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Sample records for badgers meles meles

  1. Reports on badgers Meles meles in Dutch newspapers 1900–2013 : same animals, different framings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Marjolein; Vink, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culling wild badgers Meles meles in an attempt to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infections in domestic cattle has provoked a long and fierce debate in the UK. Research has shown that the controversy over badger culling exists because of fundamental differences in how badgers and th

  2. Winter Is Coming: Seasonal Variation in Resting Metabolic Rate of the European Badger (Meles meles)

    OpenAIRE

    McClune, David W.; Kostka, Berit; Delahay, Richard J.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Marks, Nikki J.; Scantlebury, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a measure of the minimum energy requirements of an animal at rest, and can give an indication of the costs of somatic maintenance. We measured RMR of free-ranging European badgers (Meles meles) to determine whether differences were related to sex, age and season. Badgers were captured in live-traps and placed individually within a metabolic chamber maintained at 20 ± 1°C. Resting metabolic rate was determined using an open-circuit respirometry system. Season wa...

  3. Morphological variability and developmental instability in subpopulations of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Bach, Lars Arve; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Randi, Ettore; Loeschcke, Volker

    2002-01-01

    teeth of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) collected during the period 1995–97 from three different populations in Denmark. One of these thrives at low population density, whereas the two others are characterized by high local density. Methods The skulls were investigated for developmental instability...... stabilizing regime hence their FA is mainly affected by environmental stresses. The negative relationship between canine size and FA found in males suggests the capacity of badgers to respond in an evolutionary way to environmental changes, despite the low genetic variability previously found at the molecular...

  4. Blood biochemistry reflects seasonal nutritional and reproductive constraints in the eurasian badger (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Roura, X; Newman, C; Calafell, F; Macdonald, D W

    2001-01-01

    Physiological responses to nutritional and reproductive constraints were explored in a wild population of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) inhabiting Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. We compared seasonal blood levels of lipid and protein compounds to variables describing the sex, age, body condition, wounds, testes position, and flea abundance of the badgers. We found seasonal variations in albumin/globulins and urea/creatinine ratios matched by differences in body condition. High creatinine, urea, and triglycerides levels were obtained in animals in poor nutritional condition and with low levels of body fat. The maintenance of urea/creatinine ratios indicates that the badger does not demonstrate a stage of protein conservation in periods of food scarcity during the summer or periods of cold weather. Hypercholesterolaemia, especially in fat animals, was confirmed. We also offer baseline levels of metabolites commonly used in clinical biochemistry for their further use in the analysis of the status and the management of wild badger populations. PMID:11331518

  5. WIND TURBINES CAUSE CHRONIC STRESS IN BADGERS (MELES MELES) IN GREAT BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Roseanna C N; Smith, Valerie J; Fowkes, Robert C

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of data exists with which to assess the effects of wind turbines noise on terrestrial wildlife, despite growing concern about the impact of infrasound from wind farms on human health and well-being. In 2013, we assessed whether the presence of turbines in Great Britain impacted the stress levels of badgers ( Meles meles ) in nearby setts. Hair cortisol levels were used to determine if the badgers were physiologically stressed. Hair of badgers living 10 km from a wind farm. This demonstrates that affected badgers suffer from enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity and are physiologically stressed. No differences were found between the cortisol levels of badgers living near wind farms operational since 2009 and 2012, indicating that the animals do not become habituated to turbine disturbance. Cortisol levels in the affected badgers did not vary in relation to the distance from turbines within 1 km, wind farm annual power output, or number of turbines. We suggest that the higher cortisol levels in affected badgers is caused by the turbines' sound and that these high levels may affect badgers' immune systems, which could result in increased risk of infection and disease in the badger population. PMID:27187031

  6. Ectoparasite infestations of Badgers (Meles meles in Western Switzerland

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    Emmanuel Do Linh San

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1999 and 2004, 160 badger carcasses (mainly road casualties and culled animals were collected in a 600-km2 rural area of Western Switzerland (Broye region. Body and fur inspections indicated that 88.4% of the animals were infested with at least one of the following ectoparasite categories: lice (76.0%, ticks (57.5% and fleas (19.7%. Nevertheless, the number of parasites was low, in average 2.6 fleas, 4.8 ticks and/or 17.1 lice per infested animal. No significant intersexual and age-related differences (adults vs subadults, adults vs young were found as concerns prevalence and abundance of ectoparasites. The lower, and more constant infection by fleas in the course of the year, is concordant with the hypothesis which proposes that badgers frequently switch sleeping places in order to avoid a build up of ectoparasites in the nest material. It remains unclear whether the low loads of ticks and lice recorded in both low and high density badger populations are due to the efficiency of auto- and allo-grooming in this species, to frequent replacement or aeration of the bedding material by individual badgers, or to another, yet to be discovered mechanism. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these results are therefore indicative of a limited role of Eurasian badgers as a potential reservoir of diseases transmitted by ectoparasites.

  7. Coccidiosis in the European badger, Meles meles in Wytham Woods: infection and consequences for growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, C; Macdonald, D W; Anwar, M A

    2001-08-01

    In total 1502 faecal samples were collected from a population of European badgers (Meles meles) between 1992 and 1995 at Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK. Two coccidia species, Eimeria melis and Isospora melis, were identified. Cubs showed a marked seasonal pattern of infection with E. melis, with infection occurring at significantly higher intensity and prevalence than in adults. There was preliminary evidence to suggest that infantile coccidiosis in badgers may be associated with impaired growth and increased mortality. PMID:11510678

  8. On the Fruit Consumption of Eurasian Badger (Meles meles (Mammalia: Mustelidae during the Autumn Season in Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

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    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out at one badgers family territory by asingle collection (11.11.2002, north of Stara Zagora City, near Tabashka River of faeces from the animal latrine sites. Total of 1361 individual food items were identified in Eurasian badger (Meles meles faeces from which the fruits of the Cornel-tree (Cornus mas strongly dominated (n=1332, 96.5% from all items, 98.2% from all fruits.

  9. Comparing badger (Meles meles management strategies for reducing tuberculosis incidence in cattle.

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    Graham C Smith

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, continues to be a serious economic problem for the British cattle industry. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles is partly responsible for maintenance of the disease and its transmission to cattle. Previous attempts to manage the disease by culling badgers have been hampered by social perturbation, which in some situations is associated with increases in the cattle herd incidence of bTB. Following the licensing of an injectable vaccine, we consider the relative merits of management strategies to reduce bTB in badgers, and thereby reduce cattle herd incidence. We used an established simulation model of the badger-cattle-TB system and investigated four proposed strategies: business as usual with no badger management, large-scale proactive badger culling, badger vaccination, and culling with a ring of vaccination around it. For ease of comparison with empirical data, model treatments were applied over 150 km(2 and were evaluated over the whole of a 300 km(2 area, comprising the core treatment area and a ring of approximately 2 km. The effects of treatment were evaluated over a 10-year period comprising treatment for five years and the subsequent five year period without treatment. Against a background of existing disease control measures, where 144 cattle herd incidents might be expected over 10 years, badger culling prevented 26 cattle herd incidents while vaccination prevented 16. Culling in the core 150 km(2 plus vaccination in a ring around it prevented about 40 cattle herd breakdowns by partly mitigating the negative effects of culling, although this approach clearly required greater effort. While model outcomes were robust to uncertainty in parameter estimates, the outcomes of culling were sensitive to low rates of land access for culling, low culling efficacy, and the early cessation of a culling strategy, all of which were likely to lead to an overall increase in cattle disease.

  10. Coccidiosis in the European badger (Meles meles) from England, an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M A; Newman, C; MacDonald, D W; Woolhouse, M E; Kelly, D W

    2000-03-01

    In total 445 faecal samples were collected from 259 European badgers (Meles meles) in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK (462080). Microscopical examination revealed infection with 2 species of coccidia Eimeria melis and Isospora melis. From the initial examination of each animal, point prevalence rates of 0.44 and 0.35 were calculated for Eimeria and Isospora respectively. The intensity of infection was significantly greater for Eimeria than Isopora and the distribution of intensities was highly skewed for both species, with a few individuals shedding the majority of oocysts. Incidence and recovery rates for both coccidia species were calculated from longitudinal data collected at 3-monthly intervals from a subset of the adult badger population, and the predicted prevalence rates based on these were similar to the point prevalence rates. This suggests little, if any, parasite-induced mortality in the adult population. In contrast, there was a marked and significant reduction in the point prevalence and intensity of infection with Eimeria from cub to adult badger suggesting a degree of acquired immunity to Eimeria melis on initial exposure and/or that there is significant Eimeria-associated mortality in the cub population. No such relationship was found for Isospora infection. In those adult badgers with co-infections there was a direct relationship between the intensity of Eimeria and Isospora. The taxonomic status of these parasites suggests a heteroxenous life-cycle for I. melis, and direct transmission of E. melis. However, the greater than expected prevalence of co-infection is consistent with a common source of infection, such as communal latrines. PMID:10759083

  11. Present and past microsatellite variation and assessment of genetic structure in Eurasian badger ( Meles meles ) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, V.; Randi, E.; Madsen, A.B.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bijlsma, R.; Van De Zande, L.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 50 years the number of badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark has declined by c. 50%. To assess the genetic consequences of the demographic decline, six DNA-microsatellite loci were used to analyse 139 badger tissue-samples, which were collected in 1995-98 from three zones (1, 2 and 3) in...... Jutland (Denmark). Results from contemporary samples were compared to data obtained from DNA extracted from teeth belonging to 39 badgers collected from zones 1 and 2 in 1957-66. The microsatellites showed a low to moderate polymorphism, and the within area genetic diversity (H-E) was relatively low (0.......308 0.05). Despite the drastic recent decline, Danish badgers did not show apparent signs of genetic bottlenecks in both recent and historical samples. The use of molecular techniques which allowed us to work with small amounts of degraded DNA extracted from old teeth, allowed us to exclude the...

  12. Reduction of badger (Meles meles setts damage to artificial elements of the territory

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    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Alessandria section of the Turin railway-basin (northern Italy, the presence of the badger (Meles meles setts in railway embankments causes progressive track subsidence. Rail traffic is dangerous and continuous maintenance and surveillance are required. In the past, the problem was managed without success, by trying to damage and disturb the setts. In 1997 the Italian Railways decided to promote some specific research. Four used setts have been found along the surveyed lines. The choice of a suitable site to dig the sett appears to be influenced only by pedological parameters. A comparison of used and unused banks revealed that soils with significantly lower percentages of gravel and higher percentages of fine sands are preferred. Badgers have been deterred from using one of the found setts, and successively the railway embankment has been covered with chain link fencing. Methods and results are discussed.

  13. Culling-induced changes in badger (Meles meles behaviour, social organisation and the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

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    Philip Riordan

    Full Text Available In the UK, attempts since the 1970s to control the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle by culling a wildlife host, the European badger (Meles meles, have produced equivocal results. Culling-induced social perturbation of badger populations may lead to unexpected outcomes. We test predictions from the 'perturbation hypothesis', determining the impact of culling operations on badger populations, movement of surviving individuals and the influence on the epidemiology of bTB in badgers using data dervied from two study areas within the UK Government's Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT. Culling operations did not remove all individuals from setts, with between 34-43% of badgers removed from targeted social groups. After culling, bTB prevalence increased in badger social groups neighbouring removals, particularly amongst cubs. Seventy individual adult badgers were fitted with radio-collars, yielding 8,311 locational fixes from both sites between November 2001 and December 2003. Home range areas of animals surviving within removed groups increased by 43.5% in response to culling. Overlap between summer ranges of individuals from Neighbouring social groups in the treatment population increased by 73.3% in response to culling. The movement rate of individuals between social groups was low, but increased after culling, in Removed and Neighbouring social groups. Increased bTB prevalence in Neighbouring groups was associated with badger movements both into and out of these groups, although none of the moving individuals themselves tested positive for bTB. Significant increases in both the frequency of individual badger movements between groups and the emergence of bTB were observed in response to culling. However, no direct evidence was found to link the two phenomena. We hypothesise that the social disruption caused by culling may not only increase direct contact and thus disease transmission between surviving badgers, but may also increase

  14. Spatial organisation of badgers (Meles meles in a medium-density population in Luxembourg

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    Alain C Frantz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract
    Any hypothesis aiming to explain the social organisation of Eurasian badgers Meles meles has to consider its wide inter-population variability. We used radiotracking techniques to investigate the spatial organisation and the pattern of space-use by badger in Luxembourg, where badger density can be considered moderate compared to most of Europe.
    Eight badgers belonging to five social groups were caught and radio-collared. The size of individual home ranges, as assesses by 100% minimum convex polygons in spring-summer 2002 and 2003, varied from 42.5 ha to 171.8 ha. Core areas corresponded to the 50-70% kernel isopleths and covered an average of 10.1% of individual home ranges. The home ranges of badgers caught at the same sett overlapped largely (average 83.3%, whilst the overlap between neighbouring ranges did not exceed 13.8%. Altogether six boundary latrines were found at the intersection of group ranges. Overall, the spatial system of the Luxembourg badgers is quite flexible, with the boundaries of some group ranges remaining constant over the years, while others may expand or contract.
    Riassunto
    Organizzazione spaziale del tasso (Meles meles in una popolazione a media densità del Lussemburgo.
    Qualsiasi ipotesi che voglia spiegare l’organizzazione sociale del tasso Meles meles, deve tener conto della sua ampia variabilità tra le popolazioni.
    Tramite la radiotelemetria e il monitoraggio delle latrine, la struttura territoriale e l’uso dello spazio da parte del tasso sono stati analizzati in una popolazione del Lussemburgo, dove la densità della specie può essere considerata intermedia rispetto ai valori noti per il resto dell’Europa.
    Sono stati marcati con radio-collari otto tassi, appartenenti a cinque diversi gruppi sociali. Le dimensioni delle aree vitali, stimate con il minimo poligono convesso al 100

  15. Effect of culling and vaccination on bovine tuberculosis infection in a European badger (Meles meles) population by spatial simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Marwa; Frankena, Klaas; O'Keeffe, James; Byrne, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is partially hindered by spill-back infection from wild badgers (Meles meles). The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of interventions (combinations of culling and/or vaccination) on bTB dynamics in an Irish badger population. A spatial agent-based stochastic simulation model was developed to evaluate the effect of various control strategies for bovine tuberculosis in badgers: single control strategies (culling, selective culling, vaccination, and vaccine baits), and combined strategies (Test vaccinate/cull (TVC)), split area approaches using culling and vaccination, or selective culling and vaccination, and mixed scenarios where culling was conducted for five years and followed by vaccination or by a TVC strategy. The effect of each control strategy was evaluated over a 20-year period. Badger control was simulated in 25%, 50%, and 75% area (limited area strategy) or in the entire area (100%, wide area strategy). For endemic bTB, a culling strategy was successful in eradicating bTB from the population only if applied as an area-wide strategy. However, this was achieved only by risking the extinction of the badger population. Selective culling strategies (selective culling or TVC) mitigated this negative impact on the badger population's viability. Furthermore, both strategies (selective culling and TVC) allowed the badger population to recover gradually, in compensation for the population reduction following the initial use of removal strategies. The model predicted that vaccination can be effective in reducing bTB prevalence in badgers, when used in combination with culling strategies (i.e. TVC or other strategies). If fecundity was reduced below its natural levels (e.g. by using wildlife contraceptives), the effectiveness of vaccination strategies improved. Split-area simulations highlighted that interventions can have indirect effects (e.g. on

  16. Genetic structure within and among regional populations of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) from Denmark and the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zande, L. van de; Vliet, M. van de; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker; Müskens, G.; Bijlsma, R.

    2007-01-01

    can be substructured into three clusters [P(k=3)=0.99], but the Dutch populations cluster into one more or less panmictic population [P(k=1)=0.99] with little or no substructuring. The presence of migration barriers, such as roads, together with the peninsular geography of Denmark, may have led to......The Eurasian badger Meles meles has a wide distribution area ranging from Japan to Ireland. In western Europe badger habitats are severely disturbed by anthropogenic factors, leading to fragmentation into subpopulations and formation of a metapopulation substructuring of once continuous panmictic...... populations. We have examined the genetic structure of Dutch and Danish badger populations on a relatively small scale (within countries) and a larger scale (between countries). The levels of genetic variation of populations were moderate and did not differ significantly among populations (overall HO=0...

  17. Badger Meles meles and Fox Vulpes vulpes food in agricultural land in the western Po Plain (Italy

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    Luca Canova

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fox and badger diets were studied by means of scat analysis in agricultural land in northern Italy. Earthworms and corn were the staple food for the badger, while foxes fed mainly on animal food (birds and mammals. Dietary overlap between the two species was low. Fox diets were substantially similar to those in north-central Europe and other areas of Italy. Badger diets differed from those in mediterranean areas of Italy and were similar to diets of north European populations. Riassunto Alimentazione di Tasso Meles meles e Volpe Vulpes vulpes in aree agricole della Pianura Padana occidentale - La dieta di tasso e volpe in un'area agricola della Pianura Padana occidentale è stata studiata mediante analisi delle feci. Lombrichi e mais rappresentano la principale fonte alimentare per il tasso, mentre la dieta della volpe è basata prevalentemente su uccelli e mammiferi. La sovrapposizione alimentare fra le due specie è ridotta. La dieta della volpe è simile a quella delle popolazioni dell'Europa centrale e settentrionale; la dieta del tasso differisce nettamente da quella delle popolazioni italiane che vivono in ambiente mediterraneo.

  18. Performance of TB immunodiagnostic tests in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles of different ages and the influence of duration of infection on serological sensitivity

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    Sayers Robin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In parts of Great Britain and Ireland, Eurasian badgers (Meles meles constitute a reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection and a potential source of infection for cattle. In vitro diagnostic tests for live badgers are an important component of strategies to control TB in this species. Immunological tests have been developed for badgers, although little is known about the influence of the age of the animal on test performance. To address this, we evaluated the performance of three immunological tests for badgers with respect to the age of the animal: the Brock Test and BrockTB STAT-PAK® serological tests and the recently developed interferon-gamma enzyme immunoassay (IFNγ EIA. Data published elsewhere suggested that seropositivity was associated with more progressive forms of TB in the badger. To gain further evidence for this, we used longitudinal data from a well-studied population of badgers to test for an association between the sensitivity of the Brock Test and the duration of TB infection. Results Sensitivity of the two serological tests was approximately 54% for both cubs and adults. Sensitivity of the IFNγ EIA was lower in cubs (57% compared with adults (85% when a common cut-off value was used to define test positivity. Taking data from the cubs alone, the IFNγ EIA cut-off value could be adjusted to increase the sensitivity to 71% with no loss in specificity. As a general observation, specificity of all tests was higher in cubs, although only significantly so in the case of the Brock Test. Using logistic regression analysis to adjust for age, sensitivity of the Brock Test was significantly lower at first culture positive event (58%, but increased to >80% as infection progressed. Conclusion These data suggest that serodiagnosis could be a valuable tool for detecting a higher proportion of badgers with the greatest probability of transmitting infection. The age category of the badger appeared to exert little

  19. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles).

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    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-10-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  20. Distemper virus as a cause of central nervous disease and death in badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, H. H.; Andersen, T. H.;

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...... of the affected badgers were examined by gross pathological, histological, immunohistological, bacteriological, parasitological and virological methods, and were diagnosed with distemper; canine distemper virus was identified....

  1. Distemper virus as a cause of central nervous disease and death in badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, H. H.; Andersen, T. H.; Nielsen, L.; Blixenkrone-Møller, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...... of the affected badgers were examined by gross pathological, histological, immunohistological, bacteriological, parasitological and virological methods, and were diagnosed with distemper; canine distemper virus was identified.......During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...

  2. Diet of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles in an area of the Italian Prealps

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    Monica Marassi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples of Eurasian badger faeces (n= 147 were collected at monthly intervals from October 1997 to December 1999 in an area of the Italian Prealps (58 km², on the eastern coast of Lario (Como Lake. The altitude of the area ranged from 200 to 1300 m. Badger scats were analysed to estimate the relative volume and the frequency of occurrence of identifiable food items. Fruits, arthropodes, earthworms and mammals constituted the main food categories. Differences were found between the seasonal frequency of occurrences of arthropodes, earthworms and mammals, considering however that the small sample size in summer does not allow any definitive conclusions. The wide range of food items eaten by badgers and the seasonal differences would suggest that the badger is a "generalist" species which adopts an opportunist feeding strategy.

  3. Differential associations of Borrelia species with European badgers (Meles meles) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland.

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    Wodecka, Beata; Michalik, Jerzy; Lane, Robert S; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-07-01

    European badgers and raccoon dogs and their associated ticks and lice were assayed for the presence of Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever-group spirochete DNA in western Poland. Analyses of blood, ear-biopsy and liver samples revealed that 25% of 28 raccoon dogs and 12% of 34 badgers were PCR positive for borreliae. Borrelia garinii was the dominant species in raccoon dogs (62.5%), followed by B. afzelii (25%) and B. valaisiana (12.5%). PCR-positive badgers were infected only with B. afzelii. A total of 351 attached ticks was recovered from 23 (82%) of the raccoon dogs and 13 (38%) of the badgers. Using a nested PCR targeting the ITS2 fragments of Ixodes DNA, four Ixodes species were identified: I. ricinus, I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, and one provisionally named I. cf. kaiseri. Ixodes canisuga and I. ricinus prevailed on both host species. The highest infection prevalence was detected in I. ricinus, followed by I. canisuga and I. cf. kaiseri. Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii accounted for 61.6% and 30.1% of the infections detected in all PCR-positive ticks, respectively. Four other Borrelia species (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae and B. miyamotoi) were detected only in I. ricinus from raccoon dogs. Moreover, Borrelia DNA, mostly B. garinii, was detected in 57 (81.4%) of 70 Trichodectes melis lice derived from 12 badgers. The detection of B. afzelii in one-half of PCR-positive biopsies reconfirms previous associations of this species with mammalian hosts, whereas the high prevalence of B. garinii in feeding lice and I. ricinus ticks (including larvae) demonstrates that both carnivores serve as hosts for B. garinii. The lack of B. garinii DNA in the tissues of badgers versus its prevalence in raccoon-dog biopsies, however, incriminates only the latter carnivore as a potential reservoir host. PMID:27263838

  4. Polygynandry, extra-group paternity and multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups.

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    Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry

    2007-12-01

    The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis. PMID:17971085

  5. In situ adaptive response to climate and habitat quality variation: spatial and temporal variation in European badger (Meles meles) body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Andrew W; Fogarty, Ursula; O'Keeffe, James; Newman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Variation in climatic and habitat conditions can affect populations through a variety of mechanisms, and these relationships can act at different temporal and spatial scales. Using post-mortem badger body weight records from 15 878 individuals captured across the Republic of Ireland (7224 setts across ca. 15 000 km(2) ; 2009-2012), we employed a hierarchical multilevel mixed model to evaluate the effects of climate (rainfall and temperature) and habitat quality (landscape suitability), while controlling for local abundance (unique badgers caught/sett/year). Body weight was affected strongly by temperature across a number of temporal scales (preceding month or season), with badgers being heavier if preceding temperatures (particularly during winter/spring) were warmer than the long-term seasonal mean. There was less support for rainfall across different temporal scales, although badgers did exhibit heavier weights when greater rainfall occurred one or 2 months prior to capture. Badgers were also heavier in areas with higher landscape habitat quality, modulated by the number of individuals captured per sett, consistent with density-dependent effects reducing weights. Overall, the mean badger body weight of culled individuals rose during the study period (2009-2012), more so for males than for females. With predicted increases in temperature, and rainfall, augmented by ongoing agricultural land conversion in this region, we project heavier individual badger body weights in the future. Increased body weight has been associated with higher fecundity, recruitment and survival rates in badgers, due to improved food availability and energetic budgets. We thus predict that climate change could increase the badger population across the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless, we emphasize that, locally, populations could still be vulnerable to extreme weather variability coupled with detrimental agricultural practice, including population management. PMID:25846328

  6. Bovine tuberculosis in badger (Meles meles) populations in southwest England: an assessment of past, present and possible future control strategies using simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P C; Harris, S

    1995-09-29

    A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to compare the efficacy of different badger control policies and to determine the theoretical requirements for the control of endemic bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in southwest England. Culling-based strategies for controlling endemic disease were compared with strategies employing a yet-to-be-developed oral vaccine which would provide uninfected badgers with immunity to the infection. A comparative assessment was made of the efficacy of previous and proposed culling-based strategies employed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food for the control of localized disease, and the potential for an oral vaccine-based strategy for the control of localized disease was examined. For endemic bovine tuberculosis, to achieve a reasonable probability (p > 0.70) of successful control with a strategy involving a single culling operation, a very high proportion of the badger population (> 90%) must be culled. Single vaccination would not be successful in combating endemic disease. However, strategies involving repeated annual vaccination would have a very high probability of eradicating endemic disease, even with a relatively low (40-50%) annual vaccination efficiency. The most successful culling-based strategies for the control of localized disease were the gassing and clean ring strategies. Compared with no control at all, the interim strategy only offered benefits of a lower probability of disease spread and persistence in populations with low disease-free equilibrium group sizes or low initial prevalences of infection. In all other instances the benefits were negligible. The live test strategy will offer an improvement over the interim strategy, but will not be as effective as either the gassing or clean-ring strategies. In addition, it is likely to necessitate the culling of approximately four times as many badgers each year as the interim strategy, and the proportion of those killed that are infected will

  7. First report of Troglotrema acutum (Digenea, Troglotrematidae) in the Eurasian badger Meles meles in the Iberian Peninsula and presumptive lesions caused in the host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ribas, Alexis; Molina-Vacas, G.; Boadella, M.; Rodríguez-Teijeiro, J. D.; Fernández-Cardo, R.; Arrizabalaga, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2012), s. 222-227. ISSN 0022-149X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Eurasian badger * parasites * Iberian Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.157, year: 2012

  8. BODY SIZE REDUCTION AND TOOTH AGENESIS IN LATE PLEISTOCENE MELES MELES (CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA FROM INGARANO (SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAWID ADAM IURINO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals combined factors such as body size reduction and loss of peripheral teeth are often associated with endemism phenomena. This condition is particularly evident in insular contexts where is a complete geographic isolation. During the Pleistocene there have been several glacial stages, which changed the physiognomy of the Italian peninsula strongly influencing the distribution and morphology of mammalian faunas. Several genetic studies have shown that some Southern Italian areas have particular endemic species of small and medium size mammals. During Pleistocene these areas have been characterized by particular climatic/environmental conditions, and are generally called "glacial refugia". They represent geographically isolated areas over time, where the origin of faunas with peculiar features is favoured. In this study, the occurrence of Meles meles from the Late Pleistocene site of Ingarano (Apulia, Southern Italy is documented for the first time. This taxon is represented only by a partial skull (splancnocranum that, despite the relative completeness, includes peculiar and well-preserved dental features that could be related to a partial endemic condition. The fossil shows a reduced body size and the agenesis of peripheral teeth, both conditions that are typical of the extant badgers from Crete, Rhodes and Japan. To test this hypothesis, tomographic analysis have been provided to establish the dental agenesis, and, in order to understand the magnitude of the body size reduction, biometric analyses have been carried on. The obtained data have been compared to measures of the extant Eurasian badgers.SHORT NOTE

  9. Rice-Mele model with topological solitons in an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysiężna, Anna; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Attractive ultracold fermions trapped in a one-dimensional periodically shaken optical lattice are considered. For an appropriate resonant shaking, a dimerized structure emerges for which the system realizes paradigmatic physics described by the Rice-Mele model. The emergent nature of the system together with density fluctuations or controlled modifications of lattice filling allow for the creation of defects. Those defects lead to topologically protected localized modes carrying the fractional particle number. Their possible experimental signatures are discussed.

  10. Edge superconducting state in attractive U Kane-Mele-Hubbard model

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, J.; Gao, JH; Chen, WQ; Ye, F; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, FC

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the phase transition from topological insulator (TI) to superconductor in the attractive U Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with self-consistent mean field method. We demonstrate the existence of edge superconducting state (ESS), in which the bulk is still an insulator and the superconductivity only appears near the edges. The ESS results from the special energy dispersion of TI, and is a general property of the superconductivity in TI. The phase transition in this model e...

  11. Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds

    OpenAIRE

    Flavie Vial; W Thomas Johnston; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treat...

  12. Evaluation of attractant flavours for use in oral vaccine baits for badgers ()

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, David J.; Leigh A. L. Corner; Gormley, Eamonn; Murphy, Denise; Costello, Eamon; Aldwell, Frank E.; Marples, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract European badgers (Meles meles) are a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis infection (tuberculosis) in Ireland and the UK and are implicated in the transmission of infection to livestock. Vaccination of badgers with the human BCG vaccine (Bacille Calmette Guerin) is considered as an important strategy to reduce the burden of disease in this species, and a pragmatic approach is likely to involve oral vaccination. In this study, we evaluated nine different flavours for ...

  13. Analytic approach to the edge state of the Kane-Mele Model

    OpenAIRE

    Doh, Hyeonjin; Jeon, Gun Sang; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the edge state of a two-dimensional topological insulator based on the Kane-Mele model. Using complex wave numbers of the Bloch wave function, we derive an analytical expression for the edge state localized near the edge of a semi-infinite honeycomb lattice with a straight edge. For the comparison of the edge type effects, two types of the edges are considered in this calculation; one is a zigzag edge and the other is an armchair edge. The complex wave numbers and the boundary ...

  14. Anomalous band inversion protected by symmetry in a topological insulator of the Kane-Mele model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Xiang; Che, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing Au on a graphene derivative, which involves substituting four C atoms with three N atoms in a 3 ×3 cell graphene, we realized a topological insulator of the Kane-Mele model with a gap of 50 meV surrounding the Dirac point of graphene. In this material, we observed an anomalous band inversion (BI) protected by the symmetry with character e of group C3 V. The symmetry constrains two e bands with mirror-symmetry combination and mirror-antisymmetry combination (MAC) of Au and N orbitals degenerate at Γ , whereas the interaction of π* of graphene on the e -MAC band tends to lift this degenerate, resulting in that the π* and e -MAC band exchange their orbital components near Γ , causing thus a discontinued BI.

  15. Topological Rice-Mele model in an emergent lattice: Exact diagonalization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedroń, Krzysztof; Dutta, Omjyoti; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    Using exact diagonalization methods we study possible phases in a one-dimensional model of two differently populated fermionic species in a periodically driven optical lattice. The shaking amplitude and frequency are chosen to resonantly drive s -p transition while minimizing the standard intraband tunnelings. We verify numerically the presence of an emergent density wave configuration of composites for appropriate filling fraction and minimized intraband tunnelings. The majority fermions moving in such a lattice mimic the celebrated Rice-Mele model. Far away from that region, the structure changes to a clustered phase, with the intermediate phase abundantly populated by defects of the density wave. These defects lead to localized modes carrying fractional particle charge. The results obtained are compared with earlier approximate predictions.

  16. Electric and geometric controlling of the magnetic coupling in Kane-Mele nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Weicheng [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, Liang-Jian, E-mail: zou@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, H.-Q. [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, we show that indirect spin interaction J between two magnetic impurities located on honeycomb Kane-Mele zigzag/armchair ribbons (KMZR/KMAR) is easily controlled by staggered potential and geometry. We demonstrate that J in periodic-boundary KMZR reaches maximum at the edges, and oscillates between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic couplings when tuning the sublattice staggered potential Δ. The odd-even length effect of J in KMZR and the width dependence of J in KMAR are also presented. These results clearly demonstrate the unique role of topological edge states and finite-size effect in magnetic coupling of quantum spin Hall (QSH) ribbons, and the controllability of the edge magnetism, hence favoring the fabrication of the spintronic devices in two-dimensional buckled honeycomb materials, e.g., silicene and germanene.

  17. Analytical approach to the edge state of the Kane-Mele model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Hyeonjin; Jeon, Gun Sang; Choi, Hyoung Joon

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the edge state of a two-dimensional topological insulator based on the Kane- Mele model. We consider the two semi-infinite honeycomb lattices with a zig-zag and an armchair boundary, respectively. We construct the effective Hamiltonians for the edge states assuming exponentially decaying wave functions. With the boundary conditions for the both types of the boundaries, we derive the self-consistent equations for the energies and the decaying factors of the edge states. The numerical solutions of the self-consistent equations exhibit intriguing spatial behaviors of the edge states with respect to the spin-orbit coupling and the sub-lattice potential. We found the bifurcation behavior of the edge state width with respect to the sub-lattice potential in zigzag boundary. The bifurcation behavior discriminates the boundary dependencies of the edge state properties. We also discuss the relation between the sample size and the interaction parameters in the phase transition from normal insulator to topological insulator. This work was supported by NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2011-0018306).

  18. Farm husbandry and badger behaviour: opportunities to manage badger to cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A I; Judge, J; Delahay, R J

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a serious disease of cattle in the UK in terms of the economic impact on the farming industry. The disease has proven difficult to control in the cattle population and the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is a source of infection. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential to employ farm husbandry and biosecurity practices to reduce bTB transmission risks. Here we review the potential routes of bTB transmission between badgers and cattle and explore the options for managing cattle and badger behaviour with a view to reducing the risks of inter-species transmission at pasture and within farm buildings. We discuss the relative merits of different cattle grazing regimes, habitat manipulations and badger latrine management in reducing the potential for badger-cattle contact at pasture. The physical exclusion of badgers from farm buildings is suggested as the simplest, and potentially most effective, method of reducing contact and opportunities for disease transmission between badgers and cattle. However, more research is required on the effectiveness, practicalities and costs of implementing such measures before specific guidance can be developed. PMID:19846226

  19. Mele Pesti soovitab : Jõulujazz / Mele Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Mele, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    Aafrika laulja Malia kontserdist Sakala keskuses; taani kitarristi Pierre Dorge kontserdist Tallinna kunstihoones; Hedvig Hansoni ja Andre Maakeri kontserdist Niguliste kirikus 11. dets. festivali Jõulujazz raames

  20. Genetic evidence that culling increases badger movement: implications for the spread of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lisa C; Butlin, Roger K; Wilson, Gavin J; Woodroffe, Rosie; Erven, Kristien; Conyers, Chris M; Franklin, Tanya; Delahay, Richard J; Cheeseman, Chris L; Burke, Terry

    2007-12-01

    The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) has been implicated in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis) to cattle. However, evidence suggests that attempts to reduce the spread of TB among cattle in Britain by culling badgers have mixed effects. A large-scale field experiment (the randomized badger culling trial, RBCT) showed that widespread proactive badger culling reduced the incidence of TB in cattle within culled areas but that TB incidence increased in adjoining areas. Additionally, localized reactive badger culling increased the incidence of TB in cattle. It has been suggested that culling-induced perturbation of badger social structure may increase individual movements and elevate the risk of disease transmission between badgers and cattle. Field studies support this hypothesis, by demonstrating increases in badger group ranges and the prevalence of TB infection in badgers following culling. However, more evidence on the effect of culling on badger movements is needed in order to predict the epidemiological consequences of this control strategy. Here, analysis of the genetic signatures of badger populations in the RBCT revealed increased dispersal following culling. While standard tests provided evidence for greater dispersal after culling, a novel method indicated that this was due to medium- and long-distance dispersal, in addition to previously reported increases in home-range size. Our results also indicated that, on average, badgers infected with M. bovis moved significantly farther than did uninfected badgers. A disease control strategy that included culling would need to take account of the potentially negative epidemiological consequences of increased badger dispersal. PMID:17944854

  1. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annavi, G.; Newman, C.; Dugdale, H. L.; Buesching, C. D.; Sin, Y. W.; Burke, T.; Macdonald, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23years of demographic and genetic data from a high-densi

  2. Unine talvefestival / Mele Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Mele, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Kolmanda rahvusvahelise teatrifestivali "Talveöö unenägu" külalislavastustest : Gesher teatri esituses ja J. Arie lavastuses "Ori", Valgevene Akad. Teatri esituses A. Tshehhovi "Kirsiaia" järgi "SV" P. Adamtshikovi lavastuses, R. Lundáni "Tarbetud inimesed" KOM Teatri esituses ja Rootsi Backa teatri esituses E. Östergreni "Girlpower" M. Stenbergi lavastuses

  3. Kiiksuga kangelased / Mele Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Mele, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    USA roadmovie tüüpi sisukad mängufilmid "Väike Miss Päikesepaiste" ("Little Miss Sunshine"; režissöörid Jonathan Dayton ja Valerie Faris, peaosas 10-aastane Abigail Breslin) ja "Transamerica" ( režissöör Duncan Tucker, peaosas Felicity Huffman)

  4. Confirmation of low genetic diversity and multiple breeding females in a social group of Eurasian badgers from microsatellite and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Roura, X; Macdonald, D W; Roy, M S; Marmi, J; Terradas, J; Woodroffe, R; Burke, T; Wayne, R K

    2003-02-01

    The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is a facultatively social carnivore that shows only rudimentary co-operative behaviour and a poorly defined social hierarchy. Behavioural evidence and limited genetic data have suggested that more than one female may breed in a social group. We combine pregnancy detection by ultrasound and microsatellite locus scores from a well-studied badger population from Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK, to demonstrate that multiple females reproduce within a social group. We found that at least three of seven potential mothers reproduced in a group that contained 11 reproductive age females and nine offspring. Twelve primers showed variability across the species range and only five of these were variable in Wytham. The microsatellites showed a reduced repeat number, a significantly higher number of nonperfect repeats, and moderate heterozygosity levels in Wytham. The high frequency of imperfect repeats and demographic phenomena might be responsible for the reduced levels of variability observed in the badger. PMID:12535103

  5. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Carter

    Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.

  6. Local cattle and badger populations affect the risk of confirmed tuberculosis in British cattle herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie Vial

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission.

  7. Evidence for a role of the host-specific flea (Paraceras melis) in the transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European badger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

  8. Diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of three tests for tuberculosis in live badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Drewe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is notoriously difficult in live animals, yet important if we are to understand the epidemiology of TB and devise effective strategies to limit its spread. Currently available tests for diagnosing TB in live Eurasian badgers (Meles meles remain unvalidated against a reliable gold standard. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of three tests for TB in badgers in the absence of a gold standard. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Bayesian approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of mycobacterial culture, gamma-interferon assay and a commercially available serological test using multiple samples collected from 305 live wild badgers. Although no single test was judged to be sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used as a sole diagnostic method, selective combined use of the three tests allowed guidelines to be formulated that allow a diagnosis to be made for individual animals with an estimated overall accuracy of 93% (range: 75% to 97%. Employing this approach in the study population of badgers resulted in approximately 13 out of 14 animals having their true infection status correctly classified from samples collected on a single capture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method of interpretation represents a marked improvement on the current procedure for diagnosing M. bovis infection in live badgers. The results should be of use to inform future test and intervention strategies with the aim of reducing the incidence of TB in free-living wild badger populations.

  9. Physaloptera sibirica in foxes and badgers from the Western Alps (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroglio, E; Ragagli, C; Trisciuoglio, A

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the presence of Physaloptera sibirica and its distribution as well as the association among the parasite, host (i.e. mange due to Sarcoptes scabiei) and environmental factors (i.e. altitudes) in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and badgers (Meles meles) from the North-West of Italy. From 1996 to 2008 a total of 608 foxes, culled by hunters or road killed, and 39 road killed badgers were examined in order to investigate the presence of nematodes in the stomach. P. sibirica was found in 16 foxes (2.63%) and one badger (2.56%). As regards foxes' habitat type, prevalence was significantly higher (chi(2) = 16.36, p 0.000001) higher (73.33%; 95%CI 44.83-91.09%) in foxes with sarcoptic mange than foxes without mange (0.84%; 95%CI 0.21-1.84%). According to previous studies, in Southern Europe this parasite is associated with mountain areas, probably due to its intermediate hosts which require cold climate. Further studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenic role of P. sibirica in wildlife and its effects on host life history. PMID:19411141

  10. Kokku traageldatud Paabel / Mele Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Mele, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Paabel" ("Babel") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu : peaosades Cate Blanchett, Brad Pitt, Gael Garcia Bernal : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko, 2006

  11. The effect of badger culling on breakdown prolongation and recurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Karolemeas

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either 'prolonged' (lasting ≥ 240 days or 'recurrent' (with another breakdown within a specified time period may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the 'core' trial areas (where culling occurred and the 'buffer' zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas. For breakdowns that started during the culling period, 'reactive' (localised culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1-2.4 within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of 'proactive' culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64-1.0 and 0.69 (0.54-0.86 for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively. Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.

  12. Portugalikeelse kirjanduse retseptsioon Eestis / Mele Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Mele, 1979-

    2011-01-01

    Portugalikeelse kirjanduse tõlgetest ja nende vastuvõtust alates esimese tõlke ilmumisest 1890. aastal kuni 2005. aastani ning retseptsiooni pärssinud teguritest. Ülevaade kahe olulisema tõlkija Aita Kurfeldti ja Ain Kaalepi tööst

  13. Demokraatliku fundamentalismi rasked päevad / Mele Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Mele, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Autor uuris Kopenhaagenis ja Arhusis taanlaste ja Taanis elavate moslemite arusaamu Muhamedist, sõnavabadusest ja elust Taanis. Intervjuu Taani moslemite tähtsaima juhi imaam Ahmed Abu Labaniga, kes autori sõnul on nn. Muhamedi-loo rahvusvahelisele tasemele viimise taga

  14. Scelta dell'habitat del tasso (Meles meles in un'area dell'Oltrepò pavese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rigo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il presente studio è parte di una ricerca promossa dal Centro Studi Faunistica dei Vertebrati della SISN. Il progetto è iniziato nel 1999 ed è ancora in corso. L'area di studio (161 Km² si trova nella zona collinare dell'Oltrepò ed è compresa, sul reticolato cartografico UTM, tra i Km 4972 e 4960 Nord, e i Km 1505 e 1520 Est. Lo scopo principale della ricerca era di valutare l'importanza delle caratteristiche ambientali nella scelta e selezione dell'habitat del tasso, relativamente al posizionamento delle tane. Nel periodo di studio sono stati rilevati i dati ambientali su 23 punti tana (pt e 28 punti casuali (pc, successivamente inseriti in un GIS dal quale, attraverso l'analisi di carte tematiche digitalizzate, sono state ricavate diverse altre informazioni (uso del suolo, geologia, litologia, sviluppo dei corsi d'acqua, delle strade e dei centri abitati considerando aree di raggio 300 e 600 m intorno ai pt e pc. I dati raccolti sono stati oggetto d'analisi statistiche con test di confronto fra pt e pc, indice di selezione di Manly e tecniche classificatorie multivariate (regressione logistica. Le tane di tasso sono prevalentemente scavate in luoghi protetti, caratterizzati da un'elevata copertura. La differenza tra gli ambienti nei quali sono situate le tane e quelli relativi ai punti casuali si è rivelata estremamente significativa (Χ²=18.20; d.f.=1; p<0.001. L'indice di Manly indica una forte selezione per i boschi di latifoglie, quasi tutte le tane, infatti, si trovano in ambienti boschivi caratterizzati da una elevata copertura sia delle fronde degli alberi (Χ²=8.02; d.f.=2; p=0.018 che degli arbusti (Χ²=10.85; d.f.=2; p=0.004; sono invece evitati ambienti caratterizzati da un elevato sviluppo delle attività antropiche e che presentino una copertura minima o del tutto assente come campi coltivati, frutteti, zone a prato, ecc. Preferiti sono risultati i versanti esposti a sud rispetto alle altre esposizioni (Χ²=11.566; d.f.=1; p<0.001 e siti che presentino, nelle vicinanze, la presenza di castagne: risorsa trofica importante per l'animale (Χ²=6.220; d.f.=1; p=0.013. A differenza di quanto emerso in altre ricerche, il substrato geo-litologico e la distanza dai corsi d'acqua non risultano parametri statisticamente significativi, mentre un basso sviluppo delle strade, che rappresentano un disturbo ed un reale pericolo per i tassi, caratterizza i luoghi scelti per le tane. L'animale sembra prediligere, per le proprie tane, secondo quanto emerge anche dall'analisi multivariata, luoghi con un minore disturbo antropico. In conclusione, il tipo di ambiente, la copertura arborea e arbustiva, l'esposizione dei versanti, la presenza di adeguate risorse trofiche nelle vicinanze, la lontananza da strade e lo sviluppo dei centri abitati sono componenti che influenzano significativamente la presenza del tasso. Fattori geologici, litologici, e idrogeologici sono invece di scarsa importanza nell'area considerata.

  15. Oral Vaccination of Guinea Pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccine in a Lipid Matrix Protects against Aerosol Infection with Virulent M. bovis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E.; Chambers, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccina...

  16. The abundance threshold for plague as a critical percolation phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Trapman, P; Leirs, H;

    2008-01-01

    is a percolation threshold, which arises from the difference in scale between the movements that transport infectious fleas between family groups and the vast size of contiguous landscapes colonized by gerbils. Conventional theory predicts that abundance thresholds for the spread of infectious......-appraisal of other invasion thresholds, such as those for epidemic viral infections in African lions (Panthera leo), and of other disease systems such as bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in badgers (Meles meles)....

  17. Monitoring of wildlife crossing structures on Irish national road schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ireland is currently undergoing the largest extension to the National road network in recent years. For this reason, the number of crossing structures for wildlife on the Irish National road network has increased markedly within the last few years. In Ireland, the structures are targeted at protected species whose habitat is directly disturbed by road construction. In general, the target species are otters (Lutra lutra) and badgers (Meles meles). However, structures have been put in place for...

  18. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cross; St. John, Freya A. V.; Saira Khan; Andrea Petroczi

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector ...

  19. The first human case of Trichinella spiralis infection in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Han-Mo; Chung, Dong-Il; YEE, SUNG TAE

    2000-01-01

    Three cases of human infection by Trichinella spiralis were first confirmed by detecting encysted larvae in the biopsied muscle in December 1997, in Korea. The patients were one 35- and two 39-year-old males residing in Kochang-gun, Kyongsangnam-do. They had a common past history of eating raw liver, spleen, blood and muscle of a badger, Meles meles melanogenys, and complained of high fever, facial and periorbital edema, and myalgia. Hematologic and biochemical examinations revealed leukocyto...

  20. Badger productivity, contaminant, and health study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has prepared a proposal to conduct a badger study on the Arsenal with emphasis on contaminant exposure and reproductive affects....

  1. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  2. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Ana Margarida Henriques; Sílvia Carla Barros; Teresa Fagulha; Paula Mendonça; Paulo Carvalho; Madalena Monteiro; Miguel Fevereiro; Basto, Mafalda P.; Luís Miguel Rosalino; Tânia Barros; Victor Bandeira; Carlos Fonseca; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%...

  3. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cross

    Full Text Available Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT; projective questioning (PQ; brief implicit association test (BIAT for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management.

  4. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; St John, Freya A V; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management. PMID:23341973

  5. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Weather. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops...

  6. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, MOSE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, MOSE. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops...

  7. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, CTD

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, CTD. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops near...

  8. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Phytoflash

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Phytoflash. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that...

  9. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, AIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, AIS. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops near...

  10. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Telemetry. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that...

  11. Estimation of badger abundance using faecal DNA typing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, G.J.; Frantz, A C; Pope, L.C.; Roper, T J; Burke, T; Cheeseman, C. L.; Delahay, R.J

    2003-01-01

    1.Wildlife management and conservation programmes often require accurate information on population density, but this can be difficult to obtain, particularly when the species in question is nocturnal or cryptic. Badger populations in Britain are of intense management interest because they are a wildlife reservoir host of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Attempts to manage this infection in badgers, whether by population control or vaccination, require reliable methods of estimating population siz...

  12. Trial design to estimate the effect of vaccination on tuberculosis incidence in badgers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, I.; McGrath, G.; Murphy, D.; Corner, L.A.L.; Gormley, E.; Frankena, K.; More, S.J.; Martin, W.; O'Keeffe, J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in Ireland is the European badger. Studies in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) have shown that badgers culled in association with cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns (focal culling) have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population

  13. Epidemiological study on the Trichinellosis of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in Tuscany (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the years 2004-2005, 112 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 4 badgers (Meles meles were caught in different areas of Tuscany (Central Italy and examined for Trichinella infection, using the diagnostic technique of artificial digestion through Stomacher. No animal was positive for Trichinella larvae. According to our results, Tuscany can be considered a low-risk area for trichinellosis in the fox. In this region the presence of the parasite cannot be ruled out, two cases of infection being reported in 1993. Riassunto Epidemiologia della trichinellosi della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Toscana (Italia centrale. Nel corso degli anni 2004-2005, 112 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 4 tassi (Meles meles sono stati catturati ed esaminati per la presenza di infestione da Trichinella in differenti aree della Toscana (Italia centrale. L'indagine di laboratorio è stata condotta mediante digestione artificiale tramite Stomacher. Nessun animale è risultato positivo. Da questi risultati si può ritenere la Toscana una regione a basso rischio di infezione. La presenza del parassita non può però essere esclusa totalmente. Infatti, nel 1993 sono stati riportati due casi di infestione.

  14. Mobil/Badger to market zeolite-based cumene technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger (Cambridge, MA) and Mobil (Fairfax, VA) are ready to jointly license a new cumene technology that they say achieves higher yields and product purity than existing processes. The zeolite-based technology is scheduled to be introduced at next month's DeWitt Petrochemical Review in Houston. The Mobil/Badger technology aims to challenge the dominant position of UOP's (Des Plaines, IL) solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst process - which accounts for 80%-90% of the world's cumene production. In addition, Monsanto/Kellogg's aluminum chloride-based technology has gained significant momentum since its introduction in the 1980s. And late last year, ABB Lummus Crest (Bloomfield, NJ) also began marketing a zeolite-based cumene technology. While all the technologies make cumene via the alkylation of benzene with propylene, the Mobil/Badger process uses a zeolite-containing catalyst designed by Mobil to selectively catalyze the benzene/propylene reaction, avoiding unwanted propylene oligomerization. Because the olefin reactions are so fast, says Frank A. Demers, Badger's v.p./technology development and marketing, other zeolite technologies are forced to use complex reactor arrangements to stop the propylene-propylene reactions. However, he says, 'Mobil has designed a catalyst that wants to react benzene with propylene to make cumene.'

  15. Mathematical model for transmission of tuberculosis in badger population with vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmi, Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Badger was first time identified as a carrier of Bovine tuberculosis disease in England since 30 years ago. Bovine tuberculosis can be transmitted to another species through the faces, saliva, and breath. The control of tuberculosis in the badger is necessary to reduce the spread of the disease to other species. Many actions have been taken by the government to tackle the disease such as culling badgers with cyanide gas, but this way destroys the natural balance and disrupts the badger population. An alternative way to eliminate tuberculosis within badger population is by vaccination. Here in this paper a model for transmission of badger tuberculosis with vaccination is discussed. The existence of the endemic equilibrium, the stability and the basic reproduction ratio are shown analytically. Numerical simulations show that with proper vaccination level, the basic reproduction ratio could be reduced significantly. Sensitivity analysis for variation of parameters are shown numerically.

  16. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers. PMID:18519560

  17. Using simulation to estimate the power of a badger vaccine trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, I.; More, S.J.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the power of a badger vaccine field trial using simulation techniques. The effects of sample size, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test, transmission rate between unvaccinated badgers, Vaccine Efficacy for Susceptibility (VES) and Vaccine Efficacy

  18. Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

    2006-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently 74 million UK pounds. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is < or =2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur. PMID:16543179

  19. Development of SearchBadger, A Framework for Evaluation of Search Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Merli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Google represents a significant share in the search market and dominates the world of search engines.Although Google has constantly made effort to improve its search results by adding a result page previewand offering a block URL option, individual user feedback to the real time search operation is still verylimited. In this paper, a new framework called SearchBadger is proposed to optimise search results inreal time by interacting with user and taking into account immediate user feedback. The proposedframework SearchBadger is developed using C#, db4o and Visual Studio. SearchBadger architecturecontains the major component BadgerWorkspace and is followed by graphical user interface and searchbehaviour. Keyterm significance and stemming are discussed and then page re-ranking is achieved byinstant user feedback. The framework can be integrated to the existing search engines or served as a testbed for future development of semantic web.

  20. Assessing spatiotemporal associations in the occurrence of badger?human conflict in England

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, John; Roper, Timothy J.; Wilson, Charles J.; Heydon, Matthew J.; Richard J Delahay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Examples from a variety of taxa demonstrate that under certain circumstances, the exclusion or translocation of `problem? animals is ineffective in resolving human?wildlife conflicts and may even elicit new problems elsewhere. Damage caused by badger setts (burrows) is an important source of human?wildlife conflict in the UK and is commonly managed by excluding badgers from all or part of problem setts. We used records of licences issued for the management of such problems...

  1. Complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jessica H; Gaffney, Patricia M; Gilardi, Kirsten; Murray, Michael; Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K

    2010-03-01

    Radio telemetry has greatly advanced the understanding of wild animal ecology. Telemetry studies must ensure that placement of transmitters does not influence the health and behavior of study animals. Here, 10 American badgers (Taxidea taxus) were implanted with beeswax-coated abdominal radio transmitters under general anesthesia and tracked for an average of 14 mo. Behavior and movements of all badgers indicated successful short-term recovery from implantation; however, three mortalities were observed between 5 mo and 15 mo after capture. Cause of death could not be determined for two badgers due to decomposition of the carcasses. A third badger that was recovered in good postmortem condition died from sepsis secondary to a transmitter-related omental torsion. This study indicates that there is some risk associated with abdominally implanted radio transmitters in badgers. Future studies involving implanted transmitters in mammals should focus on identifying safe and effective telemetry devices that do not affect the health of study animals. American badger, omental adhesion, peritoneal implant, telemetry, Taxidea taxus. PMID:20722276

  2. Farmer attitudes to vaccination and culling of badgers in controlling bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M; Lobley, M; Winter, M

    2013-07-13

    Controversy persists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland concerning methods of controlling the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between badgers and cattle. The National Trust, a major land-owning heritage organisation, in 2011, began a programme of vaccinating badgers against bTB on its Killerton Estate in Devon. Most of the estate is farmed by 18 tenant farmers, who thus have a strong interest in the Trust's approach, particularly as all have felt the effects of the disease. This article reports on a study of the attitudes to vaccination of badgers and to the alternative of a culling programme, using face-to-face interviews with 14 of the tenants. The results indicated first that the views of the respondents were more nuanced than the contemporary public debate about badger control would suggest. Secondly, the attitude of the interviewees to vaccination of badgers against bTB was generally one of resigned acceptance. Thirdly, most respondents would prefer a combination of an effective vaccination programme with an effective culling programme, the latter reducing population of density sufficiently (and preferably targeting the badgers most likely to be diseased) for vaccination to have a reasonable chance of success. While based on a small sample, these results will contribute to the vigorous debate concerning contrasting policy approaches to bTB control in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. PMID:23775132

  3. Environmental Monitoring of Mycobacterium bovis in Badger Feces and Badger Sett Soil by Real-Time PCR, as Confirmed by Immunofluorescence, Immunocapture, and Cultivation▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, F P; Courtenay, O; Hibberd, V.; Hewinson, R. G.; Reilly, L.A; Gaze, W. H.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2007-01-01

    Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify Mycobacterium bovis cells in naturally infected soil and badger feces. Immunomagnetic capture, immunofluorescence, and selective culture confirmed species identification and cell viability. These techniques will prove useful for monitoring M. bovis in the environment and for elucidating transmission routes between wildlife and cattle.

  4. Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-10-29

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is causing considerable economic loss to farmers and Government in the United Kingdom as its incidence is increasing. Efforts to control bTB in the UK are hampered by the infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) that represent a wildlife reservoir and source of recurrent M. bovis exposure to cattle. Vaccination of badgers with the human TB vaccine, M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), in oral bait represents a possible disease control tool and holds the best prospect for reaching badger populations over a wide geographical area. Using mouse and guinea pig models, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy, respectively, of candidate badger oral vaccines based on formulation of BCG in lipid matrix, alginate beads, or a novel microcapsular hybrid of both lipid and alginate. Two different oral doses of BCG were evaluated in each formulation for their protective efficacy in guinea pigs, while a single dose was evaluated in mice. In mice, significant immune responses (based on lymphocyte proliferation and expression of IFN-gamma) were only seen with the lipid matrix and the lipid in alginate microcapsular formulation, corresponding to the isolation of viable BCG from alimentary tract lymph nodes. In guinea pigs, only BCG formulated in lipid matrix conferred protection to the spleen and lungs following aerosol route challenge with M. bovis. Protection was seen with delivery doses in the range 10(6)-10(7) CFU, although this was more consistent in the spleen at the higher dose. No protection in terms of organ CFU was seen with BCG administered in alginate beads or in lipid in alginate microcapsules, although 10(7) in the latter formulation conferred protection in terms of increasing body weight after challenge and a smaller lung to body weight ratio at necropsy. These results highlight the potential for lipid, rather than alginate, -based vaccine formulations as suitable delivery

  5. Estimating the power of a Mycobacterium bovis vaccine trial in Irish badgers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, I.; More, S.J.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the power, using simulation techniques, of a group randomized vaccine field trial designed to assess the effect of vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers. The effects of sample size (recapture percentage), initial prevalence, sensitivity and

  6. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3. C3 board number 8215 (not coated) appears as board_id=32, task_id=23. C3 board number 771 (coated) appears...

  7. 75 FR 39667 - Availability for Non-Exclusive or Partially Exclusive Licensing of a U.S. Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... for preparing multivalent vaccines, recombinant DNA expression ] products and more particularly to..., Dr. Paul Mele, Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA), (301) 619- 6664, both...

  8. Epidemic and Maintenance of Rabies in Chinese Ferret Badgers (Melogale moschata) indicated by Epidemiology and the Molecular Signatures of Rabies Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoufeng Zhang; Ye Liu; Yanli Hou; Jinghui Zhao; Fei Zhang; Ying Wang; Rongliang Hu

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of Chinese ferret badger-associated human rabies was investigated in Wuyuan county,Jiangxi province and rabies viruses isolates from ferret badgers in different districts in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces were sequenced with their nucleotides and amino acids and aligned for epidemiological analysis.The results showed that the human rabies in Wuyuan are only associated with ferret badger bites; the rabies virus can be isolated in a high percentage of ferret badgers in the epidemic areas in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces; the isolates share the same molecular features in nucleotides and have characteristic amino acid signatures,i.e.,2 sites in the nucleoprotein and 3 sites in the glycoprotein,that are distinct from virus isolates from dogs in the same region.We conclude that rabies in Chinese ferret badgers has formed an independent transmission cycle and ferret badgers may serve as another important rabies reservoir independent of dog rabies in China.

  9. Optimising and evaluating the characteristics of a multiple antigen ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a badger vaccine field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Aznar

    Full Text Available A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM. The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%, while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation.

  10. Optimising and evaluating the characteristics of a multiple antigen ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a badger vaccine field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A L; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C M

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation. PMID:24983473

  11. Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, I.; Frankena, K.; More, S.J.; Whelan, C.; Martin, W.; Gormley, E.; Corner, L.A.L.; Murphy, D.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination

  12. Hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks Artificial-Recharge Project : Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alan W.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks artificial-recharge project in Morgan County, Colo., was made with the aid of three digital computer models: A canal-distribution model, a ground-water flow model, and a stream-aquifer model. Statistical summaries of probable diversions from the South Platte River based on a 27-year period of historical flows indicate that an average-annual diversion of 96,000 acre-feet and a median-annual diversion of 43,000 acre-feet would be available. Diversions would sustain water in ponds for waterfowl habitat for an average of about five months per year, with a miximum pond surface area of about 300 acres with the median diversions and a maximum pond surface area of about 1,250 acres at least one-half of the years with the historic diversions. If the annual diversion were 43,000 acre-feet, recharge to the two alluvial aquifers would raise water levels sufficiently to create flowing streams in the channels of Beaver and Badger Creeks while allowing an increase in current ground-water pumping. The only area of significant waterlogging would be along the proposed delivery canal on the west edge of Badger Creek valley. If the total water available were diverted, the aquifer system could not transmit the water fast enough to the irrigation areas to avoid considerable waterlogging in the recharge areas. The impact of the proposed project on the South Platte River basin would be minimal once the ground-water system attained steady-state conditions, but that may take decades with a uniform diversion of the 43,000 acre-feet annually. (USGS)

  13. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-28

    The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

  14. Design of Mobile Enhanced Learning Environment on English Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文辉

    2014-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT)has brought about a totally new way of learning,that is mobile -enhanced learning environments (MELE),and it might even take the place of the traditional class teaching.The study’s objective is to measure the impact of mobile -enhanced learning environment (MELE)on English language writing.

  15. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing. PMID:27240911

  16. The role of badgers in the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection (tuberculosis in cattle in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland: current perspectives on control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ní Bhuachalla D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deirdre Ní Bhuachalla,1 Leigh AL Corner,1 Simon J More,1,2 Eamonn Gormley1 1School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a persistent problem in cattle herds in Ireland and the United Kingdom, resulting in hardship for affected farmers and substantial ongoing national exchequer expenditure. There is irrefutable scientific evidence that badgers are a reservoir of M. bovis infection and are implicated in the transmission of infection to cattle. A range of options for the control of TB in badgers is currently available or under development including culling of badgers, vaccination of badgers and cattle, and improved biosecurity to limit contact between the two species. It is unlikely that the eradication of TB from cattle will be achieved without the reservoir of M. bovis infection in badgers being controlled. The chances of success will, however, improve with greater knowledge of the disease in both species and an understanding of the epidemiological drivers of the transmission of infection between badgers and cattle. Keywords: Mycobacterium bovis, badgers, tuberculosis, cattle, vaccination, culling

  17. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

  18. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively). PMID:27513467

  19. A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38%), Eucoleus aerophilus (26%), Toxocara canis (20%), Trichuris vulpis (4%) and Isospora-like oocysts (9%). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n = 50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40%), E. aerophilus (6%) and Isospora-like oocysts (16%). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n = 48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5% of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 3) and 'mink' genotype (n = 1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures. PMID:23900557

  20. Safety study of the SAG2 rabies virus mutant in several non-target species with a view to its future use for the immunization of foxes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, E; Cliquet, F; Aubert, M; Barrat, J; Aubert, A; Artois, M; Schumacher, C L

    1996-11-01

    The safety of the SAG2 virus, a low virulence mutant of the SAD strain, was investigated in ten species of mammals and seven species of birds liable to consume vaccine baits. These species are the western hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), the meadow vole (Microtus arvalis), the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), the water vole (Arvicola terrestris), the field mouse (Apodemus flavicollis or A. sylvaticus), the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), the european badger (Meles meles), the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo), the wild boar (Sus scrofa), the domestic goat (Capra hircus), the carrion crow (Corvus corone), the rook (Corvus frugilegus), the buzzard (Buteo buteo), the red kite (Milvus milvus), the tawny owl (Strix aluco), the long-eared owl (Asio otus) and the barn owl (Tyto alba). The vaccine was administered orally to each species, by an intramuscular (i.m.) route to the rodents and ferret, and by an intracerebral route to the field mouse. No pathogenicity was observed in the 169 animals vaccinated throughout an observation period of over 30 days. After euthanasia, no rabies virus could be detected either in the brain or in the salivary glands of any of the animals. The SAG2 virus administered orally, triggered a specific seroconversion in the field mouse, wild boar, ferret and most of the raptors. Following administration by the i.m. route, specific antibody titres were observed in most of the rodents, as well as in the ferrets. PMID:9014291

  1. Outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild animal park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidbauer, S-M; Wohlsein, P; Kirpal, G; Beineke, A; Müller, G; Müller, H; Moser, I; Baumgartner, W

    2007-09-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis occurred in a wild animal park. Three pot-bellied pigs (Sus scrofa vittatus), one red deer (Cervus elaphus), one buffalo (Bison bonasus) and two European lynxes (Lynx lynx) were affected and showed clinical signs including weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes and paralysis of the hindlimbs. Postmortem examinations revealed multifocal granulomatous lesions in various organs, including the lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, kidneys and the central nervous system. Acid-fast organisms were demonstrated in various organs histologically and bacteriologically. Spoligotyping of 17 isolates from various organs of the affected animals confirmed an infection by M bovis and revealed an identical pattern indicating a common origin. The spoligotype was different from the pattern of M bovis recorded in the cattle population in Germany between 2000 and 2006. Investigations of sentinel animals such as an aged silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), a badger (Meles meles), a ferret (Mustela putorius) and rodents, and tuberculin skin tests of the animal attendants and randomly collected faecal samples from the enclosures were all negative for M bovis. PMID:17766809

  2. Sarcoptic mange in Swedish wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, T

    1992-12-01

    Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Scandinavia (south-west Finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. The disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the Gulf of Finland from Estonia. The mange epizootic spread northwards through Finland and reached Sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. In 1984, mange was observed in most parts of Sweden. The disease was observed to spread rapidly in boreal areas, whereas it spread more slowly in agricultural areas. Mortality due to mange was very high. The duration of the disease before death due to emaciation has been shown experimentally to be over 90 days. An outbreak of fox mange among Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) occurred in 1986. The local population of Arctic foxes was caught and successfully treated. The following year, treated foxes were caught again and no signs of disease were found. Sporadic cases of fox mange have also been diagnosed in lynx (Lynx lynx), pine marten (Martes martes) and domestic dogs. Single cases have been observed in other species: wolf (Canis lupus), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), domestic cat and horse. No cases of sarcoptic mange have been recorded in the badger (Meles meles). At present, although fox mange occurs as an epizootic in local populations, the number of foxes has increased again in many parts of Sweden. PMID:1305857

  3. Quaternary biogeography of the Mustelidae family on the Mediterranean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Five taxa of the Mustelidae family now occur on the Mediterranean islands: the pine marten, Martes martes L., 1758, distributed on some of the Balearic and Tyrrhenian islands, the stone marten, M. foina Erxleben, 1777, which occurs on many islands of the basin, the badger, Meles meles Brisson, 1762, that has been only reported from some Greek islands, the weasel, Musteln nivalis L., 1766, common to many of the islands, and the otter, Lutra lutra L., 1758, recorded from the Greek islands. During Late Pleistocene times, only few carnivores seem to have occurred, however, on these islands and none is referable to the species that are present today. Paleontological evidence attests only to the occurrence of endemic elements, most of which were related to the Lutrinae subfamily. Apart from L. lutra, the absence during Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene of the continental species present today suggests that these carnivores are allochthonous. They were imported by man, for various purposes, probably since prehistorical and/or early historical times. Riassunto Biogeografia quaternaria della famiglia Mustelidae nelle isole del Mediterraneo - La distribuzione attuale dei rappresentanti della famiglia Mustelidae nelle isole mediterranee interessa esclusivamente cinque specie: la martora, Martes martes L., 1758, presente su alcune isole baleariche e tirreniche, la faina, M. foina Erxleben, 1777, diffusa in varie isole del Mediterraneo, il tasso, Meles meles Brisson, 1762, che viene solo segnalato per alcune isole greche, la donnola, Mustela nivalis L., 1766, che interessa molte isole del bacino e la lontra, Lutra lutra L., 1758, nota solamente per alcune isole greche. Nel corso del Pleistocene altre forme di mustelidi hanno comunque interessato queste isole e nessuna di esse può essere riferita

  4. PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RABIES VIRUS IN FERRET BADGERS ASSOCIATED WITH A RABIES OUTBREAK IN TAIWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Inoue, Satoshi; Chan, Fang-Tse; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Pang, Victor Fei

    2016-01-01

    Until Rabies virus (RABV) infection in Taiwan ferret badgers (TWFB; Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) was diagnosed in mid-June 2013, Taiwan had been considered rabies free for >50 yr. Although rabies has also been reported in ferret badgers in China, the pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigens of ferret badger-associated rabies have not been described. We performed a comprehensive pathologic study and molecular detection of rabies virus in three necropsied rabid TWFBs and evaluated archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of six other TWFBs necropsied during 2004 and 2012. As in other RABV-infected species, the characteristic pathologic changes in TWFBs were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, and the formation of typical intracytoplasmic Negri bodies, with the brain stem most affected. There was also variable spongiform degeneration, primarily in the perikaryon of neurons and neuropil, in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. In nonnervous system tissues, representative lesions included adrenal necrosis and lymphocytic interstitial sialadenitis. Immunohistochemical staining and fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens in the perikaryon of the neurons and axonal or dendritic processes throughout the nervous tissue and in the macrophages in various tissues. Similar to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitidae), the nervous tissue of rabid TWFBs displayed widely dispersed lesions, RABV antigens, and large numbers of Negri bodies. We traced the earliest rabid TWFB case back to 2004. PMID:26560756

  5. Efficacy of passive hair-traps for the genetic sampling of a low-density badger population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A hair-trapping survey was carried out in the western River Po plain (NW Italy. We aimed to test whether barbed wire hair snares in combination with DNA profiling might represent an effective tool to study a low-density badger population. Traps were placed above the entrances of twelve badger setts between 15 February and 30 April 2010. Trapping effort was expressed as the number of trap-nights required to pluck a hair sample and the trend in the number of genotyped individual over time was analysed by regression analysis. Forty-three hair samples were collected, with an overall trapping effort of 54.8 trap-nights per one hair sample. Twenty-eight samples yielded reliable genotypes, allowing the identification of nine individual badgers. The length of storage period (1-3 months before DNA extraction did not seem to affect genotyping success. According to the regression model, trapping effort allowed to sample 75% of the overall population. Our results suggest that the efficacy of passive devices is affected by population density.

  6. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201

  7. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus introduction (NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (Meles meles, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago Sylvilagus floridanus (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (Vulpes vulpes, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  8. Thinking of the relationship between dye enterprise and media--Start with a melee about media and enterprise%关于染料企业和媒体关系之思考--从一场媒体与企业的混战说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永奇

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between dye enterprise and media is described as the relationship between fish and water, water and boat. The principle of dealing with the relationship between enterprise and media is put forward, namely reflecting on the past, looking to the future, rational use, cooperation, mutual benefit and achieving win-win.%论述了染料企业与媒体的关系即鱼与水、水与舟的关系,提出了染料企业在如何处理与媒体之间的关系方面的原则,即反思过去,展望未来,善于利用,携手合作,互利互惠,实现双赢。

  9. Invasion of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe: History of colonization, features behind its success,and threats to native fauna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaarina KAUHALA; Rafal KOWALCZYK

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to review the history of the introduction and colonization of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes ptocyonoides in Europe,the features behind its successful expansion and its impact on native fauna.The raccoon dog quickly colonized new areas after being introduced to the European part of the former Soviet Union.Today it is widespread in Northern and Eastern Europe and is still spreading in Central Europe.Features behind its success include its adaptability,high reproductive potential,omnivoty,hibernation in northern areas,multiple introductions with > 9000 individuals from different localities,and tendency to wander enabling gene flow between populations.Firm evidence of the raccoon dog's negative impact on native fauna,such as a reduction in bird populations,is still scarce.Raccoon dogs may destroy waterfowl nests,although a nest predation study in Latvia did not confirm this.Predator removal studies in Finland suggested that the raccoon dog's impact on game birds is smaller than expected.However,raccoon dogs may have caused local extinction of frog populations,especially on islands.Raccoon dogs may compete with other carnivores for food,for example for carrion in winter,or for the best habitat patches.In northern Europe potential competitors include the red fox Vulpes vulpes and the badger Meles meles,but studies of their diets or habitat preferences do not indicate severe competition.The raccoon dog is an important vector of diseases and parasites,such as rabies,Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp.and this is no doubt the most severe consequence arising from the spread of this alien species in Europe [Current Zoology 57 (5):584-598,2011].

  10. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although

  11. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. PMID:21104273

  12. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morecroft Michael D

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future.

  13. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  14. [Sequencing and analysis of complete genome of rabies viruses isolated from Chinese Ferret-Badger and dog in Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Meng, Sheng-Li; Chen, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Fu-Ming; Ye, Bi-Feng; Tang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Based on sequencing the full-length genomes of four Chinese Ferret-Badger and dog, we analyze the properties of rabies viruses genetic variation in molecular level, get the information about rabies viruses prevalence and variation in Zhejiang, and enrich the genome database of rabies viruses street strains isolated from China. Rabies viruses in suckling mice were isolated, overlapped fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and full-length genomes were assembled to analyze the nucleotide and deduced protein similarities and phylogenetic analyses from Chinese Ferret-Badger, dog, sika deer, vole, used vaccine strain were determined. The four full-length genomes were sequenced completely and had the same genetic structure with the length of 11, 923 nts or 11, 925 nts including 58 nts-Leader, 1353 nts-NP, 894 nts-PP, 609 nts-MP, 1575 nts-GP, 6386 nts-LP, and 2, 5, 5 nts- intergenic regions(IGRs), 423 nts-Pseudogene-like sequence (psi), 70 nts-Trailer. The four full-length genomes were in accordance with the properties of Rhabdoviridae Lyssa virus by BLAST and multi-sequence alignment. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences among Chinese strains had the highest similarity, especially among animals of the same species. Of the four full-length genomes, the similarity in amino acid level was dramatically higher than that in nucleotide level, so the nucleotide mutations happened in these four genomes were most synonymous mutations. Compared with the reference rabies viruses, the lengths of the five protein coding regions had no change, no recombination, only with a few point mutations. It was evident that the five proteins appeared to be stable. The variation sites and types of the four genomes were similar to the reference vaccine or street strains. And the four strains were genotype 1 according to the multi-sequence and phylogenetic analyses, which possessed the distinct district characteristics of China. Therefore, these four rabies viruses are likely to be street viruses

  15. Emergence of a sylvatic enzootic formosan ferret badger-associated rabies in Taiwan and the geographical separation of two phylogenetic groups of rabies viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, K J; Hsu, W C; Chuang, W C; Chang, J C; Tu, Y C; Tsai, H J; Liu, H F; Wang, F I; Lee, S H

    2016-01-15

    Taiwan had been declared rabies-free in humans and domestic animals for five decades until July 2013, when surprisingly, three Formosan ferret badgers (FB) were diagnosed with rabies. Since then, a variety of wild carnivores and other wildlife species have been found dead, neurologically ill, or exhibiting aggressive behaviors around the island. To determine the affected animal species, geographic areas, and environments, animal bodies were examined for rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The viral genomes from the brains of selected rabid animals were sequenced for the phylogeny of rabies viruses (RABV). Out of a total of 1016 wild carnivores, 276/831 (33.2%) Formosan FBs were FAT positive, with occasional biting incidents in 1 dog and suspected spillover in 1 house shrew. All other animals tested, including dogs, cats, bats, mice, house shrews, and squirrels, were rabies-negative. The rabies was badger-associated and confined to nine counties/cities in sylvatic environments. Phylogeny of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes from 59 Formosan FB-associated RABV revealed them to be clustered in two distinct groups, TWI and TWII, consistent with the geographic segregation into western and eastern Taiwan provided by the Central Mountain Range and into northern rabies-free and central-southern rabies-affected regions by a river bisecting western Taiwan. The unique features of geographic and genetic segregation, sylvatic enzooticity, and FB-association of RABV suggest a logical strategy for the control of rabies in this nation. PMID:26711025

  16. Salida de campo desde Valdestillas (Valladolid) hasta un puente sobre el río Eresma el 21 de octubre de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo desde Valdestillas hasta un puente sobre el río Eresma, en la provincia de Valladolid, el 21 de octubre de 1951, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre alguna lagartija y un lagarto (sin concretar géneros o especies), los siguientes mamíferos: Ardilla (pudiendo ser Sciurus vulgaris o Atlantoxerus getulus), Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Lepus granatensis (Liebre ibérica), Lutra lutra (Nutria), Meles meles (Tejón), Mustela nivalis (Comadreja), O...

  17. Construction and properties of a topological index for periodically driven time-reversal invariant 2D crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carpentier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present mathematical details of the construction of a topological invariant for periodically driven two-dimensional lattice systems with time-reversal symmetry and quasienergy gaps, which was proposed recently by some of us. The invariant is represented by a gap-dependent Z2-valued index that is simply related to the Kane–Mele invariants of quasienergy bands but contains an extra information. As a byproduct, we prove new expressions for the two-dimensional Kane–Mele invariant relating the latter to Wess–Zumino amplitudes and the boundary gauge anomaly.

  18. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

    2013-07-01

    Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum

  19. Big Science and Long-tail Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Jim Downing and I were privileged to be the guests of Salavtore Mele at CERN yesterday and to see the Atlas detector of the Large Hadron Collider . This is a wow experience - although I knew it was big, I hadnt realised how big.

  20. Kättpidi Keenias, peadpidi Ladina-Ameerikas / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Pesti, Mele ; Kristjan Jansen. Mate ja miljon mahla : üheksa kuud Lõuna-Ameerikas : Argentiina, Paraguai, Boliivia, Tšiili, Brasiilia. [Kuressaare] : K. Jansen : M. Pesti, 2009 ; Vihma, Peeter. Kättpidi Keenias, ehk, Kümme lugu läbikukkunud vabatahtlikult Ida-Aafrikas. Tallinn : Eesti Ekspress, 2009

  1. Classroom Demonstration: Combustion of Diamond to Carbon Dioxide Followed by Reduction to Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Takuya; Kamata, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    An educational demonstration shows the combustion of carbon to carbon dioxide and then the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon. A melee diamond is the source of the carbon and the reaction is carried out in a closed flask. The demonstration helps students to realize that diamonds are made of carbon and that atoms do not change or vanish in…

  2. 75 FR 3963 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel MELE KAI. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46...

  3. BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

  4. 内蒙古赛罕乌拉自然保护区4种小型食肉目动物的食性构成的初步分析%Preliminary comparison of diet composition of four small sized carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张逦嘉; 王安梦; 袁梨; 鲍伟东; 杨永昕; 巴特尔

    2011-01-01

    为了解同域分布动物的食物竞争关系,采用样线法收集粪便样品,依据残遗物鉴别物种的方法,于2007年8~12月对赛罕乌拉国家级自然保护区的赤狐、狗獾、香鼬和豹猫的食物构成进行比较.结果表明:赤狐取食所有15类食物,并捕食小型鼬类;在赤狐粪样(n=70)中出现率较大的植物(32.6%)以重量比率计算时其贡献极大下降(0.02%),而出现率较低的草兔和鸟类重量比率较高(草兔65.4%,鸟类22.9%),相对重要值的计算表示,赤狐的食物构成均一.狗獾(n=64)以取食昆虫和植物果实为主(出现率29.3%和57.8%).香鼬(n=14)集中取食鼠类(出现率73.7%,相对重量99.8%),豹猫(n=11)则以鸟类居多(出现率27.8%,相对重量69.0%).食物生态位的宽度以赤狐最大(0.2),其次为豹猫(0.07).根据食物生态位的重叠度分析,赤狐与狗獾(O=0.99)和豹猫(O=0.7)以及狗獾与豹猫(O=0.6)的种间竞争较强,但在主要食物上出现分离,实现捕食者之间的共存.赤狐对香鼬的捕食可能限制了其种群的发展.%Food habits and competition of sympatric carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia were compared from August to December 2007 by examining fecal content Food items were evaluated by rate of occurrence in the diet and in weight percentage of total diet. Our study included red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ), badger ( Meles meles ), mountain weasel (Mustela altaica) and leopard cat (Felis bengalensis). The data indicate red fox ingested 15 kinds of food with the following composition: plants (32.6% ), rodents (31.3% ) and birds ( 18. 6% ); weasels were occasionally preyed upon (0. 7% ). Although plant occurrence was high percentage, the role of vegetation decreased when calculated in relative weight percentage. Badger consumed more insects (29. 3% ) and fruit (57. 8% ) in terms of frequency, while mountain weasel preyed upon rodents at a very high rate of occurrence ( 73. 7% ) and weight

  5. 江西省黄鼬和鼬獾狂犬病流行病学监测%Epidemiological surveillance of rabies in yellow mongooses (Mustela sibirica) and ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敬慧; 张守峰; 刘晔; 陈奇; 苗富春; 王林栋; 李易潞; 扈荣良

    2012-01-01

    目的 为确定江西省除鼬獾外夜行肉食类野生动物黄鼬是否携带狂犬病病毒,对该地区黄鼬和鼬獾进行狂犬病流行病学监测,分析其感染状况.方法 在江西部分地区采集黄鼬和鼬獾脑组织样品,直接免疫荧光法(FAT)检测样品中狂犬病毒抗原,小鼠颅内接种实验(MIT)分离病毒,RT-PCR扩增其核蛋白和糖蛋白全基因进行测定,并与我国其他地区狂犬病病毒的核酸序列进行对比分析.结果 黄鼬脑组织样品FAT结果 阳性率为0(0/1 102),鼬獾阳性率为1.9 %(4/210).经MIT分离到4株狂犬病病毒之间N基因和G基因的同源性较高,分别为99.6%~100%和99.7%~100%,与浙江和江西其它鼬獾狂犬病病毒分离株同源性为96.0%~99.3%和98.7%~99.1%,与浙江和福建犬源分离株(ZJ-QZ,D01,FJ008,FJ009等)同源性为88.2%~88.8%和87.6%~87.7%.结论 采样地区黄鼬样品中未发现狂犬病病毒感染,而鼬獾感染狂犬病病毒阳性率较高,说明其种群内存在狂犬病的流行;犬与鼬獾狂犬病病毒株同源性较低,二者交叉传播或溢出的可能性较低;黄鼬和鼬獾尽管同属夜行动物,但二者交互感染的可能性很低.有必要对该地区野生动物狂犬病进行长期监测.%To found out the background of rabies in yellow mongooses facing the damager of spread in wildlife , we con-ducted the surveillance of rabies in yellow mongooses and ferret badgers in Jiangxi Province . Yellow mongoose heads and ferret badger heads were randomly collected in Jiangxi Province . The samples were detected by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (FAT) and rabies virus was isolated through Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) . Full genome of N gene and G gene were amplified by RT-PCR and then sequenced . No positive sample was found from 1 102 yellow mongooses. Four positive samples were identified from ferret badgers with a positive ratio as 1 .9% (4/210) . Four rabies virus strains were isolated (JX12-64 , JX12

  6. Involvement of two genetic lineages of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Masahiko; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan. PMID

  7. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of

  8. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Saito

    Full Text Available Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon, Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata, Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis, Japanese marten (Martes melampus, Japanese badger (Meles anakuma, and wild boar (Sus scrofa generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape. Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale

  9. The Eurasian Otter in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgadze G.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Mustelidae are to be found in the south Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia: Lutra lutra, Martes martes, Martes foina, Meles meles, Mustela vison, Mustela nivalis and Vormela peregusna. The rarest of these species are the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and the marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna. The Eurasian otter, one of most endangered species of the south caucasian fauna, is still suffering under the influence of poaching, habitat loss, disturbance and pollution. No fundamental research has been undertaken on otters in any of the south Caucasian countries and, therefore, data provided in the literature are scarce. Further, no DNA analysis has been undertaken in this part of the world and, therefore, the actual number of subspecies is not clear.

  10. Interfacial Fermi Loops from Interfacial Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Ryuji; Murakami, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a concept of interfacial symmetries such as interfacial particle-hole symmetry and interfacial time-reversal symmetry, which appear in interfaces between two regions related to each other by particle-hole or time-reversal transformations. These symmetries result in novel dispersion of interface states. In particular for the interfacial particle-hole symmetry the gap closes along a loop ("Fermi loop") at the interface. We numerically demonstrate this for the Fu-Kane-Mele tight-bindi...

  11. Evolution of Landau levels in graphene-based topological insulators in the presence of wedge disclinations

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J R S; Furtado, C; Sergeenkov, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider modification of electronic properties of graphene-based topological insulator in the presence of wedge disclination and magnetic field by adopting the Kane-Mele model with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Using the properly defined Dirac-Weyl equation for this system, an exact solution for the Landau levels is obtained. The influence of the topological defect on the evolution of Landau levels is discussed.

  12. The Death of Superintendent Stanley and the Cahuilla Uprising of 1907-1912

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Tanis

    2004-01-01

    This essay documents the death of superintendent William Stanley during a melee at the Cahuilla Reservation in 1912 as a by-product of the Indians' non-negotiable demand for self-determination. Clashes between Indian Agency superintendents and reservation leaders ("captains") occurred at Morongo, Los Coyotes, Soboba, Mesa Grande, Campo, and other reservations in the Southern California Mission Indian Agency in the decade before World War I. Resilient, long-standing institutions like the fiest...

  13. Efficacy of Long xue jie capsule combined with Badger Oil treatment of radiotherapy -induced injuries of skin%龙血竭联合獾油治疗放射性皮肤损伤的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武霞; 盖龙娴; 刘学键

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Long xuejie capsule combined with Badger Oil on head and neck cancer radiotherapy -induced radiation injuries of skin application value.Methods The received radiation therapy in Ⅱ -Ⅳacute radioactive skin injury in 128 cases were selected.Used the envelope method,they were ran-domly divided into the research group and the control group.Outside the team starts from a radioactive dermatitis with badger oil apply skin irradiation area,with a dragon dragon's blood powder coating outside skin area.Apply 1 -2 times a day,seven days for a course of treatment until wound healing.The control group from a radioactive dermatitis with 0.9% sodium chloride injection,dexamethasone,gentamycin gauze wet moist wound after 30min,1 -2 times a day, 7 days for a course of treatment.Compare the therapeutic effect of the two groups of wet radioactive dermatitis and interruption of radiotherapy and skin lesion healing time.Results The effective rate of the study group was 90.6%, the cure rate was 100%.The effective rate of the control group was 80%,the treatment rate was 62.5%.There was a significant difference between the two groups (χ2 =14.64,11.86,11.48.P <0.01).The vast majority of the study group in a week skin lesions healed,no patients discontinued radiotherapy,the control group 13 cases of termination of radiotherapy,interruption time study group (3.8 ±1.4)d,group interrupt time (8.8 ±1.6)d,lesion healing time of the study group (5.6 ±0.6)d,lesion healing time in the control group (10.6 ±0.8)d.There was a significant differ-ence between the two groups (χ2 =6.68,6.95,11.48,all P <0.05,significant difference).Conclusion Longxuejie capsule combined Badger Oil has significant efficacy in the treatment of radioactive skin injury.It could shorten the healing time,and the method is convenient,economic,security and has certain clinical value.%目的:观察龙血竭联合獾油治疗头颈部肿瘤放疗引起放射性皮肤损伤的临床

  14. Molecular cloning and evolutionary analysis of hog badger bitter taste receptor T2R2 gene%猪獾苦味受体T2R2基因的分子克隆与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐怀亮; 姚永芳; 朱庆

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of natural bitter toxins through taste is one of the most effective mechanisms of self-safety. An approximate 1 169 bp sequence of the bitter taste receptor T2R2 gene was obtained by PCR and cloning technique from hog badger genomic DNA(GenBank accession number: FJ812727). This sequence contains a complete single exon (without intron) 915 bp in size, which encodes 304 amino acid residues. The isoelectric point (pi) of the protein is 9.76 and its mo-lecular weight is 34.74 kDa. Topology prediction showed that the T2R2 protein contained one N-glycosylation site, one N-myristoylation site, and two potential protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. Additionally, the whole peptide chain was comprised of seven transmembrane helix regions, four extracellular regions, and four intracellular regions. The T2R2 is a hydrophobic protein with a few hydrophilic components. Homology analysis of the T2R2 gene sequences by Clustal Windicated that the cDNA sequence homology of T2R2 gene in hog badger with dog, cat, cattle, horse, chimpanzee, and mouse is 91.4%, 90.6%, 84.4%, 85.4%, 83.8%and 72.1%, respectively, and the homology of amino acid sequence is 85.5%, 85.8%, 74.0%, 77.6%, 75.3% and 61.5%, respectively. The results of nucleotide acid substitution computation and selective test showed that strong purifying selection (functional constraint) occurred between hog badger and the six species, respec-tively, which mainly existed in the transmembrane regions of T2R2. In addition, the Neighbour-Joining tree of T2R2 gene exons from these seven species is consistent with their species tree, indicating that the T2R2 gene is suitable for constructing molecular phylogenetic tree among different species likewise.%苦味的感知是机体有效的自我保护机制之一,文章采用PCR和克隆测序方法首次从猪獾基因组中获得一全长为1 169 bp的苦味受体T2R2基因DNA序列(GenBank登录号:FJ812727).该序列含有完整的1个外

  15. 浙江省野生动物鼬獾狂犬病毒全基因组序列测定分析%Complete genome sequencing and analyses of rabies viruses isolated from wild animals (Chinese Ferret-Badger) in Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷永良; 王晓光; 柳付明; 陈秀英; 叶碧峰; 梅建华; 兰进权; 唐青

    2009-01-01

    目的 测定浙江省分离的2株野生动物鼬獾狂犬病毒株全基因组序列,从分子水平进行遗传变异特征分析,了解狂犬病毒在浙江省的流行和变异情况.方法 RT-PCR测定鼬獾狂犬病毒株全基因组核苷酸序列,并进行基因序列和编码蛋白相似性比较及种系发生分析.结果 测序获得2株鼬獾狂犬病毒全基因组核苷酸序列信息:基因组全长11 923 nts,leader长58 nts,由5个编码区组成:NP(1353 nts)、PP(894 nts)、MP(609 nts)、GP(1575 nts)、LP(6386 nts),N-P-M-G间隔序列长2、5、5 nts;G-L基因间伪基因ψ长423 nts;trailer长70 nts.核酸BLAST及多序列比对显示,浙江省鼬獾狂犬病毒株全基因组序列的组成和结构符合弹状病毒科狂犬病毒属特征;鼬獾病毒株负链RNA基因组5个基因编码氨基酸的长度没有变异,编码区基因没有发生重组,编码蛋白仅表现较少的序列变化,多数只发生碱基的替代;中国病毒株之间特别是同种动物狂犬病毒之间各个基因区域核苷酸与氨基酸序列相似性最高,鼬獾狂犬病毒基因组序列相似性在氨基酸水平明显高于核苷酸水平,蛋白质编码基因的核苷酸变异大多属于同义突变.结论 鼬獾狂犬病毒与研究中选择的代表性疫苗株或者街毒株的变异位点和变异类型相似,多序列相似性比较和N基因种系发生分析显示,鼬獾狂犬病毒均属于基因1型,具有中国地域性特点,2株野生动物鼬獾狂犬病毒极有可能是存在于自然界中固有的街毒株.%Objective Based on sequencing the full-length genomes of two Chinese Ferret-Badger, we analyzed the properties of rabies viruses genetic variation in molecular level to get information on prevalence and variation of rabies viruses in Zhejiang,and to enrich the genome database of rabies viruses street swains isolated from Chinese wildlife.Methods Overlapped fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and full-length genomes were assembled to

  16. Salida de campo por Peralejos de las Truchas y Checa, en Guadalajara, el 19 y 20 de julio de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo del autor y Francisco Bernis por Peralejos de las Truchas y Checa, en Guadalajara, el 19 y 20 de julio de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre sapos y ranas, los siguientes reptiles: Anguis fragilis (Lución), Blanus cinereus (Culebrilla ciega, también llamado Eslabon), Lacerta agilis (Lagarto ágil), Malpolon monspessulanus (Culebra bastarda, llamada Coleopeltis mouspessulanus por el autor) y Vipera sp. (Víbora), los siguientes mamíferos: Martes foina (Garduña), Mele...

  17. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  18. La drosofila del ciliegio – un nuovo parassita nelle colture di frutta a polpa tenera

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Claudia; Baroffio, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    La drosofila del ciliegio Drosophila suzukii è stata importata in Europa nel 2008 ed ha già causato gravi danni nell’area mediterranea. L’estate scorsa il nuovo parassita è stato per la prima volta segnalato anche in Svizzera. I moscerini attaccano tutta la frutta a polpa tenera (bacche, ciliegie, uva) e diversi frutti selvatici. Quest’anno tutte le colture sensibili saranno monitorate con trappole all’aceto di mele. Per prevenire l’infestazione si raccomanda l’impiego di reti a maglie fini, ...

  19. Ylisukupolvisuus toimeentulotukityössä : sosiaaliohjaajien työskentely perheiden kanssa

    OpenAIRE

    Meling, Maiju; Strellman, Merja

    2015-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Meling, Maiju & Strellman, Merja. Ylisukupolvisuus toimeentulotukityössä. Sosiaaliohjaajien työskentely perheiden kanssa. Diak, Helsinki, kevät 2015, 76 s., 4 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, Päihteet ja syrjäytyminen, sosionomi (YAMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on kartoittaa toimeentulotukiasiakkuuden ylisukupolvisuutta ilmiönä ja aikuissosiaalityön asiakasperheiden kanssa tehtävää työtä sosiaaliohjauksen näkökulmasta. Opinnäytetyöss...

  20. (De)confinement of supercurrent in Z_2 Topological Insulators

    OpenAIRE

    Goryo, Jun; Maeda, Nobuki; Imura, Ken-Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the electric supercurrent flows in a Z_2 topological insulator with U_em(1) X U_z(1) (electromagnetic and spin) gauge symmetries. When U_z(1) is broken, a dissipationless electric current is still possible to flow locally but net charge transfer is absent, i.e., current is confined. In the Kane-Mele model for graphene, this confining-deconfining (superconducting) transition is driven by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction, which breaks U_z(1).

  1. Thouless pumping and reservoir-induced topological order in interacting open spin chains

    OpenAIRE

    Linzner, Dominik; Grusdt, Fabian; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an open-system analogue of a topological Thouless pump in the steady state of a one-dimensional spin lattice driven by Markovian reservoirs. Periodic variations in a two-dimensional parameter space are shown to lead to quantized transport through the lattice. On an extremal path in parameter space the steady state is pure state and coincides with the ground state of the Rice-Mele Hamiltonian for fermions at half filling. Here the quantized transport can be associated with a topolog...

  2. Predation on dormice in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors analyse available data on the impact of predators on Dormouse populations in Italy. Dormice are found in the diet of 2 snakes (Vipera berus and V. aspis, 2 diurnal birds of prey (Buteo buteo and Aquila chrysaetos, 6 owls (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo and Glaucidium passerinum and 9 mammals (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M. foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris and Sus scrofa in a variable percentage of the prey taken. Only Dryomys nitedula was never encountered as a prey item. The most common prey is Muscardinus avellanarius. There are significative regional differences in predation between bioclimatic areas of the Italian peninsula. The contribution of studies on predation to knowledge of Myoxid distribution is discussed. Riassunto Predazione di Mioxidi in Italia - Sono analizzati i dati pubblicati sull'impatto dei predatori sulle popolazioni di Myoxidae in Italia. Myoxidae sono stati riscontrati nelle diete di 2 serpenti (Vipera berus e V. aspis, 2 rapaci diurni (Buteo buteo e Aquila chrysaetos, 6 notturni (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo e Glaucidium passerinum e 9 mammiferi (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris e Sus scrofa in percentuale variabile nella comunità di prede. Solo Dryomys nitedula non è mai stato incontrato come preda. La specie piu comunemente predata risulta Muscardinus avellanarius. Sono discusse le

  3. A Note on the Estimation of Semiparametric Two-Sample Density Ratio Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang YU; Wei GAO; Ningzhong SHI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a semiparametric two-sample density ratio model is considered and the empirical likelihood method is applied to obtain the parameters estimation.A commonly occurring problem in computing is that the empirical likelihood function may be a concaveconvex function.Here a simple Lagrange saddle point algorithm is presented for computing the saddle point of the empirical likelihood function when the Lagrange multiplier has no explicit solution.So we can obtain the maximum empirical likelihood estimation (MELE) of parameters.Monte Carlo simulations are presented to illustrate the Lagrange saddle point algorithm.

  4. Cartoneros - Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Mele, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    L’idea alla base di Cartenoros nasce contestualmente al viaggio che l’artista ha compiuto nel 2006 in Argentina per realizzare il progetto sulla fabbrica di ceramica Fasinpat (Fabrica sin patrones), esempio di autogestione aziendale tra i più significativi del paese. Dal 2000, in occasione di una manifestazione operaia alla quale l’artista assistette, Mele cominciò a seguire la storia del movimento operaio e decise di tornare in Argentina nel 2006. Mentre raccoglieva il materiale per il proge...

  5. Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Graphene Nanoribbons: Effect of Edge Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun

    2011-01-01

    There has been tremendous recent progress in realizing topological insulator initiated by the proposal of Kane and Mele for the graphene system. They have suggested that the odd $Z_2$ index for the graphene manifests the spin filtered edge states for the graphene nanoribbons, which lead to the quantum spin Hall effect(QSHE). Here we investigate the role of the spin-orbit interaction both for the zigzag and armchair nanoribbons with special care in the edge geometry. For the pristine zigzag na...

  6. PREFACE: Soil Change Matters 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The opinions expressed and arguments employed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its Member countries. The Workshop was sponsored by the OECD Co-operative Research Programme on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, whose financial support made it possible for eight of the invited speakers to participate in the Workshop. We would like to thank the Organising Committee, the Scientific Committee and the financial support from the conference sponsors and funding from the Government of Victoria that allowed the success of the Soil Change Matters Workshop. Organising Committee (Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources unless otherwise noted): • Richard MacEwan (Convenor) • Jennifer Alexander • Helaina Black (James Hutton Institute, UK) • Doug Crawford • Phil Dyson (North Central CMA) • Jane Fisher • Gemma Heemskerk • Jonathan Hopley • Pauline Mele • Rebecca Mitchell • David Rees • Dugal Wallace • Dale Webster Scientific Committee (Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources unless otherwise noted): • Mr Richard MacEwan • Dr Dominique Arrouays (National Institute of Agronomic Research, France) • Helaina Black (James Hutton Institute, UK) • Mr Doug Crawford • Dr Ben Marchant (Geoscience, UK) • Dr Pauline Mele • Dr Budiman Minasny (University of Sydney, NSW) • Professor Dan Richter (Duke University, USA) • Mr Nathan Robinson Thanks are given to the authors and to the anonymous referees for the papers included here.

  7. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  8. All That Fuss Just for Some Bloody Badgers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sage, Daniel; Dainty, Andy; Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    fleshing out some conceptual approaches via Actor-Network Theory through which infrastructure projects can start to address a series of overlooked questions. Some of these questions are firmly located within the realm of construction project management: are animals considered project risks or stakeholders...

  9. All That Fuss Just for Some Bloody Badgers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sage, Daniel; Dainty, Andy; Tryggestad, Kjell;

    2013-01-01

    Nature and Politics: to what extent should we seek a place for animals in politics and how can we live with them ethically. Thus far, very little research has addressed the interplay of humans and animals within construction projects. Instead those interested in the politics and ethics of human-animal...... fleshing out some conceptual approaches via Actor-Network Theory through which infrastructure projects can start to address a series of overlooked questions. Some of these questions are firmly located within the realm of construction project management: are animals considered project risks or stakeholders......; is wildlife always simply a retrospective cost to a project or can it proactively benefit a project, can we ever manage wildlife, and if so how? These questions in turn lead us to engage with wider debates found in the margins between the social and biological sciences on the distinction between...

  10. [Arterial blood supply of the digestive tract in badgers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, S; Frewein, J

    1982-01-01

    In 5 dendrohyraxes, 6 heterohyraxes, and 7 procaviae the three main visceral arteries have been studied. In all hyracoidea the Arteria coeliaca divides into the Arteria lienalis, Arteria hepatica communis, and Arteria gastrica sinistra. Occasionally the latter two arteries run together for 7-15 mm before they separate. The Arteria mesenterica cranialis gives rise to the Arteriae pancreaticoduodenales caudales, Arteriae jejunales, Arteria colica media, and Arteria colica dextra and continues as Arteria ileocolica. Some animals had an Arteria colica media accessoria which supplied the first half of the colon descendens. In all other animals the entire colon descendens was supplied by the Arteria colica sinistra which originates in the Arteria mesenterica caudalis. Branches of the Arteria rectalis cranialis extend close to the anus. PMID:7124335

  11. Z2 Invariants of Topological Insulators as Geometric Obstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Domenico; Monaco, Domenico; Panati, Gianluca

    2016-05-01

    We consider a gapped periodic quantum system with time-reversal symmetry of fermionic (or odd) type, i.e. the time-reversal operator squares to -1. We investigate the existence of periodic and time-reversal invariant Bloch frames in dimensions 2 and 3. In 2 d, the obstruction to the existence of such a frame is shown to be encoded in a Z_2-valued topological invariant, which can be computed by a simple algorithm. We prove that the latter agrees with the Fu-Kane index. In 3 d, instead, four Z_2 invariants emerge from the construction, again related to the Fu-Kane-Mele indices. When no topological obstruction is present, we provide a constructive algorithm yielding explicitly a periodic and time-reversal invariant Bloch frame. The result is formulated in an abstract setting, so that it applies both to discrete models and to continuous ones.

  12. Classification, mechanism and surgical treatments for spinal canal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Sun

    2016-01-01

    A variety of cystic lesions may develop in spinal canal. These cysts can be divided into intramedullary, intradural, extradural, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cysts according to anatomical presentation, as well as arachnoid, meningeal, perineural, juxtafacet, discal, neurenteric cysts, and cyst-like lesions according to different etiologies. Mechanisms of initiation and growth vary for different cysts, such as congenital, trauma, bleeding, inflammatory, instability, hydrostatic pressure, osmosis of water, secretion of cyst wall, and one-way-valve effect, etc. Up to now, many treatment methods are available for these different spinal canal cysts. One operation method can be applied in cysts with different types. On the other hand, several operation methods may be utilized in one type of cyst according to the difference of location or style. However, same principle should be obeyed in surgical treatment despite of difference among spinal canal cysts, given open surgery is melely for symptomatic cyst. The surgical approach should be tailored to the individual patient.

  13. Epidemiological profile of assaults in firearms and white gun inside of bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santos Abreu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of firearm assaults and melee weapon, no period of 2009 to 2011, in a General Hospital not interior of Bahia. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and data presented as absolute and relative frequencies. From the results, 299 hospitalizations were due to aggression by firearms or bladed weapon, with the highest percentage of victims, young men, aged 20-29 years (39.5%. It is necessary the elaboration and implementation of public policies involving the various segments of civil society and organized to deal with this public health issue with a view to adoption of strategies for the prevention and reduction of morbidity and mortality rates.

  14. The effective field theory of (2 + 1)-dimensional topological insulator in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (2 + 1)-dimensional topological insulator described by the Kane–Mele model in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit interaction is considered. The effective action of the external fields coupled to electromagnetic and spin degrees of freedom is accomplished within this model. The Hamiltonian methods are adopted to provide the coefficients appearing in the action. It is demonstrated straightforwardly that the coefficients of the Chern–Simons terms are given by the first Chern number attained through the related non-Abelian Berry gauge field. The effective theory which we obtain is in accord with the existence of the spin Hall phase where the value of the spin Hall conductivity is very close to the quantized one. (paper)

  15. An investigation of the corrosion of WC-Co cermets in CN--containing aqueous solutions. Part II: Synchrotron-based high lateral-resolution XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the literature on the corrosion behaviour of WC-Co hardmetal grades, it has been pointed out that - typically - corrosion resistance in several aqueous environments relies on the formation of pseudo-passivating layers on top of the two-phase material. So far, no detailed space-dependent study has been performed of the local structure and chemistry of such peculiar corrosion-product layers. In this paper, we propose a detailed chemical analysis - performed with a remarkably advanced synchrotron-based photo-electron microscope - of samples whose electrochemical (CV) and spectroelectrochemical (in situ SFG and ERS) characterisation has been published in a companion paper [B. Bozzini, B. Busson, G.P. De Gaudenzi, L. D'Urzo, C. Mele, A. Tadjeddine, Corros. Sci. 49 (2007) 2392-2405].

  16. Spin Hall and spin Nernst effects in graphene with intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Guo-Bao

    2012-01-01

    The spin Hall and spin Nernst effects in graphene are studied based on Green's function formalism.We calculate intrinsic contributions to spin Hall and spin Nernst conductivities in the Kane-Mele model with various structures.When both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions are present,their interplay leads to some characteristics of the dependence of spin Hall and spin Nernst conductivities on the Fermi level.When the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is smaller than intrinsic spin-orbit coupling,a weak kink in the conductance appears.The kink disappears and a divergence appears when the Rashba spin-orbit interaction enhances.When the Rashba spin-orbit interaction approaches and is stronger than intrinsic spin-orbit coupling,the divergence becomes more obvious.

  17. Time-reversal-violating photonic topological insulators with helical edge states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically demonstrate the realization of photonic topological insulators in photonic crystals made of circular cylinders with the Tellegen-type magnetoelectric coupling as a photospin-orbit interaction. Although the magnetoelectric coupling breaks the conventional (bosonic) time-reversal symmetry for photons, the electromagnetic duality between permittivity and permeability gives rise to a fermionic time-reversal symmetry. This symmetry along with the space-inversion symmetry enables us to imitate the Kane-Mele model of two-dimensional topological insulators in a photonics platform. Even if the space-inversion symmetry is broken, a photonic topological insulator can emerge owing to the photospin-orbit interaction. We present bulk and edge properties of the photonic topological insulators and discuss their possible realization. (author)

  18. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure and edge states of bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: yudi@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of bilayer grapheme and also its edge states by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculation show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point in bilayer graphene.In addition, a pair of gapless edge modes occurs both in the zigzag and arm-chair configurations are no longer exist. There are gap created at the edge even though thery are very small.

  19. Flat edge modes of graphene and of Z 2 topological insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Shijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A graphene nano-ribbon in the zigzag edge geometry exhibits a specific type of gapless edge modes with a partly flat band dispersion. We argue that the appearance of such edge modes are naturally understood by regarding graphene as the gapless limit of a Z 2 topological insulator. To illustrate this idea, we consider both Kane-Mele (graphene-based and Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang models: the latter is proposed for HgTe/CdTe 2D quantum well. Much focus is on the role of valley degrees of freedom, especially, on how they are projected onto and determine the 1D edge spectrum in different edge geometries.

  20. Crónica del 2º Congreso de Cirugía Veterinaria de la provincia de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois, Angel Augusto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cómo definir éste correo... tal vez la mejor forma sea decir que no soy yo quien lo escribe sino mi corazón... y llega aquí porque gran parte de los personajes pertenecen a forovet o veterinaria.org. Así, entre otros fuimos invitados a disertar Carlitos Ciocca y su esposa Marisa, Adalberto Amato, Daniel Mudrovici, Victor Rosetti, Esteban Mele y yo. Entre los organizadores están Ricardo B. Bini y María Verónica Campos Vaca. También "aparecieron" Tommy Wheeler y Fernando "Tucu" Tomé, actualmente presidente del Colegio de Veterinarios de Tucumán. Una visita para mí "inesperada" fué la de Joemel Betancourt que está realizando una pasantía en nuestro país. Espero que lo disfruten y no renieguen por su extensión.

  1. An investigation of the corrosion of WC-Co cermets in CN{sup -}-containing aqueous solutions. Part II: Synchrotron-based high lateral-resolution XPS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzini, Benedetto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)], E-mail: benedetto.bozzini@unile.it; Dalmiglio, Matteo [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); De Gaudenzi, Gian Pietro [Films S.p.a., v. Megolo 2, I-28877, Anzola d' Ossola (Italy); D' Urzo, Lucia [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gregoratti, Luca [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    In the literature on the corrosion behaviour of WC-Co hardmetal grades, it has been pointed out that - typically - corrosion resistance in several aqueous environments relies on the formation of pseudo-passivating layers on top of the two-phase material. So far, no detailed space-dependent study has been performed of the local structure and chemistry of such peculiar corrosion-product layers. In this paper, we propose a detailed chemical analysis - performed with a remarkably advanced synchrotron-based photo-electron microscope - of samples whose electrochemical (CV) and spectroelectrochemical (in situ SFG and ERS) characterisation has been published in a companion paper [B. Bozzini, B. Busson, G.P. De Gaudenzi, L. D'Urzo, C. Mele, A. Tadjeddine, Corros. Sci. 49 (2007) 2392-2405].

  2. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure and edge states of bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of bilayer grapheme and also its edge states by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculation show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point in bilayer graphene.In addition, a pair of gapless edge modes occurs both in the zigzag and arm-chair configurations are no longer exist. There are gap created at the edge even though thery are very small

  3. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robardet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania--to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles.

  4. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005–2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  5. Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dobroštana, Marianna; Jaceviciene, Ingrida; Mähar, Katrin; Muižniece, Zita; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Masiulis, Marius; Niin, Enel; Olševskis, Edvīns; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries-Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania-to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005-2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ORV campaigns in these countries resulting in the near eradication of the disease. The various factors that may have influenced the results of vaccination monitoring were assessed using generalized linear models (GLMs) on bait uptake and on herd immunity. As shown in previous studies, juveniles had lower bait uptake level than adults. For the first time, raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were shown to have significantly lower bait uptake proportion compared with red foxes. This result suggests potentially altered ORV effectiveness in this invasive species compared to the red foxes. An extensive phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the North-East European (NEE) rabies phylogroup is endemic in all three Baltic countries. Although successive oral vaccination campaigns have substantially reduced the number of detected rabies cases, sporadic detection of the C lineage (European part of Russian phylogroup) underlines the risk of reintroduction via westward spread from bordering countries. Vaccine induced cases were also reported for the first time in non-target species (Martes martes and Meles meles). PMID:26849358

  6. Angry Badgers: The Protests in Wisconsin Have Helped Revive an Old Progressive State of Being: "Badgerness" Has Been Reinvented for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhle, Mari Jo; Buhle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The events in Wisconsin during February and March 2011 will long be considered remarkable in many ways. That includes the documenting of the protests. Perhaps at no previous time have so many journalists--paid and unpaid--gathered so much information about a protest movement and dispersed it in so many formats so quickly. Ubiquitous, touching, and…

  7. Identificazione di due polimorfismi mitocondriali utili alla discriminazione tra Martes martes e Martes foina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La famiglia Mustelidae è presente sul territorio italiano con 7 specie autoctone (Meles meles, Mustela erminea, M. nivalis, M. putorius, Lutra lutra, Martes foina, M. martes ed una naturalizzata (Mustela vison. In tassonomia, variazioni morfologiche e morfometriche, spesso a carattere "locale", possono invalidare i tradizionali metodi di diagnosi utilizzati nell'attribuzione specifica. Inoltre criteri di discriminazione legati a caratteristiche corporee macroscopiche non sono applicabili nel caso in cui si disponga unicamente di resti quali peli, depositi fecali, tracce ematiche ecc. Nell'ambito dei mustelidi sono noti fenomeni di sovrapposizione dei caratteri diagnostici che rendono problematica l'identificazione delle specie, come nel caso di M. martes e M. foina. Negli ultimi anni l'identificazione di polimorfismi genetico-molecolari a scopo tassonomico ha permesso di dirimere numerosi casi incerti. In questo lavoro sono presentati i dati preliminari di uno studio volto ad identificare polimorfismi discriminanti le due specie di mustelidi considerate. L'analisi è stata condotta con enzimi di restrizione applicati ad una regione del genoma mitocondriale. Parte della sequenza del gene citocromo b (cyt b è stata amplificata con PCR e primers universali, ottenendo un frammento di circa 360 bp. Gli enzimi di restrizione impiegati nell'analisi sono stati scelti in accordo con profili di digestione teorici, ricavati con un apposito software a partire da sequenze di cyt b di M. martes e M. foina presenti in banche dati. A seguito della digestione sequenziale con gli enzimi Hae III e Bgl I, il profilo elettroforetico generato mostra la presenza di una banda di circa 180 bp negli individui appartenenti alla specie M. martes e di due bande distinte di circa 130 e 230 bp negli esemplari di M. foina. Il campione da noi

  8. Applicability of an empirical law to predict significant sea-wave heights from microseisms along the Western Ligurian Coast (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Scafidi, Davide; Cutroneo, Laura; Gallino, Stefano; Capello, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The use of microseisms with appropriate predictive laws is a reliable method for estimating such sea-wave parameters as period and significant height. Through the use of opportune predictive laws calibrated with measurements obtained from wave buoys, it is possible to determine the significant height of the wave as a function of the spectral energy-content of the microseism. In this paper we will present a procedure that utilises microseisms recorded by a micro network of five seismic stations to predict the significant height of waves, and its uncertainty, along the western Ligurian coast (Italy). The calibration and validation of the procedure was performed using wave measurements obtained from a wave buoy off Capo Mele (Imperia, Italy) over a two and a half year period. The differences between the significant heights measured by the wave buoy and the empirical predictions were less than 10 cm (corresponding to 10% of the mean measured value) for 47% of the data and less than 20 cm (corresponding to 20% of the mean measured value) for 72%.

  9. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane–Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed. (focus issue review)

  10. Helical Majorana fermions in dx2−y2 + idxy-wave topological superconductivity of doped correlated quantum spin Hall insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Chung, Chung-Hou; Chang, Yung-Yeh; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing interest in searching for exotic self-conjugate, charge-neutral low-energy fermionic quasi-particles, known as Majorana fermions (MFs) in solid state systems. Their signatures have been proposed and potentially observed at edges of topological superconcuctors with non-trivial topological invariant in the bulk electronic band structure. Much effort have been focused on realizing MFs in odd-parity superconductors made of strong spin-orbit coupled materials in proximity to conventional superconductors. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for realizing MFs in 2D spin-singlet topological superconducting state induced by doping a correlated quantum spin Hall (Kane-Mele) insulator. Via a renormalized mean-field approach, the system is found to exhibits time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking -wave (chiral d–wave) superconductivity near half-filling in the limit of large on-site repulsion. Surprisingly, however, at large spin-orbit coupling, the system undergoes a topological phase transition and enter into a new topological phase protected by a pseudo-spin Chern number, which can be viewed as a persistent extension of the quantum spin Hall phase upon doping. From bulk-edge correspondence, this phase is featured by the presence of two pairs of counter-propagating helical Majorana modes per edge, instead of two chiral propagating edge modes in the d + id′ superconductors. PMID:27064108

  11. Helical Majorana fermions in dx2-y2 + idxy-wave topological superconductivity of doped correlated quantum spin Hall insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Chung, Chung-Hou; Chang, Yung-Yeh; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing interest in searching for exotic self-conjugate, charge-neutral low-energy fermionic quasi-particles, known as Majorana fermions (MFs) in solid state systems. Their signatures have been proposed and potentially observed at edges of topological superconcuctors with non-trivial topological invariant in the bulk electronic band structure. Much effort have been focused on realizing MFs in odd-parity superconductors made of strong spin-orbit coupled materials in proximity to conventional superconductors. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for realizing MFs in 2D spin-singlet topological superconducting state induced by doping a correlated quantum spin Hall (Kane-Mele) insulator. Via a renormalized mean-field approach, the system is found to exhibits time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking -wave (chiral d-wave) superconductivity near half-filling in the limit of large on-site repulsion. Surprisingly, however, at large spin-orbit coupling, the system undergoes a topological phase transition and enter into a new topological phase protected by a pseudo-spin Chern number, which can be viewed as a persistent extension of the quantum spin Hall phase upon doping. From bulk-edge correspondence, this phase is featured by the presence of two pairs of counter-propagating helical Majorana modes per edge, instead of two chiral propagating edge modes in the d + id' superconductors. PMID:27064108

  12. Quantum Spin Hall phase in multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Noel; Lado, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Rossier, Joaquin; Theory of Nanostructures Team

    2015-03-01

    We address the question of whether multilayer graphene systems are Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) insulators. Since interlayer coupling coples pz orbitals to s orbitals of different layers and Spin-Orbit (SO) couples pz orbitals with px and py of opposite spins, new spins mixing channels appear in the multilayer scenario that were not present in the monolayer. These new spin-mixing channels cast a doubt on the validity of the spin-conserving Kane-Mele model for multilayers and motivates our choice of a four orbital tight-binding model in the Slater-Koster approximation with intrinsic Spin-Orbit interaction. To completely determine if the QSH phase is present we calculate for different number of layers both the Z2 invariant for different stackings (only for inversion symmetric systems), and the density of states at the edge of semi-infinite graphene ribbon with armchair termination. We find that systems with even number of layers are normal insulators while systems with odd number of layers are QSH insulators, regardless of the stacking. We acknowledge financial support by Marie-Curie-ITN 607904-SPINOGRAPH.

  13. Helical Majorana fermions in dx2‑y2 + idxy-wave topological superconductivity of doped correlated quantum spin Hall insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Chung, Chung-Hou; Chang, Yung-Yeh; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing interest in searching for exotic self-conjugate, charge-neutral low-energy fermionic quasi-particles, known as Majorana fermions (MFs) in solid state systems. Their signatures have been proposed and potentially observed at edges of topological superconcuctors with non-trivial topological invariant in the bulk electronic band structure. Much effort have been focused on realizing MFs in odd-parity superconductors made of strong spin-orbit coupled materials in proximity to conventional superconductors. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for realizing MFs in 2D spin-singlet topological superconducting state induced by doping a correlated quantum spin Hall (Kane-Mele) insulator. Via a renormalized mean-field approach, the system is found to exhibits time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking -wave (chiral d–wave) superconductivity near half-filling in the limit of large on-site repulsion. Surprisingly, however, at large spin-orbit coupling, the system undergoes a topological phase transition and enter into a new topological phase protected by a pseudo-spin Chern number, which can be viewed as a persistent extension of the quantum spin Hall phase upon doping. From bulk-edge correspondence, this phase is featured by the presence of two pairs of counter-propagating helical Majorana modes per edge, instead of two chiral propagating edge modes in the d + id‧ superconductors.

  14. Electromagnetic and thermal responses in topological matter: Topological terms, quantum anomalies and D-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusaki, Akira; Nagaosa, Naoto; Nomura, Kentaro; Ryu, Shinsei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the thermal (or gravitational) responses in topological superconductors and in topological phases in general. Such thermal responses (as well as electromagnetic responses for conserved charge) provide a definition of topological insulators and superconductors beyond the single-particle picture. In two-dimensional topological phases, the Strěda formula for the electric Hall conductivity is generalized to the thermal Hall conductivity. Applying this formula to the Majorana surface states of three-dimensional topological superconductors predicts cross-correlated responses between the angular momentum and thermal polarization (entropy polarization). We also discuss a use of D-branes in string theory as a systematic tool to derive all such topological terms and topological responses. In particular, we relate the Z2 index of topological insulators introduced by Kane and Mele (and its generalization to other symmetry classes and to arbitrary dimensions) to the K-theory charge of non-BPS D-branes, and vice versa. We thus establish a link between the stability of non-BPS D-branes and the topological stability of topological insulators.

  15. Signatures of topological phase transition in 3 d topological insulators from dynamical axion response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhfudz, Imam

    2016-04-01

    Axion electrodynamics, first proposed in the context of particle physics, manifests itself in condensed matter physics in the topological field theory description of 3 d topological insulators and gives rise to magnetoelectric effect, where applying magnetic (electric) field B (E ) induces polarization (magnetization) p (m ) . We use linear response theory to study the associated topological current using the Fu-Kane-Mele model of 3 d topological insulators in the presence of time-dependent uniform weak magnetic field. By computing the dynamical current susceptibility χij jpjp(ω ) , we discover from its static limit an `order parameter' of the topological phase transition between weak topological (or ordinary) insulator and strong topological insulator, found to be continuous. The χij jpjp(ω ) shows a sign-changing singularity at a critical frequency with suppressed strength in the topological insulating state. Our results can be verified in current noise experiment on 3 d TI candidate materials for the detection of such topological phase transition.

  16. Floquet-engineering topological and spin-dependent bands with interacting ultracold fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Görg, Frederik; Greif, Daniel; Lebrat, Martin; Uehlinger, Thomas; Desbuquois, Rémi; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-05-01

    Periodically driven quantum systems, when observed on time-scales longer than one modulation period, can be described by effective Floquet Hamiltonians that show qualitatively new features. Using a magnetic field gradient, we apply an oscillating force to ultracold fermions in an optical lattice. The resulting effective energy bands then become spin dependent, allowing for a tunable ratio of the effective mass for each internal state, also giving access to the regime where one spin is completely localized whilst the other remains itinerant. In a honeycomb lattice, circular modulation leads to the appearance of complex next-nearest neighbour tunnelling. This corresponds to a staggered magnetic flux in the lattice, allowing for the realisation of Haldane's model of a topological Chern insulator. When spin dependence is included, time-reversal symmetry can be restored giving rise to the Kane-Mele model. A crucial question is whether Floquet engineering can be extended to interacting systems, how the resulting Hamiltonians are modified, and whether the system thermalizes to a steady state. In particular, we study how heating in the system depends on the modulation and interaction parameters and identify regimes where it becomes negligible.

  17. Spin-orbit interactions in graphene nanoribbons : Effects of the edge profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun; Condensed Matter Theory Team

    2011-03-01

    In graphene, it has been shown by Kane and Mele that the spin orbit coupling (SOC) connects the Dirac particles to the low- lying px and py orbitals so that the quantum spin Hall effect(QSHE) arises at the edges of the graphene. Their theory has drawn considerable attention as a realization of Haldane's idea of quantum Hall effect without magnetic field and as a trigger for the surging field of topological insulator. In the work, we study the band structure of the zigzag nanoribbons with the spin-orbit interaction and argue that the role of graphene edge should be considered more carefully since the realization of the QSHE is found to be largely dependent on the edge profile such as the kinds of molecules passivated. When the edge px , py and s orbitals are dangling without any passivation, the Dirac states at the edges seem to be no longer chiral for each spin species and the QSHE is not guaranteed to occur. We notice that upon the hydrogen passivation at the edges, the spin filtered chiral edge states become available. We will explain that these are due to the interaction between π -edges states and σ -edge states. The similar calculations are also performed for the armchair nanoribbons and compared with those of zigzag nanoribbons.

  18. Quantum spin Hall effect in graphene nanoribbons: Effect of edge geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun

    2011-07-01

    There has been tremendous recent progress in realizing topological insulator initiated by the proposal of Kane and Mele for the graphene system. They have suggested that the odd Z2 index for the graphene manifests the spin-filtered edge states for the graphene nanoribbons, which lead to the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE). Here, we investigate the role of the spin-orbit interaction both for the zigzag and armchair nanoribbons with special care in the edge geometry. For the pristine zigzag nanoribbons, we have shown that one of the σ edge bands located near E=0 lifts up the energy of the spin-filtered chiral edge states at the zone boundary by warping the π edge bands, and hence the QSHE does not occur. Upon increasing the carrier density above a certain critical value, the spin-filtered edge states are formed leading to the QSHE. We suggest that the hydrogen passivation on the edge can recover the original feature of the QSHE. For the armchair nanoribbon, the QSHE is shown to be stable. We have also derived the real-space effective Hamiltonian, which demonstrates that the on-site energy and the effective spin-orbit coupling strength are strongly enhanced near the ribbon edges. We have shown that the steep rise of the confinement potential thus obtained is responsible for the warping of the π edge bands.

  19. Uranium favorability of precambrian rocks in the Badger Flats - Elkhorn Thrust Area, Park and Teller Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area is approximately 1,800 square miles and extends from Cripple Creek northward to Fairplay and Bailey. The Precambrian rocks include the metamorphic sequences of the Idaho Springs Formation and the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, Silver Plume Granite, Pikes Peak Granite, and Redskin Granite. The known uranium deposits in the area include six vein deposits, three pegmatite occurrences, and one zone of probable secondary enrichment; they have not yielded any significant production. The vein deposits are probably the result of downward percolation of ground water. The zone of secondary uranium enrichment may have formed above a volcanic pipe, vein, or tuffaceous lake bed. Favorability in the area is considered good for both vein and large, disseminated, low-grade uranium deposits. On the bases of known uranium occurrences, favorable structures and host rocks, and a water-sampling program, recommendations are given for exploration. The occurrences in the area have substantial similarities with the Rossing deposit in South-West Africa and the Wheeler Basin uranium occurrence in Grand County, Colorado. 6 figures, 9 tables

  20. Effects of Slow-stroke Back Massage on Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in the Pediatrics with Acute Leukemia: a Challenge of Controlling Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of chemotherapy in the pediatrics with cancer which affect their quality of life. Use of some methods of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is problematic. Because, leukemia patients are at risk of infection and bleeding, therefore the use of acupressure, acupuncture, and deep massage can be risky in these patients. Slow- stroke back massage is applied on the surface of body, so does not have complications. No study has addressed the effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatrics with acute leukemia in the world.  Material and methods This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT, double blind and repeated measures design. In this RCT, 45 school age children with acute leukemia were placed in the massage and control groups. Before start of the study, at the day of chemotherapy administration (day 1th, only nausea and vomiting were measured. Then during 6 days next (day 2 through 7, the intervention group received 5-minutes Super Smash Bros. Melee (SSBM, immediately before start of each session of chemotherapy. Nausea was measured during chemotherapy, 0.5 h and 3 h after each session of chemotherapy in the two groups. Also vomiting was recorded during 24 h after each session of chemotherapy. Repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square, and t-test were used for analysis. Results Most of pediatrics were male (58.13%, and suffered from Acute myeloid leukemia (AML (81.7%. The repeated measure analysis showed that in the intervention group, the SSBM reduced progressive mean of nausea severity and frequency of vomit over time. While, this side effects have slightly increased over time in the control group. Conclusion The results of this study are suggesting that SSBM, as a non-pharmacologic, easy and safe method, is effective in controlling Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in the pediatrics with acute leukemia.

  1. ALGORITM PENTRU DETERMINAREA STRATEGIILOR OPTIME STAŢIONARE ÎN PROBLEMELE STOCASTICE DE CONTROL OPTIMAL DISCRET PE REŢELE DECIZIONALE CU MULTIPLE CLASE RECURENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CAPCELEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este elaborat şi argumentat teoretic un algoritm eficient pentru determinarea strategiilor optime staţionare în proble-mele stocastice de control optimal discret cu perioada de dirijare infinită, definite pe reţele decizionale cu multiple clase recurente, în care este aplicat criteriul de optimizare a combinaţiei convexe a costurilor medii în clasele recurente. Sunt examinate probleme în care costurile de tranziţie între stările sistemului dinamic şi probabilităţile de tranziţie, definite în stările necontrolabile, sunt constante independente de timp. Algoritmul elaborat este bazat pe modelul de programare liniară pentru determinarea strategiilor optime în problemele de control definite pe reţele decizionale perfecte [3,4].AN ALGORITHM FOR DETERMINING STATIONARY OPTIMAL STRATEGIES FOR STOCHASTIC DISCRETE OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS DEFINED ON NETWORKS WITH MULTIPLE RECURRENT CLASSESAn efficient algorithm for determining optimal stationary strategies for the stochastic discrete optimal control problems with infinite time horizon is developed and theoretically justified. The problems are defined on decision networks with multiple recurrent classes. The average costs convex combination optimization criterion is applied. We examine problems in which the costs of transitions between the states of the dynamic system and transition probabilities, defined on the uncontrollable states, are constants independent on time. The algorithm is based on the linear programming model developed for determining optimal strategies in control problems defined on perfect decision networks [3,4].

  2. The strategic approach of the corporative social responsibility: a review of academic literature

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    Daniela Toro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Even Since the 1970`s several studies have been carried out in order to identify the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and financial profit. The results have not been homogeneous and so far no definitive conclusion has been reached. Recently a group of researchers have linked CSR with business strategy and state that what distinguishes those cases in which CSR is related to a positive financial performance is its consideration and design as a social strategy closely related and embedded in the business strategy. The aim of this research is to review some of the authors that have contributed with their researches to this field. CSR has been approached form the academic and the business field and its definition vary from one view to other. Even inside the academy definitions are not alike. According to Garriga and Mele (2004 there are four major areas in which CSR theories may be categorized: instrumental, political, integrative and ethical. And even though this research is exhaustive and includes most of the different theories and approaches I consider it might be useful to pay special attention to a field that is gaining in importance due to the number of researches related to it. That is the consideration of CSR as a social strategy capable of generating value to the firm and aligned and coherent with the business strategy. I will intend to review the contributions done in the academic field by a group of authors: Burke y Logsdon (1996, Husted y Allen (2000 y 2001 and McWilliams y Siegel (2001 and based on their contributions I will intend to develop a preliminary theoretical model for the application of social strategies within the firm and then introduce a series of propositions that look to understand and extend the relationship between both type of strategies.

  3. Low-energy theory for the graphene twist bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbecker, D.; Shallcross, S.; Fleischmann, M.; Ray, N.; Sharma, S.; Pankratov, O.

    2016-01-01

    The graphene twist bilayer represents the prototypical system for investigating the stacking degree of freedom in few-layer graphenes. The electronic structure of this system changes qualitatively as a function of angle, from a large-angle limit in which the two layers are essentially decoupled—with the exception of a 28-atom commensuration unit cell for which the layers are coupled on an energy scale of ≈8 meV —to a small-angle strong-coupling limit. Despite sustained investigation, a fully satisfactory theory of the twist bilayer remains elusive. The outstanding problems are (i) to find a theoretically unified description of the large- and small-angle limits, and (ii) to demonstrate agreement between the low-energy effective Hamiltonian and, for instance, ab initio or tight-binding calculations. In this article, we develop a low-energy theory that in the large-angle limit reproduces the symmetry-derived Hamiltonians of Mele [Phys. Rev. B 81, 161405 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.161405], and in the small-angle limit shows almost perfect agreement with tight-binding calculations. The small-angle effective Hamiltonian is that of Bistritzer and MacDonald [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 108, 12233 (2011), 10.1073/pnas.1108174108], but with the momentum scale Δ K , the difference of the momenta of the unrotated and rotated special points, replaced by a coupling momentum scale g(c )=8/π √{3 }a sinθ/2 . Using this small-angle Hamiltonian, we are able to determine the complete behavior as a function of angle, finding a complex small-angle clustering of van Hove singularities in the density of states (DOS) that after a "zero-mode" peak regime between 0 .90°energy surfaces with multiple Lifshitz transitions between K - and Γ -centered Fermi sheets and a rich pseudospin texture.

  4. SOME FEATURES OF THE COMBAT TRAINING JAPANESE TROOPS AT THE END OF XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

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    Alexander V. TSOKUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes some of the features of Japanese combat training of troops and their display in the wars of the late XIX – early XX century in connection with using of bladed weapons. Despite decreasing one’s role in modern warfare, much attention was paid to training bayonet fighting techniques and fencing swords. A British officer, F. Norman after a long learning Japanese fencing wrote about considerable superiority of Japanese swords and fencing systems. During the Russian-Japanese war 1904‒1905 there were widely used bayonets and sabres (swords, broadswords in the melee, but more often the bayonets were used. Most memoirs celebrate excellence in the Russian bayonet attacks. The fall of the role of the cavalry is not only sharply increased role of firearms, but also with the preparation of engineering positions. Combat training of reserve forces in Japan and Russia also differ significantly. According to General A. Kuropatkin, the Japanese reserve units sometimes were fighting better than the field troops. There is widely spread opinion in the scientific literature that the Japanese soldier was physically strong and hardy, brought on unquestioning fulfillment of all the requirements of command. Military reporter D. Yanchevetsky, who observed the actions of the Japanese troops during the march to Beijing in 1900, wrote that the Japanese are brave in the battle, but not endurance in the campaigns. They are dangerous and impetuous only in the first impact, but quickly weakened, and for the next blow they did not have enough strength and energy. They were pass long distance on the march and were ready to fight at the place of arrival. 

  5. The Z2 network model for the quantum spin Hall effect: two-dimensional Dirac fermions, topological quantum numbers and corner multifractality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum spin Hall effect shares many similarities (and some important differences) with the quantum Hall effect for electric charge. As with the quantum (electric charge) Hall effect, there exists a correspondence between bulk and boundary physics that allows one to characterize the quantum spin Hall effect in diverse and complementary ways. In this paper, we derive from the network model that encodes the quantum spin Hall effect, namely the so-called Z2 network model, a Dirac Hamiltonian in two dimensions. In the clean limit of this Dirac Hamiltonian, we show that the bulk Kane-Mele Z2 invariant is nothing but the SU(2) Wilson loop constructed from the SU(2) Berry connection of the occupied Dirac-Bloch single-particle states. In the presence of disorder, the nonlinear sigma model (NLSM) that is derived from this Dirac Hamiltonian describes a metal-insulator transition in the standard two-dimensional symplectic universality class. In particular, we show that the fermion doubling prevents the presence of a topological term in the NLSM that would change the universality class of the ordinary two-dimensional symplectic metal-insulator transition. This analytical result is fully consistent with our previous numerical studies of the bulk critical exponents at the metal-insulator transition encoded by the Z2 network model. Finally, we improve the quality and extend the numerical study of boundary multifractality in the Z2 topological insulator. We show that the hypothesis of two-dimensional conformal invariance at the metal-insulator transition is verified within the accuracy of our numerical results.

  6. Clover species, hosts for different flowers and seeds eating curculionidae

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    Teodosie PERJU

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des ann�s 1956-1968 on a not� la composition des �sp�ces de Curculionidae qui se developpent sur des differantes �sp�ces sauvages de trefle. Des echantillons d'inflorescences, fragments de tiges et feuilles ont �t� elev�es en captivit� 15 �sp�ces de Curculionidae (tab. 1. De l'inflorescences des differentes �sp�ces de Trifolium ont apparu des insectes appartenant aux genres Apion et Miccotrogus (tab. nr. 3.1. De fragmentes des tiges de T. hybridum, T. campestre et T. pratense ont apparu des charancons apartenant a l'�sp�ces A. seniculus et de ceux de T. monotanum des exemplaires de A. filirostre. Le feuillage de la majorit� des �sp�ces de trefle a servi comme nourriture aux larves et aux insectes du Hypera meles et H. nigrirostris, aussi que, aux insectes de Sitona sulcifrons, S. humeralis et S.suturalis. Le trefle rouge sauvage infest� dans un degr� juscu' � 26% constitue le reserve et la source permanente d' infestation pour les cultures de trefle rouge en ce qui concernele principales �sp�ces de charancons Apion trifolii et A. apricans, et le tr�fle blanc et hybride sauvages infest�s dans un degr� jusqu' � 46% et respectivement 44%, constituent une important source d'infestation avec des charancons A. dichroum et A. nigritarse. Le tr�fle hybride est endommag� relativement fortement aussi par le charancons des tiges A. seniculus. Les autres �sp�ces florifages et semnivores, A. varipes, A, assimile Miccotrogus picirostriset les �sp�ces, folifages d' Hypera et Sitona apparaissant dans un nombre reduit d'exemplaires, s'ont �t� comport�s comme ravageurs d'importance secondaires.

  7. Numerical methods and applications in many fermion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luitz, David J.

    2013-02-07

    This thesis presents results covering several topics in correlated many fermion systems. A Monte Carlo technique (CT-INT) that has been implemented, used and extended by the author is discussed in great detail in chapter 3. The following chapter discusses how CT-INT can be used to calculate the two particle Green's function and explains how exact frequency summations can be obtained. A benchmark against exact diagonalization is presented. The link to the dynamical cluster approximation is made in the end of chapter 4, where these techniques are of immense importance. In chapter 5 an extensive CT-INT study of a strongly correlated Josephson junction is shown. In particular, the signature of the first order quantum phase transition between a Kondo and a local moment regime in the Josephson current is discussed. The connection to an experimental system is made with great care by developing a parameter extraction strategy. As a final result, we show that it is possible to reproduce experimental data from a numerically exact CT-INT model-calculation. The last topic is a study of graphene edge magnetism. We introduce a general effective model for the edge states, incorporating a complicated interaction Hamiltonian and perform an exact diagonalization study for different parameter regimes. This yields a strong argument for the importance of forbidden umklapp processes and of the strongly momentum dependent interaction vertex for the formation of edge magnetism. Additional fragments concerning the use of a Legendre polynomial basis for the representation of the two particle Green's function, the analytic continuation of the self energy for the Anderson Kane Mele Model as well as the generation of test data with a given covariance matrix are documented in the appendix. A final appendix provides some very important matrix identities that are used for the discussion of technical details of CT-INT.

  8. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous gold decorated with manganese oxide nanowires from eutectic urea/choline chloride ionic liquid. Part II – Electrodeposition of Au–Mn: A study based on soft X-ray microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Electrodeposited AuMn is the starting material for functionalised nanoporous gold. •Nanoporous-Au/MnO2-nanowire hybrids were fabricated from AuMn precursor alloys. •Submicrometric Mn distribution monitored quasi-in situ by scanning X-ray microscopy. •Mn chemical state followed by quasi-in situ by micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy. •Ideal nanoporous-Au/Mn-oxide electronic contact achieved by controlled AuMn oxidation. -- Abstract: In a previous paper (C. Mele, M. Catalano, A. Taurino, B. Bozzini. Electrochim. Acta 1 (2013) 918), we demonstrated the possibility of growing high-capacitance hybrid materials consisting of nanoporous gold (NPG)-supported MnO2 nanowires (NW) for supercapacitors, by electrochemical etching of electrodeposited single-phase Au–Mn alloys. The present paper concentrates on the electrodeposition of Au–Mn alloys from urea/choline-chloride ionic liquid solutions: the precursors of the high-capacitance hybrid material. The electrodeposition process, giving rise to alloys with 4–26% Mn content, was followed by space-resolved soft X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and absorption (XAS) microspectroscopy, complemented with electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry), structural (X-ray diffraction) and morphological (scanning electron microscopy) characterisations. The purposely developed electrochemical cells, exhibiting a specifically designed current density distribution, have allowed the quasi-in situ mapping of the local morphology-composition changes at the electrodes. Supersaturated Au–Mn solid solutions were obtained in the whole investigated compositional range under mass transport control of Mn. Variations in the Mn oxidation state were evidenced comparing low- and high-Mn content regions. It was found that, notwithstanding the heterogeneity of the current density, the morphologically compact high-Mn regions of the particular alloys with 20–26% Mn show a notable compositional homogeneity, rendering this material ideally

  9. Numerical methods and applications in many fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents results covering several topics in correlated many fermion systems. A Monte Carlo technique (CT-INT) that has been implemented, used and extended by the author is discussed in great detail in chapter 3. The following chapter discusses how CT-INT can be used to calculate the two particle Green's function and explains how exact frequency summations can be obtained. A benchmark against exact diagonalization is presented. The link to the dynamical cluster approximation is made in the end of chapter 4, where these techniques are of immense importance. In chapter 5 an extensive CT-INT study of a strongly correlated Josephson junction is shown. In particular, the signature of the first order quantum phase transition between a Kondo and a local moment regime in the Josephson current is discussed. The connection to an experimental system is made with great care by developing a parameter extraction strategy. As a final result, we show that it is possible to reproduce experimental data from a numerically exact CT-INT model-calculation. The last topic is a study of graphene edge magnetism. We introduce a general effective model for the edge states, incorporating a complicated interaction Hamiltonian and perform an exact diagonalization study for different parameter regimes. This yields a strong argument for the importance of forbidden umklapp processes and of the strongly momentum dependent interaction vertex for the formation of edge magnetism. Additional fragments concerning the use of a Legendre polynomial basis for the representation of the two particle Green's function, the analytic continuation of the self energy for the Anderson Kane Mele Model as well as the generation of test data with a given covariance matrix are documented in the appendix. A final appendix provides some very important matrix identities that are used for the discussion of technical details of CT-INT.

  10. The Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, The TB Diagnostics and Immunology Research Centre, The Badger Vaccine Project. Biennial Report, 2014-15

    OpenAIRE

    More, Simon John; Collins, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    The UCD Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis (UCD CVERA) is the national resource centre for veterinary epidemiology in Ireland, located within the UCD School of Veterinary Medicine at University College Dublin. The Centre was initially established as the Tuberculosis Investigation Unit, but in recent years has broadened its remit to cover a wide range of international, national and local animal health matters, including: - Epidemiological support for the control and eradicati...

  11. Zora’s Politics: A Brief Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Julius Mitchell II

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In his introduction to reading Zora Neale Hurston’s politics, Mitchell argues that contemporary scholarship has misread Hurston in significant ways, distorting Hurston’s work and reputation to serve contesting political agendas; thus, in recent years, she has been associated with “a bewildering array of affiliations: republican, libertarian, radical democrat, reactionary conservative, black cultural nationalist, anti-authoritarian feminist, and woman-hating protofascist.” Recuperating Hurston from this impossible political melee of labels, Mitchell argues, requires a careful reading of Hurston’s work dating from her earliest pieces in the late 1920s, as well as surveying her many yet to be published manuscripts and letters; it requires recognition of the transnational and comparative lens through which she reported on political maneuvers and military histories, as well as reading not only her strong criticisms but also her silences, ironic phrasings, and nuanced critiques in her writings on global colonial enterprises. Mitchell’s introduction to the two Hurston essays here reprinted, “I Saw Negro Votes Peddled” (1950 and “Why the Negro Won’t Buy Communism” (1951—courtesy of the American Legion Magazine—is set in the larger frame of his assertion that Hurston’s work should be read with a deep appreciation of her staunch anticolonialism. Tracing her political philosophy through her views of how race and religion are used to valorize an international culture of violence that serves imperialistic and colonial ends, Mitchell takes his reader on a tour of Hurston’s transnational commentary—from the US occupation of Haiti, to the Spanish and British on the Florida peninsula; from Communist Russia and China, to election practices in the US—to set the stage for our encounters with these rarely read Hurston essays. Reading Mitchell’s “Zora’s Politics: A Brief Introduction” provides a firm foundation for a more

  12. Zoogeografia storica e attuale dei carnivori e degli ungulati italiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2003-10-01

    futuro a preservare inalterate le caratteristiche genetiche dei taxa "nativi" del territorio italiano. A parte alcuni casi di ampliamento spontaneo degli areali di distribuzione, anche le attuali composizioni a carnivori mostrano spesso le evidenze di un'alterazione preoccupante dei quadri biogeografici originari. L'eredità della ridefinizione globale degli equilibri ecologici originari italiani, condotta dall'uomo a partire dalle epoche preistoriche e continuata in quelle storiche senza apparente soluzione di continuità, suscita problemi di conservazione e di gestione non indifferenti. Fra di essi, deve essere tenuta in particolare conto la constatazione del fatto che, nella maggior parte dei casi, è impossibile ricostruire gli ecosistemi naturali del passato, poiché questi sono andati definitivamente distrutti e perduti da millenni. Riguardo, poi, alla vulnerabilità degli ecosistemi è anche piuttosto difficile riuscire a scongiurare in forma preventiva il rischio di nuove, future introduzioni. Va infine notato che in più di un caso le definizioni tassonomiche di cui disponiamo sono state basate su caratteri spesso inconsistenti e variabili, suscitando ancora oggi perplessità sulla validità sistematica di certi taxa, soprattutto se considerati a livello subspecifico. Carnivori Canis aureus (L., 1758 Canis lupus L., 1758 Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1834 Ursus arctos (L., 1758 Procion lotor (L., 1758 Mustela erminea L., 1758 Mustela nivalis L., 1766 Mustela putorius L., 1758 Mustela vison Schreber, 1777 Martes foina (Erxleben, 1777 Martes martes (L., 1758 Meles meles (L., 1758 Lutra lutra (L., 1758 Genetta genetta (L., 1758 Herpestes edwardsii (E. Geoffroy, 1818 Felis silvestris Schreber, 1775 Lynx lynx (L., 1758 Artiodattili Sus scrofa

  13. 黑龙江阿城交界洞穴遗址的哺乳动物群%PLEISTOCENE MAMMALIAN FAUNA FROM THE JIAOJIE CAVE AT ACHENG,HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于汇历; 董为

    2011-01-01

    The Jaiojie Paleolithic Site is located in a karstic cave at Acheng, Haerbin Municipality in Heilongjiang Province. It is regarded as the oldest Paleolithic site in the province and also the northernmost one in China up to today. The geographic coordination at the cave entrance measured with the Global Positioning System ( GPS) is 45°21'07. 7"N and 127°05'16. 8"E, with an altitude of 183m. The cave deposits can be divided into 6 layers. Mammalian fossils were unearthed mainly from Layers 5 and 6 in the lower part of the cave deposits. As a Quaternary mammalian fauna,it is chronologically the earliest one in Heilongjiang Province and geographically the northernmost and easternmost in China. Layer 5 is composed of grayish green clay with some yellow clods, and the underlying Layer 6 composed of reddish yellow clay with breccia. Although the site was discovered in 1996 and systematically excavated in 1997,the fossils were never systematically described before 12 taxa were identified as follow; Mar mot a sp., Myospalax cf. Prosilurus, Ochotona sp., Lepus ( Eulagos) mandshuricus ( = Lepus wongi) , Mattes sp., Meles meles, Mustela sibirica, Ursus sp, Crocuta sp., Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis ( = Dicerorhinus mercki) ,Cervus(S. )nippon hortulorum,Capreolus capreolus manehuricus. The fossils from Layer 5 are mostly smaller forms such as Marmota sp.,Myospalax cf.prosilurus,Lepus(Eulagos) mandshuricus( = Lepus wongi) ,etc. ,and those from Layer 6 are mostly larger forms such as Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, Cervus ( Sika) hortulorum, Crocuta etc. They are mostly northern forms. The fauna lacks typical cold forms such as Coelodonta and Mammuthus, and it was regarded as a fauna exsiting during the transition from temperate period to cold one in North Region. The comparison of fauna compositions shows that the Jiaojie fauna is close to that of the Middle Pleistocene Jinniushan and Miaohoushan faunas in Liaoning Province, the Late Pleistocene Xiaogushan and Gulongshan faunas

  14. 基于狗獾爪趾的仿生深松铲结构设计与试验%Structure Design and Test of the Badger Claws Bionic Subsoiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白景峰; 李博; 吕秀婷; 陈军; 党革荣; 史江涛

    2016-01-01

    针对现有深松铲存在的耕作阻力较大及能耗较高等问题,利用仿生学原理将狗獾爪趾的曲线应用到深松铲的结构设计中,设计了一种铲柄刃口为多项式曲线、铲尖为圆弧形的新型深松铲。为研究其耕作效果,将所设计的深松铲与国标深松铲进行了室内土槽对比试验。试验结果表明:在相同的深松试验条件下,仿生深松铲比国标深松铲的耕作阻力减小了13.33%~21.72%,仿生深松铲减阻效果明显;仿生铲柄与国标铲尖组合比国标深松铲耕作阻力减小了3.01%~7.61%,仿生铲尖与国标铲柄的组合比国标深松铲耕作阻力减小了7.67%~16.97%,仿生铲尖的减阻效果显著于仿生铲柄的减阻效果。%The problem of greater cultivation resistance , higher energy consumption and other issue exists in the tradi-tional subsoiler .In this paper , the curve of the badge claws is applied in the structural design of subsoiler according to the principle of bionics , it has designed a new subsoiler which contains the share shaft of polynomial curve and the sweep point of circular arc .In order to study the cultivation effect , we do the contrast experiment to bionic subsoiler and tra-ditional subsoiler in soil-bin laboratory.The result showed that the bionic subsoiler's tillage resistance decreased by 13 .33% ~21 .72%and the drag reduction effect was obvious in comparison to traditional subsoiler under the same test conditions .If the bionic share shaft combined with the traditional sweep point , the tillage resistance will be reduced by 3 .01%~7 .61% compared to the traditional subsoiler .While the combination of the bionic sweep point and the tra-ditional share shaft decreased by 7 .67%~16 .97% than the traditional subsoiler in the tillage resistance.Thus the difference of the drag reduction effect of the bionic sweep point and the bionic share shaft was significant .

  15. An innovative intervention for the treatment of cognitive impairment–Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: an open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerriero F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Guerriero,1–3 Emanuele Botarelli,3 Gianni Mele,3 Lorenzo Polo,3 Daniele Zoncu,3 Paolo Renati,3,4 Carmelo Sgarlata,1 Marco Rollone,2 Giovanni Ricevuti,1,2 Niccolo Maurizi,1 Matthew Francis,1 Mariangela Rondanelli,5 Simone Perna,5 Davide Guido,2,6 Piero Mannu3 1Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Therapy, Section of Geriatrics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, Pavia, Italy; 3Ambra Elektron, Italian Association of Biophysics for the Study of Electromagnetic Fields in Medicine, 4Alberto Sorti Research Institute, Medicine and Metamolecular Biology, Turin, Italy; 5Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, 6Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background and aims: In the last decade, the development of different methods of brain stimulation by electromagnetic fields (EMF provides a promising therapeutic tool for subjects with impaired cognitive functions. Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation (EBS is a novel and innovative EMF brain stimulation, whose working principle is to introduce very weak noise-like stimuli through EMF to trigger self-arrangements in the cortex of treated subjects, thereby improving cognitive faculties. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate in patients with cognitive impairment the effectiveness of EBS treatment with respect to global cognitive function, episodic memory, and executive functions. Methods: Fourteen patients with cognitive decline (six with mild cognitive impairment and eight with Alzheimer’s disease underwent three EBS applications per week to both the cerebral cortex and auricular-specific sites for a total of 5 weeks. At baseline, after 2 weeks and 5 weeks, a neuropsychological assessment was performed through mini–mental state

  16. EDITORIAL: Progress in topological insulators Progress in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Alberto; Trauzettel, Björn

    2012-12-01

    One of the most remarkable discoveries of the last few years in condensed matter physics is that the established distinction of crystalline solids in metals and insulators—which relies on the material band-structure—is incomplete. During the last several decades, the band structure of an uncountable variety of compounds of increasing complexity have been computed, and yet it has been overlooked that in the presence of sufficiently strong spin-orbit interaction, a new class of materials can be realized, that intrinsically behaves as insulators in their bulk and as metals at their surface. The discovery of this new class of materials was made only recently by Kane and Mele, during their theoretical studies of graphene in the presence of a sufficiently strong intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Although the strength of the spin-orbit interaction in graphene is not sufficient to make the topological insulating state visible experimentally under currently reachable conditions, the validity and the originality of the concept were fully appreciated. Predictions for the occurrence of a two-dimensional topological insulating state in HgTe/CdTe heterostructures were made by Bernevig, Hughes and Zhang, and were followed by the experimental verification at Würzburg, in the Molenkamp group. Within a couple of years, this work brought the concept of topological insulator from an abstract theoretical discovery to an experimental reality, which stimulated further work. The concept of topological insulators was extended to the case of three-dimensional systems, for which an ideal experimental probe is angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy. Using this technique, specific theoretical predictions that had been made regarding the topological insulating character of different materials (e.g., for Bi-based compounds such as BiSb, Bi2Se3 or Bi2Te3), were verified experimentally through the direct observation of the Dirac surface fermions. This research was sufficient to put on

  17. PYFLOW_2.0. A new open-source software for quantifying impact parameters and deposition rates of dilute pyroclastic density currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Mele, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    .e. starting from what is observed in the deposit (e.g. the weight fractions ratios between the different grainsize classes). In this way we obtain more realistic estimates of the deposition rate, as the deposition probability of different grainsize constituting the DPDC deposit could be different and not necessarily equal to unity. We finally present the application of PYFLOW_2.0 to pyroclastic flows generated during large scale experiments and some samples collected from DPDCs deposits of Pompei eruption at Vesuvius. Dellino, P., D. Mele, R. Sulpizio, L. La Volpe, and G. Braia (2008), A method for the calculation of the impact parameters of dilute pyroclastic density currents based on deposit particle characteristics, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B07206, doi:10.1029/2007JB005365 Dioguardi, F, and P. Dellino (2014), PYFLOW: A computer code for the calculation of the impact parameters of Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents (DPDC) based on field data, Powder Technol., 66, 200-210, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2014.01.013 Stow, D. A. V., and A. J. Bowen (1980), A physical model for the transport and sorting of fine-grained sediment by turbidity currents, Sedimentology, 27, 31-46

  18. Proceedings of the European Forum on Nuclear Waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , general president, PURAM, Hungary, Bruno Lescoeur, director of the Energy branch, EDF, Irena Mele, strategic counselor, ARAO, Slovenia, Serge Perez, member of the national Bureau, FNME, CGT, Etienne Pochon, director of Patrimony and Cleaning up, CEA, Philippe Pradel, director of the sector Treatment-Recycling-Logistic, COGEMA, Olof Soederberg, president of the Fund dedicated to nuclear waste management, counsellor at KASAM, Sweden. 3 - Audition: Jean-Yves Le Deaut, deputy for Meurthe-et-Moselle, vice-president, OPECST. 4 - Debate with the audience 5 - Audition: David McCauley, senior policy advisor, Uranium and Radioactive Waste Division, Natural Resources, Government of Canada. 6 - Debate with the audience. 7 - Second round table: 'The partnership between stakeholders and local municipalities for a sustainable development on territories' (Moderator: Giles Chichester, member of the European Parliament, president European Foundation for Energy, president of ITRE commission of the European Parliament (UK)), Speaker: Bruno Sido, president of the General Council of Haute-Marne and senator, Discussants: Dominique Bourg, professor de philosophy and industrial ecology, University of Troyes, Eric Delhaye, spokesman, CAP 21, Robert Fernbach, mayor of Houdelaincourt, member of the CLIS Bureau, Markus Fritschi, head of repository projects, NAGRA, Switzerland, Patrick Juillard, director, Technopolis of Cherbourg Normandie, Jean-Marc Lambinon, president of Chamber of Commerce and Industry Haute-Marne, Jorge Lang-Lenton, director of communication, ENRESA, Spain, Rolf Linkohr, nuclear physician, honorary president of European Foundation for Energy, Germany, Christian Namy, president of the General Council of Meuse. 8 - Conclusions by Francois Lamoureux, general director of the Transport/ Energy Directorate General of the European Commission

  19. 77 FR 67676 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on September 21, 2012, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton,...

  20. 78 FR 64017 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 8, 2013, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton, Wisconsin...

  1. 77 FR 11568 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... clamshell disk beads, 1 lot of plant seed beads, 2 lots of Olivella shell beads, 1 lot of dentalium shells... pendants, 1 graphite pendant, 1 needle or awl, 5 elk incisors, 1 badger claw, and 1 carnivore...

  2. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, winter 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This special use permit allows USDA Animal Damage Control (APHIS) to collect up to 50 coyote, red fox or badger by aerial gunning as part of the disease study...

  3. Tuberculosis in cattle: the results of the four-area project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin John M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The four-area project was undertaken to further assess the impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland. It was conducted between 1997 and 2002 in matched removal and reference areas in four counties, namely Cork, Donegal, Kilkenny and Monaghan, representing a wide range of Irish farming environments. In the removal areas, a proactive programme of badger removal was conducted, on two or three occasions each year, whereas in the reference areas, badger removal was entirely reactive following severe outbreaks of tuberculosis amongst cattle. A detailed statistical analysis of this study has already been presented by Griffin et al. 13; this paper presents further, mainly descriptive, findings from the study. In total, 2,360 badgers were captured in the removal areas of which 450 (19.5% were considered positive for tuberculosis and 258 badgers were captured in the reference areas, with 57 (26.1% positive for tuberculosis. The annual incidence of confirmed herd restrictions was lower in the removal area compared to the reference area in every year of the study period in each of the four counties. These empirical findings were consistent with the hazard ratios found by Griffin et al. 13. Further, the effect of proactive badger removal on cattle tuberculosis in the four-area project and in the earlier east-Offaly project, as measured using the number of reactors per 1,000 cattle tested, were very similar, providing compelling evidence of the role of badgers in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Irish cattle herds. The validity of the four-area project was discussed in detail. Efforts to minimise badger-to-cattle transmission in Ireland must be undertaken in association with the current comprehensive control programme, which has effectively minimised opportunities for cattle-to-cattle transmission.

  4. 中国北方"第四纪(或亚代)"环境变化与大哺乳动物演化%QUATERNARY ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND EVOLUTION OF LARGE MAMMALS IN NORTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱占祥

    2006-01-01

    地质年表2004的筹备和发表使关于"第四纪"概念、时限、阶元的讨论达到了高潮.目前的情势是,其下限下移至~2.6 Ma几乎已成定局;其阶元究竟是"纪"还是"亚代"正在表决中(初步表决倾向于后者).这样一来,"第四纪"就包括以海相地层为基础建立的晚上薪世、更新世及全新世三大部分.中国北方"第四纪"大哺乳动物的研究已有很长的历史.现在应该根据新的情势重新审视其演化的阶段性及其与~2.6 Ma以来环境变化之间的关系.对环境变化和大哺乳动物化石已有资料的分析表明:1)~2.6 Ma是北极冰盖大规模扩大,季风气候急剧加强,黄土开始在中国北方大面积沉积,哺乳动物群发生重大变化的时期.大量三趾马动物群特有的成员在此之前灭绝.2)~2.6至1.3 Ma是古老"第四纪"类型繁盛的时期.真马(Equus)和巨颏虎(Megantereon)从北美经过白令陆桥进入欧亚;一大批欧亚大陆起源的新属出现,如Eirictis,Meles,Crocuta,Coelodonta,Eucladoceros,Elaphurus,Leptobos等.这一时期后期的气候,从黄土粒度曲线变化幅度普遍较小判断,应该相对比较稳定,较为温和.3)1.3~0.13 Ma为中华大角鹿(Sinomegaceros)异常繁盛的时期.一大批以周口店动物群为代表的典型中更新世的种类出现,如与狼接近的变异狼、中国硕鬣狗、意外巨颏虎、基什贝尔格犀等.这一时期之初有相当数量的东洋界分子越过秦岭进入中国北方的南部,如大熊猫、东方剑齿象、巨貘、毛冠鹿、鬣羚等.这一时期的气候起伏大,有明显逐渐变冷的趋势.从黄土粒度曲线看,至少有3次明显的冷期和一次较长的暖期(L15,L9,L2和S5).因此,这一阶段是可以再分的,但这需要对哺乳动物化石和动物群的年代进行更为深入的研究.4)0.13~0.011 Ma出现大量现生种,如普氏野马、野驴、野猪、盘羊等;一些晚更新世特征的类型出现,如猛犸

  5. The use of 65Zn for estimating populations of carnivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnivore populations are difficult to measure by conventional methods. We have developed a new method which involves catching one or more individuals from a population and injecting them with the isotope 65Zn. The radio-isotope appears in the faeces and assuming that the proportion of labelled to unlabelled faeces will equal the proportion of labelled to unlabelled individuals it is possible to estimate the size of the population. We have shown that the method gives an accurate estimate for a population of captive badgers of known size and we have used it in the field to estimate the size of wild badger populations. (author)

  6. 77 FR 30028 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. By Notice dated January 6, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2324, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton, Wisconsin 53024, made... Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances...

  7. 78 FR 12104 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. By Notice dated November 5, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on November 13, 2012, 77 FR 67676, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton, Wisconsin 53024, made... of Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled...

  8. MEDIATE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIENCE ON RESTORATION OF THE POPULATION OF THE MARMOT (MARMOTA BOBAK MULLER) IN NORTHERN PART OF CENTRAL RUSSIAN FOREST-STEPPE Промежуточные итоги опыта по восстановлению популяции сурка-байбака (Marmota bobak Muller) в северной части Среднерусской лесостепи

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko N. N.; Lezhenin A. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The article contains data of reacclimatization of mar-mots (Marmota bobak Muller) in Lipetsk region. Pos-sibility of application of artificial holes for fixation of colonies of animals in certain terrain is considered. Influence of a grazing of the shallow cattle on locali-ties of marmots is investigated. Degree of success of measures for reacclimatization of marmot badgers is defined

  9. Animal-side Serologic Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Multiple Species of Free-ranging Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species of wild mammals are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis, a cause of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Eurasian badgers, white-tailed deer, brushtail possums, and wild boar are implicated in the maintenance of wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis infection in different countries, fueling bovine TB...

  10. Põ-põ-põnevus ga-garanteeritud / Karl Martin Sinijärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Thomas, Ross. Kibuvitsatihnik : [romaan] / inglise keelest tõlkinud Ann Must. Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003; Simenon, Georges. Peeter Lätlane : [romaan] / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Madli Kütt. [Tallinn] : Tänapäev, 2003 ; Graham, Caroline. Mõrvad Badger's Driftis / inglise keelest tõlkinud Urve Liivamägi. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003

  11. Impact of a changed inundation regime caused by climate change and floodplain rehabilitation on population viability of earthworms in a lower River Rhine floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thonon, I.; Klok, C.

    2007-01-01

    River floodplains are dynamic and fertile ecosystems where soil invertebrates such as earthworms can reach high population densities. Earthworms are an important food source for a wide range of organisms including species under conservation such as badgers. Flooding, however, reduces earthworm numbe

  12. Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) II: predator avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Calvo, Lorena; Hanebury, Lou; Wharton, Tracy

    1990-01-01

    We exposed naive Siberain polecats (Mustela eversmanni) (aged 2, 3, and 4 months) to a swooping stuffed great horned owl (Buho virginianus) and a stuffed badger (Taxidae taxus) mounted on a remote control toy automobile frame. The first introduction to each was harmless, the second was accompanied by a mild aversive stimulus, the third (1 day after attack) was harmless, and the fourth (30 days after attack) was harmless. Alert behavior increased after a single attack by either predator model. Escape responses of naive polecats did not differ between ages when exposed to the badger, but 4 month old polecats reduced their escape times after a single badger attack. When exposed to the swooping owl, naive 4 month old polecats redponded more quickly than the other two age groups, and 3 and 4 month old polecats reduced escape times after a single owl attack. This indicates an innate escape response to the owl model at 4 months of age, and a short-tert ability to remember a single mild aversive encounter with the badger and owl models at 3 or 4 months of age.

  13. Government Response to the Discovery of a Rabies Virus Reservoir Species on a Previously Designated Rabies-Free Island, Taiwan, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S-S; Tsai, H-J; Chang, F-Y; Lee, T-S; Huang, K-C; Fang, K-Y; Wallace, R M; Inoue, S; Fei, C-Y

    2016-08-01

    Taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961. In 2013, Taiwan confirmed the detection of rabies virus in wild Taiwan ferret-badgers. Up to December 2014, there have been 423 rabies-confirmed ferret-badgers and three cases of spillover infection into non-reservoir hosts. Genetic analysis indicates that TFBV is distinct from all other known rabies virus variants. To date, ferret-badger rabies is known to occur only in China and Taiwan. The temporal dynamics of rabid ferret-badgers in Taiwan suggests that the epizootic appears to have subsided to enzootic levels as of December 2014. According to the current epidemiologic data, there is only one TFBV strain in Taiwan. TFBV is still sequestered to the mountainous regions. Humans are at risk mainly through exposure to the virus from infected domestic meso-carnivores, mainly dogs and cats. Dogs and cats should be vaccinated to establish an immunological barrier to stop the spread of the disease from mountainous regions to domestic meso-carnivores. PMID:26542085

  14. Spatial Temporal Dynamics and Molecular Evolution of Re-Emerging Rabies Virus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has been recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health as rabies-free since 1961. Surprisingly, rabies virus (RABV was identified in a dead Formosan ferret badger in July 2013. Later, more infected ferret badgers were reported from different geographic regions of Taiwan. In order to know its evolutionary history and spatial temporal dynamics of this virus, phylogeny was reconstructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods based on the full-length of glycoprotein (G, matrix protein (M, and nucleoprotein (N genes. The evolutionary rates and phylogeographic were determined using Beast and SPREAD software. Phylogenetic trees showed a monophyletic group containing all of RABV isolates from Taiwan and it further separated into three sub-groups. The estimated nucleotide substitution rates of G, M, and N genes were between 2.49 × 10−4–4.75 × 10−4 substitutions/site/year, and the mean ratio of dN/dS was significantly low. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated around 75, 89, and 170 years, respectively. Phylogeographic analysis suggested the origin of the epidemic could be in Eastern Taiwan, then the Formosan ferret badger moved across the Central Range of Taiwan to western regions and separated into two branches. In this study, we illustrated the evolution history and phylogeographic of RABV in Formosan ferret badgers.

  15. 75 FR 8063 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Monitor with Leak Detection Indicator in-home water meter monitors manufactured in Malaysia by Escatech... in Malaysia by Escatech, Inc., under license from Badger Meter, Inc., located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin... Detection Indicator in-home water meter monitors manufactured in Malaysia by Escatech, Inc., under...

  16. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  17. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  18. Emergency rabies control in a community of two high-density hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is a fatal viral disease that potentially can affect all mammals. Terrestrial rabies is not present in the United Kingdom and has been eliminated from Western Europe. Nevertheless the possibility remains that rabies could be introduced to England, where it would find two potentially suitable hosts, red foxes and badgers. With the aim to analyse the spread and emergency control of rabies in this two species host community, a simulation model was constructed. Different control strategies involving anti-rabies vaccination and population culling were developed, considering control application rates, spatial extent and timing. These strategies were evaluated for efficacy and feasibility to control rabies in hypothetical rural areas in the South of England immediately after a disease outbreak. Results The model confirmed that both fox and badger populations, separately, were competent hosts for the spread of rabies. Realistic vaccination levels were not sufficient to control rabies in high-density badger populations. The combined species community was a very strong rabies host. However, disease spread within species appeared to be more important than cross-species infection. Thus, the drivers of epidemiology depend on the potential of separate host species to sustain the disease. To control a rabies outbreak in the two species, both species had to be targeted. Realistic and robust control strategies involved vaccination of foxes and badgers, but also required badger culling. Although fox and badger populations in the UK are exceptionally dense, an outbreak of rabies can be controlled with a higher than 90% chance, if control response is quick and follows a strict regime. This requires surveillance and forceful and repeated control campaigns. In contrast, an uncontrolled rabies outbreak in the South of England would quickly develop into a strong epizootic involving tens of thousands of rabid foxes and badgers. Conclusions If

  19. Prevalence of canine distemper virus in wild mustelids in the Czech Republic and a case of canine distemper in young stone martens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlačík, L.; Celer, V.; Koubek, Petr; Literák, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 69-73. ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genus Morbillivirus * direct immunofluorescence test * serology * Eurasian badger * stone marten Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/52-2-69.pdf

  20. MEDIATE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIENCE ON RESTORATION OF THE POPULATION OF THE MARMOT (MARMOTA BOBAK MULLER IN NORTHERN PART OF CENTRAL RUSSIAN FOREST-STEPPE Промежуточные итоги опыта по восстановлению популяции сурка-байбака (Marmota bobak Muller в северной части Среднерусской лесостепи

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko N. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains data of reacclimatization of mar-mots (Marmota bobak Muller in Lipetsk region. Pos-sibility of application of artificial holes for fixation of colonies of animals in certain terrain is considered. Influence of a grazing of the shallow cattle on locali-ties of marmots is investigated. Degree of success of measures for reacclimatization of marmot badgers is defined

  1. Citizen Monitoring Along Interstate 90 at Snoqualmie Pass

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Jen; Moskowitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Interstate 90 over the Cascades is significant barrier to over 250 species of wildlife, including cougar, elk, deer, mustelids (otters, fishers, badgers, etc.), amphibians and reptiles. In the vicinity of Snoqualmie Pass, urban development to the west and agriculture and resort development on the east has shrunk the forest connecting north and south Cascades to less than 64.6 kilometers wide. The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is proposing to expand a 24.15-kil...

  2. Structural determination of some uranyl compounds by vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibrational spectra of different uranyl compounds has been studied and of it spectral information has been used the fundamental asymmetric vibrational frequency, to determine the length and constant bond force U=O by means of the combination of the concept of absorbed energy and the mathematical expression of Badger modified by Jones. It is intended a factor that simplifies the mathematical treatment and the results are compared with the values obtained for other methods. (Author)

  3. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) introduction (NW Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Balestrieri; Luigi Remonti; Claudio Prigioni

    2006-01-01

    Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115) in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989). Comparison included also the diet of badgers (...

  4. Employee or independent contractor? A summary of court, umpire and referee decisions relating to employee status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine case examples of disputes regarding the distinction between contractor personnel and employee status were presented. The cases involved people hired for services by Sunstar Uniforms Inc., S.A.M. Distributors, Malibu Homes Construction Ltd., Perfect Drywall Co. Ltd., Tim Horton's, Badger Mechanical Services Whitecourt Ltd., Hostage Musical Group, a chocolate bar seller in Regina, and Normatec Consultants Inc. This presentation described the disputes for each unique case and presented the outcome as decided by the courts

  5. Emergency rabies control in a community of two high-density hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Singer Alexander; Smith Graham C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rabies is a fatal viral disease that potentially can affect all mammals. Terrestrial rabies is not present in the United Kingdom and has been eliminated from Western Europe. Nevertheless the possibility remains that rabies could be introduced to England, where it would find two potentially suitable hosts, red foxes and badgers. With the aim to analyse the spread and emergency control of rabies in this two species host community, a simulation model was constructed. Differen...

  6. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16–December 28, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by R...

  7. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Song-En Huang

    Full Text Available Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI, and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5% were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2% persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9% persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22% were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and

  8. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54 % (31/57) of feral American mink, 27 % (7/26) of European badgers and 7 % (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses. PMID:25667324

  9. Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of the structure of water (H2O, HOD, D2O) in stoichiometric crystalline hydrates and in electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter of reviews presents in particular the Badger-Bauer-rule, distance and angle dependence of O-H...Y hydrogen bond and the structure of aqueous electrolyte solutions. A chapter of vibrational spectroscopic investigations of crystalline hydrates - metal perchlorate hydrates follows. Two further chapters just so investigate metal halide hydrates and some sulfate hydrates and related systems. The following chapter describes near infrared spectroscopic investigations of HOD(D2O) and its electrolyte solutions. The concluding chapter contains thermodynamic consequences and some properties of electrolyte solutions from vibrational spectroscopic investigations. (SPI)

  10. LA PROBLEMÁTICA EN LA MEDICIÓN DEL APRENDIZAJE ORGANIZATIVO: UNA REVISIÓN /

    OpenAIRE

    Real Fernández, J. C.; Leal Millán, A.; Roldán Salgueiro, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    El escaso consenso que se ha producido en torno al significado del aprendizaje organizativo (AO) ha provocado un insuficiente debate sobre su medición (Easterby-Smith, Crossan y Nicolini, 2000). A pesar de la extensa literatura existente sobre este tópico, se han producido muy pocos intentos de operativizar el constructo a través de técnicas cuantitativas (Chaston, Badger y Sadler-Smith, 1999). El AO, considerado como un resultado, ha sido tratado como un instrumento unidimensional (Levitt y ...

  11. Fox- and raccoon-dog–associated rabies outbreaks in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye; Liu; Shoufeng; Zhang; Jinghui; Zhao; Fei; Zhang; Nan; Li; Hai; Lian; Wurengege; Shiyu; Guo; Rongliang; Hu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Rabies is a generally fatal disease caused by the rabies virus(RABV),and is transmitted mainly by Carnivora and Chiroptera(Fooks A R,et al.,2014;Tao X,et al.,2013).In China,stray dogs and some wild animals(e.g.,Chinese ferret badgers,foxes,and raccoon dogs)are the principal reservoirs for RABV(Hu R L,et al.,2009).Historically,rabies in wild foxes and raccoon dogs(Nyctereutes procyonoides)was recorded in the early

  12. Twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheitlin, F.M. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the program and abstracts of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, held on May 7--11, 1990, at Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The symposium, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Institute, Badger Engineers, Inc., Gas Research Institute, and American Chemical Society, consists of five sessions: Session 1, thermal, chemical, and biological processing; Session 2 and 3, applied biological research; Session 4, bioengineering research; and Session 5, biotechnology, bioengineering, and the solution of environmental problems. It also consists of a poster session of the same five subject categories.

  13. Monitoring the use of artificial log pile otter holts using hair analysis from bedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowell D.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen, approximately ten year old log pile holts (LPH in mid-Wales, UK, were dismantled prior to reconstruction and any bedding from couches removed for analysis. The plant material making up the bedding was identified and animal guard hairs contained within it were determined to species. The bedding material simply consisted of opportunistically available material with little evident selection. Hairs of cow and sheep were clearly brought in with the bedding but it is suggested that hairs of otter, badger, fox, dog, cat, American mink and polecat indicate use of the LPH by the species concerned. A possible pine marten record is also considered.

  14. Twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the program and abstracts of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, held on May 7--11, 1990, at Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The symposium, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Institute, Badger Engineers, Inc., Gas Research Institute, and American Chemical Society, consists of five sessions: Session 1, thermal, chemical, and biological processing; Session 2 and 3, applied biological research; Session 4, bioengineering research; and Session 5, biotechnology, bioengineering, and the solution of environmental problems. It also consists of a poster session of the same five subject categories

  15. Circovirus in domestic and wild carnivores: An important opportunistic agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Guendalina; Malatesta, Daniela; Scipioni, Gabriella; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Campolo, Marco; Casaccia, Claudia; Savini, Giovanni; Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Circoviruses are relatively novel pathogens with increased importance in canids. In this study, we first screened the presence of dog circovirus (DogCV) by molecular methods from a total number of 389 internal organ samples originating from 277 individuals of domestic dogs and wild animals including wolves, foxes and badgers. All the animals originated from Central-Southern Italy, specifically from Abruzzi and Molise regions, areas hosting several natural parks. DogCV was detected in 9/34 wolves (P=26.4%; IC 95%: 14.6-43.1%), 8/209 dogs (P=3.8%; IC 95%: 1.9-7.3%), 0/24 foxes (P=0%; IC 95%: 0-13.8%), 1/10 badgers (P=10%; IC 95%: 1.79-40.4%). However, all DogCV positive animals were shown to be infected at least by an additional key pathogen, including canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus type 2. All wolves, but one, presenting DogCV in the internal tissues suffered from CDV infection. The DNA purified from 17 DogCV infected organs was used for whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26848830

  16. Predators of Greater Sage-Grouse nests identified by video monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, P.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Delehanty, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Nest predation is the primary cause of nest failure for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), but the identity of their nest predators is often uncertain. Confirming the identity of these predators may be useful in enhancing management strategies designed to increase nest success. From 2002 to 2005, we monitored 87 Greater Sage-Grouse nests (camera, N = 55; no camera, N = 32) in northeastern Nevada and south-central Idaho and identified predators at 17 nests, with Common Ravens (Corvus corax) preying on eggs at 10 nests and American badgers (Taxidea taxis) at seven. Rodents were frequently observed at grouse nests, but did not prey on grouse eggs. Because sign left by ravens and badgers was often indistinguishable following nest predation, identifying nest predators based on egg removal, the presence of egg shells, or other sign was not possible. Most predation occurred when females were on nests. Active nest defense by grouse was rare and always unsuccessful. Continuous video monitoring of Sage-Grouse nests permitted unambiguous identification of nest predators. Additional monitoring studies could help improve our understanding of the causes of Sage-Grouse nest failure in the face of land-use changes in the Intermountain West. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  17. Needed: pronuclear activists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author calls for supporters of nuclear energy to actively counteract the damage to the industry caused by those who misunderstand the critical human and economic issues involved. US power demand will need to rely on nuclear energy in order to retain the social benefits of a high standard of living. Resistance to emotionalism and fear based on ignorance is needed to relieve some of the regulatory obstacles hampering the development of this power and to put the risks in a realistic perspective. Specifically, he cites regulations that are imposed with no safety standard or goal short of perfection. These lead to duplicated studies and assessments, badgering by interest groups, and an adversary situation which keeps the industry on the defensive. Federal policy, in addition, is perceived to be ambiguous

  18. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  19. Seeing Cooperation or Competition: Ecological Interactions in Cultural Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany L; Medin, Douglas L; Horton, William S; Garcia, Salino G; Kays, Estefano G

    2015-10-01

    Do cultural models facilitate particular ways of perceiving interactions in nature? We explore variability in folkecological principles of reasoning about interspecies interactions (specifically, competitive or cooperative). In two studies, Indigenous Panamanian Ngöbe and U.S. participants interpreted an illustrated, wordless nonfiction book about the hunting relationship between a coyote and badger. Across both studies, the majority of Ngöbe interpreted the hunting relationship as cooperative and the majority of U.S. participants as competitive. Study 2 showed that this pattern may reflect different beliefs about, and perhaps different awareness of, plausible interspecies interactions. Further probes suggest that these models of ecological interaction correlate with recognition of social agency (e.g., communication, morality) in nonhuman animals. We interpret our results in terms of cultural models of nature and nonhuman agency. PMID:26431824

  20. Persistence of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 in the environment and arthropod vectors on an empty free-range chicken farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert H; Breslin, Mark

    2003-02-01

    The persistence of S. Enteritidis PT4 was studied on a free-range breeding chicken farm which had been depopulated following identification of the organism in breeding birds. The site was sampled periodically for 26 months after depopulation and the organism was found to persist in litter, dried faeces and feed, but not in dust within empty poultry houses, for the whole of that period. Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 was also found in soil samples after 8 months but not 13 months and in faeces from wild mice, foxes and cats but not wild birds or badgers. The organism was also found in adult and larval forms of ground beetles and centipedes. Addition of pullets to a contaminated pen or inclusion of contaminated litter, feed or beetles/larvae to feed did not result in acquisition of infection by birds. PMID:12558590

  1. Anharmonic Potential Constants and Their Dependence Upon Bond Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, D. R.; Laurie, V. W.

    1961-01-01

    Empirical study of cubic and quartic vibrational force constants for diatomic molecules shows them to be approximately exponential functions of internuclear distance. A family of curves is obtained, determined by the location of the bonded atoms in rows of the periodic table. Displacements between successive curves correspond closely to those in Badger's rule for quadratic force constants (for which the parameters are redetermined to accord with all data now available). Constants for excited electronic and ionic states appear on practically the same curves as those for the ground states. Predictions based on the diatomic correlations agree with the available cubic constants for bond stretching in polyatomic molecules, regardless of the type of bonding involved. Implications of these regularities are discussed. (auth)

  2. 浙江省不同宿主来源狂犬病病毒N基因分子特征分析%Sequencing and analysis of N gene of street rabies virus isolated from different hosts in Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓光; 雷永良; 陶晓燕; 李浩; 申辛欣; 于鹏程; 尹翠萍; 孟胜利; 王欣莹

    2014-01-01

    目的 测定浙江省不同宿主(人、鼬獾、犬)来源的狂犬病病毒街毒株N基因序列,分析病毒遗传变异特征及其与流行的关系.方法 采用直接免疫荧光试验和反转录聚合酶链式反应检测狂犬病病毒阳性标本N基因核苷酸序列,利用生物信息学软件分析基因序列和编码蛋白.结果 共获得浙江省2个人源、5个鼬獾源和11个犬源狂犬病病毒街毒株N基因核苷酸序列,18个核苷酸和氨基酸序列同源性在89.7%~ 100.0%和98.4%~ 100.0%,N蛋白一级结构上绝大部分为稳定区域,编码基因的核苷酸变异多为无义突变,系统发育分析显示18个街毒株均属于传统的基因1型.结论 浙江省不同宿主来源狂犬病病毒的流行具有地域性特征,同类宿主动物病毒株或来自同一县域/相邻县域的毒株在地理位置上最为近缘,但人源株病毒更具有复杂性.浙江省狂犬病病毒街毒株的流行具有通过犬向鼬獾和人传播,并在犬、鼬獾中跨区域循环传播的特点.%Objective To elucidate the characteristics of genetic variability and its relationship with prevalence,through sequencing and analysis of N gene among street rabies virus isolated from different hosts (homo sapiens,ferret badger,dog) in Zhejiang province.Methods Samples were screened and confirmed by direct fluorescence assay and reverse transcript PCR.Sequences were analyzed using bio-information software.Results Eighteen street rabies virus strains were identified,including 2 from homo sapiens,5 from ferret badger,and 11 from dog.Similarities of N gene and N protein were calculated to be 89.7%-100.0% and 98.4%-100.0% respectively.Mutations occurred in N gene were almost non-sense mutations.In addition,Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that all these strains could be classified into traditional genotype 1.Conclusion The prevalence of rabies viruses among different hosts in Zhejiang province had certain regional

  3. Report of isolations of unusual lyssaviruses (rabies and Mokola virus identified retrospectively from Zimbabwe : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bingham

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rabies isolates that had been stored between 1983 and 1997 were examined with a panel of anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Out of 56 isolates from cats and various wild carnivore species, 1 isolate of Mokola virus and 5 other non-typical rabies viruses were identified. The Mokola virus isolate was diagnosed as rabies in 1993 from a cat. Genetic analysis of this isolate suggests that it falls in a distinct subgroup of the Mokola virus genotype. The 5 non-typical rabies viruses were isolated from honey badgers (Mellivora capensis, African civets (Civettictis civetta and an unidentified mongoose (Herpestidae. These isolates are representatives of rarely-reported wildlife-associated strains of rabies, probably maintained by the slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea. These findings indicate that both Mokola virus and the mongoose-associated variant may be more common in Zimbabwe than is apparent from routine surveillance.

  4. Farmers' beliefs about bovine tuberculosis control in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-06-01

    Beliefs can play an important role in farmer behaviour and willingness to adopt new policies. In Northern Ireland, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is one of the most important endemic diseases facing the cattle industry. An observational study was conducted on 192 farms in a high bTB incidence area during 2010-2011 in order to obtain a better understanding of farmers' beliefs in relation to bTB control. The views of farmers who had experienced a recent confirmed or multiple reactor bTB breakdowns (cases) were compared to those of farmers who had no recent reactors or restricted herd tests (controls). Data were obtained from a face-to-face questionnaire assessing farmers' agreement to 22 statements. All participating farmers found bTB control important and most were keen to learn more about bTB biosecurity measures and were in favour of the cattle-related bTB control measures as presented in the questionnaire (isolation of skin test inconclusive animals, use of the gamma-interferon test and pre-movement testing). The majority of farmers would allow badger vaccination and culling on their own land with an overall preference for vaccination. Highest disagreement was shown for the statements querying a willingness to pay for bTB control measures. There was agreement on most issues between case and control farmers and between different age groups of farmers although case farmers showed more support for additional advice on bTB biosecurity measures (P = 0.042). Case farmers were also more in favour of allowing badger vaccination (P = 0.008) and culling (P = 0.043) on their land and showed less concern for public opposition (P = 0.048). PMID:27256021

  5. Black-footed ferrets and recreational shooting influence the attributes of black-tailed prairie dog burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Ramakrishnan, Shantini; Goldberg, Amanda R.; Eads, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) plug burrows occupied by black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), and they also plug burrows to entomb dead prairie dogs. We further evaluated these phenomena by sampling connectivity and plugging of burrow openings on prairie dog colonies occupied by ferrets, colonies where recreational shooting was allowed, and colonies with neither shooting nor ferrets. We counted burrow openings on line surveys and within plots, classified surface plugging, and used an air blower to examine subsurface connectivity. Colonies with ferrets had lower densities of openings, fewer connected openings (suggesting increased subsurface plugging), and more surface plugs compared to colonies with no known ferrets. Colonies with recreational shooting had the lowest densities of burrow openings, and line-survey data suggested colonies with shooting had intermediate rates of surface plugging. The extent of surface and subsurface plugging could have consequences for the prairie dog community by changing air circulation and escape routes of burrow systems and by altering energetic relationships. Burrow plugging might reduce prairie dogs' risk of predation by ferrets while increasing risk of predation by American badgers (Taxidea taxus); however, the complexity of the trade-off is increased if plugging increases the risk of predation on ferrets by badgers. Prairie dogs expend more energy plugging and digging when ferrets or shooting are present, and ferrets increase their energy expenditures when they dig to remove those plugs. Microclimatic differences in plugged burrow systems may play a role in flea ecology and persistence of the flea-borne bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis).

  6. Tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly DJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice, the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

  7. Winter feeding, growth and condition of brown trout Salmo trutta in a groundwater-dominated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William E.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C., Jr.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Dieterman, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter can be a stressful period for stream-dwelling salmonid populations, often resulting in reduced growth and survival. Stream water temperatures have been identified as a primary mechanism driving reductions in fitness during winter. However, groundwater inputs can moderate water temperature and may reduce winter severity. Additionally, seasonal reductions in prey availability may contribute to decreased growth and survival, although few studies have examined food webs supporting salmonids under winter conditions. This study employed diet, stable isotope, and mark-recapture techniques to examine winter (November through March) feeding, growth, and condition of brown troutSalmo trutta in a groundwater-dominated stream (Badger Creek, Minnesota, USA). Growth was greater for fish ≤ 150 mm (mean = 4.1 mg g−1 day−1) than for those 151–276 mm (mean = 1.0 mg g−1 day−1) during the winter season. Overall condition from early winter to late winter did not vary for fish ≤150 mm (mean relative weight (Wr) = 89.5) and increased for those 151–276 mm (mean Wr = 85.8 early and 89.4 late). Although composition varied both temporally and by individual, brown trout diets were dominated by aquatic invertebrates, primarily Amphipods, Dipterans, and Trichopterans. Stable isotope analysis supported the observations of the dominant prey taxa in stomach contents and indicated the winter food web was supported by a combination of allochthonous inputs and aquatic macrophytes. Brown trout in Badger Creek likely benefited from the thermal regime and increased prey abundance present in this groundwater-dominated stream during winter.

  8. Deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Minami, Shinji; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Sinaga, Martua H; Hiyama, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    Few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic Southeast Asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order Carnivora. This peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (Procyonidae) or bears (Ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. Recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red panda to a clade of procyonids and mustelids (weasels, otters, martens, badgers, and allies), but have failed to unambiguously resolve the position of this species relative to mephitids (skunks and stink badgers). We examined the relationship of the red panda to other extant species of the carnivoran suborder Caniformia using a set of concatenated approximately 5.5-kb sequences from protein-coding exons of five nuclear genes. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the red panda as the closest living relative of a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae to the exclusion of Mephitidae. These three families together with the red panda (which is classified here as a single extant species of a distinct family, Ailuridae) compose the superfamily Musteloidea, a clade strongly supported by all our phylogenetic analyses as sister to the monophyletic Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, walruses). The approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Templeton topology tests rejected (Pfossil evidence that extends the early adaptive radiation of the total clade of musteloids to the Eocene-Oligocene transition and also suggests Asia as a center of this radiation. PMID:19699810

  9. Evolutionary and biogeographic history of weasel-like carnivorans (Musteloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Prevosti, Francisco J; D'Elía, Guillermo; Begg, Colleen; Begg, Keith; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Campbell, Kevin L; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    We analyzed a concatenated (8492 bp) nuclear-mitochondrial DNA data set from 44 musteloids (including the first genetic data for Lyncodon patagonicus) with parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic and biogeographic inference and two Bayesian methods of chronological inference. Here we show that Musteloidea emerged approximately 32.4-30.9 million years ago (MYA) in Asia, shortly after the greenhouse-icehouse global climate shift at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. During their Oligocene radiation, which proceeded wholly or mostly in Asia, musteloids diversified into four primary divisions: the Mephitidae lineage separated first, succeeded by Ailuridae and the divergence of the Procyonidae and Mustelidae lineages. Mustelidae arose approximately 16.1 MYA within the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, and extensively diversified in the Miocene, mostly in Asia. The early offshoots of this radiation largely evolved into badger and marten ecological niches (Taxidiinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Guloninae, and Helictidinae), whereas the later divergences have adapted to other niches including those of weasels, polecats, minks, and otters (Mustelinae, Ictonychinae, and Lutrinae). Notably, and contrary to traditional beliefs, the morphological adaptations of badgers, martens, weasels, polecats, and minks each evolved independently more than once within Mustelidae. Ictonychinae (which is most closely related to Lutrinae) arose approximately 9.5-8.9 MYA, most likely in Asia, where it diverged into the Old World Ictonychini (Vormela, Poecilictis, Ictonyx, and Poecilogale) and New World Lyncodontini (Lyncodon and Galictis) lineages. Ictonychini presumably entered Africa during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (at the Miocene-Pliocene transition), which interposed the origins of this clade (approximately 6.5-6.0 MYA) and its African Poecilictis-Ictonyx-Poecilogale subclade (approximately 4.8-4.5 MYA). Lyncodontini originated approximately 2.9-2.6 MYA at the

  10. Control of mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partridge Tom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

  11. Mammalian fauna of the Temessos National Park, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Marinis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Park of Termessos, Southern Turkey, is one of the Turkey’s biggest national park not only with its archeological richness but also with its great natural wild life. We provided a checklist of the mammalian fauna of the park on the base of direct observations, interviews and a comparative analysis of the available literature. Sixteen species have been reported in the park. Hedgehogs, hares, porcupines and Persian squirrels and, among flying mammals, Egyptian rousette and Mouse-eared bat have been recorded. Carnivores are represented by Golden jackal, Wolf, Red fox, Stone marten, Badger, Otter and Wild cat. Very recently (2005 the presence of the Caracal in the park has been confirmed, whereas no signs of the presence of the Lynx were detected. The last Anatolian leopards seems to have definitively disappeared from the region. The occurrence in the area of striped hyaenas and brown bears is documented up to a few decades ago. The Park is regarded as the only geographical range in the whole world where the European or Common fallow deer has persisted as a native form. Other ungulates too, such as Wild goat and Wild boar are dispersed within the boundary of the park. Management implications are discussed.

  12. [New evidence for the spread of Thelazia callipaeda in the Far East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, A V; Shaĭtanov, M V; Seredkin, I V

    2015-01-01

    Thelazia callipaeda nematodes parasitize in the eyes of domestic and wild carnivorous mammals (more often in Canidae). Numerous cases of human infestation are also known. The nematode spreads in South and East Asia although in the last decade this has been reported from dogs, cats and wolves in South and Central Europe as well. In the Russian Federation, T. callipaeda was earlier observed in dogs, cats, foxes and raccoon dogs in some regions of the Russian Far East. Two cases of human infestation were also reported. There has been no evidence of T. callipaeda in Russia in the past 50 years. Postmortem parasitological surveys of various wild carnivores were performed in the Primorsky Territory of Russia in the winter of 2012 to the summer of 2014. Conjunctival sac including the space under the nictitating membrane was sought for nematodes. T. callipaeda was detected in 28 sables of the 492 examined ones, in 5 out of the 11 raccoon dogs, in 2 out of the 3 foxes, and in one lynx. The examination of 25 kolinskies, 4 American minks, 3 Amur leopard cats, 2 yellow-throated martens and one badger provided negative results. The sable and the wild lynx are firstly reported as hosts of T. callipaeda. The findings suggest that there is a persisting natural reservoir of zoonotic thelaziosis in the Russian Far East. The epidemiological importance of this fact should not be underestimated. PMID:25850318

  13. Getting Priorities Straight: Improving Linux Support for Database I/O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Christoffer; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Linux 2.6 kernel supports asynchronous I/O as a result of propositions from the database industry. This is a positive evolution but is it a panacea? In the context of the Badger project, a collaboration between MySQL AB and University of Copenhagen, we evaluate how MySQL/InnoDB can best take...... advantage of Linux asynchronous I/O and how Linux can help MySQL/InnoDB best take advantage of the underlying I/O bandwidth. This is a crucial problem for the increasing number of MySQL servers deployed for very large database applications. In this paper, we rst show that the conservative I/O submission...... policy used by InnoDB (as well as Oracle 9.2) leads to an under-utilization of the available I/O bandwidth. We then show that introducing prioritized asynchronous I/O in Linux will allow MySQL/InnoDB and the other Linux databases to fully utilize the available I/O bandwith using a more aggressive I...

  14. Epizootic canine distemper virus infection among wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameo, Yuki; Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Une, Yumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Shimojima, Masayuki; Maeda, Ken

    2012-01-27

    In the spring of 2007, seven raccoon dogs and a weasel were captured near the city of Tanabe in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The causative agent of the animals' death 1-2 days after capture was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by virus isolation, immunostaining with an anti-CDV polyclonal antibody, and a commercially available CDV antigen-detection kit. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated the isolated viruses belong to genotype Asia-1 and possess the substitution from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H) at position 549 that is associated with the spread of CDV to non-canine hosts. A serosurvey for CDV was then conducted among wild animals in the region. The animals assayed consisted of 104 raccoons, 41 wild boars, 19 raccoon dogs, five Sika deer, two badgers, one weasel, one marten, one Siberian weasel and one fox. Virus-neutralization (VN) tests showed that, except for fox and weasel, all of the species assayed had VN antibodies to CDV. Interestingly, 11 of the 41 wild boars (27%) and two of the five Sika deer assayed possessed VN antibodies to CDV. These findings indicate that CDV infection was widespread among wild mammals during this epizootic. PMID:21840141

  15. Rocks of the Thirtynine Mile volcanic field as possible sources of uranium for epigenetic deposits in central Colorado, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most likely volcanic source rock for uranium in epigenetic deposits of the Tallahassee Creek uranium district and nearby areas is the Wall Mountain Tuff. The widespread occurrence of the Tuff, its high apparent original uranium content, ∼ 11 ppm, and its apparent loss of uranium from devitrification and other alteration suggest its role in providing that element. An estimate of the original Th/U ratio is based on the present thorium and uranium contents of the basal vitrophyre of the Tuff from Castle Rock Gulch, Hecla Junction, and other areas. The Gribbles Park Tuff also could have supplied substantial amounts of uranium. Its presently high thorium content suggests an original uranium content similar to that of the Wall Mountain Tuff, but little data are available upon which to base an estimated Th/U ratio. The remaining units that were evaluated include the lower member of the Thirtynine Mile Andesite and related rocks, the Badger Creek Tuff, the Antero Formation, the Gribbles Park Tuff, and the Thorn Ranch Tuff. 36 refs.; 8 figs.; 9 tabs

  16. Control of Mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Tom; Toolan, Dónal; Egan, John; More, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis) is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon) on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile) was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term. PMID:21851700

  17. A review of mutual transmission of important infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, K; Thiede, S; Kozikowski, T; Jakob, W

    2002-10-01

    Oral vaccination of red foxes against rabies has been practiced in Europe since 1978 and has succeeded in greatly reducing the occurrence of this disease in foxes: this is an example of coordinated activity against a disease that affects both wild and domestic animals as well as humans. Some examples of diseases that affect both domestic and wild animals in Europe are: classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild boars and domestic swine; myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease in domestic and wild rabbits; bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in cattle and roe deer; contagious ecthyma in domestic sheep and goats and also in, e.g., chamois, muskox, and reindeer; Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, wild boars, badgers, and deer; and brucellosis in a broad range of livestock and wildlife in all European countries. In addition, serological surveys performed in different free-ranging ungulate species revealed the presence of alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus-1 in 7 European countries; and a study of malignant catarrhal fever in deer in Germany might indicate that in this case sheep are the main reservoir species. Although many data on infectious diseases are available in various European countries, there is more need for systematic surveillance and coordinated research. PMID:12381556

  18. A case study of bovine tuberculosis in an area of County Donegal, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Popelka Francisco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A descriptive analysis, to investigate the potential risk factors that might have contributed to the increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB herd-breakdowns in the reference area of Co. Donegal during the fifth year of the four-area project (FAP, was performed. Seventy two different herds were restricted for BTB during the FAP; 10 of these herds were restricted twice, resulting in a total of 82 BTB breakdowns. During the first four years of the FAP, the number of BTB herd breakdowns in the area varied from a lowest of nine to a maximum of 18 per year, and were geographically dispersed. In the fifth year of the study a considerable increase in the number of BTB breakdowns (n = 32 was observed, and there was a spatial 'cluster' of infected herds in the eastern part of the study area. The increased number of BTB breakdowns during the fifth year most likely occurred because of the recrudescence of infection, herd-to-herd transmission and, to a lesser extent, purchase of infected cattle. Infected badgers remain as a possible but less likely source of infection, especially as an explanation for the cluster of infected herds. The analysis supports the hypothesis that BTB in herds is a problem that cannot be addressed successfully by dedicating our efforts to the elimination of single risk factors. Neither is it a problem that needs to be investigated only at the herd level, but rather at the area level, including groups of contiguous herds.

  19. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  20. Applications of time-dependent Raman scattering theory to the one-electron reduction of 4-cyano-n-methylpyridinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation barrier heights, and therefore rates, for molecule-based electron-transfer (ET) reactions are governed by redox thermodynamics and Frank-Condon effects. Quantitative assessment of the latter requires a detailed, quantitative knowledge of all internal and external normal-coordinate displacements, together with appropriate vibrational frequencies (v) or force constants (f). In favorable cases, the desire internal or vibrational displacement information can be satisfactorily estimated from redox-induced bond-length changes as provided, for example, by x-ray crystallography or extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. Other potentially useful methods include Franck-Condon analysis of structured emission or absorption spectra, hole burning techniques, and application of empirical structure/frequency relationships (E.g., Badger's rules). There are, however, a number of limitations. The most obvious limitations for crystallography are that measurements can be made only in a crystalline environment and that experiments cannot be done on short-lived electron-transfer excited states or on systems which suffer from chemical decomposition following oxidation or reduction. For EXAFS there are additional constrains in that only selected elements display useful scattering and only atoms in close proximity to the scattering center may be detected. This report contains the first successful applications of the Raman methodology to a much larger class of ET reactions, namely, outer-sphere reactions. The report also necessarily represents the first application to a monomeric redox system

  1. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  2. A 10-year wildlife survey of 15 species of Canadian carnivores identifies new hosts or geographic locations for Trichinella genotypes T2, T4, T5, and T6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajadhar, Alvin A; Forbes, Lorry B

    2010-02-26

    A survey of wild carnivores in Canada was conducted over a 10-year period to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Trichinella. Muscle samples collected from 1409 animals representing 15 hosts species were enzymatically digested to recover Trichinella larvae. Larvae were recovered from a total of 287 (20.4%) animals and PCR identified four genotypes of Trichinella. Trichinella nativa was found in 5 host species and was the most commonly found genotype. Trichinella T6 was present in 7 species of carnivores, and coyote and badger are new host records for this genotype. The recovery of T. pseudospiralis and T. murrelli from cougars is the first documentation of these species in Canada and in cougars. The cougar was also the only host species in which all four genotypes of Trichinella were identified. Black bears and walruses had the highest tissue levels of larvae in this study and are also the species most frequently associated with human trichinellosis in Canada. This work identifies additional host species and expanded geographic ranges for 4 genotypes of Trichinella in North America. Failure to demonstrate T. spiralis in wildlife and continued negative results from ongoing surveillance activities in swine provide additional evidence that T. spiralis is not present in Canada. PMID:19926223

  3. Synthesis and physico-chemical characteristics of some dioxouranium (VI) complexes of N-isonicotinamido-3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzalaldimine and n-isonicotinamidocinnamalaldimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 12 new complexes of dioxouranium (VI) with hydrazones of isonicotinic acid hydrazide, viz., N-isonicotinamido- cinnamalal-dimine (INH-CIN) and N-isonicotinamido-3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benazaldimine (INH-VAN) having the general composition UO2X2.nl (X=Br-,I-,CH3COOH-, NO3-,NCS-,n=2;X=ClO-4-,n=3;L=INH-VAN or INH-CIN) were prepared in non-aqueous media and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, electrical conductivity, magnetic moment and IR spectral studies. In all the complexes these ligands act as neutral bidentate (N,O) ligands. In all dioxouranium (VI) complexes, the υ1 and υ3 modes are assigned in the 845-825 cm1 and 930-910 cm1 resp. Wilson's G-F matrix method was used to determine the stretching and interaction force-constants from which the U-O bond distances were calculated using Badger's formula. The calculated data shows that U-O bond length decreases with increase in the value of symmetric stretching frequency (υ1). A plot of (υ1+υ3) vs. force constants gave a straight line. The calculated values of the U-O bond distances in the present complexes are close to 1.73-1.74 A. The probable coordination number U (VI) is 8 or 10, depending on the nature of anions. Thermal properties are also discussed. (author)

  4. The competitor release effect applied to carnivore species: how red foxes can increase in numbers when persecuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to numerically simulate the population dynamics of a hypothetical community of three species of small to medium–sized carnivores subjected to non–selective control within the context of the competitor release effect (CRE. We applied the CRE to three carnivore species, linking interspecific competition with predator control efforts. We predicted the population response of European badger, the red fox and the pine marten to this wildlife management tool by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical responses differed depending on the intrinsic rate of growth (r, although modulated by the competition coefficients. The red fox, showing the highest r value, can increase its populations despite predator control efforts if control intensity is moderate. Populations of the other two species, however, decreased with control efforts, even reaching extinction. Three additional theoretical predictions were obtained. The conclusions from the simulations were: 1 predator control can play a role in altering the carnivore communities; 2 red fox numbers can increase due to control; and 3 predator control programs should evaluate the potential of unintended effects on ecosystems.

  5. Preliminary safety analysis of the B-C Cribs Controlled Area. [Hanford Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, H.L.

    1974-07-31

    Approximately 2,000 acres of land in the center of the Hanford Reservation is contaminated with an estimated 14 Ci of /sup 137/Cs and 81 Ci of /sup 90/Sr associated with animal wastes. Approximately half of this activity is located on (or within) 2.5 centimeters of the ground surface. The source of the contamination was the B-C Cribs and trenches which were used as liquid radioactive waste disposal sites during the 1950's. The mechanism for movement of radionuclides from the disposal site to the ground surface is believed to have been burrowing by an animal (probably a badger) followed by use of the exposed material as a salt lick by rabbits and other animals. When the radioactivity was discovered, the burrow was sealed, the contaminated site was classed as a radiation zone, and surveillance initiated. The contamination site has not been a significant hazard to employees at the plant or to the public. The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company maintained control over the surface contamination by isolation, zoning, and by continued surveillance. Methods of handling the contaminated area have been considered. Discussions of these alternatives and applicable safety analysis information are included in this document.

  6. Raman effect in icosahedral boron-rich solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Werheit, Volodymyr Filipov, Udo Kuhlmann, Ulrich Schwarz, Marc Armbrüster, Andreas Leithe-Jasper, Takaho Tanaka, Iwami Higashi, Torsten Lundström, Vladimir N Gurin and Maria M Korsukova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present Raman spectra of numerous icosahedral boron-rich solids having the structure of α-rhombohedral, β-rhombohedral, α-tetragonal, β-tetragonal, YB66, orthorhombic or amorphous boron. The spectra were newly measured and, in some cases, compared with reported data and discussed. We emphasize the importance of a high signal-to-noise ratio in the Raman spectra for detecting weak effects evoked by the modification of compounds, accommodation of interstitial atoms and other structural defects. Vibrations of the icosahedra, occurring in all the spectra, are interpreted using the description of modes in α-rhombohedral boron by Beckel et al. The Raman spectrum of boron carbide is largely clarified. Relative intra- and inter-icosahedral bonding forces are estimated for the different structural groups and for vanadium-doped β-rhombohedral boron. The validity of Badger's rule is demonstrated for the force constants of inter-icosahedral B–B bonds, whereas the agreement is less satisfactory for the intra-icosahedral B–B bonds.

  7. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  8. Effect of headgroup-substrate interactions on the thermal behavior of long-chain amphiphiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Saranshu; Zhu, He; Dhinojwala, Ali

    The structure of amphiphilic molecules at liquid/solid and solid/solid interfaces is relevant in understanding lubrication, colloid stabilization, chromatography, and nucleation. Here, we characterize the interfacial structures of long chain amphiphilic molecules with different head groups (OH, COOH, NH2) using interface-sensitive sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. The behavior of these self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on sapphire substrate is recorded in situ as a function of temperature (above and below bulk Tm) using SFG. Previous studies using synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and SFG show that the melting point of an ordered hexadecanol monolayer is around 30°C above its bulk Tm. The thermal stability of the monolayer is explained due to strong hydrogen bonding interactions between the head-group and the sapphire substrate. The strength of these hydrogen-bonding interactions between substrate and different head groups is calculated using the Badger-Bauer equation. Below Tm, the ordered monolayer influenced the structure of the interfacial crystalline layer, and the transition from monolayer to the bulk crystalline phases. The results with different head groups will be presented.

  9. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  10. Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, B W; Schmidt, J P; Owens, J J; Mitchell, S M; Kennedy, M K

    2014-03-01

    Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedes albopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products. PMID:24724289

  11. Reading into lesser bibliography of rare mustelids (Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Romanowski

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many research and conservation efforts on rare mustelids in Eastern Europe, Russia and states of CIS are in progress. On a total of 640 publications examined, the otter (428 and the European mink (195 were the most studied species, the Steppe and Marbled polecats (89 and 83 entries, and Honey-badger (24 were less considered. Titles written in national languages dominate, but a recent increase in the ratio of publications written or summarized in English or German was noted. Based on number and profile of publications, it is suggested that conservation of European mink requires more efforts and research. Riassunto Bibliografia poco nota sui Mustelidi rari (Europa orientale - Nei paesi dell'Europa dell'Est, Russia e stati del CIS inclusi, le ricerche e le iniziative di conservazione riguardanti i mustelidi rari sono in progresso. Dall'esame di 640 pubblicazioni, Lutra lutra (428 e Mustela lutreola (195 sono le specie più studiate, mentre meno considerate sono M. erversmanni (89, Vormela peregusna (83 e Mellivora capensis (24. Buona parte dei lavori è in lingua originale, ma recentemente è in incremento il numero di pubblicazioni scritte o riassunte in inglese o tedesco. Sulla base del numero dei lavori e dei temi trattati, si evidenzia che la conservazione del visone europeo richiederebbe maggiori sforzi e ricerche.

  12. Do constraints associated with the locomotor habitat drive the evolution of forelimb shape? A case study in musteloid carnivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael; Goswami, Anjali; Peigné, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Convergence in morphology can result from evolutionary adaptations in species living in environments with similar selective pressures. Here, we investigate whether the shape of the forelimb long bones has converged in environments imposing similar functional constraints, using musteloid carnivores as a model. The limbs of quadrupeds are subjected to many factors that may influence their shape. They need to support body mass without collapsing or breaking, yet at the same time resist the stresses and strains induced by locomotion. This likely imposes strong constraints on their morphology. Our geometric morphometric analyses show that locomotion, body mass and phylogeny all influence the shape of the forelimb. Furthermore, we find a remarkable convergence between: (i) aquatic and semi-fossorial species, both displaying a robust forelimb, with a shape that improves stability and load transfer in response to the physical resistance imposed by the locomotor environment; and (ii) aquatic and arboreal/semi-arboreal species, with both groups displaying a broad capitulum. This augments the degree of pronation/supination, an important feature for climbing as well as grasping and manipulation ability, behaviors common to aquatic and arboreal species. In summary, our results highlight how musteloids with different locomotor ecologies show differences in the anatomy of their forelimb bones. Yet, functional demands for limb movement through dense media also result in convergence in forelimb long-bone shape between diverse groups, for example, otters and badgers. PMID:25994128

  13. Comparison of bovine tuberculosis recurrence in Irish herds between 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M J; Higgins, I M; Clegg, T A; Williams, D H; More, S J

    2013-09-01

    During the last several decades in Ireland, there has been substantial scientific progress in our understanding and related policy changes in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme. A range of performance measurements are routinely available, each highlighting a steadily improving situation in Ireland. However, recent research has highlighted an on-going problem of residual infection, contributing to recurrent breakdowns. In light of this general improvement, but also cognisant of residual infection, a critical evaluation of changes in effectiveness of managing recurrence is particularly valuable. Therefore, the objective of the study was to compare the herd-level risk of recurrence of bTB in Ireland between 1998 and 2008. A retrospective cohort study was carried out, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, to compare the risk of restriction recurrence in herds derestricted during 1998 and 2008. These herds were observed for up to 3 years from the end of the 'index restriction'. At the univariable level, 46.4% and 34.8% of study herds derestricted in 1998 and 2008, respectively, had a subsequent breakdown during the study period (χ(2)=70.6, Pnational situation, both in terms of limiting the establishment of new infection (bTB incidence) and in effectively clearing infection once detected (recurrence following derestriction). Recurrence of bTB requires effective implementation of multiple control strategies, focusing on identifying and removing residually infected cattle, and limiting environmental sources of infection, which in Ireland primarily relates to badgers. PMID:23746572

  14. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  15. Snapshots of Proton Accommodation at a Microscopic Water Surface: Understanding the Vibrational Spectral Signatures of the Charge Defect in Cryogenically Cooled H(+)(H2O)(n=2-28) Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Joseph A; Wolke, Conrad T; Johnson, Mark A; Odbadrakh, Tuguldur T; Jordan, Kenneth D; Kathmann, Shawn M; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2015-09-10

    We review the role that gas-phase, size-selected protonated water clusters, H(+)(H2O)n, have played in unraveling the microscopic mechanics responsible for the spectroscopic behavior of the excess proton in bulk water. Because the larger (n ≥ 10) assemblies are formed with three-dimensional cage morphologies that more closely mimic the bulk environment, we report the spectra of cryogenically cooled (10 K) clusters over the size range 2 ≤ n ≤ 28, over which the structures evolve from two-dimensional arrangements to cages at around n = 10. The clusters that feature a complete second solvation shell around a surface-embedded hydronium ion yield spectral signatures of the proton defect similar to those observed in dilute acids. The origins of the large observed shifts in the proton vibrational signature upon cluster growth were explored with two types of theoretical analyses. First, we calculate the cubic and semidiagonal quartic force constants and use these in vibrational perturbation theory calculations to establish the couplings responsible for the large anharmonic red shifts. We then investigate how the extended electronic wave functions that are responsible for the shapes of the potential surfaces depend on the nature of the H-bonded networks surrounding the charge defect. These considerations indicate that, in addition to the sizable anharmonic couplings, the position of the OH stretch most associated with the excess proton can be traced to large increases in the electric fields exerted on the embedded hydronium ion upon formation of the first and second solvation shells. The correlation between the underlying local structure and the observed spectral features is quantified using a model based on Badger's rule as well as via the examination of the electric fields obtained from electronic structure calculations. PMID:26158593

  16. Reinstatement of Dermacentor bellulus (Acari: Ixodidae) as a Valid Species Previously Confused with D. taiwanensis and Comparison of All Parasitic Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Maria A.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    Re-examination of Dermacentor taiwanensis Sugimoto, 1935 specimens in the United States National Tick Collection revealed that two morphologically distinct Dermacentor species were identified under this name. One of them corresponds to Sugimoto’s description of D. taiwanensis, while another species is identical to Schulze’s Dermacentor bellulus (Schulze, 1935). The latter species has not been considered valid by recent workers. D. bellulus is reinstated here as a valid species and all its stages are redescribed. The adults of D. taiwanensis are also redescribed, and its immature stages are described for the first time. Males and females of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the conscutum and scutum, color pattern, genital structures, size of the palpi and cornua, and the spurs of coxa I. Nymphs of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the scutum, basis capituli, and the hypostomal dentition. Larvae of D. bellulus can be differentiated from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the basis capituli, and the degree of development of the auriculae and spur on palpal segment III ventrally. D. bellulus has been recorded from China, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars, bears, panda, dog, and human; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, ferret-badger, and bamboo-partridge. D. taiwanensis is found in China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, mustelids, and domestic dog. PMID:26335464

  17. H-coal pilot plant. Phase II: construction. Phase III: operation. Monthly report No. 23, for July 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-20

    ASFI, as prime contractor for the DOE, reports the weighted average for all subcontracts issued by ASFI and DOE for design, procurement and erection of the H-Coal Pilot Plant, Phase I and II, as 70.2% complete in July. The Kentucky EPA states the SO/sub 2/ control plan for the H-Coal Pilot Plant is unacceptable on the basis of H/sub 2/S disposal. Their suggestion that the H-Coal Project build their own SRU with tailgas cleanup would add $4MM to the cost, and delay in startup would add an estimated $6MM. ASFI is in discussion with State officials to determine available alternatives. Engineering for the Lummus Antisolvent Deashing Unit is essentially complete. The Deasher Settler fabrication contractor reported a one month slippage due to slow progress in fabrication of the stanless steel section. As yet, no reply has been received from DOE to the Lummus request for additional funding to cover Waste Oil Processing, HC-34, design and procurement activity. Waste Oil engineering is 74% complete. The transfer of construction responsibilities from Ashland Synthetic Fuels to the U.S. Department of Energy became effective July 12, 1978. All sbcontracts related specifically to construction have been assigned the DOE with management authority and responsibility transferred to Badger. Contracts including construction and operation have been partially assigned to the DOE with the operations portion retained by ASFI. The Operator Traning Contract between UOP and ASFI has been fully executed. The Materials, Quality Assurance--Operations and Start-Up Plans are being prepared for publication as scheduled. Activities for the month included additional training for supervisors, development of data recording and data flow procedures and preparation for conducting operations employee candidate interviews.

  18. Bloom Chasing With a Wave Glider: The MAGI (Mesoscale Features Aggregates Interaction) Project in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Villareal, T. A.; Anderson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite ocean color data over the past decade has revealed the existence of large phytoplankton blooms in the North Pacific Ocean - specifically in the region NE of Hawai´I near 30°N. These blooms cover thousands of km2, persist for weeks or longer, and are often dominated by nitrogen-fixing diatom symbioses. These events have proven difficult to study outside of the time series station ALOHA at Hawai´i. The limited data indicates that the 30°N blooms are longer-lived, larger, and occur at a greater temperature range than the blooms that develop closer to Hawai´i. In the NE Pacific, at least some of these blooms occur at or near the subtropical front, a salinity-defined temperature compensated frontal zone that has a number of fronts imbedded in it. Here we will report on the results from the MAGI (Mesoscale features Aggregates Interaction) project. In this project, we deployed a Liquid Robotics SV2 Wave Glider® in June, 2015 for a multiple (up to 6) month mission to sample these features and assist in characterizing the bloom dynamics of this region. The Wave Gliders are the first unmanned autonomous marine robots to use only the ocean's wave energy for propulsion. The gliders are navigated remotely allowing a dynamic route through the keying of unique waypoints. Waypoints can be changed to sample features as they develop in the near-real time satellite imagery. The wave glider named Honey Badger is equipped with a CTD, two C3 fluorometers (one with an anti-biofouling coating applied), a Turner Designs PhytoFlash, meteorology and wave sensors, a downward facing camera, a Vengmar passive acoustic monitor, and a towed LISST-Holo.

  19. Research Advances in the Porcine Deltacoronavirus%猪δ冠状病毒的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方谱县; 方六荣; 董楠; 肖少波

    2016-01-01

    δ冠状病毒(Deltacoronavirus)是冠状病毒科冠状病毒亚科的新成员,可感染鸟类和哺乳动物.δ冠状病毒最早于2007年从亚洲豹猫和中国白鼬獾群中检测到.2014年,猪δ冠状病毒(Porcine Deltacoronavirus,PDCoV)在美国流行并成功分离到病毒,人工感染实验证实PDCoV可导致仔猪腹泻,具有较强的致病性,成为研究δ冠状病毒的良好模型.本文对PDCoV的发现、病原学、流行病学、致病性、培养与检测等方面进行综述.%The deltacoronavirus is a new member of the subfamily Coronaviridae of the family Coronaviridae.Deltacoronaviruses can infect birds and mammals.Deltacoronaviruses were detected in early 2007 in Asian leopard cats and Chinese ferret badgers.In 2014,porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection spread rapidly in the USA.Moreover,cell culture-adapted PDCoV has been obtained from infected piglets.Animal experiments have confirmed that the isolated PDCoV is highly pathogenic and causes severe diarrhea in piglets.Thus,the PDCoV can be considered to be a good model to study the deltacoronavirus.In this review,we discuss the etiology,epidemiology,pathogenicity,culture,and diagnostic methods of the PDCoV.

  20. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  1. Reinstatement of Dermacentor bellulus (Acari: Ixodidae) as a Valid Species Previously Confused with D. taiwanensis and Comparison of All Parasitic Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Maria A; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2015-07-01

    Re-examination of Dermacentor taiwanensis Sugimoto, 1935 specimens in the United States National Tick Collection revealed that two morphologically distinct Dermacentor species were identified under this name. One of them corresponds to Sugimoto's description of D. taiwanensis, while another species is identical to Schulze's Dermacentor bellulus (Schulze, 1935). The latter species has not been considered valid by recent workers. D. bellulus is reinstated here as a valid species and all its stages are redescribed. The adults of D. taiwanensis are also redescribed, and its immature stages are described for the first time. Males and females of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the conscutum and scutum, color pattern, genital structures, size of the palpi and cornua, and the spurs of coxa I. Nymphs of D. bellulus can be distinguished from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the scutum, basis capituli, and the hypostomal dentition. Larvae of D. bellulus can be differentiated from those of D. taiwanensis by the shape of the basis capituli, and the degree of development of the auriculae and spur on palpal segment III ventrally. D. bellulus has been recorded from China, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars, bears, panda, dog, and human; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, ferret-badger, and bamboo-partridge. D. taiwanensis is found in China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; adults have been collected from wild boars; the immature stages are known from rodents, hares, mustelids, and domestic dog. PMID:26335464

  2. On the origin of donor O–H bond weakening in phenol-water complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy has been used to investigate intermolecular interactions in a series of binary O–H⋯O hydrogen bonded phenol-water complexes where water is the common acceptor. The interaction at the binding site has been tuned by incorporating multiple fluorine substitutions at different aromatic ring sites of the phenol moiety. The spectral effects for the aforesaid chemical changes are manifested in the infrared spectra of the complexes as systematic increase in spectral shift of the phenolic O–H stretching fundamental (ΔνO–H). While νO–H bands of the monomers of all the fluorophenols appear within a very narrow frequency range, the increase in ΔνO–H of the complexes from phenol to pentafluorophenol is very large, nearly 90%. The observed values of ΔνO–H do not show a linear correlation with the total binding energies (ΔEb) of the complexes, expected according to Badger-Bauer rule. However, in the same ΔνO–H vs ΔEb plot, nice linear correlations are revealed if the complexes of ortho-fluorophenols are treated separately from their meta/para-substituted analogues. The observations imply that in spite of having the same binding site (O–H⋯O) and the same chemical identities (phenolic), the complexes of ortho and non-ortho fluorophenols do not belong, from the viewpoint of detailed molecular interactions, to a homologous series. Linear correlations of ΔνO–H are, however, observed with respect to the electrostatic component of ΔEb as well as the quantum mechanical charge transfer interaction energy (ECT). From quantitative viewpoint, the latter correlation along with the associated electronic structure parameters appears more satisfactory. It has also been noted that the observed ΔνO–H values of the complexes display a linear relationship with the aqueous phase pKa values of the respective phenol derivatives

  3. Species-specific differences in the accumulation features of organohalogen contaminants and their metabolites in the blood of Japanese terrestrial mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residue levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) in the blood of various terrestrial mammals in Japan, including cats, raccoon dogs, dogs, masked palm civets, foxes, raccoons, badgers, and mongooses were determined. Tri- through penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs were predominant in cat blood, whereas hexa- through octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs were found in other species. High proportion of BDE209 was found in all species, suggesting exposure to municipal waste and soil containing higher levels of deca-BDE products. 6OH-/MeO-BDE47 and 2′OH-/MeO-BDE68 were dominant in all terrestrial mammals. This is first report on the detection of OH-/MeO-PBDEs in the blood of terrestrial mammals. High concentrations of OH-/MeO-PBDEs were found in cats, suggesting the intake of these compounds from seafood. Cats exhibited higher accumulation and specific patterns of OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, and MeO-PBDEs, they may be at a high risk from these metabolites. -- Highlights: ► Analysis of organohalogen metabolites in the blood of Japanese terrestrial mammals. ► First study on analysis of OH-/MeO-PBDEs in terrestrial mammals. ► Cats showed specific residue pattern of OH-PCBs compare to other species. ► Metabolic capacities of PCBs in carnivore were higher than marine mammals. ► Marine natural occurrence OH-/MeO-PBDEs were found in terrestrial mammals. -- Cats showed specific residue pattern of OH-PCBs compare to other species and marine natural occurrence OH-/MeO-PBDEs were detected in terrestrial mammals

  4. Mass Communication and Mass Media: A Concept of Game Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tafazzoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From the historical point of view, the formation and evolution of media in the form that we know today, and according to the age of several thousands of years of human's social life on the soil planet, has changed to reality later. This has happened while the media has evolved in a larger scale with an incredible speed. In those far periods of time the wide propagation and distribution of information to the lots of contacts was not possible because of technical limitations. But people were trying to communicate in a limited form with each other and with their contacts by using other methods. This communication didn't go beyond the human's voice. Through experience they have learnt that if they make a horn with their hands and speak loudly in it from its narrow part, attracts the contact that is further than the usual sound board. But with society's being more complicated, giving information in the shortest time became very important. Various methods of transferring information were formed according to the technology and facilities. In middle ages the bellmen, the singers and the badger storytellers had the duty of information exchange by poems and proverbs, or news and information were written on the animal skin or clay or stone tablets for the distribution and propagation of news. But bringing news and information with primary tools for the contacts were along with some barriers, because their duplication was a hard, time consuming and costly task. Scholars and rulers had found that when the political and governmental information and news reaching time is shorter, consequently its effects on the contacts and their reaction toward the received data would be more.

  5. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas. PMID:18078952

  6. Coexistence of sympatric carnivores in relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscapes: functional importance of habitat segregation at the fine-scale level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carolina; Palomares, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    One of the main objectives of community ecology is to understand the conditions allowing species to coexist. However, few studies have investigated the role of fine-scale habitat use segregation in the functioning of guild communities in relatively homogeneous landscapes where opportunities for coexistence are likely to be the most restrictive. We investigate how the process of habitat use differentiation at the home range level according to the degree of specialism/generalism of species can lead to coexistence between guild species. We examine differences in fine-scale habitat use and niche separation as potential mechanisms explaining the coexistence of five sympatric carnivore species that differ in life history traits (Iberian lynx, Eurasian badger, Egyptian mongoose, common genet and red fox) by collecting data from systematic track censuses in a relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscape. We found that a higher degree of specialism determines the segregation of species among the fine-scale ecological niche dimensions defined using quantitative elements associated with vegetation, landscape, prey availability and human disturbance. The species with the lowest total performance over the set of variables did not exhibit segregation in the use of habitat at this level. Our study indicates that in relatively homogeneous landscapes, there exist subtle patterns of habitat partitioning over small-scale gradients of habitat determinants as a function of the degree of specialism of carnivore species within a guild. Our results also suggest that coexistence between generalist species may be permitted by fine-scale spatial-temporal segregation of activity patterns or trophic resource consumption, but not fine-scale habitat use differentiation. PMID:25933639

  7. Animation scenes:"dynamic"and"static"%论动画情境中的动与静

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏莹莹

    2015-01-01

    无论是何种类型、何种表现形式的优秀动画片,动与静的交互都会贯穿始终。可从动与静的角度上来分析一部优秀动画片的制作方法。抓住片中动与静的关系,可提升影片的整体节奏,好的节奏感也是动画成功的重要条件。以经典短片«三个和尚»、«想睡觉的獾»和«和尚与飞鱼»为例,从动画的剧情结构、角色塑造和镜头三个方面分析动画情境中动与静的关系。%Whatever the type or the form an outstanding animation,may be the interaction between dy-namic and static exists every where.A good animation making method can be achieved with the balance of"dynamic" and"static".Grasping the relationship between dynamic and static can promote the whole animation rhythm,which is vital to success.The paper takes the classic animation "The three monks","The badger wants to sleep","The monk and the flying fish" for example to analyze the interaction be-tween the dynamic and static in the animation from the perpective of the plot structure,the characters and animation scene.

  8. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V. (Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Department of Natural Resources, John Day, OR)

    2006-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements, and exploitation in the lower Deschutes River Subbasin is extremely limited. During 2002, we began a multi-year study to assess the status of lamprey in the Deschutes River subbasin. The objectives of this project are to determine ammocoete (larval lamprey) distribution and associated habitats; Lampretra species composition; numbers of emigrants; adult escapement and harvest rates at Sherars Falls. This report describes the preliminary results of data collected during 2005. We continued documenting ammocoete (larval) habitat selection by surveying four perennial eastside tributaries to the Deschutes River (Warm Springs River, Badger, Beaver and Shitike creeks) within the known ammocoete distribution. The results of 2003-2005 sampling indicate that positive relationships exist between: presence of wood (P = < 0.001), depositional area (P = < 0.001), flow (P = < 0.001), and fine substrate (P = < 0.001). Out-migrants numbers were not estimated during 2005 due to our inability to recapture marked larvae. In Shitike Creek, ammocoete and microphthalmia out-migration peaked during November 2005. In the Warm Spring River, out-migration peaked for ammocoetes in April 2006 and December 2005 for microphthalmia. Samples of ammocoetes from each stream were retained in a permanent collection of future analysis. An escapement estimate was generated for adult Pacific lamprey in the lower Deschutes River using a two event mark-recapture experiment during run year 2005. A modified Peterson model was used to estimate the adult population of Pacific lamprey at 3,895 with an estimated escapement of 2,881 during 2005 (95% CI= 2,847; M = 143; C = 1,027 R = 37). A tribal creel was also conducted from mid-June through August. We estimated tribal harvest to be approximately 1,015 adult lamprey during 2005 (95% CI= +/- 74).

  9. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Dawson, Mary R; Tedford, Richard H

    2009-04-23

    Modern pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and the walrus) are semi-aquatic, generally marine carnivores the limbs of which have been modified into flippers. Recent phylogenetic studies using morphological and molecular evidence support pinniped monophyly, and suggest a sister relationship with ursoids (for example bears) or musteloids (the clade that includes skunks, badgers, weasels and otters). Although the position of pinnipeds within modern carnivores appears moderately well resolved, fossil evidence of the morphological steps leading from a terrestrial ancestor to the modern marine forms has been weak or contentious. The earliest well-represented fossil pinniped is Enaliarctos, a marine form with flippers, which had appeared on the northwestern shores of North America by the early Miocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a new semi-aquatic carnivore from an early Miocene lake deposit in Nunavut, Canada, that represents a morphological link in early pinniped evolution. The new taxon retains a long tail and the proportions of its fore- and hindlimbs are more similar to those of modern terrestrial carnivores than to modern pinnipeds. Morphological traits indicative of semi-aquatic adaptation include a forelimb with a prominent deltopectoral ridge on the humerus, a posterodorsally expanded scapula, a pelvis with relatively short ilium, a shortened femur and flattened phalanges, suggestive of webbing. The new fossil shows evidence of pinniped affinities and similarities to the early Oligocene Amphicticeps from Asia and the late Oligocene and Miocene Potamotherium from Europe. The discovery suggests that the evolution of pinnipeds included a freshwater transitional phase, and may support the hypothesis that the Arctic was an early centre of pinniped evolution. PMID:19396145

  10. Proposal of the visual inspection of the integrity of the storage cells of spent fuel from the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of Boral has not lost its ability to absorb neutrons, using proven methods like Badger or similar. (Author)

  11. Proposal of the visual inspection of the integrity of the storage cells of spent fuel from the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Propuesta para la inspeccion visual de la integridad de las celdas de almacenamiento de combustible gastado de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J. L.; Rivero G, T.; Merino C, F. J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santander C, L. E., E-mail: francisco.merino@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km 7.5, Col. Dos Bocas, 94271 Medellin, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    plates of Boral has not lost its ability to absorb neutrons, using proven methods like Badger or similar. (Author)

  12. Farm characteristics and farmer perceptions associated with bovine tuberculosis incidents in areas of emerging endemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Brunton, L A; Ashton, A; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Goodchild, A V; Hinchliffe, S; Eglin, R D; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Enticott, G

    2016-07-01

    that had recently experienced a bTB incident were more likely to have implemented badger biosecurity in the previous year, but no more likely than control farms to have implemented cattle biosecurity. Case farmers felt significantly less likely to be influenced by government, vets or other farmers compared to those with no history of bTB. This suggests that alternative methods of engaging with farmers who have recently had a breakdown may need to be developed. PMID:27317326

  13. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    urbanization continues. Despite isolation of the monument from nearby natural areas, we recorded noteworthy species or observations for all taxonomic groups: * Plants: night-blooming cereus * Amphibians: high abundance of Couch's spadefoot toads * Reptiles: high abundance of long-nosed snakes * Birds: 10 species of diurnal raptors including 4 species of falcons * Mammals: American badger This study is a first step in the process of compiling information about the biological resources of Casa Grande Ruins NM and surrounding areas. We recommend additional inventory and research studies, and we identify aspects of our effort that could be improved upon through application of new techniques or by extending the temporal (and possibly spatial) scope of our work.

  14. Effects of intensive harvesting on forest floor properties in Betula papyrifera stands in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates litter and organic matter production and related site ecology in nine medium to high quality Betula papyrifera stands in three locations in central Newfoundland on a variety of land form and drainage conditions. Three sites, Badger West (BW), Moose Pond (MP) and Middleton Lake (ML) were selected. The ML site has the highest quality (with the best height/age ratio, 18 m/60 yr, and height/DBH ratio, 18 m/30 cm), followed by MP and BW. Litter depth on well developed moders or mulls was usually 2 - 3 cm and varied from 1 - 15 cm. Forest floor depths (measured in 324 profiles) rarely reached 20 cm and was commonly 5 - 10 cm; it varied with position and site. Total and available nutrients indicate that B. papyrifera produces one of the highest-quality organic matter types of the local forest types and is important in improving site quality. The mean N-concentration in green foliage (2.21 %) and trapped litter (1.03 %) was highest at the best quality site ML, followed by MP and BW. The concentration of calcium, 0.85 %, was highest at the poorest quality site. Four years after harvesting, litter depth significantly decreased in all sites and treatments with the exception of the BW whole-tree harvest treatment. Total forest floor depth significantly decreased at all sites in the stem-only harvest treatment as well as the MP whole-tree harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available nitrogen following harvesting in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites. Change in available phosphorus was insignificant, with the exception of an increase in the MP stem-only harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available potassium at both the ML and BW whole-tree harvest treatments, but a significant increase in the stem-only harvest treatments at ML and MP. There was a significant decrease in available calcium in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites 34 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. 3c/4e [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding competes with ω-bonding in noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I): a NBO/NRT perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Li, Hong; Weinhold, Frank; Chen, Dezhan

    2016-03-01

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY are frequently described as a single ionic form (H-Ng)(+)Y(-). We apply natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural resonance theory (NRT) analyses to a series of noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I) to gain quantitative insight into the resonance bonding of these hypervalent molecules. We find that each of the studied species should be better represented as a resonance hybrid of three leading resonance structures, namely, H-Ng(+ -):Y (I), H:(- +)Ng-Y (II), and H^Y (III), in which the "ω-bonded" structures I and II arise from the complementary donor-acceptor interactions nY → σ*HNg and nH → σ*NgY, while the "long-bond" ([small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type) structure III arises from the nNg → [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]*HY/[small sigma, Greek, circumflex]HY interaction. The bonding for all of the studied molecules can be well described in terms of the continuously variable resonance weightings of 3c/4e ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding motifs. Furthermore, we find that the calculated bond orders satisfy a generalized form of "conservation of bond order" that incorporates both ω-bonding and long-bonding contributions [viz., (bHNg + bNgY) + bHY = bω-bonding + blong-bonding = 1]. Such "conservation" throughout the title series implies a competitive relationship between ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding, whose variations are found to depend in a chemically reasonable manner on the electronegativity of Y and the outer valence-shell character of the central Ng atom. The calculated bond orders are also found to exhibit chemically reasonable correlations with bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and bond dissociation energies, in accord with Badger's rule and related empirical relationships. Overall, the results provide electronic principles and chemical insight that may prove useful in the rational design of noble-gas hydrides of

  16. On the origin of donor O–H bond weakening in phenol-water complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Pujarini; Mukhopadhyay, Deb Pratim; Chakraborty, Tapas, E-mail: pctc@iacs.res.in [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-11-28

    Matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy has been used to investigate intermolecular interactions in a series of binary O–H⋯O hydrogen bonded phenol-water complexes where water is the common acceptor. The interaction at the binding site has been tuned by incorporating multiple fluorine substitutions at different aromatic ring sites of the phenol moiety. The spectral effects for the aforesaid chemical changes are manifested in the infrared spectra of the complexes as systematic increase in spectral shift of the phenolic O–H stretching fundamental (Δν{sub O–H}). While ν{sub O–H} bands of the monomers of all the fluorophenols appear within a very narrow frequency range, the increase in Δν{sub O–H} of the complexes from phenol to pentafluorophenol is very large, nearly 90%. The observed values of Δν{sub O–H} do not show a linear correlation with the total binding energies (ΔE{sub b}) of the complexes, expected according to Badger-Bauer rule. However, in the same Δν{sub O–H} vs ΔE{sub b} plot, nice linear correlations are revealed if the complexes of ortho-fluorophenols are treated separately from their meta/para-substituted analogues. The observations imply that in spite of having the same binding site (O–H⋯O) and the same chemical identities (phenolic), the complexes of ortho and non-ortho fluorophenols do not belong, from the viewpoint of detailed molecular interactions, to a homologous series. Linear correlations of Δν{sub O–H} are, however, observed with respect to the electrostatic component of ΔE{sub b} as well as the quantum mechanical charge transfer interaction energy (E{sub CT}). From quantitative viewpoint, the latter correlation along with the associated electronic structure parameters appears more satisfactory. It has also been noted that the observed Δν{sub O–H} values of the complexes display a linear relationship with the aqueous phase pK{sub a} values of the respective phenol derivatives.

  17. Bony labyrinth shape variation in extant Carnivora: a case study of Musteloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohé, Camille; Tseng, Z Jack; Lebrun, Renaud; Boistel, Renaud; Flynn, John J

    2016-03-01

    The bony labyrinth provides a proxy for the morphology of the inner ear, a primary cognitive organ involved in hearing, body perception in space, and balance in vertebrates. Bony labyrinth shape variations often are attributed to phylogenetic and ecological factors. Here we use three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics to examine the phylogenetic and ecological patterns of variation in the bony labyrinth morphology of the most species-rich and ecologically diversified traditionally recognized superfamily of Carnivora, the Musteloidea (e.g. weasels, otters, badgers, red panda, skunks, raccoons, coatis). We scanned the basicrania of specimens belonging to 31 species using high-resolution X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT) to virtually reconstruct 3D models of the bony labyrinths. Labyrinth morphology is captured by a set of six fixed landmarks on the vestibular and cochlear systems, and 120 sliding semilandmarks, slid at the center of the semicircular canals and the cochlea. We found that the morphology of this sensory structure is not significantly influenced by bony labyrinth size, in comparisons across all musteloids or in any of the individual traditionally recognized families (Mephitidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae). PCA (principal components analysis) of shape data revealed that bony labyrinth morphology is clearly distinguishable between musteloid families, and permutation tests of the Kmult statistic confirmed that the bony labyrinth shows a phylogenetic signal in musteloids and in most mustelids. Both the vestibular and cochlear regions display morphological differences among the musteloids sampled, associated with the size and curvature of the semicircular canals, angles between canals, presence or absence of a secondary common crus, degree of lateral compression of the vestibule, orientation of the cochlea relative to the semicircular canals, proportions of the cochlea, and degree of curvature of its turns. We detected a significant ecological signal

  18. Surveys of mammal populations in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Tierp. A pilot study 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Hammarstroem, Angelica; Wallin, Kjell [Svensk Viltfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    larger ditches. The methods have been evaluated and should all be used next year with minor changes. Some of the basic data presented in the report are as follows: Moose were unevenly distributed in a 480/km{sup 2} area along the coast (mean density 7.2 moose/10 km{sup 2} ). No red deer was fund while roe deer density varied between 13 deer/10 km{sup 2} (Tierp) and 59 deer/10 km{sup 2} (Forsmark). Hare density in the fields were between 2.5 hares/10 km{sup 2} (Control area) and 3.4 hares/10 km{sup 2} (Tierp) while in the forest density varied between 0.2 hares/10 km{sup 2} (Tierp) and 4.4 hares/10 km{sup 2} (Forsmark) Red listed species like wolf and otter are present in the areas, although in low numbers. No wolf tracks were found, but a few individuals were observed elsewhere in the region during the winter. As indicated by track indexes, red fox and marten are common predators in all three areas. Lynx is present, but at low numbers (0.2 lynx/10 km{sup 2} ). Occasional tracks of wild boar were found in the transects. Based on the results from this pilot study, we suggest some modification of the methods and additional methods for density estimates (for example using capture-recapture techniques of fox and badger)

  19. Surveys of mammal populations in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Tierp. A pilot study 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    larger ditches. The methods have been evaluated and should all be used next year with minor changes. Some of the basic data presented in the report are as follows: Moose were unevenly distributed in a 480/km2 area along the coast (mean density 7.2 moose/10 km2 ). No red deer was fund while roe deer density varied between 13 deer/10 km2 (Tierp) and 59 deer/10 km2 (Forsmark). Hare density in the fields were between 2.5 hares/10 km2 (Control area) and 3.4 hares/10 km2 (Tierp) while in the forest density varied between 0.2 hares/10 km2 (Tierp) and 4.4 hares/10 km2 (Forsmark) Red listed species like wolf and otter are present in the areas, although in low numbers. No wolf tracks were found, but a few individuals were observed elsewhere in the region during the winter. As indicated by track indexes, red fox and marten are common predators in all three areas. Lynx is present, but at low numbers (0.2 lynx/10 km2 ). Occasional tracks of wild boar were found in the transects. Based on the results from this pilot study, we suggest some modification of the methods and additional methods for density estimates (for example using capture-recapture techniques of fox and badger)

  20. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the

  1. Radiation exposure and dose to small mammals in radon-rich soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of the environment from radionuclide releases requires knowledge of the normal background levels of radiation exposure in the exposed biotic community and an estimate of the detriment caused by additional exposure. This study modeled the background exposure and dose to the lungs of small burrowing mammals from 222Rn in artificial burrows in radon-rich soils at a site in southeastern Manitoba. E-PERM chambers used to measure 222Rn in soil showed good reproducibility of measurement, with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of about 10%. Geometric mean (GM) 222Rn concentrations at nine randomly selected sites ranged from 5,490 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.57, n = 7) to 41,000 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.02, n = 5). Long-term monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in artificial burrows showed large variation within and between burrows and did not show consistent variation with season, orientation of the burrow opening, or levels of 226Ra in the soil. Annual GM concentrations in individual burrows ranged from 7,480 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.60) to 18,930 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.81) in burrows several meters apart. A grand GM of 9,990 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.81, n = 214) was measured over the site for the year. An exposure model was constructed for five small mammal species based on their respiration rates and the number of hours spent in the burrow, active or hibernating, exposed to soil gas 222Rn, and the time spent out of the burrow exposed to atmospheric 222Rn. A background dose of 0.9 mGy/a from atmospheric 222Rn (40 Bq/m3) was estimated for a large-bodied (80 kg), nonburrowing animal living on the soil surface. The highest exposures (mJ/a) in burrowing mammals occurred in those species with the highest respiration rates. Hibernation accounted for a small fraction of total annual exposure (22Rn concentrations from the field studies and an equilibrium factor (F) of 0.5, doses to lung ranged from 90 mGy/a in the badger to 700 mGy/a in the pocket gopher. These doses closely correspond to those estimated from

  2. Non-native fish control below Glen Canyon Dam - Report from a structured decision-making project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Bean, Ellen; Smith, David; Kokos, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    of objectives, with the values of individual agencies and tribes deliberately preserved. Trout removal strategies aimed at the Paria to Badger Rapid reach (PBR), with a variety of permutations in deference to cultural values, and with backup removal at the Little Colorado River reach (LCR) if necessary, were identified as top-ranking portfolios for all agencies and Tribes. These PBR/LCR removal portfolios outperformed LCR-only removal portfolios, for cultural reasons and for effectiveness - the probability of keeping the humpback chub population above a desired threshold was estimated to be higher under the PBR/LCR portfolios than the LCR-only portfolios. The PBR/LCR removal portfolios also outperformed portfolios based on flow manipulations, primarily because of the effect of sport fishery and wilderness recreation objectives, as well as cultural objectives. The preference for the PBR/LCR removal portfolios was quite robust to variation in the objective weights and to uncertainty about the underlying dynamics, at least over the ranges of uncertainty investigated. Examination of the effect of uncertainty on the recommended outcomes allowed us to complete a 'value of information' analysis. The results of this analysis led to an adaptive strategy that includes three possible long-term management actions (no action; LCR removal; or PBR removal) and seeks to reduce uncertainty about the following two issues: the degree to which rainbow trout limit chub populations, and the effectiveness of PBR removal to reduce trout emigration downstream into Marble and eastern Grand Canyons, where the largest population of humpback chub exist. In the face of uncertainty about the effectiveness of PBR removal, a case might be made for including flow manipulations in an adaptive strategy, but formal analysis of this case was not conducted. The full set of conclusions described above is not definitive, however. This analysis described in this report is a simplified depiction of the t

  3. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    . Other lands include about 13 sections of Arizona State land, about ? of a section of private land along House Rock Wash, and about 1? sections of private land at Cliff Dwellers Lodge, Vermilion Cliffs Lodge, and Marble Canyon, Arizona. Landmark features within the map area include the Vermilion Cliffs, Paria Plateau, Marble Canyon, and House Rock Valley. Surface drainage in House Rock Valley is to the east toward the Colorado River in Marble Canyon. Large tributaries of Marble Canyon from north to south include Badger Canyon, Soap Creek, Rider Canyon, North Canyon, Bedrock Canyon, and South Canyon. Elevations range from about 2,875 ft (876 m) at the Colorado River in the southeast corner of the map to approximately 7,355 ft (2,224 m) on the east rim of Paria Plateau along the north-central edge of the map area. Three small settlements are in the map area along U.S. Highway 89A, Cliff Dwellers Lodge, Vermilion Cliffs Lodge, and Marble Canyon, Arizona. The community of Jacob Lake is about 9 mi (14.5 km) west of House Rock Valley on the Kaibab Plateau. Lees Ferry is 5 mi (8 km) north of Marble Canyon and marks the confluence of the Paria and Colorado Rivers and the beginning of Marble Canyon. U.S. Highway 89A provides access to the northern part of the map area. Dirt roads lead south into House Rock Valley from U.S. Highway 89A and are collectively maintained by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. National Forest Service, and the Grand Canyon Trust. House Rock Valley is one of the few remaining areas where uniform geologic mapping is needed for connectivity to the regional Grand Canyon geologic framework. This information is useful to Federal and State resource managers who direct environmental and land management programs that encompass such issues as range management, biological studies, flood control, water, and mineral-resource investigations. The geologic information will support future and ongoing geologic investigations and scientific studies