Sample records for baddeleyite

  1. Boronized steels with corundum-baddeleyite coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny


    Full Text Available The paper describes preparation and properties of anti-corrosion and anti-abrasive coatings from corundum-baddeleyite ceramics deposited on surface of low-carbon boronized steel S235JRH-1.0038 (EN 10025-1 by plasma spraying method. Adhesive interlayers Fe2B reaches bond strength of up to 20 MPa in the pull-off tests, the ZrO2 - Al2O3 - SiO2 coatings have a value of fracture adhesion of 4 - 6 MPa. Hardness of these ceramic coatings on steel is as high as 1 800 HV100 and its polarization resistance is 1 600 Ω/cm2 to 4 000 Ω/cm2.

  2. Characterizing the U-Pb systematics of baddeleyite through chemical abrasion: application of multi-step digestion methods to baddeleyite geochronology (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Bowring, Samuel; Dudás, Frank; Hanson, Richard


    U-Pb baddeleyite geochronology has become a major tool for dating mafic rocks, especially dikes associated with Large Igneous Provinces. However, in many cases, post-crystallization Pb-loss and intergrowth of baddeleyite and zircon limit the precision and/or accuracy of crystallization ages. We present results from multi-step digestion experiments designed to understand and reduce these effects. Experiments were carried out on Neoproterozoic baddeleyites with zircon inter- and over-growths from the Gannakouriep dike swarm, Namibia, and on fragments of a large Paleoproterozoic baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa carbonatite, South Africa. Multi-step digestion experiments on annealed Phalaborwa baddeleyite were designed to test whether the recently developed chemical abrasion technique for U-Pb zircon geochronology can be applied to baddeleyite. The experiments generated complex results—individual digestion steps were both normally and reversely discordant suggesting that U and Pb were decoupled in the multi-step digestions—and indicate that the current form of multi-step chemical abrasion is not an effective method for reducing the impact of Pb-loss in baddeleyite. A separate set of experiments on the Gannakouriep baddeleyite focused on isolating the zircon and baddeleyite components in composite grains. Conventional single-step digestion experiments for this sample resulted in a discordant suite of analyses with significant scatter attributed to inter- and over-grown zircon and highlight the difficulty of obtaining precise and accurate ages from composite grains. To isolate the baddeleyite and zircon in these grains, a two-step HCl-HF chemical abrasion procedure for annealed grains was developed. This technique was successful at selectively dissolving the baddeleyite and zircon components. Secondary zircon inter- and over-growths of baddeleyite can occur in samples affected by low-temperature alteration to granulite facies metamorphism, and the new HCl-HF chemical

  3. Improved Methods for U/Pb Geochronology of Baddeleyite by LA-ICPMS (United States)

    Sylvester, P. J.; Souders, A. K.; Tubrett, M. N.


    The most popular mineral for uranium-lead geochronology is zircon (ZrSiO4) but for many rocks of interest, particularly those with basic to ultrabasic compositions, zircon is not present and baddeleyite (ZrO2) is the main alternative. Microbeam analyses by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA- ICPMS) are increasingly used for applications in the Earth sciences where high precision data are not required. However, while zircon geochronology by LA-ICPMS has expanded rapidly in use over the past decade, baddeleyite geochronology has lagged far behind. This has been due in part to the lack of well- characterized baddeleyite standard reference materials for microbeam analyses, but even more importantly, because of difficulties caused by severe and variable laser-induced Pb/U fractionation during ablation of spots in the mineral. We have compared the extent and consistency of time-dependent fractionation of Pb/U ratios in baddeleyite as a function of ablation conditions. All experiments were made using a Finnigan ELEMENT-XR magnetic sector ICPMS coupled to a GeoLas 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system. The baddeleyites studied included ca. 380 Ma Kovdor (Russia), ca. 1100 Ma Forest Center (Minnesota), and ca. 2060 Ma Phalaborwa (South Africa). Using a 40-micron spot, 3 J/cm2, and 5 Hz, the 206Pb/238U ratios in the baddeleyites show very large increases of approximately 80% over 150 pulses (30 sec) of ablation. In comparison 206Pb/238U ratios in zircon under the same ablation conditions increase by only approximately 15%. The spot to spot variability in the size of the Pb/U fractionation is also much greater in baddeleyite (approximately 10%RSD) than in zircon (approximately 2 to 3%RSD). This leads to imprecise and inaccurate ages for baddeleyite when using spot analyses even with matrix matched calibration standards. In contrast, by ablating with line scans, made with a 20 micron spot, and moved over the sample surface at 1 micron/sec at 5

  4. Shock Recovery and Heating Experiments on Baddeleyite: Implications for U-Pb Isotopic Systematics of Martian Meteorites (United States)

    Misawa, K.; Niihara, T.; Kaiden, H.; Sekine, T.; Mikouchi, T.


    Introduction: Radiometric ages of Martian meteorites, shergottites are generally young (i.e., ~165-475 Ma), and are in the late Amazonian chronostratigraphic unit [1]. Bouvier et al. [2-4] reported ~4.1-4.3 Ga old Pb-Pb ages for shergottites, and suggested that young Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Lu-Hf ages so far obtained were affected by alteration of phosphates, interaction with Martian subsurface fluids, or intense shock metamorphism. Baddeleyite (ZrO2) with apparently primary igneous morphology is an important phase in shergottites for U-Pb age determination. In order to investigate shock effects on U-Pb isotopic systematics of baddeleyite, we undertook shock recovery and heating experiments on baddeleyite. Experimental: We used coarse-grained baddeleyite from Phalaborwa for a starting material. The baddeleyite was mixed with a coarse-grained terrestrial basalt with a weight ratio of 1:2. Shock-recovery experiments were performed using a propellant gun at NIMS [5]. The run products were placed in a vertical gas-mixing furnace and heated for 1-3 h at 1000-1300oC under log fO2 of IW+2.5 at 105 Pa. Textures were observed by a scanning electron microprobe and Raman spectra of shocked baddeleyite were obtained. In situ U-Th-Pb isotopic analysis was carried out with the SHRIMP II at NIPR [6]. Results and Discussion: We observed Raman peak shifts of 2-4 cm-1 in the 34-57 GPa samples. Lead loss from baddeleyite was not observed for the experimentally shocked samples. In addition, the U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of shocked and heated baddeleyites are indistinguishable from those of unshocked baddeleyite within errors except minor lead loss from the baddeleyite shocked at 57 GPa and heated for 1 h at 1300oC. Although duration of peak shock-pressure and grain size of baddeleyite are different from the nature of basaltic shergottites, our experimental results suggest that it is hard to completely reset U-Pb isotopic systematics of baddeleyite in Martian meteorite by shock events below ~60

  5. Solving the Martian meteorite age conundrum using micro-baddeleyite and launch-generated zircon. (United States)

    Moser, D E; Chamberlain, K R; Tait, K T; Schmitt, A K; Darling, J R; Barker, I R; Hyde, B C


    Invaluable records of planetary dynamics and evolution can be recovered from the geochemical systematics of single meteorites. However, the interpreted ages of the ejected igneous crust of Mars differ by up to four billion years, a conundrum due in part to the difficulty of using geochemistry alone to distinguish between the ages of formation and the ages of the impact events that launched debris towards Earth. Here we solve the conundrum by combining in situ electron-beam nanostructural analyses and U-Pb (uranium-lead) isotopic measurements of the resistant micromineral baddeleyite (ZrO2) and host igneous minerals in the highly shock-metamorphosed shergottite Northwest Africa 5298 (ref. 8), which is a basaltic Martian meteorite. We establish that the micro-baddeleyite grains pre-date the launch event because they are shocked, cogenetic with host igneous minerals, and preserve primary igneous growth zoning. The grains least affected by shock disturbance, and which are rich in radiogenic Pb, date the basalt crystallization near the Martian surface to 187 ± 33 million years before present. Primitive, non-radiogenic Pb isotope compositions of the host minerals, common to most shergottites, do not help us to date the meteorite, instead indicating a magma source region that was fractionated more than four billion years ago to form a persistent reservoir so far unique to Mars. Local impact melting during ejection from Mars less than 22 ± 2 million years ago caused the growth of unshocked, launch-generated zircon and the partial disturbance of baddeleyite dates. We can thus confirm the presence of ancient, non-convecting mantle beneath young volcanic Mars, place an upper bound on the interplanetary travel time of the ejected Martian crust, and validate a new approach to the geochronology of the inner Solar System. PMID:23887429

  6. Geochemical features and age of baddeleyite from carbonatites of the Proterozoic Tiksheozero alkaline-ultramafic pluton, North Karelia (United States)

    Rodionov, N. V.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Simakin, S. G.; Sergeev, S. A.


    On the basis of the local composition, baddeleyite grains that were less altered due to interaction with an alkaline melt and corresponded to the primary stage of crystallization of the intrusion were selected from the carbonatite intrusion of the Proterozoic polyphase Tiksheozero alkaline-ultramafic complex. The single age of carbonatite crystallization characterized of the bulk volume of the intrusion was estimated for the first time on the basis of 40 local U-Th-Pb (SHRIMP II) analyses of these grains. The overall concordant age of baddeleyite is 1994.8 ± 9.4 Ma, and the lower age limit of the polyphase complex formation is less than 1998.4 ± 3.5 Ma.

  7. NanoSIMS 207Pb-206Pb dating of monazite, xenotime and baddeleyite (United States)

    Verdel, C.; Mahan, K.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J.; Wernicke, B.


    A variety of geochronological problems call for in-situ dating with high spatial resolution (i.e., scales of tens of microns or less). Such techniques are particularly important for studies that focus on the relationships between intracrystalline age variations and petrologic or diagenetic processes. Precise, in-situ geochronology of particularly small grains or domains (ca. 1-5 microns) may be feasible with the Cameca NanoSIMS ion microprobe, which has a spatial resolution as good as tens of nanometers and sufficient mass resolution at high transmission to be useful for geochronologic systems involving isotopes of trace elements. We have used the Cameca NanoSIMS 50L housed in the Caltech Microanalysis Center to determine 207Pb/206Pb ages of monazite, xenotime and baddeleyite standards ranging in age from ~500 to 2000 Ma. Initial efforts focused on Pb-Pb geochronology because it is analytically straightforward: Pb is ionized almost entirely to Pb+ and instrumental mass fractionation of Pb isotopes is negligible. We compare our results to previous age determinations made on these standards using TIMS, SHRIMP and electron microprobe techniques. Our NanoSIMS 207Pb/206Pb age of 2047±35 Ma (2σ) for a baddeleyite crystal from the Phalaborwa carbonatite overlaps with the previously determined TIMS and SHRIMP dates of ca. 2060 Ma. We measured an age of 1018±20 Ma on xenotime standard x6413, slightly older than the TIMS 207Pb/206Pb date of 996.7±0.8 Ma. For the high-Th Moacyr monazite standard, variations of common-Pb corrected ages and 206Pb/204Pb ratios for 5 measurements spanning ~100 microns suggest varying amounts of interference from a mass-204 isobar (probably doubly ionized ThNdO2). The single measurement least-affected by this isobar corresponds to a common-Pb corrected 207Pb/206Pb age of 489±92 Ma, within error of the electron microprobe chemical age of ca. 505 Ma. Spatial variation of the mass-204 isobar intensity suggests that Th may be distributed

  8. Variable microstructural response of baddeleyite to shock metamorphism in young basaltic shergottite NWA 5298 and improved U-Pb dating of Solar System events (United States)

    Darling, James R.; Moser, Desmond E.; Barker, Ivan R.; Tait, Kim T.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Hyde, Brendt C.


    The accurate dating of igneous and impact events is vital for the understanding of Solar System evolution, but has been hampered by limited knowledge of how shock metamorphism affects mineral and whole-rock isotopic systems used for geochronology. Baddeleyite (monoclinic ZrO2) is a refractory mineral chronometer of great potential to date these processes due to its widespread occurrence in achondrites and robust U-Pb isotopic systematics, but there is little understanding of shock-effects on this phase. Here we present new nano-structural measurements of baddeleyite grains in a thin-section of the highly-shocked basaltic shergottite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5298, using high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques, to investigate shock-effects and their linkage with U-Pb isotopic disturbance that has previously been documented by in-situ U-Pb isotopic analyses. The shock-altered state of originally igneous baddeleyite grains is highly variable across the thin-section and often within single grains. Analyzed grains range from those that preserve primary (magmatic) twinning and trace-element zonation (baddeleyite shock Group 1), to quasi-amorphous ZrO2 (Group 2) and to recrystallized micro-granular domains of baddeleyite (Group 3). These groups correlate closely with measured U-Pb isotope compositions. Primary igneous features in Group 1 baddeleyites (n = 5) are retained in high shock impedance grain environments, and an average of these grains yields a revised late-Amazonian magmatic crystallization age of 175 ± 30 Ma for this shergottite. The youngest U-Pb dates occur from Group 3 recrystallized nano- to micro-granular baddeleyite grains, indicating that it is post-shock heating and new mineral growth that drives much of the isotopic disturbance, rather than just shock deformation and phase transitions. Our data demonstrate that a systematic multi-stage microstructural evolution in

  9. Zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) (United States)

    Davies, Joshua; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Herve; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Schaltegger, Urs


    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are anomalously large volumes of dominantly mafic magma that erupted and intruded into the upper crust over short time scales. The origin of these volcanic provinces is very likely specific for each case, partly explained by plate tectonic processes or mantle plumes. Despite an ambivalent plate tectonic connection, there is a striking temporal correlation between the timing of LIPs and periods of mass extinction on Earth. However, establishing the relationship between these two is quite complicated since mass extinctions are typically recognised in the marine record, and LIPs are usually terrestrially emplaced. High precision geochronology of LIPs is essential to (i) establish the synchrony and infer the causal relationship with mass extinctions, and (ii) to understand how LIPs form. In this study, we apply high-precision zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb geochronology to rocks from the ~200 Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), in an attempt to reconstruct the overall timing of the event, its spatial distribution in time, and determine its relationship with the end-Triassic mass extinction. We also present Hf isotope data from the separated zircon and baddeleyite to both elucidate the origin of the LIP and also to determine if the magmas all originate from the same source. Our data suggest that the majority of the CAMP magmas were emplaced over a 0.5 Ma period from ~201.5 Ma to ~201.0 Ma with a possible small secondary event occurring much later at ~199 Ma. Spatially, it appears that CAMP magmatism occurred roughly simultaneously over the entire province (i.e. ~8000 Km North to South). However, the Hf isotopic composition varies over this length with the highest values (~5.5 ɛHf) occurring in a small area to the south of the province in Brazil and Sierra Leone. Towards the north, the ɛHf values become negative, indicating the presence of an older or more enriched component in the magmas. Our geochronology also indicates that CAMP

  10. The onset of flood basalt volcanism, Northern Paraná Basin, Brazil: A precise U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon age for a Chapecó-type dacite (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Freitas, Vivian Azor; Heaman, Larry H.


    We report the first U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon date for a felsic volcanic rock from the Paraná Large Igneous Province in south Brazil. The new date of 134.3 ± 0.8 Ma for a hypocrystalline Chapecó-type dacite from Ourinhos (northern Paraná basin) is an important regional time marker for the onset of flood basalt volcanism in the northern and western portion of the province. The dated dacite was erupted onto basement rocks and is overlain by a high-Ti basalt sequence, interpreted to be correlative with Pitanga basalts elsewhere. This new U-Pb date for the Ourinhos dacite is consistent with the local stratigraphy being slightly older than the few reliable step-heating 40Ar/39Ar dates currently available for overlying high-Ti basalts (133.6-131.5 Ma). This indicates an ~ 3 Ma time span for the building of the voluminous high-Ti lava sequence of the Paraná basin. On the other hand, it overlaps the 40Ar/39Ar dates (134.8-134.1 Ma) available for the stratigraphically older low-Ti basalt (Gramado + Esmeralda types) and dacite-rhyolite (Palmas type) sequences from South Brazil, which is consistent with the short-lived character of this volcanism and its rapid succession by the high-Ti sequence.

  11. Lifetime of an ocean island volcano feeder zone: constraints from U-Pb dating on coexisting zircon and baddeleyite, and 40/39Ar age determinations, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands (United States)

    Allibon, James; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bussy, Francois; Cosca, Michael; Schaltegger, Urs; Bussien, Denise; Lewin, Eric


    High-precision isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages from the PX1 vertically layered mafic intrusion Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, indicate initiation of magma crystallization at 22.10 ± 0.07 Ma. The magmatic activity lasted a minimum of 0.52 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar amphibole dating yielded ages from 21.9 ± 0.6 to 21.8 ± 0.3, identical within errors to the U-Pb ages, despite the expected 1% theoretical bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates. This overlap could result from (i) rapid cooling of the intrusion (i.e., less than the 0.3 to 0.6 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age uncertainties) from closure temperatures (Tc) of zircon (699-988 °C) to amphibole (500-600 °C); (ii) lead loss affecting the youngest zircons; or (iii) excess argon shifting the plateau ages towards older values. The combination of the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb datasets implies that the maximum amount of time PX1 intrusion took to cool below amphibole Tc is 0.8 Ma, suggesting PX1 lifetime of 520,000 to 800,000 Ma. Age disparities among coexisting baddeleyite and zircon (22.10 ± 0.07/0.08/0.15 Ma and 21.58 ± 0.15/0.16/0.31 Ma) in a gabbro sample from the pluton margin suggest complex genetic relationships between phases. Baddeleyite is found preserved in plagioclase cores and crystallized early from low silica activity magma. Zircon crystallized later in a higher silica activity environment and is found in secondary scapolite and is found close to calcite veins, in secondary scapolite that recrystallised from plagioclase. close to calcite veins. Oxygen isotope δ18O values of altered plagioclase are high (+7.7), indicating interaction with fluids derived from host-rock carbonatites. The coexistence of baddeleyite and zircon is ascribed to interaction of the PX1 gabbro with CO2-rich carbonatite-derived fluids released during contact metamorphism.

  12. Exploring the pre-eruptive history of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the link with the end Triassic extinction using high precision U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite geochronology (United States)

    Davies, Joshua; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Schaltegger, Urs


    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is a massive outpouring of basaltic lava, dykes and sills that was predominantly emplaced into the Triassic-Jurassic basins of North and South America, Europe and Africa. These basins were, at the time, in the center of the paleo-supercontinent Pangea, and the CAMP flood basalts are associated with Pangea's break-up and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The global climatic and environmental impact of the basalt eruption has been temporally linked with the end-Triassic mass extinction, although the extinction horizon, defined by a carbon isotope excursion, is stratigraphically below the first basaltic flows in all of the currently identified basins. Therefore, if the extinction is related to the CAMP, it must be related to a process that occurred before the eruption of the first basalt flow, or is co-incident with a currently unidentified older basalt flow. Here we present high precision TIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology on zircons from the North Mountain basalt (NMB) in the Fundy basin, Canada, and also baddeleyite from the Foum Zuid dyke (FZD) in the Anti-Atlas, Morocco. The NMB zircons have been separated from the lowermost accessible basalt flow of the NMB sequence in a coarse-grained section, rather than from a felsic residual melt pod, which is the usual target for zircon geochronology in basalts. The baddeleyites from the FZD were also separated from a coarse-grained section of the dyke. The zircons and baddeleyites from the NMB and FZD samples contain an antecrystic population with ages more than 1 Ma older than the emplacement of the basalts. The U-Pb ages presented here suggest that there was magmatic activity relating to the CAMP before the eruption of the first basalts. There are a number of possible explanations for the old zircons 1) recycling of zircon from earlier phases of magmatism, which then would have to have been re-molten and entrained into the NMB and FZD magmas. 2) Recycling of crystal mush from

  13. Rift magmatism on the Eurasia basin margin: U–Pb baddeleyite ages of alkaline dyke swarms in North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórarinsson, Sigurjón B.; Söderlund, Ulf; Døssing, Arne; Holm, Paul M.; Ernst, Richard E.; Tegner, Christian


    The opening of the Arctic Ocean involved multiple stages of continental rifting and intrusion of extensive dyke swarms. To trace tectonomagmatic processes of the High Arctic, we present the first U–Pb ages for alkaline dyke swarms of North Greenland. Concordia ages of 80.8 ± 0.6 and 82.1 ± 1.5 Ma...

  14. Age of carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism of the Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, S.C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Bernard Price Inst. of Geophysical Research)


    The Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa) has been dated by U-Pb analysis of uranothorianite and baddeleyite yielding an age of 2047 + 11/-8 Ma for carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism. Baddeleyite yields an age comparable to the age determined on uranothorianite and provides a reliable age indicator. Ages of carbonatite and silicate magmatism cannot be resolved as different events. Confirmation of K-rich alkaline magmas produced in the mantle as early as 2047 Ma suggests that significant chemical heterogeneities existed prior to 2000 Ma.

  15. Age of carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism of the Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa) has been dated by U-Pb analysis of uranothorianite and baddeleyite yielding an age of 2047 + 11/-8 Ma for carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism. Baddeleyite yields an age comparable to the age determined on uranothorianite and provides a reliable age indicator. Ages of carbonatite and silicate magmatism cannot be resolved as different events. Confirmation of K-rich alkaline magmas produced in the mantle as early as 2047 Ma suggests that significant chemical heterogeneities existed prior to 2000 Ma. (Auth.)

  16. High-pressure behavior of nano titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif; Jiang, Jianzhong


    Nanocrystalline rutile Titanium dioxide has been studied by X-ray diffraction at ambient temperature up to 47.4 GPa. The material is found to transform to the monoclinic baddeleyite structure between 20 and 30 GPa, which is higher than the corresponding pressure range for bulk material. Upon...

  17. High-pressure behavior of nano titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif; Jiang, Jianzhong


    Nanocrystalline rutile Titanium dioxide has been studied by X-ray diffraction at ambient temperature up to 47.4 GPa. The material is found to transform to the monoclinic baddeleyite structure between 20 and 30 GPa, which is higher than the corresponding pressure range for bulk material. Upon deco...

  18. On the rutile alpha-PbO"2-type phase boundary of TiO"2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif; Jiang, Jianzhong


    with increasing temperature at about 6GPa and 850^oC. For nanophase material, the phase boundary is shifted towards lower pressure. The room-temperature bulk moduli are 210(120)GPa, 258(8)GPa and 290(20)GPa for rutile, the alpha-PbO"2-type phase and the baddeleyite-type phase, respectively....

  19. Stability of rutile-type TiO sub 2 under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, T


    The high-pressure phases of TiO sub 2 have been investigated theoretically on the basis of first-principles density functional theory. Both the equation of states of the low-pressure phase and the structural phase transitions (the rutile-to-alpha-PbO sub 2 -type and alpha-PbO sub 2 -to-baddeleyite transitions) were successfully explained in agreement with previous experiments. The calculation suggests the possibility that the high-pressure phase next to the baddeleyite phase does not have the brookite structure, which has been observed in ZrO sub 2 and HfO sub 2. Furthermore, the stability of the low-pressure phases in TiO sub 2 was discussed on the basis of the atomic electronic structure.

  20. Uranium prospecting in alkaline mountain chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre - Minas Gerais, Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurence of radioactive minerals such as apatite and pyrochlore, in the alkaline chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is discussed. Also mentioned are other minerals of interest associated with the alkaline magma such as columbite, fluorite, monazite, zircon, baddeleyite, etc, which in favourable conditions may occur in deposits of great economical value, and which may present high contents of rare earths, thorium and uranium

  1. The Palabora complex - triumph over low grade ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial mining complex at Phalaborwa in the north east Transvaal of South Africa is an important source of copper, phosphate, vermiculite, baddeleyite, precious and radioactive metals (U and Th from uranothorianite) and other raw materials for the country's domestic needs as well as for the export market. This article reviews the development of this unique mineral resource from the geological, technological, and commercial aspects. (author)

  2. High-pressure polymorphs of anatase TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlt, T.; Bermejo, M.; Blanco, M. A.;


    The equation of state of anatase TiO2 has been determined experimentally-using polycrystalline as well as single-crystal material-and compared with theoretical calculations using the ab initio perturbed ion model. The results are highly consistent, the zero-pressure bulk modulus being 179(2) GPa...... from experiment and 189 GPa from theory. Single-crystal tetragonal anatase transforms to the orthorhombic alpha-PbO2 structure at about 4.5 GPa. This transition is suppressed in the polycrystalline material at room temperature, probably due to the presence of grain boundaries and other crystal defects....... Polycrystalline anatase is found to transform to the monoclinic baddeleyite structure at about 13 GPa. Upon decompression, the baddeleyite phase transforms to the alpha-PbO2 phase at about 7 GPa. The experimental zero-pressure bulk moduli an 258(8) GPa for the alpha-PbO2 phase and 290(10) GPa for the baddeleyite...

  3. In situ determination of U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Phalaborwa carbonatite Complex, South Africa (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yang, Yue-Heng; Li, Qiu-Li; Mitchell, Roger H.; Dawson, J. Barry; Brandl, Günther; Yuhara, Masaki


    The Phalaborwa carbonatite Complex, situated in the northeastern part of South Africa, is characterized by copper and zirconium mineralization, and is composed principally of pyroxenites, phoscorite and carbonatite (banded and transgressive). The complex is transected by mafic dykes, and is geographically associated with a satellite syenite and minor granite intrusions. Zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb isotopic age determinations using CAMECA 1280 secondary ion mass spectrometry have shown that the outer pegmatitic pyroxenite at the Loolekop pipe was emplaced at 2060 ± 4 Ma, and the main phoscorite at 2062 ± 2 Ma. Both ages are identical to those of 2060 ± 2 and 2060 ± 1 Ma for the banded and transgressive carbonatites, respectively. The satellite syenite, which forms plug-like bodies outside of the border of the main complex, and the later mafic dyke have “similar” emplacement ages of 2068 ± 17 and 2062 ± 53 Ma, indicating that these intrusions were apparently near-synchronously emplaced. In contrast to other carbonatites, the Phalaborwa Complex is characterized by high initial Sr and low initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions. In situ isotopic analyses of apatite, calcite, zircon and baddeleyite indicate that the primary magma was derived from an enriched mantle. As the complex was emplaced slightly earlier at ~ 2060 Ma than the nearby mafic phase of the Bushveld Complex (~ 2055 Ma), it is proposed that the Phalaborwa carbonatite magmatism was triggered by the same mantle plume activity, which partially melted the overlying lithospheric mantle. This contribution also highlights that isotopic studies used to constrain the genesis of ancient igneous complexes should concentrate on minerals with low parent/daughter elemental ratios, such as apatite and calcite for Sr isotopes, and zircon and baddeleyite for Hf isotopes.

  4. Mineral chemistry of a zircon-bearing, composite, veined and metasomatised upper-mantle peridotite xenolith from kimberlite (United States)

    Dawson, J. B.; Hill, P. G.; Kinny, P. D.


    Zircon-bearing veins in a harzburgite xenolith from kimberlite have imposed Ca-metasomatism on the harzburgite wall rock, in addition to adding K, Fe, Ti and OH. The zircon, previously dated to have an age similar to that of the xenolith-hosting kimberlite, shows higher Y, Nb, Ba, REE, Th and U contents than other mantle-derived zircons. Peripheral alteration of the zircon to baddeleyite and zirconolite, and alteration of vein ilmenite to perovskite suggest reaction with an evolving carbonatitic kimberlite melt. The high Cr2O3 content (0.77 wt%) of the zirconolite extends the compositional range of terrestrial zirconolite.

  5. Rietveld analysis of ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were collected from three titanate waste forms - a calcine powder, a prototype ceramic without waste, and a ceramic containing 10 wt% JW-A simulated waste - and interpreted quantitatively using the Rietveld method. The calcine consisted of fluorite, pyrochlore, rutile, and amorphous material. The prototype waste form contained rutile, hollandite, zirconolite and perovskite. The phase constitution of the JW-A ceramic was freudenbergite, loveringite, hollandite, zirconolite, perovskite and baddeleyite. Procedures for the collection of X-ray data are described, as are assumptions inherent in the Rietveld approach. A selection of refined crystal data are presented

  6. A new allotropic form of carbon from the ries crater. (United States)

    Goresy, A E; Donnay, G


    A new allotropic form of carbon occurs in shock-fused graphite gneisses in the Ries Crater, Bavaria. The assemblage in which it occurs consists of hexagonal graphite, rutile, pseudobrookite, magnetite, nickeliferous pyrrhotite, and baddeleyite. Electron-probe analyses indicate that the new phase is pure carbon. It is opaque and much more strongly reflecting than hexagonal graphite. Measurement of x-ray diffraction powder patterns leads to cell dimensions a = 8.948 +/- 0.009, c = 14.078 +/- 0.017 angstroms, with a primitive hexagonal lattice. PMID:17776738

  7. Peculiarities of accessory zircon from the carter seamount tuffs (Sierra Leone Rise in the East Atlantic) (United States)

    Petrova, V. V.; Skolotnev, S. G.; Chistyakova, N. I.


    In volcanic tuffs, dredged during Cruise 23 of the R/V Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov, accessory zircon was found; except for the mineral-forming components, there were ˜2% of ThO2 and 0.75% of Ce2O3 in zircon. During rapid uplift of magmatic masses to the ocean bottom surface, admixture elements isolated into specific minerals. As a result, destruction structures were formed in the rim parts of primary zircon crystals, and the new-formed association of zircon + thorite + cerite + thoriante + baddeleyite appeared.

  8. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.


    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  9. Pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism in one-dimensional single crystal TiO2 nanomaterials


    Li, Quanjun; Bingbing LIU; Wang, Lin; Li, Dongmei; LIU, RAN; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Zou, Guangtian; Meng, Yue; Mao, Ho-kwang; Liu, Zhenxian; Jing LIU; Li, Jixue


    The structural phase transitions of single crystal TiO2-B nanoribbons were investigated in-situ at high-pressure using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction and the Raman scattering. Our results have shown a pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) occurred in TiO2-B nanoribbons upon compression, resulting in a high density amorphous (HDA) form related to the baddeleyite structure. Upon decompression, the HDA form transforms to a low density amorphous (LDA) form while the samples still maintain their...

  10. Activity of Transition Metal Sulfides Supported on Al2O3,


    Kaluža, L. (Luděk)


    Sulfided conventional transition metals Co, Ni, Mo, and W and noble metals Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt, and Re deposited over conventional support c-Al2O3 (SBET = 262 m2g-1), and unconventional supports TiO2 (anatase, SBET = 140 m2- g-1) and ZrO2 (baddeleyite, SBET = 108 m2g-1) were studied in the parallel hydrodesulfurization of 1-benzothiophene (HDS) and hydrogenation of 1-methylcyclohex- 1-ene (o-HYD) at 360 Cand 1.6 MPa. Mo, W, Co, and Ni sulfided catalysts exhibited relatively low activity in bot...

  11. Early paleozoic magmatism of Sette-Daban (South Verkhoyansk, South-East Yakutia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic dating of two magmatic bodies in the Sette-Daban ridge area located in the south-east of Yakutia was made to study manifestations of the Early Paleozoic magmatism in the area. By the method of uranium-lead dating in terms of baddeleyite the age of sill was determined to be 450 ± 12 mln. years, which can be interpreted as the upper limit of possible sill crystallization time. The results of samarium-neodymium dating of pyroxenite permitted determination of the age of the pyroxenite body crystallization (487 ± 29 mln. years) and the time of the last isotopic equilibrium between minerals in the rock

  12. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included

  13. Rietveld analysis of ceramic nuclear waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.J. [Univ. of South Australia, Ingle Farm (Australia); Mitamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were collected from three titanate waste forms - a calcine powder, a prototype ceramic without waste, and a ceramic containing 10 wt% JW-A simulated waste - and interpreted quantitatively using the Rietveld method. The calcine consisted of fluorite, pyrochlore, rutile, and amorphous material. The prototype waste form contained rutile, hollandite, zirconolite and perovskite. The phase constitution of the JW-A ceramic was freudenbergite, loveringite, hollandite, zirconolite, perovskite and baddeleyite. Procedures for the collection of X-ray data are described, as are assumptions inherent in the Rietveld approach. A selection of refined crystal data are presented.

  14. SIMS Pb/Pb dating of Zr-rich minerals in lunar meteorites Miller Range 05035 and LaPaz Icefield 02224:Implications for the petrogenesis of mare basalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSU; WeiBiao


    Miller Range (MIL) 05035 and LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02224 are unbrecciated lunar basalt meteorites. In this report, we studied their petrography and mineralogy and made in situ uranogenic Pb/Pb dating of Zr-rich minerals. Petrography and mineralogy of these two lunar meteorites are consistent with previous investigations. The zirconolite Pb/Pb age of MIL 05035 is 3851±8 Ma (2σ), in excellent agreement with previous reports. This age suggests that MIL 05035 could be paired with Asuka 881757, a low-Ti mare basalt meteorite. The magmatic event related to MIL 05035 was probably due to the late heavy impact bom- bardment on the moon around 3.9 Ga. One baddeleyite grain in LAP 02224 shows a large variation of Pb/Pb age, from 3109±29 to 3547±21 Ma (2σ), much older than the whole-rock age of the same meteorite (~3.02±0.03 Ga). The other baddeleyite grain in LAP 02224 has an age of 3005±17 Ma (2σ). The result indicates that the minimum crystallization age of LAP 02224 is ~3.55 Ga and the younger ages could reflect late thermal disturbance on U-Pb system.

  15. Superficial and electrochemical study of stainless steel 304l with an inhibitory protective coating (TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}); Estudio superficial y electroquimico de acero inoxidable 304L con una capa protectora inhibidora (TiO{sub 2} y ZrO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila N, M. L.; Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. R., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The degradation mechanisms in the boiling water reactors (BWR) have been an alert focus for owners, especially the cracking by stress corrosion cracking (SCC), therefore different techniques have been studied to inhibit this problem inside which is the water injection of hydrogen feeding (HWC, Hydrogen Water Chemistry), together with the noble metals injection (NMCA, Nobel Metal Chemical Addition) and the ceramic materials injection that form an inhibitory protective coating (Ipc). In this work the Ipc was simulated, for which were carried out hydro-thermals deposits starting from suspensions of 1000 ppm of zirconium oxide in its crystalline phase baddeleyite and titanium oxides in its anatase and rutile phases, on test tubes of stainless steel 304l previously rusty under simulated conditions of pressure and temperature of a BWR (288 C and 8 MPa). The superficial characterization was realized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive of X-ray and X-ray diffraction. The capacity to mitigate the corrosion was studied with the electrochemical technique of Tafel polarization (288 C and 8 MPa). The steel presents the formation of two oxide coatings formed by magnetite and hematite. The baddeleyite presents a deposit more thick and homogeneous it also presents the most negative electrochemical potential of corrosion, what indicates that it has the bigger capacity to mitigate the SCC. (Author)

  16. Purification of zirconium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial grade ZrO2 and an ammonium uranate (yellow cake) are obtained from the caldasito ore processing. This ore is found in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caldasito is an uranigerous zirconium ore, a mixture of zircon and baddeleyite and contains 60% ZrO2 and 0,3% U3O8. The chemical opening of the ore was made by alkaline fusion with NaOH at controlled temperature. The zirconium-uranium separation took place by a continuous liquid-liquid extraction in TBP-varsol-HNO3-H2O system. The raffinate containing zirconium + impurities (aluminium, iron and titanium) was purified by an ion exchange operation using a strong cationic resin

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of A Novel Bio Ceramic Composite in The Lime-Magnesia-Silica Ternary System With ZrO2 Additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ diopside-wollastonite-akermanite-baddeleyite (DWAB) as a new bio ceramic composite was developed in the lime-magnesia-silica system with zirconia additive. The processing and sintering were achieved via solid-state reaction. The raw materials we mixed, compacted and sintered at 1300°C for 2 h. Phase composition, macrostructure physical and mechanical properties of the produced sintered samples were determine Also, the in-vitro bioactivity of the sintered composite was investigated by the analysis of its apatite-formation ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF) using SEM-EE analysis. The results indicated that the composite possess high Vickers hardness ai fracture toughness of about 3 GPa and 2 MPa. m1/2, respectively. In addition, apatil forming ability of this composite was relatively found to be similar to wollastonite ai much faster than diopside and akermanite

  18. Formulation, testing, and structural characterization of high-zirconium high-level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of compositions of high-zirconia borosilicate glasses were formulated and their structures investigated by a combination of techniques. These compositions have potential applications for high-level nuclear waste storage in combination with advanced reprocessing methods. Raman and Zr EXAFS data were collected for a series of glasses spanning a range of zirconia concentrations. The Raman spectra indicate that Zr acts as a silicate network modifier, where the silicate tetrahedral network depolymerizes as the zirconia content increases. Zr EXAFS analysis indicates that Zr is found in octahedral sites, and to a minor extent, seven-coordinated sites. As the zirconia content increases, the fraction of seven-coordinated Zr-sites increases; this may be the cause of ZrO2 baddeleyite crystallization that was observed in some Zr-rich glasses investigated

  19. Assessment of exposures to ionizing radiation in industries and activities implementing raw materials which naturally contain radionuclides and which are not used because of their radioactive properties. Assessment of the 25. of May 2005 Order related to these activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an assessment of the exposure of workers and of population to reinforced natural radioactivity associated to some particular professional activities, i.e. activities where raw materials which are used, are naturally radioactive, for example: coal combustion in thermal power plants, ore processing (tin, aluminium, copper, titanium, niobium, bismuth, thorium), production of refractory ceramics, production or use of thorium compounds, zircon or baddeleyite production, and so on. After a presentation of the French national regulation, the report gives an assessment of its application through different measurements or surveys, notably dosimetry performed on workers or population exposure measurements, or some waste management activities. It discusses the evolution opportunities of this regulation, either in the French framework or at the European level

  20. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas (United States)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.


    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  1. The paleoproterozoic Monchetundra mafic massif (Kola Peninsula): New geological and geochronological data (United States)

    Borisenko, E. S.; Bayanova, T. B.; Nerovich, L. I.; Kunakkuzin, E. L.


    In view of the absence of an unambiguous intrusive contact between the main mafic rocks varieties in the Monchetundra massif, the latter was considered for a long time as a large complex of syngenetic mafic rocks. On the basis of data derived from study of the outcrops and drill core samples, researchers defined various numbers of zones characterized by certain rock types. The results of geological-petrographic investigations and data on the U-Pb system in zircon and baddeleyite provided grounds for revision of the views on the structure of the massif: at least four groups of different ages of mafic rocks are now definable in the Monchetundra massif. In this communication, we discuss the relations between two groups of mafic rocks and the results of their U-Pb isotopic dating, which imply a long multiphase formation of the massif.

  2. High-pressure synchrotron studies on TiO sub 2 -II nanocrystallite doped with SnO sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, W; Zou Guang Tian; Mao Ho Kwang; Wang, Z C; Wang, Y


    We have studied the high-pressure and high-temperature behaviour of alpha-PbO sub 2 -type TiO sub 2 -SnO sub 2 (5 mol%) nanocomposite up to 62.3 GPa and 1700 K in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell by means of synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction. We found that it transforms to the baddeleyite phase at 19.4 GPa at room temperature. This phase was stable up to about 40 GPa. At 62.3 GPa and 1700 K, the diffraction pattern showed that there exists another nonquenchable phase. We discussed the mechanisms for these high-pressure transformations in alpha-PbO sub 2 -type TiO sub 2 -SnO sub 2 (5 mol%) nanocomposite.

  3. Mineralogy, Petrology and Oxygen Fugacity of the LaPaz Icefield Lunar Basaltic Meteorites and the Origin of Evolved Lunar Basalts (United States)

    Collins, S. J.; Righter, K.; Brandon, A. D.


    LAP 02205 is a 1.2 kg lunar mare basalt meteorite found in the Lap Paz ice field of Antarctica in 2002 [1]. Four similar meteorites were also found within the same region [1] and all five have a combined mass of 1.9 kg (LAP 02224, LAP 02226, LAP 02436 and LAP 03632, hereafter called the LAP meteorites). The LAP meteorites all contain a similar texture, mineral assemblage, and composition. A lunar origin for these samples comes from O isotopic data for LAP 02205 [1], Fe/Mn ratios of pyroxenes [1-5], and the presence of distinct lunar mineralogy such as Fe metal and baddeleyite. The LAP meteorites may represent an area of the Moon, which has never been sampled by Apollo missions, or by other lunar meteorites. The data from this study will be used to compare the LAP meteorites to Apollo mare basalts and lunar basaltic meteorites, and will ultimately help to constrain their origin.

  4. A systematic evaluation of the Zr-in-rutile thermometer in ultra-high temperature (UHT) rocks (United States)

    Pape, Jonas; Mezger, Klaus; Robyr, Martin


    The Zr-in-rutile geothermometer is potentially a widely applicable tool to estimate peak metamorphic temperatures in rocks from diverse geological settings. In order to evaluate its usefulness and reliability to record and preserve high temperatures in granulite facies rocks, rutile from UHT rocks was investigated to assess different mechanisms of Zr (re-)distribution following cooling from high temperature. Granulite facies paragneisses from the lowermost part of the Ivrea Zone, Italy, incorporated as thin sheets into the extensive basaltic body of the Mafic Complex were selected for this study. The results show that Zr-in-rutile thermometry, if properly applied, is well suited to identify and study UHT terranes as it preserves a record of temperatures up to 1190 °C, although the thermometer is susceptible to partial post-peak metamorphic resetting by Zr diffusion. Texturally homogeneous rutile grains preserve Zr concentrations corresponding to temperatures of prograde rutile growth. Diverse rutile textures and relationships between some rutile host grains and included or adjacent Zr-bearing phases bear testimony to varying mechanisms of partial redistribution and resetting of Zr in rutile during cooling and link Zr-in-rutile temperatures to different steps of the metamorphic evolution. Rutile grains that equilibrated their Zr concentrations at temperatures above 1070 °C (i.e. 1.1 wt% Zr) could not retain all Zr in the rutile structure during cooling and exsolved baddeleyite (ZrO2). By subsequent reaction of baddeleyite exsolution lamellae with SiO2, zircon needles formed before the system finally closed at 650-700 °C without significant net loss of Zr from the whole host rutile grain. By reintegration of zircon exsolution needles, peak metamorphic temperatures of up to 1190 °C are derived for the studied rocks, which demonstrates the suitability of this solution thermometer to record UHT conditions and also confirms the extraordinary geological setting of the

  5. Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia. (United States)

    Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin


    This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes. PMID:10856011

  6. Determinations of major, minor and trace elements including U and Th in heavy minerals assemblage-zircon using ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study is a new approach for the sample solution preparation in analyzing Zircon, Baddeylite and other zirconium minerals using phosphate flux. Sample is fused with the mixture of NaHPO4 and Na2HPO4 in the ratio 1:1 (flux). Modifications in the procedures have been done depending upon the elements to be analyzed. The sample is fused directly with phosphate salts and the stable solution obtained is analyzed for about 30 elements (Si, Zr, Hf, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ba, V, Sc, Th, U and REEs) by ICP-AES. Otherwise, the sample is treated first with HF to remove silica then fused with phosphate salts. This flux is used for the rapid decomposition and dissolution of silicate minerals for the first time. In nature zirconium mainly occurs as silicate (e.g. Zircon) and oxide (e.g. Baddeleyite). Zircon chemistry is relatively simple and usually ZrO2, HfO2 and SiO2 compose more than 99% of the total oxides. Previous investigations have documented the presence of as many as 50 elements in zircon. Zircon is very useful mineral for industrial use, geochemical and petro-genetic works as well as provenance studies, whereas Baddeleyite is commonly used in industrial purposes. Zircon is one of the most chemically stable compounds, so, very aggressive reaction conditions are require to breakdown the strong binding between zirconium and silicon parts in the compound. It normally requires the analysis of Zr, Hf, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, V, Ba, Sc, U, Th, and REEs. Several fusion methods are used to decompose zircon, like, KHSO4, NaF-KHF2, Na2O2, and LiBO2. In most cases fuming is a must, involving evolution of SO3 fumes in the atmosphere. All the above procedures are multistep, lengthy and tedious. Moreover, Silica has to be analyzed separately

  7. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoproterozoic Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Jin; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Zhong, Hong; Ye, Xian-Tao; Fan, Hong-Peng


    Mafic-ultramafic dykes are important geological markers that can punctuate the onset of crustal extension during the breakup of a continent and provide valuable information on the mantle source. This study reports secondary ion mass spectroscopy zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb ages, elemental and Nd isotopic data for the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China. Two kinds of rocks are confirmed: the picritic rock and the dolerite. Based on petrographic and geochemical features, the dolerite dykes are further subdivided into two groups: Group I mafic and Group II mafic dykes, which emplaced at ~760 Ma (zircon U-Pb) and ~800 Ma (zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb), respectively. All samples from the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks show the features of high-Ti and alkaline basaltic magma in composition as well as "humped" trace element patterns, which are similar to those of typical alkaline basalts associated with continental rifts except for the slightly negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The Group II mafic rocks display the features of low-Ti and tholeiitic magma, moderately enriched in LILE and LREE, and characterized by distinctively negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The primary magmas of the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks were generated from ca 25 % partial melting of an OIB-like, Nd isotopically depleted but incompatible elements relatively enriched mantle source within a garnet stable field. The Group II mafic rocks crystallized from crustal contaminated mafic magmas that were derived from a spinel-bearing sub-continental lithospheric mantle source, because of low ratios of La/Yb, Ti/Y and Sm/Yb. Geochemical features suggest that these groups of mafic-ultramafic dykes were formed in a continental rift setting, but derived from different mantle sources. In combination with other Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western margin of Yangtze Block, it is suggested that the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area

  8. The Catanda extrusive carbonatites (Kwanza Sul, Angola): an example of explosive carbonatitic volcanism (United States)

    Campeny, Marc; Mangas, José; Melgarejo, Joan C.; Bambi, Aurora; Alfonso, Pura; Gernon, Thomas; Manuel, José


    Carbonatite lavas and pyroclastic rocks are exposed in the volcanic graben of Catanda and represent the only known example of extrusive carbonatites in Angola. A new detailed geological map of the area is presented in this study as well as six different stratigraphic sections. Pyroclastic rocks, apparently unwelded, are dominant in the area and represented in all the stratigraphic columns. They form shallowly to moderately inclined layers, mostly devoid of internal structures, that range in thickness from several centimetres to metres. They are dominantly lapilli tuffs and minor tuffs occasionally comprising pelletal lapilli. Based on their different features and field relationships, at least five different pyroclastic lithofacies have been distinguished in the area. Carbonatitic lavas outcrop in the external parts of the Catanda graben, forming coherent layers interbedded with pyroclastic rocks. Calcite is the most common mineral in the lavas, but other accessory minerals such as fluorapatite, titaniferous magnetite, phlogopite, pyrochlore, baddeleyite, monticellite, perovskite, cuspidine and periclase have also been identified. At least four different types of lavas have been distinguished based on their mineral associations and textural features. This study reveals an overall abundance of pyroclastic material in comparison to lava flows in the Catanda area, suggesting that eruptive processes were dominated by explosive activity similar to what has been described in other carbonatite and kimberlite localities. The Catanda carbonatitic volcanism was associated with monogenetic volcanic edifices with tuff ring or maar morphologies, and at least seven possible eruptive centres have been identified in the area.

  9. Partitioning of actinides, rare earth elements, and other trace elements in titanium-rich veins from Adamello, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive mineralogical and chemical studies have been carried out on the Ti-rich hydrothermal veins emplaced within the contact aureole of the Adamello batholith. In addition to other actinide and rare earth element host phases, the veins contain both zirconolite and betafite and provide information relevant to ceramic wasteforms designed for the disposal of actinide-rich nuclear wastes. In this paper, we describe the results of element partitioning studies based on dissolution experiments using 9M HCl. Generally, the acid-resistant minerals include allanite, baddeleyite, betafite, chalcopyrite, geikielite, titanite, spinel, and zirconolite. We also found that the major silicate minerals forsterite, phlogopite, and titanian clinohumite and the sulfide mineral pyrrhotite are partially dissolved by the acid treatment, whereas calcite and apatite are highly soluble (as expected). In particular, the distributions of Th and U between the acid-resistant and acid-soluble fractions indicate that they partition mainly between zirconolite, titanite, betafite, and apatite. However, there is a considerable increase in the amounts of Zr, Nb, Th, and U released in certain actinide-rich samples that may result from enhanced dissolution following radiation damage. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  10. New paleomagnetic data from 1.80-1.75 Ga mafic intrusions of Fennoscandia and Sarmatia: implications for the late Paleoproterozoic paleogeography of Baltica and Laurentia (United States)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Lubnina, Natalia; Sokolov, Svetoslav; Bogdanova, Svetlana


    A series of recently dated 1.78-1.75 Ga lamprophyre and shoshonite intrusions are exposed north of Ladoga Lake in southern Karelia (Fennoscandia). We carried out a paleomagnetic study of these intrusions and an additional study of the coeval gabbro-dolerite Ropruchey sill near the Onega Lake. All studied rocks carry a stable primary remanence supported by positive contact tests. We also studied 14 mafic dykes and 1 mafic sill from Ukrainian shield (Sarmatia). Most of these intrusions have been dated or re-dated recently by U-Pb (baddeleyite) method at 1.80-1.75 Ga. Ukrainian dykes also carry a consistent stable bipolar remanence. Two positive contact tests suggest that this remanence is primary. A comparison of new and previously published paleomagnetic data shows a significant difference between Fennoscandian and Sarmatian 1.80-1.75 Ga paleopoles. This implies that the final assemble of Baltica by docking of Volgo-Sarmatia and Fennoscandia occurred after 1.75 Ga. Consequently these two parts of Baltica should be considered as independent blocks in pre-1.75 Ga paleogeographic reconstructions. Using late Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia together with geological constraints we have built a new kinematic paleogeographic model for Laurentia and Baltica in the Statherian.

  11. The Paleoproterozoic APWP of the Kalahari Craton (United States)

    Gose, W. A.; Hanson, R. E.


    An apparent polar wander path for the Precambrian of the Kalahari craton, south Africa, still remains an elusive goal. This is not due to the lack of paleomagnetic data but rather the paucity or lack of age control. The need for radiometric ages became particularly clear when we were collecting dolerite dikes of the 1.1 Ga Umkondo suite in an attempt to delineate its areal extent. Seven dikes west of Pietersburg, South Africa, mapped as Umkondo dolerites, yielded a direction of magnetization distinctively different from the Umkondo direction. 300 km to the northeast in the Soutpansberg area, 5 dolerite sills and 3 basalt flows carry a direction antipodal to these dikes at the 1percent significance level. The combined data set has a pole position of 17.4°N, 17.2°E, with an error of A95=8.2°. One of the sampled dikes and two nearby dikes have U-Pb baddeleyite crystallization ages of 1871±1.2 Ma, 1873±0.8 Ma, and 1878±0.5 Ma (Hanson et al. 2004). These data provide an important pole position for defining the Paleoproterozoic segment of the Kalahari APWP. Our results do not support recent suggestions that the geomagnetic field was asymmetrical during the Precambrian. Hanson, R. E. et al., 2004, South African J. Geol., 107,233-254.

  12. U-Pb geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Neoproterozoic St Simeon dolerite dykes, Quebec: an eastern Laurentian perspective of Ediacaran Rodinia breakup (United States)

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Murphy, Brendan; Hamilton, Mike; Söderlund, Ulf; Hodych, Joseph


    The St Simeon (SS) mafic dykes (150 km NE of Quebec City) are now dated at 548 ± 1 Ma (U-Pb; baddeleyite). This age is similar to a published LA-ICPMS zircon age of 550 ± 7 Ma for the Mt. St-Anselme (MS) basalts, which supports previous inferences of (i) a genetic relationship between them, (ii) the pene-contemporaneity of OIB-type mafic magmatism in East Laurentia and (iii) the existence of two late Ediacaran plumes that attended the final breakup of Rodinia and opening of the Iapetus Ocean and Tornquist Sea. Both the SS dykes and the MS basalts were sampled for paleomagnetic study. The paleomagnetic pole for SS is similar to the previously published pole for coeval basalts (Skinner Cove, SC) from Newfoundland. Unlike SC, the St Simeon pole represents rocks which are unambiguously coherent tectonically with the Laurentian Craton. This new pole is also coeval with high quality poles from the Winter Coast (Baltica) and provides paleomagnetic constraints on the history of the final breakup of Rodinia and opening of Eastern Iapetus and Tornquist Sea.

  13. Geology and Age Constraints on the Origin of the Intrusion-Related, Sheeted Vein-Type Åkerberg Gold Deposit, Skellefte District, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Billström


    Full Text Available The Early Proterozoic (~1.9 Ga Skellefte mining district in northern Sweden hosts abundant base metal deposits, but there are also gold-only deposits. The Åkerberg gold ore is unusual given the noted lack of alteration, a scarcity of sulfides and gold associated with thin (mm-cm wide parallel quartz veins hosted in a gabbro. The gold content is positively correlated with the density of quartz veins, but gold often occurs between veins and also in parts of the gabbro where there is no veining. The gabbro is intruded by a granodiorite and associated pegmatite bodies, and U-Pb dating of zircon and baddeleyite suggest that these lithologies developed close in time at around 1.88 Ga ago. There are no primary inclusions in quartz veins, but different types of secondary aqueous inclusions occur. The Åkerberg ore is interpreted as a sheeted vein complex, with veins constrained to tensional cracks induced when a granodioritic magma intruded the competent, sheet-like gabbro intrusion. It is suggested that unmixing of the felsic magma also produced pegmatite bodies and a gel-like melt which invaded fractures in the gabbro and deposited silica. In a comparison, the Åkerberg ore shares many characteristics with the intrusion-related style of gold mineralizations.

  14. Aspects of the petrochemistry of the Phalaborwa complex, northeastern Transvaal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phalaborwa Complex, northeastern Transvaal, South Africa, consists of the main body of clinopyroxenites and subordinate phoscorite, carbonatite and syenite which is surrounded by numerous pipe-like bodies of syenitic compositions and rare clinopyroxenites. Clinopyroxenes from clinopyroxenites are characterized by Fe/(Fe+Mg) = 0.07-0.29, low TiO2 (0.00-0.25%), Al2O3 (0.00-1.63%), Na2O (0.00-1.06%), and Cr, and high Wo component and Sr. Minerals from carbonatites have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70393-0.70623 and 0.71022 and minerals from clinopyroxenites have values of 0.71152-0.71242. Small-scale inhomogeneities exist within samples. Post-crystallization processes can account for variations within samples, but cannot account for variations within a rock type or for raising initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of pyroxene from 0.7039 to 0.7115. Magmas forming pyroxenites and some carbonatites were generated in a high Rb/Sr mantle from isotopically distinct sources. U-Pb dating of uranothorianite and baddeleyite from phoscorite and carbonatite yields an age of 2047+11/-8 m.y. Rb-Sr dating of phlogopites gives widely disparate apparent ages. Multiple intrusion of the Phalaborwa Complex is proposed. Initial injection of potassic, probably ultrabasic, liquid formed the pyroxenites. A second intrusion of low-silica, carbonate-rich magma formed phoscorite and banded carbonatite

  15. The heavy-minerals plant at Palabora Mining Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy-minerals plant at the Palabora Mining Company treats 25 to 30 kt of new feed daily. The U3O8 value of the ore averages approximately 40 p.p.m. The circuit consists of four stages of upgrading on 68 Reichert cones, followed by a jig and 30 table decks. The paper describes how feed-distribution problems have been overcome and the methods used for monitoring and controlling the cone performance. The adaptation of a standard jig for the recovery of fine minerals is discussed, and a method of table agglomeration, for the recovery of coarse refractory copper sulphide is described. The tables consist of polyurethane-covered fibreglass decks, and their operation is controlled according to measurements of the uranothorianite content of the concentrates and middlings by means of a nuclear scintillation counter. The upgrading ratio of the uranium mineral by gravity concentration is 1000:1, baddeleyite (ZrO2) being recovered as a byproduct

  16. Heavy-minerals plant at Palabora Mining Company. A low-grade, high-tonnage gravity concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Spuy, R.C.M. (Palabora Mining Company Ltd., Phalaborwa (South Africa))


    The heavy-minerals plant at the Palabora Mining Company treats 25 to 30 kt of new feed daily. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ value of the ore averages approximately 40 p.p.m. The circuit consists of four stages of upgrading on 68 Reichert cones, followed by a jig and 30 table decks. The paper describes how feed-distribution problems have been overcome and the methods used for monitoring and controlling the cone performance. The adaptation of a standard jig for the recovery of fine minerals is discussed, and a method of table agglomeration, for the recovery of coarse refractory copper sulphide is described. The tables consist of polyurethane-covered fibreglass decks, and their operation is controlled according to measurements of the uranothorianite content of the concentrates and middlings by means of a nuclear scintillation counter. The upgrading ratio of the uranium mineral by gravity concentration is 1000:1, baddeleyite (ZrO/sub 2/) being recovered as a byproduct.

  17. Growth of epitaxial orthorhombic YO1.5-substituted HfO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YO1.5-substituted HfO2 thin films with various substitution amounts were grown on (100) YSZ substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method directly from the vapor phase. The epitaxial growth of film with different YO1.5 amounts was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction method. Wide-area reciprocal lattice mapping measurements were performed to clarify the crystal symmetry of films. The formed phases changed from low-symmetry monoclinic baddeleyite to high-symmetry tetragonal/cubic fluorite phases through an orthorhombic phase as the YO1.5 amount increased from 0 to 0.15. The additional annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates that the orthorhombic phase has polar structure. This means that the direct growth by vapor is of polar orthorhombic HfO2-based film. Moreover, high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the film with a YO1.5 amount of 0.07 with orthorhombic structure at room temperature only exhibited a structural phase transition to tetragonal phase above 450 °C. This temperature is much higher than the reported maximum temperature of 200 °C to obtain ferroelectricity as well as the expected temperature for real device application. The growth of epitaxial orthorhombic HfO2-based film helps clarify the nature of ferroelectricity in HfO2-based films (186 words/200 words)

  18. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Polyamorphism in One-Dimensional Single-Crystal TiO[subscript 2] Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Quanjun; Liu, Bingbing; Wang, Lin; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Ran; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Zou, Guangtian; Meng, Yue; Mao, Ho-kwang; Liu, Zhenxian; Liu, Jing; Li, Jixue (Jilin); (CIW); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)


    The structural phase transitions of single-crystal TiO{sub 2}-B nanoribbons were investigated in situ at high pressure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. Our results have shown a pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) occurred in TiO{sub 2}-B nanoribbons upon compression, resulting in a high-density amorphous (HDA) form related to the baddeleyite structure. Upon decompression, the HDA form transforms to a low-density amorphous (LDA) form, while the samples still maintain their pristine nanoribbon shape. A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image reveals that the LDA phase has an {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} structure with short-range order. We propose a homogeneous nucleation mechanism to explain the pressure-induced amorphous phase transition in the TiO{sub 2}-B nanoribbons. Our study demonstrates for the first time that PIA and polyamorphism occurred in the one-dimensional (1D) TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials and provides a new method for preparing 1D amorphous nanomaterials from crystalline nanomaterials.

  19. Accessory and opaque minerals in impact melt rocks of the Boltysh structure, Ukraine (United States)

    Gurov, E. P.; Shekhunova, S. B.; Permyakov, V. V.


    Electron microprobe analyses of accessory and opaque minerals from the impact melt rocks of the Boltysh structure, in the central part of the Ukrainian Shield, are presented in this report. Our study establishes a variety of minerals represented by native metals, alloys, oxides, sulfides, phosphates, and silicates, formed during several stages of cooling and solidification of the thick impact melt sheet. Baddeleyite was determined to be the earliest high-temperature mineral to occur in the impact melt rocks. Iron and titanium oxides crystallized earlier or simultaneously with the microliths of orthopyroxene and feldspars. High concentrations of TiO2, Al2O3, and Cr2O3 were identified in some hematite varieties. Cu- and Ni-bearing pyrrhotites occur in impact melt rocks with a glassy matrix. Native metals—copper, platinum, and silver—were likely formed due to the hydrothermal alteration of the upper unit of the impact melt sheet. Zircon is the only accessory mineral found in impact melt rocks that is preserved from the basement granites of the Boltysh structure.

  20. U-Pb zircon geochronology and evolution of some Adirondack meta-igneous rocks (United States)

    Mclelland, J. M.


    An update was presented of the recent U-Pb isotope geochronology and models for evolution of some of the meta-igneous rocks of the Adirondacks, New York. Uranium-lead zircon data from charnockites and mangerites and on baddeleyite from anorthosite suggest that the emplacement of these rocks into a stable crust took place in the range 1160 to 1130 Ma. Granulite facies metamorphism was approximately 1050 Ma as indicated by metamorphic zircon and sphene ages of the anorthosite and by development of magmatitic alaskitic gneiss. The concentric isotherms that are observed in this area are due to later doming. However, an older contact metamorphic aureole associated with anorthosite intrusion is observed where wollastonite develops in metacarbonates. Zenoliths found in the anorthosite indicate a metamorphic event prior to anorthosite emplacement. The most probable mechanism for anorthosite genesis is thought to be ponding of gabbroic magmas at the Moho. The emplacement of the anorogenic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite was apparently bracketed by compressional orogenies.

  1. Growth of epitaxial orthorhombic YO{sub 1.5}-substituted HfO{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takao [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midrori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Katayama, Kiliha [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midrori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Funakubo, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midrori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midrori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)


    YO{sub 1.5}-substituted HfO{sub 2} thin films with various substitution amounts were grown on (100) YSZ substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method directly from the vapor phase. The epitaxial growth of film with different YO{sub 1.5} amounts was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction method. Wide-area reciprocal lattice mapping measurements were performed to clarify the crystal symmetry of films. The formed phases changed from low-symmetry monoclinic baddeleyite to high-symmetry tetragonal/cubic fluorite phases through an orthorhombic phase as the YO{sub 1.5} amount increased from 0 to 0.15. The additional annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates that the orthorhombic phase has polar structure. This means that the direct growth by vapor is of polar orthorhombic HfO{sub 2}-based film. Moreover, high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the film with a YO{sub 1.5} amount of 0.07 with orthorhombic structure at room temperature only exhibited a structural phase transition to tetragonal phase above 450 °C. This temperature is much higher than the reported maximum temperature of 200 °C to obtain ferroelectricity as well as the expected temperature for real device application. The growth of epitaxial orthorhombic HfO{sub 2}-based film helps clarify the nature of ferroelectricity in HfO{sub 2}-based films (186 words/200 words)

  2. Radioactivity in raw materials and end products in the Italian ceramics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in zirconium minerals (zircon and baddeleyite) used in the Italian ceramics industry, in tiles and in waste sludges resulting from ceramic processes, has been measured. The measurements were made by γ-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyser. The average concentrations of 238U and 232Th observed in the mineral samples (>3000 and >500 Bq kg-1, respectively) are higher than the concentrations found in the earth's crust by one or two orders of magnitude. The specific activities of tiles and sludges are much lower than in zirconium minerals. The 238U and 232Th concentrations in tiles (50-79 and 52-66 Bq kg-1, respectively) are not higher than in other building materials. The 238U concentration of sludges (116-193 Bq kg-1) is 4-6 times higher than the mean value for the earth's crust. The results are examined on the basis of the existing Italian legislation (D.Lgs no. 230, 1995, Gazzetta Ufficiale 13/06/1996, no. 136, Supplemento Ordinario, Rome, Italy) and the EC Directive no. 29/Euratom of the year 1996 (Gazzetta Ufficiale della Communita Europea 29/06/1996, no. L159)

  3. Geochemistry of hydrothermal veins containing zirconolite and betafite at Adamello, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal veins containing zirconolite and betafite occur in dolomite marbles at the contact with a tonalite intrusion of the Adamello batholith, Italy. The veins display four distinct mineral zones and are highly enriched in Th, U, Ti, Zr, Nb, and rare earth elements (REE) relative to their host rock .Wide ranges in concentration of these elements and distinct inter-element fractionation trends exist across the four vein zones. The behavior of Th closely reflects that of P, Ti, Nb, and heavy REE, but was distinct from that of U, Zr and light REE (La to Sm). The presence and composition of refractory minerals such as zirconolite, betafite, uraninite, thonanite, baddeleyite, rutile, allanite, and aeschynite provide evidence for the transport of Ti, Zr, Nb, REE, and actinides by a fluid, which was further characterized by a low pH and high contents of F, P, Cl and H2S. Thermodynamic analysis of these veins indicates that they were formed at 550-600 deg C, 200 MPa total pressure, and from a fluid derived from the tonalite. Mineralogical and textural observations suggest that crystallization of the refractory minerals was in part induced by precipitation of fluorapatite and sulfides. The geochemical data further indicate that precipitation of light REE was induced by the fluid/wall-rock interaction which led to a significant dilution of the fluid by CO2. The studied veins provide an example of high-temperature transport of actinides and REE in the Earth's crust and show that these elements can be precipitated from a fluid and subsequently immobilized by zirconolite and betafite, two important actinide hosts in ceramic nuclear waste forms. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  4. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  5. Liquidus temperature model for Hanford high-level waste glasses with high concentrations of zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted on glasses based on a simulated transuranic waste with high concentrations of ZrO2 and Bi2O3 to determine the compositional dependence of primary crystalline phases and liquidus temperature (TL). Starting from a baseline composition, glasses were formulated by changing mass fractions of Al2O3, B2O3, Bi2O3, CeO2, Li2O, Na2O, P2O5, SiO2, and ZrO2, one at a time, while keeping the remaining components in the same relative proportions as in the baseline glass. Liquidus temperature was measured by heat treating glass samples for 24 h in a uniform temperature furnace. The primary crystalline phase in the baseline glass and the majority of the glasses was zircon (ZrSiO4). A change in the concentration of certain components (Al2O3, ZrO2, Li2O, B2O3, and SiO2) changed the primary phase to baddeleyite (ZrO2), while cerium oxide (CeO2) precipitated from glasses with more than 3 wt% CeO2. Zircon TL was strongly increased by Al2O3, ZrO2 and CeO2, and slightly by P2O5 and SiO2; decreased strongly by Li2O and Na2O and moderately by B2O3. A first-order model was constructed for TL as a function of composition for zircon primary crystalline phase glass

  6. Age and petrogenesis of Na-rich felsic rocks in western Iran: Evidence for closure of the southern branch of the Neo-Tethys in the Late Cretaceous (United States)

    Nouri, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hossein; Golonka, Jan; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Orihashi, Yuji; Yamamoto, Koshi; Tsuboi, Motohiro; Anma, Ryo


    Intermediate to felsic volcanic and granitic rocks with high Na2O concentrations (5.2-9.1 wt.%) are widely distributed in the Harsin area along the Zagros thrust zone in western Iran. Most of these rocks are classified as low-potassium tholeiite, display affinity with oceanic plagiogranite and contain somewhat high Na content and low concentrations of K2O, Al2O3, Rb, Sr and Ca. Thus, we prefer to apply the term Na-rich felsic rocks to this complex. U-Pb dating yielded ages of 94.6 ± 2.7 Ma (2σ) from baddeleyite and 95.0 ± 2.4 Ma (2σ) from zircon grains, indicating that the complex crystallized in the Late Cretaceous. Based on the mineral compositions, the crystallization occurred at low pressures (mostly < 2 kbar) and low temperatures (< 750 °C). High initial ratios of 143Nd/144Nd (0.51288-0.51304) and positive values of ɛNd(t) (+ 7.0 to + 11.5) are consistent with those of mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB). During collision of the Arabian plate and Biston-Avoraman block in the Late Cretaceous, an increasing geothermal gradient was responsible for partial melting of altered mafic rocks and for producing the Na-rich felsic rocks in the Harsin area. The presence of these types of rocks along the main Zagros fault indicates local collisions. These collisions were caused by southwestward subduction under the Arabian plate in the southern branch of the Neo-Tethys. This event was the first stage of the Zagros collision, which was followed by collision of the Arabian and Iranian plates during the Eocene through Neogene.

  7. Paleomagnetism, U-Pb geochronology, and geochemistry of Marathon dykes, Superior Province, and comparison with the Fort Frances swarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first detailed study of the paleomagnetism, U - Pb geochronology and major element geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic north-trending Marathon dykes north of Lake Superior. The paleomagnetic and geochemical results demonstrate that Marathon dykes can be divided into two subsets, one of normal magnetic polarity, the other of reverse polarity. Normal and reverse Marathon paleomagnetic poles, at 43oN, 196oE (dm = 9o, dp = 7o, number of dykes N = 16) and 51oN, 175oE (dm = 9o, dp = 6o, N 12), respectively, are statistically distinct and may indicate different ages of normal and reverse dyke emplacement. A U-Pb baddeleyite age of 2121-7+14 Ma has been obtained at a normally magnetized Marathon paleomagnetic site. The reversely magnetized Marathon dykes are undated, but have a paleopole rather close to that of the reversely magnetized 2076-4+5 Ma Fort Frances dykes and major element geochemical signatures as portrayed on Jensen plots that are identical to those of the Fort Frances swarm. Therefore, reverse Marathon and Fort Frances dykes could define a giant radiating dyke swarm focused south of Lake Superior, supporting models that associate these dykes with Paleoproterozoic rifting along the southern margin of the Superior Province. The Marathon and Fort Frances paleopoles continue a northwesterly trend in southern Superior Province paleopoles, which has recently been defined by results for 2216-4+8 Ma Senneterre dykes and 2167 ± 2 Ma Biscotasing dykes. This trend contrasts with previous widely used polar wander paths for the same period that young in the opposite direction and illustrates the importance of collaborative studies of paleomagnetism and U - Pb geochronology. (author). 36 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  8. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic and REE studies of igneous components in the bulk matrix domain of Martian breccia Northwest Africa 7034 (United States)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, Chi-Yu; McCubbin, Francis M.; Santos, Alison R.; Shearer, Charles K.; Peng, Zhan X.; Burger, Paul V.; Agee, Carl B.


    The bulk matrix domain of the Martian breccia NWA 7034 was examined petrographically and isotopically to better understand the provenance and age of the source material that make up the breccia. Both 147Sm-143Nd and 146Sm-142Nd age results for mineral separates from the bulk matrix portion of breccia NWA 7034 suggest that various lithological components in the breccia probably formed contemporaneously ~4.44 Ga ago. This old age is in excellent agreement with the upper intersection ages (4.35-4.45 Ga) for U-Pb discordia and also concordia defined by zircon and baddeleyite grains in matrix and igneous-textured clasts. Consequently, we confirm an ancient age for the igneous components that make up the NWA 7034 breccia. Substantial disturbance in the Rb-Sr system was detected, and no age significance could be gleaned from our Rb-Sr data. The disturbance to the Rb-Sr system may be due to a thermal event recorded by bulk-rock K-Ar ages of 1.56 Ga and U-Pb ages of phosphates at about 1.35-1.5 Ga, which suggest partial resetting from an unknown thermal event(s), possibly accompanying breccia formation. The NWA 7034 bulk rock is LREE enriched and similar to KREEP-rich lunar rocks, which indicates that the earliest Martian crust was geochemically enriched. This enrichment supports the idea that the crust is one of the enriched geochemical reservoirs on Mars that have been detected in studies of other Martian meteorites.

  9. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  10. Preserved Flora and Organics in Impact Melt Breccias: Implications for Capturing Past Life on Mars (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Harris, R. S.; Clemett, S.; Thomas-Keprta, K.


    At least seven impact glass-bearing deposits have been documented in the Argentine stratigraphy, each recording separate events between the Holocene and late Miocene [1,2]. Detailed evidence for their origin by impact includes: planar deformation features (PDFs in quartz, feldspars, pyroxene, olivine, etc.), asymmetric isotropization (i.e., alternate-twin deformation) in plagioclase, diaplectic phases, ultra-high temperature melting (e.g., lechatelierite, molten rutile) and decomposition (e.g., baddeleyite), and quench textures around minerals, e.g., beta-crystobalite, etc. [1-3]. Incorporation of materials from depth indicates that this was not an airburst but a series of crater-forming impacts. Many hand samples also contain relicts of extant biota. Scanning electron microprobe (SEM) images reveal preservation of delicate forms including: striated layers between vesicular impact glass and parallel vein-like features at higher magnification. The striated patterns resemble vascular bundles of the mesophyll (ground tissue) of a plant. Identifiable parts of the plant anatomy, e.g. papillae and cell walls, contain skeletal magnetite crystals and high-temperature, i.e., phases indicating that vitreous fossilization occurred at extremely high temperatures and rapid quench rates. The morphology is generally similar to contemporary regional grasses (pampas grass) including small spherules (papilla). The intricate forms (20nm to 20mm) indicate features rapidly preserved rather than simple impressions. Reaction zones (vesiculation and quenched minerals) along the interface between the melt and entrained plants indicate rapid quenching. Compositional mapping reveals the presence of insignificant levels of carbon, but chemical analyses confirm the high silica content (> 60%). Various analytical techniques (micro-Raman, TEM/SEM, and μltra-L2MS) further reveal the preserved organic materials, including tetracyclic pyrrolines, essential members of the group of porphyrin species

  11. High-pressure phase behaviors of ZnTiO3: ilmenite-perovskite transition, decomposition of perovskite into constituent oxides, and perovskite-lithium niobate transition (United States)

    Akaogi, M.; Abe, K.; Yusa, H.; Kojitani, H.; Mori, D.; Inaguma, Y.


    High-pressure high-temperature phase transitions of ZnTiO3 ilmenite were examined using multianvil apparatus up to 25.5 GPa and 1,500 °C and diamond anvil cell to 26.5 GPa and about 2,000 °C. Combined results of the multianvil quench experiments and in situ diamond anvil cell experiments indicated that at about 10 GPa and 1,200 °C ZnTiO3 ilmenite transforms to orthorhombic perovskite which is converted to lithium niobate phase on release of pressure. The boundary of the ilmenite-provskite transition is expressed by P(GPa) = 15.9 - 0.005 T (°C). The high-pressure experiments also indicated that at 20-24 GPa and 1,000-1,400 °C ZnTiO3 orthorhombic perovskite dissociates into rocksalt-type ZnO + baddeleyite-type TiO2 which are recovered, respectively, as wurtzite-type ZnO and α-PbO2-type TiO2 at 1 atm. The boundary of the perovskite dissociation is expressed by P(GPa) = 8.7 + 0.011 T (°C). Molar volume changes of ZnTiO3 at ambient conditions were estimated as -4.7 % for the ilmenite-perovskite transition and -3.5 % for the perovskite decomposition into the oxides. The absence of CaIrO3-type postperovskite in ZnTiO3 is consistent with that dissociation of ZnTiO3 perovskite into the oxides has the larger molar volume change than -1 to -2 % of the perovskite-postperovskite transition in various ABO3 compounds and with previous data that ABO3 perovskites with relatively ionic B-O bonds do not transform to the postperovskite. The transition behaviors of ZnTiO3 are similar to those of MnTiO3 and FeTiO3, but ZnTiO3 perovskite dissociates into the constituent oxides.

  12. Mode of formation of hibonite (CaAl12O19) within the U-Th skarns from the granulites of S-E Madagascar (United States)

    Rakotondrazafy, Michel A. F.; Moine, B.; Cuney, M.


    In Madagascar, hibonite occurs as a rather frequent mineral within thorianite-bearing skarns which are widespread in the Pan African granulitic formations constituting the S-E part of the Island (Tranomaro area). In these skarns, leucocratic segregations made up of CO3-scapolite to meionite (Anequivalent=89 95% which implies T≥850° C), spinel and corundum were formed at stage 1 of metasomatism in a titanite-bearing matrix consisting of scapolite (Aneq=77 88) and aluminous diopside. During stage 2 of metasomatism, scapolite from the lenses were altered to anorthite+calcite while the less calcic scapolite remained stable which indicates T≈800° C. Hibonite crystallized at the expense of corundum and spinel. Expressed as mol% of the CaAl12O19/Ca(Al10TiR2+)O19/REE(Al11R2+)O19 [+Th (Al10R2+ 2)O19] end-members ( R 2+=Mg, Fe2+, Zn2+; Al=Al, Fe3+; Ti=Ti, Si), its composition varies from 26/72/2 to 50/23/27. The ideal activity of the CaAl12O19 component is about 0.25. Fluid inclusions in corundum, hibonite and anorthite are composed of nearly pure CO2. In corundum, the isochores for primary inclusions are in agreement with the P-T estimates for regional metamorphism and stage 1 metasomatism ( T≈850° C, P≈5 kbar). Inclusions with the highest density in hibonite and anorthite constrain P to about 3 3.5 kbar for T=800° C. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that, in addition to a low activity of CaAl12O19, stability of hibonite in equilibrium with anorthite and calcite implies an extremely low activity of silica (below the zircon-baddeleyite buffer). By contrast the activity of CO2 may be high, in agreement with the observed fluid compositions. These results are corroborated by a short comparison with the other granulite occurrences of hibonite in Tanzania and South India.

  13. Bald Friar Metabasalt and Kennett Square Amphibolite: Two Iapetan Ocean Floor Basalts (United States)

    Smith, R.C., II


    The Bald Friar Metabasalt (BFM) and Kennett Square Amphibolite (KSA) are basaltic units found in the Piedmont of southeastern Pennsylvania. The BFM is also recognized in northern Maryland. Both are believed to represent fragments of the floor of the Iapetus Ocean, but are not known occur in direct association with one another. The BFM typically occurs as small fragments having typical stratigraphic thicknesses of 2.5 m, and composed of greenish, fine-grained chlorite-epidote-actinolite-albite metabasalt in ophiolite me??lange. One bed of pillow basalt has been found at the type locality, Bald Friar, Cecil County, Maryland. Even though outcrops of BFM are highly discontinuous, they have a remarkable chemical uniformity over a strike length of 143 km and appear to be equivalent to the Caldwell Group 1b metabasalt of the Thetford, Quebec, area. The BFM is typically associated with ultramafic fragments and may be affiliated with the Baltimore Mafic Complex (BMC), from which a baddeleyite date of 442 +/- 7 Ma (Silurian) has been obtained. The BFM is probably a back arc basin basalt (BABB). Pod and schlieren chromite compositions suggest an island arc environment for the BMC itself. The poorly defined, informal "Conowingo Creek metabasalt" of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, occurs on the north margin of the BMC and appears to be a fore arc boninite. The BFM and associated ultramafic fragments serve as a field-mappable marker for the structural equivalent of the Baie Verte-Brompton line in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Steatization of the associated ultramafic fragments has produced zones of extremely low competence that facilitated and localized thrusts of presumed Silurian age and later Alleghanian folding. The KSA typically occurs as much larger bodies having lengths of 3 km and composed of dark, medium-grained hornblende-plagioclase-clinopyroxene gneiss. No ultramafic rocks or me??lange have been recognized with the KSA. In Pennsylvania, the KSA

  14. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic investigations on a carbonate-dyke and enclosed pyroxenite xenoliths from Val Mastallone (Ivrea-Verbano Zone): evidence of a cumulate carbonatite in the lower crust? (United States)

    Galli, Andrea; Grassi, Daniele; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Schwab, Leo; Rickli, Jörg; Gianola, Omar


    The Ivrea-Verbano Zone (Italy/Switzerland) represents one of the best exposed mantle-crust sections worldwide. Its geological evolution has been governed by the Permian underplating of mantle-derived basic magmas („Mafic Complex") into the high-grade basement of the Southern Alps. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, marbles occur as concordant bodies or partly discordant carbonate-dykes. Generally, these dykes are constituted of calcite, diopside, scapolite, contain enclave of the host rocks and display sharp contacts to the host lithologies without evidences of alteration zones. In Val Mastallone, an up to 40 m thick carbonate-dyke with different characteristics occurs within mafic granulites. This dyke is composed of calcite, clinopyroxene and subordinate allanite and zircon. No scapolite is observed. The contacts to the host granulites are characterized by alteration zones composed of actinolite, chlorite, clinozoisite, plagioclase and calcite. The carbonate-dyke bears enclave of phlogopite-amphibole-apatite-rutile-ilmenite ± garnet or spinel clinopyroxenites. These rock type is not outcropping elsewhere in the proximity of the dyke, suggesting a significant transport. Host mafic granulite enclave are found exclusively at the margin of the dyke. Calcite dykelets rich in zircon, baddeleyite and other Ba, U, Th, REE-rich phases cut across the enclave. The carbonate-dyke shows an enrichment of LREE over HREE ((La/Yb)N = 14), with a Σ REE = 338 and Y/Ho = 27. On the chondrite-normalized REE abundances diagram, no Eu anomaly is observed. Mantle-normalized pattern shows strong negative anomalies at Cs, Rb, K, Pb, P, Zr, Hf, Ti and positive Ba, Th, Sr, Nd anomalies, similarly to the "world average carbonatites". Measured absolute trace element concentrations are lower than average carbonatites but significantly higher than typical limestones and similar to cumulate carbonatites found elsewhere in the world (e.g. India, China, Brazil). Grt-bearing clinopyroxenite enclave

  15. A new grand mean palaeomagnetic pole for the 1.11 Ga Umkondo large igneous province with implications for palaeogeography and the geomagnetic field (United States)

    Swanson-Hysell, N. L.; Kilian, T. M.; Hanson, R. E.


    We present a new grand mean palaeomagnetic pole (Plong: 222.1°, Plat: -64.0°, A95: 2.6°, N = 49) for the ca. 1110 Ma Umkondo large igneous province (LIP) of the Kalahari Craton. New palaeomagnetic data from 24 sills in Botswana and compiled reprocessed existing data are used to develop a palaeomagnetic pole as the Fisher mean of cooling unit virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs). The mean and its associated uncertainty provide the best-constrained pole yet developed for the province. Comparing data from individual cooling units allows for evaluation of palaeosecular variation at this time in the Mesoproterozoic. The elongation of the population of VGPs is consistent with that predicted by the TK03.GAD model lending support to the dipolar nature of the field in the late Mesoproterozoic. In our new compilation, 4 of 59 (˜7 per cent) of the igneous units have northerly declinations while the rest are south-directed indicating that a geomagnetic reversal occurred during magmatic activity. Interpreting which of these polarities corresponds with a normal or reversed geomagnetic field relative to other continents can constrain the relative orientations between cratons with time-equivalent data. This interpretation is particularly important in comparison to Laurentia as it bears on Kalahari's involvement and position in the supercontinent Rodinia. The dominance of south-directed declinations within the Umkondo Province was previously used to suggest that these directions are the same polarity as reversed directions from the early magmatic stage of the Keweenawan Midcontinent Rift of Laurentia. Two Umkondo sills with northerly declinations have U-Pb baddeleyite ages of ca. 1109 Ma that are temporally close to dated Midcontinent Rift units having reversed directions. Based on this comparison, and palaeomagnetic data from younger units in the Kalahari Craton, we favour the option in which the sites with northerly declinations from the Umkondo Province correspond to the

  16. Dating minerals by ID-TIMS geochronology at times of in situ analysis: selected case studies from the CPGeo-IGc-USP laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia R. Passarelli


    Full Text Available Since 1964, the Center for Geochronological Research - CPGeo, one of the interdepartmental centers of the Instituto de Geociências (IG of São Paulo University, has developed studies related to several geological processes associated with different rock types. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Isotopic Dilution (ID-TIMS has been the technique widely used in the CPGeo U-Pb Laboratory. It provides reliable and accurate results in age determination of superposed events. However, the open-system behavior such as Pb-loss, the inheritance problem and metamictization processes allow and impel us to a much richer understanding of the power and limitations of U-Pb geochronology and thermochronology. In this article, we present the current methodology used at the CPGeo-IGc-USP U-Pb laboratory, the improvements on ID-TIMS method, and report high-precision U-Pb data from zircon, monazite, epidote, titanite, baddeleyite and rutile from different rock types of several domains of the Brazilian south-southeast area, Argentina and Uruguay.O Centro de Pesquisas Geocronológicas (CPGeo, um dos centros interdepartamentais do Instituto de Geociências (IG da Universidade de São Paulo (USP, desde 1964 desenvolve estudos relacionados a diversos processos geológicos que se associam a diferentes tipos de rochas. A técnica amplamente utilizada no Laboratório U-Pb é a diluição isotópica por espectrometria de massa termo ionizada (ID-TIMS. Esta sistemática proporciona resultados bastante confiáveis e precisos na determinação das idades de eventos geológicos superpostos. Entretanto, o comportamento de sistema aberto como perda de Pb, problemas de herança isotópica e processos de metamictização, nos permite o entendimento do poder e limitação da geocronologia e termocronologia U-Pb. Neste artigo apresentamos a metodologia atualmente utilizada no Laboratório U-Pb do CPGeo-IGc-USP, as melhorias atingidas na técnica ID-TIMS e alguns dados obtidos em

  17. Emeishan volcanism and the end-Guadalupian extinction: New U-Pb TIMS ages (United States)

    Mundil, Roland; Denyszyn, Steve; He, Bin; Metcalfe, Ian; Yigang, Xu


    from numerous sedimentary archives. A further complication arises from the severe tectonic (and resulting thermal) overprint, due to the closure of the Tethys and the collision of the Indian plate with Asia, of most of the area where Emeishan volcanic products are exposed. Also, currently existing paleo-environmental data are scarce and insufficient for testing this hypothesis with confidence, because studies using stable isotopes as proxies are restricted to short profiles from only a few sites. Therefore, fundamental questions remain unanswered. We present new data U-Pb IDTIMS ages with permil-level resolution that constrain the timing of Emeishan volcanism and the timing of biotic events recorded in sediments. In detail, U-Pb results are from felsic intercalations within late stage Emeishan products and biostratigaphically calibrated marine sedimentary sections in southwestern and central China as well as thick tuffs within terrestrial sections from the Bowen Basin in eastern Australia. There is also great potential for obtaining precise U-Pb age results on volcanic products with basaltic composition using the accessory mineral baddeleyite the occurrence of which we have already confirmed. Geochronological and geochemical research is complemented with paleo-enviromental studies and biostratigraphy. We expect that through integration of U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology with chemo- and biostratigraphy, the time scale of the Middle through Late Permian will be greatly improved and will lead to a more realistic evaluation of potential causes for the biotic crisis and its aftermath.

  18. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of an Early Proterozoic quartz diorite in the southern Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    Harlan, S.S.; Geisman, J.W.; Premo, W.R.


    We present geochronologic and paleomagnetic data from a north-trending quartz diorite intrusion that cuts Archean metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the South Pass Greenstone Belt of the Wyoming craton. The quartz diorite was previously thought to be either Archean or Early Proterozoic (?) in age and is cut by north and northeast-trending Proterozoic diabase dikes of uncertain age, for which we also report paleomagnetic data. New U-Pb analyses of baddeleyite and zircon from the quartz diorite yield a concordia upper intercept age of 2170 ?? 8 Ma (95% confidence). An 40Ar/39Ar amphibole date from the same sample yields a similar apparent age of about 2124 ?? 30 Ma (2??), thus confirming that the intrusion is Early Proterozoic in age and that it has probably not been thermally disturbed since emplacement. A magmatic event at ca. 2.17 Ga has not previously been documented in the Wyoming craton. The quartz diorite and one of the crosscutting diabase dikes yield essentially identical, well-defined characteristic remanent magnetizations. Results from eight sites in the quartz diorite yield an in situ mean direction of north declination and moderate to steep positive inclination (Dec.=355??, Inc.=65??, k=145, ??95=5??) with a paleomagnetic pole at 84??N, 215??E (??m=6??, ??p=7??). Data from other diabase dike sites are inconsistent with the quartz diorite results, but the importance of these results is uncertain because the age of the dikes is not well known. Interpretation of the quartz diorite remanent magnetization is problematic. The in situ direction is similar to expected directions for magnetizations of Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary age. However, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that these rocks were remagnetized during the late Mesozoic or Cenozoic. Assuming this magnetization to be primary, then the in situ paleomagnetic pole is strongly discordant with poles of 2167, 2214, and 2217 Ma from the Canadian Shield, and is consistent with proposed

  19. Sulfide minerals as new Sm-Nd geochronometers for ore genesis dating of mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions (United States)

    Serov, Pavel; Ekimova, Nadezhda; Bayanova, Tamara


    The main method of dating the ore process was the Re-Os method of sulfides (Luck, Allegre, 1983; Walker et. al., 1991). However, studies of Re-Os systematics of sulfide minerals do not always give the correct ages and showing the disturbances of the Re-Os systematics. At the same time, Sm-Nd age of sulfides in good agreement with the U-Pb dating on zircon and baddeleyite and suggests that the Sm-Nd system of sulfides is more resistant to secondary alteration processes. Our studies have shown that along with rock-forming, ore minerals (sulfides) can be used to determine the ore genesis time of industrially important geological sites, since exactly with the sulfides the industry Pt-Pd mineralization is closely connected. The Sm-Nd investigations steadily employ new minerals-geochronometers. Of these, sulfides of PGE-bearing layered intrusions are quite important in terms of dating the process of ore origin. Studying the REE distribution in the sulfides of MOR hydrothermal sources has shown possible REE presence in the sulfide lattice (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). These are difficult to carry out because the concentrations of Sm and Nd isotopes in sulfides are much lower than chondrites (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). For the first time in Russia with sulfide and rock-forming minerals and WR in Sm-Nd method have been dated impregnated and brecciform ores of the following objects: Pilguyarvi Cu-Ni deposits, Pechenga (1965±87 Ma); impregnated (2433±83 Ma) and redeposited (1903±24 Ma) ores of Ahmavaara intrusion (Finland); ore gabbronorites of Penikat PGE-bearing layered intrusion (2426±38 Ma (Ekimova, 2011); Pt-Pd gabbro-pegmatite ores (2476± 41 Ma, which agrees with the U-Pb zircon age - 2470±9 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) and gabbronorites (2483±86 Ma) of PGE Kievei deposit and Fedorova Tundra metagabbroids (2494±54 Ma); Monchetundra gabbronorites - 2489±49 Ma. In (Kong et. al., 2000) sulfides from two metamorphosed chondrites studied by instrumental

  20. Re Os isotopic systematics of the Voisey's Bay Ni Cu Co magmatic ore system, Labrador, Canada (United States)

    Lambert, D. D.; Foster, J. G.; Frick, L. R.; Li, C.; Naldrett, A. J.


    Re and Os concentrations and Os isotopic compositions have been obtained for massive, matrix, and disseminated sulphide ores from three environments within the Voisey's Bay intrusion (the `Ovoid', Eastern Deeps, and Discovery Hill Zone) in order to assess the role of crustal contamination in the genesis of this large Cu-Ni-Co deposit. These samples have high Re concentrations (148 to 288 ppb, in 100% sulphide) for their common Os concentrations (4.8 to 24 ppb, in 100% sulphide), yielding high Re/Os ratios (12 to 33). These data confirm that the magma parental to the Voisey's Bay ore system was broadly basaltic in major element chemistry rather than picritic, consistent with the low Ni/Cu ratio of the ores (˜1.5). Re-Os isotopic data exhibit a limited spread in 187Re/ 188Os (57 to 157) and define an imprecise 1323±135 Ma `model 3' isochron, likely the result of small R-factor variations within the ore system. The Re-Os isochron age is within error of 1334 Ma U-Pb ages obtained for baddeleyite from the ore-bearing troctolites, demonstrating that whole rock Re-Os isotopic systematics have remained closed since crystallisation. The initial Os isotopic composition of the isochron ( γOs=1040±200) implies significant magma interactions with radiogenic Os that most likely resides in the Nain-Churchill Province crust. These data are, therefore, consistent with the parental magma achieving sulphide saturation as a result of contamination by radiogenic crustal components, with further addition of base and precious metals as a function of R-factor. Analyses of sulphide separates from the Proterozoic Tasiuyak (Churchill) and Archaean Nain gneisses confirm that both units contained significant Os (8.6 ppb and 0.38 ppb, respectively) that was very radiogenic at 1334 Ma ( γOs=1908 and 5202, respectively), yielding crustal residence TCHUR model ages of 2200 to 2400 Ma. However, these model ages may have been affected by Re and/or Os mobility during the 1.85 Ga Torngat and 1