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Sample records for bad honnef germany

  1. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  2. [Communication preferences of patients with prostate cancer : Preferences regarding the communication of bad news of patients with prostate cancer in Germany-results of an anonymous patient survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merseburger, A S; Kramer, M W; Scheithe, K; Colling, C

    2016-10-01

    The communication of bad medical news represents a burdening situation for both patients and physicians which may lead to hurdles in their communication. The questionnaire Measure of Patients' Preferences (MPP-D, validated German translation) was developed to investigate patients' preferences regarding the communication of bad news. The preferences regarding the communication of bad news among patients with prostate cancer was assessed. Anonymous survey, where approximately 70 office-based urologists were asked to distribute the MPP-D questionnaire to about 20 of their patients with prostate cancer. In addition, information on social demographics was retrieved in order to investigate the influence on communication preferences. In total, 709 questionnaires were evaluated (>50 % return). The majority of patients had clear preferences concerning privacy of the setting, completeness, and unambiguity of information provided and assessment of their subjective information needs. Larger individual differences were observed regarding preferences for emotional support offered by the physician and involvement of family which was also influenced by age and education of the patients. This is the first large, multicenter survey of prostate cancer patients in Germany regarding their preferences for communication of bad news. The results confirm previous reports on the importance of cultural affiliation, age, and education as influencing factors.

  3. High-resolution shear-wave seismic reflection as a tool to image near-surface subrosion structures - a case study in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja H.; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2016-10-01

    Subrosion is the subsurface leaching of soluble rocks that results in the formation of depression and collapse structures. This global phenomenon is a geohazard in urban areas. To study near-surface subrosion structures, four shear-wave seismic reflection profiles, with a total length of ca. 332 m, were carried out around the famous leaning church tower of Bad Frankenhausen in northern Thuringia, Germany, which shows an inclination of 4.93° from the vertical. Most of the geological underground of Thuringia is characterized by soluble Permian deposits, and the Kyffhäuser Southern Margin Fault is assumed to be a main pathway for water to leach the evaporite. The seismic profiles were acquired with the horizontal micro-vibrator ELVIS, developed at Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), and a 72 m long landstreamer equipped with 72 horizontal geophones. The high-resolution seismic sections show subrosion-induced structures to a depth of ca. 100 m and reveal five features associated with the leaching of Permian deposits: (1) lateral and vertical varying reflection patterns caused by strongly heterogeneous strata, (2) discontinuous reflectors, small offsets, and faults, which show the underground is heavily fractured, (3) formation of depression structures in the near-surface, (4) diffractions in the unmigrated seismic sections that indicate increased scattering of the seismic waves, and (5) varying seismic velocities and low-velocity zones that are presumably caused by fractures and upward-migrating cavities. A previously undiscovered southward-dipping listric normal fault was also found, to the north of the church. It probably serves as a pathway for water to leach the Permian formations below the church and causes the tilting of the church tower. This case study shows the potential of horizontal shear-wave seismic reflection to image near-surface subrosion structures in an urban environment with a horizontal resolution of less than 1 m in the uppermost 10

  4. Recycling of Badger/Fox Burrows in Late Pleistocene Loess by Hyenas at the Den Site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (NW, Germany: Woolly Rhinoceros Killers and Scavengers in a Mammoth Steppe Environment of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajus Diedrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Late Pleistocene (MIS 5c-d Ice Age spotted hyena open air den and bone accumulation site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (Hesse, NW, Germany represents the first open air loess fox/badger den site in Europe, which must have been recycled by Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823 as a birthing den. Badger and fox remains, plus remains of their prey (mainly hare, have been found within the loess. Hyena remains from that site include parts of cub skeletons which represent 10% of the megafauna bones. Also a commuting den area existed, which was well marked by hyena faecal pellets. Most of the hyena prey bones expose crack, bite, and nibbling marks, especially the most common bones, the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (NISP  =  32%. The large amount of woolly rhinoceros bones indicate hunting/scavenging specializing on this large prey by hyenas. Other important mammoth steppe hyena prey remains are from Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus przewalskii, Bison/Bos, Megaloceros giganteus, Cervus elaphus, and Rangifer tarandus. The few damaged bone remains of a scavenged cave bear Ursus spelaeus subsp. are unique for an open air situation. Abundant micromammal, frog, and some fish remains were concentrated in “pellets” that contain mainly mammoth steppe micromammals and also frog and fish remains that seem to originate from the nearby river/lake.

  5. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  6. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  7. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad....... In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  8. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth, you shouldn't have bad breath. The truth is that most people only brush their teeth ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  9. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...

  10. Good And Bad News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>A distinguished scientist was participating in a panel discussion on the results of the nation’s future water supply.“Gentlemen,” he said.“I have some good news and bad news for you,Our study shows that by the year 2010 everyone will be drinking recycled sewage from

  11. That's really too bad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京西

    2009-01-01

    @@ Oh! I failed my final exam. B:That's really too bad! But don't feel upset about it. A:But what should I say to my father? B:Come on!It could have happened to anybody! A:唉,我期末考试没及格.

  12. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  13. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  14. I bad med Picasso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Stadil, Christian Nicolas

    Alle er kreative! I denne bog viser Lene Tanggaard (professor i kreativitet) og Christian N. Stadil (ejer af bl.a. Hummel), at alle kan blive endnu mere kreative. De har interviewet en række af Danmarks mest kreative mennesker, for at finde ud af, hvordan de gør. Picasso gik i bad, når han skulle...... få nye ideer. I bogen hører du om Ingolf Gabolds blå elefanter, Kenneth Bagers bad, Bjarke Ingels visioner, René Redzepis lørdagssessioner, Jørgen Leth gåture og Søren Rasteds tvivl. Du får inspiration til at udfordre dig selv og arbejde med din egen kreativitet....

  15. I bad med Picasso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Stadil, Christian Nicolas

    Alle er kreative! I denne bog viser Lene Tanggaard (professor i kreativitet) og Christian N. Stadil (ejer af bl.a. Hummel), at alle kan blive endnu mere kreative. De har interviewet en række af Danmarks mest kreative mennesker, for at finde ud af, hvordan de gør. Picasso gik i bad, når han skulle...... få nye ideer. I bogen hører du om Ingolf Gabolds blå elefanter, Kenneth Bagers bad, Bjarke Ingels visioner, René Redzepis lørdagssessioner, Jørgen Leth gåture og Søren Rasteds tvivl. Du får inspiration til at udfordre dig selv og arbejde med din egen kreativitet....

  16. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  17. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  18. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (PBAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  19. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  20. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  1. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses t

  2. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  3. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  4. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  5. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  6. Taking on Internet Bad Neighorhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    It's known fact that malicious IP addresses are not evenly distributed over the IP addressing space. In this paper, we frame networks concentrating malicious addresses as bad neighborhoods. We propose a formal definition and show this concentration can be used to predict future attacks (new spamming

  7. Internet bad neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In thi

  8. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Temporal Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In th

  9. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  10. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  11. 42 CFR 413.178 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 413.178 Section 413.178 Public Health...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.178 Bad debts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49199, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) CMS will reimburse each facility its allowable Medicare bad debts, as defined...

  12. China Folk Shadow Play Performing Group in Austria and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Sent by the CPAFFC,the Daoqing Shadow Play Performing Group(alias Shi Family Troupe) of Huanxian County,Gansu Province made a performance tour in Austria and Germany from October 22 to November 5,2007,during which it attended the International Puppet Theatre Festival in Mistelbach of Austria and gave performance at the opening ceremony of the International Puppet Art Festival in Bad Kreuznach of Germany.The performance tour was made at the invitation of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China(AAPFCRC).

  13. Contemporary Conditions are Badly Known

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Lund, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    -technological processes that makes contemporary art possible, in the sense of an ‘art of contemporaneity’. “Contemporary art is badly known”, as he puts it. Thus ‘contemporaneity’ begins to describe the more complex and layered problem of different kinds of time existing simultaneously across different localities. Yet...... of operation. Full bibliographic details are as follows: Renewable Futures: Art, Science and Society in the Post-Media Age, Acoustic Space 16, eds. Rasa Smite, Raitis Smits, Armin Medosch, Riga: Center for New Media Culture RIXC in collaboration with Art Research Laboratory, Leipaja University, Riga. ISSN 1407...

  14. How Bad is Selfish Voting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Morgenstern, Jamie;

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that strategic behavior in elections is essentially unavoidable; we therefore ask: how bad can the rational outcome be? We answer this question via the notion of the price of anarchy, using the scores of alternatives as a proxy for their quality and bounding the ratio between...... the score of the optimal alternative and the score of the winning alternative in Nash equilibrium. Specifically, we are interested in Nash equilibria that are obtained via sequences of rational strategic moves. Focusing on three common voting rules — plurality, veto, and Borda — we provide very positive...

  15. Good Dog, Bad Food: Foods for People That Are Bad for Your Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Good Dog, Bad Food: Foods for People That Are Bad for ...

  16. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal....

  17. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable...

  18. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  19. Sitting in the Dock of the Day: Applying Lessons Learned from the Prosecution of War Criminals and Other Bad Actors in Post-Conflict Iraq and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    protection medication experiments;212 and medical euthanasia . 2 13 The greatest criticism of the conduct of the American military commissions in Germany is...role in Germany’s euthanasia program. His defense was simply that his conduct 223reflected bad political morals, not a crime, and perhaps that his...be of a secular nature. This is not to suggest that the society that congeals in Iraq cannot borrow from the traditions of Islam and other religions

  20. BAD Phosphorylation: A Novel Link between Apoptosis and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Polzien, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    BAD (Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death, Bcl-2 associated death promoter) is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by phosphorylation in response to survival factors. Although much attention has been devoted to the identification of phosphorylation sites in murine BAD (mBAD), little data are available with respect to phosphorylation of human BAD (hBAD) protein. In this work, we investigated the quantitative contribution of BAD targeting kinases in phosphorylating se...

  1. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X. The clas......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  2. Bad Tolz AAF, Bad Tolz, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-26

    PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 417.. BADL 01-2 OER MANY AAF ---67 STATION STATION kANS VI.$ No 1. ALL WEATHER 21...and aruual for all years Tcc , ... ase pab !atior.s rovide the caunalative percentae fre..ency to tenths of temperature by 5-degrea ’ahrcnheit

  3. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  4. Throwing the book at bad ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Several eminent science authors have recently claimed that bad scientific ideas "held back" good ones throughout human history, delaying the progress of science. But as Philip Ball argues, it just isn't that simple.

  5. On State Estimation with Bad Data Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Weiyu; Tang, Ao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of state estimation through observations possibly corrupted with both bad data and additive observation noises. A mixed $\\ell_1$ and $\\ell_2$ convex programming is used to separate both sparse bad data and additive noises from the observations. Through using the almost Euclidean property for a linear subspace, we derive a new performance bound for the state estimation error under sparse bad data and additive observation noises. Our main contribution is to provide sharp bounds on the almost Euclidean property of a linear subspace, using the "escape-through-a-mesh" theorem from geometric functional analysis. We also propose and numerically evaluate an iterative convex programming approach to performing bad data detections in nonlinear electrical power networks problems.

  6. The psychological benefits of bad poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2010-12-01

    The author was the founder and secretary pro-tem of the Bad Poets Society at Princeton Theological Seminary. This distinction does not appear on his official resume. The Society did not have meetings but it had a newsletter that came out several times a year comprised of bad poetry written by members of the faculty and staff. These poetic works included reflections on institutional matters. This article contains bad poetry by the author relating to such matters. This poetry illustrates Sigmund Freud's (Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. Norton, New York, 1960) view of humor as saving in the expenditure of painful emotions, costly inhibitions, and difficult thinking. The parasitical nature of bad poetry is also noted and illustrated with the author's own poems.

  7. Is Running Bad for Your Knees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162903.html Is Running Bad for Your Knees? Study suggests it may ... THURSDAY, Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Everybody believes running can leave you sore and swollen, right? Well, ...

  8. Breaking Bad News in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines. PMID:25709183

  9. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  10. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts...

  11. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  12. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  13. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  14. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  15. Architecture and ideology: A new unity: Germany 1918-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Ana D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between politics and ideology on the one hand and art, or architecture in fact, on the other has often been thought of as a bad thing something that 'spoils' the art. This work, by using the example of Germany between the two World Wars, tries to represent art as an integrated part of all social, political, economic and historical movements in a society. In that light, Bauhaus and Nazi architecture are not seen as good or bad exceptions in the history of architecture, but as a natural course, the reasons and direct inducements of which can be traced in any part of a society. However, by that, the individual and irrational in art should not to be denied, but there should be put an accent on continuity of architectural thought and art before everything.

  16. Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J; Harrison, David A; Treviño, Linda Klebe

    2010-01-01

    As corporate scandals proliferate, practitioners and researchers alike need a cumulative, quantitative understanding of the antecedents associated with unethical decisions in organizations. In this meta-analysis, the authors draw from over 30 years of research and multiple literatures to examine individual ("bad apple"), moral issue ("bad case"), and organizational environment ("bad barrel") antecedents of unethical choice. Findings provide empirical support for several foundational theories and paint a clearer picture of relationships characterized by mixed results. Structural equation modeling revealed the complexity (multidetermined nature) of unethical choice, as well as a need for research that simultaneously examines different sets of antecedents. Moderator analyses unexpectedly uncovered better prediction of unethical behavior than of intention for several variables. This suggests a need to more strongly consider a new "ethical impulse" perspective in addition to the traditional "ethical calculus" perspective. Results serve as a data-based foundation and guide for future theoretical and empirical development in the domain of behavioral ethics.

  17. Adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm for IRFPA based on PCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hanbing; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yi, Bo; Yan, Aqi; Zhang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Bad pixels and response non-uniformity are the primary obstacles when IRFPA is used in different thermal imaging systems. The bad pixels of IRFPA include fixed bad pixels and random bad pixels. The former is caused by material or manufacture defect and their positions are always fixed, the latter is caused by temperature drift and their positions are always changing. Traditional radiometric calibration-based bad pixel detection and compensation algorithm is only valid to the fixed bad pixels. Scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is the effective way to eliminate these two kinds of bad pixels. Currently, the most used scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is based on adaptive median filter (AMF). In this algorithm, bad pixels are regarded as image noise and then be replaced by filtered value. However, missed correction and false correction often happens when AMF is used to handle complex infrared scenes. To solve this problem, a new adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm based on pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is proposed. Potential bad pixels are detected by PCNN in the first step, then image sequences are used periodically to confirm the real bad pixels and exclude the false one, finally bad pixels are replaced by the filtered result. With the real infrared images obtained from a camera, the experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research.

  19. La poetica degli spazi di Breaking Bad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breaking Bad (2008-2013 produced, thanks to the creativity of Vince Gilligan and his writing room, some of the most emblematic characters in the history of contemporary television. Also, the writers of Breaking Bad were able to devise places and spaces that play important symbolic functions: spaces of mediation, spaces of transit, sacred spaces. This article investigates the meanings and characteristics of some of these settings: the swimming pool, the White family home, the meth lab. The analysis considers also the relation between characters and spaces, paying particular attention to the places inhabited by the main character, Walter White.

  20. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:Jul 5,2017 Cholesterol isn’t just ... Your Cholesterol Score Explained What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? How Can I Improve My Cholesterol? | Spanish What ...

  1. Breaking bad news: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lauren; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J; Penson, Richard T

    2003-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery that provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The Center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Clinicians in the field of oncology are unavoidably forced to break bad news. The Schwartz Center Rounds focuses on issues of communication between patients and their caregivers, one of the most difficult aspects of which is breaking bad news. The invited patient, a woman who had been living with a low-grade cancer for many years, spoke about her experiences both as a person living with cancer and as the daughter of a patient diagnosed with cancer. Her father's suicide, precipitated by being told his diagnosis, puts the horror of receiving bad news into stark relief. She provides a fascinating account of how she proactively adjusted to her diagnosis, and fought for optimal quality of life. This article discusses issues of support, abandonment, and how hope is conveyed, and reviews the literature that informs good clinical practice in breaking bad news.

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable...

  3. Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breakfasts Shyness Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? A A A What's in this article? ... like hurting yourself, that's more than just a bad mood and you need to tell someone. continue ...

  4. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  5. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany.

  6. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X. The clas......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X...

  7. Twisted inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    CERN Document Server

    Harrap, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    For any real pair i, j geq 0 with i+j=1 let Bad(i, j) denote the set of (i, j)-badly approximable pairs. That is, Bad(i, j) consists of irrational vectors x:=(x_1, x_2) in R^2 for which there exists a positive constant c(x) such that max {||qx_1||^(-i), ||qx_2||^(-j)} > c(x)/q for all q in N. Building on a result of Kurzweil, a new characterization of the set Bad(i, j) in terms of `well-approximable' vectors in the area of `twisted' inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation is established. In addition, it is shown that Bad^x(i, j), the `twisted' inhomogeneous analogue of Bad(i, j), has full Hausdorff dimension 2 when x is chosen from the set Bad(i, j).

  8. How to Lie with Bad Data

    OpenAIRE

    De Veaux, Richard D.; Hand, David J.

    2005-01-01

    As Huff’s landmark book made clear, lying with statistics can be accomplished in many ways. Distorting graphics, manipulating data or using biased samples are just a few of the tried and true methods. Failing to use the correct statistical procedure or failing to check the conditions for when the selected method is appropriate can distort results as well, whether the motives of the analyst are honorable or not. Even when the statistical procedure and motives are correct, bad data can produce ...

  9. Breaking Bad News to Togolese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpanake, Lonzozou; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to map Togolese people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to elderly patients. Two hundred eleven participants who had in the past received bad medical news were presented with 72 vignettes depicting communication of bad news to elderly female patients and asked to indicate the acceptability of the physician's conduct in each case. The vignettes were all combinations of five factors: (a) the severity of the disease, (b) the patient's wishes about disclosure, (c) the level of social support during hospitalization, (d) the patient's psychological robustness, and (e) the physician's decision about how to communicate the bad news. Five qualitatively different positions were found. Two percent of the participants preferred that the physician always tell the full truth to both the patient and her relatives, 8% preferred that the truth be told depending on the physician's perception of the situation, 15% preferred that the physician tell the truth but understood that in some cases nondisclosure to the patient was not inappropriate, 33% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives but not as much information to the patient, and 42% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives only. These findings present a challenge to European physicians taking care of African patients living in Europe or working in African hospitals, and to African physicians trained in Europe and now working in their home countries. If these physicians respect the imperative of always telling the truth directly to their patients, their behavior may trigger anger and considerable misunderstanding among African patients and their families.

  10. (THE LEGAL CONCEPT OF) BAD FAITH

    OpenAIRE

    Alferillo, Pascual E.; Academia Nacional de Derecho de Córdoba.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation examines bad faith trying to decipher if it has enough conceptual and operational independence for typical autonomous legal figure. In this course and, based on the collection of the normative background in Latin American and European civil codes which is mentioned in seeks to establish the common  parameters that guide the construction of its concept. From this, analyses the differences and links with the criminal intent and guilt, to conclude that the figure has...

  11. Freelancing: Cool jobs or bad jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Elstad, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the working conditions for freelance jazz musicians and freelance journalists in Norway. The study indicates that freelancing entails both good and bad job characteristics. The overall job satisfaction is reasonably high. Furthermore, the freelancers’ turnover intentions in terms of intention to leave the freelance job situation are quite low. The intrinsic motivation is very high and most freelancers perceive self-employment to be a personal choice. Th...

  12. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  13. Reactionaries and Einstein’s Fame: “German Scientists for the Preservation of Pure Science,” Relativity, and the Bad Nauheim Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Two important and unpleasant events occurred in Albert Einstein's life in 1920: That August an antirelativity rally was held in the large auditorium of the Berlin Philharmonic, and a few weeks later Einstein was drawn into a tense and highly publicized debate with Philipp Lenard on the merits of relativity at a meeting in Bad Nauheim, Germany. I review these events and discuss how they affected Einstein in light of new documentary evidence that has become available through the publication of ...

  14. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  15. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  16. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  17. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  18. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications.

  19. Managing Bad Loans of Domestic Banks under Modern Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhar Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of their conduct and identifies advantages and shortcomings of their application both for a bank and a borrower. Prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of methods of assessment of bad loans, in particular, development of methodological approaches to identification of assessment of profitability of bad loans as an important element of the system of management of bad loans of a bank.

  20. Video games: good, bad, or other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games.

  1. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by “competition in healthcare” and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is “good” or “bad,” per se.

  2. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    -scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over...

  3. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  4. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S

    2010-02-01

    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  5. Germany: Europe’s China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dobrescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is a crucial moment in the country's evolution. Special attention is paid to Germany's position on the single currency. Germany's performance is that it managed to turn the euro into a kind of European Dmark. The euro now formally "obeys" German rules, agreed upon from the very beginning, and is mainly coupled to the evolution of German economy. Germany is now sitting its most important exam: the European one. Today, Germany is Europe's most powerful state, but it must become its leader, whose development model would be accepted throughout the continent. Some German economic options are strikingly similar to China's.

  6. Discursive Positioning in a Fifth-Grade Writing Lesson: The Making of a "Bad, Bad Boy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on the concept of positioning to examine how language is used during one particular fifth-grade writing lesson to construct both the lesson and the participants. The author's analysis of the classroom interactions makes visible how participants colluded to position one student in particular, Larnell, as a "bad, bad…

  7. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  8. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  9. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  10. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  11. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  12. On good and bad forms of medicalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parens, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing 'enhancement' debate pits critics of new self-shaping technologies against enthusiasts. One important thread of that debate concerns medicalization, the process whereby 'non-medical' problems become framed as 'medical' problems. In this paper I consider the charge of medicalization, which critics often level at new forms of technological self-shaping, and explain how that charge can illuminate--and obfuscate. Then, more briefly, I examine the charge of pharmacological Calvinism, which enthusiasts, in their support of technological self-shaping, often level at critics. And I suggest how that charge, too, can illuminate and obfuscate. Exploring the broad charge of medicalization and the narrower counter charge of pharmacological Calvinism leads me to conclude that, as satisfying as it can be to level one of those charges at our intellectual opponents, and as tempting as it is to lie down and rest with our favorite insight, we need to gather the energy to have a conversation about the difference between good and bad forms of medicalization. Specifically, I suggest that if we consider the 'medicalization of love,' we can see why critics of and enthusiasts about technological self-shaping should want (and in some cases have already begun) to distinguish between good and bad forms of such medicalization.

  13. Assessing ectasia susceptibility prior to LASIK: the role of age and residual stromal bed (RSB in conjunction to Belin-Ambrósio deviation index (BAD-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ambrósio Jr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ability to detect preoperative ectasia risk among LASIK candidates using classic ERSS (Ectasia Risk Score System and Pentacam Belin-Ambrósio deviation index (BAD-D, and to test the benefit of a combined approach including BAD-D and clinical data. Methods: A retrospective nonrandomized study involved preoperative LASIK data from 23 post-LASIK ectasia cases and 266 stable-LASIK (follow up > 12 months. Preoperative clinical and Pentacam (Oculus; Wetzlar, Germany data were obtained from all cases. Mann-Whitney's test was performed to assess differences between groups. Stepwise logistic regression was used for combining parameters.The areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves (AUC were calculated for all parameters and combinations, with pairwise comparisons of AUC (DeLong's method. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for age, residual stromal bed (RSB, central corneal thickness and BAD-D (p0.05. ERSS was 3 or more on 12/23 eyes from the ectasia group (sensitivity = 52.17% and 48/266 eyes from the stable LASIK group (18% false positive. BAD-D had AUC of 0.931 (95% CI: 0.895 to 0.957, with cut-off of 1.29 (sensitivity = 87%; specificity = 92.1%. Formula combining BAD-D, age and RSB provided 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity, with better AUC (0.989; 95% CI: 0.969 to 0.998 than all individual parameters (p>0.001. Conclusion: BAD-D is more accurate than ERSS. Combining clinical data and BAD-D improved ectasia susceptibility screening. Further validation is necessary. Novel combined functions using other topometric and tomographic parameters should be tested to further enhance accuracy.

  14. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  15. Have we lost the ability to listen to bad news?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, Kim.E.; van Wassenhove, Luk; Sengupta, Kishore; Akkermans, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that project managers continuously prioritised good vibes (positive, but subjective signals) over bad news (negative, but objective signals), which resulted in decisions of poor quality. Without understanding the root causes that generate the bad news and the good vibes, managers coul

  16. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  17. 48 CFR 2131.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Bad debts. 2131.205-3 Section 2131.205-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-3 Bad debts. Erroneous...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6657-1 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 301.6657-1 Section 301.6657-1... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6657-1 Bad checks. (a) In general. Except as provided in... district director that it was tendered in good faith with reasonable cause to believe that it would be...

  19. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  20. 48 CFR 1631.205-71 - FEHBP bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP bad debts. 1631.205-71 Section 1631.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-71 FEHBP bad debts. Erroneous...

  1. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  2. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-4 Reserve for bad debts. (a) Allowance of deduction. A taxpayer who has established the reserve method of treating...

  3. HOW TO MANAGE DATA BADLY (PART 1 & 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a landmark article in The American Statistician, Howard Wainer (1994) presented ideas for (a) "How to Display Data Badly," wherein good data are ruined by bad graphics. Wainer presumed too much. In this essay, I extend his concept by presenting ideas and examples of how scient...

  4. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  5. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  6. Displaying fairness while delivering bad news: Testing the effectiveness of organizational bad news training in the layoff context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Manuela; König, Cornelius J; Koppermann, Christopher; Schilling, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Although giving bad news at work is a stressful experience, managers are often underprepared for this challenging task. As a solution, we introduce organizational bad news training that integrates (a) principles of delivering bad news from the context of health care (i.e., bad news delivery component), and (b) principles of organizational justice theory (i.e., fairness component). We argue that both the formal and fair delivery of bad news at work can be enhanced with the help of training to mitigate distress both for the messenger and the recipient. We tested the effectiveness of training for the delivery of a layoff as a typical bad news event at work. In 2 studies, we compared the performance of a training group (receiving both components of training) with that of a control group (Study 1, Study 2) and a basics group (receiving the bad news delivery component only; Study 2) during a simulated dismissal notification meeting. In general, the results supported our hypotheses: Training improved the formal delivery of bad news and predicted indicators of procedural fairness during the conversation in both studies. In Study 2, we also considered layoff victims' negativity after the layoff and found that training significantly reduced negative responses. This relationship was fully mediated by layoff victims' fairness perceptions. Despite preparation, however, giving bad news remained a challenging task in both studies. In summary, we recommend that organizations provide managers with organizational bad news training in order to promote professional and fair bad news conversations at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. [Breaking bad news in oncology: the Belgian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevallez, F; Lienard, A; Gibon, A-S; Razavi, D

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex and frequent clinical task for physicians working in oncology. It can have a negative impact on patients and their relatives who are often present during breaking bad news consultations. Many factors influence how the delivery of bad news will be experienced especially the communication skills used by physicians. A three-phase process (post-delivery phase, delivery phase, pre-delivery phase) has been developed to help physician to handle this task more effectively. Communication skills and specific breaking bad news training programs are both necessary and effective. A recent study conducted in Belgium has shown their impact on the time allocated to each of the three phases of this process, on the communication skills used, on the inclusion of the relative in the consultation and on physicians' physiological arousal. These results underscore the importance of promoting intensive communication skills and breaking bad news training programs for health care professionals.

  8. The Natural Selection of Bad Science

    CERN Document Server

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favor them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing---no deliberate cheating nor loafing---by scientists, only that publication is a principle factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further publication instead of discovery. In order to improve the culture of science, a shift must be made away from correcting misunderstandings and towards rewarding understanding. We support this argument with empirical evidence and computational modeling. We first present a 60-year meta-analysis of statistical power in the behavioral sciences and show that power has not improved despite repeated demonstrations of the necessity...

  9. Drinking Tea May Lower Bad Cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; Doering; 郑凤听

    2003-01-01

    喝茶,有益于健康。本文所说的是“红茶”(black tea),而非“绿茶”(green tea)。在美国喝茶者简直与时俱增:…total sales of tea in 2002 were$5.03 billion,up from$1.84 billion in 1990!本文用深入浅出的语言对喝茶的益处作了说明,同时,其文字表达也不乏可以品味处,如下句中的动词saw:Those who bad regular tea saw their LDL levels drop about 11 percent comparedwith the caffeine placebo.

  10. Pathologic overproduction: the bad side of adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-02

    Adenosine is an endogenous ubiquitous purine nucleoside, increased by hypoxia, ischemia and tissue damage that mediates a number of physiopathological effects by interacting with four G-protein-coupled receptors, identified as A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 . Physiological and acutely-increased adenosine is associated with beneficial effects mostly including vasodilation and decrease of inflammation. In contrast chronic overproduction of adenosine occurs in important pathological states, where long lasting increases in the nucleoside levels are responsible for the bad side of adenosine associated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis and organ damage. In this review we describe and critically discuss the pathologic overproduction of adenosine analysing when, where and how adenosine exerts its detrimental effects through the body.

  11. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M.O. [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  12. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  13. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  14. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  15. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  16. Green energy. Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

  17. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  18. Scientific disintegrity as a public bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In this article, I argue that scientific dishonesty essentially results from an incentive problem; I do so using a standard economic model-the public bad. Arguably, at least in the short run, most scientists would increase their personal utility by being sloppy with scientific standards. Yet, if they do, it becomes more difficult for all scientists to make their voice heard in society, to convince policy makers to assign public funds to academia, and to lead fulfilling academic lives. The nature of the ensuing governance problem (and appropriate policy intervention) hinges on the definition of scientists' utility function. The policy problem is less grave if society attaches disproportionally more weight to severe or widespread violations and if individual scientists do not precisely know in advance when they will quit their academic lives. If most scientists internalize most scientific standards, then the problem is alleviated. However, internalization is immaterial if honorable scientists dislike that others advance their careers by violating those standards. Sanctions are helpful, even if relatively mild. However, it is important to also punish those who do not punish others for breaking the rules or, alternatively, to put some centralized mechanism for vigilance and enforcement into place.

  19. The natural selection of bad science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; McElreath, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favour them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing-no deliberate cheating nor loafing-by scientists, only that publication is a principal factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further publication instead of discovery. In order to improve the culture of science, a shift must be made away from correcting misunderstandings and towards rewarding understanding. We support this argument with empirical evidence and computational modelling. We first present a 60-year meta-analysis of statistical power in the behavioural sciences and show that power has not improved despite repeated demonstrations of the necessity of increasing power. To demonstrate the logical consequences of structural incentives, we then present a dynamic model of scientific communities in which competing laboratories investigate novel or previously published hypotheses using culturally transmitted research methods. As in the real world, successful labs produce more 'progeny,' such that their methods are more often copied and their students are more likely to start labs of their own. Selection for high output leads to poorer methods and increasingly high false discovery rates. We additionally show that replication slows but does not stop the process of methodological deterioration. Improving the quality of research requires change at the institutional level.

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Jul. 09, 2013 With the popularity of 3- ... if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology healthy for your or ...

  1. Soybean nutritional properties: The good and the bad about soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean nutritional properties: The good and the bad about soy foods ... Nevertheless, data linking soy consumption to reduced risk of osteoporosis, prostate, ... due to its health benefits, African consumers are advised to take note of emerging ...

  2. Obesity May Be Bad for The Brain, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160349.html Obesity May Be Bad for the Brain, Too Study ... that of a 60-year-old lean person. "Obesity is associated with a host of biological processes ...

  3. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency.

  4. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Jul. 09, 2013 ... computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3- ...

  5. Breaking bad news: structured training for family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Lea; Alperin, Mordechai; Amiel, Gilad E; Beharier, Zvi; Reis, Shmuel

    2002-09-01

    Previous research has shown that physicians experience incompetence and difficulty in dealing with patients' feelings after they have broken bad news to them. During the past 10 years, we have implemented a longitudinal training program targeting these issues. The present article describes this training and discusses its contribution to doctors' skills at approaching distressed patients. In order to cope with breaking bad news to patients and their families, physicians should be skilled at crisis intervention and communication techniques. They should also be aware of their personal attitudes and emotional reactions when breaking bad news. Each session encompassed these areas, as well as the most prominent issues arising when breaking bad news. In a 1-5 Likert scale, the course received an overall score of 4.47 (S.D. 0.51). Participants noted that they had gained relevant communication skills for future patient encounters.

  6. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your ...

  7. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your ...

  8. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol abuse, gambling and even compulsive use of computers and social media. Dr. Russell Poldrack, a neurobiologist ... they can replace a bad habit, even drug addiction, with another behavior, like exercising. "It doesn't ...

  9. US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions=Poor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC LOGIC ESSAY US INTERVENTION IN FAILED STATES: BAD ASSUMPTIONS = POOR ...2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions= Poor ...country remains in the grip of poverty , natural disasters, and stagnation. Rwanda Rwanda, another small African country, is populated principally

  10. 76 FR 58784 - Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY... Agreement with Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC, containing a civil penalty of $715,000.00. DATES: Any interested... accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Bad Boy Enterprises, LLC (``Bad Boy'') and staff (``Staff'') of the...

  11. Attaining New Heights With Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The launch of inter-governmental consultation ushers in a new era for Sino-German relations During his recent visit to Germany,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,together with German Chancellor Angela Merkel,inaugurated an inter-governmental cons ultation mechanism to enhance cooperation between the two countries.The two cochaired the first round of consultation in Berlin on June 28.This is a milestone in Sino-German relations since Germany is the first country to establish this kind of mecha-

  12. Bad Apples, Bad Barrel: Exploring Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Death

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.

  13. Why good accountants do bad audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Max H; Loewenstein, George; Moore, Don A

    2002-11-01

    On July 30, President Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act addressing corporate accountability. A response to recent financial scandals, the law tightened federal controls over the accounting industry and imposed tough new criminal penalties for fraud. The president proclaimed, "The era of low standards and false profits is over." If only it were that easy. The authors don't think corruption is the main cause of bad audits. Rather, they claim, the problem is unconscious bias. Without knowing it, we all tend to discount facts that contradict the conclusions we want to reach, and we uncritically embrace evidence that supports our positions. Accountants might seem immune to such distortions because they work with seemingly hard numbers and clear-cut standards. But the corporate-auditing arena is particularly fertile ground for self-serving biases. Because of the often subjective nature of accounting and the close relationships between accounting firms and their corporate clients, even the most honest and meticulous of auditors can unintentionally massage the numbers in ways that mask a company's true financial status, thereby misleading investors, regulators, and even management. Solving this problem will require far more aggressive action than the U.S. government has taken thus far. What's needed are practices and regulations that recognize the existence of bias and moderate its effects. True auditor independence will entail fundamental changes to the way the accounting industry operates, including full divestiture of consulting and tax services, rotation of auditing firms, and fixed-term contracts that prohibit client companies from firing their auditors. Less tangibly, auditors must come to appreciate the profound impact of self-serving biases on their judgment.

  14. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...... reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs....

  15. Schooling in Germany : Structural Deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiiver, H.

    2010-01-01

    The German educational system is battling with a range of challenges exposed by the PISA studies and other publications such as the OECD's "Education at a glance". This dissertation discusses four distinct topics, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Data. In Germany, the socio-economic b

  16. How to Break Bad News: Physicians’ and Nurses’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Bad news disclosure is one of the most complex tasks of physicians. Recent evidences indicate that patients' and physicians' attitude toward breaking bad news has been changed since few years ago. The evidence of breaking bad news is different across cultures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of medical staff toward breaking bad news to provide a clinical guideline in Iran."nMethods: A descriptive study was conducted during 2008-2009 on a sample of 100 medical staff (50 physicians and 50 nurses at Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital. The subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes toward the manner of revealing the diagnosis were registered in a questionnaire."nResults: The majority of the physicians (86%, n=43 and nurses (74%, n=37 , mostly the older and more experienced, tended to reveal the diagnosis to patients . Only a few physicians (8%, n=4 had been trained how to disclose bad news, which discloused diagnosis more than non trained ones."nPhysicians and nurses preferred to inform the patients about the diagnosis when either the patients were alone or in the presence of their spouse respectively .Only a few physicians (14% and nurses (24% agreed to explain life expectancy to patients."nConclusion: Compared to past, physicians and nurses are more willing to share cancer diagnosis with patients. However, lack of adequate communication skills in caregivers, and their concerns about managing patients' emotional reactions reduce their tendency to disclose bad news to the patients. Therefore, training physicians and nurses to expose bad news to the patients seems to be necessary.

  17. The Impact of "Bad" Argo Profiles on Ocean Data Assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chang-Xiang; ZHU Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found cold biases in a fraction of Argo profiles (hereinafter referred to as bad Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles) due to the pressure drifts during 2003 and 2006. These bad Argo profiles have had an important impact on in situ observation-based global ocean heat content estimates. This study investigated the impact of bad Argo profiles on ocean data assimilation results that were based on observations from diverse ocean observation systems, such as in situ profiles (e.g., Argo, expendable bathythermograph (XBT), and Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO), remote-sensing sea surface temperature products and satellite altimetry between 2004 and 2006. Results from this work show that the upper ocean heat content analysis is vulnerable to bad Argo profiles and demonstrate a cooling trend in the studied period despite the multiple independent data types that were assimilated. When the bad Argo profiles were excluded from the assimilation, the decreased heat content disappeared and a warming occurred. Combination of satellite altimetry and mass variation data from gravity satellite demonstrated an increase, which agrees well with the increased heat content. Additionally, when an additional Argo profile quality control procedure was utilized that simply removed the profiles that presented static unstable water columns, the results were very similar to those obtained when the bad Argo profiles were excluded from the assimilation. This indicates that an ocean data assimilation that uses multiple data sources with improved quality control could be less vulnerable to a major observation system failure, such as a bad Argo event.

  18. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  19. Retrofitting of VNG AG gas storage caverns near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt, 1991 through 2006; Umruestung gasgefuellter Kavernen auf den Untergrundspeichern Bad Lauchstaedt und Bernburg der VNG AG von 1991 bis 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C. [VNG Verbundnetz Gas AG (Germany); Rehmer, K.P.; Pischner, M. [Untergrundspeicher- und Gastechnologie-Systeme GmbH (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 1991 the VNG AG has started to modernize outdated installations of the underground gas storage caverns near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). On 33 caverns, which were mostly leached during the 70s and 80s of the last century, the old wellheads have been replaced (or will be replaced soon) by new ones. In this paper the reasons and technical suppositions for these measures will be explained. Most of the modifications have been made above gasfilled caverns and have been safe despite of the high pressures. The packer-system developed by UGS GmbH and VNG AG will be presented. Furthermore the technical procedures are grouped and described. Finally experiences and advantages will be underlined. (orig.)

  20. The application of genetic fuzzy clustering in bad data identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunjing; Gu, Deying

    2006-11-01

    Power system static state estimation is aimed at providing modern electric control centers with accurate and reliable real-time databases. To this end, not only should the state estimator be able to filter out random observation noise but it should also be able to detect the existence, identify the locations and remove the effects of bad data. Detecting and identifying bad data is very important in state estimation of power system. A new method presented in this paper is fuzzy clustering with genetic search. And simulation data proves that error contamination and submergence can be reduced so that real bad data can be detected and identified. A key advantage of the proposed method is that the clustering is independent of the space distribution of input samples. This method possesses characteristics so faster convergence rate and more exact clustering results than some typical clustering algorithms.

  1. Stability analysis for bad cavity lasers with inhomogeneously broadened gain

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Georgy A

    2016-01-01

    Bad cavity lasers are experiencing renewed interest in the context of active optical frequency standards, due to their enhanced robustness against fluctuations of the laser cavity. The gain medium would consist of narrow-linewidth atoms, either trapped inside the cavity or intersecting the cavity mode dynamically. A finite velocity distribution, atomic interactions, or interactions of realistic multilevel atoms with external field leads to an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic gain profile. This can bring the bad cavity laser to operate in unstable regimes characterized by complex temporal patterns of the field amplitude. We present a new and efficient method for the stability analysis of bad cavity lasers with inhomogeneously broadened gain. We apply this method to identify the steady-state solutions for the metrology-relevant case of spin-1/2 atoms interacting with an external magnetic field.

  2. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  3. A Black-Hole Primer: Particles, Waves, Critical Phenomena and Superradiant Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    These notes were prepared for a lecture on black holes delivered at the DPG Physics School "General Relativity @ 99" (Physikzentrum Bad Honnef, Germany, September 2014). The common thread of the lecture is the relation between geodesic stability and black-hole perturbations in the geometric optics limit. Chapter 1 establishes notation and discusses a common misconception on Michell's "Newtonian black holes". Chapters 2 and 3 deal with particle dynamics and wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes, respectively. All calculations should be simple enough that they can be done with pen and paper. Chapter 4 builds on this introduction to discuss two exciting topics in current research: critical phenomena in black-hole mergers and the black-hole bomb instability.

  4. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  5. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  6. Combating bad weather part I rain removal from video

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Current vision systems are designed to perform in normal weather condition. However, no one can escape from severe weather conditions. Bad weather reduces scene contrast and visibility, which results in degradation in the performance of various computer vision algorithms such as object tracking, segmentation and recognition. Thus, current vision systems must include some mechanisms that enable them to perform up to the mark in bad weather conditions such as rain and fog. Rain causes the spatial and temporal intensity variations in images or video frames. These intensity changes are due to the

  7. Expression of the Bcl-2 protein BAD promotes prostate cancer growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne J Smith

    Full Text Available BAD, a pro-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, has recently been identified as an integrator of several anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells. Thus, activation of EGFR, GPCRs or PI3K pathway leads to BAD phosphorylation and inhibition of apoptosis. Increased levels of BAD in prostate carcinomas have also been reported. It appears contradictory that instead of limiting expression of pro-apoptotic protein, prostate cancer cells choose to increase BAD levels while keeping it under tight phosphorylation control. Analysis of the effect of BAD on prostate cancer xenografts has shown that increased BAD expression enhances tumor growth, while knockdown of BAD expression by shRNA inhibits tumor growth. Tissue culture experiments demonstrated that increased BAD expression stimulates proliferation of prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that increased expression of BAD provides a proliferative advantage to prostate tumors, while BAD dephosphorylation increases sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis. Combination of proliferative and apoptotic properties prompts prostate cancer cells to be "addicted" to increased levels of phosphorylated BAD. Thus, kinases that phosphorylate BAD are plausible therapeutic targets; while monitoring BAD phosphorylation could be used to predict tumor response to treatments.

  8. A Man Caught Between Bad Anthropology and Good Theology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2010-01-01

    Martin Luther's view of women is as complex as his authorship is vast, encompassing a diversity of gneres and purposes. Luther seems ambivalent toward women like the tradition before and after him. In his reformation enterprise he appears as torn between his good theology and a bad anthropology...

  9. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos las Películas en ...

  10. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  11. The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen In order to design livable cities, a strategy of substituting motorized travel modes with non-motorized ones can be a solution to the problems of crowding/queuing and CO2 emissions. Prior to investing into bike infrastructure, knowledge...

  12. Adult Graduate Student Voices: Good and Bad Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…

  13. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Jul. 09, 2013 With the popularity of 3-D movies, it's natural to wonder what, if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3- ...

  14. Japanese cancer patients' communication style preferences when receiving bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Maiko; Parker, Patricia A; Akechi, Tatsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Baile, Walter F; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2007-07-01

    This study describes the communication style preferences of Japanese patients when receiving bad news, examines the factor structure of the measure for patients' preferences (MPP) in a Japanese population, and explores variables that may be associated with patients' communication style preferences. Five hundred twenty-nine cancer outpatients completed several psychosocial measures including the Japanese version of the MPP (MPP-J), the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MAC), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The patients desired detailed information and a supportive environment when receiving bad news. The MPP-J demonstrated a 5-factor structure: support, facilitation, medical information, clear explanation, and encouraging question-asking. Regression analyses indicated that a female gender, the fighting spirit and anxious preoccupation dimensions of the MAC were positively associated with all 5 MPP-J factors. In conclusion, Japanese cancer patients' preferences for communication when receiving bad news differ somewhat from those of American patients. Japanese physicians should encourage patients to ask questions and should consider the demographic (e.g. gender), medical (disease status) and psychosocial characteristics (fighting spirit and anxious preoccupation) of patients when delivering bad news.

  15. Adult Graduate Student Voices: Good and Bad Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…

  16. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿ ... computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3- ...

  17. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos ... if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology healthy for your or ...

  18. Curiosity Is Not Good--But It's Not Bad, Either

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Curiosity is vital quality of the creative work. However, in the classroom, educators seem to view curiosity as alternately amoral, virtuous, or dangerous. Education's stance towards curiosity is, in a word, curious. Conversely, the author says, curiosity is inherently amoral--neither good nor bad--and the subject is ripe for an exploration of the…

  19. 78 FR 35091 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BAD INFLUENCE... of the vessel BAD INFLUENCE is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``6 pack fishing...

  20. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  1. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  2. Perspectives for Germany's Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2006-01-01

    For various reasons, the policies governing the energy sector have a central role to play in Germany. Thus, for example, competition on the electricity and gas markets will have to be increased considerably in the course of the market's liberalization. At the same time, a secure supply of energy must also be ensured, in other words, the matters of preventing short-term power outages while ensuring the long-term availability of energy resources must be dealt with. Last but not least, the envir...

  3. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  4. Implications of Germany's declining defense spending

    OpenAIRE

    Merrath, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    With its reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany regained its full sovereignty and stands now in a position of greater global responsibility. Faced with dramatically increased demands on and expectations for Germany's armed forces, it must answer the question of how much it is willing to invest for safety and stability in Europe and for protection of peace in the world. In determining the level of commitment behind Germany's foreign and security policy, defense spending is an important indic...

  5. Breaking bad news issues: A survey among radiation oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discussion of bad news and resuscitation in terminal cancer is an important but difficult and often neglected issue in day-to-day oncology practice. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 35 radiation oncologists using an indigenous 15-item questionnaire on their beliefs about breaking bad news and resuscitation to terminal cancer patients. Results: Most responders had an oncology experience of three to seven years (20/35.Thirty-two were comfortable discussing cancer diagnosis, prognosis and life expectancy-related issues. A similar number believed all cancer-related information should be disclosed, while only four believed in imparting all information in one visit. All agreed that disclosing sensitive information did not affect survival. When requested by relatives to withhold truth from patients, 11 said they would not comply, 22 agreed to tell the truth only if asked and two agreed to avoid difficult questions. Twenty responders denied having been adequately trained in breaking bad news and were keen on dedicated classes or sessions in this area of practice. Most (33/35 believed that Indian patients were keen on knowing their diagnosis and prognosis. Although all agreed to the importance of discussing resuscitation, only 17 believed patients should be involved. Majority (20/35 agreed that the issue needs to be discussed while the patient was conscious. Patients with unsalvageable disease were deemed unsuitable for aggressive resuscitation by 30 responders while the rest believed it should be offered to all. Most (21/35 admitted to feeling depressed after breaking bad news though only seven felt disclosure was more stressful than untruthful statements. Only four knew of a law regarding resuscitation in cancer. Conclusion: Observing the widely varied beliefs and practices for disclosing bad news, it is recommended that such training be a regular part of medicine curriculum, especially in the Oncology setting.

  6. Venereal Diseases in Germany and Austria,

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUSTRIA, *GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), *VENEREAL DISEASES, SENSITIVITY, DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), MEDICAL RESEARCH, SERODIAGNOSIS, CHEMOTHERAPY, ANTIBIOTICS, PENICILLINS, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM .

  7. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the program. (b) Definitions—(1) Bad debts. Bad debts are amounts considered to be uncollectible... the definition of a “full-benefit dual eligible individual” at § 423.772 of this chapter. (i) Exception. Bad debts arising from covered services paid under a reasonable charge-based methodology or a...

  8. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the...

  9. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  10. 26 CFR 1.593-7 - Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad... Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts. (a) Establishment of reserves—(1) In general. A taxpayer...) accumulated for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1951, in the taxpayer's reserve for bad...

  11. 26 CFR 1.585-5 - Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Denial of bad debt reserves for large banks. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Banking Institutions § 1.585-5 Denial of bad debt... other section for an addition to a reserve for bad debts. However, for these years, except as...

  12. 26 CFR 1.593-1 - Additions to reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additions to reserve for bad debts. 1.593-1... bad debts. (a) In general. A mutual savings bank not having capital stock represented by shares, a... reserve for bad debts in the manner and under the circumstances prescribed in this section and §...

  13. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII-IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1) intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2) vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3) the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years) the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  14. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  15. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  16. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  17. Splitting the mind within the individual, nation and economy: reflections on the struggle for integration in post-war Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plänkers, Tomas

    2015-02-01

    With respect to theorisations of psychical splitting, this paper explores the psychical mechanisms that underlie different forms of social splitting. The paper first outlines Freud's and Kleins different theorisations of the psychical mechanisms of splitting, where the good is split from the bad, the inside split from the outside, and the painful disavowed. I then consider the psychical mechanisms of splitting that underlie ideological supports of certain social systems, specifically that of National Socialist Germany, East Germany during the Cold War period, and neoliberal capitalism. Here, I consider ideological splits between good and evil, the relation between external and internal splits, the relation between geographical, social and internal splitting, as well as splitting as disavowal of the other. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  19. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  20. CPAFFC Agricultural Delegation Visits Germany and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Germany-China Friendship Association-Stuttgart (GCFA-Stuttgart) and the Austrian-Chinese Friendship Association (ACFA),a delegation for studying agriculture composed of members from localities organized and sent by the CPAFFC paid a visit to Germany and Austria from June 11 to 23. The delegation visited farms and

  1. Why Study Germany and Europe Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Provides 10 reasons why the study of Germany and the European Community should be taught in U.S. social studies. Argues that the cultural interrelationships between the United States and Germany are historically significant. Contends that the experiences of post-World War II German reconstruction and the reunification after the Cold War can serve…

  2. Crossopriza lyoni new to Germany (Araneae: Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867 from Germany is presented. The species seems to be established at two localities in Stuttgart, Germany. Some information about the biology of the populations is given. The cosmopolitan distribution pattern and a possible route of introduction are discussed.

  3. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Harry (comp.)

    2015-10-16

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  4. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  5. Are Empathy and Compassion Bad for the Professional Social Worker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nilsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.

  6. [Health and justice in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  7. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. German sleep centers. Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. None; observational study. A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94-7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. For the years 2007-2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Meetings-the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Eileen

    2011-12-01

    Much has been written about how to facilitate an effective meeting, but apparently not every meeting facilitator has read the literature because every occupational health nurse has endured a "bad" meeting. Individuals who chair meetings have a responsibility to create meetings that are worthwhile to the attendees; attendees have a responsibility to be prepared for meetings so meetings are productive. This article reviews key meeting strategies, providing readers with ways to improve meetings they attend or facilitate.

  9. Asset Return Dynamics under Bad Environment Good Environment Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a "bad environment-good environment" technology for consumption growth in a consumption- based asset pricing model. Using the preference structure from Campbell and Cochrane (1999), the model generates realistic time-varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis in fundamentals while still permitting closed-form solutions for asset prices. The model not only fits standard salient asset prices features including means and volatilities for equity returns and risk free rates, but also g...

  10. A Distance Function Model with Good and Bad Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach that pursues an adequate representation of product transformation possibilities for a technology generating, in addition to marketed (good) products, some environmentally detrimental non-marketed byproducts (bad outputs). As the shadow price of a non-marketed output depends on its marginal transformation rates with marketed outputs, representation of technological relationships between different groups of outputs deserves a particular attention. We model the technology ...

  11. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    OpenAIRE

    Naimer, Sody A.; Moshe Pero

    2014-01-01

    Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is inter...

  12. In Praise of Bad Codes for Multi-Terminal Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Bennatan, Amir; Calderbank, A Robert

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Gaussian interference channel and the erasure relay channel. We focus on codes that are non-capacity-achieving ("bad") over appropriate point-to-point (two-terminal) channels. Over Gaussian point-to-point channels, for example, such codes require greater SNR than "good" ones to achieve reliable communications, but often exhibit lower estimation errors whenever the SNR is below the Shannon limit. Over multi-terminal channels, this advantage of "bad" codes at lower SNRs can be exploited by strategies that apply estimation, at various network nodes, to achieve partial decoding. Such strategies include soft partial interference cancelation (soft-IC) and soft decode-and-forward (soft-DF). We develop variants of these two approaches, which are susceptible to rigorous analysis. We focus on applications of "bad" LDPC codes. We develop analysis tools for soft-DF, including simultaneous density evolution (sim-DE), and use standard density evolution to analyze soft-IC. We apply our analysis to the design ...

  13. Biochemical and biophysical investigations of the interaction between human glucokinase and pro-apoptotic BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexford, Alix; Zorio, Diego A R; Miller, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD's BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD. Consistent with published reports, recombinant BAD displays high affinity for Bcl-xL (KD = 7 nM), and phosphorylation of BAD at S118, within the BH3 domain, abolishes this interaction. Unexpectedly, we do not detect association of recombinant, full-length BAD with recombinant human pancreatic GCK over a range of protein concentrations using various biochemical methods including size-exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Furthermore, fluorescence polarization assays and isothermal titration calorimetry detect no direct interaction between GCK and BAD BH3 peptides. Kinetic characterization of GCK in the presence of high concentrations of recombinant BAD show modest (BAD BH3 peptides. These results raise questions as to the mechanism of action of stapled peptide analogs modeled after the BAD BH3 domain, which reportedly enhance the Vmax value of GCK and stimulate insulin release in BAD-deficient islets. Based on our results, we postulate that the BAD:GCK interaction, and any resultant regulatory effect(s) upon GCK activity, requires the participation of additional members of the mitochondrial complex.

  14. 26 CFR 1.582-1 - Bad debts, losses, and gains with respect to securities held by financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Bad debts, losses, and gains with respect to... § 1.582-1 Bad debts, losses, and gains with respect to securities held by financial institutions. (a) Bad debt deduction for banks. A bank, as defined in section 581, is allowed a deduction for bad...

  15. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  16. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  17. Germany: Twenty Years After The Union

    OpenAIRE

    Pete Mavrokordatos; Stan Stascinsky; Andrew Michael

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important events in the world after World War II was the reunification of Germany, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general economic conditions in Germany, before and after the reunification. This paper is divided into four parts. The introductory section provides a summative discussion of the economic conditions in East and West Germany from World War II until the time of reunification. The second section presents an evaluation of...

  18. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N

    1996-05-01

    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency.

  19. Germany's Population: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future

    OpenAIRE

    Heilig, G.K.; Büttner, T; W. Lutz

    1990-01-01

    When the two Germanies were reunited in 1990, 16 million East Germans were added to the West German population, giving it a 20 million person advantage over Italy, France and the United Kingdom. This report traces the history of German population growth from the 1870s through World War II and up to the present. The authors examine the demographic trends of the new Germany and the prospects for future growth. Until 1990, marriage, fertility, and mortality followed different paths in the...

  20. The Immigrant Wage Gap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan L. Thomsen; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants' wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.

  1. Communicative competence in the delivery of bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillotti, Cathy; Thompson, Teresa; McNeilis, Kelly

    2002-04-01

    Grounded in the Cegala and Waldron (Communication Studies 43 (1992) 105) model of communicative competence, the present study applied the McNeilis (Health Communication 13 (2001) 5) provider-patient coding scheme to video tapes of 3rd year medical students delivering bad news to a standardized patient. The goal of the study was to understand the specific communicative moves that are associated with perceptions of competence during bad news delivery. The coding scheme assesses Content, Acknowledgment Tokens, Interruptions, Alignment, and Function of the message. Naïve observers also evaluated the tapes on several items, assessing empathy and communicative effectiveness. Nonmedical talk was the most common type of content, followed by discussion of the current health problem. Neither acknowledgment tokens nor interruptions were frequent. The most common function of a message was a closed question, followed by explanations, assertions, and open questions. Summing across the functions indicated that information giving was the nost common behavior. The perceivers' data showed fairly neutral assessments of the medical students--they were generally not evaluated very positively, although they were not disliked. Regression analyses indicated numerous specific communicative behaviors that were associated with judgments of competence. Statements falling into the Nonspecific Content category were associated with more positive perceptions, while relational statements, moderately closed questions, solicited answers, expansions, restatements, assertions, explanations, open questions, bracketing, and small talk as well as information verifying, seeking, and giving (summed functions) led to more negative perceptions. The results indicate that the delivery of bad news requires communicative moves that differ from other kinds of medical communication. Depending on the results of future analyses of this topic health are providers may be well advised to focus little of their

  2. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Staeck

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  3. The good, the bad and the ugly .... of Horava gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    I review the good, the bad and the ugly of the non-projectable versions of Horava gravity. I explain how this non-relativistic theory was constructed and why it was touted with such excitement as a quantum theory of gravity. I then review some of the issues facing the theory, explaining how strong coupling occurs and why this is such a problem for both phenomenology and the question of renormalisability. Finally I comment on possible violations of Equivalence Principle, and explain why these could be an issue for Blas et al's "healthy extension". This paper was presented as a talk at PASCOS 2010 in Valencia.

  4. Are high real interest rates bad for world economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    There is a conventional perception that high real interest rates are bad for economic growth. However, the authors show that close examination of the experience over the last 40 years undermines the existence of such a relationship. For much of the 1950-79 period, expost real interest rates were less than the growth rate of income in the major economies, whereas the 1980s were a period of rapid growth in the world economy that coincided withunprecedentedly high real interest rates. The author...

  5. Rapamycin induces Bad phosphorylation in association with its resistance to human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Shi-Yong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Sica, Gabriel L; Curran, Walter J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Deng, Xingming

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 or 2 (ERK1/2) and Akt in various types of cancer cells, which contributes to rapamycin resistance. However, the downstream effect of rapamycin-activated ERKs and Akt on survival or death substrate(s) remains unclear. We discovered that treatment of human lung cancer cells with rapamycin results in enhanced phosphorylation of Bad at serine (S) 112 and S136 but not S155 in association with activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. A higher level of Bad phosphorylation was observed in rapamycin-resistant cells compared with parental rapamycin-sensitive cells. Thus, Bad phosphorylation may contribute to rapamycin resistance. Mechanistically, rapamycin promotes Bad accumulation in the cytosol, enhances Bad/14-3-3 interaction, and reduces Bad/Bcl-XL binding. Rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, with a significant reduction of its half-life (i.e., from 53.3-37.5 hours). Inhibition of MEK/ERK by PD98059 or depletion of Akt by RNA interference blocks rapamycin-induced Bad phosphorylation at S112 or S136, respectively. Simultaneous blockage of S112 and S136 phosphorylation of Bad by PD98059 and silencing of Akt significantly enhances rapamycin-induced growth inhibition in vitro and synergistically increases the antitumor efficacy of rapamycin in lung cancer xenografts. Intriguingly, either suppression of Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 sites or expression of the nonphosphorylatable Bad mutant (S112A/S136A) can reverse rapamycin resistance. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of rapamycin resistance, which may promote the development of new strategies for overcoming rapamycin resistance by manipulating Bad phosphorylation at S112 and S136 in human lung cancer.

  6. [Historical study on traditional Chinese formulations and crude drugs used for bad breath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Honda, Mami; Honda, Shun-Ichi; Tani, Tadato

    2011-01-01

    Bad breath is a topic of general interest. In this study, the treatment for bad breath in traditional Chinese medicine was reviewed with a special focus on pathologic diagnosis and crude drug prescriptions. It was shown that bad breath developed based on both systemic and local diseases. Some systemic conditions, including nasal, paranasal, pulmonary and digestive diseases, are considered to cause bad breath. The morbid state of a patient with bad breath has been recognized as being based on "heat syndrome" and "Qi-stagnation syndrome." Bad breath based on "heat syndrome" is manifested as thirst and ulceration of the oral cavity, and has been treated with crude drugs such as Coptis rhizome, Scutellaria root and gypsum. One case study reported that bad breath resulting from a dry mouth was treated with byakkokaninjinto, a Kampo formulation containing gypsum. "Qi" is considered to be the vital energy of all life forms including for the functioning of organs and mental and emotional activity. "Qi-stagnation syndrom," referring to the dysfunction of organs, is manifested as psychosomatic symptoms such as irritability, a flushed face and restlessness. Bad breath based on "Qi-stagnation syndrome" has been treated with crude drugs such as Cnidium rhizome, clove and cinnamon bark. Modern dental and medical treatment both accept the participation of psychogenic agents in the development of bad breath. Bad breath also develops based on periodontal and oral diseases. This type of bad breath has been treated with mouth-wash (collutorium) containing Asiasarum root, Angelica dahurica root and Cnidium rhizome. This historical evidence regarding crude drug prescriptions contributes to the development of mouth care products for preventing and treating bad breath.

  7. The good, the bad or the ugly: Microbial biomass of biogas residues as a contributor to soil carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, H.; Miltner, A.; Kaestner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Loss of soil organic matter is a recent problem in soils all over the world. This can be related to enhanced mineralization of the soil organic matter due to land use change, which is a source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide increase. For example, the carbon input from plant residues is reduced because of the increased cultivation of bioenergy crops. In order to avoid soil degradation, application of biogas residues is a common practice in such areas. Biogas residues are side products of biogas production and contain microbial biomass. Application of these residues as soil additive influences the soil microorganisms as well as the carbon cycle. We study this effect by incubating 13C-labeled biogas residues in an arable soil from the Static Fertilization Experiment in Bad Lauchstaedt, Germany. Labeled residues were produced via labeling of active microbial biomass by addition of KH13CO3 to biogas reactors. High enrichment in the various phospholipid fatty acids proved the successful labeling of the biomass. The labeled biogas residues are being long-term incubated in the soil. During incubation, we monitor the fate of the carbon by analyzing the label in phospholipid fatty acids, amino acids as well as carbon dioxide. This allows us to trace the fate of the biogas residues-derived C in soil and to quantify the effect on the transformation of the natural soil organic matter (e.g. negative effects such as priming effects). Also, microbial community dynamics will be determined using molecular biology tools such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). In order to prevent potentially negative effects, various additives such as charred biomaterials, clays and chopped bark will be tested to improve the carbon storage in soil. In conclusion, this study investigates the fate and impact of biogas residues used as a soil additive on the soil microbial community and amount of soil organic matter. It is aimed to understand and

  8. Properties of induced seismicity at the geothermal reservoir Insheim, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Kai; Küperkoch, Ludger; Thomas, Meier

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the German MAGS2 Project the processing of induced events at the geothermal power plant Insheim, Germany, has been reassessed and evaluated. The power plant is located close to the western rim of the Upper Rhine Graben in a region with a strongly heterogeneous subsurface. Therefore, the location of seismic events particularly the depth estimation is challenging. The seismic network consisting of up to 50 stations has an aperture of approximately 15 km around the power plant. Consequently, the manual processing is time consuming. Using a waveform similarity detection algorithm, the existing dataset from 2012 to 2016 has been reprocessed to complete the catalog of induced seismic events. Based on the waveform similarity clusters of similar events have been detected. Automated P- and S-arrival time determination using an improved multi-component autoregressive prediction algorithm yields approximately 14.000 P- and S-arrivals for 758 events. Applying a dataset of manual picks as reference the automated picking algorithm has been optimized resulting in a standard deviation of the residuals between automated and manual picks of about 0.02s. The automated locations show uncertainties comparable to locations of the manual reference dataset. 90 % of the automated relocations fall within the error ellipsoid of the manual locations. The remaining locations are either badly resolved due to low numbers of picks or so well resolved that the automatic location is outside the error ellipsoid although located close to the manual location. The developed automated processing scheme proved to be a useful tool to supplement real-time monitoring. The event clusters are located at small patches of faults known from reflection seismic studies. The clusters are observed close to both the injection as well as the production wells.

  9. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  10. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; De la Parra, Columba; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J; Wade, Paul A; Saxton, Arnold M; Donnell, Robert M; Pestell, Richard G; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Wimalasena, Jay

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer.

  11. In ‘prison-house of love’: The Bad Girl and bad girls of Mario Vargas Llosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin Ahmed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mario Vargas Llosa’s recent novel The Bad Girl centers around a sexually liberated woman whois in search of individual emancipation through transgressions of all social norms. The issue offemale sexuality and its relation with woman liberation occupies an important and debatableposition in Feminist discourse. Llosa’s own attitude to liberated female sexuality had been anambivalent one. In this paper I would like analyse and explore the question of woman’s liberationin the novel of Mario Vargas Llosa, taking into account the major conflicting Feminist discoursesas well as the presence and erasure of female sexuality in the history of Latin American novels.

  12. The Bad Bugs Book Club: Science, Literacy, and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Verran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bad Bugs Bookclub was launched in 2009. It comprises scientists and non-scientists. The aim of the Bookclub is to read and discuss novels where infectious disease forms part of the plot, in order to enhance learning about microbiology. The focus of the discussion is on appreciation of the novel, its scientific (microbiologic accuracy and relevance to contemporary microbiology. There are several potential audiences for the Bad Bugs Bookclub, for example students in a classroom setting, or in a more social environment, and/or the general public.  Meeting reports and reading guides have been posted on a dedicated website. For education purposes, additional project work for assessment is suggested for students reading each novel. Bookclub meetings may be held on particular dates in the microbiologic calendar, coupled with additional public engagement activities and student participation. The approach has significant flexibility in terms of intended audience, assessment and extension work, and provides a refreshing and stimulating alternative means for talking about microbiology.

  13. Reversing one's fortune by pushing away bad luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L; Hosey, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Across cultures, people try to "undo" bad luck with superstitious rituals such as knocking on wood, spitting, or throwing salt. We suggest that these rituals reduce the perceived likelihood of anticipated negative outcomes because they involve avoidant actions that exert force away from one's representation of self, which simulates the experience of pushing away bad luck. Five experiments test this hypothesis by having participants tempt fate and then engage in avoidant actions that are either superstitious (Experiment 1, knocking on wood) or nonsuperstitious (Experiments 2-5, throwing a ball). We find that participants who knock down (away from themselves) or throw a ball think that a jinxed negative outcome is less likely than participants who knock up (toward themselves) or hold a ball. Experiments 3 and 4 provide evidence that after tempting fate, engaging in an avoidant action leads to less clear mental representations for the jinxed event, which, in turn, leads to lower perceived likelihoods. Finally, we demonstrate that engaging in an avoidant action-rather than creating physical distance-is critical for reversing the perceived effect of the jinx. Although superstitions are often culturally defined, the underlying psychological processes that give rise to them may be shared across cultures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Delivering Bad News: An Approach According to Jewish Scriptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sody A. Naimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible.

  15. Delivering bad news: an approach according to jewish scriptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, Sody A; Prero, Moshe

    2014-07-01

    Despite a preoccupation in the medical literature with developing an effective approach for breaking bad news, the sources are based on personal opinion alone and only in some instances on qualitative research. Recognizing the gravity of this topic coupled with respect for the wisdom of the written and oral Jewish scriptures, this work is an attempt to delve into the diverse ancient writings to draw conclusions regarding a recommended methodology to guide and inform this task. It is interesting to learn that most elements related to this topic have previously been raised in various forms in the scriptures. The issues range from where, when, and how the bearer of bad news should undertake this duty, to details such as the environment, the format, the speed, and depth of the details to be disclosed. The essence of this paper is to enrich the reader using both positive and negative examples found in the Jewish heritage. Adopting these principles will hopefully provide an effective method for performing this unpleasant obligation, with the goal of limiting harmful consequences as much as possible.

  16. Cytokines: The Good, the Bad, and the Deadly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Thulasi; Auletta, Carol S; Weinstock, Daniel; Mounho-Zamora, Barbara; Ryan, Patricia C; Salcedo, Theodora W; Bannish, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the world of pharmaceutical toxicology has seen an explosion in the area of cytokines. An overview of the many aspects of cytokine safety evaluation currently in progress and evolving strategies for evaluating these important entities was presented at this symposium. Cytokines play a broad role to help the immune system respond to diseases, and drugs which modulate their effect have led to some amazing therapies. Cytokines may be "good" when stimulating the immune system to fight a foreign pathogen or attack tumors. Other "good" cytokine effects include reduction of an immune response, for example interferon β reduction of neuron inflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis. They may be "bad" when their expression causes inflammatory diseases, such as the role of tumor necrosis factor α in rheumatoid arthritis or asthma and Crohn's disease. Therapeutic modulation of cytokine expression can help the "good" cytokines to generate or quench the immune system and block the "bad" cytokines to prevent damaging inflammatory events. However, care must be exercised, as some antibody therapeutics can cause "ugly" cytokine release which can be deadly. Well-designed toxicology studies should incorporate careful assessment of cytokine modulation that will allow effective therapies to treat unmet needs. This symposium discussed lessons learned in cytokine toxicology using case studies and suggested future directions.

  17. EMAS declaration 2010 of the Federal Office for Environment Protection in Bad Elser and the updated EMAS declaration 2010 for the sites Dessau-Rosslau, Berlin-Bismarckplatz, Berlin-Marienfelde, Langen and the house 23 in Berlin-Dahlem; EMAS-Umwelterklaerung 2010 des Umweltbundesamtes in Bad Elster und aktualisierte EMAS-Umwelterklaerung 2010 fuer die UBA-Standorte Dessau-Rosslau, Berlin-Bismarckplatz, Berlin-Marienfelde, Langen und das Haus 23 in Berlin-Dahlem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckestein, Burkhard (comp.)

    2010-07-01

    Since the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) introduced the EMAS regulation in 2001, the environmental management system continuously developed further. Since 2008, five locations fulfil the requirements of EMAS. The contribution under consideration combines the various activities according to the introduction of the EMAS regulation to Bad Elster (Federal Republic of Germany). The most important developments are described on the basis of key environmental indicators. The environmentally relevant goals and the planned measures are stated for this site. Besides this, this contribution contains the updated environmental explanation for the remaining five EMAS locations of the Federal Office for Environment Protection including the new developments of our environmental management system altogether as well as of updated environmental indicators.

  18. The Digital Age of Mobile Cellular Network in Germany and China :Policies, Technologies and Markets (PartⅠ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtao Shi

    2009-01-01

    The German Postal Reform Ⅰ in 1989 introduced competition in the mobile cellular market. German cellular operators, DeTeMobil, Mannesmann, E-Plus and VIAG Interkom, built DI-, D2-, El- and E2-Netze based on GSM standards made in Europe. China Unicom was created in 1994 and China Telecom was separated from MPT in 1995. China Telecom and China Unicorn competed in a duopoly from the mid-1990s onwards and the cellular services provided by them also rely on GSM standards. China Telecom additionally deployed XLT technology (PHS) from the late 1990s onwards. While DeTeMobil and Mannesmarm conquered approximately 80%-90% of the market throughout the 1990s and were the two dominant market players in Germany, China's cellular market was mainly controlled by China Mobile. In Germany, prices related to cellular technology continued the downwards trend as a major result of the process of deregulation, liberalisation and competition. In China, price wars bad led to significant price reductions in the cellular market. Although network operators in both countries strived to deliver differentiated cellular Services, the two national markets in the 1990s were visibly shaped by product homogeneity.

  19. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  20. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  1. Communicating bad news: an integrative review of the nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello; Menezes, Daniele Vieira de; Borgato, Maria Helena; Luiz, Marcos Roberto

    2017-01-01

    describe how the process of breaking bad news is established and identify how nurses approach the task of giving bad news. integrative review of the literature for articles in Portuguese and English published between 1993-2014, in the databases: Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Embase. Nine articles were included using the selection flow chart. A digital form was completed for each article according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist and the level of scientific evidence was determined. Of the 99 articles in identified, nine were included after applying the selection flowchart. breaking bad news is frequent in the area of oncology and palliative care, with a strong cultural influence on the autonomy of nurses in this process. the approach and skills of the nurse during this task influences the patient's reaction to the message. The theme is scarce in the literature and merits further investigation. Descrever como se estabelece o processo de comunicação de más notícias e identificar como o enfermeiro pratica a comunicação de más notícias. Revisão integrativa da literatura com artigos em português e inglês referente ao período 1993-2014 nas bases de dados Bireme, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL e Embase. Elegeram-se nove artigos pelo fluxograma de seleção. Para cada artigo foi preenchida uma ficha eletrônica, elaborado um checklist do Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research e verificado o nível de evidência científica. Foram identificados 99 artigos e incluídos nove pelo fluxograma de seleção. Transmitir más notícias é frequente nas áreas de oncologia e cuidados paliativos, com forte influência cultural na autonomia do enfermeiro nesse processo. O modo e a habilidade do enfermeiro durante a ação influenciarão a reação do paciente acerca da mensagem. O tema é escasso na literatura, necessitando ser explorado.

  2. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Reed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Purpose: Our objectives were to determine: 1 performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP setting; and 2 the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Methods: Forty first- year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol. Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI as a measure of EI. Results: Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. Conclusions: We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  3. Cue-responding in a simulated bad news situation: exploring a stress hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Hulsman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  4. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Gretchen N.

    2004-01-01

    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  5. Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Andrew P; Adkins, Eric J; Knepel, Sheri; Boulger, Creagh; Miller, Jessica; Bahner, David P

    2011-07-01

    Simulation experiences have begun to replace traditional education models of teaching the skill of bad news delivery in medical education. The tiered apprenticeship model of medical education emphasizes experiential learning. Studies have described a lack of support in bad news delivery and inadequacy of training in this important clinical skill as well as poor familial comprehension and dissatisfaction on the part of physicians in training regarding the resident delivery of bad news. Many residency training programs lacked a formalized training curriculum in the delivery of bad news. Simulation teaching experiences may address these noted clinical deficits in the delivery of bad news to patients and their families. Unique experiences can be role-played with this educational technique to simulate perceived learner deficits. A variety of scenarios can be constructed within the framework of the simulation training method to address specific cultural and religious responses to bad news in the medical setting. Even potentially explosive and violent scenarios can be role-played in order to prepare physicians for these rare and difficult situations. While simulation experiences cannot supplant the model of positive, real-life clinical teaching in the delivery of bad news, simulation of clinical scenarios with scripting, self-reflection, and peer-to-peer feedback can be powerful educational tools. Simulation training can help to develop the skills needed to effectively and empathetically deliver bad news to patients and families in medical practice.

  6. Cyclin A-Cdk2 Phosphorylates BH3 only Protein Bad in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kan; CHEN Yue; LI Jing-hua; ZHAN Zhuo; WU Yong-ge; KONG Wei; JIN Ying-hua

    2007-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Cyclin A-Cdk2 activity is required in the apoptosis process induced by various stimuli. To determine a specific substrate of Cyclin A-Cdk2 for apoptosis, in this study, we carried out anin vitro kinase assay using immunoprecipitated complex Cyclin A-Cdk2 as an enzyme source, and recombinant protein GST-Bad as a substrate. Our study showed that Bad was clearly phosphorylated by Cyclin A-Cdk2 in vitro. To examine whether protein Bad can also be phosphorylated by Cyclin A-Cdk2 kinase in vivo, we transiently overexpressed protein Bad with Cyclin A or Cdk2-dn, a dominant negative version of Cdk2, in Hela cells and determined the phosphorylation status of protein Bad. The test showed that protein Bad was clearly phosphorylated in Cyclin A overexpressed cells,but not in Cdk2-dn or mock transfectent. Moreover, etoposide also caused the phosphorylation of endogenetic Bad. In conclusion, here we provide first time evidence that protein Bad can be a substrate of Cyclin A-Cdk2 apoptosis for in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Reconsiderations: We Got the Wrong Gal--Rethinking the "Bad" Academic Writing of Judith Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstein, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to think of a writer whose work has been more prominently upheld as an example of bad academic writing than the philosopher and literary theorist Judith Butler. In 1998, Butler was awarded first prize in the annual Bad Writing Contest established by the journal "Philosophy and Literature," and early in 1999, was lampooned in an…

  8. Leading by Example? Investment Decisions in a Mixed Sequential-Simultaneous Public Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.C.M.; Moxnes, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of having a leader in a laboratory public bad experiment with five subjects in each group.The control treatment is a standard public bad experiment, while in the leader treatments the design is such that in each group the leader decides first on his or her

  9. Public bads and private firms: efficiency and sustainability with different allocations of voting rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, Aloys; Burg, van der Tsjalle

    2013-01-01

    A number of authors have proposed that firms can internalize externalities through their shareholders. This paper investigates this proposition, focusing on public bads. Theoretically it is, indeed, possible that shareholders decide that the firm reduces its public bads at the cost of profits, there

  10. Medical students' attitudes towards breaking bad news: an empirical test of the World Health Organization model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bensing, J.; Bruynooghe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The literature regarding breaking bad news distinguishes three disclosure models: non-disclosure, full-disclosure and individualized disclosure. In this study, we investigated the relations between attitudes regarding disclosure of bad news and global professional attitudes regarding medical care in

  11. The “Bad Labor” Footprint: Quantifying the Social Impacts of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana S. Simas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The extent to what bad labor conditions across the globe are associated with international trade is unknown. Here, we quantify the bad labor conditions associated with consumption in seven world regions, the “bad labor” footprint. In particular, we analyze how much occupational health damage, vulnerable employment, gender inequality, share of unskilled workers, child labor, and forced labor is associated with the production of internationally traded goods. Our results show that (i as expected, there is a net flow of bad labor conditions from developing to developed regions; (ii the production of exported goods in lower income regions contributes to more than half of the bad labor footprints caused by the wealthy lifestyles of affluent regions; (iii exports from Asia constitute the largest global trade flow measured in the amount bad labor, while exports from Africa carry the largest burden of bad labor conditions per unit value traded and per unit of total labor required; and (IV the trade of food products stands out in both volume and intensity of bad labor conditions.

  12. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches.

  14. A New Efficient Algorithm for the All Sorting Reversals Problem with No Bad Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The problem of finding all reversals that take a permutation one step closer to a target permutation is called the all sorting reversals problem (the ASR problem). For this problem, Siepel had an O(n (3))-time algorithm. Most complications of his algorithm stem from some peculiar structures called bad components. Since bad components are very rare in both real and simulated data, it is practical to study the ASR problem with no bad components. For the ASR problem with no bad components, Swenson et al. gave an O (n(2))-time algorithm. Very recently, Swenson found that their algorithm does not always work. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented for the ASR problem with no bad components. The time complexity is O(n(2)) in the worst case and is linear in the size of input and output in practice.

  15. Bilateral bad pixel and Stokes image reconstruction for microgrid polarimetric imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A.; Ratliff, Bradley M.

    2015-09-01

    Uncorrected or poorly corrected bad pixels reduce the effectiveness of polarimetric clutter suppression. In conventional microgrid processing, bad pixel correction is accomplished as a separate step from Stokes image reconstruction. Here, these two steps are combined to speed processing and provide better estimates of the entire image, including missing samples. A variation on the bilateral filter enables both edge preservation in the Stokes imagery and bad pixel suppression. Understanding the newly presented filter requires two key insights. First, the adaptive nature of the bilateral filter is extended to correct for bad pixels by simply incorporating a bad pixel mask. Second, the bilateral filter for Stokes estimation is the sum of the normalized bilateral filters for estimating each analyzer channel individually. This paper describes the new approach and compares it to our legacy method using simulated imagery.

  16. Freud's "bad conscience": The case of Nietzsche's Genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This article develops the argument that Friedrich Nietzsche influenced several aspects of Freud's later writings by illustrating, in particular, the impact of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents. The theoretical and conceptual schemes represented in Freud's Discontents are found to bear a remarkable similarity to Nietzsche's Genealogy on a number of highly specific points. It is suggested that "DAS ES," "Uber-ich," and "bad conscience," concepts central to Freud's moral theory of mind, are at least partly derived from Nietzsche. Moreover, Freud's phylogenetic theory of guilt is based upon premises found in Nietzsche, as are specific details relating to ideas on human prehistory and the ancestral family. Based on this evidence, a re-examination of the moral and social dimensions of Freud's "structural" model may be in order. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  18. Wrapping up the bad news – HIV assembly and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The late Nobel Laureate Sir Peter Medawar once memorably described viruses as ‘bad news wrapped in protein’. Virus assembly in HIV is a remarkably well coordinated process in which the virus achieves extracellular budding using primarily intracellular budding machinery and also the unusual phenomenon of export from the cell of an RNA. Recruitment of the ESCRT system by HIV is one of the best documented examples of the comprehensive way in which a virus hijacks a normal cellular process. This review is a summary of our current understanding of the budding process of HIV, from genomic RNA capture through budding and on to viral maturation, but centering on the proteins of the ESCRT pathway and highlighting some recent advances in our understanding of the cellular components involved and the complex interplay between the Gag protein and the genomic RNA.

  19. EXERCISE WITH BAD FAITH OF SUBJECTIVE CIVIL RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE GRADINARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of rights is qualified as civil offence and it may not be different from that of aquilian responsibility, the purpose of its sanction is to protect the victim and not to punish the author. In the Romanian legal doctrine, the abuse of rights was defined as “the exercise of a civil subjective right by breaching the principles of its exercise.” The Constitutional Court held that the person exercising in bad faith and abusively his/her subjective or procedural rights is punishable by appropriate penalties, such as: dismissal of his/her legal action, obligation to bear the costs, application of certain court fines, etc.

  20. Spreadsheets - the Good, the Bad and the Downright Ugly

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Angus

    2010-01-01

    Spreadsheets are ubiquitous, heavily relied on throughout vast swathes of finance, commerce, industry, academia and Government. They are also acknowledged to be extraordinarily and unacceptably prone to error. If these two points are accepted, it has to follow that their uncontrolled use has the potential to inflict considerable damage. One approach to controlling such error should be to define as "good practice" a set of characteristics that a spreadsheet must possess and as "bad practice" another set that it must avoid. Defining such characteristics should, in principle, perfectly do-able. However, being able to say with authority at a definite moment that any particular spreadsheet complies with these characteristics is very much more difficult. The author asserts that the use of automated spreadsheet development could markedly help in ensuring and demonstrating such compliance.

  1. The Fine Structure of Dyadically Badly Approximable Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We consider badly approximable numbers in the case of dyadic diophantine approximation. For the unit circle $\\mathbb{S}$ and the smallest distance to an integer $\\|\\cdot\\|$ we give elementary proofs that the set $F(c) = \\{x \\in \\mathbb{S}: \\|2^nx\\| \\geq c, n\\geq 0\\}$ is a fractal set whose Hausdorff dimension depends continuously on $c$, is constant on intervals which form a set of Lebesgue measure 1 and is self-similar. Hence it has a fractal graph. Moreover, the dimension of $F(c)$ is zero if and only if $c\\geq 1-2\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is the Thue-Morse constant. We completely characterise the intervals where the dimension remains unchanged. As a consequence we can completely describe the graph of $ c\\mapsto \\dim_H \\{x\\in[0,1]: \\|x-\\frac{m}{2^n}\\|< \\frac{c}{2^n} \\textnormal{finitely often}\\}$.

  2. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  3. Charmless Non-Leptonic Multi-Body B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Virto, Javier

    2016-01-01

    I review the theoretical and phenomenological status of two- and three-body charmless non-leptonic B decays, with an emphasis on factorization approaches. Most of the material presented here is based on talks given by the participants of the workshop "Future Challenges in Non-Leptonic B Decays: Theory and Experiment", held at Bad Honnef in February 2016.

  4. International Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Physics School: Diffractive and electromagnetic processes at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The school "Diffractive and electromagnetic processes at high energies" is held in Bad Honnef, August 17-21, 2015. Applications from students and postdocs are encouraged. The school programme consists of invited talks of the HERA, RHIC, TEVATRON and CERN programmes, invited lectures and talks contributed by the participants.

  5. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, pcancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, pcancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, pcancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is thus associated with the development of human cancers likely influenced by the protein levels of pBAD.

  6. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  7. Targeting proapoptotic protein BAD inhibits survival and self-renewal of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K S R; Al-Muftah, M A; Li, Pu; Al-Kowari, M K; Wang, E; Ismail Chouchane, A; Kizhakayil, D; Kulik, G; Marincola, F M; Haoudi, A; Chouchane, L

    2014-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the resistance of cancer stem cells (CSC) to many conventional therapies is one of the major limiting factors of cancer therapy efficacy. Identification of mechanisms responsible for survival and self-renewal of CSC will help design new therapeutic strategies that target and eliminate both differentiated cancer cells and CSC. Here we demonstrated the potential role of proapoptotic protein BAD in the biology of CSC in melanoma, prostate and breast cancers. We enriched CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells (CSC) by tumorosphere formation and purified this population by FACS. Both spheres and CSC exhibited increased potential for proliferation, migration, invasion, sphere formation, anchorage-independent growth, as well as upregulation of several stem cell-associated markers. We showed that the phosphorylation of BAD is essential for the survival of CSC. Conversely, ectopic expression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant BAD induced apoptosis in CSC. This effect was enhanced by treatment with a BH3-mimetic, ABT-737. Both pharmacological agents that inhibit survival kinases and growth factors that are involved in drug resistance delivered their respective cytotoxic and protective effects by modulating the BAD phosphorylation in CSC. Furthermore, the frequency and self-renewal capacity of CSC was significantly reduced by knocking down the BAD expression. Consistent with our in vitro results, significant phosphorylation of BAD was found in CD44(+) CSC of 83% breast tumor specimens. In addition, we also identified a positive correlation between BAD expression and disease stage in prostate cancer, suggesting a role of BAD in tumor advancement. Our studies unveil the role of BAD in the survival and self-renewal of CSC and propose BAD not only as an attractive target for cancer therapy but also as a marker of tumor progression.

  8. How bad were British prison hulks in the Napolenic wars? Evidence from captured Danish and Norwegian seamen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leunig, Timothy; Lottum, Jelle van; Poulsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a novel data source to test whether British Napoleonic prison hulks were as bad as many claim, and whether they were perceived to be bad by seamen who risked ending up in them. We find that they were not so bad: death rates of imprisoned Danish and Norwegian seamen were low. We...

  9. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(12)-1 - Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, or delinquency amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, or...(c)(12)-1 Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, or delinquency amounts. (a) Carryover requirement. (1... corporation is entitled to the recovery of a bad debt, prior tax, or delinquency amount on account of which...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6511(d)-1 - Overpayment of income tax on account of bad debts, worthless securities, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayment of income tax on account of bad... bad debts, worthless securities, etc. (a)(1) If the claim for credit or refund relates to an... the deductibility of a bad debt under section 166 or section 832(c), or of a loss from...

  11. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  12. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  13. Passive solar systems performance in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenicht, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the two main climatic features (solar radiation and temperature) on the performance of passive solar systems in West Germany. Evaluations were made for the four climatic zones - German Lowlands, German Highlands, Alp Foreland, Alps. These zones differ in solar radiation, temperature and diurnal temperature swings. To evaluate different passive solar systems (direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall) a prototypical dwelling was designed which responded to the environmental conditions. The calculations of the ''Solar Savings Fraction'' (SSF) of each systems were made with a program based on the 'LCR-method'. The paper concludes that although the heating requirements decrease with decreasing latitude and altitude, the SSF is nearly the same for all parts of Germany. They are in a range of +- 5%. This is due to the fact that two main climatic features solar radiation and temperature balance each other. In northern Germany the man solar radiation level is low and so is the number of heating degree days. The conditions in southern Germany are reverse.

  14. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  15. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  16. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  17. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  18. Differential mortality by lifetime earnings in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rembrandt D. Scholz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available e estimate mortality rates by a measure of socio-economic status in a very large sample of male German pensioners aged~65 or older. Our analysis is entirely nonparametric. Furthermore, the data enable us to compare mortality experiences in eastern and western Germany conditional on socio-economic status. As a simple summary measure, we compute period life expectancies at age~65. Our findings show a lower bound of almost 50 percent (six years on the difference in life expectancy between the lowest and the highest socio-economic group considered. Within groups, we find similar values for the former GDR and western Germany. Our analysis contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, we provide the first population-based differential mortality study for Germany. Second, we use a novel measure of lifetime earnings as a proxy for socio-economic status that remains applicable to retired people. Third, the comparison between eastern and western Germany may provide some interesting insights for transformation countries.

  19. Earnings Inequality in Germany and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIACOMO; CORNEO

    2015-01-01

    The current paper discusses the evolution of earnings inequality in Germany with an eye to its potential lessons for China. Inequality is assessed from two different perspectives: the distribution of annual earnings, and the distribution of lifetime earnings. This paper proposes to implement closer monitoring of lifetime earnings and take a proactive stance in the formation of the wage-bargaining regime.

  20. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany.

  1. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  2. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  3. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  4. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...... of informal carers (relatives), balanced view on assistive technology, destigmatisation and support of autonomy....

  5. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  6. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  7. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  8. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  9. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  10. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  11. Macroeconomic trends and reforms in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sabbatini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the main macroeconomic developments in the German economy from national unification. Its performance is compared with that of the rest of the euro area and its largest economies. The study documents as GermanyÕs modest growth in the later 1990s was due to the restrictive impact on domestic demand coming from the deep restructuring and modernization of the production system, followed by sweeping reforms after the turn of the century. Rapid productivity increases and prolonged wage moderation, especially in industry, fuelled a large and mounting current account surplus in Germany, that compares with the deficits registered in most European countries. The study retraces the recent debate on how to correct those imbalances, recalling the arguments for and against the thesis that the countries with a current payments surplus, above all Germany, must also play an active role in fostering the adjustment of the deficit countries. A possible synthesis is proposed, based on an analysis of the formation of national income and the use of resources according to the national accounts system. The implication is that Germany may contribute to the correction of imbalances within the euro area not so much by altering the wage formation mechanism as by creating incentives for domestic investment, hence fostering employment creation, in the service sectors that are currently lagging behind the extraordinary perfomance of a number of core activities in the industry.

  12. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing the

  13. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  14. Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner.

  15. Negative regulation of NaF-induced apoptosis by Bad-CAII complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, S; Sugiyama, K; Amano, O; Yasui, T; Sakagami, H

    2011-09-05

    Fluoride is used to prevent caries in dentistry. However, its mechanism of cytotoxicity induction is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine whether sodium fluoride (NaF) induces apoptosis in human oral cells and if so, whether Bad protein is involved in the process. NaF showed higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-2) than against human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Western blot analysis showed that NaF enhanced the expression and dephosphorylation of Bad protein. This study demonstrates for the first time that Bad protein forms a complex with carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), and NaF stimulates the detachment of CAII from the Bad-CAII complex and the replacement by the formation of Bad-Bcl-2 complex. Knockdown of Bad and CAII mRNA by siRNA inhibited and enhanced the NaF-induced caspase activation, respectively. The present study suggests that CAII negatively regulates the NaF-induced apoptosis by forming a complex with Bad.

  16. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others' Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation.

  17. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  18. Flood of July 2016 in northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Dantoin, Eric D.; Tillison, Naomi; Watson, Kara M.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Blount, James D.

    2017-06-06

    Heavy rain fell across northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation on July 11, 2016, as a result of several rounds of thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding in the Bad River Basin and nearby tributaries along the south shore of Lake Superior. Rainfall totals were 8–10 inches or more and most of the rain fell in an 8-hour period. A streamgage on the Bad River near Odanah, Wisconsin, rose from 300 cubic feet per second to a record peak streamflow of 40,000 cubic feet per second in only 15 hours. Following the storms and through September 2016, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Bad River Tribe Natural Resources Department recovered and documented 108 high-water marks near the Bad River Reservation. Many of these high-water marks were used to create three flood-inundation maps for the Bad River, Beartrap Creek, and Denomie Creek for the Bad River Reservation in the vicinity of the community of Odanah.

  19. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  20. European symposium Germany - Czech Republic - Belgium. '90 years of Bauhaus, new challenges resulting from European energy policy'. (Passive houses, solar and ecological construction and modernization); Europaeisches Symposium Deutschland - Tschechien - Belgien. ''90 Jahre Bauhaus, neue Herausforderungen durch die Europaeische Energiepolitik''. (Passivhaeuser, solares und oekologisches Bauen und Sanieren)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The proceedings volume contains the papers presented at the international symposium '90 years of Bauhaus', held at Bad Langensalza, Germany. At the 90th anniversary of the Bauhaus, international experts from Germany, Czechia, and Belgium discussed the relevance of the Bauhaus today and in future. Aspects of energy efficiency and ecology as well as solar architecture have come into focus since the early days of the Bauhaus. Energy efficiency, solar architecture and aesthetics can be combined better than ever against this background. Architects, town planners, builder-owners, local politicians and public utilities must be prepared to face this challenge, far more than in the past.

  1. Challenge energy. Selected lectures; Herausforderung Energie. Ausgewaehlte Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin (Germany); Schloegl, Robert [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany); Zenner, Hans-Peter (eds.) [Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte e.V., Bad Honnef (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the 126th meeting Society of German Natural Scientists and Physicians e.V. (Bad Honnef, Federal Republic of Germany) at 17th to 21st September 2010 in Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The energy turnaround 2011 in Germany: A Vademecum for the discussion? (Robert Schloegl); (2) Smart ideas for future electricity grids (Christian Rehtanz); (3) Energy from the depth: Geothermal power (Ruediger Schulz); (4) Research on the safe final storage of radioactive wastes (Tilmann Rothfuchs); (5) Chances and risks of CO{sub 2} storage (Michael Kuehn); (6) Perspectives for an efficient and sustainable mobility (Rolf Scharwaechter); (7) Import of electricity from the Sahara: Fundamentals of the DESERTEC concepts (Franz Trich); (8) Energy is chemistry - catalysis as a key technology. Energy from tomorrow: A snapshot (Malte Behrens); (9) Different language cultures around the energy (Gerhard Schaefer); (10) Citations for stimulating a discussion (Gerhard Schaefer); (11) Reactions of two opponents in a disputation (Dietrich von Engelhardt).

  2. SH-wave reflection seismic and VSP as tools for the investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Tschache, Saskia; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes can lead to damage of buildings and infrastructure and they can cause life-threatening situations, if they occur in urban areas. The process behind this phenomenon is called subrosion. Subrosion is the underground leaching of soluble rocks, e.g. anhydrite and gypsum, due to the contact with ground- and meteoric water. Depending on the leached material, and especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. For a better understanding of the subrosion processes a detailed characterization of the resulting structures is necessary. In Germany sinkholes are a problem in many areas. In northern Germany salt and in central and southern Germany sulfate and carbonate deposits are affected by subrosion. The study areas described here are located in Thuringia in central Germany and the underground is characterized by soluble Permian deposits. The occurrence of 20 to 50 sinkholes is reported per year. Two regions, Bad Frankenhausen and Schmalkalden, are investigated, showing a leaning church tower and a sinkhole of 30 m diameter and 20 m depth, respectively. In Bad Frankenhausen four P-wave and 16 SH-wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out, supplemented by three zero-offset VSPs. In Schmalkalden five SH-wave reflection seismic profiles and one zero-offset VSP were acquired. The 2-D seismic sections, in particular the SH-wave profiles, showed known and unknown near-surface faults in the vicinity of sinkholes and depressions. For imaging the near-surface ( 2,5, probably indicating unstable areas due to subrosion. We conclude, that SH-wave reflection seismic offer an important tool for the imaging and characterization of near-surface subrosion structures and the identification of unstable zones, especially in combination with P-wave reflection seismic and zero-offset VSP with P- and S-waves. Presumably there is a connection between the presence of large

  3. Prioritizing the patient: optimizing therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a patient questionnaire in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollenhaupt J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Jürgen Wollenhaupt,1 Inge Ehlebracht-Koenig,2 André Groenewegen,3 Dieter Fricke41Rheumatologikum Hamburg, Schön Klinik Hamburg Eilbek, Hamburg, Germany; 2Center of Rehabilitation, Bad Eilsen, Germany; 3UCB Pharma SA, Brussels, Belgium; 4UCB Pharma GmbH, Monheim, GermanyPurpose: A 40-question postal survey was developed to gain insight into the nature of difficulties experienced by patients due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as patient perceptions and priorities regarding their RA treatmentPatients and methods: A total of 3000 Lower Saxony, Germany members of Rheuma-Liga (RL, a patient support group for people with RA, were invited to participate between July 1, and August 20, 2009. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: (1 patient demographics, (2 quality of life (QOL, (3 treatment expectations and, (4 patient perceptions of RL. The questionnaire could be completed in writing or via the internet.Results: Of 959 respondents (response rate = 32.0%, 318 had diagnosed RA and were included in the analysis. The respondents were mostly retired (71.2%, female (83.3%, and >60 years of age (63.5%. Members’ responses indicated that most were generally satisfied with their current treatment (67.3%, considered it efficacious (84.0%, and reported minimal (none or little side-effects (61.2%. Patient involvement in treatment decisions, however, was reportedly low (49.6% felt insufficiently involved. Patients’ primary impairments were reflected in their treatment priorities: mobility (97.0%, ability to run errands/do shopping (97.1%, do the housework (95.6%, and be independent of others (94.2%. The primary service provided by RL and used by respondents was physiotherapy (70.6%, which was reported to benefit physical function and mood by over 90.0% of respondents.Conclusion: RA had a detrimental effect upon respondents' quality of life, specifically impairing their ability to perform daily tasks and causing pain/emotional distress

  4. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  5. Media constructions of dying alone: a form of 'bad death'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive

    2004-03-01

    In this study, newspaper accounts of people who die alone are analysed, drawing on a sample of 90 articles in the anglophone press that appeared in October 1999. Dying alone is represented as a fearful fate and a moral affair, often being the outcome of an undesirable personal character, either of the deceased or of onlookers, or involving the failings of society at large. It is frequently portrayed as occurring to people who are either geographically or socially distant from 'home', so that an imagined community of readers is encouraged to contemplate a death alone as the consequence of personal or societal breakdown. A degree of stigmatisation, sometimes of those who die alone, sometimes of those perceived to have caused this event, was evident. The negative evaluation of death alone parallels that found in some traditional societies where a death far from home is considered 'bad'. Dying alone contrasts significantly with the sociable, 'good', confessional deaths of newspaper columnists and other media celebrities facing terminal illness.

  6. Breaking Bad News: Can We Get It Right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurer MA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The health service involves a spectrum of personnel working together towards achieving a common goal, namely the delivery of high quality health care. This involves a large volume of communication between members of staff and patients and their relatives. Doctors are trained to deal with various clinical situations but receive little or no training in communication skills and therefore their communication skills are predominantly instinctive. Patients and their relatives are understandably anxious and vulnerable and it is not surprising that things can go wrong if effective communication is not practiced. Although most doctors communicate effectively, there is increasing evidence that a large number of patients remain unhappy with the amount of information given and the manner of its delivery [1]. Maguire and colleagues found that when doctors use communication skills effectively, both they and their patients benefit [2]. Furthermore, ineffective communication is an important source of complaints and litigations. In a recent Japanese study 81% of litigation involved insufficient or incorrect explanations by the physician [3]. Moreover, in 26% of cases poorly delivered information was found to be the reason that prompted individuals to file a malpractice claim [4]. This article looks into a specific area of communication between doctors, on the one hand, and patients and their relatives on the other; namely “breaking bad news”. It highlights the importance of equipping doctors to effectively communicate with patients and their relatives.

  7. Halitosis: could it be more than mere bad breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Giuseppina; Musciotto, Anna; Di Fede, Olga; Di Marco, Vito; Craxì, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Halitosis is a generic term used to describe unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth air and breath, independent of the source where the odor substances originate. It affects between 50 and 65% of the population, but despite its frequency, this problem is often unaccepted and declared as taboo. Ninety percent of patients suffering from halitosis have oral causes: a small, but important percentage, of oral malodor cases have an extra-oral etiology, very often falling into the category of "blood-borne halitosis". Several systemic diseases have been found to provoke malodor or to be a cofactor; bad breath may be an early sign of a serious local or systemic condition. A psychogenic halitosis also exists including the variant "pseudo-halitosis", when the oral malodor does not exist, but the patient believes he or she is suffering severely from it, and the halitophobia, when, instead, there is an exaggerated fear of having halitosis. The aims of this paper are to review both oral and extra-oral causes of halitosis, especially those related to underlying systemic diseases, and to provide the primary care clinician a helpful means for its diagnosis and management. In fact, it is important to determine quickly whether the odor comes from an oral cause or not: if so, it requires referral to a dentist; if not (extra-oral origin alone or combined), its management requires the treatment of the underlying causes. Extra-oral disorders can be the cause in up to 15% of cases.

  8. Is gall bladder cancer a bad cancer per se ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) has one of the poorestoutcomes of all cancers. Early GBC is difficult todiagnose on even computed tomography. GB has nosubmucosa and the cancer infiltrates directly into themuscularis propria. GB wall is thin and important adjacentorgans viz. liver, duodenum and pancreas get easilyinfiltrated. Tumor in the GB neck often needs extendedright hepatectomy. Infiltration of duodenum/pancreasmay necessitate pancreato-duodenectomy or evenhepato-pancreato-duodenectomy. Mortality of surgicalprocedures, when performed for GBC, is higher thanwhen performed for other cancers. Survival in GBC,even after R0 resection, is poor. There is no proven roleof neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy for loco-regionallyadvanced GBC. There is no role of palliative surgeryin metastatic GBC. Early GBC is diagnosed incidentallyafter cholecystectomy for stones and requires reoperationfor completion extended cholecystectomy butunfortunately, most surgeons are not aware of this. GBChas a peculiar epidemiology and is uncommon in theWest and has, therefore, not received much attention.Preventive cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stonesis not recommended and there is no serum marker forscreening. With all factors pitched against it, it doesappear that GBC is a bad cancer per se !

  9. Good Use of a `Bad' Metaphor. Entropy as Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper

    2017-05-01

    Entropy is often introduced to students through the use of the disorder metaphor. However, many weaknesses and limitations of this metaphor have been identified, and it has therefore been argued that it is more harmful than useful in teaching. For instance, under the influence of the disorder metaphor, students tend to focus on spatial configuration with regard to entropy but disregard the role of energy, which may lead their intuition astray in problem solving. Albeit so, a review of research of students' ideas about entropy in relation to the disorder metaphor shows that students can use the metaphor in developing a more nuanced, complex view of the concept, by connecting entropy as disorder to other concepts such as microstates and spreading. The disorder metaphor—in combination with other explanatory approaches—can be used as a resource for learning, in giving students an early flavour of what entropy means, so long as we acknowledge its limitations; we can put this "bad" metaphor to good use in teaching.

  10. Ingestion analgesia occurs when a bad taste turns good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Hayley; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    During ingestion of water, chocolate, sucrose, and saccharin, pain-related behaviors are suppressed. This ingestion analgesic effect is reversed when the hedonic valence of a food is switched from "good" to "bad" as occurs during conditioned taste aversion. Here, we tested the converse hedonic shift to determine if ingestion analgesia occurs when 0.3 M NaCl is made palatable by inducing a sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sham- and sodium-depleted rats were tested for paw withdrawal and lick latencies to brief noxious heat during quiet wake and intraoral NaCl ingestion. Only sodium-depleted rats showed a suppression of heat-evoked reactions during NaCl ingestion. In Experiment 2, we tested whether this analgesic effect is mediated by the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Inactivation of NRM with muscimol blocked ingestion analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium-depleted rats. This attenuation was not due to a hyperalgesic effect of NRM inactivation. Muscimol microinjections into a nearby region, the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO), were ineffective. The present findings demonstrate that the internal milieu of an animal can modify ingestion analgesia, and that the analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium hungry rats is mediated by NRM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  12. Boom in Germany; Boom in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, Bernward

    2013-02-15

    In the year 2012, the expansion of the wind energy in Germany has newly gained a rise: 1,008 wind power plants with a total performance of 2,439 megawatt. The average performance of new wind turbines increases further. The average rotor diameter amounts 88.5 metres, while the average hub height amounts 109.8 metres. Above all, the southern Federal States of the Federal Republic of Germany jeopardise on large hub heights: With a hub height of 133.9 metres, Bavaria is in the vanguard of all Federal States followed by Baden-Wuerttemberg with a hub height of 129.9 metres. The wind power plants in Schleswig-Holstein have the lowest average hub height of 81.7 metres. Meanwhile, the repowering occurs in Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen because there are the oldest wind power plants.

  13. Prevention among immigrants: the example of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large and increasing part of the European population has a history of migration. Germany, for example, is home to about 15 million people with migrant background, which amounts to 19% of its population. Migrants may have differences in their lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared to the autochthonous populations. Discussion As for example studies on children's participation in routine prevention activities have shown, these differences can have a relevant impact on the access of migrants to the health care system and are likely to lower their participation in prevention programs compared to the autochthonous population. To increase the uptake of prevention programs, barriers to access must be identified and approaches to reduce them must be developed. Summary Taking the example of Germany, a need exists for prevention programs that include (migrant sensitive and specifically address (migrant specific migrants. These should be of sufficient scale, evidence-based, sustainable and evaluated at regular intervals.

  14. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  15. Siim Nestor soovitab : HUH : energiaöö. Bad Apples / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Festivali "Hea Uus Heli" hooaja lõpetamisest 15. dets. Von Krahlis Tallinnas. Ansambli Bad Apples heliplaadi "When Colours Become Day and Night" esitlusest 19. dets. Tallinnas teatri NO99 majas Jazziklubis

  16. U.S. Report Cites the Good and Bad on Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Report Cites the Good and Bad on Marijuana Pot shown to help chronic pain, chemo-related ... has proven there are legitimate medical uses for marijuana and cannabis-derived drugs, a new report from ...

  17. Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study Survivors of ... 2011 at a nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan, after an earthquake triggered a massive tsunami shows ...

  18. Siim Nestor soovitab : HUH : energiaöö. Bad Apples / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Festivali "Hea Uus Heli" hooaja lõpetamisest 15. dets. Von Krahlis Tallinnas. Ansambli Bad Apples heliplaadi "When Colours Become Day and Night" esitlusest 19. dets. Tallinnas teatri NO99 majas Jazziklubis

  19. Is Waiting the Hardest Part? Comparing the Emotional Experiences of Awaiting and Receiving Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Kate; Falkenstein, Angelica

    2015-11-01

    Awaiting uncertain news is stressful, but is it more stressful than receiving bad news? We compared these emotional experiences in two studies. Participants in Study 1 reflected on a personal experience awaiting news that ultimately turned out badly, and participants in Study 2 were law graduates awaiting their results on the bar exam who ultimately failed the exam. In Study 1, participants were ambivalent as to whether awaiting or receiving bad news was more difficult, and emotion ratings in both studies confirmed this ambivalence. Anxiety was higher in anticipation of bad news (at least at the moment of truth) than in the face of it, whereas other negative emotions were more intense following the news than during the waiting period. Thus, whether waiting is "the hardest part" depends on whether one prefers to be racked with anxiety or afflicted with other negative emotions such as anger, disappointment, depression, and regret.

  20. What opportunities have we missed, and what bad deals have we made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, M K; Kane, W J

    2001-04-01

    In addition to its many accomplishments, family medicine has inevitably made some choices that have not worked out as well. Respectful consideration of where we may have done so can help inform future decision making. This paper suggests some decisions that in retrospect appear to be bad deals, good deals gone bad, or missed opportunities. Bad deals include the limiting effects of our specialty's name and of our go-it-alone philosophy. Good deals gone bad include our affinity for a permanent counterculture role, our persistent belief that big is better, and limited evolution of our residency family practice centers. We have missed opportunities to lead development of a new model of patient-responsive health care, to change the system of payment for care, to maximize the strength of our discipline by links between university and community family physicians, and to build a powerful program of family medicine research.

  1. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  2. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  3. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  4. Turkish Slang and Rap in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇ, Safiye

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to analyze the emergence of Turkish Slang amongst the young turkish immigrants and its importance. Rap music is where Turkish Slang is mostly used. Since the midst of the 80s, Rap Music has become a medium of expression for the young immigrants who live in Germany. The correlation between Turkish Slang and Rap Music will be discussed in that sense.Keywords: Turkish slang, Turkish migrants, Hip hop – culture, Rap music, Migrant workers

  5. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio- Economic Panel (GSOEP).To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  6. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...

  7. Micro modeling of retirement : decisions in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Börsch-Supan, Axel; Kohnz, Simone; Schnabel, Reinhold

    2002-01-01

    Early retirement in Germany is very costly and amplifies the burden which the German public pension system has to carry due to population aging. This paper shows that the German pension system provides strong incentives to retire early. The paper provides relatively robust econometric evidence for the strength of incentive effects on old age labor supply, using several specifications of incentive variables. The econometric estimates are used to simulate the individual responses to policy chan...

  8. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.……

  9. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  10. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  11. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Reichert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  12. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  13. The Effect of Bad News and CEO Apology of Corporate on User Responses in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Hoh Kim; Jaram Park; Meeyoung Cha; Jaeseung Jeong

    2015-01-01

    While social media has become an important platform for social reputation, the emotional responses of users toward bad news have not been investigated thoroughly. We analyzed a total of 20,773 Twitter messages by 15,513 users to assess the influence of bad news and public apology in social media. Based on both computerized, quantitative sentiment analysis and in-depth qualitative analysis, we found that rapid public apology effectively and immediately reduced the level of negative sentiment, ...

  14. CMMI (registered trademark): The Good News and Bad News about Supporting Maturity Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The Good News and Bad News about Supporting Maturity Concepts Suzanne Garcia, SEI ®CMM, CMMI, IDEAL, and Capability Maturity Model are registered by...AND SUBTITLE CMMI: The Good News and Bad News about Supporting Maturity Concepts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Dimensional Assessment of Technology Maturity in Fairborn, OH on 9-11 May 2006. U.S. Government or Federal Rights License 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  15. Real-time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-05

    time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good , The Bad , and The Ugly 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Status Physiological Monitor Concept 98 The GOOD Technologies & a solution framework have been greatly advanced. Health state monitoring is no...Medical Monitoring Telemetry System – In Action Results – Physiology, Real Time Display Th e GO OD The BAD Unique challenges make the creation and

  16. 2013 US State of Cybercrime Survey: How Bad is the Insider Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Insiders 51% Unknown 24 % © 2007-2013 Carnegie Mellon University 2013 US State of Cybercrime Survey How Bad is the Insider Threat? Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2013 US State of Cybercrime Survey: How Bad is the Insider Threat? 5a...State of Cybercrime Survey -1 CSO Magazine, USSS, CERT & Deloitte 501 respondents 34% of organizations have more than 5000 employees 40% of

  17. PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES IN PCYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES AND LORDOTIC BAD BODY POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially program medphysical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils at those with lordotic bad body position established by measuring. The aims were to define the number of children with lordotic bad body position and to eliminate or alleviate the existing disturbance until the end of the experimental programme. The experimental programme was carried out among the 5th grade pupils. Total number of pupils included in this experiment was 434. The methods that were used for the estimation of lordotic bad body position are somatoscopy and somatometry. The plumb, ruler and dermograph were necessary instruments. For the estimation of the states of bad body position, the average value of mild criterion is applied. It can be concluded that during experimental programme even 85.93% of the subjects successfully corrected their bad body position; more exactly completely corrected lordotic bad body position. That percentage is certificate of justification and necessity of application of experimental programme of corrective gymnastics with all his organizational characteristics (the setting, the scope of work, load intensity, directing and controlling the experiment. Muscular-bone system of boys shows the high level of adaptation on the applied experimental factor of corrective gymnastics.

  18. Autophagy postpones apoptotic cell death in PRRSV infection through Bad-Beclin1 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Li, Shuaifeng; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Zhang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis play significant roles in PRRSV infection and replication. However, the interaction between these 2 processes in PRRSV replication is still far from been completely understood. In our studies, the exposure of MARC-145 cells to PRRSV confirmed the activation of autophagy and subsequent induction of apoptosis. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) caused a significant increase in PRRSV-induced apoptosis, showing a potential connection between both mechanisms. Moreover, we observed an increase in Bad expression (a pro-apoptotic protein) and Beclin1 (an autophagy regulator) in virus-infected cells up to 36h. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed the formation of Bad and Beclin1 complex in PRRSV infected cells. Accordingly, Bad co-localized with Beclin1 in MARC-145 infected cells. Knockdown of Beclin1 significantly decreased PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced autophagy, while Bad silencing resulted in increased autophagy and enhanced viral replication. Furthermore, PRRSV infection phosphorylated Bad (Ser112) to promote cellular survival. These results demonstrate that autophagy can favor PRRSV replication by postponing apoptosis through the formation of a Bad-Beclin1 complex.

  19. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  20. Public agencies in Serbia accidental error or bad intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available English term 'agency' has appeared in the Serbian legal system after the political changes in 2000. At first, the Law on Ministries in 2004 created bodies of state administration under the name of the agency and administrative organizations and in 2005 has been passed the Law on Public Agencies, which provides agencies as autonomous entities that are not directly part of the state administration. In addition, in the last ten years in Serbia was created a whole range of subjects of different legal status under the name of the agency. It should be borne in mind that the organization and structure of public administration in Serbia are mostly based on the Germanic tradition and that Serbia has long used the German term for persons performing administrative activities: 'Verwaltungsorgan'. Without any objective need, in addition to traditional forms of bodies performing administrative activities in Serbia has been created a new form called the agency. This has only brought the confusion into by then relatively harmonized system of governance structures, where the name of the former administration and some other subjects changed to agencies and some new, who previously did not exist, have been also created. This has led to the growth of covert administration. Agency name is not unknown in the world and in the US is used since the 18th century. However, instead of the name in English is translated into Serbian language in an adapted way, as it corresponds to the traditional Serbian terminology, this accidental error later turned into a bad intention of creating an ever-larger number of entities called agency.

  1. The restructuring of Germany`s hard coal industry - political and corporate challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K.F. [RAG Group (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    With the termination of the so-called `Century Contract` in 1995, the steam coal market in German is liberalised with competition from imported coal being the driving force. German coal is still subsidised, according to the Artikelgesetz. The deregulation of the electricity market may lead to a more fierce competition in fuels for power generation. A recent survey by the Progress Research Institute showed however that the total use of coal in Germany will remain fairly constant until 2020. The article discusses the strategy adopted particularly by the RAG group which holds 80% of all German hard coal mining activities, to increase market attractivity of German coal now and in the future. There is a move afoot to integrate RAG with Saarbergwerke, Germany`s second largest hard coal producer. RAG already has developed many non-mining divisions - energy (STEAG), Chemicals (Ruetgers), trade and services (Ruhrkohle Handel) environment, and real estate and mining technology (DBT). 6 figs.

  2. The chronology of the Upper Pleistocene Volcanic Groups of Bad Bertrich and Wartgesberg (Eifel, FRG) - new attempts using luminescence dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Schmidt, Christoph; Fischer, Manfred; Kolb, Thomas; Schaarschmidt, Maria

    2016-04-01

    and, thus, the probability of a two-phase Upper Pleistocene volcanic activity in the small Bad Bertrich volcanic area. This question may be of some relevance for the reasons of the Quaternary WEVF. References Mertz, D.F., Löhnertz, W., Nomade, S., Pereira, A., Prelevic, D., Renne, P.R., 2015. Temporal-spatial evolution of low-SiO2 volcanism in the Pleistocene West Eifel volcanic field (West Germany) and relationship to upwelling asthenosphere. Journal of Geodynamics 88, 59-79. Preusser, F., Rufer, D., Schreurs, G., 2011. Direct dating of Quaternary phreatic maar eruptions by luminescence methods. Geology 39, 1135-1138. Richter, D., Klinger, P., Zöller, L., 2015. Palaeodose underestimation of heated quartz in red-TL dating of volcanic contexts. Geochronometria 42, 182-188.

  3. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai I

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ishan Ghai,1 Shashank Ghai2 1School of Engineering and Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, 2Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany Abstract: One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels. Keywords: antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria, cell envelope, protein channels, nanopores, influx, antibiotic resistance

  4. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Toruno

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  5. Molecular modeling of human BAD and its interaction with PKAc or PP1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie

    2009-03-01

    To build up the structure of human BAD (Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death), subsequently combined with PKAc or PP1c (protein phosphatase 1), to investigate the interaction relationship between BAD and its kinase/PTPese at the molecular level. Additionally, it is concerned with the search for all optimal positions and orientations of a set of amino acid residues of BAD, while its binding sites include N-termini (Glu19, Ala27, and Ser34-Lys35), BH3-located helical domain (Arg98-Lys126), and C-termini (Trp154-Ser163 and Ser167-Gln168). The related sites of PKAc are mainly assembled in C-terminal alpha/beta-domain of PKAc, which comprises the KTL motif (47-49), Glu203 residue, a helical region (Asp241-Arg256), and the span from 328 to 333; while the interaction sites with BAD converge at C-terminal beta-domain of PP1c, which includes the DEK motif (166-168), the stretch from 179 to 197 including a helix (Glu184-Arg188), Glu230-Asp242 segment containing Val232-His237 helix, and Glu287-Leu289 loop. In conclusion, analysis of the complex between BAD and PKAc or PP1c provides a novel viewpoint on the structural origins of molecular recognition. And the complex models suggest that BH3 domain of BAD interact with PKAc or PP1c by electrostatic, van der Waals contacts, hydrogen bond and salt bridge. This is helpful for our development and research of some new drugs, especially mimetic BH3 peptides and inspires scientists with BAD complex and molecular mechanism of its integrating glycolysis and apoptosis.

  6. Gefitinib induces apoptosis in human glioma cells by targeting Bad phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2011-12-01

    Gefitinib, a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is under clinical testing and use in cancer patients, including glioma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gefitinib-mediated anticancer effects against glioma remain largely uncharacterized. Gefitinib inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human glioma cells. Gefitinib also induces death of H4 cells with characteristics of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, including Bax mitochondrial translocation, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, cytochrome c cytosolic release, and caspase-9/caspase-3 activation. The importance of Bax in mediating gefitinib-induced apoptosis was confirmed by the attenuation of apoptosis by Bax siRNA and Bax channel blocker. Gefitinib caused Bad dephosphorylation, particularly in serine-112, and increased its binding preference to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. The dephosphorylation of Bad in gefitinib-treated cells was accompanied by reduced intracellular cyclic AMP content and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin attenuated, but PKA inhibitor H89 augmented, gefitinib-induced Bad dephosphorylation, Bax mitochondrial translocation, caspase-9/caspase-3 activation, and viability loss. Intriguingly, a nonselective protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid alleviated gefitinib-induced alterations, except Bad dephosphorylation. In parallel with the higher basal PKA activity, response of U87 cells to gefitinib treatment was delayed and relatively resistant compared with that of H4 and T98G cells. Inactivation of PKA sensitized H4, T98G, and U87 cells to gefitinib cytotoxicity, Bad dephosphorylation in serine-112, and caspase-9/caspase-3 activation. Our findings suggest the involvement of the Bad/Bax signaling pathway in gefitinib-induced glioma apoptosis. Furthermore, the inactivation of PKA was shown to play a role in triggering the proapoptotic function of Bad.

  7. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toruno, Cristhian; Carbonneau, Seth; Stewart, Rodney A; Jette, Cicely

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  8. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  9. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  10. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  11. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    events and their consequences in terms of transportation networks caused by this bad weather event. Damages and consequences of the events were documented during a field visit, obtained from the media and the official reports.

  12. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...... aspects of food, with the possible exception of price and the social aspect. Their food-related lifestyle is characterized by the fact that they hardly food to achieve basic values at all. Whatever it is these consumers want to achieve in their lives, they achieve it through other channels than food. 4...

  13. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...... of digested sludge, because many polar compounds do not sorb to sludge and lipophilic compounds are not mobile in the soil-aquifer. Most of the selected PPCPs were never detected in any of the lysimeter or groundwater samples, although they were present in the treated wastewater irrigated onto the fields...

  14. [Foreign labor in a reunited Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, J

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses migration into Germany, primarily since World War II, with a focus on the impact on the German labor market. The radical changes that came about in the late 1980s as a result of granting political asylum to third-world refugees and of the readmittance of persons of German descent who wanted to repatriate are then assessed. Following reunification, the author foresees new trends in migration into the country and predicts some of their effects. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER)

  15. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  16. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    life values. We call them the uninvolved, the careless, the conservative, the rational and the adventurous food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 21% of the population. These consumers are quite uninterested in most......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  17. Economic Factors of Development of Tourism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina K. Zhigalina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Germany has a negative balance for tourism. The article deals with attempts for creating the Germany’s positive image for tourists. Germans themselves travel a lot domestically, and for the first time since 2011 Germany has enjoyed a positive balance in tourism industry – tourists spent 20,4 bl. Euros inside against 15,5 bl. Euros spent outside of the country. According to YUNVTO Germany entered the list of top 10 tourist destinations.

  18. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  19. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  20. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES OF BUSINESS INCUBATION: THE USA, GERMANY AND RUSSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evgeny Tsaplin; Yulia Pozdeeva

    2017-01-01

    ...: the USA, Germany, and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies...

  1. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany).

  2. [Ten years after German unification--current behavioural and emotional problems of adolescents in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Widdern, Susanne; Hässler, Frank; von Widdern, Olrik; Richter, Jörg

    2004-11-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems based on Youth Self-Report (YSR) were investigated in an empirical sample of 371 students at the age of 13 until 18 years from common secondary and vocational schools in Rostock (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) in 2000/2001. Considering syndromes in comparison with other german and international empirical studies, internalizing and externalizing problems show high prevalence for both girls and boys. Nearly every fifth student judges themselves as within clinical range for psychiatric problems. Girls reported significant more internalizing problems (social withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxious/depressed). An interaction effect by age and sex for aggressive and delinquent behaviour was found with highest prevalence for boys at age 15/16. The frequency of internalizing problems and attention problems increases with adolescent's age. Low adolescent's education level, parental divorce and big size of siblings were associated with externalizing problems, whereas unemployment of the father was associated with depressive and social problems. Delinquent behaviour and attention problems are the most important predictors for negative school outcome like comparatively bad school achievement and low reading ability. The results suppose a possible increase in psychosocial problems of juvenile persons in eastern Germany one decade after German Unification, indicated the necessity of higher supply for preventive and therapeutic programs.

  3. CaMKII-γ mediates phosphorylation of BAD at Ser170 to regulate cytokine-dependent survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojabrpour, Payman; Waissbluth, Ivan; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Cox, Michael E; Duronio, Vincent

    2012-02-15

    Phosphorylation of the BH3 (Bcl-2 homology domain 3)-only protein BAD (Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)-antagonist, causing cell death) can either directly disrupt its association with the pro-survival proteins Bcl-X(L) and/or Bcl-2, or cause association of BAD with 14-3-3 proteins. In the present study, we further characterize phosphorylation of BAD at Ser170, a unique site with unclear function. We provide further evidence that mutation of Ser170 to a phospho-mimetic aspartic acid residue (S170D) can have a profound inhibitory effect on the pro-apoptosis function of BAD. Furthermore, mutated BAD with an alanine substitution inhibited cell proliferation, slowing progression specifically through S-phase. We identify the kinase responsible for phosphorylation at this site as CaMKII-γ (γ isoform of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II), but not the other three isoforms of CaMKII, revealing an extraordinary specificity among these closely related kinases. Furthermore, cytokine treatment increased BAD-Ser170-directed CaMKII-γ activity and phosphorylation of CaMKII-γ at an activating site, and CaMKII activity directed to the BAD-Ser170 site was elevated during S-phase. Treating cells with a selective inhibitor of CaMKII caused apoptosis in cells expressing BAD, but not in cells expressing the BAD-S170D mutant. The present study provides support for BAD-Ser170 phosphorylation playing a key role not only in regulating BAD's pro-apoptotic activity, but also in cell proliferation.

  4. Are Stellar Storms Bad News for M-Dwarf Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), enormous releases of energy from the Sun, can have significant space-weather implications for Earth. Do similar storms from smaller stars M dwarfs like V374 Peg, or the nearby Proxima Centauri mean bad news for the planets that these stars host?Volatile StarsDifference in habitable-zone sizes for different stellar types. [NASA]When plasma is released from the Sun in the form of a CME traveling toward Earth, these storms can be powerful enough to disrupt communications and navigational equipment, damage satellites, and cause blackouts even with our planetary magnetic field to protect us! How might planets in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars fare against similar storms?The first danger for an M dwarfs planets is that the habitable zone lies much closer to the star: it can range from 0.03 to 0.4 AU (i.e., within Mercurys orbit). Being so close to the star definitely makes a planet in an M dwarfs habitable zone vulnerable to storms.Colors indicate the probability of CME impact, for different different stellar latitudes where the CME originated vs. orbital inclination of the planet, (a) without any deflection, and (b) taking into account the CME deflection by the stars magnetic field. Hanging out in an orbit aligned with the current sheet turns out to be a bad idea. [Adapted from Kay et al. 2016]What about the storms themselves? You might think that because M dwarfs are cooler stars, they would be quieter, releasing fewer CMEs with less energy. Surprisingly, the opposite is true: M dwarfs are significantly more active than solar-type stars, and the CMEs are typically ten times more massive than those released from the Sun. Impacts from these powerful outbursts could easily strip any existing planet atmosphere, making a planet much less likely to be habitable. To make matters worse, M dwarfs can remain magnetically active for billions of years: even a star like Proxima Centauri, which is nearly 5 billion years old, isstill relatively

  5. Suppression of B-cell lymphomagenesis by the BH3-only proteins Bmf and Bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Anna; Labi, Verena; Chmelewskij, Waldemar; Ploner, Christian; Geley, Stephan; Fiegl, Heidelinde; Tzankov, Alexandar; Villunger, Andreas

    2010-02-04

    Oncogenic c-Myc is known to balance excessive proliferation by apoptosis that can be triggered by p53-dependent and p53-independent signaling networks. Here, we provide evidence that the BH3-only proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2 modifying factor (Bmf) and Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (Bad) are potent antagonists of c-Myc-driven B-cell lymphomagenesis. Tumor formation was preceded by the accumulation of preneoplastic pre-B and immature immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM(+)) B cells in hematopoietic organs of Emu-myc/bmf(-/-) mice, whereas Emu-myc/bad(-/-) mice showed an increase of pre-B cells limited to the spleen. Although the loss of Bad had no impact on the tumor immunophenotype, Bmf deficiency favored the development of IgM(+) B cell over pre-B cell tumors. This phenomenon was caused by a strong protection of immature IgM(+) B cells from oncogene-driven apoptosis caused by loss of bmf and c-Myc-induced repression of Bmf expression in premalignant pre-B cells. Steady-state levels of B-cell apoptosis also were reduced in the absence of Bad, in support of its role as a sentinel for trophic factor-deprivation. Loss of Bmf reduced the pressure to inactivate p53, whereas Bad deficiency did not, identifying Bmf as a novel component of the p53-independent tumor suppressor pathway triggered by c-Myc.

  6. Variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeler, Natasha E; Leu, Costin; White, Jon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellard, Sian; Matarin, Mar; Yellen, Gary; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Mackay, Mark; McMahon, Jacinta M; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Sander, Josemir W; Cross, J Helen; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of specific metabolic disorders, predictors of response to ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) are unknown. We aimed to determine whether variants in established candidate genes KCNJ11 and BAD influence response to KDT. We sequenced KCNJ11 and BAD in individuals without previously-known glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome or other metabolic disorders, who received KDT for epilepsy. Hospital records were used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Two response phenotypes were used: ≥ 50% seizure reduction and seizure-freedom at 3-month follow-up. Case/control association tests were conducted with KCNJ11 and BAD variants with minor allele frequency (MAF)>0.01, using PLINK. Response to KDT in individuals with variants with MAFBAD sequencing data and diet response data. Six SNPs in KCNJ11 and two in BAD had MAF>0.01. Eight variants in KCNJ11 and seven in BAD (of which three were previously-unreported) had MAFBAD do not predict response to KDT for epilepsy. We can exclude, with 80% power, association from variants with a MAF of >0.05 and effect size >3. A larger sample size is needed to detect associations from rare variants or those with smaller effect sizes.

  7. BAD contributes to RAF-mediated proliferation and cooperates with B-RAF-V600E in cancer signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzien, Lisa; Baljuls, Angela; Albrecht, Marco; Hekman, Mirko; Rapp, Ulf R

    2011-05-20

    BAD (Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death) belongs to the proapoptotic BH3-only subfamily of Bcl-2 proteins. Physiological activity of BAD is highly controlled by phosphorylation. To further analyze the regulation of BAD function, we investigated the role of recently identified phosphorylation sites on BAD-mediated apoptosis. We found that in contrast to the N-terminal phosphorylation sites, the serines 124 and 134 act in an antiapoptotic manner because the replacement by alanine led to enhanced cell death. Our results further indicate that RAF kinases represent, besides PAK1, BAD serine 134 phosphorylating kinases. Importantly, in the presence of wild type BAD, co-expression of survival kinases, such as RAF and PAK1, leads to a strongly increased proliferation, whereas substitution of serine 134 by alanine abolishes this process. Furthermore, we identified BAD serine 134 to be strongly involved in survival signaling of B-RAF-V600E-containing tumor cells and found that phosphorylation of BAD at this residue is critical for efficient proliferation in these cells. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into the regulation of BAD function by phosphorylation and its role in cancer signaling.

  8. The Official Real Estate Appraisal in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph JOCHEIM-WIRTZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Real Estate Appraisal in Germany is regulated by the articles 192-199 of the German Construction Law. Technical guidelines, including the appraisal methods, are defined in bylaws. For the purpose of official real estate appraisal, Expert Appraisal Committees were founded in counties and large cities. The Committees are comprised of real estate experts doing a honorary service, coming from such professions as land surveying engineers, architects, civil engineers, Tax Office employees, experts from the banking sector, agronomists and real estate agents. The chairman of the Committee is also the director of the Cadastral Office and/or the Surveying Office. Every Committee has its own office within the Cadastral Office or the Surveying Office. The main task of the Committees is to establish and guarantee the transparency of the real estate market, by means of the publication of approximate plot value maps on the Internet as well as the publication of the reports on the real estate market. Apart from that, the Expert Appraisal Committees provide reports on the market value of real estate objects, available upon request. Reports on the market value of real estate objects are also made by publicly appointed and sworn experts. Based on the steady rise in the requests for superregional information about the real estate market in the recent years, the working group comprised of the representatives from the Expert Appraisal Committees from the whole country published its first report on the real estate market in Germany in 2008, and the second one in 2011.

  9. [Multi-family group therapy in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Multi-family therapy, common group therapy with several families per one index patient, has been gaining popularity recently. This has occasioned an exploratory study of the status of implementation and common factors in all multi-family therapy programs in Germany. In a survey conducted across Germany, all providers of multi-family therapy interventions were requested to give a detailed description of their intervention. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and verbal data were summarized categorically with qualitative content analysis. Of the 25 intervention programs examined 21 are directed at emotionally disturbed children and young people and their families; mainly with disturbances in social behavior. Over 4,000 families per year are treated in multi-family therapy, and five programs were systematically evaluated. MFT is characterized by systematically oriented group therapy methods. Those surveyed traced the effect of this form of intervention back to activating problems in the group, activating resources, changing perspective, learning models, experiencing self-efficacy, and the therapeutic relationship. Systematic studies of multi-family therapy in evaluations and in random controlled study designs are recommended.

  10. Evaluation of domino liver transplantations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Fabian Johannes; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Becker, Thomas; Braun, Felix; Pascher, Andreas; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schmidt, Jan; Nadalin, Silvio; Otto, Gerd; Barreiros, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective multicenter study has been conducted to evaluate domino liver transplantations (DLTs) in Germany. The study provides insight into survival and features having an impact on the assessment of neuropathy after DLT. In addition, a neurologic follow-up program with a scheme to estimate the likelihood of de novo amyloidosis is presented. A series of 61 DLTs at seven transplant centers in Germany was enrolled. The mean age of domino recipients at the time of transplantation was 58 years, 46 of them being men, and 15 being women. The median follow-up was 46 months. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival of domino recipients was 81.6%, 70.8% and 68.8%, respectively. Causes of death were primarily not related to familial amyloidosis. The main indication of DLT was hepatocellular carcinoma. Two of the reported domino recipients developed symptoms and signs of de novo amyloidosis within 10 years after transplantation. A total of 30 domino graft recipients (49.18%) presented with diabetes post transplantation. In conclusion, an advanced follow-up program is crucial to evaluate the risk of transmitting familial amyloidosis by DLT and to establish more strict selection criteria for domino recipients. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The historiography of homoeopathy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Homoeopathy originated in Germany. The same applies, by the way, to many other branches of alternative medicine, e.g. mesmerism, homoeopathy, hydropathy, anthroposophical medicine. This historical fact provides more than just an excuse to start with a survey of the historiography of homeopathy in German-speaking countries. The first part of the paper focuses on 19th-century attempts at a history of homoeopathy, reflecting the wish to establish a corporate identity among the adherents of the new art of healing. Early examples are books by prominent homoeopathic doctors on the origins and recent history of homoeopathy in German lands. A look at their motives will give us a notion of the response of the fringe medicine to a wide ranger of attacks of orthodox physicians and medical historians who saw progress in the field of the new "scientific" medicine only and who shared the values and ideologies of the medical establishment. The second part of the paper - which covers the period from the turn of the century to the end of World War II - examines the first attempts by professional medical historians as well as amateurs to write about the rise and fall of homeopathy in Germany. The third part is then centred on recent medical historiography on this subject.

  12. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  14. A new algorithm for detecting and correcting bad pixels in infrared images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés David Restrepo Girón

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An image processing algorithm detects and replaces abnormal pixels individually, highlighting them amongst their neighbours in a sequence of thermal images without affecting overall texture, like classical filtering does. Bad pixels from manufacture or constant use of a CCD device in an IR camera are thus detected and replaced with a very good success rate, thereby reducing the risk of bad interpretation. Some thermal sequences from CFRP plates, taken by a Cincinnati Electronics InSb IR camera, were used for developing and testing this algorithm. The results were compared to a detailed list of bad pixels given by the manufacturer (about 70% coincidence. This work becomes relevant considering that the number of papers on this subject is low; most of them talk about astronomical image pre-processing. Moreover, thermo graphic non-destructive testing (TNDT techniques are gaining popularity in Colombia at introductory levels in industrial sectors such as energy generation and transmission, sugar production and military aeronautics.

  15. RICHMOND CROWN - FOR RESTORATION OF BADLY MUTILATED POSTERIOR TEETH : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of badly broken endodontically treated teeth is a common problem in restorative dentistry. Such teeth often require additional support from the root canal by means of a post and core restoration. In cases where tooth structure is significantly lost full coverage restorations for posterior teeth are necessary to achieve proper tooth form and function. Badly broken teeth with minimal or no crown structure require added retention and support. The Richmond crown can be a good treatment alternative for restoration of such teeth. The Richmond crown was introduced in 1878 and incorporated a threaded tube in the canal with a screw retained crown. It was later modified to eliminate the threaded tube and was redesigned as a one piece dowel and crown. This case report shows restoration of badly mutilated posterior teeth with Richmond crown.

  16. Driven polymer translocation in good and bad solvent: effects of hydrodynamics and tension propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Moisio, Jaakko E; Linna, Riku P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the driven polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore in the presence and absence of hydrodynamics both in good and bad solvent. We measure tension of the polymer segment on the {\\it cis} side of the pore in the course of translocations simulated using stochastic rotation dynamics, also called multi-particle collision dynamics. We find that in the good solvent the tension propagates similarly whether hydrodynamics is included or not. Only the tensed segment is by a constant factor shorter in the presence of hydrodynamics. The shorter tensed segment and the hydrodynamic interactions contribute to a smaller friction for the translocating polymer when hydrodynamics is included, which shows as smaller waiting times and a smaller exponent in the scaling of the translocation time with the polymer length. Hydrodynamics speeds up translocation in the good solvent, whereas it has a minimal effect on polymer translocation in the bad solvent. Under bad-solvent conditions tension does not spread ...

  17. GOOD or BAD Responder? Behavioural and Neuroanatomical Markers of Clinical Response to Donepezil in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bottini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the neuropsychological and neuromorphometrical differences between probable Alzheimer's disease patients showing a good or a bad response to nine months treatment with donepezil. Before treatment, the neuropsychological profile of the two patient groups was perfectly matched. By the ninth month after treatment, the BAD-responders showed a decline of the MMSE score together with a progressive impairment of executive functions. A voxel-based morphometry investigation (VBM, at the time of the second neuropsychological assessment, showed that the BAD-responders had larger grey and white matter atrophies involving the substantia innominata of Meynert bilaterally, the ventral part of caudate nuclei and the left uncinate fasciculus, brain areas belonging to the cholinergic pathways. A more widespread degeneration of the central cholinergic pathways may explain the lack of donepezil efficacy in those patients not responding to a treatment that operates on the grounds that some degree of endogeneous release of acetylcholine is still available.

  18. [Bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in Hangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Xin; Wang, Ru-Song; Mao, Chun-Hong

    2009-06-01

    By the methods of site investigation, data collection and correlation analysis, the bad tourist behaviors and their environmental impacts on Xixi National Wetland Park in 2006 were studied. The occurrence probabilities of three bad tourist behaviors, i.e., picking, trampling, and littering were 6.5%, 10.3% and 12.6%, respectively. Picking probability was primarily related to the vegetation types along walkways, while the scale of heavy trampling was negatively correlated with tour distance from the entrance. Waste production by each tourist was 782 g x d(-1) on average. The waste from littering amounted for 13.6% of the total. Tourist flow fluctuations of daily, weekly, and monthly perspectives for the study area showed high seasonality and successive days of overloaded tourist flows during peak seasons, which caused an increase of bad tourist behaviors. However, the water quality in the Park was not affected because of the improvement of dredging facilities.

  19. Preparing prelicensure and graduate nursing students to systematically communicate bad news to patients and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeanne; Bolick, Beth Nachtsheim

    2014-01-01

    Communicating bad news, otherwise known as difficult conversations, is a complex communication skill that requires didactic learning and practical application. Students learn that what may be interpreted as bad news is determined by the recipient and not by the person who is delivering the news. Learning a systematic approach, such as the SPIKES (Setting, Perception, Invitation, Knowledge, Empathy, Strategy/Summary) mnemonic, prepares prelicensure and graduate nursing students for difficult conversations with patients and families in the clinical setting. Role-playing commonly includes clinical scenarios, and using video recording and playback of the encounters in such scenarios is one method of learning the systematic approach to communicating bad news. Follow-up practice after application in the clinical setting and feedback from faculty and mentors are essential for nursing students to achieve competence in this complex set of communication skills.

  20. A mapping of people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igier, Valérie; Muñoz Sastre, María Teresa; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to patients. One hundred forty adults who had in the past received bad medical news or whose elderly relatives had in the past received bad news, 25 nurses, and 28 nurse's aides indicated the acceptability of physicians' conduct in 72 vignettes of giving bad news to elderly patients. Vignettes were all combinations of five factors: (a) the severity of the disease (severe but not lethal, extremely severe and possibly lethal, or incurable), (b) the patient's wishes (insists on knowing the full truth vs. does not insist), (c) the level of social support during hospitalization, (d) the patient's psychological robustness, and (e) the physician's decision about communicating bad news (tell the patient that the illness is not severe and minimize the severity of the illness when talking to the patient's relatives, tell the full truth to her relatives, or tell the full truth to both the elderly patient and her relatives). Four qualitatively different positions were found. Twenty-eight percent of participants preferred the full truth to be told; 36% preferred the truth to be told but understood that the physician would inform the family first; 13% did not think that telling the full truth is best for patients; and 23% understood that the full truth would be told in some cases and not in others, depending on the physician's perception of the situation. The present mapping could be used to detect the position held by each patient and act accordingly. This would be made easier if breaking bad news was conceived as a communication process involving a range of health care professionals, rather than as a single occurrence in time.

  1. Influence of Apoptin on Up-regulation of the Expression of Bad and Bax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tai; YANG Qian

    2005-01-01

    The chicken anemia virus protein, apoptin, which manifests selectivity and specificity to tumor cells, induces a p53-independent and Bcl-2-insensitive type of apoptosis in various human tumor cells. In this study, the apoptin gene was cloned from the total DNA of chicken anemia virus, and the recombinant vector was constructed. We used oligonucleotide microarray to study the changes of four genes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad and Bax. The post-transfection with the recombinant was also studied. The pro-apoptotic genes(Bad and Bax) and anti-apoptosis genes(Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) were up-regulated in contrast to the controls. According to the published data, either Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL can form non-functional heterodimers by Bad and Bax binding together, resulting in blocking partly the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. However, apoptosis could be inhibited by neither the endogenous Bcl-xL nor Bcl-2 over-expression. The experiments show that the apoptin-induced apoptotic pathway is related to the up-regulation of Bad and Bax. Bad was up-regulated by apoptin; then this up-regulated product of Bad was in favor of displacing Bax from binding to Bcl-xL or Bcl-2. Consequently, Bax exerted a pro-apoptotic dysfunction to mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c. Finally, apoptin induced the apoptosis of HHCC cells. These results indicate that the oligonucleotide microarray can reveal the genes related to the apoptosis induced by apoptin in HHCC cells.

  2. PKC-ι promotes glioblastoma cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting BAD through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S; Pillai, P; Win-Piazza, H; Acevedo-Duncan, M

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this research was to investigate the role of protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) in regulation of Bad, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only molecule of the Bcl-2 family in glioblastoma. Robust expression of PKC-ι is a hallmark of human glioma and benign and malignant meningiomas. The results were obtained from the two human glial tumor derived cell lines, T98G and U87MG. In these cells, PKC-ι co-localized and directly associated with Bad, as shown by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting. Furthermore, in-vitro kinase activity assay showed that PKC-ι directly phosphorylated Bad at phospho specific residues, Ser-112, Ser-136 and Ser-155 which in turn induced inactivation of Bad and disruption of Bad/Bcl-XL dimer. Knockdown of PKC-ι by siRNA exhibited a corresponding reduction in Bad phosphorylation suggesting that PKC-ι may be a Bad kinase. PKC-ι knockdown also induced apoptosis in both the cell lines. Since, PKC-ι is an essential downstream mediator of the PI (3)-kinase, we hypothesize that glioma cell survival is mediated via a PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/Bad pathway. Treatment with PI (3)-kinase inhibitors Wortmannin and LY294002, as well as PDK1 siRNA, inhibited PKC-ι activity and subsequent phosphorylation of Bad suggesting that PKC-ι regulates the activity of Bad in a PI (3)-kinase dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that glioma cell survival occurs through a novel PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/BAD mediated pathway.

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  4. Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Zehra

    1996-01-01

    The sociocultural problems of Turkish children living in Germany are explored. Turkish immigrant children in Germany must be socialized in two societies, the traditional Turkish culture of their parents and that of German society. Religion and the Islamic-value system are often at odds with German values. (SLD)

  5. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  6. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  7. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  8. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  9. Establishment of Entanglement for Two Atoms Trapped in Two Distant Bad Cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dao-Ming; ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2007-01-01

    A scheme is presented for generation of entangled states for two atoms trapped in two distant bad cavities.The scheme can work with bad cavities with the coupling strength smaller than the cavity decay rate, which is important from the viewpoint of experiment. In the scheme the atoms have no probability of being populated in the excited state and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed, which increases the probability of success. The fidelity of the entangled state is not affected by the detection efficiency. Furthermore, the scheme does not require the detection of the left-polarized photon and right-polarized photon at the same time.

  10. Military Infrastructure: Is It as Bad as the Nation’s Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    clipboard" and in use (using optical bar coding) Why hasn’t this technology been used to gather the necessary data to allow managers to make good ...0TU FILE COPY MILITARY INFRASTRUCTURE: IS IT AS BAD AS THE NATION’S INFRASTRUCTURE? 00 N A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U. S. Army ICommand...NUMBERS Military Infrastructure: Is it as Bad as the Nation’s Infrastructure? 6. AUTHOR(S) Major Robert R. Derrick 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  11. Novice supervisee's experiences of what is good and bad psychotherapy supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study of novice supervisee’s experiences of good and bad supervisory experiences and on how this change as the supervisees gain more experience. Novice psychotherapists rate supervision as the most important element in their acquisition of professional skills...... thematically focusing on the experience of specific good and bad supervisory experiences. Also included were the importance of peers in the supervision group and the organisational setting of the supervision. After analysing each individuals experience all individual experiences were examined until patterns...

  12. The Good, the Bad, and the Odd: Cycles in Answer-Set Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Fichte, Johannes Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Backdoors of answer-set programs are sets of atoms that represent clever reasoning shortcuts through the search space. Assignments to backdoor atoms reduce the given program to several programs that belong to a tractable target class. Previous research has considered target classes based on notions of acyclicity where various types of cycles (good and bad cycles) are excluded from graph representations of programs. We generalize the target classes by taking the parity of the number of negative edges on bad cycles into account and consider backdoors for such classes. We establish new hardness results and non-uniform polynomial-time tractability relative to directed or undirected cycles.

  13. Synthetic chemical inducers and genetic decoupling enable orthogonal control of the rhaBAD promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Ciarán L; Liu, Zilei; Yoshihara, Akihide;

    2016-01-01

    , but is marred by transient expression caused by degradation of the native inducer, L-rhamnose. To address this problem, 35 analogs of L-rhamnose were screened for induction of the rhaBAD promoter, but no strong inducers were identified. In the native configuration, an inducer must bind and activate two...... transcriptional activators, RhaR and RhaS. Therefore, the expression system was reconfigured to decouple the rhaBAD promoter from the native rhaSR regulatory cascade so that candidate inducers need only activate the terminal transcription factor RhaS. Re-screening the 35 compounds using the modified rha...

  14. What Constitutes a Good and Bad Death?: Perspectives of Homeless Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Kwak, Jung; Nelson-Becker, Holly

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives toward a good or bad death among 21 older homeless adults residing in transitional housing. Using grounded theory approach, the themes for a good death were (a) dying peacefully; (b) not suffering; (c) experiencing spiritual connection; and (d) making amends with significant others. Themes for a bad death were (a) experiencing death by accident or violence; (b) prolonging life with life supports; (c) becoming dependent while entering a dying trajectory; and (d) dying alone. Healthcare professionals need to develop approaches for end-of-life care grounded in understanding unique needs of older homeless adults.

  15. Religion, Spirituality, or Existentiality in Bad News Interactions: The Perspectives and Practices of Physicians in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Lawrence; Westhues, Anne

    2015-08-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to identify the role of religion, spirituality, or existentiality in clinical interactions. Grounded theory design was used to generate narrative data from 27 physicians working in four teaching hospitals in Karnataka, India, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Physicians reported that they explored religious, spiritual, and existential beliefs and practices of patients, along with other psychosocial and disease aspects, to assess their tolerance to bad news, to make decisions about delivering it, and to address the distress that might emerge from receiving bad news. They also reported taking recourse to religious or spiritual practices to cope with their own stress and feelings of failure.

  16. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... certain lightweight thermal paper from Germany that the Department of Commerce found were sold at...

  17. Germany at CERN, from 13 to 15 November 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF, during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 02: Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committe, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva during the inauguration of the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN. Photo 04: Mr Maximilian Metzger, BMBF; Mrs Bettina Schoneseiffen, German Delegate to the Finance Committee; Dr Karl-Heinz Kissler, Head of the SPL division, H. E. Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador, Permanent representative of Germany to the United Nations Office in Geneva (background); Dr Horst Wenninger, CERN and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing, visiting the eighth industrial exhibition Germany at CERN.

  18. Career situation of female astronomers in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Fohlmeister, J; 10.1002/asna.201211656

    2012-01-01

    We survey the job situation of women in astronomy in Germany and of German women abroad and review indicators for their career development. Our sample includes women astronomers from all academic levels from doctoral students to professors, as well as female astronomers who have left the field. We find that networking and human support are among the most important factors for success. Experience shows that students should carefully choose their supervisor and collect practical knowledge abroad. We reflect the private situation of female German astronomers and find that prejudices are abundant, and are perceived as discriminating.We identify reasons why women are more likely than men to quit astronomy after they obtain their PhD degree. We give recommendations to young students on what to pay attention to in order to be on the successful path in astronomy.

  19. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  20. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  1. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  2. Self-Deception in the Classroom: Educational Manifestations of Sartre's Concept of Bad Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Waddington, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an important section of Jean-Paul Sartre's famous early work, "Being and Nothingness." In that section Sartre proposes that part of the human condition is to actively engage in a particular kind of self-deception he calls bad faith. Bad faith is recognized by the obvious inconsistency between the purported…

  3. Keeping It Real: Exploring an Interdisciplinary Breaking Bad News Role-Play as an Integrative Learning Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; McCarthy, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care is a complex area of healthcare best delivered by an interdisciplinary team approach. Breaking bad news is an inherent part of caring for people with life-limiting conditions. This study aims to explore an interdisciplinary breaking bad news role-play in a palliative care module. Participants were undergraduate medical and nursing…

  4. Self-Deception in the Classroom: Educational Manifestations of Sartre's Concept of Bad Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Waddington, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an important section of Jean-Paul Sartre's famous early work, "Being and Nothingness." In that section Sartre proposes that part of the human condition is to actively engage in a particular kind of self-deception he calls bad faith. Bad faith is recognized by the obvious inconsistency between the purported…

  5. 32 CFR 887.7 - Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. 887.7 Section 887.7 National Defense... honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. Those persons whose...

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad inhibits tonicity-induced apoptosis in renal medullary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, Christoph; Bartels, Helmut; Beck, Franz-X; Neuhofer, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    During antidiuresis, cell survival in the renal medulla requires cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. We have recently found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes cell survival by phosphorylation and, hence, inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad during hypertonic stress in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in vitro. Here we determine the role of COX-2-derived PGE(2) on phosphorylation of Bad and medullary apoptosis in vivo using COX-2-deficient mice. Both wild-type and COX-2-knockout mice constitutively expressed Bad in tubular epithelial cells of the renal medulla. Dehydration caused a robust increase in papillary COX-2 expression, PGE2 excretion, and Bad phosphorylation in wild-type, but not in the knockout mice. The abundance of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, was significantly higher in papillary homogenates, especially in tubular epithelial cells of the knockout mice. Knockdown of Bad in MDCK cells decreased tonicity-induced caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, the addition of PGE2 to cells with knockdown of Bad had no effect on caspase-3 activation; however, PGE2 caused phosphorylation of Bad and substantially improved cell survival in mock-transfected cells. Thus, tonicity-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in the renal medulla entails phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, thereby counteracting apoptosis in renal medullary epithelial cells.

  7. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results.

  8. Are Bad Experiences Stronger than Good Ones in Mentoring Relationships? Evidence from the Protege and Mentor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Butts, Marcus M.; Durley, Jaime; Ragins, Belle Rose

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the relative importance of good versus bad mentoring experiences in predicting subjective states associated with the mentoring relationship. Study 1 examined the protege perspective and found general support for the proposition that, on average, bad is stronger than good in predicting protege outcomes. Study 2 adopted the…

  9. Faking Bad: Do High-Ability Elementary Students Intentionally Underachieve When Their Work Is Peer-Reviewed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kasey M. K.

    2012-01-01

    While faking bad, or the intentional distortion of assessment results, has been studied extensively with self-report measures (Lim & Butcher, 1996; Roskes, 2009), the possible presence of this behavior on direct measures has only just begun to be examined. Previous studies of faking bad on academic measures have been limited to students at the…

  10. Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.

  11. Bad news transmission as a function of the definitiveness of consequences and the relationship between communicator and recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weenig, M W; Groenenboom, A C; Wilke, H A

    2001-03-01

    There is ample evidence suggesting (e.g., A. Tesser & S. Rosen, 1975) that people are reluctant to transmit bad news. Research on rumors, on the other hand, suggests that people sometimes are less reluctant to transmit bad news. It is argued that differences between the 2 lines of research include the definitiveness of the consequences of the news and the relationship between communicator and recipient. The influence of these 2 factors on news transmission was investigated in 3 experiments. Results showed that bad news with indefinite consequences was transmitted more often than bad news with definite consequences and that both kinds of bad news were transmitted more often if the recipient was a friend rather than a stranger. Differences in feelings of moral responsibility to transmit the news largely accounted for both effects. The 2 factors did not affect the likelihood of good news transmission.

  12. Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

  13. Bad news: an experimental study on the informational effects of rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremzen, A.; Khokhlova, E.; Suvorov, A.; van de Ven, J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists and economists have argued that rewards often have hidden costs. One possible reason is that the principal may have incentives to offer higher rewards when she knows the task is difficult. Our experiment tests if high rewards embody such bad news and if this is correctly perceived by

  14. The 'good is light' and 'bad is dark' metaphor in feature films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.J.; Renckens, T.

    2013-01-01

    Light and darkness can be used metaphorically to help structure GOOD and BAD in all media, but film is particularly suitable for exploiting such metaphors. On the basis of examples from three feature films, we discuss in what way the metaphor functions in general and suggest how it allows for a degr

  15. Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing "hoax"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, Philip C.

    2002-02-01

    Advance praise for Philip Plait s Bad Astronomy "Bad Astronomy is just plain good! Philip Plait clears up every misconception on astronomy and space you never knew you suffered from." --Stephen Maran, Author of Astronomy for Dummies and editor of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia "Thank the cosmos for the bundle of star stuff named Philip Plait, who is the world s leading consumer advocate for quality science in space and on Earth. This important contribution to science will rest firmly on my reference library shelf, ready for easy access the next time an astrologer calls." --Dr. Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist for Scientific American, and author of The Borderlands of Science "Philip Plait has given us a readable, erudite, informative, useful, and entertaining book. Bad Astronomy is Good Science. Very good science..." --James "The Amazing" Randi, President, James Randi Educational Foundation, and author of An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural "Bad Astronomy is a fun read. Plait is wonderfully witty and educational as he debunks the myths, legends, and 'conspiracies that abound in our society. 'The Truth Is Out There' and it's in this book. I loved it!" --Mike Mullane, Space Shuttle astronaut and author of Do Your Ears Pop in Space?

  16. Insular and hippocampal contributions to remembering people with an impression of bad personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Shigemune, Yayoi; Nouchi, Rui; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-06-01

    Our impressions of other people are formed mainly from the two possible factors of facial attractiveness and trustworthiness. Previous studies have shown the importance of orbitofrontal-hippocampal interactions in the better remembering of attractive faces, and psychological data have indicated that faces giving an impression of untrustworthiness are remembered more accurately than those giving an impression of trustworthiness. However, the neural mechanisms of the latter effect are largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we investigated neural activities with event-related fMRI while the female participants rated their impressions of the personalities of men in terms of trustworthiness. After the rating, memory for faces was tested to identify successful encoding activity. As expected, faces that gave bad impressions were remembered better than those that gave neutral or good impressions. In fMRI data, right insular activity reflected an increasing function of bad impressions, and bilateral hippocampal activities predicted subsequent memory success. Additionally, correlation between these insular and hippocampal regions was significant only in the encoding of faces associated with a bad impression. Better memory for faces associated with an impression of bad personality could reflect greater interaction between the avoidance-related insular region and the encoding-related hippocampal region.

  17. The impact of assessing simulated bad news consultations on medical students' stress response and communication performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van; Tromp, F.; Grosfeld, F.; Cate, O. ten; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy second-year medical students volunteered to participate in a study with the aim of evaluating the impact of the assessment of simulated bad news consultations on their physiological and psychological stress and communication performance. Measurements were taken of salivary cortisol, systolic

  18. How do patients define "good" and "bad" doctors? - Qualitative approach to the representations of hospital patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luthy, C; Cedraschi, C; Perrin, E; Allaz, AF

    2005-01-01

    Questions under study: Knowledge of hospital patients' perceptions of doctors' qualities is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore hospital patients' definitions of "good" and "bad" doctors. Methods: Semi-structured interviews conducted with 68 consecutive hospital patients. The questions

  19. "Formative Good, Summative Bad?"--A Review of the Dichotomy in Assessment Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Alice Man Sze

    2016-01-01

    The debate between summative and formative assessment is creating a situation that increasingly calls to mind the famous slogan in George Orwell's (1945) "Animal Farm"--"Four legs good, two legs bad". Formative assessment is increasingly being portrayed in the literature as "good" assessment, which tutors should…

  20. Love, Hate, and Crystal Meth: Abjection and Teacher Narcissism in Breaking Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowich, David

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author looks at a particular episode of the television show, Breaking Bad, as a means to explore the pedagogical implications of the Kristevan notion of abjection, and its relation to the emotions of love and hate, and the emergence of teacher narcissism as an inevitable offshoot of the antagonisms in learning. This particular…

  1. Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Ayres, Paul; Chandler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Ayres, P., & Chandler, P. (2011). Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 99-105. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.06.025

  2. Information Feedback in Public-Bad Games : A Cross-Country Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.C.M.; Moxnes, E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we examine the impact of information on individual contributions in a public-bad experiment. We compare two experimental treatments. In the partial information treatment, subjects are only informed about the total contributions by their group, whereas in the full information treatment

  3. Barriers and facilitating communication skills for breaking bad news: from the specialists’ practice perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enna Catalina Payán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breaking bad news is one of a physician’s most difficult duties. There are several studies related to the patient’s needs, but few reflect on the doctors’ experience.Materials and method: A descriptive, cross-sectional research was carried out to study issues related to the process of delivering bad news which might act as barriers and facilitating skills from the doctor’s point of view. These issues were identified through a self-administered survey.Results: Participant doctors use different strategies to communicate bad news to their patients. Examples of these strategies are: to be familiar with the patients’ medical history, to ensure that there is enough time, to know the patient’s caregivers and/or relatives, to determine the patient’s level of knowledge about his/her condition, to use non-technical words, to give information in small pieces, to assess the patient’s understanding, to devise a joint action plan, among others.Conclusion: The communication barriers that were identified focused on the emotional issues of the communication process, particularly those related to the recognition of own emotions, and the limited training about communication strategies available to doctors. Consequently, there is a need to implement training programs that provide doctors with tools to facilitate the bad news communication process.

  4. Variants in KCNJ11 and BAD do not predict response to ketogenic dietary therapies for epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeler, Natasha E.; Leu, Costin; White, Jon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellard, Sian; Matarin, Mar; Yellen, Gary; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Mackay, Mark; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sander, Josemir W.; Cross, J. Helen; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of specific metabolic disorders, predictors of response to ketogenic dietary therapies (KDT) are unknown. We aimed to determine whether variants in established candidate genes KCNJ11 and BAD influence response to KDT. We sequenced KCNJ11 and BAD in individuals without previously-known glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome or other metabolic disorders, who received KDT for epilepsy. Hospital records were used to obtain demographic and clinical data. Two response phenotypes were used: ≥50% seizure reduction and seizure-freedom at 3-month follow-up. Case/control association tests were conducted with KCNJ11 and BAD variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.01, using PLINK. Response to KDT in individuals with variants with MAF  0.01. Eight variants in KCNJ11 and seven in BAD (of which three were previously-unreported) had MAF 0.05 and effect size >3. A larger sample size is needed to detect associations from rare variants or those with smaller effect sizes. PMID:26590798

  5. The Big Bad Wolf and Stereotype and Bias in the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Describes a librarian/teacher coplanned fourth-grade unit at Central Elementary School (Indianapolis, Indiana). The lesson focused on wolves and pack behavior and incorporated the tale of the Big Bad Wolf and the Three Little Pigs to teach the media literacy concepts of point of view, message, stereotype, and bias. Sample worksheets are included.…

  6. Exploring Teenagers' Accounts of Bad Communication: A New Basis for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John; Catan, Liza; Dennison, Catherine; Brody, Roz

    1998-01-01

    Argues that evidence of young people's communication experiences is an important resource to inform the targeting and content of intervention that has been overlooked. Adolescents 13-19 years old (N=4048) described a recent communication experience. Self-reported bad communication experiences outweighed good ones only in adolescents'…

  7. Risky Disclosures on "Facebook": The Effect of Having a Bad Experience on Online Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Emily; Muise, Amy; Desmarais, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Social network websites are widely used by adolescents, but disclosing in this environment has inherent risks, as does connecting with others online. In a sample of 256 adolescent "Facebook" users, the authors explore the relationship between having a negative experience, privacy knowledge, and behavior. Their reports of bad experiences on…

  8. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the rhetorical construction of "bad" scientific work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Frederick Thomas

    2012-02-01

    How are secondary accounts of "bad" scientific practice constructed? How do they engage with the primary data produced by "bad" scientists? And what happens to those primary data as generations of secondary accounts purporting to describe them accumulate? This paper addresses such questions via a case study of Dr. Hong, a microbiologist accused of "bad" scientific practice by numerous secondary accounts of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Bringing Hong's own account of his own actions into dialogue with one of the most influential secondary accounts of his actions, the paper highlights the gross disparity between the two. Having argued that the rhetorical structuring of the secondary account is, ultimately, responsible for Hong's characterisation as a "bad" scientist, it then moves to explore how subsequent accounts developed their own characterisations. What becomes clear is that as secondary accounts began feeding off one another, references to Hong's account disappeared. Aided by the concepts of the "vanishing" and the "phantasm", the paper concludes with a consideration of how this process left Hong's work with a very peculiar form of existence.

  9. The 'good is light' and 'bad is dark' metaphor in feature films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.J.; Renckens, T.

    2013-01-01

    Light and darkness can be used metaphorically to help structure GOOD and BAD in all media, but film is particularly suitable for exploiting such metaphors. On the basis of examples from three feature films, we discuss in what way the metaphor functions in general and suggest how it allows for a

  10. Future Directions in the Study of Close Relationships: Conflict Is Bad (Except when It's Not)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Hafen, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial and detrimental correlates of interpersonal disagreement have been postulated and documented. The conclusion: conflict is both bad and good. The evidence for these paradoxical effects is summarized. In this article, we argue that the consequences of conflict for individuals depend on its frequency, the way in which it is managed, and…

  11. Breaking Bad News in Healthcare Organizations: Application of the Spikes Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonBergen, C. W.; Stevens, Robert E.; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Organizational downsizing has increased exponentially worldwide and is also affecting the healthcare industry. It is one thing to speak abstractly of the need to reduce costs and quite another to actually tell a worker the bad news that he or she has been laid off. This paper offers practical advice to healthcare managers on conducting unpleasant…

  12. Love, Hate, and Crystal Meth: Abjection and Teacher Narcissism in Breaking Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowich, David

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author looks at a particular episode of the television show, Breaking Bad, as a means to explore the pedagogical implications of the Kristevan notion of abjection, and its relation to the emotions of love and hate, and the emergence of teacher narcissism as an inevitable offshoot of the antagonisms in learning. This particular…

  13. Good humor, bad taste: a sociology of the joke. - 2nd, revised ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This is an updated edition of Good Humor, Bad Taste: A Sociology of the Joke, published in 2006. Using a combination of interview materials, survey data, and historical materials, it explores the relationship between humor and gender, age, social class, and national differences in the Netherlands an

  14. Teaching and training in breaking bad news at the Dutch medical schools: a comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Brouwers, M.; Grosfeld, F.; Jongen Hermus, F.; Dalen, J. Van; Bonke, B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians consider breaking bad news (BBN) a difficult task, and training is therefore necessary. There is much variety in what schools consider to be best practice and best timing for such training. This article discusses BBN-programmes at the Dutch medical schools. We studied how

  15. Disproving Hibi's Conjecture with CoCoA or Projective Curves with bad Hilbert Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Niesi, G

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we show how to combine different techniques from Commutative Algebra and a systematic use of a Computer Algebra System (in our case mainly CoCoA) in order to explicitly construct Cohen-Macaulay domains, which are standard $k$-algebras and whose Hilbert function is ``bad". In particular we disprove a well-known conjecture by Hibi.

  16. Is Materialism All That Bad? Effects on Satisfaction with Material Life, Life Satisfaction, and Economic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Gurel-Atay, Eda; Webb, Dave; Cicic, Muris; Husic-Mehmedovic, Melika; Ekici, Ahmet; Herrmann, Andreas; Hegazy, Ibrahim; Lee, Dong-Jin; Johar, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    The literature in economic psychology and quality-of-life studies alludes to a negative relationship between materialism and life satisfaction. In contrast, the macroeconomic literature implies a positive relationship between material consumption and economic growth. That is, materialism may be both good and bad. We develop a model that reconciles…

  17. Volatile Sulfur Compounds as The Cause of Bad Breath : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.

    2013-01-01

    Bad breath or halitosis is a concern for millions of people. Halitosis is subdivided into intraoral and extraoral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. About 90% of halitosis originates within the oral cavity and includes bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, where

  18. The power of a bad example : A field experiment in household garbage disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Field-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments. Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may prevent people from following the bad example of litterers, they may also invi

  19. The Sad, the Mad and the Bad: Co-Existing Discourses of Girlhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Three significant, prevailing and overlapping narratives of teenage girls have dominated North American popular consciousness since the early 1990s: the sad girl, victimized by male privilege and misogyny of adolescence and beyond; the mad grrrls who rejected this vulnerability through music and media; and the bad girls of much current popular…

  20. Measurement-induced two-qubit entanglement in a bad cavity: Fundamental and practical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    An entanglement-generating protocol is described for two qubits coupled to a cavity field in the bad-cavity limit. By measuring the amplitude of a field transmitted through the cavity, an entangled spin-singlet state can be established probabilistically. Both fundamental limitations and practical...

  1. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Divorced Mothers' Experiences with Coparenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Melinda Stafford; Coleman, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This study produces a grounded theory of how 20 predominantly White, well-educated women experienced sharing physical custody of their children with their former partners after divorce or separation. Three patterns of coparenting were identified in the data: "continuously contentious", "always amicable", and "bad to better". Five negative factors…

  2. Creation and Assessment of a Bad News Delivery Simulation Curriculum for Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Rees, Chris A; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Hsu, Deborah C; Doughty, Cara B; Lorin, Martin I

    2016-05-01

    Background  Bad news in the context of health care has been broadly defined as significant information that negatively alters people's perceptions of the present or future. Effectively delivering bad news (DBN) in the setting of the emergency department requires excellent communication skills. Evidence shows that bad news is frequently given inadequately. Studies show that trainees need to devote more time to developing this skill through formalized training. This program's objectives were to utilize trained standardized patients in a simulation setting to assist pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellows in the development of effective, sensitive, and compassionate communication with patients and family members when conveying bad news, and to recognize and respond to the patient/parent's reaction to such news. Methods PEM fellows participated in a novel curriculum utilizing simulated patients (SPs) acting as the patient's parent and immersive techniques in a realistic and supportive environment. A baseline survey was conducted to ascertain participant demographics and previous experience with simulation and DBN. Experienced, multi-disciplinary faculty participated in a training workshop with the SPs one week prior to course delivery. Three scenarios were developed for bad news delivery. Instructors watched via remote video feed while the fellows individually interacted with the SPs and then participated in a confidential debriefing. Fellows later joined for group debriefing. Fellow characteristics, experience, and self-perceived comfort pre/post-course were collected.   Results Baseline data demonstrated that 78% of fellows reported DBN two or more times per month. Ninety-three percent of fellows in this study were present during the delivery of news about the death of a child to a parent or family member in the six-month period preceding this course. Fellows' self-reported comfort level in DBN to a patient/family and dealing with patient and parent emotions

  3. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  4. Driven polymer translocation in good and bad solvent: Effects of hydrodynamics and tension propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisio, J E; Piili, J; Linna, R P

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the driven polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore in the presence and absence of hydrodynamics both in good and bad solvent. We present our results on tension propagating along the polymer segment on the cis side that is measured for the first time using our method that works also in the presence of hydrodynamics. For simulations we use stochastic rotation dynamics, also called multiparticle collision dynamics. We find that in the good solvent the tension propagates very similarly whether hydrodynamics is included or not. Only the tensed segment is by a constant factor shorter in the presence of hydrodynamics. The shorter tensed segment and the hydrodynamic interactions contribute to a smaller friction for the translocating polymer when hydrodynamics is included, which shows as smaller waiting times and a smaller exponent in the scaling of the translocation time with the polymer length. In the bad solvent hydrodynamics has a minimal effect on polymer translocation, in contrast to the good solvent, where it speeds up translocation. We find that under bad-solvent conditions tension does not spread appreciably along the polymer. Consequently, translocation time does not scale with the polymer length. By measuring the effective friction in a setup where a polymer in free solvent is pulled by a constant force at the end, we find that hydrodynamics does speed up collective polymer motion in the bad solvent even more effectively than in the good solvent. However, hydrodynamics has a negligible effect on the motion of individual monomers within the highly correlated globular conformation on the cis side and hence on the entire driven translocation under bad-solvent conditions.

  5. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Prager, Rita; Halbedel, Sven; Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Huhulescu, Steliana; Lohr, Dorothee; Schönberger, Katharina; Aichinger, Elisabeth; Hauri, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Vygen, Sabine; Tietze, Erhard; Allerberger, Franz; Wilking, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n = 66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n = 28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing.

  6. Exemplary subsurface geothermal projects in the western part of Germany; Beispiele zur Nutzung oberflaechennaher Geothermie im Westen Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B.; Mands, E. [UbeG GbR, Wetzlar (Germany); Kohlsch, O. [EWS Erdwaerme-Systemtechnik GmbH, Delbrueck (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    During the past few years, several projects involving ground source heat pumps were carried out in western Germany, especially in the Rhine-Main and Rhine-Ruhr-Sieg region including the cities of Frankfurt and Cologne. Some of the project partners are big names in industry, e.g. an office building of PhilipsSparte APD at Wetzlar and the museum building of chocolate producer Ritter Sport. Other projects are sited in rural regions, from the Black Forest to the Weserbergland hills. The contribution presents several interesting projects, e.g. the police headquarters building at Bonn (right bank, groundwater use) and the office building of the Federal Office of Environmental protection, also at Bonn (left bank, geothermal probles), and three school buildings in the Frankfurt/Main region at Glashuetten, Bad Homburg-Oberstedten and Usingen-Eschbach. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren wurden im Westen Deutschlands eine ganze Reihe groesserer Projekte mit erdgekoppelten Waermepumpen verwirklicht, besonders im Rhein-Main-Gebiet und im Rhein-Ruhr-Sieg-Gebiet einschliesslich der Grossstaedte Frankfurt und Koeln. Zu den Bauherren zaehlen inzwischen auch bekannte Namen der deutschen Industrie. So wird in Wetzlar ein Buerogbaeude der PhilipsSparte APD mit Erdwaermesonden ausgeruestet, und das Museum des Schokoladenherstellers Ritter Sport wird auf Energiepfaehlen stehen. Abe auch im laendlichen Raum sind interessante Anlagen entstanden, vom Schwarzwald bis ins Weserbergland. Im Folgenden werden einige interessante Beispiele vorgestellt. Dabei sind Projekte in der Ausfuehrungsphase wie z.B. das Polizeipraesidium in Bonn (rechts des Rheins mit Grundwassernutzung), oder das Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz in Bonn, diesmal auf der linken Rheinseite und mit Erdwaermesonden. In Ausfuehrungn bzw. fertiggestellt sind auch Erdwaermesonden fuer 3 Schulen im Raum Frankfurt:/Main, in Glashuetten, Bad Homburg-Oberstedten und Usingen-Eschbach. (orig.)

  7. Training and Recruitment of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Training of German judges is part of general legal education which is the same for all regulated legal professions (judges, prosecutors, practising lawyers, lawyers in administration and private employment. This uniform qualification is acquired by passing two exams administered by the state, i.e. the Länder (not the Federation, the first exam after university studies and the second exam after state-organized practical training. The paper gives an overview of this system of legal education. Germany, as a rule, has career judges. Courts of first and second instance are administered by the Länder, therefore the Länder judicial administrations are also responsible for recruitment of young career judges. General criteria for appointment to any public office are laid down in the German constitution (Grundgesetz. Apart from this, selection proceedings differ in detail, although elaborate lists of criteria (employee profiles, competence profiles are widely used. Professional competence is judged with emphasis on exam results; personal competence and social competence are assessed in interviews with appointment commissions or staff managers of ministries of justice. The paper provides details of these proceedings and also gives the author’s personal experience with recruitment proceedings in the Court of Appeal district of Cologne.

  8. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  9. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  10. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  11. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  12. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  13. The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) lowers the threshold at which the Bcl-2-interacting domain death agonist (BID) triggers mitochondria disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Christopher C; Baumann, William T; Samuels, David C; Finkielstein, Carla V

    2011-02-21

    The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) protein, like many other BH3-only proteins, is known to promote apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Unlike the BH3-interacting domain death agonist (BID) protein, BAD cannot directly trigger apoptosis but, instead, lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced. In many mathematical models of apoptosis, BAD is neglected or abstracted. The work presented here considers the incorporation of BAD and its various modifications in a model of the tBID-induction of BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer) or the tBID-induction of BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein). Steady state equations are used to develop an explicit formula describing the total concentration level of tBID, guaranteed to trigger apoptosis, as a bilinear function of the total BAD concentration level and the total anti-apoptotic protein concentration level (usually Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL). In particular, the formula explains how the pro-apoptotic protein BAD lowers the threshold at which tBID induces BAK/BAX activation-reducing the level of total Bcl-2/Bcl-xL available to inhibit tBID signaling in the mitochondria. Attention is then turned to the experimental data surrounding BAD phosphorylation, a process known to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effects of BAD. To address this data, the phosphorylation process is modeled following two separate kinetics in which either free unbound BAD is the assumed substrate or Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-bound BAD is the assumed substrate. Bifurcation analysis and further analysis of the bilinear equation validate experiments, which suggest that BAD phosphorylation prevents irreversible BAK/BAX-mediated apoptosis, even when phosphorylation-induced dissociation of Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-bound BAD is blocked. It is also shown that a cooperative, even synergistic, removal of mitochondrial BAD is seen when both types of phosphorylation are assumed possible. The presented work, however, reveals that the balance between BAD phosphorylation and

  14. Validation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS)-Psychometric properties of the long and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Kristina; Hautzinger, Martin; Krisch, Katharina; Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David Daniel

    2016-04-01

    With the development of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) by Kanter, et al. [1], different behavioral aspects of depression like activation, rumination or avoidance, and functional impairment can be measured. The long and the short versions of the BADS, however, show differences in the quality of psychometric properties. We wanted to validate the short and long forms of the BADS. We therefore evaluated the factor structure, the psychometric properties, and the construct validity of the long version and the subscales in a clinically depressed German sample (n=258) in study 1. In study 2, we explored the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the short version of the BADS in a subsyndromal sample with elevated depressive symptoms (n=406). In study 1, our results replicated the four factor solution of the BADS-25 original version and showed good psychometric properties. However, with regard to the BADS-9 only the French factor solution of the short BADS-9 demonstrated acceptable fit with low internal consistency of the subscale Avoidance. Thus, only the total score of the short form can be recommended.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus miR-BART20-5p regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoji; Choi, Hoyun; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2015-01-28

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI A rightward transcript (BART) microRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed in EBV-associated tumors, the role of most BART miRNAs is unclear. In this study, we showed that Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) expression was significantly lower in EBV-infected AGS-EBV cells than in EBV-negative AGS cells and investigated whether BART miRNAs target BAD. Using bioinformatics analysis, five BART miRNAs showing seed match with the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of BAD were selected. Of these, only miR-BART20-5p reduced BAD expression when individually transfected into AGS cells. A luciferase assay revealed that miR-BART20-5p directly targets BAD. The expression of BAD mRNA and protein was decreased by miR-BART20-5p and increased by an inhibitor of miR-BART20-5p. PE-Annexin V staining and cell proliferation assays showed that miR-BART20-5p reduced apoptosis and enhanced cell growth. Furthermore, miR-BART20-5p increased chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel. Our data suggest that miR-BART20-5p contributes to tumorigenesis of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of BAD.

  16. A synthesis of the literature on breaking bad news or truth telling: potential for research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Lawrence; Westhues, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of fatal diseases, inequitable access to health care, and socioeconomic disparities in India generate plentiful clinical bad news including diagnosis of a life-limiting disease, poor prognosis, treatment failure, and impending death. These contexts compel health care professionals to become the messengers of bad news to patients and their families. In global literature on breaking bad news, there is very little about such complex clinical interactions occurring in India or guiding health care providers to do it well. The purpose of this article is to identify the issues for future research that would contribute to the volume, comprehensiveness, and quality of empirical literature on breaking bad news in clinical settings across India. Towards this end, we have synthesized the studies done across the globe on breaking bad news, under four themes: (a) deciding the amount of bad news to deliver; (b) attending to cultural and ethical issues; (c) managing psychological distress; and (d) producing competent messengers of bad news. We believe that robust research is inevitable to build an indigenous knowledge base, enhance communicative competence among health care professionals, and thereby to improve the quality of clinical interactions in India.

  17. EMI in Germany - Qualitative Differentiation in a Tracked Education System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  18. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  19. Duesseldorf :An Attractive City for Investments in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ At the 3rd Chinese Enterprises Outbound Investment Conference,a seminar was sponsored by Duesseldorf municipal government,a city of 600,000 inhabitants in Germany,in hopes of attracting Chinese investments.

  20. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  1. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  2. Isolation of sindbis virus from a hooded crow in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Martin; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Müller, Kerstin; Granzow, Harald; Jöst, Hanna; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-03-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus that causes clinical symptoms, including arthritis, rash, and fever during acute human infections. In Europe, SINV outbreaks are largely restricted to northern Europe. Intrigued by the isolation of SINV from mosquitoes in southwestern Germany in 2009, we initiated a passive arbovirus-monitoring program in birds and analyzed a total of 685 samples. By this approach, we were able to detect a SINV in a Hooded Crow in Germany for the first time. It was possible to isolate SINV virus in cell cultures and even to visualize virus particles by electron microscopy. After the determination of the complete SINV genome sequence, the phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to SINV genotype I sequences previously obtained from mosquitoes in Germany and Scandinavia. This first report on the isolation of viable SINV indicates the potential involvement of crows in an enzootic circulation of SINV in Germany and Central Europe.

  3. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  4. Sebastian Kneipp and the Natural Cure Movement of Germany: Between Naturalism and Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Youkyung

    2016-12-01

    This study discusses the historical significance of the Natural Cure Movement of Germany, centering on the Kneipp Cure, a form of hydrotherapy practiced by Father Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1897). The Kneipp Cure rested on five main tenets: hydrotherapy, exercise, nutrition, herbalism, and the balance of mind and body. This study illuminates the reception of the Kneipp Cure in the context of the trilateral relationship among the Kneipp Cure, the Natural Cure Movement in general, and modern medicine. The Natural Cure Movement was ideologically based on naturalism, criticizing industrialization and urbanization. There existed various theories and methods in it, yet they shared holism and vitalism as common factors. The Natural Cure Movement of Germany began in the early 19th century. During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, it became merged in the Lebensreformbewegung (life reform movement) which campaigned for temperance, anti-tobacco, and anti-vaccination. The core of the Natural Cure Movement was to advocate the world view that nature should be respected and to recognize the natural healing powers of sunlight, air, water, etc. Among varied natural therapies, hydrotherapy spread out through the activities of some medical doctors and amateur healers such as Johann Siegmund Hahn and Vincenz Prie βnitz. Later, the supporters of hydrotherapy gathered together under the German Society of Naturopathy. Sebastian Kneipp, one of the forefathers of hydrotherapy, is distinguished from other proponents of natural therapies in two aspects. First, he did not refuse to employ vaccination and medication. Second, he sought to be recognized by the medical world through cooperating with medical doctors who supported his treatment. As a result, the Kneipp cure was able to be gradually accepted into the medical world despite the "quackery" controversy between modern medicine and the Natural Cure Movement. Nowadays, the name of Sebastian Kneipp remains deeply engraved on

  5. Impression of the NGOs in Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoSumei; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the “Moral Re-armament” Norwegian Foundation and the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation of Germany, the delegation of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU), headed by Vice-President, Mr. Zhu Dacheng,paid a visit to Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During the visit, we did some research on the state of NGOs in the two countries.

  6. VDMA: Germany Already European Champion at ITMA ASIA + CITME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Frankfurt/Main, Shanghai, 12th June 2012 - Occupying 6,402 square meters of booked space,Germany already won the European Championship at ITMA ASIA + CITME 2012, leaving all other competitors from Europe behind. The German exhibition area increased by 18 % compared with the 2010 edition of the show. Measured by square meters, Germany is the biggest foreign exhibiting nation at the major fair for the Asian market,

  7. The Economic Performance of Germany's East European Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Germany has experienced a substantial influx of German immigrants from Eastern Europe after World War II and expects several million more as a consequence of the demise of socialism. This paper analyses the economic performance of ethnic German migrants to West Germany in comparison with native born West Germans. Ethnic German immigrants from Eastern Europe display lower levels of education, lower rates of self-employment and higher unemployment rates than natives and immigrants from East Ger...

  8. Social Deprivation and Exclusion of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on social exclusion of immigrants in Germany. We demonstrate that when using a conventional definition of the social inclusion index typically applied in the literature, immigrants appear to experience a significant degree of social deprivation and exclusion, confirming much of the economic literature examining the economic assimilation of immigrants in Germany. We propose a weighting scheme that weights components of social inclusion by their s...

  9. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena L. Hilchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  10. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  11. Study on the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ruqiong; LI Bing; ZHENG Lina

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure for spatial information is an important part of our national information construction that is the subject of essentials on the social of spatial information. As an EU member, Germany has an obligation for the European spatial information infrastructure to provide its spatial data. The relevant experience of the Germany in the organization, design and implementation of spatial information infrastructure wil be a good reference to build our geospatial framework construction.

  12. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  13. [Model calculation to explain the BSE-incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Radulf C

    2004-01-01

    The future development of BSE-incidence in Germany is investigated using a simple epidemiological model calculation. Starting point is the development of the incidence of confirmed suspect BSE-cases in Great Britain since 1988, the hitherto known mechanisms of transmission and the measures taken to decrease the risk of transmission as well as the development of the BSE-incidence in Germany obtained from active post mortem laboratory testing of all cattle older then 24 months. The risk of transmission is characterized by the reproduction ratio of the disease. There is a shift in time between the risk of BSE transmission and the BSE incidence caused by the incubation time of more than 4 years. The observed decrease of the incidence in Germany from 2001 to 2003 is not a consequence of the measures taken at the end of 2000 to contain the disease. It can rather be explained by an import of BSE contaminated products from countries with a high BSE incidence in the years 1995/96 being used in calf feeding in Germany. From the future course of the BSE-incidence in Germany after 2003 a quantification of the recycling rate of BSE-infected material within Germany before the end of 2000 will be possible by use of the proposed model if the active surveillance is continued.

  14. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germany’s European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Knodt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  15. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  16. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  17. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  18. Cue-responding in a Simulated Bad News Situation: Exploring a Stress Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Valck, C; Bruynooghe, R; Bensing, J M; Kerssens, J J; Hulsman, R L

    2001-09-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine their communicative reactions we selected 10 patient cues with different levels of expressed emotion to which the participants responded from the physician's point of view. A strongly positive relationship between expressed emotion and perceived difficulty of the cues and a gender effect occurred, confirming that handling emotions is stressful for physicians. The reluctance of physicians to address the emotionally laden issues of the consultation can be understood as a lack of a frame of reference. The problem-solving strategies, which they apply in the instrumental domain of the consultation, are ineffective when dealing with psychosocial suffering.

  19. Early maternal separation, nightmares, and bad dreams: results from the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Szilvia; Simor, Péter; Szabó, Gábor; Kopp, Mária S; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-03-01

    Early maternal separation is a particularly stressful experience. Current models of nightmare production emphasize negative emotionality as having a central role in determining dream affect. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that persons who experienced early maternal separation (before one year of age and lasting at least one month) report more frequent nightmare experiences and bad dreams as adults. In the frame of the Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel, 5020 subjects were interviewed. Significant associations were found between early maternal separation and both frequent nightmare experience in adulthood and increased frequency of oppressive and bad dreams. Current depression scores fully mediated the association between early separation and nightmares, but not the association between early separation and negative dream affect. We interpret these findings as a trait-like enhancement of negative emotionality in adults who experienced early maternal separation. This enhancement influences the content of dreams and, when it takes the form of depression, also influences the frequency of nightmares.

  20. Breaking bad news to a pregnant woman with a fetal abnormality on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Andrea L; Conklin, Jona

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is a common procedure performed in pregnancy. Most obstetric patients have an ultrasound between 18 and 20 weeks' gestation. While there is debate regarding the utility of this ultrasound, it has become a routine part of prenatal care. Discovery of a fetal anomaly on ultrasound is most commonly an unexpected, emotionally devastating event for pregnant women. Counseling these women about the ultrasound findings requires empathy and sensitivity. This task falls on the physicians caring for pregnant women: maternal-fetal medicine specialists, radiologists, generalist obstetricians, and family medicine physicians. Their training regarding breaking bad news is varied. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a framework to break bad news of an anomalous fetus for physicians caring for pregnant women using the SPIKES protocol. The SPIKES acronym stands for setting, perception, invitation, knowledge, empathize, summary, and strategy.

  1. [Delivering bad news in a Swiss internal medicine ward: a medical and nurse partnership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castioni, J; Teike Lüthi, F; Boretti, S Moser; Vollenweider, P

    2015-11-01

    Delivering bad news to a patient has a major impact for patients, their relatives and caregivers. The way this information is delivered can affect the way the patient sees his disease and potentially how he adheres to its treatment. To improve this communication with the patient the service of internal medicine at the Swiss university hospital of Lausanne set up a process including the coordination between all involved caregivers, and to break the bad news in a setting including a medical and nurse partnership. It also underscores that the resident in charge of the patient remains the coordinator of delivering new information. Moreover, the service provides communication tools to the caregivers to improve the communication skills.

  2. Blended news delivery in healthcare: a framework for injecting good news into bad news conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Angela M; Sweeny, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians often inject good news into bad news delivery, and they do so for a variety of reasons. We present a framework that draws from research in the fields of health and social psychology to shed light on situations in which clinicians add superfluous good news into bad news conversations in an effort to ease the conversation or mitigate patients' distress, a broad strategy we refer to as blended news delivery. Our framework includes predictors of clinicians' use of blended news delivery, characteristics of blended news and outcomes of this strategy for both patients and clinicians. This framework addresses a common aspect of health communication and can direct future research on ideal strategies for and likely consequences of blended news delivery and communication more broadly.

  3. Breaking bad news. 2: What evidence is available to guide clinicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R A; Girgis, A; Sanson-Fisher, R W

    1998-01-01

    Literature related to breaking bad news to medical patients was reviewed. An analysis of citations appearing between 1994 and August 1997 updated earlier work and indicated that a minority (24%) of the studies on the subject were designed to collect original data. Ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating communication strategies with cancer patients in the diagnostic phase have been published since 1980. These RCTs were analyzed for methodological adequacy and their clinical implications. The sampling methods of the RCTs presented particular problems. Although patients liked the experimental interventions, there was little evidence of any effect on the patients' psychological adjustment; the effects on patients' knowledge and satisfaction levels were inconsistent. Healthcare consequences of issues concerned with patient selection, cultural factors, medical-legal requirements, and intervention costs are outlined and specific suggestions offered for future research testing the effects of different approaches to breaking bad news.

  4. 'Good' and 'bad' deaths: Narratives and professional identities in interviews with hospice managers

    OpenAIRE

    Semino, E.; Demjén, Z.; Koller, V.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the formal and functional characteristics of narratives of 'good' and 'bad' deaths as they were told by 13 UK-based hospice managers in the course of semi-structured interviews. The interviewees' responses include a variety of remarkably consistent 'narratives of successful/frustrated intervention', which exhibit distinctive formal characteristics in terms of the starting point and core of the action, the choice of personal pronouns and metaphors, and the ways in which p...

  5. Making good citizens from bad life in post-genocide Rwanda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Simon

    2014-01-01

    out of ‘bare life’, the Rwandan state is attempting to exorcise a concrete historical moment of violence, and the Hutu who enter the ingando are produced as what I term ‘bad life’. In this sense, the idea of a new beginning in Rwanda differs from universal claims to justice in the legalistic sense...... and is in stead specific, political and at times violent. It is a political project of casting a new Rwanda in a specific image....

  6. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo M Oliveira-Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. Aims: To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush′s head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05. The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman′s test. When significant differences (P < 0.05 were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon′s test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05 for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni′s method. Results: The toothbrush′s tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Conclusions: Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath.

  7. Practical discrimination of good and bad cooked food using metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An increasing concentration of ammonia in cooked food is in direct proportion to the extent of decay. This fact is used to design an electronic nose (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor circuit capable of discriminating good and bad cooked food. On the basis of the data produced by the e-nose circuit, a feedforward multilayer neural network is designed and trained to recognize varying concentrations of ammonia in the food. Test results o...

  8. To study the association of antiphospholipid syndrome in patients with bad obstetric history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitha Ravindran R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The study shows that women with bad obstetric history (BOH and those cases where miscarriage occurred after the appearance of foetal cardiac activity should be investigated for APLA in the preconceptional period itself in the next pregnancy earlier and if positive should be given prophylaxis for the same to prevent a miscarriage in future pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4156-4159

  9. Chronotope of cities in The bad girl, by Mario Vargas Llosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Saraí Fernández-López

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a chronotopic interpretation of the novel The bad girl, by Mario Vargas Llosa. It emphasizes the functioning of different cities, where the plot takes place, as essential parts of the argumentative structure. The emotional load of these cities, ideologies and implied ethics, as well as the characters’ evolution, within the author’s context and represented events, were needed to know the text’s sense and intention.

  10. RAS signaling promotes resistance to JAK inhibitors by suppressing BAD-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peter S; Sarosiek, Kristopher A; Lin, Kevin H; Meggendorfer, Manja; Schnittger, Susanne; Letai, Anthony; Wood, Kris C

    2014-12-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) frequently have an activating mutation in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Thus, targeting the pathway mediated by JAK and its downstream substrate, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), may yield clinical benefit for patients with MPNs containing the JAK2(V617F) mutation. Although JAK inhibitor therapy reduces splenomegaly and improves systemic symptoms in patients, this treatment does not appreciably reduce the number of neoplastic cells. To identify potential mechanisms underlying this inherent resistance phenomenon, we performed pathway-centric, gain-of-function screens in JAK2(V617F) hematopoietic cells and found that the activation of the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RAS or its effector pathways [mediated by the kinases AKT and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)] renders cells insensitive to JAK inhibition. Resistant MPN cells became sensitized to JAK inhibitors when also exposed to inhibitors of the AKT or ERK pathways. Mechanistically, in JAK2(V617F) cells, a JAK2-mediated inactivating phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein BAD [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)-associated death promoter] promoted cell survival. In sensitive cells, exposure to a JAK inhibitor resulted in dephosphorylation of BAD, enabling BAD to bind and sequester the prosurvival protein BCL-XL (BCL-2-like 1), thereby triggering apoptosis. In resistant cells, RAS effector pathways maintained BAD phosphorylation in the presence of JAK inhibitors, yielding a specific dependence on BCL-XL for survival. In patients with MPNs, activating mutations in RAS co-occur with the JAK2(V617F) mutation in the malignant cells, suggesting that RAS effector pathways likely play an important role in clinically observed resistance.

  11. Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    Most states in the U.S. allow for unilateral divorce, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Such regulations have come under fire for their perceived negative consequences for marital stability and resulting child outcomes, but there is no evidence to date to support the contention that easier divorce regulations are actually bad for children. I assess the long run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment...

  12. Money and the Pursuit of Happiness: In Good Times and Bad

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Rasure

    2012-01-01

    Money and the Pursuit of Happiness: In Good Times and Bad is a consumer’s introductory guide of personal reflection with money. The book’s author discusses how to develop a foundational relationship with one’s financial self in an effort to establish ongoing happiness and life satisfaction. The book can be an effective resource recommended by financial and mental health practitioners to clients. The book can help introduce or guide ongoing discussions about who an individual is in relati...

  13. BEING EMOTIONAL DURING DECISION MAKING—GOOD OR BAD? AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the link between affective experience and decision-making performance. In a stock investment simulation, 101 stock investors rated their feelings on an Internet Web site while making investment decisions each day for 20 consecutive business days. Contrary to the popular belief that feelings are generally bad for decision making, we found that individuals who experienced more intense feelings achieved higher decision-making performance. Moreover, individuals who were better...

  14. Good and bad in business : an ethical perspective on stakeholder relations

    OpenAIRE

    Nylén, Ulrica

    1996-01-01

    Ethical issues and problems in business are receiving increasing attention, both in terms of criticism of examples of "bad" behaviour of business actors and in terms of the development of ethical codes of conduct in certain companies, ethical visions for businesses etc. In general, ethical problems seem to be increasingly prevalent in business, but ethics tend to be disre­garded by traditional organisational and managerial theory. This calls for the development of an ethical perspective on bu...

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES ON KIFOTIC BAD BODY POSITION AT PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially programmed physical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils, on the territory of the city Kragujevac, at those with kifotic bad body position established by measuring. After forming of experimental and control subjects groups, the experiment began. The subjects had the task to do the complete set of corrective exercises, determined before hand, three times a week during one class time. That programme was carried out continuously during the entire school year and the first semester of the following year, except during summer and winter vacation break. It can be concluded that the contents of experimental section of corrective gymnastics had the positive influence on the correction of kifotic bad body position at all the subjects, but with the more effective results at male population where the high percentage of corrected postural disturbance was attained. It can be said that the time period of eighteen months was enough for correction of kifotic bad body position at great number of the subjects. It can be also assumed that the more qualitative and complete improvement will be attained in the case of further continual exercises.

  16. Groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Bad River Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Andrew T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-23

    A groundwater-flow model was developed for the Bad River Watershed and surrounding area by using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference code MODFLOW-NWT. The model simulates steady-state groundwater-flow and base flow in streams by using the streamflow routing (SFR) package. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an improved understanding of the groundwater-flow system in the Bad River Watershed at the regional scale, including the sources of water to the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation (Reservation) and groundwater/surface-water interactions; (2) provide a quantitative platform for evaluating future impacts to the watershed, which can be used as a starting point for more detailed investigations at the local scale; and (3) identify areas where more data are needed. This report describes the construction and calibration of the groundwater-flow model that was subsequently used for analyzing potential locations for the collection of additional field data, including new observations of water-table elevation for refining the conceptualization and corresponding numerical model of the hydrogeologic system.

  17. Balancing patient care and student education: learning to deliver bad news in an optometry teaching clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.

  18. Abraham's discovery of the 'bad mother'. A contribution to the history of the theory of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, U

    2001-04-01

    The author shows how, after Freud struggled in vain from the 1890s to develop a theory of depression, Abraham succeeded for the first time in finding an approach to the understanding of depression a few years before the publication of Freud's 'Mourning and melancholia'. It is contained in his study of the painter Giovanni Segantini (1911), which also includes a description, imbued with a new atmospheric quality, of the mother-son relationship that centres on the concept of the 'bad mother'. The author points out that Abraham's 'good/bad' dimension is effectively absent from Freud's published work up to 1911 and is also at variance with his view of the relationship between son and mother. In later contributions, too, Abraham maintained that unconscious hate directed at the mother, who is experienced as 'bad' but longed for as 'good', was a central factor in the aetiology of depression, a view he had to defend vis-à-vis Freud. The author contends that in the Segantini paper Abraham was describing an inner world similar to that evinced by the work of Melanie Klein and significantly different from Freud's. It is characterised by hate, revenge, death wishes and guilt feelings on the one hand and tranquillity and inner peace on the other.

  19. Good and Bad Sleep in Childhood: A Questionnaire Survey amongst School Children in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Ficca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its clinical importance, the issue of subjective sleep quality in children remains unexplored. Here we investigate, in school-aged children, the prevalence of bad sleep perception and its relationships with sleep habits and daytime functioning, to provide hints on its possible determinants. Subjective sleep perception, sleep habits, and daytime functioning were studied through a questionnaire survey in a sample of 482 children (6–12 yrs.. Being “bad sleeper” was reported by 6.9% of the sample. Compared to the “good sleepers”, these subjects displayed shorter sleep duration on schooldays, longer sleep latencies, and a more pronounced evening preference, beyond more frequent insufficient sleep. Though no differences emerged in sleepiness, bad sleepers showed higher impairments in daytime functioning, indicated by more frequent depressed mood and impulsivity. These distinctive features might be very important to precociously detect those children who are possibly more vulnerable to sleep disturbances and whose sleep-wake rhythms evolution should be paid particular attention thereafter.

  20. Downsizing the BAD BH3 peptide to small constrained α-helices with improved ligand efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Nicholas E; Harrison, Rosemary S; Ruiz-Gomez, Gloria; Abbenante, Giovanni; Mason, Jody M; Fairlie, David P

    2016-11-22

    Bcl2 Homology (BH) proteins can either trigger or prevent programmed cell death or apoptosis. Deregulation of the BH protein family network leads to evasion of apoptosis, uncontrolled proliferation and is a hallmark of cancer. Inhibition of pro-survival BH proteins is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy for certain cancers. We have examined whether helix-constrained peptides based on the BAD BH3 domain (residues 103-127) can be downsized to much smaller more drug-like peptides. We report the preparation, structural characterisation, in vitro Bcl-xL inhibition and leukemic T-cell killing ability of 45 linear, mono-, bi- and tricyclic helical peptidomimetics between 8- and 19-residues in length. We show that the BAD BH3 can be downsized to 8-14 residues and still maintain appreciable affinity for Bcl-xL. In addition, the binding efficiency indices (BEI) of the downsized mimetics are significantly higher than the BAD BH3 and similar stapled BH3 mimetics, approaching drug-like molecules. This suggests that bicyclic and monocyclic mimetics based on BH3 domains are much more efficient binding ligands than the longer peptides which they mimic.

  1. Economic Order Quantity Model with Two Levels of Delayed Payment and Bad Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Juanjuan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal retailer’s replenishment policies considering the customers’ bad debt and delayed payment in the three-stage supply chain with the dominant retailer. The effect of bad debt is analyzed on the interest earned and interest charged to build the models of the retailer’s decision in two cases. By analyzing the model, the retailer’s optimal replenishment time and the optimal order quantity are obtained. Furthermore, analyze the effect of parameters on the retailer’s optimal order policies. Finally, the numerical analysis is presented to demonstrate the conclusions. The results show that the delayed payment offered by the manufacturer becomes large, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity increases or remains the same; When the delayed payment time offered by the retailer decreases, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity increases or remains the same. When the fixed ordering cost is reduced, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity decreases or remains the same. When the charged interest is greater than the earned interest, with the bad debt rate increasing, the retailer's optimal order cycle and optimal order quantity is converged to a certain value.

  2. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology.

  3. Comparative Study of the Critical Chain and PERT Planning Methods: No Bad Human Behaviors Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Huang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM method has received a lot of attention and hundreds of successful cases have also been reported and all claims that it is possible to rapidly achieve highly reliable on-time delivery (OTD with short project lead time (PLT in multi-project environment. The main reason that CCPM can achieve highly reliable OTD and short PLT in multi-project environment can be contributed to that CCPM makes good use of safety time imbedded in tasks by two changes: logistical change and bad human behaviors change. However, if no bad human behaviors involved, does the mere emphasis on logistical change contributed to the success of project time reduction and OTD improvement? This is the key question still remained. A comparative study of the critical chain and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT planning methods, no bad human behaviors involved, was performed in this study. The simulation results showed that in terms of mean project time, CCPM is no significantly better than PERT. However, in terms of plan reliability, CCPM achieve higher reliable than PERT did and this is the contribution of CCPM logistical change.

  4. A NEW METHOD OF BAD POINTS ELIMINATION BASED ON HOUGH TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Su; Lin Jiayu

    2010-01-01

    In experimental tests,besides data in range of allowable error,the experimenters usually get some unexpected wrong data called bad points. In usual experimental data processing,the method of bad points exclusion based on automatic programming is seldom taken into consideration by researchers. This paper presents a new method to reject bad points based on Hough transform,which is modified to save computational and memory consumptions. It is fit for linear data processing and can be extended to process data that is possible to be transformed into and from linear form; curved lines,which can be effectively detected by Hough transform. In this paper,the premise is the distribution of data,such as linear distribution and exponential distribution,is predetermined. Steps of the algorithm start from searching for an approximate curve line that minimizes the sum of parameters of data points. The data points,whose parameters are above a self-adapting threshold,will be deleted. Simulation experiments have manifested that the method proposed in this paper performs efficiently and robustly.

  5. Repairing bad co-segmentation using its quality evaluation and segment propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Meng, Fanman; Luo, Bing; Zhu, Shuyuan

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we improve co-segmentation performance by repairing bad segments based on their quality evaluation and segment propagation. Starting from co-segmentation results of the existing co-segmentation method, we first perform co-segmentation quality evaluation to score each segment. Good segments can be filter out based on the scores. Then, a propagation method is designed to transfer good segments to the rest bad ones so as to repair the bad segmentation. In our method, the quality evaluation is implemented by the measurements of foreground consistency and segment completeness. Two propagation methods such as global propagation and local region propagation are then defined to achieve the more accurate propagation. We verify the proposed method using four state-of-the-arts co-segmentation methods and two public datasets such as ICoseg dataset and MSRC dataset. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed quality evaluation method. Furthermore, the proposed method can significantly improve the performance of existing methods with larger intersection-over-union score values.

  6. Teaching midwife students how to break bad news using the cinema: an Italian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieschi, Laura; Burlon, Barbara; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    Delivering bad news is a difficult task that involves all healthcare professionals, including midwives. The hypothesis is that, in order to learn how to disclose and to discuss bad news, students need a phase of personal reflection, of awareness of their own emotional processes. The use of films in healthcare education can foster this process evoking different emotions concerning suffering and disease, in a "safety zone". This study examines the effects that a course, which uses reflection as a method of learning and the cinema as a teaching tool, produces on a little group of Italian third-year Midwifery students. From the content analysis (supported by Atlas-Ti(®) software) of the texts produced by the students after the vision of two entire films, it appears that they correctly identified many elements related to good and poor communication of bad news and that they were able to describe the emotions felt while watching the film, but still revealed a certain difficulty to interpret them. The course helped students to recognize the value of reflection on their emotions to better understand others, to empathize with people who suffer, but also to recognize their difficulties and compete with their own limits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. BAD BANK AND OTHER POSSIBLE BANKS’ RESCUING MODELS – THE CASE OF SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANJA MARKOVIC-HRIBERNIK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the economic crisis, Slovenia has transformed from one of the most successful new EU Member States into one of the most problematic ones. The reason for this is largely extensive banking problems, that continue to cause uncertainty on financial markets and adversely affect the rating of the country and consequently also the price of borrowing for both the state and private entities. Slovenia has opted to rehabilitate its banking sector by means of a bad bank (DUTB that, however, only became operational at the end of 2013. The paper seeks to examine whether a bad bank has indeed proven the most appropriate choice out of possible methods of resolving the banking crisis, based on the most recent findings regarding the suitability of various methods of bailing out banking systems in crisis, taking into consideration key elements required for the successful rehabilitation thereof. The paper finds that, taking into consideration all relevant circumstances, the bad bank has proven to be appropriate solution in the Slovenian case but the delay in rehabilitating the banking system has had significant negative macroeconomic impacts as demonstrated by a comparison to other selected countries that had opted to bail out the banking sector before Slovenia. State ownership of systemic banks and political instability have both greatly contributed to slow action taken.

  8. p70S6 kinase signals cell survival as well as growth, inactivating the pro-apoptotic molecule BAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harada, H; Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2001-01-01

    Cytokines often deliver simultaneous, yet distinct, cell growth and cell survival signals. The 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) is known to regulate cell growth by inducing protein synthesis components. We purified membrane-based p70S6K as a kinase responsible for site......-specific phosphorylation of BAD, which inactivates this proapoptotic molecule. Rapamycin inhibited mitochondrial-based p70S6K, which prevented phosphorylation of Ser-136 on BAD and blocked cell survival induced by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Moreover, IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of BAD Ser-136 was abolished...... in p70S6K-deficient cells. Thus, p70S6K is itself a dual pathway kinase, signaling cell survival as well as growth through differential substrates which include mitochondrial BAD and the ribosomal subunit S6, respectively....

  9. MODFLOW-NWT model used to evaluate groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Bad River Watershed, Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A groundwater-flow model was developed for the Bad River Watershed and surrounding area by using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference code...

  10. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglieri, M; Celentano, A; Chung, S -U; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Döring, M; Dudek, J; Eidelman, S; Fegan, S; Ferretti, J; Fox, G; Galata, G; Garcia-Tecocoatzi, H; Glazier, D I; Grube, B; Hanhart, C; Hoferichter, M; Hughes, S M; Ireland, D G; Ketzer, B; Klein, F J; Kubis, B; Liu, B; Masjuan, P; Mathieu, V; McKinnon, B; Mitchell, R; Nerling, F; Paul, S; Pelaez, J R; Rademacker, J; Rizzo, A; Salgado, C; Santopinto, E; Sarantsev, A V; Sato, T; Schlüter, T; da Silva, M L L; Stankovic, I; Strakovsky, I; Szczepaniak, A; Vassallo, A; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Zana, L

    2014-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near...

  11. Numerical simulation of crystalline ion beams in storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Möhl, D.; Katayama, T.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Trubnikov, G.; Tsutsui, H.

    2004-10-01

    The use of crystalline ion beams can increase luminosity in the collider and in experiments with targets for investigation of rare radioactive isotopes. The ordered state of circulating ion beams was observed at several storage rings: NAP-M (Proceedings of the Fourth All Union Conference on Charged Particle Accelerators, Vol. 2, Nauka, Moscow, 1975 (in Russian); Part. Accel. 7 (1976) 197; At. Energy 40 (1976) 49; Preprint CERN/PS/AA 79-41, Geneva, 1979) (Novosibirsk), ESR (Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3803) and SIS (Proceedings of EPAC'2000, 2000) (Darmstadt), CRYRING (Proceedings of PAC'2001, 2001) (Stockholm) and PALLAS (Proceedings of the Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry, AIP Conference Proceedings, p. 576, in preparation) (München). New criteria of the beam orderliness are derived and verified with a new program code. Molecular dynamics technique is inserted in BETACOOL program (Proceedings of Beam Cooling and Related Topics, Bad Honnef, Germany, 2001) and used for numerical simulation of crystalline beams. The sudden reduction of momentum spread in the ESR experiment is described with this code. The simulation shows a good agreement with the experimental results. The code has then been used to calculate characteristics of the ordered state of ion beams for the MUSES Ion Ring (IR) (MUSES Conceptual Design Report, RIKEN, Japan, 2001) in collider mode. A new strategy of the cooling process is proposed which permits to increase significantly the linear density of the ordered ion beam and thereby the luminosity of electron-ion colliding experiments.

  12. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers of High-Pressure Research

    CERN Document Server

    Etters, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The role of high pressure experiments in the discovery of supercon­ ducting materials with a T. above liquid nitrogen temperature has demon­ strated the importance of such experiments. The same role holds true in the tailoring of materials for optoelectronic devices. In addition, much progress has been made recently in the search for metallic hydro­ gen, and the application of high pressure in polymer research has brought forth interesting results. These facts together with the suc­ cess of previous small size meetings (such as the "First International Conference on the Physics of Solids at High Pressure", held in 1965 in Tucson, Arizona, U. S. A. ; "High Pressure and Low Temperature Physics", held in 1977 in Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. A. ; and "Physics of Solids Under High Pressure", held in 1981 in bad Honnef, Germany), motivated us to organize a workshop with emphasis on the newest results and trends in these fields of high pressure research. Furthermore, it was intended to mix experienced and young scien�...

  14. GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Environmental Technology Atlas for Germany; GreenTech made in Germany 3.0. Umwelttechnologie-Atlas fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Ralph; Henzelmann, Torsten; Wiedemann, Andrea [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The environmental engineering and resource efficiency has been developed into a driver of growth globally as well as in Germany. Companies operate in a highly dynamic environment being characterized by a technical progress and changes in the political and social conditions. Innovative products, processes and services which focus on environmental sustainability and efficiency are sought after on the international markets as never before.

  15. Transactivation of bad by vorinostat-induced acetylated p53 enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Jeong; Hwang, Sung-Ook; Noh, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong-Uk; Nam, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Nam, Joo Hyun; Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2014-02-14

    Vorinostat (VOR) has been reported to enhance the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX) with fewer side effects because of the lower DOX dosage in breast cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the novel mechanism underlying the synergistic cytotoxic effects of VOR and DOX co-treatment in cervical cancer cells HeLa, CaSki and SiHa cells. Co-treatment with VOR and DOX at marginal doses led to the induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and DNA micronuclei. Notably, the synergistic growth inhibition induced by the co-treatment was attributed to the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, as the silencing of Bad expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the phenomenon. As siRNA against p53 did not result in an increase in acetylated p53 and the consequent upregulation of Bad, the observed Bad upregulation was mediated by acetylated p53. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the co-treatment of HeLa cells with VOR and DOX increased the recruitment of acetylated p53 to the bad promoter, with consequent bad transactivation. Conversely, C33A cervical cancer cells containing mutant p53 co-treated with VOR and DOX did not exhibit Bad upregulation, acetylated p53 induction or consequent synergistic growth inhibition. Together, the synergistic growth inhibition of cervical cancer cell lines induced by co-treatment with VOR and DOX can be attributed to the upregulation of Bad, which is induced by acetylated p53. These results show for the first time that the acetylation of p53, rather than histones, is a mechanism for the synergistic growth inhibition induced by VOR and DOX co-treatments.

  16. Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed O. Alrukban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8% were males and 539 (53.2% were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6% preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5% preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants′ perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Factors such as marital status, age, and gender, and education play significant roles in how bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.

  17. Egyptian mothers’ preferences regarding how physicians break bad news about their child’s disability: A structured verbal questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoktader Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breaking bad news to mothers whose children has disability is an important role of physicians. There has been considerable speculation about the inevitability of parental dissatisfaction with how they are informed of their child’s disability. Egyptian mothers’ preferences for how to be told the bad news about their child’s disability has not been investigated adequately. The objective of this study was to elicit Egyptian mothers’ preferences for how to be told the bad news about their child’s disability. Methods Mothers of 100 infants recently diagnosed with Down syndrome were interviewed regarding their preferences for how to be told bad news. Mothers were recruited through outpatient clinics of the Pediatric Genetics Department at Fayoum University Hospital (located 90 km southwest of Cairo, Egypt from January to June 2011. Results and discussion Questionnaire analyses revealed nine themes of parental preferences for how to be told information difficult to hear. Mothers affirmed previously reported recommendations for conveying bad medical news to parents, including being told early, being told of others with a similar condition, and being informed of the prognosis. Conclusions Mothers affirmed communication themes previously discussed in the literature, such as being told early, and being informed of the prognosis. Although more research is needed in this important area, we hope that our findings will stimulate future search and help health care providers in different societies establish guidelines for effectively communicating bad news.

  18. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; Pbad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split.

  19. BAD-lectins: boronic acid-decorated lectins with enhanced binding affinity for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-De; Chen, Chang-Yang; Wu, Sz-Wei; Han, Chia-Li; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2013-09-03

    The weak and variable binding affinities exhibited by lectin-carbohydrate interactions have often compromised the practical utility of lectin in capturing glycoproteins for glycoproteomic applications. We report here the development and applications of a new type of hybrid biomaterial, namely a boronic acid-decorated lectin (BAD-lectin), for efficient bifunctional glycoprotein labeling and enrichment. Our binding studies showed an enhanced affinity by BAD-lectin, likely to be mediated via the formation of boronate ester linkages between the lectin and glycan subsequent to the initial recognition process and thus preserving its glycan-specificity. Moreover, when attached to magnetic nanoparticles (BAD-lectin@MNPs), 2 to 60-fold improvement on detection sensitivity and enrichment efficiency for specific glycoproteins was observed over the independent use of either lectin or BA. Tested at the level of whole cell lysates for glycoproteomic applications, three different types of BAD-lectin@MNPs exhibited excellent specificities with only 6% overlapping among the 295 N-linked glycopeptides identified. As many as 236 N-linked glycopeptides (80%) were uniquely identified by one of the BAD-lectin@MNPs. These results indicated that the enhanced glycan-selective recognition and binding affinity of BAD-lectin@MNPs will facilitate a complementary identification of the under-explored glycoproteome.

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no