后肠的液流逆向流动.肠溶物的单向流动可以防止有毒物质的积累,使臭腹腺蝗成功耐受木薯叶中的氰化氢.

  11. Double trouble for grasshopper molecular systematics: intra-individual heterogeneity of both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences in Hesperotettix viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesperotettix viridis grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae:Melanoplinae) exhibit intra-individual variation in both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences. These findings violate core assumptions underlying DNA sequence data obtained via pol...

  12. Orthopterological notes I : On the Lesini of the Leiden Museum (Tettigoniidae, Copiphorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.

    1942-01-01

    When rearranging a part of the collections of Orthoptera in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden I found a number of specimens belonging to this tribus, which by former authors is considered as a separate subfamily with the name Eumegalodontinae (Kirby, 1906, p. 289; Caudell, 1927, p.

  13. Catalog of insect type specimens preserved at the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science with corrections of some specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Qin; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Dong, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2015-09-18

    This article presents a list of insect types preserved in Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology (KNHMZ). As of March, 2015, 3 412 type specimens belonging to 266 species/subspecies of 37 families in 9 orders (Odonata, Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) are included. Information corrections of some specimens are provided in this article. PMID:26452692

  14. Dynamic Pattern Formation for Wings of Pterygota in an Eclosion ---Pattern Analysis for Wings with the Imago---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, M.; Kakazu, Y.

    The vein and cell patterns for the fore and hind wing of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Odonata are analyzed and discussed. For vein patterns of them, the fractal properties are shown and the inequality between four orders is obtained. The nature of wings observed by mass distributions for fractal dimensions of the vein pattern is presented.

  15. Characterization of a new iridovirus isolated from crickets and investigations on the host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies; Tidona; Darai

    1999-01-01

    Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9878293

  16. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Heller

    Full Text Available Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string and mirror ( =  soundbox.

  17. [Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Landero-Torres, Ivonne; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Pino, José M M

    2008-03-01

    Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico. During two and a half years (2003-2005) we recorded the insect species used as food at Zongolica, Veracruz State, Mexico. Interviews were made among people (200) of this municipality to know which insects they consumed. The total of registered species was 57 (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera). The Orthoptera was the most frequently ingested. Twenty-four of these species were new records for edible insects of Mexico. They are eaten in immature stages or as adults, generally only roasted. Consumption is seasonal. Some species are commercialized in the "tianguis" (little town markets) and/or in the larger Zongolica market. There is a "protoculture" of three species, one cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae Fabricius) and two moths (Latebraria amphipyroides Guenée and Arsenura armida armida Cramer). In Zongolica, anthropoentomophagy is an ancestral habit.

  18. Aspectos biológicos de Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometriadae) provenientes de lagartas criadas em folhas de Eucalyptus cloeziana ou de Psidium guajava sob condições de campo Biological aspects of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometridae) adults originated from caterpillars reared on leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana or Psidium guajava under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Mathias Holtz; José Cola Zanuncio; Hamilton Gomes de Oliveira; Angelo Pallini; Jeanne Scardini Marinho; Claudinei Lima Oliveira; Tobias Baruc Moreira Pinon

    2003-01-01

    Os plantios de Eucalyptus no Brasil podem sofrer danos por espécies nativas de insetos de diversas ordens, como Orthoptera, Coleoptera e Lepidoptera. Esses insetos podem alimentar-se tanto de mirtáceas brasileiras como goiabeira, gabirobeira, jabuticabeira, entre outras, como de espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Entre os desfolhadores, destaca-se Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) como o mais daninho dessa ordem para a eucaliptocultura brasileira. Este trabalho teve por objet...

  19. Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Liu; Lifang Ruan; Donghai Peng; Lin Li; Ming Sun; Ziniu Yu

    2014-01-01

    Thuringiensin (Thu), also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied ...

  20. Complementarity effects through dietary mixing enhance the performance of a generalist insect herbivore

    OpenAIRE

    Unsicker, Sybille B; Oswald, Anett; Köhler, Günter; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2008-01-01

    The ontogenetic niche concept predicts that resource use depends on an organism’s developmental stage. This concept has been investigated primarily in animals that show differing resource use strategies as juveniles and as adults, such as amphibians. We studied resource use and performance in the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) provided with food plant mixtures of either one, three or eight plant species throughout their development. C. parallelus survival and fecun...

  1. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. Singh; J. Chakravorty; R. Varatharajan

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera ...

  2. KERAGAMAN SERANGGA PADA Oryza sativa L. DI KECAMATAN PILANGKENCENG DAN KECAMATAN KARE KABUPATEN MADIUN

    OpenAIRE

    Fadilah, Eni Nur; Primiani, Cicilia Novi

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to identify the insects in rice plants in the district Pilangkenceng and Kare Madiun. Research method using qualitative descriptive and in accordance with what is on the field. Data were collected by observation. Insects captured in two ways: directly and using flay arrest of the net. The results showed that the insects found in rice plant in the district of Pilangkenceng order Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. Insects found in...

  3. Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Williams, Caroline M.; Staples, James F.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is accompanied by a progressive drift of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut, but the physiological mechanisms underlying recovery from chill-coma are not unders...

  4. A secondary copulatory structure in a female insect: a clasp for a nuptial meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    2002-03-01

    Secondary copulatory structures are well-known in male dragonflies and spiders. Here I report a secondary copulatory organ in female ground weta, Hemiandrus pallitarsis (Ensifera, Orthoptera - crickets and allies). The organ, located on the underside of the abdomen, appears to secure the male's genitalia during the transfer of a spermatophylax nuptial meal to this location, an area quite separate from the female's primary copulatory structures, where the sperm ampulla is attached.

  5. Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumba lennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Perez-Miles; Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo; Laura Miglio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca , preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 ( Orthoptera ). We describe and illustrate Bumba lennoni , a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combina...

  6. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Sampat; Chakravorty Jharna; Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 spec...

  7. Salida de campo a Ribera del Cubo (o Torre Duero, en Torrecilla de Abadesa, Valladolid) el 21 y 22 de junio de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Ribera del Cubo (seguramente, sinónimo de Torre Duero, que se halla en la localidad de Torrecilla de Abadesa, Valladolid) los días 21 y 22 de junio de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre insectos de la familia Acrididae (orden Orthoptera), los siguientes peces: Barbus sp. (Barbo) y Carassius auratus (Pez rojo), el anfibio Pelophylax esculentus (Rana verde europea, llamada Rana sculenta o R.esculenta ridibunda por el autor), los siguientes reptiles: Lagartos y lag...

  8. Insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City – an urbanized area adjacent to Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Maity

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salt Lake City or Bidhannagar, a part of East Kolkata Wetland, is an advanced township adjacent to Kolkata. A total of 266 insect species of 206 genera under 74 families belonging to the eleven order are reported in this communication. Of them, Lepidoptera shared maximum species (73 species, followed by Odonata (46 species, Diptera (44 species, Coleoptera (42 species, Hemiptera (25 species, Hymenoptera (17 species, Orthoptera (10 species and Blattaria (06 species. The orders Ephemeroptera, Dermaptera and Mantodea shared single species respectively. Present work is the baseline data of insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City, an urbanized area in the vicinity of Kolkata, West Bengal.

  9. Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa (Valladolid) el 27 de octubre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, durante la mañana del 27 de octubre de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes órdenes de insectos: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata y Orthoptera, los siguientes mamíferos: Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Lepus sp. (Liebre), Mustela nivalis (Comadreja) y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), Alauda arvensis (Alondr...

  10. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam

  11. Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumba lennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae

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    Fernando Perez-Miles

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera. We describe and illustrate Bumba lennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established.

  12. Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumbalennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Miles, Fernando; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio; Miglio, Laura Tavares

    2014-01-01

    We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera). We describe and illustrate Bumbalennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established. PMID:25408606

  13. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  14. Biological inventory of anchialine pools in the Pu'uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park and Pu'ukoholā Heiau National Historical Site, Hawaii Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Lori K.; Foote, David; Magnacca, Karl N.; Foltz, Sarah J.; Cutler, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Inventories for major groups of invertebrates were completed at anchialine pool complexes in Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) and Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) on the island of Hawai‘i. Nine pools within two pool complexes were surveyed at PUHO, along with one extensive pool at the terminus of Makeāhua Gulch at PUHE. At both parks, inventories documented previously unreported diversity, with pool complexes at PUHO exhibiting greater species richness for most taxa than the pool at PUHE. Inventories at PUHO recorded five species of molluscs, four species of crustaceans (including the candidate endangered shrimp Metabetaeus lohena), two species of Orthoptera, four species of Odonata (including the candidate endangered damselfly Megalagrion xanthomelas), fourteen species of Diptera, nine taxa of plankton, and thirteen species of ants; inventories at the PUHE pool produced only one species of mollusc, two species of crustacean, at least one species of Orthoptera, four species of Odonata, thirty species of Diptera, five taxa of plankton, and four species of ants. Further survey work may be necessary to document the full diversity of pool fauna, especially in species-rich groups like the Diptera. Inventory data will be used to generate a network wide database of species presence and distribution, and will aid in developing management plans for anchialine pool resources.

  15. Insect Community Niche in the Zhalong Wetland%扎龙湿地的昆虫群落生态位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲; 顾伟; 王利东; 张琛; 丁新华; 孟庆繁

    2012-01-01

    The Zhalong wetland nature reserve (46°40'-47°20'N, 123°59'-124°40'E) , situated in the west of Heilongjiang Province of China, is the largest and the most important Grus japonensis wetland nature reserve in China, providing indispensable livelihood for the red-crowned crane as well as a temporary habitat for the migrating birds in severe danger such as Grus leucogeranus, Ciconia nigra, Cygnus cygnus, Anser albifrons and Ciconia boyciana. In this paper, the niche and competition among species of insect community in different habitat in Zhalong wetland were studied. The results showed that there were obvious niche overlaps and competitions in different species which used the same resources. Space niche breadth index of main groups were similar, the same as time niche breadth index. Niche similarity coefficient of insect community indicated that the difference between each group was not big. Spider groups were important regulators in the Zhalong wetland insect ecological system. But Orthoptera and Coleoptera, Odonata group space niches were not significantly overlapped. Spider groups mainly affected Orthoptera, but hardly affected other groups of predatory. This study indicates that some measures should be implemented in the habitat when the number of Orthoptera individual is very big to maintain a balance relationship between insect groups.%对扎龙湿地昆虫群落的空间和时间生态位以及主要植食性昆虫类群的营养生态位进行调查研究.结果表明:主要昆虫类群空间和时间生态位宽度差异均不大,各昆虫类群间存在程度不同的生态位重叠和种间竞争现象,各主要昆虫类群间生态位相似性比例系数均较大,蜘蛛类群对昆虫群落的调控作用显著;但直翅目昆虫除与蜘蛛类生态位重叠指数较大外,与其他捕食性昆虫均较小,说明直翅目昆虫受捕食性昆虫的影响有限,且在同一营养级内具有较大的竞争优势,在其个体数量较多时仍然

  16. The cytogenetic effects of the aqueous extracts of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Incekara, Umit; Güner, Adem; Aydın, Elanur; Dirican, Ebubekir; Togar, Başak

    2014-04-01

    One of the useful and most commonly cultivated commercially species, migratory locust (Locusta migratoria; Orthoptera), was investigated in light of genotoxic damage potentials. For this aim, we evaluated the genotoxic potentials of water soluble extracts of L. migratoria on cultured human blood cells. The micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange and structural chromosome aberration assays were applied to assess DNA and chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. The extracts were added to the cultures at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg/L. Our results indicated that these extracts did not exhibit genotoxicity at tested concentrations. We conclude that this in vitro approach for biomonitoring genotoxicity assessment is useful for comparing the potential health risks of edible insects. PMID:22872633

  17. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the grasshopper Sinipta dalmani: application of long-PCR to the development of a homologous probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensel, S M; Vilardi, J C; Remis, M I

    2005-12-01

    RFLP analysis of mtDNA in natural populations is a valuable tool for phylogeographic and population genetic studies. The amplification of long DNA fragments using universal primers may contribute to the development of novel homologous probes in species for which no previous genomic information is available. Here we report how we obtained the complete mtDNA genome of Sinipta dalmani (Orthoptera) in 2 fragments (7 and 9 kb) using primers of conserved regions. The specificity of the PCR reactions was ultimately confirmed by several lines of evidence. These fragments were used as a probe for a mtDNA RFLP study in S. dalmani that analyzed the pattern of haplotype distribution and nucleotide diversity within and among chromosomally differentiated natural populations. Our results suggest that the restriction in gene flow detected at the molecular level may explain the chromosome differentiation detected previously and the maintenance of chromosome polymorphism in some areas of S. dalmani geographic distribution.

  18. Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects

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    Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thuringiensin (Thu, also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided.

  19. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B;

    2016-01-01

    , such as fishmeal. With estimated 1.5 to 3 million species, the class of insects harbours the largest species variety in the world including species providing a high protein and sulphur amino acids content, which can be successfully exploited as feed for poultry. The aim of this paper is to review the present state...... of knowledge concerning the use of insect protein in poultry nutrition and the possibilities of mass production of insects for the feed industry. There is no doubt that insects have an enormous potential as a source of nutrients (protein) and active substances (polyunsaturated fatty acids, antimicrobial...... peptides) for poultry. It can be concluded, based on many experimental results, that meals from insects being members of the orders Diptera (black soldier fly, housefly), Coleoptera (mealworms) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locust, crickets and katylids), may be successfully used as feed material...

  20. L-canavanine incorporation into vitellogenin and macromolecular conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, G A; Reichhart, J M; Hoffmann, J A

    1989-08-15

    L-Canavanine is a potentially deleterious arginine antimetabolite whose toxicity is expressed in canavanine-sensitive organisms ranging from viruses to humans. Canavanine, a substrate for arginyl-tRNA synthetase, is incorporated into nascent polypeptide chains in place of arginine. This substitution results in the production of structurally aberrant, canavanyl proteins. Chemical, physical, and immunological studies of native and canavanine-containing vitellogenin obtained from female migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Orthoptera] provide the first experimental evidence that canavanine can disrupt the tertiary and/or quaternary structure that yields the three-dimensional conformation unique to the protein. These findings enhance our understanding of the biochemical basis for canavanine's antimetabolic and potent insecticidal properties. PMID:2760038

  1. A hidden pygmy devil from the Philippines: Arulenus miae sp. nov.-a new species serendipitously discovered in an amateur Facebook post (Tetrigidae: Discotettiginae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skejo, Josip; Caballero, Joy Honezza S

    2016-01-01

    Arulenus miae Skejo & Caballero sp. nov. is described from Buknidon and Davao, Mindanao, the Philippines. The species was serendipitously found in an amateur photo posted in Orthoptera Facebook group by Leif Gabrielsen. Holotype and paratype are deposited in Nederlands Centrum voor Biodiversiteit in Leiden, the Netherlands. Detailed comparison with Arulenus validispinus Stål, 1877 is given. A new diagnosis of the genus and A. validispinus is given. The paper is part of the revision of the subfamily Discotettiginae. This study provides a good example of how social networks can be used as a modern tool of discovering biodiversity if the regulations of the International Code of the Zoological Nomenclature are followed. A brief insight into habitat and ecology of this rainforest and mountainous species is presented. PMID:27395882

  2. [Trophic ecology and predation of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P

    2013-01-01

    The trophic ecology of Nyctalus lasiopterus in the Samara Bend during 2008-2010 has been studied. It has been revealed that the main feeding stations for this species are old ecotonal black poplar stands and willow groves. N. lasiopterus keeps to opportunistic foraging by using easily accessible and properly sized food objects. Having analyzed 129 fecal samples, we singled out 10 categories of food objects belonging to six orders of insects. The representatives of Lepidoptera constitute the major part of the ration. Their abundance rates undergo asynchronous changes relative to each other. Homoptera and Neuroptera are found more rarely in the feces. Orthoptera and Diptera are extremely rare. Besides insects, bird feathers were found in 14 faecal samples of N. lasiopterus. They made up from 60 to 90% of the total fecal mass.

  3. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  4. Ressources alimentaires non conventionnelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse, F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional Food Resources. Concepts of ethnobotany, ethnozoology and ethnoecology are defined and their respective development recounted. The geographic frame is afterwards specified: Tropical Africa. Diversity of wild edible vegetable products is illustrated by some examples: cyanobacteria from Chad, mushroom consumption in the Zambezian region and pteridophagy. Upper plants are approached according to six ensembles, namely starchy fruits and seeds, oilseeds and nuts, fleshy fruits, reserve organs, flowers and vegetable species. After recalling the diversity of insects eating at world scale, four orders are briefly presented: coleoptera, isoptera (termites, lepidoptera (mainly caterpillars or campeophagy and orthoptera. Finally the nutritional input of unconventional foods is underlined as well as the urgent need of their further studies.

  5. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  6. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

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    O.T. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera sp. and Mantis sp. were also collected. Overall, 39 species of insects hitherto known only from other states, were recorded for the first time from Arunachal Pradesh through the present collection. This study is the first of its kind to collect and document the insects of the Sanctuary.

  7. Diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) and Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) in a semideciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A S; Juncá, F A

    2007-02-01

    We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. Pitfall traps were used to collect anuran and invertebrate fauna, which showed the availability of prey in the environment. Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. Both species fed mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. However, there is a difference between the rainy and dry seasons concerning the diet of P. cf. cicada. During the rainy season P. cf. cicada consumed less Isoptera and more Formicidae than in the dry season. In the volumetric sense, Orthoptera was the most important alimentary category for P. cf. cicada and B. granulosus. The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. PMID:17505759

  8. OBSERVATION ON THE ENTOMOFAUNA BIODIVERSITY IN SOME CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mocanu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For gathering the material were used the soil traps type Barber, which were installed in a wheat crop area Tişiţa, Vrancea county. The observations were made in 2013 in May-June. The traps gathering was done on the following dates: 17.05; 29.05; 13.06; 27.06 using three variants: • Option 1 - untreated wheat consumption • Option 2 - treated drinking wheat • Option 3 - treated wheat seed The collected insect species belonging to the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Diptera and Colembolla etc. Were collected in addition to insects, a species belonging to the Subphylum Crustacea, ord. Isopoda and species belonging to the class Arachnida, ord. Araneae.

  9. A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Khalil, Mohammed W; Sharaf, Mostafa R; Hassan H Fadl; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. Two of these species are described as new, namely: Monomorium sarawatensis Sharaf & Aldawood, sp. n. [Formicidae, Hymenoptera] and Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry sp. n. [Bombyliidae, Diptera]. Another eight species are recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia, namely: Xiphoceriana arabica (Uvarov, 1922) [Pamphagidae, Orthoptera], Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791) [Pyrgomorphidae, Orthoptera], Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775) [Pieridae, Lepidoptera], Anthrax chionanthrax (Bezzi, 1926) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Spogostylum near tripunctatum Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Cononedys dichromatopa (Bezzi, 1925) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Mydas sp. [Mydidae, Diptera], and Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758 [Hippoboscidae, Diptera]. Al-Baha Province is divided by huge and steep Rocky Mountains into two main sectors, a lowland coastal plain at the west, known as "Tihama", and a mountainous area with an elevation of 1500 to 2450 m above sea level at the east, known as "Al-Sarat or Al-Sarah" which form a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range. Insect species richness in the two sectors (Tihama and Al-Sarah) was compared, and the results showed that each of the two sectors of Al-Baha Province has a unique insect community. The study generally concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. Consequently, we tend to agree with those biogeographers who consider that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region rather than in the Palaearctic region or the

  10. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  11. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  12. Ocorrência de insetos na cultura do milho em sistema de plantio direto, coletados com armadilhas-de-solo Insect ocurrence in corn crop grown under no-tillage collected with pitfall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adaime da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da diversidade de insetos associados às culturas agrícolas é fundamental para estudos ecológicos e de manejo. Para tanto, foram realizadas coletas em cultura de milho, em sistema de plantio direto, utilizando-se ar-madilhas-de-solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presen-ça de insetos ativos na camada epiedáfica durante o desenvolvi-mento fenológico da cultura do milho. As coletas foram efetuadas de outubro de 1996 a fevereiro de 1997, em uma área de 3ha, na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, na qual não foi aplicado inseticida. Foram instaladas 32 armadilhas, distribuídas na área experimental e realizadas 14 amostragens durante o ciclo da cultura. Foram coletados 2.840 insetos, com espécies incluídas em 8 ordens, predominando Coleoptera e Orthoptera.The knowledge of the diversity of insects associated with agriculture is fundamental for ecological studies and management. The experiment was carried out in a corn crop grown under no-tillage, using pitfall traps to collect insects to evaluate their presence on the soil surface during the cycle of the culture. The samplings were made in area of 3ha, in the Estação Experimental Agronômica (UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul (RS, in which insecticides were not applied. A total of 32 pitfall traps were evaluated in each of the 14 sampling dates during the season. During the evaluations, 2840 insects were collected, with species included in 8 orders, prevailing Coleoptera e Orthoptera.

  13. Differentiation and Phylogeny of Metathoracic Pleural Sclerites in Selected Pterygote Insects%部分具翅昆虫后胸足基骨片的分化与系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国栋; 宁靖

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen representative species of Pterygota are selected to analyse the development of morphological characteristics of metathoracic pleural sclerites in different taxa. A well-resolved cladogram of preliminary evolutionary relationships is produced with the topology: [Ephemeroptera + (Odonata + Neoptera)]+ [Plec-optera+(Megaloptera+Neuroptera+(Orthoptera+(Hemiptera+(Coleoptera+(Mecoptera +Lepidoptera+(Hymenoptera+Diptera))))))]. This analysis indicates that Palaeoptera and Neoptera are clearly separated. Ephemeroptera is more distantly related to Neoptera while Odonata has a closer relationship. The taxonomic status and evolutionary relationships of Neoptera are discussed and some arguments are made that are in conflict with the current classification system.%从12目具翅昆虫中选出16个代表种,对其后足基骨片的形态特征在不同类群中的衍变进行分析比较,据此构建反映下列初步进化关系的系统树:[Ephemeroptera+(Odonata+Neoptera)]+[Plecoptera+(Megaloptera+Neuroptera+(Orthoptera+(Hemiptera+(Coleoptera+(Mecoptera+Lepidoptera+(Hymenoptera+D iptera))))))].该树的关系表明,古翅类(Palaeoptera)与新翅类(Neoptera)的界限分明,Ephemeroptera与其他具翅昆虫类群的关系较远,而Odonata与其它具翅昆虫类群的关系较近;探讨了后者之间的分类地位和进化关系,对现有分类系统的一些地方提出质疑.

  14. A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, with descriptions of two new species

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    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. Two of these species are described as new, namely: Monomorium sarawatensis Sharaf & Aldawood sp. n. [Formicidae, Hymenoptera] and Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry sp. n. [Bombyliidae, Diptera]. Another eight species are recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia, namely: Xiphoceriana arabica (Uvarov, 1922 [Pamphagidae, Orthoptera], Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791 [Pyrgomorphidae, Orthoptera], Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775 [Pieridae, Lepidoptera], Anthrax chionanthrax (Bezzi, 1926 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Spogostylum near tripunctatum Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Cononedys dichromatopa (Bezzi, 1925 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Mydas sp. [Mydidae, Diptera], and Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758 [Hippoboscidae, Diptera]. Al-Baha Province is divided by huge and steep Rocky Mountains into two main sectors, a lowland coastal plain at the west, known as “Tihama”, and a mountainous area with an elevation of 1500 to 2450 m above sea level at the east, known as “Al-Sarat or Al-Sarah” which form a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range. Insect species richness in the two sectors (Tihama and Al-Sarah was compared, and the results showed that each of the two sectors of Al-Baha Province has a unique insect community. The study generally concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. Consequently, we tend to agree with those biogeographers who consider that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region rather than in the

  15. Comparative analysis of the genome and host range characteristics of two insect iridoviruses: Chilo iridescent virus and a cricket iridovirus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, N J; Kleespies, R G; Tidona, C A; Müller, K; Gelderblom, H R; Darai, G

    2002-02-01

    The iridovirus isolate termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV) was isolated in 1996 from Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (both Orthoptera, Gryllidae). CrIV DNA shows distinct DNA restriction patterns different from those known for Insect iridescent virus type 6 (IIV-6). This observation led to the assumption that CrIV might be a new species within the family Iridoviridae. CrIV can be transmitted perorally to orthopteran species, resulting in specific, fatal diseases. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Analysis of genomic and host range properties of this isolate was carried out in comparison to those known for IIV-6. Host range studies of CrIV and IIV-6 revealed no differences in the peroral susceptibility in all insect species and developmental stages tested to date. Different gene loci of the IIV-6 genome were analyzed, including the major capsid protein (274L), thymidylate synthase (225R), an exonuclease (012L), DNA polymerase (037L), ATPase (075L), DNA ligase (205R) and the open reading frame 339L, which is homologous to the immediate-early protein ICP-46 of frog virus 3. The average identity of the selected viral genes and their gene products was found to be 95.98 and 95.18% at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. These data led to the conclusion that CrIV and IIV-6 are not different species within the Iridoviridae family and that CrIV must be considered to be a variant and/or a novel strain of IIV-6. PMID:11807240

  16. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

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    Ghosh Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species, Orthoptera (17 species, Hemiptera (16 species, Hymenoptera (15 species and Odonata (9 species, are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  17. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  18. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  19. Evolving expression patterns of the homeotic gene Scr in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Karla D; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadic, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    While the mRNA expression patterns of homeotic genes have been examined in numerous arthropod species, data on their protein accumulation is extremely limited. To address this gap, we analyzed the protein expression pattern of the hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) in six hemimetabolous insects from four divergent orders (Thysanura, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera and Hemiptera). Our comparative analysis reveals that the original domain of SCR expression was likely confined to the head and then subsequently moved into the prothorax (T1) in winged insect lineages. The data also show a trend toward the posteriorization of the anterior boundary of SCR expression in the head, which starts in the mandibles (Thysanura) and then gradually shifts to the maxillary (Orthoptera) and labial segments (Dictyoptera and Hemiptera), respectively. In Thermobia (firebrat) and Oncopeltus (milkweed bug) we also identify instances where SCR protein is not detected in regions where mRNA is expressed. This finding suggests the presence of a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of Scr in these species. Finally, we show that SCR expression in insect T1 legs is highly variable and exhibits divergent patterning even among related species. In addition, signal in the prothoracic legs of more basal insect lineages cannot be associated with any T1 specific features, indicating that the acquisition of SCR in this region preceded any apparent gain of function. Overall, our results show that Scr expression has diverged considerably among hemimetabolous lineages and establish a framework for subsequent analyses to determine its role in the evolution of the insect head and prothorax.

  20. Mormon Cricket Control in Utah's West Desert - Evaluation of Impacts of the Pesticide Diflubenzuron on Nontarget Arthropod Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Tim B.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Close, Rebecca N.

    2008-01-01

    Grasshopper and Mormon cricket (Orthoptera) populations periodically build to extremely high numbers and can cause significant economic damage in rangelands and agricultural fields of the Great Plains and Intermountain West. A variety of insecticides have been applied to control population outbreaks, with recent efforts directed at minimizing impacts to nontarget fauna in treated ecosystems. A relatively new insecticide for control of Orthoptera is diflubenzuron, which acts to inhibit chitin production, ultimately causing death during the molt following ingestion of the insecticide. All arthropods, including insects, mites, and crustaceans, use chitin to build their exoskeletons and will die if they are unable to produce it during the next molt. Diflubenzuron is not taxon specific - it affects all arthropods that ingest it, except adult insects, which do not molt. Consequently, application of this pesticide has the potential to significantly reduce not only target populations but all terrestrial and aquatic arthropods within treatment zones. Some research has been done in the Great Plains on the impact of diflubenzuron on nontarget arthropods in the context of grasshopper-control programs, but no work has been done in the Great Basin in Mormon cricket-control areas. This study was instigated in anticipation of the need for extensive control of Orthoptera outbreaks in Utah's west desert during 2005, and it was designed to sample terrestrial and aquatic arthropod communities in both treated and untreated zones. Three areas were sampled: Grouse Creek, Ibapah, and Vernon. High mortality of Mormon cricket eggs in the wet, cool spring of 2005 restricted the need to control Mormon crickets to Grouse Creek. Diflubenzuron was applied (aerial reduced agent-area treatment) in May 2005. Terrestrial and aquatic arthropod communities were sampled before and after application of diflubenzuron in the Grouse Creek area of northwestern Utah in May and June of 2005. In July 2005, U

  1. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-05-01

    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops ( p < 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed four categories of soil arthropods according to abundance, i.e., highly abundant (Collembola, Acarina, Myripoda, Hymenoptera), moderately abundant (Orthoptera, Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface

  2. Polymorphism of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides populations revealed by RAPD Polimorfismo em populações do gafanhoto Rhammatocerus schistocercoides revelado por marcadores RAPD

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    João Batista Tavares da Silva

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the genetic variability of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Orthoptera: Acrididae using RAPD analysis among individuals from three populations, one from Colombia and two from Brazil (Goiás and Mato Grosso States. Ninety scorable binary markers were obtained by fingerprinting with 11 oligonucleotide primers. Most of the polymorphism was attributed to 42 markers with variable frequency among the different populations. Although the existence of significant difference among populations (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade genética do gafanhoto Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Orthoptera: Acrididae por meio da análise de RAPD entre indivíduos de três populações, uma da Colômbia e duas do Brasil (Goiás e Mato Grosso. Noventa marcadores binários foram selecionados através de análise de polimorfismo com o uso de 11 oligonucleotídeos. A maior parte do polimorfismo observado foi atribuída a 42 marcadores com freqüência variável entre as diferentes populações. Apesar da existência de diferença significativa interpopulacional (P<0,0001, grande proporção da variabilidade genética foi detectada dentro das populações (87,7% da variação total. As distâncias entre as populações colombianas e brasileiras foram 0,12 (P<0,0001 e 0,18 (P<0,0001 para Goiás e Mato Grosso, respectivamente. A distância obtida entre Goiás e Mato Grosso foi 0,06 (P<0,0001. Estes dados indicam que as diferenças fenotípicas entre populações estão associadas principalmente às distâncias geográficas entre as populações do Brasil e a da Colômbia.

  3. Aspectos biológicos de Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometriadae provenientes de lagartas criadas em folhas de Eucalyptus cloeziana ou de Psidium guajava sob condições de campo Biological aspects of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometridae adults originated from caterpillars reared on leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana or Psidium guajava under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios de Eucalyptus no Brasil podem sofrer danos por espécies nativas de insetos de diversas ordens, como Orthoptera, Coleoptera e Lepidoptera. Esses insetos podem alimentar-se tanto de mirtáceas brasileiras como goiabeira, gabirobeira, jabuticabeira, entre outras, como de espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Entre os desfolhadores, destaca-se Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae como o mais daninho dessa ordem para a eucaliptocultura brasileira. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar aspectos biológicos de adultos de T. arnobia provenientes de lagartas alimentadas com plantas de eucalipto e, ou, goiabeira. Adultos deste inseto criados em folhas de eucalipto e, ou, de goiabeira apresentaram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos aspectos biológicos avaliados, exceto para a duração dos períodos de préoviposição, de oviposição e razão sexual. Assim, insetos herbívoros que vivem em hospedeiros filogeneticamente próximos ao eucalipto são capazes de causar danos consideráveis em reflorestamentos com espécies desse grupo, o que provavelmente ocorre pelo fato de elas estarem ainda em processo de adaptação a essa praga que atacaria o eucalipto, por estar fugindo da pressão exercida por barreiras físicas e químicas existentes nas mirtáceas nativas brasileiras.Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil may be damaged by native insects of many orders including Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. These insects feed on Brazilian tree species of the family Myrtaceae to which the genus Eucalyptus belongs. The Lepidoptera Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is the most harmful defoliator of Eucalyptus in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of T. arnobia adults originated from caterpillars fed on guava or eucalyptus plants. Adults of T. arnobia originated from caterpillars reared with eucalyptus or guava leaves presented significant differences for most biological

  4. The quality of the diet of foxes (Vulpes vulpes in a Mediterranean coastal area (Central Italy / Qualità della dieta della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in un'area costiera mediterranea

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    Claudio Cavani

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of foxes in the Natural Park of Maremma includes essentially Juniperus fruits and Arthropods, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera. These components were analysed in order to value their chemical nutritive. The following parameters were determined: proximate analysis (crude protein Nx6.25; ether extract; crude fibre; ash, aminoacids, and mineral contents. Juniperus berries are characterized by a low crude protein and ash content (1.83 and 2.75% on dry matter while the level of fibrous constituents, expressed in terms of crude fibre, occurs in relatively high quantities (30.8% on dry matter. By contrast, Orthoptera and Coleoptera show high crude protein content (67.3 and 57.8% on dry matter of average nutritive value (chemical score 0.52 and 0.51. The ash level is 68.8 and 76.6 g/kg on dry matter, with high phosphorus, iron and zinc content. Juniperus berries are a feed component of moderate energy level, while Arthropods seem to be an important mineral and protein source. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes nel Parco Naturale della Maremma è costituita essenzialmente da frutti di Ginepro e da Artropodi, soprattutto Coleotteri ed Ortotteri. Allo scopo di fornire una valutazione delle caratteristiche chimico-nutritive di questi componenti alimentari, sono stati analizzati diversi campioni della dieta. Sono stati determinati i parametri riguardanti le analisi standard per gli alimenti di uso zootecnico, il contenuto in aminoacidi e in elementi minerali. I frutti di Ginepro sono caratterizzati da uno scarso tenore in proteine grezze e in ceneri (1,83 e 2,75% della sostanza secca, mentre il contenuto in costituenti fibrosi, espressi in termini di fibra grezza, risulta relativamente elevato (30,8% della sostanza secca. Gli Ortotteri ed i Coleotteri mostrano invece un considerevole contenuto in proteine grezze (67,3 e 57,8% della sostanza secca, di valore

  5. Espectro trófico del bagre Ictalurus punctatus (Silurifomes: Ictaluridae, en la presa Lázaro Cárdenas, Indé, Durango, México Trophic spectrum of the catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae, in the Lázaro Cárdenas reservoir, Indé, Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martínez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de 240 estómagos de Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818, colectados de 2006 a 2007, con el objetivo de determinar su espectro trófico, su variación por talla y época climática. Los contenidos estomacales se analizaron en laboratorio y los organismos se determinaron hasta nivel de orden. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los órdenes más frecuentes fueron Perciformes y Atheriniformes que corresponden a peces forraje, así como algas verdes del orden Charales. Además, se encontraron otros siete órdenes de invertebrados: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera y Scorpionida, además de dos órdenes de plantas: Poales y Fabales. El orden Perciforme constituyó casi la mitad del total del peso del contenido estomacal, seguido por los órdenes Atheriniforme y Charales. En las estaciones de verano e invierno se presentó el mayor número de estómagos vacíos, mientras que en primavera se encontró el mayor número de estómagos llenos. La cantidad de alimento ingerida en la estación de invierno fue significativamente menor que en las demás estaciones. El principal alimento en primavera, verano y otoño, fueron los peces, mientras que en invierno hubo mayor preferencia por las algas.Having the objective of determining their trophic spectrum and their variations within a year, the contents of 240 stomachs of Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 were analyzed from 2006 to 2007. The items of the stomach contents were determined to the order level. The data was analyzed by different quantitative and qualitative methods. The most frequent orders were Perciforms and Atheriniforms corresponding to forage fish, along with green algae of the Charales order. Also, seven orders of invertebrates were found: Schizodonta, Odonata, Himenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Scorpionida, and two orders of plants: Poales and Fabales. The Perciform

  6. Feeding overlap in two sympatric species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae of the Atlantic Rain Forest Sobreposição alimentar em duas espécies simpátricas de Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae da Mata Atlântica

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    Leandro T. Sabagh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the relationships between overlapping, similarity, and competition is necessary to understand many of the questions about the structure and operation of a community. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 and Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 are sympatric species of toads occurring in the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The aim of the present study was to assess the dietary overlap of these two species. Ninety-four stomachs were analyzed, and 2245 prey items were found. Common prey were Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones, and Aranaea. Ants were the most important prey in both diets, followed by beetles and cockroaches. The niche breadth of R. icterica was 1.76 and of R. crucifer was 1.28. The dietary overlap between the species was 98.62%. A positive correlation was observed between jaw width and prey size consumed by R. icterica.Um claro entendimento das relações entre sobreposição, similaridade e competição é necessário para entender muitas questões sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento de uma comunidade. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 e Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 são espécies simpátricas que ocorrem no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, região sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a sobreposição alimentar dessas duas espécies. Foram analisados 94 estômagos e encontradas 2245 presas. Os grupos comuns foram: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, larva de Lepidoptera, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones e Aranaea. Formigas foram as presas mais importantes na dieta, seguidas por besouros e baratas. A amplitude de nicho de R. icterica foi de 1,76 e a de R. cruicifer 1,28. A sobreposição de nicho alimentar entre as espécies foi de 98,62%. Houve relação positiva entre a largura da mandíbula e a dimensão das presas consumidas em R. icterica.

  7. population variation and food habits of ranid frogs in the rice-based cropping system in gujranwala region, pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the current study aims to investigate the population variation and food habits of ranid frogs in the dee-based cropping system in district gujranwala,pakistan.the population in the study area was estimated using capture,mark and release method whereas food habits of the species were studied by analysis of stomach contents.the results showed the highest average population was found during august 2009 (93.10 ± 18.64/ha) while the lowest from december 2008 to february 2009.maximum seasonal populations existed in summer 2009,whereas winter 2008 sizes were at a minimum.stomach content analysis of the species revealed percent frequency (% f) of occurrence of insects (80.3),earthworms (28.5),whole frogs (15.8),bone pieces (22.5),rodents (1.66),vegetation (5.0),soil particles (13.3)and some unidentified material (7.5) in all the stomach samples.most frequently consumed prey items were insects (30% by volume),although frogs also preyed upon conspecifics and rodents.insects recovered from the stomach contents were identified as belonging to orthoptera,lepidoptera,coleoptera,diptera,odonata and homoptera as well as the class archnida.insects recovered from the stomach contents were compared to those captured from the study area.

  8. Nitrogen in insects: implications for trophic complexity and species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Siemann, Evan; Mitter, Charles; Denno, Robert F; Huberty, Andrea F; Woods, H Arthur; Elser, James J

    2002-12-01

    Disparities in nutrient content (nitrogen and phosphorus) between herbivores and their plant resources have lately proven to have major consequences for herbivore success, consumer-driven nutrient cycling, and the fate of primary production in ecosystems. Here we extend these findings by examining patterns of nutrient content between animals at higher trophic levels, specifically between insect herbivores and predators. Using a recently compiled database on insect nutrient content, we found that predators exhibit on average 15% greater nitrogen content than herbivores. This difference persists after accounting for variation from phylogeny and allometry. Among herbivorous insects, we also found evidence that recently derived lineages (e.g., herbivorous Diptera and Lepidoptera) have, on a relative basis, 15%-25% less body nitrogen than more ancient herbivore lineages (e.g., herbivorous Orthoptera and Hemiptera). We elaborate several testable hypotheses for the origin of differences in nitrogen content between trophic levels and among phylogenetic lineages. For example, interspecific variation in insect nitrogen content may be directly traceable to differences in dietary nitrogen (including dilution by gut contents), selected for directly in response to the differential scarcity of dietary nitrogen, or an indirect consequence of adaptation to different feeding habits. From some functional perspectives, the magnitude rather than the source of the interspecific differences in nitrogen content may be most critical. We conclude by discussing the implications of the observed patterns for both the trophic complexity of food webs and the evolutionary radiation of herbivorous insects. PMID:18707465

  9. Abundance of epigaeic arthropods in a Brazilian savanna under different fire frequencies

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    Marcio Uehara-Prado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were subjected to three burning frequencies: frequent (HighFi, intermediary (MidFi, and infrequent (LowFi. In general, we found a positive relationship between the abundance of epigaeic arthropods and fire frequency. When arthropods were analyzed by orders, the abundance of Collembola and Orthoptera was lower in the LowFi site, while for Hemiptera, it was higher in the MidFi site. No significant differences were found for Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae. The abundance of detritivores and herbivores decreased from HighFi to LowFi, but did not change significantly for omnivores and predators. These results indicate that some arthropod groups may not only be resilient to fire effects, but actually might benefit from fire effects in the cerrado. Characterizing arthropod responses to burning frequency at high taxonomic or functional levels is important for applied studies. Based on the results of the current study, springtails and ants seem to be particularly appropriate focal groups for further exploratory studies on the effects of fire at the species level.

  10. Diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in the Zhoushan archipelago,Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bullfrogs (Runa catesbeiana) are listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the world.They are generalist predators and thus may affect native species through predation.In previous studies,the food contents of bullfrogs were mostly examined at a single site.In the present study,the diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs on eight islands (Daishan,Liuheng,Xiushan,Fodu,Taohua,Xiashi,Cezi,and Putuoshan) in the Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province of China,were examined by using the stomach flushing method from June 30 to August 11 in 2005.A total 0f391 individual frogs were measured,including 113 adults and 278 juveniles.The analysis of the stomach contents shows that,for adult bullfrogs,the most important prey (by diet volume) overall were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Odonata,Mesogastropoda,Raniformes,and Cypriniformes.For juvenile bullfrogs,these were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Cypriniformes,Odonata,Orthoptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera larvae,Mesogastropoda,and Raniformes.Moreover,the prey size and diet volume increased with the body size of both adult and juvenile bullfrogs.The diet composition of primary preys of bullfrogs was significantly different among the islands.The results indicate that bullfrogs exert different predatory influences on native fauna at different sites and that bullfrogs are generalist predators with extensive ecological impacts on native fauna.

  11. Sumixam maximus gen.and sp.nov.,a New Pennsylvanian Species of Archaeorthoptera(Neoptera;Indiana,USA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier BETHOUX; Christin GROSSMANN

    2011-01-01

    A new Mazon-Creek-type fossil specimen is described as Sumixam maximus gen.and sp.nov., assigned to the taxon Archaeorthoptera Bethoux and Nel,2002(composed of Orthoptera and some fossil relatives):it exhibits one of the diagnostic character states of this taxon,which is the fusion of CuA(emerging from M+CuA)with CuP,or a branch of it.A more precise taxonomic assignment is out of reach.The new taxon exhibits a fusion of the anterior branch of MA with RP,and a point of divergence of MA and MP located near the point of divergence of CuA(from M + CuA),but lack a branching of CuPa.This unique combination of character states is probably derived with respect to a number of contemporaneous species.Sumixam maximus gen.and sp.nov.is most likely the closest known relative of the panorthopterans,which include all the recent Archaeorthoptera.

  12. INSECTOS ASOCIADOS A Alpinia purpurata (Vieill. K. Schum. (ZINGIBERACEAE EN MACEIÓ Y RIO LARGO (AL, BRASIL

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    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO-MICHELETTI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due the fast growing in flowers and ornamental plants production and their high export potential, it is important to identify the insects species associated with Alpinia purpurata (Vieill. K. Schum crops and to establish their role in this agroecosystem/production system The insects were collected from A. purpurata cv. Pink Ginger and Red Ginger plants cultivated in two farmswith different agroecological characteristics, located in two recognized tropical flower production areas/regions, Maceió and Río Largo cities/localities, Alagoas state, during one year. They were identified and its frequency analyzed according with a numerical scale. According to the results was collected 790 insects of which 69 were identified to specific level, belonging to 59 families of 9 ordens. Results showed Hymenoptera individuals as the most frequent, mainly predator ants and/or associated with phytophagous insects (sucking, besides natural enemies, followed by Hemiptera and Lepidoptera orders, which involved recognized agricultural pests. Insects belonging to the order Odonata and Orthoptera were found less frequently.

  13. Systematics of spiny predatory katydids (Tettigoniidae: Listroscelidinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest based on morphology and molecular data.

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    Verônica Saraiva Fialho

    Full Text Available Listroscelidinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae are insectivorous Pantropical katydids whose taxonomy presents a long history of controversy, with several genera incertae sedis. This work focused on species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one of the world's most threatened biomes. We examined material deposited in scientific collections and visited 15 conservation units from Rio de Janeiro to southern Bahia between November 2011 and January 2012, catching 104 specimens from 10 conservation units. Based on morphological and molecular data we redefined Listroscelidini, adding a new tribe, new genus and eight new species to the subfamily. Using morphological analysis, we redescribed and added new geographic records for six species, synonymized two species and built a provisional identification key for the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae. Molecular results suggest two new species and a new genus to be described, possibly by the fission of the genus Hamayulus. We also proposed a 500 bp region in the final portion of the COI to be used as a molecular barcode. Our data suggest that the Atlantic Forest Listroscelidinae are seriously endangered, because they occur in highly preserved forest remnants, show high rates of endemism and have a narrow geographic distribution. Based on our results, we suggest future collection efforts must take into account the molecular barcode data to accelerate species recognition.

  14. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author)

  15. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  16. High-throughput sequencing of fecal DNA to identify insects consumed by wild Weddell's saddleback tamarins (Saguinus weddelli, Cebidae, Primates) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, E K; Malhi, R S; Garber, P A

    2015-03-01

    The genus Saguinus represents a successful radiation of over 20 species of small-bodied New World monkeys. Studies of the tamarin diet indicate that insects and small vertebrates account for ∼16-45% of total feeding and foraging time, and represent an important source of lipids, protein, and metabolizable energy. Although tamarins are reported to commonly consume large-bodied insects such as grasshoppers and walking sticks (Orthoptera), little is known concerning the degree to which smaller or less easily identifiable arthropod prey comprises an important component of their diet. To better understand tamarin arthropod feeding behavior, fecal samples from 20 wild Bolivian saddleback tamarins (members of five groups) were collected over a 3 week period in June 2012, and analyzed for the presence of arthropod DNA. DNA was extracted using a Qiagen stool extraction kit, and universal insect primers were created and used to amplify a ∼280 bp section of the COI mitochondrial gene. Amplicons were sequenced on the Roche 454 sequencing platform using high-throughput sequencing techniques. An analysis of these samples indicated the presence of 43 taxa of arthropods including 10 orders, 15 families, and 12 identified genera. Many of these taxa had not been previously identified in the tamarin diet. These results highlight molecular analysis of fecal DNA as an important research tool for identifying anthropod feeding patterns in primates, and reveal broad diversity in the taxa, foraging microhabitats, and size of arthropods consumed by tamarin monkeys.

  17. 昆虫产卵抑制素的研究及应用%Progress in the study and application of oviposition deterrents of insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国玲; 肖春; 龚信文

    2000-01-01

    Many insects left "oviposition markers" on the surface of the eggs or at the egg-laying site after oviposition. It was found that "oviposition markers" were chemical-oviposition deterrents (OVD) produced by female adults,which deterred oviposition at the same sites by conspecific or heterospecific females. It was confirmed that the larvae of many insects could secret OVD. The species in Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Coleoptera and Diptera could also produce OVD. Many documents confirmed that there were chemicals functioning as OVD in many kinds of plants. A set of techniques for studying OVD such as electrophysiological responses,behavioral responses,and isolation and identification of active compounds has now been developed. The OVD produced by females of Pieris rape,Lasioderma serricorne and Rhagoletis cerasi were identified and synthesized. The chemicals functioning as OVD of Pieris rape and Hylemya spp. were found in many plants. Controlling Rhagoleris cerasi with OVD was a typical example in the application of OVD. In addition,a new variety of cotton that could deter oviposition by females of Anthonomus grandis was also developed. OVD could also be used to study coevolutionary relationship between herbivore insects and plants. We think that study on OVD of insects plays a very important role in decoding the ovipositional behaviors of insects,co-evoluationary relationship between herbiore insects and plants,and developing new types of pest insect-controlling techniques.

  18. Chirality of male genitalia in Otomantis casaica Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae, Acromantinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Francesco; Stiewe, Martin B D; Ippolito, Salvatrice

    2016-01-01

    Reversal of male genitalia are known in various insect orders, such as in Odonata, Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera and Trichoptera (Schilthuizen 2007) and, within the Dictyoptera, in several species of Ectobiinae (Blattodea) (Bohn 1987), and Mantodea. Balderson (1978) first described reversal of the phallic complex in Stenomantis Saussure and Ciulfina Giglio-Tos, reporting this condition in eleven of 17 specimens representing two species of the latter-informally named as "Ciulfina sp.2" and "Ciulfina sp.7" (see Balderson 1978: 238). Subsequently, Anisyutkin & Gorochov (2004) reported the same condition at the time of describing Haania doroshenkoi from Cambodia. The male external genitalia within the Mantodea ("praying mantises") are markedly asymmetrical and generally develop in a single orientation (Klass 1997; Huber et al. 2007). Typically, the phallic complex consists of three phallic lobes surrounding the gonopore, all contained in a genital chamber between the ninth sternite and the paraprocts. Two of the three phallic lobes (phallomeres of La Greca 1955) are situated above the gonopore-one to the left and one to the right-while the third lies ventral to the genital opening. The right phallomere (RP) (Fig.1) ("right epiphallus" of Beier 1964) is usually dorsally positioned and its base extends almost completely across the wall of the genital chamber. The left phallomere (LP) (Fig.1) ("left epiphallus" of Beier 1964) is the most complex of the three lobes and it lies above the ventral phallomere (VP) (Fig.1) (hypophallus of Beier 1964). PMID:27394773

  19. Isolation and identification of α-Endosulfan degrading bacteria from insect microflora

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    Özlem Gür Özdal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of industrialization and population has resulted in the accumulation of a wide variety of chemicals. Especially, widespread use of synthetic and toxic chemicals have led to an effort to improve new technologies to reduce or eliminate these contaminants from the environment. Chemical methods that used for the treatment of toxic materials are expensive, time-consuming and difficult, especially in extensive agricultural areas. Furthermore these methods led to formation of new chemical pollutants. Recent years, one promising alternative treatment method is to use of microorganisms for the biodegradation of these toxic chemicals. This method is effective, minimally hazardous, economical, versatile and environment friendly. In this study, we thought that microflora of insecticide resistant insects may be a potential reservoir for the isolation of new bacteria that can be used for the biodegradation of insecticides. In this research work, totally 24 bacterial isolates capable of biodegradation α-endosulsan were isolated from the body microflora of insects belong to Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Mantodea and Hymenoptera orders. Based on the some morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and fatty acid profiles they were identified as Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Flavimonas and Rhodococcus. As a result, these isolates can be used for the treatment of α-endosulfan residues at different environments.

  20. A comparison of two common flight interception traps to survey tropical arthropods

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    Greg Lamarre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are predicted to harbor most of the insect diversity on earth, but few studies have been conducted to characterize insect communities in tropical forests. One major limitation is the lack of consensus on methods for insect collection. Deciding which insect trap to use is an important consideration for ecologists and entomologists, yet to date few study has presented a quantitative comparison of the results generated by standardized methods in tropical insect communities. Here, we investigate the relative performance of two flight interception traps, the windowpane trap, and the more widely used malaise trap, across a broad gradient of lowland forest types in French Guiana. The windowpane trap consistently collected significantly more Coleoptera and Blattaria than the malaise trap, which proved most effective for Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. Orthoptera and Lepidoptera were not well represented using either trap, suggesting the need for additional methods such as bait traps and light traps. Our results of contrasting trap performance among insect orders underscore the need for complementary trapping strategies using multiple methods for community surveys in tropical forests.

  1. Evaluation of cellulolytic activity in insect digestive fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L-J; Zhang, H-F; Yin, X-M; Chen, M; Wang, F-Q; Xie, H; Zhang, G-Z; Song, A-D

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost cellulolytic enzymes are urgently needed to degrade recalcitrant plant biomass during the industrial production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Here, the cellulolytic activities in the gut fluids of 54 insect species that belong to 7 different taxonomic orders were determined using 2 different substrates, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (approximating endo-β-1,4-glucanase) and filter paper (FP) (total cellulolytic activities). The use of CMC as the substrate in the zymogram analysis resulted in the detection of distinct cellulolytic protein bands. The cellulolytic activities in the digestive system of all the collected samples were detected using cellulolytic activity analysis. The highest CMC gut fluid activities were found in Coleoptera and Orthoptera, while FP analysis indicated that higher gut fluid activities were found in several species of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. In most cases, gut fluid activities were higher with CMC than with FP substrate, except for individual Lepidoptera species. Our data indicate that the origin of cellulolytic enzymes probably reflects the phylogenetic relationship and feeding strategies of different insects. PMID:23315870

  2. Scorpion biodiversity and interslope divergence at "evolution canyon", lower Nahal Oren microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

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    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the "African savannah-like" south-facing slopes (AS in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite "European maquis-like" north-facing slopes (ES is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought, due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera, beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae, and grasshoppers (Orthoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the "EC" valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern.

  3. Temporal variation of soil entomofauna from an urban forest fragment in southern Brazil

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    Marta Custodio Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are important environmental bioindicators, due to the species diversity and wide range of habitats occupied. The present study evaluated the temporal variation in composition and abundance of soil insects in an urban forest fragment in the municipality of Toledo, in the state of Paraná, by analyzing their abundance and seasonality. Monthly samplings were conducted between August 2011 and July 2012 at four sampling sites within the fragment. At each site, three pitfall traps remained exposed for 48 hours. Captured insects were fixed in alcohol, sorted and identified. Throughout the study period, we captured 11,568 insects from 11 orders and 35 families. Coleoptera was the richest order (12 families, followed by Diptera and Hemiptera (5, Hymenoptera and Orthoptera (3. The order Hymenoptera was the most abundant (4,789 individuals, followed by Coleoptera (4,630 and Diptera (1,985. Coleoptera was represented mainly by the families Staphylinidae and Silphidae. Formicidae (Hymenoptera was the least abundant in colder months. Collembola was positively correlated with soil moisture. In general, the insect fauna in the forest fragment exhibited characteristics of the fauna from impacted habitats, that is, low diversity of families and dominance of generalist groups.

  4. The Special Expression and Comparison of the c-kit Protein in Spermatogenesis of Three Species of Locusts of Arcypteridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhuo; XI Geng-si

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and regulation of the c-kit protein in spermatogenesis of locusts.Immunohistochemistry and biological statistics were used to investigate the expression of the c-kit protein in four representative phases of spermatogenesis of three dominant species of locusts of Arcypteridae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea),namely, Omocestus viridulus (Linnaeus), Euchorthippus unicolor (Ikonn.), and Euchorthippus vittatus Zheng, and so on, in Siping area of Jilin Province, China. The results revealed the following: (1) There was weak positive expression of the c-kit protein in spermatogonia and the positive granules were thinner; (2) there was a strong positive expression of the c-kit protein in primary spermatocyte and the positive granules became the largest than in all developmental stages; (3)the c-kit protein positive expression became stronger in secondary spermatocyte, while the positive granules became thinner; (4) there was strong positive expression of the c-kit protein and the positive granules were thinner in mature sperm, which were distributed on its head and tail; (5) there were strong positive protein granules massing at the end of spermary; (6) the positive intensity of the c-kit protein in spermatogenesis was significantly different among different species of locusts. The data suggested that the c-kit protein may play a crucial role in spermatogenesis as well as maintain the physiological action of sperms and fertilization, regulate the developmental speed of spermatogenesis, and/or maintain species isolation, etc.

  5. Spatial organization of tettigoniid auditory receptors: insights from neuronal tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lehmann, Gerlind U C; Lehmann, Arne W; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2012-11-01

    The auditory sense organ of Tettigoniidae (Insecta, Orthoptera) is located in the foreleg tibia and consists of scolopidial sensilla which form a row termed crista acustica. The crista acustica is associated with the tympana and the auditory trachea. This ear is a highly ordered, tonotopic sensory system. As the neuroanatomy of the crista acustica has been documented for several species, the most distal somata and dendrites of receptor neurons have occasionally been described as forming an alternating or double row. We investigate the spatial arrangement of receptor cell bodies and dendrites by retrograde tracing with cobalt chloride solution. In six tettigoniid species studied, distal receptor neurons are consistently arranged in double-rows of somata rather than a linear sequence. This arrangement of neurons is shown to affect 30-50% of the overall auditory receptors. No strict correlation of somata positions between the anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral axis was evident within the distal crista acustica. Dendrites of distal receptors occasionally also occur in a double row or are even massed without clear order. Thus, a substantial part of auditory receptors can deviate from a strictly straight organization into a more complex morphology. The linear organization of dendrites is not a morphological criterion that allows hearing organs to be distinguished from nonhearing sense organs serially homologous to ears in all species. Both the crowded arrangement of receptor somata and dendrites may result from functional constraints relating to frequency discrimination, or from developmental constraints of auditory morphogenesis in postembryonic development. PMID:22807283

  6. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae. PMID:20569136

  7. Dynamics of colour polymorphism in a changing environment: fire melanism and then what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Caesar, Sofia; Ahnesjö, Jonas; Forsman, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Studies of whether disturbance events are associated with the changing genetic compositions of natural populations may provide insights into the importance of local selection events in maintaining diversity, and might inform plans for the conservation and protection of that diversity. We examined the dynamics of a colour pattern polymorphism in a natural population of pygmy grasshoppers Tetrix subulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) inhabiting a previously burnt clear-cut area. Data on morph frequencies for wild-caught and captive-reared individuals indicated that the initial dominance of black phenotypes following the fire event was followed by an increased diversity of the polymorphism. This was manifested as the appearance of a novel morph, a decreased incidence of the black morph, and a more even distribution of individuals across alternative morphs following the recurrence of vegetation. We also found that the colour patterns of captive-reared individuals resembled those of their parents and that the degree of within-clutch diversity increased between generations. Our comparisons of morph frequencies across generations and between environments within generations point to a genetic determination of colour pattern, and indicate that the polymorphism is influenced more strongly by selection than by plasticity or migration. PMID:17957385

  8. Insect fauna in soil at different grassland ecosystems at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil

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    Gislane dos Santos Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was perform a surveillance of the insect fauna in soil in three grassland ecosystems of experimental farm Vale do Acaraú of Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú at Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil, by the using of traps soil, with fortnightly collections, from March 2011 to February 2012. To characterize the insect fauna established a distribution pattern, whereas the rates of occurrence and dominance of species grouped by order, as an indicator of the frequency and the occurrence of the amount of captured. At the end, we collected and identified a total of 17,008 specimens of insects belonging to 11 orders, namely: Blattariae, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera and Mantodea. The Order Hymenoptera was the one that stood out the largest number of individuals captured, attributing the presence of large amount of ants, are still considered common to the three ecosystems studied, according to the method employed.

  9. Insects as biological models to assay spider and scorpion venom toxicity

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    M. F. Manzoli-Palma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to develop an experimental protocol using insects as biological models to assay venom toxicity of the following spiders Loxosceles gaucho, Phoneutria nigriventer, Nephilengys cruentata and Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Three different insect species were bioassayed: Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Grillus assimilis (Orthoptera, and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera. Venoms were injected into the hemocele of insects with a microsyringe at concentrations that caused dose/weight-dependent effects; doses causing either paralysis (ED50 or death (LD50 were recorded for each venom and insect test-species. T. serrulatus and L. gaucho venoms were lethal to all tested species, while P. nigriventer venom caused paralysis and death, and N. cruentata venom caused only paralysis at the doses assayed. A comparison between the insect test species described above revealed that A. mellifera was highly sensitive to all venoms tested; even a tiny amount of N. cruentata non-lethal venom caused a change in the walking pattern leading to transient paralysis. D. saccharalis larvae were very resistant to all four venoms.

  10. Comparison of the peptidome and insecticidal activity of venom from a taxonomically diverse group of theraphosid spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Margaret C; Jones, Alun; Clement, Herlinda; King, Glenn F

    2009-04-01

    We screened a panel of theraphosid venoms in two orders of insect in order to determine whether these bioassays would help in the selection of candidate venoms for future discovery of insecticidal toxins. Venoms from six different theraphosid genera were compared with venom from the Australian funnel-web spider Hadronyche infensa (Hexathelidae). The tarantulas included were Coremiocnemis tropix, Selenocosmia crossipes, and Selenotholus foelschei from Australia and Brachypelma albiceps and Brachypelma hamorii from Mexico. The insects assayed, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), were selected because of their relevance as model holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects, respectively, as well as their taxonomic relationship to economically important pest insects. Despite significant differences in their peptide/protein profiles as determined using SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and mass spectrometry, all of the theraphosid venoms exhibited remarkably similar LD50 values of 46-126 microg/g for crickets and 0.5-4.0 microg/g for mealworms. Notably, mealworms were on average 50-fold more susceptible than crickets to each of the crude theraphosid venoms and consequently they provide an excellent bioassay system when venom supply is limited. This study indicates that even closely related spiders have evolved quite different toxin repertoires that nevertheless have comparable efficiency with respect to killing their primary prey, namely insects.

  11. Diet of feral cats in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Hansen, H.; Nelson, D.; Swift, R.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the diet of feral cats by analysing the contents of 42 digestive tracts from Kilauea and Mauna Loa in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Small mammals, invertebrates, and birds were the most common prey types consumed by feral cats. Birds occurred in 27.8-29.2% of digestive tracts. The total number of bird, small mammal, and invertebrate prey differed between Kilauea and Mauna Loa. On Mauna Loa, significantly more (89%) feral cats consumed small mammals, primarily rodents, than on Kilauea Volcano (50%). Mice (Mus musculus) were the major component of the feral cat diet on Mauna Loa, whereas Orthoptera were the major component of the diet on Kilauea. We recovered a mandible set, feathers, and bones of an endangered Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) from a digestive tract from Mauna Loa. This specimen represents the first well-documented endangered seabird to be recovered from the digestive tract of a feral cat in Hawai'i and suggests that feral cats prey on this species.

  12. 伊朗食虫虻(双翅目:食虫虻科)的猎物记录%Prey records of robber fLies(Diptera:AsiLidae)in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najmeh SAMIN; Hamid SAKENIN; Hassan GHAHARI; Reza MONAEM

    2014-01-01

    本文根据伊朗食虫虻科AsiLidae的文献资料,记录了伊朗104种食虫虻的130种猎物。这些猎物隶属昆虫纲Insecta的7个目(膜翅目Hymenoptera,双翅目Diptera,鞘翅目CoLeoptera,直翅目Orthoptera,鳞翅目Lepidoptera,半翅目异翅亚目Heteroptera和脉翅目Neuroptera)37科,此外,还有1种蜘蛛也是食虫虻的猎物。%Up on the revising of the pubLished data on Iranian AsiLidae,in a totaL 130 insect species are Listed in this paper as the preys for 104 species of Iranian AsiLidae. These preys beLong to 37 famiLies of 7 orders incLuding Hyme-noptera,Diptera,CoLeoptera,Orthoptera,Lepidoptera,Heteroptera and Neuroptera. In addition to the diverse preys in the cLass Insecta,one spider species( Aranei)was determined as prey too.

  13. Comparison of the peptidome and insecticidal activity of venom from a taxonomically diverse group of theraphosid spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Margaret C; Jones, Alun; Clement, Herlinda; King, Glenn F

    2009-04-01

    We screened a panel of theraphosid venoms in two orders of insect in order to determine whether these bioassays would help in the selection of candidate venoms for future discovery of insecticidal toxins. Venoms from six different theraphosid genera were compared with venom from the Australian funnel-web spider Hadronyche infensa (Hexathelidae). The tarantulas included were Coremiocnemis tropix, Selenocosmia crossipes, and Selenotholus foelschei from Australia and Brachypelma albiceps and Brachypelma hamorii from Mexico. The insects assayed, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), were selected because of their relevance as model holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects, respectively, as well as their taxonomic relationship to economically important pest insects. Despite significant differences in their peptide/protein profiles as determined using SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and mass spectrometry, all of the theraphosid venoms exhibited remarkably similar LD50 values of 46-126 microg/g for crickets and 0.5-4.0 microg/g for mealworms. Notably, mealworms were on average 50-fold more susceptible than crickets to each of the crude theraphosid venoms and consequently they provide an excellent bioassay system when venom supply is limited. This study indicates that even closely related spiders have evolved quite different toxin repertoires that nevertheless have comparable efficiency with respect to killing their primary prey, namely insects. PMID:19673095

  14. Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid.

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    David C Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

  15. Kinematics of Terrestrial Locomotion in Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; He Huang; Xiangyang Liu; Luquan Ren

    2011-01-01

    The fore leg of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) has developed into claw for digging and excavating. As the result of having a well-suited body and appendages for living underground, mole cricket still needs to manoeuvre on land in some cases with some kinds of gait. In this paper, the three-dimensional kinematics information of mole cricket in terrestrial walking was recorded by using a high speed 3D video recording system. The mode and the gait of the terrestrial walking mole cricket were investigated by analyzing the kinematics parameters, and the kinematics coupling disciplines of each limb and body were discussed. The results show that the locomotion gait of mole cricket in terrestrial walking belongs to a distinctive alternating tripod gait. We also found that the fore legs of a mole cricket are not as effective as that ofcommon hexapod insects, its middle legs and body joints act more effective in walking and turning which compensate the function of fore legs. The terrestrial locomotion of mole cricket is the result of biological coupling of three pairs of legs, the distinctive alternating tripod gait and the trunk locomotion.

  16. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS GIBBOTETTIX ( OR THOPTERA,CLADONOTIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国驼背蚱属一新种(直翅目,枝背蚱科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁铬球

    2011-01-01

    记述采自广东省直翅目枝背蚱科驼背蚱属1新种,郑氏驼背蚱Gibbotettix zhengi sp.nov.,模式标本保存于中山大学生物博物馆;列出驼背蚱属分种检索表.%In the present paper, a new species of the genus Gibbotettix ( Orthoptera, Cladonotidae ) is described from Guangdong, China. Type specimen is deposited in the Biology Museum, Sun Yat-sen University. A key is provided for identifying species of Gibbotettix Zheng.Gibbotettix zhengi sp. Nov. (Figs 1 - 3 )The new species is allied to Gibbotettix hongheensis Zheng and G. Hupingshanensis Fu et Zheng, but differs from both in: 1) the medin carina of the pronotum strongly elevated and with one deep concavity beforeshoulders in profile; 2) the apical part of hind pronotal process truncate; 3) the humeral angles of pronotum right angle-like.Male. Unknown.Measurement (♀ , mm) : length of body 9. 5, length of pronotum 8. 7, length of hind femur 6. 1.Holotype ♀ , Guangdong, Ruyuan, Mt. Tianjing, 6 May 1974.Etymology. The new species is named after Prof. ZHENG Zhe-Min for his outstanding contributions in the field of insect taxonomy.

  17. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

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    Iqra Azam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia, an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla, and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p<0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala, S9 (End of HalsiNala, and S1 (Start of HalsiNala, whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  18. The 'other faunivory' revisited: Insectivory in human and non-human primates and the evolution of human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2014-06-01

    The role of invertebrates in the evolution of human diet has been under-studied by comparison with vertebrates and plants. This persists despite substantial knowledge of the importance of the 'other faunivory', especially insect-eating, in the daily lives of non-human primates and traditional human societies, especially hunters and gatherers. Most primates concentrate on two phyla, Mollusca and Arthropoda, but of the latter's classes, insects (especially five orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) are paramount. An insect product, bees' honey, is particularly important, and its collection shows a reversal of the usual sexual division of labor. Human entomophagy involves advanced technology (fire, containers) and sometimes domestication. Insectivory provides comparable calorific and nutritional benefits to carnivory, but with different costs. Much insectivory in hominoids entails elementary technology used in extractive foraging, such as termite fishing by chimpanzees. Elucidating insectivory in the fossil and paleontological record is challenging, but at least nine avenues are available: remains, lithics, residues, DNA, coprolites, dental microwear, stable isotopes, osteology, and depictions. All are in play, but some have been more successful so far than others. PMID:24560030

  19. A Review on the Fascinating World of Insect Resources: Reason for Thoughts

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    R. K. Lokeshwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect resources are vast and diverse due to their enormous diversity. The exploitation and utilization of insect resources is broadly classified into four different categories. The first category is the insects of industrial resources. This level includes the utilization of silk worm, honeybee, lac insect, dye insect, and aesthetic insect. The second category is the utilization of insects for edible and therapeutic purposes. Insects are high in protein and many are rich sources of vitamins and minerals. The third category is the use of insects in forensic investigation. By analyzing the stages of succession of insects at first, rough estimation of the postmortem intervals can be done. The fourth category is the insects of ecological importance. Many insect species act as potential predators and parasites of destructive pests of insect order Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Orthoptera. Insects are also used as bioindicator to assess the cumulative effects of environmental stressors such as pollutants. Despites these fascinating benefits, insect resources are often neglected in India due to lack of proper documentation, less expertise, and advance enterprises in these fields. Hence, the paper reviews the different fascinating facets of insect resources in order to explore and utilize it in a sustainable way with reference to Indian region.

  20. In vitro biomonitoring of the genotoxic and oxidative potentials of two commonly eaten insects in southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiş, Eray; Türkez, Hasan; Incekara, Ümit; Banjo, Adedoyin Davies; Fasunwon, Bamidele Temitope; Toğar, Başak

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the cytogenetic and oxidative effects of water soluble extracts of two commonly eaten insects, Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) and Oryctes boas (Solanales: Solanaceae), in southwestern Nigeria were evaluated on cultured human blood cells. The extracts were added to the cultures at various concentrations (0-2000 ppm). The chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests were used to find out the DNA and chromosomal damage potentials in vitro by aqueous insect extracts. To assess the oxidative effects of these insect extracts, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were also measured. Our results indicated that these extracts did not show genotoxic effects at the tested concentrations. However, the extracts caused dose-dependent alterations in both TAC and TOS levels. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the studied insects can be consumed safely, but it is necessary to consider the cellular damages that are likely to appear depending on the oxidative stress. We also suggest that this in vitro approach for oxidative and genotoxicity assessments may be useful to compare the potential health risks of edible insects.

  1. Comparative survey of entomophagy and entomotherapeutic practices in six tribes of eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-07-19

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.

  2. Neuromodulatory unpaired median neurons in the New Zealand tree weta, Hemideina femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Hans-Joachim; Field, Laurence H; Nishino, Hiroshi; Currie, Margaret J

    2011-10-01

    Wetas are ancient Gondwanan orthopterans (Anostostomatidae) with many species endemic to New Zealand. Like all Orthoptera they possess efferent neuromodulatory dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, with bilaterally symmetrical axons, that are important components of motor networks. These neurons produce overshooting action potentials and are easily stimulated by a variety of external mechanosensory stimuli delivered to the body and appendages. In particular, stimulation of the antennae, mouth parts, tarsi and femora of the legs, abdomen, cerci and ovipositor is very effective in activating DUM neurons in the metathoracic ganglion of wetas. In addition, looming visual stimuli or light on-, light off-stimuli excite many metathoracic DUM neurons. These DUM sensory reflex pathways remain viable after the prothoracic to subesophageal connective is cut, whereas in locusts such reflex pathways are interrupted by the ablation. This suggests that, in wetas, sensory reflex pathways for DUM activation are organized in a less centralized fashion than in locusts, and may therefore reflect a plesiomorphic evolutionary state in the weta. In addition, many weta DUM neurons exhibit slow rhythmic bursting which also persists following the connective ablation. PMID:21810425

  3. [Insect diversity of different habitat types in Zhalong Wetland, northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Ma, Ling; Ding, Xin-hua; Zhang, Jing; Han, Zheng-wei

    2011-09-01

    In order to approach the effects of different habitat types in wetland on insect diversity, an investigation was conducted on the insects in eight types of habitats in Zhalong Wetland. A total of 5822 insects were collected, belonging to 143 species, 58 families, and 11 orders, among which, Orthoptera, Dipteral and Odonata were the dominant taxa. The species diversity was the highest in grassland meadow, and the Shannon diversity index and evenness index were higher in lakeside but the lowest in wet meadow. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that the similarity of the insect community in the habitats was related to the water source status and vegetation type, and the species and individual number of predatory taxa had important regulation effects on the insect community stability. Lakeside had the strongest insect community stability, while wet meadow had the weakest one, indicating that habitat water source status could affect insect survival, and further, affect the species composition and distribution pattern of insect community. PMID:22126055

  4. Possible Removal of Rival Sperm by the Elongated Genitalia of the Earwig, Euborellia plebeja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Y

    2000-07-01

    Sperm displacement is a sperm competition avoidance mechanism that reduces the paternity of males that have already mated with the female. Direct anatomical sperm removal or sperm flushing is known to occur in four insect orders: Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In a fifth order, Dermaptera (earwigs), I found that the virga (the elongated rod of the male genitalia) of Euborellia plebeja seems to be used to remove rival sperm from the spermatheca (a fine-tubed female sperm storage organ). In this species, copulation lasted on average 4.6 minutes, during which time the male inserted the virga deep into the spermatheca, and then extracted it ejaculating semen from the opening of the virgal tip. The extraction of virgae (with its brim-like tip) appeared to cause removal of stored sperm in the spermatheca. The virga was as long as the body length of males, and the spermatheca was twice the female body length. The long length of the spermatheca and the possible removal function of the virga may select for virgal elongation. PMID:18517303

  5. Ethanol fuel improves pitfall traps through rapid sinking and death of captured orthopterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinwelski, N; Yotoko, K S C; Solar, R; Seleme, L R; Sperber, C F

    2013-08-01

    The choice of killing solutions for pitfall traps can influence sampling and is highly dependent on the objectives of each study. It is becoming increasingly common, however, and is more environmentally friendly, to use the same organisms to extract information for different kinds of studies. The killing solution should, therefore, be able to sample local active organisms, as well as maintain the integrity of their organs, tissues, and macromolecules. In a previous work, we showed that using ethanol fuel as a killing solution maintains the integrity of the specimens and enhances the Orthoptera richness and abundance of samples. In the current study, we evaluated two explanations for this pattern. We set up a field experiment to test whether ethanol fuel is attractive for orthopterans, and we investigated in the laboratory whether individuals of Gryllus sp. sink or die faster in ethanol fuel than in other killing solutions. Our results allowed us to refute the hypotheses of attraction caused by ethanol fuel and showed that the higher sampling efficiency of ethanol fuel is directly linked to the specimens sinking and dying faster than in other killing solutions. Thus, in addition to taxonomic, anatomical, and molecular studies, we recommend ethanol fuel for sampling organisms active in the litter in ecological studies. PMID:23905739

  6. Tasty on the outside, but toxic in the middle: grasshopper regurgitation and host plant-mediated toxicity to a vertebrate predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, G A

    2001-08-01

    Regurgitation by arthropods is often considered to be a rudimentary form of defense against predators. In phytophagous insects, regurgitate composition will vary with diet, and plant secondary compounds from host plants can contribute to the effectiveness of regurgitate deterrence. Regurgitation in response to predator attack is particularly common in grasshoppers. However, there is little empirical evidence in favor of grasshopper regurgitation as an effective antipredator mechanism in natural predator-prey systems. In particular, studies of the effect of grasshopper diet on regurgitate deterrence to vertebrate predators are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between diet and predator defense in the grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (=lineata) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Using the insectivorous lizard, Anolis carolinensis (Iguanidae), as a predator, I demonstrate that consumption of Ptelea trifoliata (Rutaceae) by S. emarginata can confer distastefulness as well as toxicity. Regurgitate deterrence is mediated strictly by host plant material in the gut and does not require an enteric contribution from the grasshopper. Regurgitation by Ptelea-fed S. emarginata can result in rejection prior to ingestion by A. carolinensis and can enable grasshoppers to survive predator attacks. PMID:24549911

  7. Comparison of the fatty-acid compositions of prey items and yolks of Australian insectivorous scincid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Brian K; Herbert, Jacquie F; Thompson, Michael B

    2004-07-01

    The yolk fatty-acid profiles of a range of species of insectivorous scincid lizards generally conform to a common pattern, typified by high proportions of linoleic acid (13.5-18.5% of total fatty acids), substantial proportions of alpha-linolenic acid (2.4-8.2%), and significant amounts of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (1.6-3.3%), eicosapentaenoic (0.7-1.2%) and docosahexaenoic (0.7-1.6%) acids. We characterised the fatty-acid compositions of ten prey taxa that are eaten by female skinks during vitellogenesis. Linoleic acid is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in all prey, excepting Orthoptera where alpha-linolenic acid predominates. To varying extents, alpha-linolenic acid is present in all the prey items. Arachidonic acid forms over 1% of total fatty acids for six of the prey items. Four of the prey items contain eicosapentaenoic acid at over 1%. Most notably, docosahexaenoic acid is essentially absent from all the prey items. There is a general similarity between the fatty-acid profiles of prey and yolk, suggesting that the linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids required for egg formation can be supplied directly from the maternal diet. However, the docosahexaenoic acid of the egg lipids cannot derive from the diet and must, therefore, be formed by biosynthesis in the maternal liver, using dietary alpha-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids as precursors. PMID:15085383

  8. Effect of two dosages of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Marcos Rodrigues de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, strain CG 423, was tested under field conditions against the gregarious grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conidia formulated in a racemic mixture of soybean oil and kerosene were sprayed under field conditions using an ultralow-volume hand-held atomizer Ulva Plus adjusted to deliver 2.9 L/ha. Bands composed of 2nd instar nymphs were treated with either 5.0x10(12 or 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. The number of insects in each band was estimated at day one following spraying and by the end of the field trial (15 to 16 days post-treatment. Reductions in population size reached, in average, 65.8% and 80.4% for bands treated with the higher and lower dosage, respectively. For both dosages, total mortality rates of insects collected at two days post-application, and kept in cages for 14 days under lab conditions, showed no significant differences as compared to that obtained with insects collected immediately after spraying. Healthy insects were fed to native grasses sprayed on the field with 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. Mortality levels of the nymphs fed on grasses collected two and four days post-application were not affected when compared to nymphs fed on grasses collected immediately following application.

  9. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  10. Locusts and remote sensing: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchininsky, Alexandre V.

    2013-01-01

    A dozen species of locusts (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are a major threat to food security worldwide. Their outbreaks occur on every continent except Antarctica, threatening the livelihood of 10% of the world's population. The locusts are infamous for their voracity, polyphagy, and capacity for long-distance migrations. Decades of research revealed very complex bio-ecology of locusts. They exist in two, inter-convertible and density-dependent states, or "phases." Despite the evident progress in understanding locust behavior, our ability to predict and manage locust outbreaks remains insufficient, as evidenced by locust plagues still occurring during the 21st century. One of the main reasons is that locusts typically inhabit remote and scarcely populated areas, and their distribution ranges often spread across continents. This creates tremendous obstacles for locust population monitoring and control. Traditional ground locust surveys are inadequate to address the enormous spatial scale of the locust problem in a limited window of time dictated by the pest's development. Remote sensing (satellite information) appears a promising tool in locust monitoring. Satellite data are increasingly used for monitoring and forecasting two locust species, the desert and the Australian plague locust. However, applications of this geospatial technology to other locust species remain rare.

  11. Simulating small-scale climate change effects-lessons from a short-term field manipulation experiment on grassland arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sascha; Rolfsmeyer, Dorothee; Schirmel, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is expected to cause major consequences on biodiversity. Understanding species-specific reactions, such as species shifts, species declines, and changes in population dynamics is a key issue to quantify large-scale impacts of climate change on biotic communities. As it is often impossible or at least impracticable to conduct large-scale experiments on biotic responses to climate change, studies at a smaller scale may be a useful alternative. In our study, we therefore tested responses of grassland arthropods (carabid beetles, spiders, grasshoppers) to simulated climate change in terms of species activity densities and diversity. We conducted a controlled field experiment by changing water and microclimatic conditions at a small scale (16 m(2) ). Roof constructions were used to increase drought-like conditions, whereas water supply was enhanced by irrigation. In all, 2 038 carabid beetles (36 species), 4 893 spiders (65 species), and 303 Orthoptera (4 species) were caught using pitfall traps from May to August, 2010. During our experiment, we created an artificial small-scale climate change; and statistics revealed that these changes had short-term effects on the total number of individuals and Simpson diversity of the studied arthropod groups. Moreover, our results showed that certain species might react very quickly to climate change in terms of activity densities, which in turn might influence diversity due to shifts in abundance patterns. Finally, we devised methodological improvements that may further enhance the validity of future studies. PMID:23956202

  12. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COLLECTED SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES IN PLUM ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the observations made in a plum fruit growing plantation in the years 2013 and 2014, belonging Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi within USAMV, Iasi County, at the Stanley variety. The material gathering it was made using soil traps type Barber, from May until August, at intervals between 10 and 20 days. The collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 30.05, 15.06, 28.06, 12.07, 26.07, 10.08 and 24.08. In total 2013 were collected 151 species belonging to 19 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Heteroptera species (bedbugs with 28 species, Dermestes laniarius L. with 27 species, Coccinella septempunctata L. with 27 species, Polydrosus sericeus Schall. with 15 species and Harpalus calceatus Duft. with 11 species. The collection of biological material in 2014 was made on the following dates: 19.05, 10.06, 29.06, 16.07, 06.08. In total in 2014 it was collected 402 species belonging to 29 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Pseudophonus rufipes De Geer with 86 species, Harpalus distinguendus Duft. 68 species, Pseudephonus griseus Payk. 38 species, Orthoptera (locusts species with 33 species and Hymenoptera (ants species with 20 species.

  13. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING EXISTING INVERTEBRATES FROM PLUM ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made during the two years, 2013 and 2014 in a plantation belonging plum fruit growing from Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi of USAMV Iasi, Iasi County Rivers Early variety.Collecting the material was done with traps type Barber from May until August at intervals between 10 and 20 days. Collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 20.05, 30.05, 15.06, 5.07, 25.07, 10.08 and 23.08.In total 2013 were collected 265 samples belonging to 22 species (taxa. Species (taxa with the largest number of samples collected were Dermestes laniarius L. 42 samples Heteroptera. (bedbugs with 38 samples, and Polydrosus sericeus Schall. 26 samples. In 2014 collection of the biological material was made on the following dates: 07.05, 21.05, 19.06, 08.07, 27.07, 15.08, 04.09. In total in 2014 were collected 744 samples belonging to 41 species (taxa with the highest number of samples were colected: Hymenoptera (bees with 92 saples, Orthoptera (locusts with 87 samples, Lepidoptera (larvae with 37samplres, and Homoptera (cycads with 31samples.

  14. Wolbachia symbiosis and insect immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanos Siozios; Panagiotis Sapountzis; Panagiotis Ioannidis; Kostas Bourtzis

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial intracellular symbiosis is very common in insects, having significant consequences in promoting the evolution of life and biodiversity. The bacterial group that has recently attracted particular attention is Wolbachia pipientis which probably represents the most ubiquitous endosymbiont on the planet. W. pipientis is a Gram-negative obligatory intracellular and maternally transmitted α-proteobacterium, that is able to establish symbiotic associations with arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, Wolbachia pipientis infections have been described in Arachnida, in Isopoda and mainly in Insecta. They have been reported in almost all major insect orders including Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera,Hymenoptera, Orthoptera and Lepidoptera. To enhance its transmission, W. pipientis can manipulate host reproduction by inducing parthenogenesis, feminization, male killing and cytoplasmic incompatibility. Several polymerase chain reaction surveys have indicated that up to 70% of all insect species may be infected with W. pipientis. How does W. pipientis manage to get established in diverse insect host species? How is this intracellular bacterial symbiont species so successful in escaping the host immune response? The present review presents recent advances and ongoing scientific efforts in the field. The current body of knowledge in the field is summarized, revelations from the available genomic information are presented and as yet unanswered questions are discussed in an attempt to present a comprehensive picture of the unique ability of W. pipientis to establish symbiosis and to manipulate reproduction while evading the host's immune system.

  15. Diet of Monodelphis glirina (Mammalia: Didelphidae in forest fragments in southern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welvis Felipe Fernandes Castilheiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the diet of Monodelphis glirina (Wagner, 1842 in forest fragments of Alta Floresta, located in the south of the Amazon, state of Mato Grosso. The diet was determined by the analysis of the stomach contents from 57 subjects sampled between May and September 2009. Nine food categories were present: Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Diplopoda, Nematoda, seeds, miscellaneous, hair and bait leftovers (banana and peanut butter. Coleoptera was the category eaten most frequently, rating 50% of abundance and 91.22% of occurrence. "Seeds" were the least abundant (0.11% and rated 1.75% in occurrence, probably because seeds are easy to digest. The size of the fragments negatively and significantly influenced the amount of Coleoptera in the diet. The rainy season seemed to have significant influence over the abundance of arthropods in the diet. The items in the diet suggest that M. glirina is opportunistic and has a generalist diet, tending to be insectivore when living in the forest and exploring the food resources according to their availability.

  16. The function of the cercal sensory system in escape behavior of the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus Krauss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, S

    2000-01-01

    Long cerci of cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus Krauss (Rhaphidophoridae, Orthoptera) are, in contrast to other investigated species, oriented perpendicularly to the ground. Behavioural experiments indicated that cave crickets detect wind direction and respond to stimulation by jumping away from the stimulus. Directed wind puffs deflect filiform sensory hairs on the cerci, trigger physiological responses of their sensory neurons and change activity of interneurons that control the escape direction. Two local interneuron pairs, one non-spiking and one spiking, were identified using intracellular recording and subsequent dye injection techniques. The non-spiking interneuron responds to the puffs from sides with a large depolarization and to the puffs from the front and back of the animal with a small depolarization. After stimulation from the ipsilateral side the spiking interneuron responds with a burst of spikes at the onset of stimulation and, after stimulation from the contralateral side, it responds with a burst of spikes at the onset and at the end of the stimulation.

  17. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae.

  18. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  19. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along

  20. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

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    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de

  1. THE PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF HIGHER ORTHOPTERAN CATEGORIES INFERRED FROM 18S RRNA GENE SEQUENCES%基于18S rRNA基因序列的直翅目主要类群系统发育关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晓阳; 周志军; 黄原; 石福明

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of higher Orthoptera taxa were reconstructed based on the complete sequence of 18S rRNA gene of 78 species. The result shows that the monophyly of Orthoptera can be supported while the monophyly of Caelifera and Ensifera are rejected; the phylogenetic positions of most superfamilies, excluding Eumastacoidea and Acridoidea, are congruent with the Otte' s classification system, and the monophyly of Eumastacoidea is rejected. Acrididae, Catantopidae, Oedipodidae, Arcypteridae and Gomphoceridae in Xia' s taxonomic systematics are not monophyletic groups, and genetic distances in the five groups are rather small, so the fivefamilies should be combined into one family, the Acrididae. The subfamilies in Tetrigoidea and Tettigonioidae in Otte' s taxonomic system should be treated as families according to 18S rRNA data. The complete sequence of 18S rRNA gene can be used in classification at the taxonomic category of family; when the genetic distances between different categories in one sister group on the same clade greater than 1 % , they should be divided into different families. But due to its conservation, the 18S rRNA gene can be used only in inferring the relationship of class and order. The relationship of lower superfamily inferred from 18S rRNA gene is not reliable.%基于78种直翅目昆虫的18S rRNA基因全序列构建了直翅目各主要类群间的系统发育关系.本研究的结果支持直翅目的单系性,但不支持蝗亚目和螽亚目各自的单系性;直翅目下除蜢总科和蝗总科外各总科的划分多数与Otte系统相一致;蜢总科的单系性得不到支持;蝗总科的剑角蝗科、斑腿蝗科、斑翅蝗科、网翅蝗科和槌角蝗科5科均不是单系群,各物种间的遗传距离差异不大,应合并为一科,即蝗科;本研究支持将Otte系统中蚱总科和螽蟖总科下各亚科级阶元提升为科级阶元;18S rRNA基因全序列可以作为划分科级阶元的工具,

  2. Food content of refuse piles of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE)%红火蚁弃尸堆的食物结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许益镌; 曾玲; 陆永跃; 梁广文

    2009-01-01

    Refuse piles of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invcta Buren, were collected from four typical habitats in South China: litchi orchard, nursery, wasteland and roadside, and analyzed to learn seasonal food content fluctuation of this ant. The result showed that the refuse piles had a wide variety of solid particles including 41 species of insect fragments and seeds from 8 orders in total. Coleopterans were the dominant components in all of the habitats accounting 69.05%, 41.7%, 51.8% and 66.67% in litchi orchard, nursery, wasteland and roadside respectively. Homoptera was the least common preys which was only found in the wasteland composing 1.20%. The Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, seeds, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Isoptera and Odonata preys comprised 14.92, 11.96, 11.66, 2.08, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.60%, respectively. Adult fragments were the main parts in refuse piles with few insect larval or pupal fragments found. The numbers of prey species discovered in refuse piles were similar among habitats, but the composition of the species and their quantity were different. It showed obvious seasonal fluctuations of the forage items with two foraging active periods occurring from April to May and from September to October.%通过对红火蚁弃尸堆进行收集、整理、鉴定和分析,研究了自然条件下华南地区典型生境中红火蚁食物结构的季节性变化.结果表明:红火蚁弃尸堆中主要包括了8个目的昆虫和种子共41个种类.其中鞘翅目Coleoptera昆虫的出现频率最高,在4个生境荔枝园、苗圃、荒地、公路路边中分别为69.05%、41.7%、51.8%和66.67%;同翅目Homoptera昆虫出现频率最低,只在荒地中发现占1.20%.其余依次为膜翅目Hymenoptera(14.92%)、半翅目Hemiptera(11.96%)、种子(11.66%)、直翅目Orthoptera(2.08%)、鳞翅目Lepidoptera(0.60%)、等翅目Isoptera(0.60%)和蜻蜓目Odonata(0.60%).弃尸堆中的昆虫碎片以成虫为主,蛹和幼虫较少.不同生境弃尸堆内红火

  3. 双斑蟋复眼和视叶的显微结构%The fine structure of the compound eye and optic lobe of the two-spotted cricketGryllus bimaculatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那宇鹏; 冷雪; 那杰

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] To investigate the important neural structures of insect visual signal processing by observing and describing the histological structural features of the compound eyesand optic lobesof the cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). [Methods] The histological structure of the compound eye and optic lobe of 30 crickets was observed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and histological biopsy techniques.[Results] The compound eye was comprised of about 3 400 small hexagonal eyes. In the gaps between the small eyes, there are mechanoreceptors, which are sensory hair and bell-shaped receptors. Each small eye is comprised of a cornea, crystalline cone, rhabdome, 6 retinal cells and basement membrane, etc. The optic lobe has two fan-shaped structures and is comprised of three major networks of nerve fibers, the ganglion layer, outer medulla and inner medulla.[Conclusion] There are a few sensory hairs and bell-shaped receptors on the surface of the compound eyes of crickets. Each small eye is comprised of a cornea, crystalline cone, rhabdome, 6 retinal cells, basement membrane, etc. and the arrangement of small eyes is juxtaposed. The optic lobe is comprised of three major networks of nerve fibers.%【目的】为探索昆虫视觉信号处理的重要神经结构,详细观察和描述了直翅目(Orthoptera)蟋蟀科(Gryllidae)代表性昆虫双斑蟋Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer复眼和视叶的组织学结构特征。【方法】利用扫描电镜技术和组织学切片技术,观察分析了30只双斑蟋的复眼和视叶组织学结构。【结果】双斑蟋复眼约有3400个小眼,均为六边形结构,小眼间隙内分布有机械感受器——感觉毛和钟形感受器。每个小眼均由角膜、晶锥、感杆束、6个网膜细胞及基膜等构成。视叶呈两个扇形结构,由三大神经纤维网构成,分别为神经节层、外髓、内髓。【结论】双斑蟋复眼表面具有少量感觉毛和钟形感受器,每个

  4. Summer feeding ecology of Great Pampa-finches, Embernagra platensis at Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Ferman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assemble data on the summer feeding ecology of the Great Pampa-finch, Embernagra platensis at the Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to explore the differences related to the dietary patterns for each sex between winter and summer when possible. The stomach contents of 43 birds were analyzed. The animal fraction was composed of Hymenoptera (45.1%, Coleoptera (32.4%, Lepidoptera (6.0%, Araneae (5% and Orthoptera (3.2%. The application of the index of relative importance (IRI resulted in 1490.4 for Coleoptera, 428.5 for Hymenoptera and 162.5 for Lepidoptera caterpillars. The vegetal fraction consisted of Triticum aestivum (26.9%, Cyperaceous (25%, Poaceae (Gramineae (19.3% and Panicum sp. (11.2%. The IRI values were 893.8 for Triticum aestivum, 174.5 for Gramineae, 126.5 for Panicum sp. and 112.8 for Scirpus sp. The food niche width was 0.33 for both sexes; the diversity index resulted in 1.06 for females and 1.33 for males and specific diversity ranged from 1.87 to 2.84. A canonical component analysis (CCA was performed on environmental and morphometric variables, and a Monte Carlo test confirmed the canonical correlations. A t-test showed that some birds harmonized with a logarithmic model and some with a geometric curve. During the summer, Embernagra platensis ingests Hymenoptera and Coleoptera more often than seeds, suggesting that two biological mechanisms could be taking place in this bird.O objetivo deste estudo foi reunir dados referentes à ecologia alimentar do Sabiá-do-banhado, Embernagra platensis, na laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, e explorar as diferenças relacionadas aos padrões dietéticos para cada sexo entre inverno e verão, quando possível. O conteúdo estomacal de 43 pássaros foi analisado. A fração animal foi composta por Hymenoptera (45,1%, Coleoptera (32,4%, Lepidoptera(6,0%, Araneae (5% e Orthoptera (3,2%. A aplicação do índice de importância relativa (IRI

  5. Difficulties and Successes in the Mass Rearing of Insects in the Laboratory, and the Possibility of Autocidal Control of some Harmful Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical development of the sterile-male release technique, as indeed of all methods of autocidal control of harmful insects, is limited by the difficulties of mass rearing in artificial conditions. However, analysis of cases of the successful solution of this problem for a number of types of Diptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera gives an indication of possible ways of setting up large-scale rearing of the insects required. The most difficult problem, that of ensuring a suitable food supply for the insects at any time of the year, is being successfully overcome as a result of the progress made in producing synthetic and semi- synthetic nutrient media, which have been developed both for semi-saprophytic and for herbivorous and predacious species. The choice of recipes for such nutrients is determined by correct selection of the necessary ingredients, above all vitamins, free amino acids and sterols; the proper quantitative proportion between these substances and between the basic components of the food — proteins, fats and hydrocarbons — is of the greatest importance. The amount of work involved in insect rearing depends on what means are used for sterilizing the containers and for preventing the nutrient medium from decaying. One way in which these problems have been solved is by the development of a dried nutrient medium in powder form; this has been successfully used for rearing the migratory locust in the USSR. For a number of harmful species of Lepidoptera, it has been shown possible to rear the insects in a closed, sealed container. In this case a supply of nutrient medium is provided adequate to ensure the insects' development from, the time the eggs or caterpillars are deposited until the imago of the new generation emerges. This approach greatly simplifies the whole process of mass rearing. Many species of insects can be reared on grain or plant seeds which are less subject to decay during prolonged storage. Another important problem is that of

  6. Análise citológica e cariométrica da ação da colchina sôbre a espermatogênese dos hemípteros Cytologic and caryometric analysis of the action of colchicine on the spermatogenesis in hemiptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schreiber

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available The action of colchicine upon the spermatogenesis of Triatoma infestans, (Hemipt. Heteroptera, has been studied and the different categories of giant spermatids that appear during the treatment have been compared with the nuclear volumes of the whole series of normal spermatogenetic stages. The following facts have been ascertained: 1 4 hours after the treatment the gonial mitotic metaphases, and the 1st. and 2nd. metaphases of meiosis are stopped. The prophasic stages of meiosis and diakynesis appear to be normal. After 9 days of treatment, all the tetrads are broken in the meiotic metaphases and the cells appear with 44 and 22 chromosomes respectively, scattered in the cytoplasm. 2 At 9 days, practically all spermatogenetic stages have disappeared except for a few cysts of spermatogonia, and practically the whole testicle is full of cysts of spermatozoa and spermatid, with some large zones of necrosis with pycnotic nuclei. The spermatids appear to be of different sizes and the statistical analysis of the nuclear volumes gives a polymodal hystogram with 4 modes, whose volumes are in the ratio of 1:2:4:8. Ripe spermatozoa seem to have a certain volume variability, that has not been possible to analyse quantitatively. All these facts confirm what DOOLEY found in the colchicinized Orthoptera testicle. 3 The caryometric analysis conducted statistically on the normal stages of the spermatogenesis (resting spermatogonia, gonial prophases, leptotene, "confused stage", diakynesis, and spermatid revealed the following facts: a Considering the volume of the resting, spermatogonia as 1, their mitotic prophases have a volume of 2. Some rare prophases appear to have a volume of 4 and probably belong to tetraployd spermatogonia normally present in the testicle of Hemiptera. b The first spermatocyte at the beginning of the auxocitary growth (leptotene has a volume of 2, which is equal to that of them gonial prophase. It grows further during the "confused

  7. Composición, riqueza de especies y abundancia de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna asociados a Aristotelia chilensis (maqui en el bosque maulino fragmentado Composition, species richness and abundance of nocturnal folivorous insects associated with Aristotelia chilensis (maqui in the fragmented Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIERA DE LA VEGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el bosque maulino, la herbivoría sobre Aristotelia chilensis (maqui es negativamente afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, siendo mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, particularmente a inicios de la temporada de crecimiento. Este fenómeno puede deberse a cambios en la dinámica de las poblaciones de defoliadores, esencialmente insectos. En este trabajo se evaluó la abundancia, riqueza de especies y composición de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna presentes en A. chilensis en un bosque continuo (600 ha y en ocho fragmentos remanentes (0,4-20 ha. Los muéstreos se realizaron mensualmente, entre agosto de 2005 y febrero de 2006, en 32 ejemplares adultos de A. chilensis en el bosque continuo y en 32 ejemplares en los fragmentos. Los insectos fueron muestreados durante las cinco primeras horas de la noche. Se recolectaron 890 insectos defoliadores, pertenecientes a 17 familias y 77 especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Coleóptera, Orthoptera y Lepidoptera, siendo todas nativas. La abundancia total no varió según el habitat. Sin embargo, la fragmentación incrementó o disminuyó la abundancia de algunas especies. La riqueza de especies por árbol tampoco fue afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, aunque el número total de especies fue considerablemente mayor en los fragmentos que en el bosque continuo. La similitud de especies fue mayor dentro del bosque continuo que entre el bosque continuo y los fragmentos o que entre los fragmentos. A principios de la temporada de crecimiento de A. chilensis (septiembre, la abundancia de Sericoides obesa fue significativamente mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos. Al avanzar en la temporada, Sericoides viridis se hizo más abundante en los fragmentos. Por el tamaño y la voracidad de los insectos del género Sericoides ellos serían los principales responsables de los patrones de defoliación de A. chilensis en el bosque maulino.At the Maulino forest

  8. 基于线粒体COI基因全序列的直翅目部分类群系统发育关系分析%Phylogenetic relationship among some groups of orthopteran based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红娟; 黄原

    2012-01-01

    Complete sequences of the COI gene were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship among 56 species from Orthoptera. We also analyzed the reliability of Orthoptera phylogenetic relationship using translated amino acid sequences of the COI genes. The COI sequences were divided into three data sets on the basis of different codon positions to calculate the Partitioned Bremer support (PBS), and to test the phylogenetic signal in different codon positions of protein-coding genes. The result supports the monophyly of Caelifera and Ensifera; but the monophyly of Acrididae, Catantopidae, Oedipodidae, Arcypteridae and Gomphoceridae are not supported. The P-distances among families vary from 0.107 to 0.153, which are smaller than those of other families, being consist with the classification that these 5 families should be merged into one family (Acrididae). Chrotogonidae and Pyrgomorphidae belong to the superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea. Pamphagidae should be a family alone consistent with Otte's taxonomic system. According to the PBS values, the 3rd and 1st codon positions contribution more for the Phylogenetic tree branches than the 2nd, and longer sequences contain more informative sites. We further demonstrated that it is feasible for phylogenetic studies at family level to use the genetic distances among COI sequences from different species of Orthopera.%该研究基于直翅目56种昆虫的COI基因全序列构建了该目部分类群间的系统发育关系,同时也分析了COI基因编码的氨基酸序列构建直翅目系统发育关系的可靠性.将COI序列按照密码子一、二、三位点划分,分别计算PBS(partioned Bremer support)值,评估蛋白质编码基因密码子不同位点的系统发生信号强度.分析结果支持螽亚目和蝗亚目的单系性;剑角蝗科、斑腿蝗科、斑翅蜱科、网翅蝗科和槌角蝗科5科均不是单系群,科间的遗传距离在0.107~0.153之间变化,与其他科相比

  9. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P TORRETTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.

  10. No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species.

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    Agnieszka H Malinowska

    Full Text Available Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i trends in distribution patterns, (ii the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity, or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat. Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.

  11. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  12. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  13. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlaine A Menezes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  14. Diverse Effects of a Seven-Year Experimental Grassland Fragmentation on Major Invertebrate Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschler, Brigitte; Baur, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but observed effects vary and may depend on the group examined. Time since fragmentation may explain some differences between taxonomical groups, as some species and thus species composition respond with a delay to changes in their environment. Impacts of drivers of global change may thus be underestimated in short-term studies. In our study we experimentally fragmented nutrient-poor dry calcareous grasslands and studied the response of species richness, individual density and species composition of various groups of invertebrates (gastropods, ants, ground beetles, rove beetles, orthoptera, spiders, woodlice) in 12 small (1.5 m * 1.5 m) and 12 large (4.5 m * 4.5 m) fragments and their corresponding control plots after 7 years. We further examined responses to fragmentation in relation to body size and habitat preferences. Responses to fragmentation varied between taxonomical groups. While spider species richness and individual density were lower in fragments, the opposite was true for an orthopteran species and woodlice. Species composition and β-diversity differed between fragments and control plots for some groups. However, the interaction treatment*plot size was rarely significant. Species with high occupancy rates in undisturbed control plots responded more negatively to the fragmentation, while species with large body size were relatively more abundant in fragments in some groups. No effect of the fragmentation was found for ants, which may have the longest lag times because of long-lived colonies. However, relationships between abundance and the species' preferences for environmental factors affected by edge effects indicate that ant diversity too may be affected in the longer-term. Our results show the importance of considering different groups in conservation management in times of widespread fragmentation of landscapes. While species richness may respond slowly, changes in abundance related to

  15. Diverse Effects of a Seven-Year Experimental Grassland Fragmentation on Major Invertebrate Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Braschler

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but observed effects vary and may depend on the group examined. Time since fragmentation may explain some differences between taxonomical groups, as some species and thus species composition respond with a delay to changes in their environment. Impacts of drivers of global change may thus be underestimated in short-term studies. In our study we experimentally fragmented nutrient-poor dry calcareous grasslands and studied the response of species richness, individual density and species composition of various groups of invertebrates (gastropods, ants, ground beetles, rove beetles, orthoptera, spiders, woodlice in 12 small (1.5 m * 1.5 m and 12 large (4.5 m * 4.5 m fragments and their corresponding control plots after 7 years. We further examined responses to fragmentation in relation to body size and habitat preferences. Responses to fragmentation varied between taxonomical groups. While spider species richness and individual density were lower in fragments, the opposite was true for an orthopteran species and woodlice. Species composition and β-diversity differed between fragments and control plots for some groups. However, the interaction treatment*plot size was rarely significant. Species with high occupancy rates in undisturbed control plots responded more negatively to the fragmentation, while species with large body size were relatively more abundant in fragments in some groups. No effect of the fragmentation was found for ants, which may have the longest lag times because of long-lived colonies. However, relationships between abundance and the species' preferences for environmental factors affected by edge effects indicate that ant diversity too may be affected in the longer-term. Our results show the importance of considering different groups in conservation management in times of widespread fragmentation of landscapes. While species richness may respond slowly, changes in

  16. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-Barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Beier, John C; Smith, Michal L; Scott, Jodi M; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Hausmann, Axel; Yefremova, Zoya A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-03-01

    The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: >70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Aedes. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and >50% reduction for Anopheles crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Culex erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries.

  17. Natural Cross Chlamydial Infection between Livestock and Free-Living Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Jesús A.; Fargallo, Juan A.; Vergara, Pablo; Parejo, Deseada; Banda, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser (Falco naumanni) kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus), an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae) and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species. PMID:20976071

  18. The Mormon cricket, an old threat in modern day western USA:A search for fungal pathogens%美国西部重要害虫摩门螽斯病原真菌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐诺德·罗伯茨; Drauzio E N Rangel; Chad A Keyser; Helen G Bignayan; Seth J Dettenmaier; Everton K K Fernandes; Mark P Miller; Edward W Evans

    2007-01-01

    The Mormon cricket (MC),Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera:Tettigoniidae),has a long and negative history with agriculture in the western states of the USA where MC often migrates in large groups and causes significant damage to forage plants and cultivated crops.In this review, virulence to MC of isolates of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae varieties acridum and anisopliae were compared in an effort to identify isolates with promise for use as MC biological control agents.All of the isolates tested induced 100% or nearly 100% mortality by six days post application of the fungal conidia.Searches for new Metarhizium isolates with high heat and UV-B tolerance included isolation fungi from field-caught MC and grasshopper after they died in the laboratory and culturing fungi from soil samples collected from numerous western USA sites.The survey was preceded by development of a dodine based selective medium that,at 0.002% active ingredient,permitted growth of M.anisopliae var.acridum,but inhibited most contaminating fungi.The M.anisopliae var.acridum isolates examined to date have much higher tolerance to heat and UV-B irradiation than M.anisopliae var.anisopliae isolates,and this may be critical to successful field applications.The variety acridum has not yet been found in the USA,so our search for such isolates continues.Several new M.anisopliae var.anisopliae and Beauveria spp.were found,and the Metarhizium isolates are being characterized as to stress tolerance and virulence to insects.Characterization includes comparisons of new and pre-existing Metarhizium isolates by amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.Finally, experiments on MC developmental biology were conducted to gather data needed to develop a degree day model and to establish laboratory colonies of MC.

  19. Dynamic and Impact of Major Insect Pests on Jatropha curcas L. in two Cropping Systems with Contrasting Characteristics in the Province of Kinshasa (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minengu, JD.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic and impact of the major insect pests on Jatropha curcas L. were studied on two plantations located in the province of Kinshasa, the first in pure stand without irrigation (Mbankana site, the second under irrigation in combination with other crops (N'sele site. In Mbankana, after being planted during the long rainy season (October-December, the plants suffer significant attacks by crickets Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, which cause a mortality rate of 10-40%. The first half of October and second half of December are the best planting periods when it comes to limiting these losses. At N'sele, cricket attacks during planting are controlled by the farmers who eat these insects. After being planted at both sites, the plants are attacked by leaf miner caterpillars Stomphastis thraustica Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae and flea beetles Aphthona sp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, which consume the leaf blades and buds. The size of these two pest populations and resulting damage reach a peak during the wettest time of year. On adult plants at N'sele, insect pests observed include flea beetles, leaf miners, and shield-backed bugs Calidea sp. (Heteroptera, Scutelleridae. These bugs cause damage to flowers and capsules. In the absence of insecticide treatments, yield losses reached 90% in Mbankana and 60% in N'sele. The discussion focuses on what causes the different pest impact levels recorded between the cropping systems and methods used to limit the main types of damage caused by insects on J. curcas in the Kinshasa region.

  20. Effects of habitat composition on the use of resources by the red fox in a semi arid environment of North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Arte, Graziella L.; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2005-09-01

    The red fox Vulpes vulpes is considered an opportunistic predator able to avoid prey shortages by exploiting a wide range of available food resources. However, as predicted by the Resources Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH), the distribution of other key resources such as suitable areas for dens can affect fox populations. Furthermore, in insularity conditions, resources are spatially limited and their availability is greatly influenced by territory sizes and the feeding habits of predators. In this paper we report the spatial use and foraging habits of foxes in three habitats (grassland, cultivation and suburban) of a sub-arid island off north Africa in relation to habitat composition and food availability. We found that diet composition in a gross sense did not differ significantly among habitats, with insects comprising > 48% and fruits 25% of the total prey items. Grasslands offered temporary clumped food resources (e.g. birds) that induced foxes to increase their territory sizes and to enlarge their diet range during prey shortages. Inversely, in cultivated and suburban areas, the main prey (insects) were more evenly distributed, especially in olive groves which constitute the most extensive form of cultivation on the island. In large areas covered by olive trees, the high availability of Coleoptera spp. significantly reduced core areas used by foxes and also distances among dens. Palm groves were patchy on the island but contained high densities of Orthoptera spp. and date fruits which represent alternative food sources. Thus, these patches are attractive foraging places, but a modification of the perimeter of fox territories was necessary for their exploitation. Our study confirmed that in this arid environment, habitat composition per se affected a generalist predator less than the dispersion of its main prey. In addition, the patchy distribution of resources can assume a role in the spacing and feeding behaviours of foxes only in relation to clumped alternative

  1. Molecular detection of invertebrate prey in vertebrate diets: trophic ecology of Caribbean island lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartzinel, Tyler R; Pringle, Robert M

    2015-07-01

    Understanding community assembly and population dynamics frequently requires detailed knowledge of food web structure. For many consumers, obtaining precise information about diet composition has traditionally required sacrificing animals or other highly invasive procedures, generating tension between maintaining intact study populations and knowing what they eat. We developed 16S mitochondrial DNA sequencing methods to identify arthropods in the diets of generalist vertebrate predators without requiring a blocking primer. We demonstrate the utility of these methods for a common Caribbean lizard that has been intensively studied in the context of small island food webs: Anolis sagrei (a semi-arboreal 'trunk-ground' anole ecomorph). Novel PCR primers were identified in silico and tested in vitro. Illumina sequencing successfully characterized the arthropod component of 168 faecal DNA samples collected during three field trips spanning 12 months, revealing 217 molecular operational taxonomic units (mOTUs) from at least nine arthropod orders (including Araneae, Blattodea, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera). Three mOTUs (one beetle, one cockroach and one ant) were particularly frequent, occurring in ≥50% of samples, but the majority of mOTUs were infrequent (180, or 83%, occurred in ≤5% of samples). Species accumulation curves showed that dietary richness and composition were similar between size-dimorphic sexes; however, female lizards had greater per-sample dietary richness than males. Overall diet composition (but not richness) was significantly different across seasons, and we found more pronounced interindividual variation in December than in May. These methods will be generally useful in characterizing the diets of diverse insectivorous vertebrates. PMID:25545675

  2. Soil Fauna Diversity of the Rape (Brassica napus) Land in the Suburb of Chengdu City%成都市郊油菜地土壤动物群落多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大星; 吴鹏飞; 陈智华

    2009-01-01

    为研究成都平原农田生态系统的土壤动物多样性,2008年4月对成都市郊区油菜地的土壤动物群落进行了调查,共捕获土壤动物427只,隶属于10纲,20类群(目).其中,大型土壤动物有12个类群(目),优势类群为大蚓类(Megadrile oligochaetes)、蜘蛛目(Aranene)、鞘翅目成虫(Coleoptera adult)和直翅目(Orthoptera),个体数占大型土壤动物总个体数的77.32 %;中小型土壤动物有11个类群(目),线虫(Nematode)、线蚓类(Microdrile)和弹尾目(Collembola)为优势类群,占中小型土壤动物总个体数的85.46 %.大型土壤动物的Shannon-wiener指数、Pielou均匀度指数和Margalef丰富度指数高于中小型土壤动物,Simpson优势度指数则低于中小型土壤动物.大型和中小型土壤动物的个体数和类群数在0~5 cm与5~10 cm之间差异较大,5~10 cm与10~15 cm层之间变化不显著.

  3. Genetic variation for parental effects on the propensity to gregarise in Locusta migratoria

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    Foucart Antoine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental parental effects can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences, yet little is known about genetic variation among populations in the plastic responses of offspring phenotypes to parental environmental conditions. This type of variation may lead to rapid phenotypic divergence among populations and facilitate speciation. With respect to density-dependent phenotypic plasticity, locust species (Orthoptera: family Acrididae, exhibit spectacular developmental and behavioural shifts in response to population density, called phase change. Given the significance of phase change in locust outbreaks and control, its triggering processes have been widely investigated. Whereas crowding within the lifetime of both offspring and parents has emerged as a primary causal factor of phase change, less is known about intraspecific genetic variation in the expression of phase change, and in particular in response to the parental environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment that explicitly controlled for the environmental effects of parental rearing density. This design enabled us to compare the parental effects on offspring expression of phase-related traits between two naturally-occurring, genetically distinct populations of Locusta migratoria that differed in their historical patterns of high population density outbreak events. Results We found that locusts from a historically outbreaking population of L. migratoria expressed parentally-inherited density-dependent phase changes to a greater degree than those from a historically non-outbreaking population. Conclusion Because locusts from both populations were raised in a common environment during our experiment, a genetically-based process must be responsible for the observed variation in the propensity to express phase change. This result emphasizes the importance of genetic factors in the expression of phase traits and calls for further investigations on density

  4. Preliminary investigation of insect diversity in the North Luo-River basin%北洛河流域的昆虫多样性初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文宾; 吴敏丽; 廉振民; 王云龙; 肖金学

    2009-01-01

    Conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity have become a hot issue in the conservation of global environment, in which insect diversity is an important part. The preliminary investigation on insect diversity was conducted in North Luo-River basin, and the community structure of insects (13 orders,, 96 families, and 346 species) was analyzed integrating associated literatures. The results showed that the orders with large proportion of insects included Coleoptera (33.62%), Lepidoptera (25.80%) and Orthoptera (15.65%), and the other orders accounted for less than 10% . The phytophagous species accounted for 58.26% , and the predatory species accounted for only 14.20% . Activities of insects were most frequently in June & July, and then, with time elapsing, the number of insects was gradually reduced. The results from the example of Tenebrionidae showed that Tenebrionidae in Wuqi had the highest values of Shannon-Wiener diversity, Margalef abundance and Pielou uniformity among the investigated locations, but the lowest value of Simpson dominance, which was highest in Luochuan.%报道北洛河流域昆虫多样性的初步调查结果,同时结合文献资料分析北洛河流域13目96科346种昆虫的群落结构.研究表明,数量较多的有鞘翅目(33.62%)、鳞翅目(25.80%)、直翅目(15.65%),其它各目种类所占比例都小于10%,其中植食性类群占58.26%,而捕食性类群只占14.20%,同时6~7月份昆虫活动最频繁,之后随时间推移,昆虫数量逐渐减少.以拟步甲科为例的分析结果显示,吴起的拟步甲多样性指数、丰富度指数和均匀度指数均为最高,而优势度指数最低,洛川优势度指数最高.

  5. 扎龙湿地不同生境的昆虫多样性%Insect diversity of different habitat types in Zhalong Wetland, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾伟; 马玲; 丁新华; 张静; 韩争伟

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨湿地不同生境对昆虫物种多样性的影响,对扎龙湿地8种生境的昆虫进行了系统调查.共捕获昆虫5822只,分属11目58科143种,其中直翅目、双翅目、蜻蜒目为扎龙湿地的优势类群.不同生境中,草原草甸昆虫多样性最高,湖边生境多样性指数和均匀度指数均较高,杂草甸均最低.聚类分析和主分量分析结果表明,不同生境的昆虫群落相似性与水资源状况和植被类型有关,捕食性类群种类数和个体数量对昆虫群落稳定性具有重要的调控作用.湖边生境昆虫群落稳定性最强,湿草甸稳定性最弱.湿地水资源状况能影响昆虫生存生境,进而影响昆虫群落的组成和分布格局.%In order to approach the effects of different habitat types in wetland on insect diversity, an investigation was conducted on the insects in eight types of habitats in Zhalong Wetland. A total of 5822 insects were collected, belonging to 143 species, 58 families, and 11 orders, among which, Orthoptera, Dipteral and Odonata were the dominant taxa. The species diversity was the highest in grassland meadow, and the Shannon diversity index and evenness index were higher in lakeside but the lowest in wet meadow. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that the similarity of the insect community in the habitats was related to the water source status and vegetation type, and the species and individual number of predatory taxa had important regulation effects on the insect community stability. Lakeside had the strongest insect community stability, while wet meadow had the weakest one, indicating that habitat water source status could affect in-sect survival, and further, affect the species composition and distribution pattern of insect community.

  6. Effects of land-use intensity on arthropod species abundance distributions in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Nadja K; Gossner, Martin M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Lange, Markus; Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    As a rule, communities consist of few abundant and many rare species, which is reflected in the characteristic shape of species abundance distributions (SADs). The processes that shape these SADs have been a longstanding problem for ecological research. Although many studies found strong negative effects of increasing land-use intensity on diversity, few reports consider land-use effects on SADs. Arthropods (insects and spiders) were sampled on 142 grassland plots in three regions in Germany, which were managed with different modes (mowing, fertilization and/or grazing) and intensities of land use. We analysed the effect of land use on three parameters characterizing the shape of SADs: abundance decay rate (the steepness of the rank abundance curve, represented by the niche-preemption model parameter), dominance (Berger-Parker dominance) and rarity (Fisher's alpha). Furthermore, we tested the core-satellite hypothesis by comparing the species' rank within the SAD to their distribution over the land-use gradient. When data on Araneae, Cicadina, Coleoptera, Heteroptera and Orthoptera were combined, abundance decay rate increased with combined land-use intensity (including all modes). Among the single land-use modes, increasing fertilization and grazing intensity increased the decay rate of all taxa, while increasing mowing frequency significantly affected the decay rate only in interaction with fertilization. Results of single taxa differed in their details, but all significant interaction effects included fertilization intensity. Dominance generally increased with increasing fertilization and rarity decreased with increasing grazing or mowing intensity, despite small differences among taxa and regions. The majority of species found on <10% of the plots per region were generally rare (<10 individuals), which is in accordance with the core-satellite hypothesis. We found significant differences in the rarity and dominance of species between plots of low and high

  7. Invertebrates on isolated peaks in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

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    Adrian J. Armstrong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey to document and describe the alpine flora and various focal faunal taxa on six isolated inselberg-like peaks (total area of 31.9 ha, all 3000 m or higher, located in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa, was undertaken in early summer in 2005. Study of the fauna of these peaks should be informative because the impacts of controllable anthropogenic threats on the invertebrate communities on them should be minimal or absent in comparison with those on the main massif. A total of 341 invertebrate individuals representing 61 species were recorded from the focal taxa (Oligochaeta, Gastropoda and certain groups of Insecta, i.e. focal taxa within the Blattoidea, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. The 61 species recorded consisted of two species from the Oligochaeta, one species from the Gastropoda and 58 species from the Insecta. Eleven species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are endemic and 11 species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are probably endemic to the Drakensberg Alpine Centre, constituting 36.1% of the total species recorded. The results suggest that the Drakensberg Alpine Centre (DAC, as for plants, is a centre of endemism for invertebrates. Cluster analysis showed that the species composition of the two northern peaks, Sentinel and Eastern Buttress, clustered together, separate from a cluster formed by the Outer Horn, Inner Horn and Dragon’s Back and from the cluster formed by the southernmost peak, Cathkin. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling results indicated that distance from the Sentinel, the most northerly peak sampled, and mean minimum temperature for July had the strongest correlations with the species data, reflecting change over a straight-line distance of nearly 60 km in a south-easterly direction.Conservation implications: Only a small proportion (ca. 5.5% of the DAC is conserved, the majority of which lies

  8. Challenges and prospects in the telemetry of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Kissling, W; Pattemore, David E; Hagen, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Radio telemetry has been widely used to study the space use and movement behaviour of vertebrates, but transmitter sizes have only recently become small enough to allow tracking of insects under natural field conditions. Here, we review the available literature on insect telemetry using active (battery-powered) radio transmitters and compare this technology to harmonic radar and radio frequency identification (RFID) which use passive tags (i.e. without a battery). The first radio telemetry studies with insects were published in the late 1980s, and subsequent studies have addressed aspects of insect ecology, behaviour and evolution. Most insect telemetry studies have focused on habitat use and movement, including quantification of movement paths, home range sizes, habitat selection, and movement distances. Fewer studies have addressed foraging behaviour, activity patterns, migratory strategies, or evolutionary aspects. The majority of radio telemetry studies have been conducted outside the tropics, usually with beetles (Coleoptera) and crickets (Orthoptera), but bees (Hymenoptera), dobsonflies (Megaloptera), and dragonflies (Odonata) have also been radio-tracked. In contrast to the active transmitters used in radio telemetry, the much lower weight of harmonic radar and RFID tags allows them to be used with a broader range of insect taxa. However, the fixed detection zone of a stationary radar unit (insects with a body mass exceeding 1 g, but smaller species in the range 0.2-0.5 g (e.g. bumblebees and orchid bees) have now also been tracked. Current challenges of radio-tracking insects in the field are related to the constraints of a small transmitter, including short battery life (7-21 days), limited tracking range on the ground (100-500 m), and a transmitter weight that sometimes approaches the weight of a given insect (the ratio of tag mass to body mass varies from 2 to 100%). The attachment of radio transmitters may constrain insect behaviour and incur

  9. High-nickel insects and nickel hyperaccumulator plants:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert S.Boyd

    2009-01-01

    Insects can vary greatly in whole-body elemental concentrations.Recent investigations ofinsects associated with Ni hyperaecumulator plants have identified insects with relatively elevated whole.body N.leveis.Evaluation of the limited data available indicates that a whole-body Ni concentration of 500 μg Ni/g is exceptional:I propose that an insect species with a mean value of 500 μg Ni/g or greater,in either larval/nymphal or of high.Ni insects have been identified to date from studies in Mpurnalanga(South Africa),New Caledonia and California(USA).The highest mean Ni concentration reported is 3 500μg Ni/g for nymphs of a South African Stenoscepa species(Orthoptera:Pyrgomorphidae).The majority of high-Niinsects(66%)are heteropteran herbivores.Studies of high-Ni insect host prefefence indicate they are monophagous(or nearly so)on a particular Nihyperaccurnulator plant species.Much ofthe Ni in bodies of these insects is in their guts(upto 66%-75%),but elevated levels have also been found in Maipighian tubules,suggesting efficient elimination as one strategy for dealing with a high-Ni diet.Tissue levels of Ni are generally much lower than gut concentrations.butupto 1 200μg Ni/g has been reported from exuviae,suggesting that molting may be another pathway of Ni elimination.One ecological function of the high Ni concentration of these insects may be todefend them against natuml enemies.but to date only one experimental test has supported this"elemental defense"hypothesis.Community-level studies indicate that high-Ni insects mobilize Ni into food webs but that bioaccumulation of Ni does not occur at either plant-herbivore or herbivore-predator steps.Unsurprisingly,Ni bioaccumulation indices are greater for high-Ni insects compared to other insect species that feed on Ni hyperaccumulator plants.There is some evidence of Nimobilization into food webs by insect visitors to flowers of Nihyperaccumulator plants.but no high-Ni insect floral visitors have been reported.

  10. 昆虫鸣声通讯研究概述%A Review of the Insect Acoustic Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅亮; 鲁莹; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic communications is one of the most important methods used by insects. Insects used these acoustic signals to attract females, warn others and hide from predators. This paper briefly introduces the studies on insect acoustic communications, and discusses some typical insect acoustic behaviors according to taxonomy, including Acoustic communications in Orthoptera species, Acoustic communications in Cicadidae, Buzz-pollination of Bumble Bees, Acoustic interference to bats in moths and Application studies on acoustic communications. The studies on acoustic communications will not only give us better understanding of phylogeny in insects, but will also provide more theoretical and experimental evidence for the study of information communication patterns in the communications of intro-species, communications of inter-species and the communications between insects and environments.%声学通讯是昆虫通讯交流的主要方式之一.昆虫利用鸣声吸引异性、发出警报、避趋天敌.文中对昆虫的鸣声通讯及其研究内容进行了简要的概述,并以分类学为主线,就几种比较典型的昆虫鸣声通讯行为的研究现状进行了介绍,其中包括:直翅目昆虫的鸣声通讯;蝉科昆虫的鸣声通讯;熊蜂的声振授粉;鳞翅目昆虫对天敌的声学干扰;昆虫鸣声通讯的应用研究.对于昆虫鸣声通讯的研究,不仅对理解昆虫的系统演化具有重要意义,也可为我们更好地理解昆虫种间、种内及其与环境间的信息交流模式提供理论依据与基础实验数据.

  11. Food habits of the stone marten (Martes foina in the upper Aveto Valley (Northern Apennines, Italy

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    Adriano Martinoli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied analysing 63 faeces collected from February 1990 to December 1991. The results were expressed as relative percentage of frequency (Fr% and as percentage of mean bulk (Vm%. Mammals, mainly rodents, were the staple in the diet (annual Vm% = 62.9 and reached a maximum peak in winter (Vm% = 79.4. Vegetables were mostly represented by Rosaceae fruits (annual Vm% = 22.3 and were consumed during all year round. Insects, mainly Coleoptera and Orthoptera, were fairly frequently eaten, although their volume was not remarkable (annual Vm% = 4.1. Birds and garbage were scarcely used. The trophic niche breadth of the stone marten, evaluated using the Levin's index (B, varied from 2.49 in winter to 4.8 in summer. In the same study area the diet of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes was studied. The niche overlap between this canid and the stone marten was not extensive (Op = 0.52; Os = 0.51. Riassunto Indagine sul comportamento trofico della faina (Martes foina in alta Val d'Aveto (Appennino Ligure-Emiliano - La dieta della Faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 63 feci raccolte dal febbraio 1990 al dicembre 1991. I dati ottenuti, espressi come frequenza relativa percentuale (Fr% e come volume medio percentuale (Vm%, evidenziano che i Mammiferi, in particolare i Roditori, sono la componente alimentare principale (Vm% annuale = 62,9, con maggior consumo durante il periodo invernale (Vm% = 79,4. I vegetali, rappresentati per la maggior parte dai frutti delle Rosacee (Vm% annuale = 22,3, sono la seconda categoria trofica per importanza e compaiono per tutto l'arco dell'anno. Gli Insetti, quasi esclusivamente Coleotteri ed Ortotteri, presentano una discreta percentuale di utilizzo (Fr% annuale = 21,2 pur non avendo un'incidenza volumetricamente importante (Vm% annuale = 4,1. Gli Uccelli costituiscono una fonte

  12. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  13. Environmental factors governing population dynamics of rangeland grasshoppers: The first application of GIS and remote sensing to acridology in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchininsky, Alexandre Vsevolodovich

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are pests of rangeland and crops in temperate Eurasia (Siberia) where landscapes are dominated by short-grass vegetation and have many common features with the prairies of the Great Plains of North America. The zone of economic importance of grasshoppers in Siberia is localized in its southern part between 50° and 55°N and 68° and 132°E. In particular, grasshopper infestations are concentrated in close proximity to Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake, holding one-fifth of the Earth's total fresh water supply. From a biodiversity perspective, Lake Baikal is unparalleled because >80% of its 1,085 plant and 1,550 animal species are endemic. Broad-scale pesticide applications in the zone close to the Baikal ecosystem can seriously aggravate the hazards of environmental pollution, with potentially catastrophic consequences on a vast scale. Specific composition and density of grasshopper communities were studied over a variety of habitats. Of about 50 local grasshopper species, two gomphocerines, Aeropus sibiricus and Chorthippus albomarginatus, dominated grasshopper communities in dry and mesic habitats, respectively. These species accounted for the most of the crop damage during recent outbreaks in the 1990s requiring large-scale insecticidal control. Annual fluctuations of grasshopper infestations appeared to track changes in air temperature and summer precipitation, but only a synthetic "Aridity index" was statistically significant. Spatial distribution of historic grasshopper infestations was studied using GIS (ERDAS IMAGINERTM) and remote sensing (Landsat TM satellite imagery) and was found to be significantly clumped. The highest grasshopper densities were associated with dry grasslands in transitional zones between foothills and valleys characterized by a particular elevation (600--650 m), soil type (sod-forest, or pararendzina), amount of April--October precipitation (250 mm) and degree of grazing (moderate

  14. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

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    Mary Jane Epps

    2014-09-01

    relative frequency and distribution of camel crickets living in human homes, and emphasize the importance of the built environment as habitat for two little-known invading species of Orthoptera.

  15. Feeding habits of the crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, in a mosaic area with native and exotic vegetation in Southern Brazil Hábito alimentar do cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, em área de mosaico de vegetação nativa e exótica no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 is the most widespread neotropical canid, most commonly inhabiting forested areas. This animal is a generalist omnivore that is able to use environments disturbed by human activities. The aim of this study was to describe its diet through the stomach content analysis of 30 samples obtained from specimens that were run over in a mosaic composed by Araucaria Pine Forest, Semidecidual Seasonal Forest, natural grasslands, and exotic vegetation. The items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (F.O. and percentage of occurrence (P.O.. A total of 64 food items were found among 171 occurrences. According to F.O. method, plant items corresponded to 93.3% of the occurrences, followed by animal items (86.7% and human rejects (16.6%. Among plants, fruits accounted for 92.9% of the occurrences, followed by leaves (53.6% and flowers (10.7%. Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. Glassman, 1968 and the exotic Hovenia dulcis Thunberg were the most consumed fruits (30% each, and the most consumed leaves were Poaceae. Among preyed animals, the F.O. was 73.3% for invertebrates (mostly Orthoptera and Coleoptera, 36.7% each and 63.3% for vertebrates (mostly mammals, 33.3%. Regarding the P.O. method, there was an overestimation of invertebrates (98.1% due to the presence of ants and termites in the stomach of a single individual. In general, C. thous presented its usual diet. Its generalistic feeding habits can positively influence its survival in altered environments. This study also compares different methods for dietary analysis and discusses some opportunistic behaviors of C. thous, such as the consumption of exotic species and the use of silviculture areas as hunting sites.Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 é o canídeo neotropical mais amplamente distribuído e habita principalmente ambientes florestados. Este animal possui hábito alimentar onívoro generalista e demonstra capacidade de utilizar ambientes perturbados pela ação do

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Diversity of Micro-and Meso-fauna Communities in the Campus of Xinjiang Normal University%新疆师范大学校园中小型土壤动物群落多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽布斯坦·努尔买买提; 吾玛尔·阿布力孜; 努尔夏提·努尔买买提

    2013-01-01

    The communities diversity of micro-and meso-fauna in relation to5 different habitats in campus of Xinjiang Normal University were investigated by Tullgren dry funnel method with emphasis on the composition and diversity from September to November in 2010 . The results showed that a total of 1630 soil animals was extracted and classified into 4 phyla,10 classes,and 18 orders, respectively. Collembola (25. 77%),Acariformes (17. 36%),Coleoptera (11. 53%),Dipterra(11. 17%)were the dominant groups, and they were accounting for 65. 83%, and Lumbricida ( 3 . 8%) , Gastropoda ( 7 . 67%) , Araneae ( 3 . 25%) , Isopoda ( 1 . 16%) , Chilopoda ( 4 . 66%), Orthoptera (1. 47%), Dermaptera (2. 02%), Hemiptera (3. 93%),Hymenoptera(2. 15%),Homoptera (2. 33%) and so on were common groups and they were accounting for 33. 62%., and the Thysanoptera ( 0. 06%),Rotifera(0. 18%),Symphyla(0. 31%) were rare groups, and they were accounting for 0. 55 % of total numbers. The results also suggested that the types of different habitats were affected on the individual density and group number of soil fauna community,and the in order of individual number is Bio-geography building greenland>Dormitory building greenland >Main building greenland >Library greenland >Playground greenland. The order of group number is Bio-geography building greenland >Dormitory building greenland >Main building greenland >Li-brary greenland >Playground greenland. We also analysed the community diversity indices such as diversity index ( H) , evenness index ( E) , and dominant index ( C) , and found that there were significant differences among the different greenlands. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Bio-geography building greenland>Dormitory building greenland >Main building greenland >Library greenland >Playground greenland. The order of evenness index ( E) of Playground Greenland >Library greenland >Main building greenland>Dormitory building greenland>Bio-geogra-phy building greenland. The dominance index of

  17. Application Effects of Green Prevention and Control Technology of Solar Insecticidal Lamp and Yellow Template in Tobacco Production%太阳能杀虫灯和诱虫黄板绿色防控技术在烟草生产上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁禹; 刘占卿; 赵世民; 刘欢欢; 王枫; 刘涛; 马玉欣; 蒋士君

    2015-01-01

    为对烟草病虫害绿色防控技术中太阳能杀虫灯及诱虫黄板的推广应用提供理论指导,于2014年在汝阳县开展了大面积示范试验,研究其杀虫防病效果。结果表明,太阳能杀虫灯布控42 d能诱杀鳞翅目、鞘翅目、直翅目等多种害虫,并且以鳞翅目和鞘翅目为主,各占诱杀害虫总量的43.47%和51.11%;单灯共计诱杀害虫4558头/台,日均诱杀害虫109头/(台·d),但对天敌昆虫危害小,单灯共计诱杀天敌昆虫16头/台,益害比为1∶284.88;田间成虫量调查结果显示,灯控区烟青虫和斜纹夜蛾的成虫量较无灯区分别下降了57.14%、62.50%。诱虫黄板使用30 d,单张单面黄板共计诱蚜6633头,日均诱蚜221.10头/d,30 d有翅蚜虫口减退率和病毒病防效分别达73.28%和68.78%。说明太阳能杀虫灯和诱虫黄板绿色防控技术联用能有效防治烟田主要病虫害,适合在烟草生产中推广应用。%In order to provide theoretical guidance for widespread use of the green prevention and control technology of solar insecticidal lamp and yellow template in tobacco production, the large area demonstration trials were developed to study their control effects on pests and diseases in Ruyang county in 2014. The results showed that the solar insecticidal lamps could trap many species of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera,etc. in 42 days,in which lepidopteron and coleopteron accounted for 43. 47%and 51. 11%,respectively. The total quantity of pests captured by a single lamp was 4 558 during the experiment and the daily average number was 109. Furthermore, the lamps had less effect on natural enemies,and the total quantity of natural enemies trapped by one lamp was 16. The beneficial insect and injurious insect rate was 1∶284 . 88 . The adult amounts of oriental tobacco budworm and Spodoptera litura of the lamp treatment reduced by 57. 14% and 62. 50% respectively compared with the control in field. The quantity of aphids

  18. Study on the insect diversity in Momoge National Nature Reserve%莫莫格国家自然保护区昆虫多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春明; 左悦; 任炳忠

    2011-01-01

    The insect species in Momoge National Nature Reserve were systematically investigated in the study. Shannon-Wiener's diversity index, Simpson's index, Pielou's evenness and interspecific encounter probability indexes were used to study the insect diversity of the different representative habitats. The results showed there were differences among the 5 orders diversity, and the diversity indexes of Suaeda community were the lowest when analyzing the 6 orders' diversity as a whole. The diversity indexes of the three orders (Lepidoptera,Diptera and Orthoptera) in Suaeda community were the lowest of when analyzing the insect diversity indexes respectively. Coleoptera had the lowest indexes in Elm tree community;and Hymenoptera had the lowest indexes in Carex spp. -Deyetixia angusrifolia community. It was obvious that insects of different orders had dissimilar optimum habitat selection in heterogenous habitat type. Insect communities' diversity in Momoge protection areas was clarified in the study, and the above results provided theoretical basis for development and protection of insect resources in Momoge wetland protection area.%对莫莫格国家级自然保护区的昆虫进行了系统调查,采用Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Simpson优势度集中性指数(D)、Pielou均匀度指数(J')及PIE种间相遇率对不同生境优势目昆虫进行了比较分析.结果表明:应用4种多样性指数测度6个优势目昆虫总体多样性时,其结果虽有差别,但都显示碱蓬群落的多样性指数值最低.分别对5个优势目的昆虫进行多样性分析,结果表明:直翅目、双翅目、鳞翅目锤角亚目的昆虫在碱蓬群落中多样性指数均为最低;鞘翅目在榆树林群落的多样性指数最低;膜翅目在苔草-小叶樟群落的多样性指数最低.不同目昆虫在不同的群落中分布有差异,表明昆虫对栖息的生境条件具有选择性.探明了莫莫格保护区不同类群昆虫群落的多样性,对未

  19. A study on insect biodiversity of Zhenhai industrial estate in Ningbo, Zhe jiang Province%浙江宁波镇海工业园区昆虫多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萃; 方燕; 严莹; 李恺

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of insect communities in Zhenhai industrial estate, Zhejiang Province was investigated from July to November 2008. Five representative habitats; woodland, farmland, an artificial nursery, ecological park and an industrial area were selected. The numbers of species and individuals in each habitat type were sampled and analyzed monthly. A total of 284 species belonging to 108 families and 13 orders were recorded. The dominant groups were the Homoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. Among different guilds, phytophagous insects comprised 88.43% of the total number of individual insects recorded and were much more abundant than either predatory or parasitic insects. However, the latter two groups were more diverse at the family level. The Shannon-Wiener index of species diversity in the five different habitats was, from highest to lowest: artificial nursery > ecological park > woodland > industrial area > farmlands. The temporal pattern of monthly species diversity was, from highest to lowest: July > August >October > November. The similarity index (Cs) was highest (0. 3486 ) between farmland and the ecological park, and lowest (0. 1842 ) between woodland and the artificial nursery. The tight correlation between the distribution of insects and habitat suggests that habitat type is an important factor in insect diversity.%于2008年7-11月,对宁波镇海工业园区的昆虫群落多样性进行调查,选取林地、农田、人工苗圃、生态园和工厂区5种具有代表性的生境类型,每月对该地区的昆虫种类及数量进行抽样统计和数据分析.结果表明:该地共有昆虫284种,分属13目108科,其中优势类群为同翅目、直翅目、半翅目、鞘翅目和鳞翅目.在不同功能类群中,从个体数看,植食性昆虫最占优势,捕食性和寄生性昆虫个体较少,但科数较多.5种不同生境的昆虫Shannon-Wiener指数由高到低为:人工苗圃>生态园>林地

  20. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Natural soundscape has always constituted a reference in cognitive and emotional processes. The imitation of natural sounds contributed to the origin of the verbal language, which has been then subjected to an even more refined process of abstraction throughout history. The musical language also evolved along the same path of imitation. Among the many sonic elements of a natural environment, the stridulation of crickets is one of the most consistent for its timbre, articulation, diffusion and intrinsic emotional power. More than 900 species of crickets, in fact, have been described. They can be found in all parts of the world with the exception of cold regions at latitudes higher than 55° North and South. Among the many species we're working on (Order Orthoptera and Suborder Ensifera), we refer here of a comparison between the morphology of the acoustic emission systems and the corresponding waveforms/spectral patterns of sound in three widespread species from central Italy: Gryllus Bimaculatus, Acheta Domesticus (Gryllidae), and Ruspolia Nitidula (Conocephalidae). The samples of the acoustic apparatus of the target individuals, stored in ethanol, were observed under a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope (FEG-ESEM, Quanta 200, FEI, The Netherlands). The use of this type of microscope allowed to analyze the samples without any kind of manipulation (dehydration and/or metallization), while maintaining the morphological features of the fragile acoustic apparatus. The observations were made with different sensors (SE: secondary-electron sensor and BSE: backscattered-electron sensor), and performed at low-medium vacuum with energies varying from c.ca 10 to 30kV. Male individuals have an acoustic apparatus consisting in two cuticular structures (tegmina) positioned above wings, while both male and females have receiving organs (tympanum) in forelegs. Stridulation mechanism is produced when the file and the scraper (plectrum) scrub one another

  1. Use of trophic resources and forest habitats by the genus Martes in Adamello-Brenta Park (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat use and diet of genus Martes (M. martes and M. foina were studied in alpine forest habitat (Adamello-Brenta Park, Central Italian Alps from July 1991 to September 1992. Marten scats were looked for along 3 transects representative of 5 forest habitats in order to analyse seasonal variations in habitat selection. The food habits were studied analysing 225 scats collected along the transects. Both percentage frequency of occurrence and relative percentage frequency (Fr% of the different food items were calculated. Arthropods (Fr% = 50.0%, mainly insects (Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, were the staple in the diet of martens and were mostly consumed in spring and in summer. The other main food categories were vegetables (Fr% = 25.9%, mainly Rosaceae fruits, with a peak in autumn/winter, and mammals (Fr% = 10.5, especially small rodents, regularly preyed on throughout the year with a peak in winter. Carrion (marmots and ungulates and partly insects (Orthoptera and Hymenoptera were a fairly important food resource in the winter and at the beginning of the spring. All year round Martes selected coppice forest and mixed high forest, where presumably a major availability of the main food resources used by both species occurred. Riassunto Uso delle risorse trofiche e degli ambienti forestali da parte del genere Martes nel Parco Adamello-Brenta (Alpi Centrali - L'uso dell'habitat e la dieta del genere Martes (M. martes e M. foina sono stati studiati in ambienti forestali del Parco Adamello-Brenta nel periodo luglio 1991-settembre 1992. I1 numero di feci di Martes è stato rilevato in 3 transetti rappresentativi di 5 ambienti forestali, al fine di valutare le variazioni stagionali nell'uso dell'habitat. Le abitudini alimentari sono state investigate mediante analisi di 225 feci raccolte lungo i transetti di

  2. AUTOMATICALLY OPERATING RADARS FOR MONITORING INSECT PEST MIGRATIONS%监测害虫迁飞的全自动雷达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A.Drake

    2002-01-01

    Chortoicetes terminifera (Orthoptera) commonly originate, and some examples of outputs from one of these units are presented. IMRs are able to provide the data needed to characterize a migration system, i.e. to estimate the probabilities of migration events occurring in particular directions at particular seasons and in response to particular environmental conditions and cues. They also appear capable of fulfilling a "sentinel" role for pest-management organisations, alerting forecasters to major migration events and thus to the likely new locations of potential target populations. Finally, they may be suitable for a more general ecological monitoring role, perhaps especially for quantifying year-to-year variations in biological productivity.

  3. 松嫩草原地形分异对土壤动物分布格局的影响%Effect of topography heterogeneity on distribution of soil fauna in Songnen grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛未冬; 殷秀琴; 宋博

    2013-01-01

    Distribution of soil fauna was affected by several factors in Songnen grassland, such as topography, soil, vegetation, climate, sampling time and so on. Results showed that there were significant effects of topography on soil fauna in forest ecosystem, but we still do not know the effect of topography heterogeneity on distribution of soil fauna in grassland ecosystem. Five habitats of fixed dune and steppe in Songnen grassland were chosen to investigate soil fauna community characteristics for one year. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of ecological distribution and biodiversity of soil fauna and measured the interaction of topography heterogeneity and time on distribution of soil fauna by ANOVA for repeated measures. Results showed that the average density of soil fauna was 5144.62 ind穖-2 during research and soil fauna belong to four phyla, eight classes, and 24 groups. Arid and semi-arid regional characteristics of fauna have been shown in species composition of soil fauna. Coleoptera and Orthoptera are the typical fauna in this region. There were significant differences among five habitats in species composition and number of soil fauna. But there are no differences in group composition and number of total soil fauna with time. There were significant differences of dynamics of soil fauna diversity index among habitats. Three habitats in fixed dune with similar diversity index showed significant difference in two habitats in steppe with similar diversity index, and suggested the effects of topography heterogeneity on diversity index of soil fauna. Results of ANOVA showed that there were significant effects of time and topography heterogeneity on characteristics of quantity and diversity of soil fauna community, but the interaction of time and topography heterogeneity on soil fauna community was not always significant. Therefore, topography heterogeneity had significant effects on distribution of soil fauna in Songnen grassland, which may be