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Sample records for baculovirus-infected insect cells

  1. Display of a maize cDNA library on baculovirus infected insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller Harel, Helene Y; Fontaine, Veronique; Chen, Hongying; Jones, Ian M; Millner, Paul A

    2008-08-12

    Maize is a good model system for cereal crop genetics and development because of its rich genetic heritage and well-characterized morphology. The sequencing of its genome is well advanced, and new technologies for efficient proteomic analysis are needed. Baculovirus expression systems have been used for the last twenty years to express in insect cells a wide variety of eukaryotic proteins that require complex folding or extensive posttranslational modification. More recently, baculovirus display technologies based on the expression of foreign sequences on the surface of Autographa californica (AcMNPV) have been developed. We investigated the potential of a display methodology for a cDNA library of maize young seedlings. We constructed a full-length cDNA library of young maize etiolated seedlings in the transfer vector pAcTMVSVG. The library contained a total of 2.5 x 10(5) independent clones. Expression of two known maize proteins, calreticulin and auxin binding protein (ABP1), was shown by western blot analysis of protein extracts from insect cells infected with the cDNA library. Display of the two proteins in infected insect cells was shown by selective biopanning using magnetic cell sorting and demonstrated proof of concept that the baculovirus maize cDNA display library could be used to identify and isolate proteins. The maize cDNA library constructed in this study relies on the novel technology of baculovirus display and is unique in currently published cDNA libraries. Produced to demonstrate proof of principle, it opens the way for the development of a eukaryotic in vivo display tool which would be ideally suited for rapid screening of the maize proteome for binding partners, such as proteins involved in hormone regulation or defence.

  2. Expression of active secreted forms of human amyloid beta-protein precursor by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhasin, R; Van Nostrand, W E; Saitoh, T; Donets, M A; Barnes, E A; Quitschke, W W; Goldgaber, D

    1991-01-01

    Three alternatively spliced forms of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), APP-695, APP-751, and APP-770, were expressed in the baculovirus expression vector system. The recombinant proteins were secreted into the culture medium by infected insect cells, and APP molecules were detected in insect cells and medium 2 days after infection with the recombinant APP-baculoviruses. A partial sequence of the NH2 terminus of the secreted protein revealed identity with the native secreted protein and sho...

  3. A new theraphosid spider toxin causes early insect cell death by necrosis when expressed in vitro during recombinant baculovirus infection.

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    Daniel Mendes Pereira Ardisson-Araújo

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3 has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1 the full-length sequence, (2 the pro-peptide and mature region, (3 only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4 insect or a (5 virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect

  4. Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: Implications for glycosylation and CD4 binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.I.; Lennick, M.; Lehar, S.M.; Beltz, G.A.; Young, E.

    1990-01-01

    Three different human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) envelope derived recombinant proteins and the full length human CD4 polypeptide were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. DNA constructs encoding CD4, gp120, gp160, and gp160 delta were cloned into the baculovirus expression vector pVL941 or a derivative and used to generate recombinant viruses in a cotransfection with DNA from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). Western blotting of cell extracts of the recombinant HIV-1 proteins showed that for each construct two major bands specifically reacted with anti-HIV-1 envelope antiserum. These bands corresponded to glycosylated and nonglycosylated versions of the HIV proteins as determined by 3H-mannose labeling and tunicamycin treatment of infected cells. A time course of HIV envelope expression revealed that at early times post-infection (24 hours) the proteins were fully glycosylated and soluble in nonionic detergents. However, at later times postinfection (48 hours), expression levels of recombinant protein reached a maximum but most of the increase was due to a rise in the level of the nonglycosylated species, which was largely insoluble in nonionic detergents. Thus, it appears that Sf9 cells cannot process large amounts of glycosylated recombinant proteins efficiently. As a measure of biological activity, the CD4 binding ability of both glycosylated and nonglycosylated recombinant HIV envelope proteins was tested in a coimmunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that CD4 and the glycosylated versions of recombinant gp120 or gp160 delta specifically associated with one another in this analysis. Nonglycosylated gp120 or gp160 delta proteins from tunicamycin-treated cultures did immunoprecipitate with anti-HIV-1 antiserum but did not interact with CD4

  5. MicroRNAome of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) and its alteration following baculovirus infection.

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    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan

    2013-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signalling and immune response. Studies also suggest that miRNAs are important in host-virus interactions where the host limits virus infection by differentially expressing miRNAs that target essential viral genes. Here, we identified conserved and new miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) using a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatics as well as experimental approaches. S. frugiperda miRNAs share common features of miRNAs in other organisms, such as uracil (U) at the 5' end of miRNA. The 5' ends of the miRNAs were more conserved than the 3' ends, revealing evolutionary protection of the seed region in miRNAs. The predominant miRNAs were found to be conserved among arthropods. The majority of homologous miRNAs were found in Bombyx mori, with 76 of the 90 identified miRNAs. We found that seed shifting and arm switching have happened in this insect's miRNAs. Expression levels of the majority of miRNAs changed following baculovirus infection. Results revealed that baculovirus infection mainly led to an overall suppression of cellular miRNAs. We found four different genes being regulated by sfr-miR-184 at the post-transcriptional level. The data presented here further support conservation of miRNAs in insects and other organisms. In addition, the results reveal a differential expression of host miRNAs upon baculovirus infection, suggesting their potential roles in host-virus interactions. Seed shifting and arm switching happened during evolution of miRNAs in different insects and caused miRNA diversification, which led to changes in the target repository of miRNAs.

  6. The transgenic BmN cells with polyhedrin gene: a potential way to improve the recombinant baculovirus infection per os to insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Shen, Weide; Wu, Yan; Li, Bing; Gong, Chengliang; Wang, Wenbing

    2009-08-01

    The principle of baculovirus expression system is that substitute exogenous gene for polyhedrin (polh) gene, and the recombinant baculovirus lacks the ability to infect insect larvae by oral inoculation. In this study, we cloned the polh gene with immediate early gene 1 (ie1) promoter of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) into transposon pigA3GFP vector, transported it into BmN cells by lipofectamine and obtained the transgenic BmN cell line. The mRNA transcription of the polyhedrin gene was demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then the polh gene negative viruses (BmPAK6 and BmGFP), infected the transgenic BmN cells and Polyhedrin-like structures were observed in the infected cells. Subsequently, the viruses (vBmPAK6 and vBmGFP) from infected cells were used to orally inoculated the fifth instar larvae of B. mori, respectively. The results showed that B. mori larvae could be infected per os with the recombinant baculoviruses vBmPAK6 and vBmGFP, respectively. These results suggest that the products of polh gene expressed in the transgenic BmN cells could package the recombinant baculoviruses when the viruses infected the cells and raise the pathogenicity of the recombinant virus in orally infected B. mori larvae.

  7. In vitro correction of disorders of lysosomal transport by microvesicles derived from baculovirus-infected Spodoptera cells.

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    Thoene, Jess; Goss, Thomas; Witcher, Marc; Mullet, Jodi; N'Kuli, Francisca; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Courtoy, Pierre; Hahn, Si Houn

    2013-05-01

    Infection of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells by baculovirus (BV) is well established for transgene expression of soluble proteins, but few correctly folded transmembrane proteins have been so produced. We here report the use of the BV/Sf9 (BVES) method for the expression and transfer, via microvesicles, of the exclusive lysosomal exporters for cystine and sialic acid, human cystinosin and sialin. These proteins and their mRNA are released into the culture medium as very low-density microvesicles (~1.05 g/ml), which do not label for lysobisphosphatidic acid. The presence of the human transgene proteins in the vesicles was confirmed by western blotting and confirmed and quantified by mass spectrometry. Addition of vesicles to cultures of human fibroblast lines deficient in either cystinosin or sialin produced a progressive depletion of stored lysosomal cystine or sialic acid, respectively. The depletion effect was slow (T1/2 ~48 h), saturable (down to ~40% of initial after 4 days) and stable (>one week). Surprisingly, BV infection of Spodoptera appeared to induce expression and release into microvesicles of the insect orthologue of cystinosin, but not of sialin. We conclude that BVES is an effective method to express and transfer functional transmembrane proteins so as to study their properties in mammalian cells, and has a generic potential for transport protein replacement therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome

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    Grozdea Jean J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnent with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. Results To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate, allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60–80% of activity. Conclusion Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome.

  9. Enhanced expression of full-length human cytomegalovirus fusion protein in non-swelling baculovirus-infected cells with a minimal fed-batch strategy.

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    Marco Patrone

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus congenital infection represents an unmet medical issue and attempts are ongoing to develop an effective vaccine. The virion fusion players of this enveloped virus are the natural targets to achieve this goal and to develop novel anti-viral therapies. The secreted ectodomain of the viral fusion factor glycoprotein B (gB has been exploited so far as an alternative to the cumbersome expression of the wild type trans-membrane protein. In the soluble form, gB showed encouraging but limited potential as antigen candidate calling for further efforts. Here, the exhaustive evaluation of the Baculovirus/insect cell expression system has been coupled to an orthogonal screening for expression additives to produce full-length gB. In detail, rapamycin was found to prolong gB intracellular accumulation while inhibiting the infection-induced cell swelling. Not obvious to predict, this inhibition did not affect Baculovirus growth, revealing that the virus-induced cell size increase is a dispensable side phenotype. In parallel, a feeding strategy for the limiting nutrient cysteine has been set up which improved gB stability. This multi-modal scheme allowed the production of full-length, mutation-free gB in the milligram scale. The recombinant full-length gB obtained was embedded into a stable mono-dispersed particle substantially larger than the protein trimer itself, according to the reported association of this protein with detergent-resistant lipid domains.

  10. Utility of temporally distinct baculovirus promoters for constitutive and baculovirus-inducible transgene expression in transformed insect cells

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    Lin, Chi-Hung; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Genetically transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines have biotechnological applications as constitutive recombinant protein production platforms and improved hosts for baculovirus-mediated recombinant protein production. Insect cell transformation is often accomplished with a DNA construct(s) encoding a foreign protein(s) under the transcriptional control of a baculovirus immediate early promoter, such as the ie1 promoter. However, the potential utility of increasingly stronger promoters from later baculovirus gene classes, such as delayed early (39K), late (p6.9), and very late (polh), has not been systematically assessed. Hence, we produced DNA constructs encoding secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the transcriptional control of each of the four temporally distinct classes of baculovirus promoters, used them to transform insect cells, and compared the levels of SEAP RNA and protein production obtained before and after baculovirus infection. The ie1 construct was the only one that supported SEAP protein production by transformed insect cells prior to baculovirus infection, confirming that only immediate early promoters can be used to isolate transformed insect cells for constitutive recombinant protein production. However, baculovirus infection activated transgene expression by all four classes of baculovirus promoters. After infection, cells transformed with the very late (polh) and late (p6.9) promoter constructs produced the highest levels of SEAP RNA, but only low levels of SEAP protein. Conversely, cells transformed with the immediate early (ie1) and delayed early (39K) promoter constructs produced lower levels of RNA, but equal or higher levels of SEAP protein. Unexpectedly, the 39K promoter construct provided tightly regulated, baculovirus-inducible protein production at higher levels than the later promoter constructs. Thus, this study demonstrated the utility of the 39K promoter for insect cell engineering, particularly when one requires higher

  11. Utility of temporally distinct baculovirus promoters for constitutive and baculovirus-inducible transgene expression in transformed insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Jarvis, Donald L

    2013-05-10

    Genetically transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines have biotechnological applications as constitutive recombinant protein production platforms and improved hosts for baculovirus-mediated recombinant protein production. Insect cell transformation is often accomplished with a DNA construct(s) encoding a foreign protein(s) under the transcriptional control of a baculovirus immediate early promoter, such as the ie1 promoter. However, the potential utility of increasingly stronger promoters from later baculovirus gene classes, such as delayed early (39K), late (p6.9), and very late (polh), has not been systematically assessed. Hence, we produced DNA constructs encoding secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the transcriptional control of each of the four temporally distinct classes of baculovirus promoters, used them to transform insect cells, and compared the levels of SEAP RNA and protein production obtained before and after baculovirus infection. The ie1 construct was the only one that supported SEAP protein production by transformed insect cells prior to baculovirus infection, confirming that only immediate early promoters can be used to isolate transformed insect cells for constitutive recombinant protein production. However, baculovirus infection activated transgene expression by all four classes of baculovirus promoters. After infection, cells transformed with the very late (polh) and late (p6.9) promoter constructs produced the highest levels of SEAP RNA, but only low levels of SEAP protein. Conversely, cells transformed with the immediate early (ie1) and delayed early (39K) promoter constructs produced lower levels of RNA, but equal or higher levels of SEAP protein. Unexpectedly, the 39K promoter construct provided tightly regulated, baculovirus-inducible protein production at higher levels than the later promoter constructs. Thus, this study demonstrated the utility of the 39K promoter for insect cell engineering, particularly when one requires higher

  12. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

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    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells exhibit dendritic cell stimulating activity and induce neutralizing antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Lin Jianguo; Sun Yuliang; Bennouna, Soumaya; Lo, Michael; Wu Qingyang; Bu Zhigao; Pulendran, Bali; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing Ebola virus VP40 (rBV-VP40) or GP (rBV-GP) proteins were generated. Infection of Sf9 insect cells by rBV-VP40 led to assembly and budding of filamentous particles from the cell surface as shown by electron microscopy. Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by coinfection of Sf9 cells with rBV-VP40 and rBV-GP, and incorporation of Ebola GP into VLPs was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Recombinant baculovirus infection of insect cells yielded high levels of VLPs, which were shown to stimulate cytokine secretion from human dendritic cells similar to VLPs produced in mammalian cells. The immunogenicity of Ebola VLPs produced in insect cells was evaluated by immunization of mice. Analysis of antibody responses showed that most of the GP-specific antibodies were of the IgG2a subtype, while no significant level of IgG1 subtype antibodies specific for GP was induced, indicating the induction of a Th1-biased immune response. Furthermore, sera from Ebola VLP immunized mice were able to block infection by Ebola GP pseudotyped HIV virus in a single round infection assay, indicating that a neutralizing antibody against the Ebola GP protein was induced. These results show that production of Ebola VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses represents a promising approach for vaccine development against Ebola virus infection

  14. Intracellular localization of adeno-associated viral proteins expressed in insect cells.

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    Gallo-Ramírez, Lilí E; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    Production of vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAVv) in insect cells represents a feasible option for large-scale applications. However, transducing particles yields obtained in this system are low compared with total capsid yields, suggesting the presence of genome encapsidation bottlenecks. Three components are required for AAVv production: viral capsid proteins (VP), the recombinant AAV genome, and Rep proteins for AAV genome replication and encapsidation. Little is known about the interaction between the three components in insect cells, which have intracellular conditions different to those in mammalian cells. In this work, the localization of AAV proteins in insect cells was assessed for the first time with the purpose of finding potential limiting factors. Unassembled VP were located either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Their transport into the nucleus was dependent on protein concentration. Empty capsids were located in defined subnuclear compartments. Rep proteins expressed individually were efficiently translocated into the nucleus. Their intranuclear distribution was not uniform and differed from VP distribution. While Rep52 distribution and expression levels were not affected by AAV genomes or VP, Rep78 distribution and stability changed during coexpression. Expression of all AAV components modified capsid intranuclear distribution, and assembled VP were found in vesicles located in the nuclear periphery. Such vesicles were related to baculovirus infection, highlighting its role in AAVv production in insect cells. The results obtained in this work suggest that the intracellular distribution of AAV proteins allows their interaction and does not limit vector production in insect cells. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  15. Enhanced gene expression in insect cells and silkworm larva by modified polyhedrin promoter using repeated Burst sequence and very late transcriptional factor-1.

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    Manohar, Suganthi Lavender; Kanamasa, Shin; Nishina, Takuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-12-15

    The Burst of expression from polyhedrin (polh) promoter during very late phase of baculovirus infection requires a sequence located between TAAG and the translation initiation site, typically referred to as burst sequence (BS). The expression of polh promoter is stimulated by specifically binding of very late transcriptional factor 1 (VLF-1) to BS. In order to enhance the production of recombinant proteins the polh promoter was modified via a multiple BS bacmid system in which the number of BSs was increased. Compared to an expression from a normal polh promoter, β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in High Five insect cells was three times higher with a modified polh promoter containing two BSs. Using a modified polh promoter that contains nine BSs in silkworm expression system, β1-3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (β3GnT2) activity per larva was 6.8-fold higher than control. Furthermore, the co-expression of modified promoters along with VLF-1-enhanced β3GnT activity. Thus, an increased optimal number of BS and its co-expression with VLF-1 leads to the production of higher level of gene expression in insect cells and silkworm larvae. This new modified promoter engineered in the current study is the strongest promoter for overexpressing foreign proteins in an eukaryotic cell and system, thus leading a progress in baculovirus-insect cell and silkworm biotechnology. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of a Real-Time qPCR Assay for Quantification of Covert Baculovirus Infections in a Major African Crop Pest

    OpenAIRE

    Robert I. Graham; Yamini Tummala; Glenn Rhodes; Jenny S. Cory; Alan Shirras; David Grzywacz; Kenneth Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Many pathogens and parasites are present in host individuals and populations without any obvious signs of disease. This is particularly true for baculoviruses infecting lepidopteran hosts, where studies have shown that covert persistent viral infections are almost ubiquitous in many species. To date, the infection intensity of covert viruses has rarely been quantified. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of a covert baculovirus infection within the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera ex...

  17. Enhanced production of Chikungunya virus-like particles using a high-pH adapted spodoptera frugiperda insect cell line.

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    James M Wagner

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus-like particles (VLPs have potential to be used as a prophylactic vaccine based on testing in multiple animal models and are currently being evaluated for human use in a Phase I clinical trial. The current method for producing these enveloped alphavirus VLPs by transient gene expression in mammalian cells presents challenges for scalable and robust industrial manufacturing, so the insect cell baculovirus expression vector system was evaluated as an alternative expression technology. Subsequent to recombinant baculovirus infection of Sf21 cells in standard culture media (pH 6.2-6.4, properly processed Chikungunya structural proteins were detected and assembled capsids were observed. However, an increase in culture pH to 6.6-6.8 was necessary to produce detectable concentrations of assembled VLPs. Since this elevated production pH exceeds the optimum for growth medium stability and Sf21 culture, medium modifications were made and a novel insect cell variant (SfBasic was derived by exposure of Sf21 to elevated culture pH for a prolonged period of time. The high-pH adapted SfBasic insect cell line described herein is capable of maintaining normal cell growth into the typical mammalian cell culture pH range of 7.0-7.2 and produces 11-fold higher Chikungunya VLP yields relative to the parental Sf21 cell line. After scale-up into stirred tank bioreactors, SfBasic derived VLPs were chromatographically purified and shown to be similar in size and structure to a VLP standard derived from transient gene expression in HEK293 cells. Total serum anti-Chikungunya IgG and neutralizing titers from guinea pigs vaccinated with SfBasic derived VLPs or HEK293 derived VLPs were not significantly different with respect to production method, suggesting that this adapted insect cell line and production process could be useful for manufacturing Chikungunya VLPs for use as a vaccine. The adaptation of Sf21 to produce high levels of recombinant protein and

  18. Insect cells for human food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M.C.; Tramper, J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Martens, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for novel protein sources. Insects are a possible interesting source of protein. They are nutritious in terms of protein (40-75 g/100g dry weight) and minerals. Insect protein is of high quality and has a high digestibility (77-98%) and concentration of essential amino acids (46-96%

  19. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

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    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  20. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

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    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of a Trichoplusia ni cell line reveals distinct host responses to intracellular and secreted protein products expressed by recombinant baculoviruses.

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    Koczka, Krisztina; Peters, Philipp; Ernst, Wolfgang; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Nika, Lisa; Grabherr, Reingard

    2018-03-20

    The baculovirus insect cell expression system has become a firmly established production platform in biotechnology. Various complex proteins, multi-subunit particles including veterinary and human vaccines are manufactured with this system on a commercial scale. Apart from baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells, the Trichoplusia ni (HighFive) cell line is alternatively used as host organism. In this study, we explored the protein production capabilities of Tnms42 insect cells, a new derivative of HighFive, which is free of latent nodavirus infection. As a model system, a cytosolic (mCherry) and a secreted (hemagglutinin) protein were overexpressed in Tnms42 cells. The response of the host cells was followed in a time course experiment over the infection cycle by comparative transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). As expected, the baculovirus infection per se had a massive impact on the host cell transcriptome, which was observed by the huge total number of differentially expressed transcripts (>14,000). Despite this severe overall cellular reaction, a specific response could be clearly attributed to the overexpression of secreted hemagglutinin, revealing limits in the secretory capacity of the host cell. About 400 significantly regulated transcripts were identified and assigned to biochemical pathways and gene ontology (GO) categories, all related to protein processing, folding and response to unfolded protein. The identification of relevant target genes will serve to design specific virus engineering concepts for improving the yield of proteins that are dependent on the secretory pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera

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    Koval, T.M.

    1983-10-01

    The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D/sub 0/ values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells.

  3. Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D 0 values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells

  4. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, M.M. van; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, R.A. de

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  5. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Ansems, M.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Bakker, P.L.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus

  6. Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Terra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells are separated into apical and basolateral domains. The apical domain is usually modified into microvilli with a molecular structure similar to other animals. Nevertheless, the microvillar structure should differ in some insects to permit the traffic inside them of secretory vesicles that may budd laterally or pinch-off from the tips of microvilli. Other microvillar modifications are associated with proton-pumping or with the interplay with an ensheathing lipid membrane (the perimicrovilllar membrane observed in the midgut cells of hemipterans (aphids and bugs. The perimicrovillar membranes are thought to be involved in amino acid absorption from diluted diets. The microvillar and perimicrovillar membranes have densities (and protein content that depend on the insect taxon. The role played by the microvillar and perimicrovillar proteins in insect midgut physiology is reviewed here trying to provide a coherent picture of data and highlighting further research areas.As membranas plasmáticas das células intestinais dos insetos apresentam um domínio apical e outro basal. O domínio apical é geralmente modificado em microvilosidades com organização molecular similar a de outros animais, embora possam diferir naqueles insetos que apresentam vesículas secretoras em trânsito que brotam lateralmente ou destacam-se das extremidades das microvilosidades. Outras modificações microvilares estão associadas a bombeamento de prótons ou a interrelações com uma membrana lipídica (a membrana perimicrovilar que reveste as microvilosidades de células intestinais de hemípteros (pulgões e percevejos. Admite-se que as membranas perimicrovilares estejam envolvidas na absorção de aminoácidos a partir de dietas diluídas. As membranas microvilares e perimicrovilares tem densidades distintas (e conteúdo protéico que dependem do táxon do inseto. O papel desempenhado pelas proteínas microvilares e

  7. Interaction of insect trypanosomatids with mosquitoes, sand fly and the respective insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fampa, Patrícia; Corrêa-da-Silva, Miguel S; Lima, Dinair C; Oliveira, Sandra M P; Motta, Maria Cristina M; Saraiva, Elvira M B

    2003-09-15

    Interaction experiments between hematophagous insects and monoxenous trypanosomatids have become relevant, once cases of human infection involving these protozoa have been reported. Moreover, investigations related to the interaction of insects with trypanosomatids that harbour an endosymbiotic bacterium and thereby lack the paraflagellar rod structure are important to elucidate the role of this structure in the adhesion process. In this work, we compared the interaction of endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids and their aposymbiotic counterpart strains (without endosymbionts) with cell lines of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Lutzomyia longipalpis and with explanted guts of the respective insects. Endosymbiont-bearing strains interacted better with insect cells and guts when compared with aposymbiotic strains. In vitro binding assays revealed that the trypanosomatids interacted with the gut epithelial cells via flagellum and cell body. Flagella attached to the insect gut were enlarged, containing electrondense filaments between the axoneme and flagellar membrane at the point of adhesion. Interactions involving the flagellum lacking paraflagellar rod structure were mainly observed close to tight junctions, between epithelial cells. Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids were able to colonise Aedes aegypti guts after protozoa feeding.

  8. Development of a Real-Time qPCR Assay for Quantification of Covert Baculovirus Infections in a Major African Crop Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Graham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogens and parasites are present in host individuals and populations without any obvious signs of disease. This is particularly true for baculoviruses infecting lepidopteran hosts, where studies have shown that covert persistent viral infections are almost ubiquitous in many species. To date, the infection intensity of covert viruses has rarely been quantified. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of a covert baculovirus infection within the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera exempta. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR procedure using a 5' nuclease hydrolysis (TaqMan probe was developed for specific detection and quantification of Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV. The qPCR assay indicated that covert baculovirus dynamics varied considerably over the course of the host life-cycle, with infection load peaking in early larval instars and being lowest in adults and final-instar larvae. Adult dissections indicated that, contrary to expectation, viral load aggregation was highest in the head, wings and legs, and lowest in the thorax and abdomen. The data presented here have broad implications relating to our understanding of transmission patterns of baculoviruses and the role of covert infections in host-pathogen dynamics.

  9. Chapter 15. transforming lepidopteran insect cells for continuous recombinant protein expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used to produce large quantities of recombinant proteins. However, yields of extracellular and membrane-bound proteins obtained with this system often are very low, possibly due to the adverse effects of baculovirus infection on the host ins...

  10. Virus Innexins induce alterations in insect cell and tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daniel K; Erickson, Stephanie L; Hersh, Bradley M; Turnbull, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host homologues if present. For example, the polydnavirus vinnexin gene family encodes homologues of insect gap junction genes (innexins) that are expressed in host immune cells (hemocytes). While the roles of Innexin proteins and gap junctions in insect immunity are largely unclear, we previously demonstrated that Vinnexins form functional gap junctions and alter the junctional characteristics of a host Innexin when co-expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes. Here, we test the effect of ectopic vinnexin expression on host cell physiology using both a lepidopteran cell culture model and a dipteran whole organism model. Vinnexin expression in the cell culture system resulted in gene-specific alterations in cell morphology and a slight, but non-statistically significant, reduction in gap junction activity as measured by dye transfer, while ectopic expression of a lepidopteran innexin2 gene led to morphological alterations and increase in gap junction activity. Global ectopic expression in the model dipteran, Drosophila melanogaster, of one vinnexin (vinnexinG) or D. melanogaster innexin2 (Dm-inx2) resulted in embryonic lethality, while expression of the other vinnexin genes had no effect. Furthermore, ectopic expression of vinnexinG, but not other vinnexin genes or Dm-inx2, in D. melanogaster larval gut resulted in developmental arrest in the pupal stage. These data indicate the vinnexins likely have gene-specific roles in host manipulation. They also support the use of Drosophila in further analysis of the role of Vinnexins and other polydnavirus genes in modifying host physiological processes. Finally, our findings suggest the vinnexin genes may be useful to perturb and

  11. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF PLANT-CELL WALL DIGESTION IN INSECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, RA; KREULEN, DA

    Although many phytophagous and wood-eating invertibrates form their own cellulases, there is an overwhelming variety of symbioses between plant- and wood-utilising insects and microorganisms. In one type of symbiosis (endosymbiosis), insects (rhinoceros beetle, cockroach, lower termites) host

  12. Insect Neurohormones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although insects and vertebrates appear to have roughly the same nwnber of hormones, those of insects are almost all neurohormones, synthesized in neurosecretory cells distributed throughout the nervous system. Most of the insect neurohor- mones have been discovered in the last 20 years. Only very recently have ...

  13. A novel baculovirus vector for the production of nonfucosylated recombinant glycoproteins in insect cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabashi-Asazuma, Hideaki; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Jarvis, Donald L

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is an important attribute of baculovirus-insect cell expression systems, but some insect cell lines produce core α1,3-fucosylated N-glycans, which are highly immunogenic and render recombinant glycoproteins unsuitable for human use. To address this problem, we exploited a bacterial enzyme, guanosine-5′-diphospho (GDP)-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-d-mannose reductase (Rmd), which consumes the GDP-l-fucose precursor. We expected this enzyme to block glycoprotein fucosylation by blocking the production of GDP-l-fucose, the donor substrate required for this process. Initially, we engineered two different insect cell lines to constitutively express Rmd and isolated subclones with fucosylation-negative phenotypes. However, we found the fucosylation-negative phenotypes induced by Rmd expression were unstable, indicating that this host cell engineering approach is ineffective in insect systems. Thus, we constructed a baculovirus vector designed to express Rmd immediately after infection and facilitate the insertion of genes encoding any glycoprotein of interest for expression later after infection. We used this vector to produce a daughter encoding rituximab and found, in contrast to an Rmd-negative control, that insect cells infected with this virus produced a nonfucosylated form of this therapeutic antibody. These results indicate that our Rmd+ baculoviral vector can be used to solve the immunogenic core α1,3-fucosylation problem associated with the baculovirus-insect cell system. In conjunction with existing glycoengineered insect cell lines, this vector extends the utility of the baculovirus-insect cell system to include therapeutic glycoprotein production. This new vector also extends the utility of the baculovirus-insect cell system to include the production of recombinant antibodies with enhanced effector functions, due to its ability to block core α1,6-fucosylation. PMID:24362443

  14. Bioreactor development for production of viral pesticides or heterologous proteins in insect cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuler, M. L.; Cho, T.; Wickham, T.; Ogonah, O.; Kool, M.; Hammer, D. A.; Granados, R. R.; Wood, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    The insect cell-baculovirus expression system has significant potential for producing proteins requiring some degree of posttranslational modification. T. ni cells appear to be as good a host as S. frugiperda cells for heterologous protein production as demonstrated by production of

  15. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  16. Bimodal cell death induced by high radiation doses in the radioresistant sf9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandna, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This study was conducted to investigate the mode(s) of cell death induced by high radiation doses in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect ovarian cell line. Methods: Cells were exposed to γ-radiation doses 200Gy and 500Gy, harvested at various time intervals (6h-72h) following irradiation, and subjected to cell morphology assay, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) and Annexin-V labeling for the detection of membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Cell morphology was assessed in cells entrapped and fixed in agarose gel directly from the cell suspension, thus preventing the possible loss of fragments/ apoptotic bodies. Surviving fraction of Sf9 cells was 0.01 at 200Gy and 98%) undergoing extensive DNA fragmentation at 500Gy, whereas the frequency of cells with DNA fragmentation was considerably less (∼12%) at 200Gy. Conclusions: While the mode of cell death at 200Gy seems to be different from typical apoptosis, a dose of 500Gy induced bimodal cell death, with typical apoptotic as well as the atypical cell death observed at 200Gy

  17. Amino acid substitutions of Na,K-ATPase conferring decreased sensitivity to cardenolides in insects compared to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Safaa; Swarts, Herman G P; Koenderink, Jan B; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Mutagenesis analyses and a recent crystal structure of the mammalian Na,K-ATPase have identified amino acids which are responsible for high affinity binding of cardenolides (such as ouabain) which at higher doses block the enzyme in the phosphorylated state. Genetic analysis of the Na,K-ATPase of insects adapted to cardenolides in their food plants revealed that some species possess substitutions which confer strongly increased resistance to ouabain in the mammalian enzyme such as the substitution T797A or combined substitutions at positions 111 and 122. To test for the effect of these mutations against the background of insect Na,K-ATPase, we here expressed the ouabain sensitive Na,K-ATPase α-subunit of Drosophila melanogaster together with the β-subunit Nrv3 in baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells and introduced the substitutions N122H, T797A, Q111T-N122H, Q111V-N122H, all of which have been observed in cardenolide-adapted insects. While all constructs showed similar expression levels, ouabain affinity of mutated Na,K-ATPases was reduced compared to the wild-type fly enzyme. Ouabain sensitivity of the ATPase activity in inhibition assays was significantly decreased by all mutations, yet whereas the IC₅₀ for the single mutations of N122H (61.0 μM) or T797A (63.3 μM) was increased roughly 250-fold relative to the wild-type (0.24 μM), the double mutations of Q111V-N122H (IC₅₀ 550 μM) and Q111T-N122H (IC₅₀ 583 μM) proved to be still more effective yielding a 2.250-fold increased resistance to ouabain. The double mutations identified in cardenolide-adapted insects are more effective in reducing ouabain sensitivity of the enzyme than those found naturally in the rat Na,K-ATPase (Q111R-N122D) or in mutagenesis screens of the mammalian enzyme. Obviously, the intense selection pressure on cardenolide exposed insects has resulted in very efficient substitutions that decrease cardenolide sensitivity extremely. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arbovirus vaccines: opportunities for the baculovirus-insect cell expression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well-established technology for the production of heterologous viral (glyco)proteins in cultured cells, applicable for basic scientific research as well as for the development and production of vaccines and diagnostics. Arboviruses form an emerging

  19. Cytotoxicity Analysis of Three Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis δ-Endotoxins towards Insect and Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Corrêa, Roberto Franco; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2012-01-01

    Three members of the δ-endotoxin group of toxins expressed by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, Cyt2Ba, Cry4Aa and Cry11A, were individually expressed in recombinant acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strains for in vitro evaluation of their toxic activities against insect and mammalian cell lines. Both Cry4Aa and Cry11A toxins, activated with either trypsin or Spodoptera frugiperda gastric juice (GJ), resulted in different cleavage patterns for the activated toxins as seen by SDS-PAGE. The GJ-processed proteins were not cytotoxic to insect cell cultures. On the other hand, the combination of the trypsin-activated Cry4Aa and Cry11A toxins yielded the highest levels of cytotoxicity to all insect cells tested. The combination of activated Cyt2Ba and Cry11A also showed higher toxic activity than that of toxins activated individually. When activated Cry4Aa, Cry11A and Cyt2Ba were used simultaneously in the same assay a decrease in toxic activity was observed in all insect cells tested. No toxic effect was observed for the trypsin-activated Cry toxins in mammalian cells, but activated Cyt2Ba was toxic to human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) when tested at 20 µg/mL. PMID:23029407

  20. Cytotoxicity analysis of three Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis δ-endotoxins towards insect and mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Franco Teixeira Corrêa

    Full Text Available Three members of the δ-endotoxin group of toxins expressed by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, Cyt2Ba, Cry4Aa and Cry11A, were individually expressed in recombinant acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strains for in vitro evaluation of their toxic activities against insect and mammalian cell lines. Both Cry4Aa and Cry11A toxins, activated with either trypsin or Spodoptera frugiperda gastric juice (GJ, resulted in different cleavage patterns for the activated toxins as seen by SDS-PAGE. The GJ-processed proteins were not cytotoxic to insect cell cultures. On the other hand, the combination of the trypsin-activated Cry4Aa and Cry11A toxins yielded the highest levels of cytotoxicity to all insect cells tested. The combination of activated Cyt2Ba and Cry11A also showed higher toxic activity than that of toxins activated individually. When activated Cry4Aa, Cry11A and Cyt2Ba were used simultaneously in the same assay a decrease in toxic activity was observed in all insect cells tested. No toxic effect was observed for the trypsin-activated Cry toxins in mammalian cells, but activated Cyt2Ba was toxic to human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 when tested at 20 µg/mL.

  1. Interaction of hesperetin glucuronide conjugates with human BCRP, MRP2 and MRP3 as detected in membrane vesicles of overexpressing baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, W.; Oosterhuis, B.; Krajcsi, P.; Barron, D.; Dionisi, F.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.; Williamson, G.

    2011-01-01

    The citrus flavonoid hesperetin (4'-methoxy-3',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone) is the aglycone of hesperidin, the major flavonoid present in sweet oranges. Hesperetin 7-O-glucuronide (H7G) and hesperetin 3'-O-glucuronide (H3'G) are the two most abundant metabolites of hesperetin in vivo. In this study,

  2. A bacterial signal peptidase enhances processing of a recombinant single chain antibody fragment in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ailor, E; Pathmanathan, J; Jongbloed, JDH; Betenbaugh, MJ

    1999-01-01

    The production of an antibody single chain fragment (scFv) in insect cells was accompanied by the formation of an insoluble intracellular precursor even with the inclusion of the bee melittin signal peptide. The presence of the precursor polypeptide suggests a limitation in the processing of the

  3. Quantitative analysis of three commonly-used insect cell-specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Bacterial strains, plasmids, viral Bacmid, reagents and insect cell lines. Escherichia coli DH10Bacmid-gfp containing Bacmid-gfp and. pHelper was constructed previously, in which an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene expression cassette was introduced into the p74 locus of Bacmid (Yao et ...

  4. Voltage Dependent Anion Channel Is Redistributed during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection of Insect Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanida Fongsaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, Japanese encephalitis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of Asia. Japanese encephalitis is caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, a mosquito transmitted flavivirus. Many of the details of the virus replication cycle in mosquito cells remain unknown. This study sought to determine whether GRP78, a well-characterized flavivirus E protein interacting protein, interacted with JEV E protein in insect cells, and whether this interaction was mediated at the cell surface. GRP78 was shown to interact with JEV E protein by coimmunoprecipitation, and was additionally shown to interact with voltage dependent anion protein (VDAC through the same methodology. Antibody inhibition experiments showed that neither GRP78 nor VDAC played a role in JEV internalization to insect cells. Interestingly, VDAC was shown to be significantly relocalized in response to JEV infection, and significant levels of colocalization between VDAC and GRP78 and VDAC and ribosomal L28 protein were seen in JEV infected but not uninfected cells. This is the first report of relocalization of VDAC in response to JEV infection and suggests that this may be a part of the JEV replication strategy in insect cells.

  5. Construction and Characterization of Insect Cell-Derived Influenza VLP: Cell Binding, Fusion, and EGFP Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shin Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed virus-like particles (VLPs harboring hemagglutinin (HA, neuraminidase (NA, matrix protein 1 (M1 ,and proton channel protein (M2 using baculovirus as a vector in the SF9 insect cell. The size of the expressed VLP was estimated to be ~100 nm by light scattering experiment and transmission electron microscopy. Recognition of HA on the VLP surface by the HA2-specific monoclonal antibody IIF4 at acidic pH, as probed by surface plasmon resonance, indicated the pH-induced structural rearrangement of HA. Uptake of the particle by A549 mediated by HA-sialylose receptor interaction was visualized by the fluorescent-labeled VLP. The HA-promoted cell-virus fusion activity was illustrated by fluorescence imaging on the Jurkat cells incubated with rhodamine-loaded VLP performed at fusogenic pH. Furthermore, the green fluorescence protein (GFP was fused to NA to produce VLP with a pH-sensitive probe, expanding the use of VLP as an antigen carrier and a tool for viral tracking.

  6. Both cell-autonomous mechanisms and hormones contribute to sexual development in vertebrates and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia

    2013-08-01

    The differentiation of male and female characteristics in vertebrates and insects has long been thought to proceed via different mechanisms. Traditionally, vertebrate sexual development was thought to occur in two phases: a primary and a secondary phase, the primary phase involving the differentiation of the gonads, and the secondary phase involving the differentiation of other sexual traits via the influence of sex hormones secreted by the gonads. In contrast, insect sexual development was thought to depend exclusively on cell-autonomous expression of sex-specific genes. Recently, however, new evidence indicates that both vertebrates and insects rely on sex hormones as well as cell-autonomous mechanisms to develop sexual traits. Collectively, these new data challenge the traditional vertebrate definitions of primary and secondary sexual development, call for a redefinition of these terms, and indicate the need for research aimed at explaining the relative dependence on cell-autonomous versus hormonally guided sexual development in animals. © 2013 The Authors. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Expression of functional recombinant antibody molecules in insect cell expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavy, B; Ziegler, A; Diplexcito, J; Macintosh, S M; Torrance, L; Mayo, M

    2000-03-01

    Recombinant single-chain variable-fragment molecules (scFv) were constructed from a cell line expressing a monoclonal antibody against African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and expressed in Escherichia coli. DNA sequences that encoded the scFv were manipulated to allow scFv expression in insect cell lines. A recombinant baculovirus containing the scFv cDNA was constructed and large amounts of scFv were produced in each of three insect cell lines infected with the baculovirus. However, the scFv were not secreted into the medium by any of the cell lines despite the scFv having been linked to a honeybee melittin leader sequence. The same scFv cDNA construct was introduced into Drosophila DS2 cells and a stable recombinant cell line was obtained that produced scFv that was secreted into the medium. Culture medium containing the scFv was used directly in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests to detect ACMV in plant tissues. Another construct that encoded the Ckappa domain of human IgG was fused to the C-terminus of the scFv that was produced and expressed in Drosophila cells. This scFv derivative also accumulated in the medium and was more active in ELISA than scFv lacking the Ckappa domain. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Efficient production of antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Keita; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Takafumi; Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Yuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    Transient gene expression allows a rapid production of diverse recombinant proteins in early-stage preclinical and clinical developments of biologics. Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of functional recombinant proteins. In the present study, the production of an antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in lepidopteran insect cells was investigated. The DNA fragments encoding heavy-chain (Hc; Fd fragment) and light-chain (Lc) genes of an Fab fragment were individually cloned into the plasmid vector pIHAneo, which contained the Bombyx mori actin promoter downstream of the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) IE-1 transactivator and the BmNPV HR3 enhancer for high-level expression. Trichoplusia ni BTI-TN-5B1-4 (High Five) cells were co-transfected with the resultant plasmid vectors using linear polyethyleneimine. When the transfection efficiency was evaluated, a plasmid vector encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was also co-transfected. Transfection and culture conditions were optimized based on both the flow cytometry of the EGFP expression in transfected cells and the yield of the secreted Fab fragments determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under optimal conditions, a yield of approximately 120 mg/L of Fab fragments was achieved in 5 days in a shake-flask culture. Transient gene expression in insect cells may offer a promising approach to the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transient Expression and Cellular Localization of Recombinant Proteins in Cultured Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Hull, J Joe

    2017-04-20

    Heterologous protein expression systems are used for the production of recombinant proteins, the interpretation of cellular trafficking/localization, and the determination of the biochemical function of proteins at the sub-organismal level. Although baculovirus expression systems are increasingly used for protein production in numerous biotechnological, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications, nonlytic systems that do not involve viral infection have clear benefits but are often overlooked and underutilized. Here, we describe a method for generating nonlytic expression vectors and transient recombinant protein expression. This protocol allows for the efficient cellular localization of recombinant proteins and can be used to rapidly discern protein trafficking within the cell. We show the expression of four recombinant proteins in a commercially available insect cell line, including two aquaporin proteins from the insect Bemisia tabaci, as well as subcellular marker proteins specific for the cell plasma membrane and for intracellular lysosomes. All recombinant proteins were produced as chimeras with fluorescent protein markers at their carboxyl termini, which allows for the direct detection of the recombinant proteins. The double transfection of cells with plasmids harboring constructs for the genes of interest and a known subcellular marker allows for live cell imaging and improved validation of cellular protein localization.

  10. Validation of Aedes aegypti Aag-2 cells as a model for insect immune studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Ana Beatriz Ferreira; Silva, Maria Clara L Nascimento; Sorgine, Marcos H Ferreira

    2012-07-24

    The understanding of mosquito immune responses can provide valuable tools for development of novel mosquito control strategies. Aiming the study at insect innate immunity, continuous insect cell lines have been established and used as research tools due to the fact that they constitute more homogeneous, sensitive, and reproducible systems than the insects from which they originated. More recently, Aag-2, an Aedes aegypti cell lineage, began to be frequently used as a model for studies of mosquito immunity. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, no study has systematically characterized the responses of Aag-2 cell line against different kinds of pathogens and compared its response to those exhibited by whole mosquitoes. For this reason, in this study we characterized gene expression profiles of the Aag-2 cell line in response to different kinds of immune challenges, such as Gram negative and positive bacteria, fungi and viruses, comparing the obtained results with the ones already described in the literature for whole mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti Aag-2 cells were exposed to different immune stimuli (gram-positive and gram negative heat inactivated bacteria, zymosan or Sindbis virus) for 24 hours and the expression of selected marker genes from toll, IMD and Jak/STAT pathways was analyzed by qPCR. Also, cells were incubated with fluorescent latex beads for evaluation of its phagocytosis capacity. Aag-2 cells were stimulated with two concentrations of heat-killed Gram negative (Enterobacter cloacae) or Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus) bacteria, Zymosan or infected with Sindbis virus and the expression of key genes from the main immune related pathways, Toll, IMD and Jak/STAT, were investigated. Our results suggest that Toll and IMD pathways are activated in response to both Gram positive and negative bacteria and Zymosan in Aag-2 cells, displaying an immune profile similar to those described in the literature for whole mosquitoes. The same stimuli were also capable of

  11. Reproducible high yields of recombinant adeno-associated virus produced using invertebrate cells in 0.02- to 200-liter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Sylvain; Virag, Tamas; Kotin, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The large amounts of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector needed for clinical trials and eventual commercialization require robust, economical, reproducible, and scalable production processes compatible with current good manufacturing practice. rAAV produced using baculovirus and insect cells satisfies these conditions; however, recovering rAAV particles from 200-liter bioreactors is more complicated than bench-scale vector preparations. Using a variety of processing media, we developed a reliable and routine downstream procedure for rAAV production that is scalable from 0.02- to 200-liter cultures. To facilitate the upstream process, we adapted the titerless infected-cell preservation and scale-up process for rAAV production. Single-use aliquots of cryopreserved baculovirus-infected insect cells (BIIC) are thawed and added to the suspension culture to achieve the desired ratio of BIIC to rAAV-producer cells. By using conditions established with small-scale cultures, rAAV was produced in larger volume cultures. Strikingly consistent rAAV yields were attained in cultures ranging from 10 liters to 200 liters. Based on the final yield, each cell produced 18,000 ± 6,800 particles of purified rAAV in 10-, 20-, 100-, and 200-liter cultures. Thus, with an average cell density of 4.32 × 10(6) cells/ml, ≥ 10(16) purified rAAV particles are produced from 100 to 200 liters. The downstream process resulted in about 20% recovery estimated from comparing the quantities of capsid protein antigen in the crude bioreactor material and in the final, purified product. The ease and reproducibility of rAAV production in 200-liter bioreactors suggest that the limit has not been reached, and 500-liter productions are planned.

  12. Manipulation of host plant cells and tissues by gall-inducing insects and adaptive strategies used by different feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; Isaias, R M S; Fernandes, G W; Ferreira, B G; Carneiro, R G S; Fuzaro, L

    2016-01-01

    Biologists who study insect-induced plant galls are faced with the overwhelming diversity of plant forms and insect species. A challenge is to find common themes amidst this diversity. We discuss common themes that have emerged from our cytological and histochemical studies of diverse neotropical insect-induced galls. Gall initiation begins with recognition of reactive plant tissues by gall inducers, with subsequent feeding and/or oviposition triggering a cascade of events. Besides, to induce the gall structure insects have to synchronize their life cycle with plant host phenology. We predict that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in gall induction, development and histochemical gradient formation. Controlled levels of ROS mediate the accumulation of (poly)phenols, and phytohormones (such as auxin) at gall sites, which contributes to the new cell developmental pathways and biochemical alterations that lead to gall formation. The classical idea of an insect-induced gall is a chamber lined with a nutritive tissue that is occupied by an insect that directly harvests nutrients from nutritive cells via its mouthparts, which function mechanically and/or as a delivery system for salivary secretions. By studying diverse gall-inducing insects we have discovered that insects with needle-like sucking mouthparts may also induce a nutritive tissue, whose nutrients are indirectly harvested as the gall-inducing insects feeds on adjacent vascular tissues. Activity of carbohydrate-related enzymes across diverse galls corroborates this hypothesis. Our research points to the importance of cytological and histochemical studies for elucidating mechanisms of induced susceptibility and induced resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential expression of endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzyme genes in the stick insect (Phasmatodea) midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomi, Matan; Jasper, W Cameron; Atallah, Joel; Kimsey, Lynn S; Johnson, Brian R

    2014-10-21

    Stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea) are an exclusively leaf-feeding order of insects with no record of omnivory, unlike other "herbivorous" Polyneoptera. They represent an ideal system for investigating the adaptations necessary for obligate folivory, including plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). However, their physiology and internal anatomy is poorly understood, with limited genomic resources available. We de novo assembled transcriptomes for the anterior and posterior midguts of six diverse Phasmatodea species, with RNA-Seq on one exemplar species, Peruphasma schultei. The latter's assembly yielded >100,000 transcripts, with over 4000 transcripts uniquely or more highly expressed in specific midgut sections. Two to three dozen PCWDE encoding gene families, including cellulases and pectinases, were differentially expressed in the anterior midgut. These genes were also found in genomic DNA from phasmid brain tissue, suggesting endogenous production. Sequence alignments revealed catalytic sites on most PCWDE transcripts. While most phasmid PCWDE genes showed homology with those of other insects, the pectinases were homologous to bacterial genes. We identified a large and diverse PCWDE repertoire endogenous to the phasmids. If these expressed genes are translated into active enzymes, then phasmids can theoretically break plant cell walls into their monomer components independently of microbial symbionts. The differential gene expression between the two midgut sections provides the first molecular hints as to their function in living phasmids. Our work expands the resources available for industrial applications of animal-derived PCWDEs, and facilitates evolutionary analysis of lower Polyneopteran digestive enzymes, including the pectinases whose origin in Phasmatodea may have been a horizontal transfer event from bacteria.

  14. Characterizing Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 virus-like particles production in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Balaji; Chang, Cindy; Fan, Yuan Y; Lim, Pei-Yin; Cardosa, Jane; Lua, Linda

    2016-02-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are two viruses commonly responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. The lack of prophylactic or therapeutic measures against HFMD is a major public health concern. Insect cell-based EV71 and CVA16 virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates against HFMD and are currently under development. In this paper, the influence of insect cell line, incubation temperature, and serial passaging effect and stability of budded virus (BV) stocks on EV71 and CVA16 VLP production was investigated. Enhanced EV71 and CVA16 VLP production was observed in Sf9 cells compared to High Five™ cells. Lowering the incubation temperature from the standard 27°C to 21°C increased the production of both VLPs in Sf9 cells. Serial passaging of CVA16 BV stocks in cell culture had a detrimental effect on the productivity of the structural proteins and the effect was observed with only 5 passages of BV stocks. A 2.7× higher production yield was achieved with EV71 compared to CVA16. High-resolution asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation couple with multi-angle light scattering (AF4-MALS) was used for the first time to characterize EV71 and CVA16 VLPs, displaying an average root mean square radius of 15±1nm and 15.3±5.8 nm respectively. This study highlights the need for different approaches in the design of production process to develop a bivalent EV71 and CVA16 vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of microfilament patterns in nurse cells of different insects with polytrophic and telotrophic ovarioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, H O; Huebner, E

    1986-04-01

    The localization of F-actin (microfilaments) in the nurse cells of ovarian follicles has been studied in 12 different insect species by fluorescence microscopy after specifically staining F-actin with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin. In the analysed species with polytrophic ovaries (Apis mellifica, Pimpla turionellae, Bradysia tritici, Ephestia kuehniella, Protophormia terraenovae) a dense F-actin network was found to be associated with the nurse cell membranes. Only in Protophormia were microfilament bundles seen to extend from the cell membrane into the nurse cell cytoplasm and in a few cases appeared to make contact with the nuclear membrane. In the analysed coleopteran species with telotrophic ovarioles (Strangalia melanura, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Oryzaephilus surinamensis) the fluorescence was also concentrated at the nurse cell membranes only. However, in all analysed hemipteran species (Lygus pratensis, Calocoris affinis, Graphosoma lineatum, Euscelis plebejus) the microfilament pattern was very different: while the nurse cells stained only weakly, we always found a characteristic (in some species massive) microfilament network surrounding the trophic core, a central area in the germarium from where material is transported through the trophic cords into the oocytes. The observed differences in the microfilament patterns are likely to reflect different mechanisms for transporting macromolecules and organelles within the ovariole.

  16. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuß, Robert; Wensing, Kristina U; Woestmann, Luisa; Eggert, Hendrik; Milutinović, Barbara; Sroka, Marlene G U; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O

    2016-04-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives.

  17. Sialoglycoconjugates in Herpetomonas megaseliae: role in the adhesion to insect host epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bianca A; Pereira, Fernanda M; de Jesus, José B; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M

    2009-06-01

    Herpetomonas megaseliae is a monoxenic trypanosomatid isolated from the phorid fly Megaselia scalaris. In the present report, the expression of cell surface sialoglycoconjugates in this parasite was analyzed by Western blotting, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analyses using lectins that specifically recognize sialic acid residues. A strong reaction was detected when parasites were treated with Limax flavus, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra lectins. Analysis of crude protein extracts by Western blotting revealed that bands with molecular masses ranging from 19 to 80 kDa were reactive to these lectins, which showed a sugar-inhibited recognition with the parasite extract. These results indicated that molecules containing alpha2,3- and alpha2,6-sialylgalactosyl sequences are present in this protozoan. The role of the surface sialomolecules in the interaction with explanted guts from Aedes aegypti was assessed. The interaction of H. megaseliae with the insect gut was strongly inhibited in the presence of mucin (71%), fetuin (68%) and sialyllactose (68%). Collectively, our results suggest a possible involvement of sialomolecules in the interaction between this insect trypanosomatid and the invertebrate host.

  18. Expression of rice gall dwarf virus outer coat protein gene (S8) in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guo-cheng; Gao, Fang-luan; Wei, Tai-yun; Huang, Mei-ying; Xie, Li-yan; Wu, Zu-jian; Lin, Qi-ying; Xie, Lian-hui

    2010-12-01

    To obtain the P8 protein of Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) with biological activity, its outer coat protein gene S8 was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The S8 gene was subcloned into the pFastBac™1 vector, to produce the recombinant baculovirus transfer vector pFB-S8. After transformation, pFB-S8 was introduced into the competent cells (E. coli DH10Bac) containing a shuttle vector, Bacmid, generating the recombinant bacmid rbpFB-S8. After being infected by recombinant baculovirus rvpFB-S8 at different multiplicities of infection, Sf9 cells were collected at different times and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The expression level of the P8 protein was highest between 48-72 h after transfection of Sf9 cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that P8 protein of RGDV formed punctate structures in the cytoplasm of Sf9 cells.

  19. Medium-throughput production of recombinant human proteins: protein production in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pravin; Strain-Damerell, Claire; Gileadi, Opher; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the step-by-step methods employed by the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) for screening and producing proteins in the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). This eukaryotic expression system was selected and a screening process established in 2007 as a measure to tackle the more challenging kinase, RNA-DNA processing and integral membrane protein families on our target list. Here, we discuss our platform for identifying soluble proteins from 3 ml of insect cell culture and describe the procedures involved in producing protein from liter-scale cultures. Although not discussed in this chapter, the same process can also be applied to integral membrane proteins (IMPs) with slight adaptations to the purification procedure.

  20. Functional characterization of the human multidrug transporter, ABCG2, expressed in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozvegy, C.; Litman, Thomas; Szakacs, G.

    2001-01-01

    ABCG2 (also called MXR (3), BCRP (4), or ABCP (5) is a recently-identified ABC half-transporter, which causes multidrug resistance in cancer. Here we report that the expression of the ABCG2 protein in Sf9 insect cells resulted in a high-capacity, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in isolated...... membrane preparations. ABCG2 was expressed underglycosylated, and its ATPase activity was stimulated by daunorubicin, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, prazosin and rhodamine 123, compounds known to be transported by this protein. ABCG2-ATPase was inhibited by low concentrations of Na-orthovanadate, N......-ethylmaleimide and cyclosporin A. Verapamil had no effect, while Fumitremorgin C, reversing ABCG2-dependent cancer drug resistance, strongly inhibited this ATPase activity. The functional expression of ABCG2 in this heterologous system indicates that no additional partner protein is required for the activity of this multidrug...

  1. Tracking the virus-like particles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in insect cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Fairuz Hanapi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells. Through fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation, the MrNvc was shown to enter Sf9 cells, and eventually arrived at the nucleus. The presence of MrNvc within the cytoplasm and nucleus of Sf9 cells was further confirmed by the Z-stack imaging. The presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chlorpromazine (CPZ inhibited the entry of MrNvc into Sf9 cells, but cytochalasin D did not inhibit this process. This suggests that the internalisation of MrNvc VLPs is facilitated by caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The whole internalisation process of MrNvc VLPs into a Sf9 cell was recorded with live cell imaging. We have also identified a potential nuclear localisation signal (NLS of MrNvc through deletion mutagenesis and verified by classical-NLS mapping. Overall, this study provides an insight into the journey of MrNvc VLPs in insect cells.

  2. Tracking the virus-like particles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in insect cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanapi, Ummi Fairuz; Yong, Chean Yeah; Goh, Zee Hong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2017-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc) produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells. Through fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation, the MrNvc was shown to enter Sf9 cells, and eventually arrived at the nucleus. The presence of MrNvc within the cytoplasm and nucleus of Sf9 cells was further confirmed by the Z-stack imaging. The presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), genistein, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chlorpromazine (CPZ) inhibited the entry of MrNvc into Sf9 cells, but cytochalasin D did not inhibit this process. This suggests that the internalisation of MrNvc VLPs is facilitated by caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The whole internalisation process of MrNvc VLPs into a Sf9 cell was recorded with live cell imaging. We have also identified a potential nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of MrNvc through deletion mutagenesis and verified by classical-NLS mapping. Overall, this study provides an insight into the journey of MrNvc VLPs in insect cells. PMID:28194311

  3. Development of an influenza virus vaccine using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system : implications for pandemic preparedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, M.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key word

    Influenza, rHA, vaccine, baculovirus, insect cells, production, pandemic preparedness

    Influenza (or flu) is a highly contagious, acute viral respiratory disease that occurs seasonally in most parts of the world and is caused by influenza viruses. Influenza

  4. Recombinant GDNF: Tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein produced from insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianhong; Chian, Ru-Ju; Ay, Ilknur; Celia, Samuel A.; Kashi, Brenda B.; Tamrazian, Eric; Matthews, Jonathan C.; Remington, Mary P.; Pepinsky, R. Blake; Fishman, Paul S.; Brown, Robert H.; Francis, Jonathan W.

    2009-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival-promoting effects on CNS motor neurons in experimental animals. Its therapeutic efficacy in humans, however, may have been limited by poor bioavailability to the brain and spinal cord. With a view toward improving delivery of GDNF to CNS motor neurons in vivo, we generated a recombinant fusion protein comprised of rat GDNF linked to the non-toxic, neuron-binding fragment of tetanus toxin. Recombinant GDNF:TTC produced from insect cells was a soluble homodimer like wild-type GDNF and was bi-functional with respect to GDNF and TTC activity. Like recombinant rat GDNF, the fusion protein increased levels of immunoreactive phosphoAkt in treated NB41A3-hGFRα-1 neuroblastoma cells. Like TTC, GDNF:TTC bound to immobilized ganglioside GT1b in vitro with high affinity and selectivity. These results support further testing of recombinant GDNF:TTC as a non-viral vector to improve delivery of GDNF to brain and spinal cord in vivo.

  5. Recombinant GDNF: Tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein produced from insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianhong; Chian, Ru-Ju; Ay, Ilknur; Celia, Samuel A.; Kashi, Brenda B.; Tamrazian, Eric; Matthews, Jonathan C. [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Remington, Mary P. [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Pepinsky, R. Blake [BiogenIdec, Inc., 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Fishman, Paul S. [Research Service, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Brown, Robert H. [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Francis, Jonathan W., E-mail: jwfrancisby@gmail.com [Cecil B. Day Laboratory for Neuromuscular Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival-promoting effects on CNS motor neurons in experimental animals. Its therapeutic efficacy in humans, however, may have been limited by poor bioavailability to the brain and spinal cord. With a view toward improving delivery of GDNF to CNS motor neurons in vivo, we generated a recombinant fusion protein comprised of rat GDNF linked to the non-toxic, neuron-binding fragment of tetanus toxin. Recombinant GDNF:TTC produced from insect cells was a soluble homodimer like wild-type GDNF and was bi-functional with respect to GDNF and TTC activity. Like recombinant rat GDNF, the fusion protein increased levels of immunoreactive phosphoAkt in treated NB41A3-hGFR{alpha}-1 neuroblastoma cells. Like TTC, GDNF:TTC bound to immobilized ganglioside GT1b in vitro with high affinity and selectivity. These results support further testing of recombinant GDNF:TTC as a non-viral vector to improve delivery of GDNF to brain and spinal cord in vivo.

  6. The role of baculovirus apoptotic suppressors in AcMNPV-mediated translation arrest in Ld652Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Suzanne M.; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2004-01-01

    Infecting the insect cell line IPLB-Ld652Y with the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) results in global translation arrest, which correlates with the presence of the AcMNPV apoptotic suppressor, p35. In this study, we investigated the role of apoptotic suppression on AcMNPV-induced translation arrest. Infecting cells with AcMNPV bearing nonfunctional mutant p35 did not result in global translation arrest. In contrast, global translation arrest was observed in cells infected with AcMNPV in which p35 was replaced with Opiap, Cpiap, or p49, baculovirus apoptotic suppressors that block apoptosis by different mechanisms than p35. These results indicated that suppressing apoptosis triggered translation arrest in AcMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells. Experiments using the DNA synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin and temperature shift experiments, using the AcMNPV replication mutants ts8 and ts8Δp35, indicated that translation arrest initiated during the early phase of infection, but events during the late phase were required for global translation arrest. Peptide caspase inhibitors could not substitute for baculovirus apoptotic suppressors to induce translation arrest in Ld652Y cells infected with a p35-null virus. However, if the p35-null-AcMNPV also carried hrf-1, a novel baculovirus host range gene, progeny virus was produced and treatment with peptide caspase inhibitors enhanced translation of a late viral gene transcript. Together, these results indicate that translation arrest in AcMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells is due to the anti-apoptotic function of p35, but suggests that rather than simply preventing caspase activation, its activity enhances signaling to a separate translation arrest pathway, possibly by stimulating the late stages of the baculovirus infection cycle

  7. Nanofibers and nanoparticles from the insect-capturing adhesive of the Sundew (Drosera for cell attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingjun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for naturally occurring nanocomposites with diverse properties for tissue engineering has been a major interest for biomaterial research. In this study, we investigated a nanofiber and nanoparticle based nanocomposite secreted from an insect-capturing plant, the Sundew, for cell attachment. The adhesive nanocomposite has demonstrated high biocompatibility and is ready to be used with minimal preparation. Results Atomic force microscopy (AFM conducted on the adhesive from three species of Sundew found that a network of nanofibers and nanoparticles with various sizes existed independent of the coated surface. AFM and light microscopy confirmed that the pattern of nanofibers corresponded to Alcian Blue staining for polysaccharide. Transmission electron microscopy identified a low abundance of nanoparticles in different pattern form AFM observations. In addition, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of Ca, Mg, and Cl, common components of biological salts. Study of the material properties of the adhesive yielded high viscoelasticity from the liquid adhesive, with reduced elasticity observed in the dried adhesive. The ability of PC12 neuron-like cells to attach and grow on the network of nanofibers created from the dried adhesive demonstrated the potential of this network to be used in tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications. Conclusions This discovery demonstrates how a naturally occurring nanofiber and nanoparticle based nanocomposite from the adhesive of Sundew can be used for tissue engineering, and opens the possibility for further examination of natural plant adhesives for biomedical applications.

  8. The role of cytochrome c on apoptosis induced by Anagrapha falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus in insect Spodoptera litura cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyu Liu

    Full Text Available There are conflicting reports on the role of cytochrome c during insect apoptosis. Our previous studies have showed that cytochrome c released from the mitochondria was an early event by western blot analysis and caspase-3 activation was closely related to cytochrome c release during apoptosis induced by baculovirus in Spodoptera litura cells (Sl-1 cell line. In the present study, alteration in mitochondrial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria in apoptotic Sl-1 cells induced with Anagrapha falcifera multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AfMNPV has further been confirmed by immunofluoresence staining protocol, suggesting that structural disruption of mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c are important events during Lepidoptera insect cell apoptosis. We also used Sl-1 cell-free extract system and the technique of RNA interference to further investigate the role of cytochrome c in apoptotic Sl-1 cells induced by AfMNPV. Caspase-3 activity in cell-free extracts supplemented with exogenous cytochrome c was determined and showed an increase with the extension of incubation time. DsRNA-mediated silencing of cytochrome c resulted in the inhibition of apoptosis and protected the cells from AfMNPV-induced cell death. Silencing of expression of cytochrome c had a remarkable effect on pro-caspase-3 and pro-caspase-9 activation and resulted in the reduction of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in Sl-1 cells undergoing apoptosis. Caspase-9 inhibitor could inhibit activation of pro-caspase-3, and the inhibition of the function of Apaf-1 with FSBA blocked apoptosis, hinting that Apaf-1 could be involved in Sl-1 cell apoptosis induced by AfMNPV. Taken together, these results strongly demonstrate that cytochrome c plays an important role in apoptotic signaling pathways in Lepidopteran insect cells.

  9. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in an insect (milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David C; Dorn, August

    2008-01-01

    Knowing the structure opens a door for a better understanding of function because there is no function without structure. Male germline stem cells (GSCs) of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) exhibit a very extraordinary structure and a very special relationship with their niche, the apical cells. This structural relationship is strikingly different from that known in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) -- the most successful model system, which allowed deep insights into the signaling interactions between GSCs and niche. The complex structural polarity of male GSCs in the milkweed bug combined with their astonishing dynamics suggest that cell morphology and dynamics are causally related with the most important regulatory processes that take place between GSCs and niche and ensure maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of GSCs in accordance with the temporal need of mature sperm. The intricate structure of the GSCs of the milkweed bug (and probably of some other insects, i.e., moths) is only accessible by electron microscopy. But, studying singular sections through the apical complex (i.e., GSCs and apical cells) is not sufficient to obtain a full picture of the GSCs; especially, the segregation of projection terminals is not tangible. Only serial sections and their overlay can establish whether membrane ingrowths merely constrict projections or whether a projection terminal is completely cut off. To sequence the GSC dynamics, it is necessary to include juvenile stages, when the processes start and the GSCs occur in small numbers. The fine structural analysis of segregating projection terminals suggests that these terminals undergo autophagocytosis. Autophagosomes can be labeled by markers. We demonstrated acid phosphatase and thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase). Both together are thought to identify autophagosomes. Using the appropriate substrate of the enzymes and cerium chloride, the precipitation of electron-dense cerium phosphate granules

  10. Establishment of insect cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein on cell surface based on AcMNPV GP64 membrane fusion characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ben-Xiang; Chen, Ying-Jian; Su, Rui; Li, Yi-Fei; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Li, Chang-You

    2017-10-01

    Displaying a protein on the surface of cells has been provided a very successful strategy to function research of exogenous proteins. Based on the membrane fusion characteristic of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus envelope protein GP64, we amplified and cloned N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal transmembrane domain as well as cytoplasmic tail domain of gp64 gene into vector pIZ/V5-His with multi-cloning sites to construct the cell surface expression vector pIZ/V5-gp64. To verify that the vector can be used to express proteins on the membrane of insect cells, a recombinant plasmid pIZ/V5-gp64-GFP was constructed by introducing the PCR amplified green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and transfected into insect cell lines Sf9 and H5. The transected cells were screened with zeocin and cell cloning. PCR verification results showed that the GFP gene was successfully integrated into these cells. Green fluorescence in Sf9-GFP and H5-GFP cells was observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunofluorescence detection indicated that GFP protein was located on the cell membrane. Western blot results showed that a fusion protein GP64-GFP of about 40 kDa was expressed on the membrane of Sf9-GFP and H5-GFP cells. The expression system constructed in this paper can be used for localization and continuous expression of exogenous proteins on insect cell membrane.

  11. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  12. A novel medium for expression of proteins selectively labeled with 15N-amino acids in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueggert, Michael; Rehm, Till; Shanker, Sreejesh; Georgescu, Julia; Holak, Tad A.

    2003-01-01

    Whereas bacterial expression systems are widely used for production of uniformly or selectively 15 N-labeled proteins the usage of the baculovirus expression system for labeling is limited to very few examples in the literature. Here we present the complete formulations of the two insect media, IML406 and 455, for the high-yield production of selectively 15 N-labeled proteins in insect cells. The quantities of 15 N-amino acids utilized in the production of labeled GST were similar in the case of bacterial and viral expression. For the most studied amino acids essential for insect cells the 15 N-HSQC spectra, recorded with GST labeled in insect cells, showed no cross labeling and provided therefore spectra of better quality compared to NMR spectra of GST expressed in E. coli. Also in the case of amino acids not essential for Sf9 cells we were able to label a defined number of amino acid species. Therefore the selective labeling using the baculovirus expression vector system represents a complement or even an alternative to the bacterial expression system. Based on these findings we can provide a first simple overview of the network of the amino acid metabolism in E. coli and insect cells focused on nitrogen. For some amino acids the expression of labeled proteins in insect cells can replace the cell-free protein expression

  13. Large scale production and downstream processing of a recombinant porcine parvovirus vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maranga, L.; Rueda, P.; Antonis, A.F.G.; Vela, C.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Casal, J.I.; Carrondo, M.J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute a potential vaccine for prevention of parvovirus-induced reproductive failure in gilts. Here we report the development of a large scale (25 l) production process for PPV-VLPs with baculovirus-infected insect cells. A low multiplicity of

  14. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a...

  15. Consuming insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a

  16. Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Dunkel, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require

  17. PLE-wu, a new member of piggyBac transposon family from insect, is active in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wang, Shu

    2014-10-01

    piggyBac, a highly active transposon in insect and mammalian cells, is a very useful tool in genome manipulation. A new piggyBac-like element (PLE), named PLE-wu, was identified from a mutant baculovirus cultured in sf9 insect cells. This new transposon is 2931 bp in length and encodes two active forms of transposase, a 708-amino acid-long transposase and a short 576-residue-long transposase translated from a downstream in-frame initiation codon. PLE-wu has asymmetric terminal structures, containing 6-bp inverted terminal repeats, 32-bp imperfect inverted and direct sub-terminal repeats. Similar to piggyBac, PLE-wu exhibits traceless excision activity in both insect and mammalian cells, restoring the original TTAA target sequence upon excision. It also retains the insertion activity in mammalian cells with a plasmid to chromosome transposition rate about 10-fold higher than random integration. Plasmid rescue assays revealed that the TTAA target sequence was duplicated at the junctions of the insertion site. Deletion of the terminal sequences including the sub-terminal repeats decreased the transposition activity of the 708-residue-long transposase, while the transposition activity of the short form of transposase was not affected. With its low sequence similarity to piggyBac, PLE-wu will contribute to the understanding the mechanism of PLE transposition, as well as design of new transposon systems with higher activity. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Baculovirus-mediated gene silencing in insect cells using intracellularly produced long double-stranded RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yi; Deng, F.; Hu, Z.H.; Vlak, J.M.; Wang, H.

    2007-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a powerful reverse genetics tool to silence gene expression in multiple organisms, including plants, nematodes and insects. In this study, DNA vectors capable of promoting the synthesis of long hairpin dsRNAs in vivo from a DNA

  19. Expression of the dyslexia candidate gene kiaa0319-like in insect cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holster, Savanne; Oers, van Monique M.; Roode, Els C.; Tsang, Otto W.H.; Yeung, Venus S.Y.; Vlak, Just M.; Waye, Mary M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The human kiaa0319-like gene is one of the candidate genes for developmental dyslexia, but the exact function of the encoded KIAA0319L (KL) protein is not known. To allow functional analysis a purified, biologically active KL protein is required. The kiaa0319-like gene was expressed in insect

  20. Distribution and Spectroscopy of Green Fluorescent Protein and Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acytransferase in Sf21 Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. C.; Mahtani, H.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Malak, H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is thought to significantly participate in the pathway of cholesterol esterification that underlies the pathology of artherosclerosis. This enzyme is a membrane protein known to be preferentially bound within the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells, from which location it esterifies cholesterol derived from low density lipoprotein. Cultures of insect cells were separately infected with baculovirus containing the gene for green fluroescent protein (GFP) and with baculovirus containing tandem genes for GFP and ACAT. These infected cultures expressed GFP and the fusion protein GCAT, respectively, with maximum expression occurring on the fourth day after infection. Extraction of GFP- and of GCAT-expressing cells with urea and detergent resulted in recovery of fluorescent protein in aqueous solution. Fluorescence spectra at neutral pH were identical for both GFP and GCAT extracts in aqueous solution, indicating unperturbed tertiary structure for the GFP moiety within GCAT. In a cholesterol esterification assay, GCAT demonstrated ACAT activity, but with less efficiency compared to native ACAT. It was hypothesized that the membrane protein ACAT would lead to differences in localization of GCAT compared to GFP within the respective expressing insect cells. The GFP marker directly and also within the fusion protein GCAT was accordingly used as the intracellular probe that was fluorescently analyzed by the new biophotonics technique of hyperspectral imaging. In that technique, fluorescence imaging was obtained from two dimensional arrays of cells, and regions of interest from within those images were then retrospectively analyzed for the emission spectra that comprises the image. Results of hyperspectral imaging of insect cells on day 4 postinfection showed that GCAT was preferentially localized to the cytoplasm of these cells compared to GFP. Furthermore, the emission spectra obtained for the localized GCAT displayed a peak

  1. Edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than in temperate zones. Until recently in the western world, eating insects was considered a peculiar tropical food habit and the term 'entomophagy' was coined. How to motivate consumers to substitute me...

  2. Purification, characterization, and kinetic mechanism of cyclin D1. CDK4, a major target for cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, A K; Radhakrishnan, R; Gu, F; Rao, R N; Yeh, W K

    1998-10-09

    The cyclin D1.CDK4-pRb (retinoblastoma protein) pathway plays a central role in the cell cycle, and its deregulation is correlated with many types of cancers. As a major drug target, we purified dimeric cyclin D1.CDK4 complex to near-homogeneity by a four-step procedure from a recombinant baculovirus-infected insect culture. We optimized the kinase activity and stability and developed a reproducible assay. We examined several catalytic and kinetic properties of the complex and, via steady-state kinetics, derived a kinetic mechanism with a peptide (RbING) and subsequently investigated the mechanistic implications with a physiologically relevant protein (Rb21) as the phosphoacceptor. The complex bound ATP 130-fold tighter when Rb21 instead of RbING was used as the phosphoacceptor. By using staurosporine and ADP as inhibitors, the kinetic mechanism of the complex appeared to be a "single displacement or Bi-Bi" with Mg2+.ATP as the leading substrate and phosphorylated RbING as the last product released. In addition, we purified a cyclin D1-CDK4 fusion protein to homogeneity by a three-step protocol from another recombinant baculovirus culture and observed similar kinetic properties and mechanisms as those from the complex. We attempted to model staurosporine in the ATP-binding site of CDK4 according to our kinetic data. Our biochemical and modeling data provide validation of both the complex and fusion protein as highly active kinases and their usefulness in antiproliferative inhibitor discovery.

  3. Characterization of N-Glycan Structures on the Surface of Mature Dengue 2 Virus Derived from Insect Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Lei

    Full Text Available DENV envelope glycoprotein (E is responsible for interacting with host cell receptors and is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine based on an induction of neutralizing antibodies. It is well known that DENV E glycoprotein has two potential N-linked glycosylation sites at Asn67 and Asn153. The N-glycans of E glycoprotein have been shown to influence the proper folding of the protein, its cellular localization, its interactions with receptors and its immunogenicity. However, the precise structures of the N-glycans that are attached to E glycoprotein remain elusive, although the crystal structure of DENV E has been determined. This study characterized the structures of envelope protein N-linked glycans on mature DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells via an integrated method that used both lectin microarray and MALDI-TOF-MS. By combining these methods, a high heterogeneity of DENV N-glycans was found. Five types of N-glycan were identified on DENV-2, including mannose, GalNAc, GlcNAc, fucose and sialic acid; high mannose-type N-linked oligosaccharides and the galactosylation of N-glycans were the major structures that were found. Furthermore, a complex between a glycan on DENV and the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of DC-SIGN was mimicked with computational docking experiments. For the first time, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the N-linked glycan profile of whole DENV-2 particles derived from insect cells.

  4. A Model to Study the Phenotypic Changes of Insect Cell Transfection by Copepod Super Green Fluorescent Protein (cop-GFP) in Baculovirus Expression System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Narjes; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Pooshang-Bagheri, Kamran; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Behdani, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Baculovirus expression system is one of the most attractive and powerful eukaryotic expression systems for the production of recombinant proteins. The presence of a biomarker is required to monitor transfection efficiency or protein expression levels in insect cells. The aim of this study was to construct a baculovirus expression vector encoding a copepod super green fluorescent protein (copGFP). In this light, the resultant vector was constructed and used for transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Expression of the copGFP protein in insect cells was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and Western-blot analysis. The application of copGFP control bacmid can be considered as an appropriate control for insect cell transfection.

  5. Expression of variable viruses as herpes simplex glycoprotein D and varicella zoster gE glycoprotein using a novel plasmid based expression system in insect cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sulaiman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems have been used for in vitro production of viruses’ proteins. However eukaryotic expression system was always the first choice for production of proteins that undergo post-translational modification such as glycosylation. Recombinant baculoviruses have been widely used as safe vectors to express heterologous genes in the culture of insect cells, but the manipulation involved in creating, titrating, and amplifying viral stocks make it time consuming and laborious. Therefore, to facilitate rapid expression in insect cell, a plasmid based expression system was used to express herpes simplex type 1 glycoprotein D (HSV-1 gD and varicella zoster glycoprotein E (VZV gE. Recombinant plasmids were generated, transfected into insect cells (SF9, and both glycoproteins were expressed 48 h post-infection. A protein with approximately molecular weight of 64-kDa and 98-kDa for HSV-1 gD and VZV gE respectively was expressed and confirmed by SDS. Proteins were detected in insect cells cytoplasm and outer membrane by immunofluorescence. The antigenicity and immunoreactivity of each protein were confirmed by immunoblot and ELISA. Results suggest that this system can be an alternative to the traditional baculovirus expression for small scale expression system in insect cells.

  6. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards

  7. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  8. Edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than

  9. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... all life stages of insects from and around the corpse. The collected specimens are subjected to further analysis either in the field itself or in the laboratory. A forensic entomologist has three main objectives in his mind while analyzing the insect data: determination of place, time and mode of death, each of.

  10. Insects vis a vis radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Insects have turned out to be much more radiation resistant. For most insects a dose of about 500-700 Gy is required to kill them within a few weeks of exposure; although cockroaches require 900-1000 Gy. Killing insects in less than a few days requires much higher doses. These doses are for mature insects, the immature stages of some insects can be killed by doses as low as 40 Gy. Some insects can be sterilized at even lower doses, and this has application in insect control. Screw-worms, for example, can be sterilized with doses of 25-50 Gy. By contrast, doses as low as 3 Gy caused death of humans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and doses of about 6 Gy caused death of fire fighters in the Chernobyl accident. It is not exactly certain what the basis is for the resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. It is not animal size by itself, nor lack of penetration. It is also not because of few dividing cells as these are more radiosensitive than non-dividing ones. The speculation that insects might have lower oxygen tensions, and the lack of oxygen is known to protect cells from radiation also does not work. Insect cells might have an enhanced capacity to repair radiation damage also could not be proven. The number of chromosomes influenced radio-sensitivity, and that insects had fewer chromosomes could be true. The radiation resistance is inherent to the cells, since cells derived from insects are also radiation resistant when grown in cell culture. For example, a dose of 60 Gy is required to produce a 80% kill of insect cells, while doses of 1-2 Gy are sufficient to generate this level of killing in mammalian cells. But, nevertheless, according to recent researches, radiation from Japan's leaking Fukushima nuclear plant has caused mutations in some butterflies. It is therefore clear that insects are resistant to ionizing radiation and that this resistance is an inherent property of their cells. But it is not clear exactly what the basis of this cellular resistance is

  11. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein expressed in insect cells form protein nanoparticles that induce protective immunity in cotton rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Smith

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is an important viral agent causing severe respiratory tract disease in infants and children as well as in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The lack of a safe and effective RSV vaccine represents a major unmet medical need. RSV fusion (F surface glycoprotein was modified and cloned into a baculovirus vector for efficient expression in Sf9 insect cells. Recombinant RSV F was glycosylated and cleaved into covalently linked F2 and F1 polypeptides that formed homotrimers. RSV F extracted and purified from insect cell membranes assembled into 40 nm protein nanoparticles composed of multiple RSV F oligomers arranged in the form of rosettes. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified RSV F nanoparticles was compared to live and formalin inactivated RSV in cotton rats. Immunized animals induced neutralizing serum antibodies, inhibited virus replication in the lungs, and had no signs of disease enhancement in the respiratory track of challenged animals. RSV F nanoparticles also induced IgG competitive for binding of palivizumab neutralizing monoclonal antibody to RSV F antigenic site II. Antibodies to this epitope are known to protect against RSV when passively administered in high risk infants. Together these data provide a rational for continued development a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine candidate.

  12. Production of Hev b5 as a fluorescent biotin-binding tripartite fusion protein in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Henri R.; Laitinen, Olli H.; Uotila, Sanna T.H.; Kulmala, Minna; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Kulomaa, Markku S.

    2005-01-01

    The presented green fluorescent protein and streptavidin core-based tripartite fusion system provides a simple and efficient way for the production of proteins fused to it in insect cells. This fusion protein forms a unique tag, which serves as a multipurpose device enabling easy optimization of production, one-step purification via streptavidin-biotin interaction, and visualization of the fusion protein during downstream processing and in applications. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful production, purification, and detection of a natural rubber latex allergen Hev b5 with this system. We also describe the production of another NRL allergen with the system, Hev b1, which formed large aggregates and gave small yields in purification. The aggregates were detected at early steps by microscopical inspection of the infected insect cells producing this protein. Therefore, this fusion system can also be utilized as a fast indicator of the solubility of the expressed fusion proteins and may therefore be extremely useful in high-throughput expression approaches

  13. Consuming insects

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, N.; Huis, van, A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and ...

  14. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  15. Developmental modulation of a glial cell-associated glycoprotein, 5B12, in an insect, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M R; Brunner, P; Edwards, J S

    1988-11-01

    The expression of an insect (Acheta domesticus) adult glial cell-specific antigen, 5B12 undergoes major changes during development. The 5B12 antigen is detected as early as 20-25% of embryonic development, when immunoreactivity is distributed throughout the periphery, present at the luminal surface of epithelial cells which compose developing limb buds, sensory appendages, and the body cavity. The antigen is also localized on the cell surface of neural elements within commissural tracts in the embryonic CNS. 5B12 is secreted extracellularly in the periphery, where it is associated with the embryonic basal lamina in developing cercal sensory appendages. Luminal surface expression is transient, and disappears by 95% of embryonic development. As development proceeds, 5B12 distribution becomes more restricted, so that in the adult the antigen is predominantly associated with specific glial elements within the nervous system where it occurs as a specialized component of the extracellular matrix. The 5B12 antigen is also associated with discrete central and peripheral fiber tracts. Antigen 5B12 is present in whole embryos and in the adult CNS as a Mr 185-kDa glycoprotein. Distinct carbohydrate moieties with chondroitin sulfate-like properties are situated on the 5B12 epitope. Thus the glia-associated 5B12 macromolecule has the characteristics of a small proteoglycan. Based upon features of its distribution, pattern of spatiotemporal expression, and biochemical properties, it is speculated that 5B12 participates in events related sequentially to the development and the function of the insect nervous system.

  16. The key molecular events during Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) infection and replication in Sf9 insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somrit, Monsicha; Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2016-09-02

    In this study we demonstrated that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to internalize and replicate in Sf9 insect cells, with levels of infection altered by substances affecting the caveolin-(CAV) mediated endocytosis pathway. The use of Sf9 cells for efficient MrNV replication and propagation was demonstrated by confocal microscopy and PCR amplification, through which early viral binding and internalization were initially detectable at 30min post-infection; whereas at 72h, the distinguishable sign of late-MrNV infection was observable as the gradual accumulation of a cytopathic effect (CPE) in the cells, ultimately resulting in cellular disruption. Moreover, during the early period of infection, the MrNV signals were highly co-localized with CAV1 signals of the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway. The use of genistein as an inhibitor of the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway significantly reduced MrNV and CAV1 co-localization, and also reduced the levels of MrNV infection in Sf9 cells as shown by PCR and ELISA. Moreover, the addition of the pathway agonist okadaic acid not only recovered but also augmented both the levels of MrNV co-localization with CAV1 and of Sf9 infection in the presence of genistein inhibition; therefore demonstrating that MrNV infection in Sf9 cells was associated with the CAV-mediated endocytosis pathway machinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quinuclidine compounds differently act as agonists of Kenyon cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induced distinct effect on insect ganglionic depolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Swale, Daniel; Leray, Xavier; Benzidane, Yassine; Lebreton, Jacques; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a new quinuclidine benzamide compound named LMA10203 acted as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Its specific pharmacological profile on cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM) helped to identify alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2 receptors. In the present study, we tested its effect on cockroach Kenyon cells. We found that it induced an inward current demonstrating that it bounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on Kenyon cells. Interestingly, LMA10203-induced currents were completely blocked by the nicotinic antagonist α-bungarotoxin. We suggested that LMA10203 effect occurred through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors and did not involve α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2, previously identified in DUM neurons. In addition, we have synthesized two new compounds, LMA10210 and LMA10211, and compared their effects on Kenyon cells. These compounds were members of the 3-quinuclidinyl benzamide or benzoate families. Interestingly, 1 mM LMA10210 was not able to induce an inward current on Kenyon cells compared to LMA10211. Similarly, we did not find any significant effect of LMA10210 on cockroach ganglionic depolarization, whereas these three compounds were able to induce an effect on the central nervous system of the third instar M. domestica larvae. Our data suggested that these three compounds could bind to distinct cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  18. CD4+CD25+ T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Eman; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane

    2012-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis caused by bites of midges from the genus Culicoides. We have shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBH-affected horses produce higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 than those from healthy horses, suggesting that IBH is associated with a reduced regulatory immune response. FoxP3 is a crucial marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we have determined the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells by flow cytometry in PBMC directly after isolation or after stimulation with Culicoides extract or a control antigen (Tetanus Toxoid). There were no differences between healthy and IBH horses either in the proportion of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in freshly isolated PBMC or in the following stimulation with Tetanus Toxoid. However, upon stimulation of PBMC with the allergen, expression of FoxP3 by CD4(+)CD25(+high) and CD4(+)CD25(+dim) cells was significantly higher in healthy than in IBH horses. Addition of recombinant IL-4 to PBMC from healthy horses stimulated with the allergen significantly decreased the proportion of FoxP3 expressing cells within CD4(+)CD25(+high). These results suggest that IBH is associated with a decreased number of allergen-induced Tregs. This could be a consequence of the increased IL-4 production by PBMC of IBH-affected horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Insect Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pilsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, Pilsch address William Gibson’s use of insect imagery in to trouble the common understanding of the novel Neuromancer, its commentary on corporate culture, and its relationship to a then-emergent posthumanism. Further, he concludes by suggesting that, for Gibson, the insect hive as an image for the corporate body shows that corporate culture is, in contrast to the banal image the term brings to mind, a set of nefarious cultural techniques derived for interfacing human bodies with the corporation’s native environment in the postmodern era: the abstractions of data.

  20. Quantitative analysis of three commonly-used insect cell-specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of transient expression assays showed the activity of ie2 promoter was approximately forty fold higher in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells and thirty fold higher in ovarian cell line of Bombyx mori (BmN) than that of A3 promoter. However, it showed reverse effect in baculovirus system that the activity of A3 promoter ...

  1. Recombinant receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein expressed in mammalian, insect and E. coli cells elicits potent neutralizing antibody and protective immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, M; Sun, S; Chan, CCS; Zhao, G; Du, L; Jiang, S; Zheng, BJ; Zhou, Y; He, Y; Guo, H; Liu, Z

    2009-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerging infectious disease. The potential recurrence of the disease from animal reservoirs highlights the significance of development of safe and efficient vaccines to prevent a future SARS epidemic. In this study, we expressed the recombinant receptor-binding domain (rRBD) in mammalian (293T) cells, insect (Sf9) cells, and E. coli, respectively, and compared their immunogenicity and protection against SARS-CoV infection in an established m...

  2. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... urine, saliva and faecal material oozing from natural openings and blood from wounds. Later on, the flesh and other tissues and bones also become attractive. As a body decays, it can be viewed as providing a succession of habitats, each attractive to and supporting a particular group of insects. Although ...

  3. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  4. [Expression of rice dwarf virus outer coat protein gene(S8) in insect cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Liu, H; Chen, Z; Li, Y

    2001-04-01

    Outer coat protein gene(S8) of RDV was cloned into the transfer vector pVL 1393 to construct a recombinant vector pVL1393-S8. The recombinant vector pVL1393-S8 and the linear baculovirus RP23. LacZ were cotransfected into sf9 cells to produce the recombinant virus RP23-S8. RP23-S8 infected sf9 cells were collected and analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. The results showed that the S8 gene of RDV was expressed in sf9 cells and the expression level of sf9 cells was higher between 72-96 h after infected.

  5. Silkworm (Bombyx mori) hemolymph unable to substitute fetal bovine serum in insect cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparto, Irma H.; Khalam, Chandra Nur; Praira, Willy; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-03-01

    Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in animal cell culture media is an important source of nutrients for cell growth. However, the harvest and collection of FBS cause bioethical concerns. Efforts to reduce and preferably replace FBS with synthetic or other natural alternatives are continually being explored. Hemolymph silkworm (Bombyx mori) contains many nutrients needed for the process of metamorphosis. Therefore, there is possibility as an alternative nutritional supplement for cell culture to reduce the use of FBS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macrocomponent of hemolymph and the possibility as medium supplement for Spodoptera fugiperda (Sf9) cell culture. Proximate analyses showed that hemolymph contains 89.76% of water, 2.52 mg/mL carbohydrate, 2.35% fat and 55.61 mg/mL protein. Further protein analysis, it consists of 15 fractions containing molecular weight of 22 - 152 kDa. The use of hemolymph as FBS substitution in Sf9 cell culture with various concentrations was unable to maintain and support cell growth. Further research still needed by prior adaptation of the tissue culture to minimal nutrition media before introduction of the hemolymph as supplement.

  6. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  7. Characterization of the glycosylation profiles of Alzheimer's beta -secretase protein Asp-2 expressed in a variety of cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, J; Dingwall, C; Matico, R; Hussain, I; Johanson, K; Moore, S; Powell, D J; Skehel, J M; Ratcliffe, S; Clarke, B; Trill, J; Sweitzer, S; Camilleri, P

    2001-05-18

    Amyloid 39-42 beta -peptides are the main components of amyloid plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Amyloid 39-42 beta-peptide is formed from amyloid precursor protein by the sequential action of beta- and gamma-secretases. Asp-2 is a transmembrane aspartic protease expressed in the brain, shown to have beta-secretase activity. Mature Asp-2 has four N-glycosylation sites. In this report we have characterized the carbohydrate structures in this glycoprotein expressed in three different cell lines, namely Chinese hamster ovary, CV-1 origin of SV40, and baculovirus-infected SF9 cells. Biantennary and triantennary oligosaccharides of the "complex" type were released from glycoprotein expressed in the mammalian cells, whereas mannose-rich glycans were identified from glycoprotein synthesized in the baculovirus-infected cells. Site-directed mutagenesis of the asparagine residues at amino acid positions 153, 172, 223, and 354 demonstrate that the protease activity of Asp-2 is dependent on its glycosylation.

  8. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  9. Insect Pupil Mechanisms. II. Pigment Migration in Retinula Cells of Butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Numan, J.A.J.; Tinbergen, J.; Kuiper, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that the glow observable in dark adapted butterfly eyes is extinguished upon light adaptation by the action of migrating retinula cell pigment granules has been investigated. Experimental procedures applying optical methods to intact, living animals were similar to those used

  10. Identification of Essential Genetic Baculoviral Elements for Recombinant Protein Expression by Transactivation in Sf21 Insect Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Bleckmann

    Full Text Available The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS is widely used to produce high amounts of recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, generating recombinant baculovirus in high quality is rather time-consuming and labor-intensive. Alternatively, virus-free expression in insect cells did not achieve similar expression levels for most proteins so far. The transactivation method is a promising approach for protein expression in Sf21 cells. It combines advantages of BEVS and plasmid-based expression by activating strong virus-dependent promoters on a transfected plasmid by baculoviral coinfection. Here, we identified expression elements required for transactivation. Therefore, we designed several vectors comprising different viral promoters or promoter combinations and tested them for eGFP expression using the automated BioLector microcultivation system. Remarkably, only the combination of the very late promoter p10 together with the homologous region 5 (hr5 could boost expression during transactivation. Other elements, like p10 alone or the late viral promoter polH, did not respond to transactivation. A new combination of hr5 and p10 with the strongest immediate early OpMNPV viral promoter OpIE2 improved the yield of eGFP by ~25% in comparison to the previous applied hr5-IE1-p10 expression cassette. Furthermore, we observed a strong influence of the transcription termination sequence and vector backbone on the level of expression. Finally, the expression levels for transactivation, BEVS and solely plasmid-based expression were compared for the marker protein eGFP, underlining the potential of transactivation for fast recombinant protein expression in Sf21 cells. In conclusion, essential elements for transactivation could be identified. The optimal elements were applied to generate an improved vector applicable in virus-free plasmid-based expression, transactivation and BEVS.

  11. Identification of Essential Genetic Baculoviral Elements for Recombinant Protein Expression by Transactivation in Sf21 Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Yen, Zen-Zen; Lindemann, Nils; Meyer, Steffen; Spehr, Johannes; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) is widely used to produce high amounts of recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, generating recombinant baculovirus in high quality is rather time-consuming and labor-intensive. Alternatively, virus-free expression in insect cells did not achieve similar expression levels for most proteins so far. The transactivation method is a promising approach for protein expression in Sf21 cells. It combines advantages of BEVS and plasmid-based expression by activating strong virus-dependent promoters on a transfected plasmid by baculoviral coinfection. Here, we identified expression elements required for transactivation. Therefore, we designed several vectors comprising different viral promoters or promoter combinations and tested them for eGFP expression using the automated BioLector microcultivation system. Remarkably, only the combination of the very late promoter p10 together with the homologous region 5 (hr5) could boost expression during transactivation. Other elements, like p10 alone or the late viral promoter polH, did not respond to transactivation. A new combination of hr5 and p10 with the strongest immediate early OpMNPV viral promoter OpIE2 improved the yield of eGFP by ~25% in comparison to the previous applied hr5-IE1-p10 expression cassette. Furthermore, we observed a strong influence of the transcription termination sequence and vector backbone on the level of expression. Finally, the expression levels for transactivation, BEVS and solely plasmid-based expression were compared for the marker protein eGFP, underlining the potential of transactivation for fast recombinant protein expression in Sf21 cells. In conclusion, essential elements for transactivation could be identified. The optimal elements were applied to generate an improved vector applicable in virus-free plasmid-based expression, transactivation and BEVS. PMID:26934632

  12. Simultaneous expression of recombinant proteins in the insect cell-baculovirus system: production of virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Laura A; Mena, Jimmy A; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2012-03-01

    The insect cell-baculovirus system (IC-BEVS) is widely used for the production of recombinant viral proteins for vaccine applications. It is especially suitable for the production of virus-like particles, which often require the simultaneous production of several recombinant proteins. Here, the available tools and process requirements for the simultaneous production of several recombinant proteins using the IC-BEVS are discussed. The production of double-layered rotavirus like particles is used as a specific example for the simultaneous production of two recombinant proteins. Methods to quantify VLP in small samples are described. The multiplicity and time of infection are presented as tools to manipulate protein concentration, and the effect on protein concentration ratios on the assembly efficiency of double-layered rotavirus like particles is discussed. It was found that not only the ratio between the recombinant proteins is determinant of VLP assembly efficiency, but also that assembly efficiency is related to the characteristics of the assembled proteins. This is the first time that kinetics of VLP production are followed during cultures, and that the assembly efficiency is quantitatively determined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineering the transposition-based baculovirus expression vector system for higher efficiency protein production from insect cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehalko, Jennifer L.; Esposito, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common methods for producing recombinant baculovirus for insect cell protein production involves a transposition mediated system invented over 2 decades ago. This Tn7-mediated system, commercially sold as Bac-to-Bac, has proven highly useful for construction of high quality baculovirus, but suffers from a number of drawbacks which reduce the efficiency of the process and limit its utility for high throughput protein production processes. We describe here the creation of Bac-2-the-Future, a 2nd generation Tn7-based system for recombinant baculovirus production which uses optimized expression vectors, new E. coli strains, and enhanced protocols to dramatically enhance the efficiency of the baculovirus production process. The new system which we describe eliminates the need for additional screening of positive clones, improves the efficiency of transposition, and reduces the cost and time required for high throughput baculovirus production. The system is compatible with multiple cloning methodologies, and has been demonstrated to produce baculovirus with equal or better titer and protein productivity than the currently available systems. PMID:27616621

  14. Real-Time Expression Analysis of Selected Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Gene Promoters during Infection of Permissive, Semipermissive and Nonpermissive Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabricio da Silva; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2017-06-01

    Baculovirus infection follows a transcriptionally controlled sequence of gene expression that occurs by activation of different viral gene promoter sequences during infection. This sequence of promoter activation may be disrupted by cellular defenses against viral infection, which might interfere with viral progeny formation. In this work, the activity of the ie1 , gp64 , lef-1 , vp39 , p6.9 and polh promoters of the Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus was assessed during infection of permissive, semipermissive and nonpermissive cell lines by a novel methodology that detects reporter protein luminescence in real-time. This technique allowed us to characterize in rich detail the AgMNPV promoters in permissive cell lines and revealed differential profiles of expression in cells with limited permissivity that correlate well with limitations in viral DNA replication. Semipermissive and nonpermissive cell lines presented delays and restrictions in late and very late promoter expression. Cells undergoing apoptosis did not inhibit late gene expression; however, viral progeny formation is severely affected. This work demonstrates the application of the real-time luminescence detection methodology and how the promoter expression profile may be used to diagnose cellular permissivity to baculovirus infection.

  15. Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Angela E

    2015-01-07

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests.

  16. Expression and Purification of Active Recombinant Cathepsin C (Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase I of Kuruma Prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus in Insect Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Feng Qiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsin C (CTSC is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. Our previous study showed that CTSC precursor (zymogen is localized exclusively in cortical rods (CRs of mature oocyte in the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, suggesting that CTSC might have roles on regulating release and/or formation of a jelly layer. In this study, enzymically active CTSC of the kuruma prawn was prepared by recombinant expression in the High Five insect cell line. The recombinant enzyme with a polyhistidine tag at its C-terminus was considered to be initially secreted into the culture medium as an inactive form of zymogen, because Western blot with anti-CTSC antibody detected a 51 kDa protein corresponding to CTSC precursor. After purification by affinity chromatography on nickel-iminodiacetic acid resin, the enzyme displayed three forms of 51, 31, and 30 kDa polypeptides. All of the forms can be recognized by antiserum raised against C-terminal polyhistidine tag, indicating that the 31 and 30 kDa forms were generated from 51 kDa polypeptide by removal of a portion of the N-terminus of propeptide. Following activation at pH 5.5 and 37∘C for 40 hours under native conditions, the recombinant CTSC (rCTSC exhibited increased activity against the synthetic substrate Gly-Phe-β-naphthylamide and optimal pH at around 5. The purified rCTSC will be useful for further characterization of its exact physiological role on CRs release and/or formation of a jelly layer in kuruma prawn.

  17. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    ... - Metabolic homeostasis - Myotropic factors and regulation of pigmentation - Novel systems for studying insect endocrines - Pheromones - Intracellular communication - Distribution and role of insect hormones...

  18. Insect transgenesis and the sterile insect technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment of broadly applicable insect transgenesis systems will enable the analyses of gene function in diverse insect species. This will greatly increase our understanding of diverse aspects of biology so far not functionally addressable. Moreover, insect transgenesis will provide novel st...

  19. In vitro induction of functional allergen-specific CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, E; Akdis, C A; Wagner, B; Steinbach, F; Marti, E

    2013-08-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a recurrent allergic dermatitis of horses with similarities to human atopic eczema, caused by bites of insects of the genus Culicoides. Previous studies suggested a dysregulated T cell tolerance to Culicoides allergen in IBH-affected horses. We have investigated whether the suppressive function of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells is impaired in IBH-affected horses and possible ways to restore it. CD4(+) CD25(-) cells sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with irradiated autologous PBMC pulsed with Culicoides or tetanus toxoid as control antigen, in the presence of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells. Furthermore, Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) regulatory cells were expanded or induced from CD4(+) CD25(-) cells in vitro in the presence of a combination of rIL-2 and rTGF-β1 (rIL-2/rTGF-β1) or of retinoic acid and rapamycin (RetA/Rapa). Proliferation was determined by [(3) H] thymidine incorporation and cytokine production measured by flow cytometry. The ability of Culicoides- but not tetanus-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells to suppress proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) cells was significantly lower in IBH-affected horses (28%) than in healthy controls (86%). The decreased suppression in IBH-affected horses was associated with a significantly higher proportion of IL-4(+) cells and a lower percentage of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) compared to controls. Addition of rIL-2/rTGF-β1 or of RetA/Rapa to Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells from IBH-affected horses significantly increased the proportion of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) cells. We also found that RetA/Rapa induced a more significant decrease in the frequency of IL-4(+) cells than rIL-2/rTGF-β1. Moreover, the suppressive activity of Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells was significantly restored by both rIL-2/rTGF-β1and RetA/Rapa, albeit in an antigen-unspecific manner. In contrast, in vitro induced Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) cells suppressed

  20. Book Review: Insect Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses that infect insects have long been of interest both as a means for controlling insect pest populations in an environmentally safe manner, and also as significant threats to beneficial insects of great value, such as honey bees and silkworms. Insect viruses also have been of intrinsic intere...

  1. The disulfide-rich Metridia luciferase refolded from E. coli inclusion bodies reveals the properties of a native folded enzyme produced in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Svetlana V; Larionova, Marina D; Gorbunova, Darya A; Vysotski, Eugene S

    2017-10-01

    The bioluminescence of a marine copepod Metridia longa is determined by a small secreted coelenterazine-dependent luciferase that uses coelenterazine as a substrate of enzymatic reaction to generate light (λ max =480nm). To date, four different isoforms of the luciferase differing in size, sequences, and properties have been cloned by functional screening. All of them contain ten conserved Cys residues that suggests up to five SS intramolecular bonds per luciferase molecule. Whereas the use of copepod luciferases as bioluminescent reporters in biomedical research in vivo is growing from year to year, their application for in vitro assays is still limited by the difficulty in obtaining significant amounts of luciferase. The most cost-effective host for producing recombinant proteins is Escherichia coli. However, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells maintain the reductive environment in cytoplasm that hinders the disulfide bond formation and consequently the proper folding of luciferase. Here we report the expression of the MLuc7 isoform of M. longa luciferase in E. coli cells and the efficient procedure for refolding from inclusion bodies yielding a high-active monomeric protein. Furthermore, in a set of identical experiments we demonstrate that bioluminescent and structural features of MLuc7 produced in bacterial cells are identical to those of MLuc7 isoform produced from culture medium of insect cells. Although the yield of high-purity protein is only 6mg/L, the application of E. coli cells to produce the luciferase is simpler and more cost-effective than the use of insect cells. We expect that the suggested technology of Metridia luciferase production allows obtaining of sufficient amounts of protein both for the development of novel in vitro analytical assays with the use of MLuc7 as a label and for structural studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  3. Novel Sp family-like transcription factors are present in adult insect cells and are involved in transcription from the polyhedrin gene initiator promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, A; Jain, A; Arora, P; Bashyam, M D; Chatterjee, U; Ghosh, S; Parnaik, V K; Hasnain, S E

    2001-06-29

    We earlier documented the involvement of a cellular factor, polyhedrin (polh) promoter-binding protein, in transcription from the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus polh gene promoter. Sequences upstream of the polh promoter were found to influence polh promoter-driven transcription. Analysis of one such region, which could partially compensate for the mutated polh promoter and also activate transcription from the wild-type promoter, revealed a sequence (AcSp) containing a CACCC motif and a loose GC box resembling the binding motifs of the transcription factor Sp1. AcSp and the consensus Sp1 sequence (cSp) specifically bound factor(s) in HeLa and Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cell nuclear extracts to generate identical binding patterns, indicating the similar nature of the factor(s) interacting with these sequences. The AcSp and cSp oligonucleotides enhanced in vivo expression of a polh promoter-driven luciferase gene. In vivo mopping of these factor(s) significantly reduced transcription from the polh promoter. Recombinant viruses carrying deletions in the upstream AcSp sequence confirmed the requirement of these factor(s) in polh promoter-driven transcription in the viral context. We demonstrate for the first time DNA-protein interactions involving novel members of the Sp family of proteins in adult insect cells and their involvement in transcription from the polh promoter.

  4. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  5. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  6. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH INSECTS AND SCORPIONS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Stinging or biting insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. ...

  7. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  8. Generation of the Fluorescent HMGB1-GFP Fusion Protein in Insect Cells and Evaluation of its Immunogenicity in Two Mice Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvar, Ali; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Salahshourifar, Iman; Bolhassani, Azam

    2017-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved protein present in the nuclei and cytoplasm of cells which has an important role as a mediator of inflammation in the extracellular environment. HMGB1 was identified as an innate adjuvant that induces immune responses against soluble antigens in vivo. Our goal is the generation of recombinant HMGB1-GFP fusion protein in insect cells for evaluation of immune responses in mouse model. In the current study, we used a baculovirus expression system for insect cells that was based on expression of HMGB1 with target gene (GFP), and purified the recombinant HMGB1- GFP fusion protein. We then demonstrated whether immunogenicity of GFP changes in the presence or absence of recombinant HMGB1 acting as an adjuvant in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Our data showed that HMGB1 had a major influence on antibody immune responses induced by GFP in both animal models. The groups receiving HMGB1-GFP fusion protein showed total IgG and IgG2a responses significantly higher than IgG1 in BALB/c mice. Indeed, a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response was observed with high intensity toward IgG2a. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice immunized by HMGB1-GFP protein elicited the same levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. However, the levels of IgG2a and total IgG against the recombinant GFP (rGFP) in C57BL/6 mice were lower than those in BALB/c mice. We concluded that fusion of HMGB1 with GFP was immunologically more effective than GFP alone. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Cloning of fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus into a baculovirus derived bacmid shuttle vector, in order to express it in insect cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemzadeh MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Newcastle disease virus (NDV is one of the major pathogens in poultry and vaccination is intended to control the disease, as an effective solution, yet. Fusion protein (F on surface of NDV, has a fundamental role in virus pathogenicity and can induce protective immunity, alone. With this background, here our aim was to construct a baculovirus derived recombinant bacmid shuttle vector (encoding F-protein in order to express it in insect cell line. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, at first complete F gene from avirulent strain La Sota of NDV was amplified by RT-PCR to produce F cDNA. The amplicon was cloned into T/A cloning vector and afterwards into pFastBac Dual donor plasmid. After the verification of cloning process by two methods, PCR and enzymatic digestion analysis, the accuracy of F gene sequence was confirmed by sequencing. Finally, F-containing recombinant bacmid was subsequently generated in DH10Bac cell and the construct production was confirmed by a special PCR panel, using F specific primers and M13 universal primers. Results: Analysis of confirmatory tests showed that the recombinant bacmid, expressing of F-protein gene in correct sequence and framework, has been constructed successfully. Conclusion: The product of this F-containing recombinant bacmid, in addition to its independent application in the induction of protective immunity, can be used with the other individual recombinant baculoviruses, expressing HN and NP genes to produce NDV-VLPs in insect cell line.

  10. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  11. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  12. Production of H5N1 influenza virus matrix protein 2 ectodomain protein bodies in tobacco plants and in insect cells as a candidate universal influenza vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandiswa Mbewana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of influenza A viruses is partially controlled and prevented by vaccination. The matrix protein 2 ectodomain (M2e is the most conserved sequence in influenza A viruses, and is therefore a good potential target for a vaccine to protect against multiple virus subtypes. We explored the feasibility of a M2e-based universal influenza A vaccine candidate based on the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus, H5N1. A synthetic M2e gene was human and plant codon optimised and fused in-frame with a sequence encoding the N-terminal proline-rich domain (Zera® of the γ-zein protein of maize. Zera®M2e was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and Sf21 baculovirus / insect cell expression systems, and Zera®M2e protein bodies (PBs were successfully produced in both expression systems. The plant-produced Zera®M2e PBs were purified and injected into Balb/c mice. Western blot analysis using insect cell-produced Zera®M2e PBs and multiple tandem M2e sequences (5xM2e fused with the avian influenza H5N1 transmembrane and cytosolic tail (5xM2e_tHA confirmed the presence of M2e-specific antibodies in immunised mice sera. The immunogenicity of the Zera®M2e indicates that our plant-produced protein has potential as an inexpensive universal influenza A vaccine.

  13. Expanding the host range of small insect RNA viruses: Providence virus (Carmotetraviridae) infects and replicates in a human tissue culture cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwaji, Meesbah; Short, James Roswell; Dorrington, Rosemary Ann

    2016-10-01

    Tetraviruses are small, positive (+ve)-sense ssRNA viruses that infect the midgut cells of lepidopteran larvae. Providence virus (PrV) is the only member of the family Carmotetraviridae (previously Tetraviridae). PrV particles exhibit the characteristic tetraviral T=4 icosahedral symmetry, but PrV is distinct from other tetraviruses with respect to genome organization and viral non-structural proteins. Currently, PrV is the only tetravirus known to infect and replicate in lepidopteran cell culture lines. In this report we demonstrate, using immunofluorescence microscopy, that PrV infects and replicates in a human tissue culture cell line (HeLa), producing infectious virus particles. We also provide evidence for PrV replication in vitro in insect, mammalian and plant cell-free systems. This study challenges the long-held view that tetraviruses have a narrow host range confined to one or a few lepidopteran species and highlights the need to consider the potential for apparently non-infectious viruses to be transferred to new hosts in the laboratory.

  14. Endogenous chloride channels of insect sf9 cells. Evidence for coordinated activity of small elementary channel units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Gabriel, S. E.; Stutts, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The endogenous Cl- conductance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells was studied 20-35 h after plating out of either uninfected cells or cells infected by a baculovirus vector carrying the cloned beta-galactosidase gene (beta-Gal cells). With the cation Tris+ in the pipette and Na+ in the bath......, the reversal potential of whole-cell currents was governed by the prevailing Cl- equilibrium potential and could be fitted by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation with similar permeabilities for uninfected and beta-Gal cells. In the frequency range 0.12

  15. [Enhancing hGH expression level in insect cells by shortening the 5'-UTR of hGH cDNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Ying; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Dong-Ming; Li, Shu; Yu, Xin-Da; Zhang, Bao-Zhu

    2002-07-01

    The regulation of foreign gene expression in Insect-Baculovirus Expression System is very complex. In this report, the effect of 5'-UTR in the expression of hGH gene in cultured Sf9 cells was examined. A 18 bp length in the end of 5'-UTR of hGH (human Growth Hormone, hGH) cDNA including a stem-loop structure was deleted by PCR. The truncated hGH cDNA, delta 1hGH was cloned in pFastBac1, named pFast-Bac-delta 1hGH. After transforming into E. coli. DH10Bac, which have a shuttle vetor-Bacmid, the delta 1hGH was integrated into Bacmid by site-specific transposition, and an expression vector, rBacmid-delta 1hGH DNA was acquired. By transfecting the cultured Sf9 cells with the recombinant expression vector DNA, pure recombinant virus, rAcV-Bac-delta 1hGH was obtained, and hGH gene was expressed. Immuno-blot and Chemiluminescent assay revealed that the expressed hGH had normal immunological activity, the amount of hGH expression level in Sf9 cell supernatant infected with rAcV-Bac-delta 1hGH containing the truncated 5'UTR was four to five times higher than that infected with rAcV-Bac-hGH.

  16. Functional characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus late gene transcription and genome replication factors in the non-permissive insect cell line SF-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berretta, Marcelo F.; Deshpande, Mandar; Crouch, Erin A.; Passarelli, A. Lorena

    2006-01-01

    We compared the abilities of late gene transcription and DNA replication machineries of the baculoviruses Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) in SF-21 cells, an insect-derived cell line permissive for AcMNPV infection. It has been well established that 19 AcMNPV late expression factors (lefs) stimulate substantial levels of late gene promoter activity in SF-21 cells. Thus, we constructed a set of clones containing the BmNPV homologs of the AcMNPV lefs under control of the constitutive Drosophila heat shock 70 protein promoter and tested their ability to activate an AcMNPV late promoter-reporter gene cassette in SF-21 cells. We tested the potential of individual or predicted functional groups of BmNPV lefs to successfully replace the corresponding AcMNPV gene(s) in transient late gene expression assays. We found that most, but not all, BmNPV lefs were able to either fully or partially substitute for the corresponding AcMNPV homolog in the context of the remaining AcMNPV lefs with the exception of BmNPV p143, ie-2, and p35. BmNPV p143 was unable to support late gene expression or be imported into the nucleus of cells in the presence of the AcMNPV or the BmNPV LEF-3, a P143 nuclear shuttling factor. Our results suggest that host-specific factors may affect the function of homologous proteins

  17. Insect enemies of birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Conklin

    1969-01-01

    Native birches are subject to attack by insects at all stages of growth from the germinating seedling to the mature tree. All parts of the tree—roots, stem, branches, foliage, and even the developing seed—may be utilized as feeding sites by insects of one kind or another. An enumeration of the many insects recorded in the literature as feeders on...

  18. A convenient and general expression platform for the production of secreted proteins from human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Halil; Azimi, Farshad C; Cook, Jonathan D; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2012-07-31

    Recombinant protein expression in bacteria, typically E. coli, has been the most successful strategy for milligram quantity expression of proteins. However, prokaryotic hosts are often not as appropriate for expression of human, viral or eukaryotic proteins due to toxicity of the foreign macromolecule, differences in the protein folding machinery, or due to the lack of particular co- or post-translational modifications in bacteria. Expression systems based on yeast (P. pastoris or S. cerevisiae) (1,2), baculovirus-infected insect (S. frugiperda or T. ni) cells (3), and cell-free in vitro translation systems (2,4) have been successfully used to produce mammalian proteins. Intuitively, the best match is to use a mammalian host to ensure the production of recombinant proteins that contain the proper post-translational modifications. A number of mammalian cell lines (Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293, CV-1 cells in Origin carrying the SV40 larget T-antigen (COS), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), and others) have been successfully utilized to overexpress milligram quantities of a number of human proteins (5-9). However, the advantages of using mammalian cells are often countered by higher costs, requirement of specialized laboratory equipment, lower protein yields, and lengthy times to develop stable expression cell lines. Increasing yield and producing proteins faster, while keeping costs low, are major factors for many academic and commercial laboratories. Here, we describe a time- and cost-efficient, two-part procedure for the expression of secreted human proteins from adherent HEK 293T cells. This system is capable of producing microgram to milligram quantities of functional protein for structural, biophysical and biochemical studies. The first part, multiple constructs of the gene of interest are produced in parallel and transiently transfected into adherent HEK 293T cells in small scale. The detection and analysis of recombinant protein secreted into the cell culture

  19. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  20. Insect-cell expression, crystallization and X-ray data collection of the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 from Toxoplasma gondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grujic, Ognjen; Grigg, Michael E.; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the bradyzoite-specific surface antigen BSR4 from T. gondii are described. Toxoplasma gondii is an important global pathogen that infects nearly one third of the world’s adult population. A family of developmentally expressed structurally related surface-glycoprotein adhesins (SRSs) mediate attachment to and are utilized for entry into host cells. The latent bradyzoite form of T. gondii persists for the life of the host and expresses a distinct family of SRS proteins, of which the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 is a prototypical member. Structural studies of BSR4 were initiated by first recombinantly expressing BSR4 in insect cells, which was followed by crystallization and preliminary X-ray data collection to 1.95 Å resolution. Data processing showed that BSR4 crystallized with one molecule in the asymmetric unit of the P4 1 2 1 2 or P4 3 2 1 2 space group, with a solvent content of 60% and a corresponding Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å 3 Da −1

  1. Insect-cell expression, crystallization and X-ray data collection of the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 from Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grujic, Ognjen [Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Grigg, Michael E. [Molecular Parasitology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Boulanger, Martin J., E-mail: mboulang@uvic.ca [Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the bradyzoite-specific surface antigen BSR4 from T. gondii are described. Toxoplasma gondii is an important global pathogen that infects nearly one third of the world’s adult population. A family of developmentally expressed structurally related surface-glycoprotein adhesins (SRSs) mediate attachment to and are utilized for entry into host cells. The latent bradyzoite form of T. gondii persists for the life of the host and expresses a distinct family of SRS proteins, of which the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 is a prototypical member. Structural studies of BSR4 were initiated by first recombinantly expressing BSR4 in insect cells, which was followed by crystallization and preliminary X-ray data collection to 1.95 Å resolution. Data processing showed that BSR4 crystallized with one molecule in the asymmetric unit of the P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 space group, with a solvent content of 60% and a corresponding Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}.

  2. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent...

  3. Insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  4. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  5. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  6. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  7. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    management, vector management in public health, produc- tion of medically important proteins and genetic improve- ment of beneficial insects like parasitoids, predators, silk worm and honey bee. The proposed release of genetically engineered insects is evoking serious debate among research- ers and environmental ...

  8. Magnetic compasses in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of magnetic information for orientation and navigation is a widespread phenomenon in animals. In contrast to navigational systems in vertebrates, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the insect magnetic perception and use of the information is at an early stage. Some insects use ma...

  9. Two Novel 30K Proteins Overexpressed in Baculovirus System and Their Antiapoptotic Effect in Insect and Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 30K family of proteins is important in energy metabolism and may play a role in inhibiting cellular apoptosis in silkworms (Bombyx mori. Several 30K-family proteins have been identified. In this study, two new silkworm genes, referred to as Slp (NM 001126256 and Lsp-t (NM 001043443, were analyzed by a bioinformatics approach according to the sequences of 30K proteins previously reported in the silkworm. Both Slp and Lsp-t shared more than 41% amino acid sequence homology with the reported 30K proteins and displayed a conserved domain consistent with that of lipoprotein-11. Additionally, the cDNA sequences of both Slp and Lsp-t were obtained from the fat bodies of silkworm larvae by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Both genes were expressed in BmN cells using the Bac-to-Bac system. Purified Slp and Lsp-t were added to cultured BmN and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC that were treated with H2O2. Both Slp and Lsp-t significantly enhanced the viability and suppressed DNA fragmentation in H2O2 treated BmN and HUVEC cells. This study suggested that Slp and Lsp-t exhibit similar biological activities as their known 30K-protein counterparts and mediate an inhibitory effect against H2O2-induced apoptosis.

  10. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein...... precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown...... to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly. Inactivation of the 3C enzyme in a P1-2A-3C cassette allows expression and intermediate levels of 3C activity resulted in efficient processing of the P1-2A precursor into the structural proteins which...

  11. Expression of a bee venom phospholipase A2 from Apis cerana cerana in the baculovirus-insect cell*

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Li-rong; Ding, Mei-hui; Zhang, Li-wen; Zhang, Wei-guang; Liu, Liang; Li, Duo

    2010-01-01

    Bee venom phospholipase A2 (BvPLA2) is a lipolytic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl bond of glycerophospholipids to liberate free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. In this work, a new BvPLA2 (AccPLA2) gene from the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) venom glands was inserted into bacmid to construct a recombinant transfer vector. Tn-5B-4 (Tn) cells were transfected with the recombinant bacmid DNA for expression. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  12. Expression of a bee venom phospholipase A2 from Apis cerana cerana in the baculovirus-insect cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Rong; Ding, Mei-Hui; Zhang, Li-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Liu, Liang; Li, Duo

    2010-05-01

    Bee venom phospholipase A(2) (BvPLA(2)) is a lipolytic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl bond of glycerophospholipids to liberate free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. In this work, a new BvPLA(2) (AccPLA(2)) gene from the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) venom glands was inserted into bacmid to construct a recombinant transfer vector. Tn-5B-4 (Tn) cells were transfected with the recombinant bacmid DNA for expression. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed a double band with molecular weights of 16 and 18 kDa. Products of hexahistidine AccPLA(2) fusion protein accumulated up to 5.32% of the total cellular proteins. The AccPLA(2) fusion protein was cross reactive with the anti-AmPLA(2) (BvPLA(2) of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera) polyclonal serum. The reaction resulted in a double glycosylation band, which agrees with the band generated by the native AmPLA(2) in Western blot analysis. The PLA(2) activity of the total extracted cellular protein in the hydrolyzing egg yolk is about 3.16 micromol/(min.mg). In summary, the recombinant AccPLA(2) protein, a native BvPLA(2)-like structure with corresponding biological activities, can be glycosylated in Tn cells. These findings provided fundamental knowledge for potential genetic engineering to produce AccPLA(2) in the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Mode of action of nanoparticles against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-03

    The employment of nanoparticles obtained through various synthesis routes as novel pesticides recently attracted high research attention. An impressive number of studies have been conducted to test their toxic potential against a wide number of arthropod pests and vectors, with major emphasis on mosquitoes and ticks. However, precise information on the mechanisms of action of nanoparticles against insects and mites are limited, with the noteworthy exception of silica, alumina, silver, and graphene oxide nanoparticles on insects, while no information is available for mites. Here, I summarize current knowledge about the mechanisms of action of nanoparticles against insects. Both silver and graphene oxide nanoparticles have a significant impact on insect antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. Ag nanoparticles also reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, while polystyrene nanoparticles inhibited CYP450 isoenzymes. Au nanoparticles can act as trypsin inhibitors and disrupt development and reproduction. Metal nanoparticles can bind to S and P in proteins and nucleic acids, respectively, leading to a decrease in membrane permeability, therefore to organelle and enzyme denaturation, followed by cell death. Besides, Ag nanoparticles up- and downregulate key insect genes, reducing protein synthesis and gonadotrophin release, leading to developmental damages and reproductive failure. The toxicity of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles is due to their binding to the insect cuticle, followed by physico-sorption of waxes and lipids, leading to insect dehydration. In the final section, insect nanotoxicology research trends are critically discussed, outlining major challenges to predict the ecotoxicological consequences arising from the real-world use of nanoparticles as pesticides.

  14. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural...... as an ingredient in its own right – not collectively as ‘insects’, as it is easy for many uninitiated to do. Many of these insects frequently fetch higher prices than other meat sources in the market, and it is this approach of investigating insects as a delicious gastronomic product that interests us. Indeed...

  15. Large-scale production and purification of recombinant protein from an insect cell/baculovirus system in Erlenmeyer flasks: application to the chicken poly(ADP-ribose polymerase catalytic domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive shaker/Erlenmeyer flask system for large-scale cultivation of insect cells is described and compared to a commercial spinner system. On the basis of maximum cell density, average population doubling time and overproduction of recombinant protein, a better result was obtained with a simpler and less expensive bioreactor consisting of Erlenmeyer flasks and an ordinary shaker waterbath. Routinely, about 90 mg of pure poly(ADP-ribose polymerase catalytic domain was obtained for a total of 3 x 109 infected cells in three liters of culture

  16. Effects of x-irradiation on cell division, oxygen consumption, and growth medium pH of an insect cell line cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.; Myser, W.C.; Hink, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Cultured Trichoplusia ni cells in exponential growth were administered x-ray doses of 10,000 R and then subcultured. The untreated cell population began exponential growth within a few hours after subculture, eventually reaching stationary growth phase 96 hr later at a cell density of 2.08 x 10 6 cells/ml, whereas the irradiated cell population did not change for 24 hr after irradiation and then began exponential growth at a rate similar to that of control cells, also reaching stationary phase at 96 hr, but at a cell density of 0.93 x 10 6 cells/ml, which is less than half the maximum density of controls. From 24 to 96 hr after treatment, the x-irradiated cells were characterized by an increased consumption of oxygen that was nearly twice the amount utilized by control cells. The pH of the cell growth medium increases over 96 hr from 6.3 to 6.6 for irradiated as well as for untreated cultures, but since the number of x-rayed cells is less than half the number of untreated cells, the pH increase, per cell, of medium from irradiated cultures is about twice that of medium from control cultures

  17. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  18. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... Some people have severe, life-threatening reactions to bee stings ... or lightheadedness Abdominal pain or vomiting Rash or flushing

  19. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  20. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  1. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  2. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  3. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-15

    The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  4. The evolutionary development of plant-feeding insects and their nutritional endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Isabel H; Hansen, Allison K

    2017-12-01

    Herbivorous insects have evolved diverse mechanisms enabling them to feed on plants with suboptimal nutrient availability. Low nutrient availability negatively impacts insect herbivore development and fitness. To overcome this obstacle numerous insect lineages have evolved intimate associations with nutritional endosymbionts. This is especially true for insects that specialize on nitrogen-poor substrates, as these insects are highly dependent on intracellular symbionts to provide nitrogen lacking in their insect host's diet. Emerging evidence in these systems suggest that the symbiont's and/or the insect's biosynthetic pathways are dynamically regulated throughout the insect's development to potentially cope with the insect's changing nutritional demands. In this review, we evaluate the evolutionary development of symbiotic insect cells (bacteriocytes) by comparing and contrasting genes and mechanisms involved in maintaining and regulating the nutritional symbiosis throughout insect development in a diversity of insect herbivore-endosymbiont associations. With new advances in genome sequencing and functional genomics, we evaluate to what extent nutritional symbioses are shaped by (i) the regulation of symbiont titer, (ii) the regulation of insect symbiosis genes, and (iii) the regulation of symbiont genes. We discuss how important these mechanisms are for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins across insect life stages in divergent insect-symbiont systems. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research to further elucidate the evolutionary development of bacteriocytes and the impact of these nutritional symbioses on insect-plant interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T G E; Field, L M; Usherwood, P N R; Williamson, M S

    2007-03-01

    The long term use of many insecticides is continually threatened by the ability of insects to evolve resistance mechanisms that render the chemicals ineffective. Such resistance poses a serious threat to insect pest control both in the UK and worldwide. Resistance may result from either an increase in the ability of the insect to detoxify the insecticide or by changes in the target protein with which the insecticide interacts. DDT, the pyrethrins and the synthetic pyrethroids (the latter currently accounting for around 17% of the world insecticide market), act on the voltage-gated sodium channel proteins found in insect nerve cell membranes. The correct functioning of these channels is essential for normal transmission of nerve impulses and this process is disrupted by binding of the insecticides, leading to paralysis and eventual death. Some insect pest populations have evolved modifications of the sodium channel protein which prevent the binding of the insecticide and result in the insect developing resistance. Here we review some of the work (done at Rothamsted Research and elsewhere) that has led to the identification of specific residues on the sodium channel that may constitute the DDT and pyrethroid binding sites.

  6. Probability to produce animal vaccines in insect baculovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insect baculovirus expression system is a valuable tool for the production of vaccine. Many subunit vaccines have been expressed in this system. The first vaccine produced in insect cells for animal use is now in the market. In this study, we reviewed recent progress of animal's vaccine production for different expression ...

  7. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  8. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  9. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  10. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  11. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  12. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insects, which constitute one of the most abundant groups of living creatures on Earth, are significant to human life in numerous ways. There are many beneficial ones like the honey bee, silk worm, etc. and quite a few that are harmful and cause direct or indirect damage to the well being of human beings. Researchers have ...

  13. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  15. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  16. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  17. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  18. Insects for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Veldkamp, T.

    2017-01-01

    In a trial with 14 pens with in each 20 turkey pullets (males, not treated) research has been conducted to the effect of feeding 12% insect larvae (Black Soldier Fly) on technical results and behaviour. The birds were kept until 5 weeks of age. The larvae fed groups ate less, had a higher growth

  19. Insect and disease activity (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Are Insects and Diseases Important? Native insects and diseases are a natural part of ecosystems and are essential to the ecological balance in natural forests (Castello and others 1995). In contrast, nonnative insects and diseases can pose a particular threat because ecosystems often lack natural internal controls of these agents. The activity of both native and...

  20. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  1. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...

  2. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...

  3. Polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen J; Sword, Gregory A; Lo, Nathan

    2011-09-27

    Polyphenism is the phenomenon where two or more distinct phenotypes are produced by the same genotype. Examples of polyphenism provide some of the most compelling systems for the study of epigenetics. Polyphenisms are a major reason for the success of the insects, allowing them to partition life history stages (with larvae dedicated to feeding and growth, and adults dedicated to reproduction and dispersal), to adopt different phenotypes that best suit predictable environmental changes (seasonal morphs), to cope with temporally heterogeneous environments (dispersal morphs), and to partition labour within social groups (the castes of eusocial insects). We survey the status of research on some of the best known examples of insect polyphenism, in each case considering the environmental cues that trigger shifts in phenotype, the neurochemical and hormonal pathways that mediate the transformation, the molecular genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in initiating and maintaining the polyphenism, and the adaptive and life-history significance of the phenomenon. We conclude by highlighting some of the common features of these examples and consider future avenues for research on polyphenism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular evolution of the insect-specific flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Shelley; Moureau, Gregory; Kitchen, Andrew; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Holmes, Edward C; Harbach, Ralph E

    2012-02-01

    There has been an explosion in the discovery of 'insect-specific' flaviviruses and/or their related sequences in natural mosquito populations. Herein we review all 'insect-specific' flavivirus sequences currently available and conduct phylogenetic analyses of both the 'insect-specific' flaviviruses and available sequences of the entire genus Flavivirus. We show that there is no statistical support for virus-mosquito co-divergence, suggesting that the 'insect-specific' flaviviruses may have undergone multiple introductions with frequent host switching. We discuss potential implications for the evolution of vectoring within the family Flaviviridae. We also provide preliminary evidence for potential recombination events in the history of cell fusing agent virus. Finally, we consider priorities and guidelines for future research on 'insect-specific' flaviviruses, including the vast potential that exists for the study of biodiversity within a range of potential hosts and vectors, and its effect on the emergence and maintenance of the flaviviruses.

  5. Thermoregulation in endothermic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, B

    1974-08-30

    On the basis of body weight, most flying insects have higher rates of metabolism, and hence heat production, than other animals. However, rapid rates of cooling because of small body size in most cases precludes appreciable endothermy. The body temperature of small flies in flight is probably close to ambient temperature, and that of flying butterflies and locusts is 5 degrees to 10 degrees C above ambient temperature. Many moths and bumblebees are insulated with scales and hair, and their metabolism during flight can cause the temperature of the flight muscles to increase 20 degrees to 30 degrees C above ambient temperature. Curiously, those insects which (because of size, insulation) retain the most heat in the thorax during flight, also require the highest muscle temperature in order to maintain sufficient power output to continue flight. The minimum muscle temperature for flight varies widely between different species, while the maximum temperature varies over the relatively narrow range of 40 degrees to 45 degrees C. As a consequence, those insects that necessarily generate high muscle temperatures during flight must maintain their thoracic temperature within a relatively narrow range during flight. Active heat loss from the thorax to the abdomen prevents overheating of the flight motor and allows some large moths to be active over a wide range of ambient temperatures. Bumblebees similarly transfer heat from the flight musculature into the abdomen while incubating their brood by abdominal contact. Many of the larger insects would remain grounded if they did not actively increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to flight. Male tettigoniid grasshoppers elevate their thoracic temperature prior to singing. In addition, some of the social Hymenoptera activate the "flight" muscles specifically to produce heat not only prior to flight but also during nest temperature regulation. During this "shivering" the "flight" muscles are often activated in

  6. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  7. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar......, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...

  8. Insect symbionts as hidden players in insect-plant interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frago, E.; Dicke, M.; Godfray, H.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the importance of microbial mutualistic symbioses in insect-plant interactions. Mutualists may affect host plant range and enable insects to manipulate plant physiology for their own benefit. The plant can also be a route for the horizontal transfer of mutualistic

  9. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...... and conservation; considerations for insect farming and policy and legislation. The book contains practical information for researchers, NGOs and international organizations, decision-makers, entrepreneurs and students...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding. ...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel. ...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of insect...

  13. Molecular Alliance of Lymantria dispar Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus and a Short Unmodified Antisense Oligonucleotide of Its Anti-Apoptotic IAP-3 Gene: A Novel Approach for Gypsy Moth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Shumskykh, Maksym N; Kasich, Igor N; Gal'chinsky, Nikita V; Bekirova, Viktoriya V; Makarov, Valentin V; Agranovsky, Alexey A; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Zubarev, Ilya V; Kubyshkin, Anatoly V; Fomochkina, Iryna I; Gorlov, Mikhail V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2017-11-17

    Baculovirus IAP (inhibitor-of-apoptosis) genes originated by capture of host genes. Unmodified short antisense DNA oligonucleotides (oligoDNAs) from baculovirus IAP genes can down-regulate specific gene expression profiles in both baculovirus-free and baculovirus-infected insects. In this study, gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) larvae infected with multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV), and LdMNPV-free larvae, were treated with oligoDNA antisense to the RING (really interesting new gene) domain of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene. The results with respect to insect mortality, biomass accumulation, histological studies, RT-PCR, and analysis of DNA apoptotic fragmentation suggest that oligoRING induced increased apoptotic processes in both LdMNPV-free and LdMNPV-infected insect cells, but were more pronounced in the latter. These data open up possibilities for promising new routes of insect pest control using antisense phosphodiester DNA oligonucleotides.

  14. Molecular Alliance of Lymantria dispar Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus and a Short Unmodified Antisense Oligonucleotide of Its Anti-Apoptotic IAP-3 Gene: A Novel Approach for Gypsy Moth Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Oberemok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Baculovirus IAP (inhibitor-of-apoptosis genes originated by capture of host genes. Unmodified short antisense DNA oligonucleotides (oligoDNAs from baculovirus IAP genes can down-regulate specific gene expression profiles in both baculovirus-free and baculovirus-infected insects. In this study, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar larvae infected with multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV, and LdMNPV-free larvae, were treated with oligoDNA antisense to the RING (really interesting new gene domain of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene. The results with respect to insect mortality, biomass accumulation, histological studies, RT-PCR, and analysis of DNA apoptotic fragmentation suggest that oligoRING induced increased apoptotic processes in both LdMNPV-free and LdMNPV-infected insect cells, but were more pronounced in the latter. These data open up possibilities for promising new routes of insect pest control using antisense phosphodiester DNA oligonucleotides.

  15. Reader Survey for INSECT ALERTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mason E.; Sauer, Richard J.

    To determine what might be done to improve "Insect Alerts," which is a newsletter that carries "information on insect biology, abundance, activity and interpretation of control need," put out through the Michigan Cooperative Extension Service 26 weeks a year, a survey was conducted. A mail questionnaire was sent to all 120 county extension…

  16. Ethical issues in insect production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena; Gamborg, Christian; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    welfare and present an account of what is known, or can be inferred, about the capability of insects to experience welfare and where future research needs lie. (2) Animal integrity: Do insects possess integrity and can it be violated through large-scale production systems? To clarify this, we will discuss...

  17. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  18. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  19. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects. K N Ganeshaiah. General Article Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 36-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  1. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  2. Population fluctuation in phytophagous insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redfearn, A.; Pimm, S.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1994-06-01

    We examined how community interactions affect year-to-year population variability in three groups of phytophagous insects: British aphids and moths, and Canadian moths. We first examined how the number of host plant species on which a given phytophagous insect species feeds affects its population variability. Specialist insect species showed a weak tendency to be more variable than generalist species. We then examined how the number of species of parasitoids from which a given phytophagous insects species suffers affects its population variability. Species that are host to few parasitoid species showed a weak tendency to be more variable than species with many parsitoid species. These relationships also depend on other aspects of the life histories of the phytophagous insect species.

  3. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  4. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of a new insect cell line that is derived from the neonate larvae of Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its susceptibility to AcNPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Feng, Ying; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ma, Tao

    2012-06-01

    The cell line RIRI-PX1 was established from neonate larval tissues of Papilio xuthus by performing primary cultures in the modified Grace medium that was supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cell line primarily consisted of spindle-shaped and spherical cells which attached themselves to the flask. The population-doubling times (PDTs) at the 50th and 60th passage were 42.5 h and 42.1 h respectively. The average chromosome numbers of RIRI-PX1 cell line from passage 5 to passage 50 ranged from 103 to 199. It was confirmed that RIRI-PX1 cell line was derived from P. xuthus by comparing the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of RIRI-PX1 cells and P. xuthus eggs. This cell line was susceptible to the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) and produced high yield of polyhedral occlusion bodies (43.9OBs/cell) after 10 days of infection by AcNPV. The virus titer of AcNPV infected RIRI-PX1 cells was 3.25×10⁷ TCID₅₀/ml. We concluded that the RIRI-PX1 cell line is established from the neonate larvae tissues successfully and the cells of the cell line are sensitive to AcNPV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago [1] and [2] . The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage - the extant...... the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....

  7. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  8. Expression and purification of sea raven type II antifreeze protein from Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Andrew J; Kuntz, Douglas A; Saul, Michelle; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L; Rose, David R

    2006-06-01

    We present a system for the expression and purification of recombinant sea raven type II antifreeze protein, a cysteine-rich, C-type lectin-like globular protein that has proved to be a difficult target for recombinant expression and purification. The cDNAs encoding the pro- and mature forms of the sea raven protein were cloned into a modified pMT Drosophila expression vector. These constructs produced N-terminally His(6)-tagged pro- and mature forms of the type II antifreeze protein under the control of a metallothionein promoter when transfected into Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Upon induction of stable cell lines the two proteins were expressed at high levels and secreted into the medium. The proteins were then purified from the cell medium in a simple and rapid protocol using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and specific protease cleavage by tobacco etch virus protease. The proteins demonstrated antifreeze activity indistinguishable from that of wild-type sea raven antifreeze protein purified from serum as illustrated by ice affinity purification, ice crystal morphology, and their ability to inhibit ice crystal growth. This expression and purification system gave yields of 95 mg/L of fully active mature sea raven type II AFP and 9.6 mg/L of the proprotein. This surpasses all previous attempts to express this protein in Escherichia coli, baculovirus-infected fall armyworm cells and Pichia pastoris and will provide sufficient protein for structural analysis.

  9. Contact chemoreception in feeding by phytophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R F

    2003-01-01

    Gustatory receptors associated with feeding in phytophagous insects are broadly categorized as phagostimulatory or deterrent. No phytophagous insect is known that tastes all its essential nutrients, and the ability to discriminate between nutrients is limited. The insects acquire a nutritional balance largely "adventitiously" because leaves have an appropriate chemical composition. Sugars are the most important phagostimulants. Plant secondary compounds are most often deterrent but stimulate phagostimulatory cells if they serve as host-indicating sign stimuli, or if they are sequestered for defense or used as pheromone precursors. The stimulating effects of chemicals are greatly affected by other chemicals in mixtures like those to which the sensilla are normally exposed. Host plant selection depends on the balance of phagostimulatory and deterrent inputs with, in some oligophagous and monophagous species, a dominating role of a host-related chemical. Evolution of phytophagy has probably involved a change in emphasis in the gustatory system, not fundamentally new developments. The precise role of the gustatory systems remains unclear. In grasshoppers, it probably governs food selection and the amounts eaten, but in caterpillars there is some evidence that central feedbacks are also involved in regulating the amount eaten.

  10. Insect mycophagy: a preliminary bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Fogel

    1975-01-01

    Insects that feed on fungi are primary dispersal agents for many beneficial and pathogenic species. Nearly 300 references on the subject, published since the mid-19th century are listed in this bibliography.

  11. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  12. Characterization of growth and Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus production in attached cultures of the DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran insect cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajan, Charlotte; Claus, Juan Daniel; Marshall, Sean David Goldie; Visnovsky, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    The DSIR-HA-1179 coleopteran cell line is a susceptible and permissive host to the Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV), which has been used as a biocontrol agent against the coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros); a pest of palms in the Asia-Pacific region. However, little is known about growth and metabolism of this cell line, knowledge of which is necessary to develop an in vitro large-scale OrNV production process. The strong anchorage-dependent characteristics of the cell line, its particular fragility and its tendency to form dense clumps when manipulated, are the most likely reasons that have precluded further development of the cell line. In order to characterize DSIR-HA-1179 cells, there was first a need for a reliable technique to count the cells. A homogenous cell suspension suitable for enumeration could be produced by treatment with TrypLE Express™ with optimum mean time for cell release calculated as 30 min. The cell line was adapted to grow in four serum-supplemented culture media namely TC-100, IPL-41, Sf-900 II and Sf-900 III and cell growth, glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production were assessed from static-batch cultures. The maximum viable cell density was reached in Sf-900 II (17.9 × 10(5) cells/ml), with the maximum specific growth rate observed in this culture medium as well (0.0074 h(-1)). Higher production of OrNV was observed in IPL-41 and TC-100 (4.1 × 10(7) TCID50/ml) than in cultures infected in Sf-900 III (2.0 × 10(7) TCID50/ml) and Sf-900 II (1.4 × 10(7) TCID50/ml). At the end of the growth period, glucose was completely consumed in cultures grown in TC-100, while remained in excess in the other three culture media. The cell line produced lactate and ammonia to very low levels in the TC-100 culture medium which is a promising aspect for its cultivation at large-scale.

  13. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  14. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Ik Hwan; Seok, Heon; Lee, Dong Gun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CopA3 peptide isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial activity. •Our study reported that CopA3 has anticancer and immunosuppressive effects. •We here demonstrated that CopA3 has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. •CopA3 degrades p27Kip1 protein and this mediates effects of CopA3 on neuronal cells. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer’s disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects

  15. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Ik Hwan [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Science, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CopA3 peptide isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial activity. •Our study reported that CopA3 has anticancer and immunosuppressive effects. •We here demonstrated that CopA3 has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. •CopA3 degrades p27Kip1 protein and this mediates effects of CopA3 on neuronal cells. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer’s disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.

  16. How Do Insects Help the Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Gary

    2005-01-01

    There are some 5 to 30 million insect species estimated in the world--and the majority of these have yet to be collected or named by science! Of course, the most well known insects are those that cause disease or compete for human agricultural products, but these insects represent only a small fraction of the world's insect population. In reality,…

  17. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation is...

  18. Evolutionary conservation and changes in insect TRP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRP (Transient Receptor Potential channels respond to diverse stimuli and thus function as the primary integrators of varied sensory information. They are also activated by various compounds and secondary messengers to mediate cell-cell interactions as well as to detect changes in the local environment. Their physiological roles have been primarily characterized only in mice and fruit flies, and evolutionary studies are limited. To understand the evolution of insect TRP channels and the mechanisms of integrating sensory inputs in insects, we have identified and compared TRP channel genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, and Pediculus humanus genomes as part of genome sequencing efforts. Results All the insects examined have 2 TRPV, 1 TRPN, 1 TRPM, 3 TRPC, and 1 TRPML subfamily members, demonstrating that these channels have the ancient origins in insects. The common pattern also suggests that the mechanisms for detecting mechanical and visual stimuli and maintaining lysosomal functions may be evolutionarily well conserved in insects. However, a TRPP channel, the most ancient TRP channel, is missing in B. mori, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis. Although P. humanus and D. melanogaster contain 4 TRPA subfamily members, the other insects have 5 TRPA subfamily members. T. castaneum, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis contain TRPA5 channels, which have been specifically retained or gained in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Furthermore, TRPA1, which functions for thermotaxis in Drosophila, is missing in A. mellifera and N. vitripennis; however, they have other Hymenoptera-specific TRPA channels (AmHsTRPA and NvHsTRPA. NvHsTRPA expressed in HEK293 cells is activated by temperature increase, demonstrating that HsTRPAs function as novel thermal sensors in Hymenoptera. Conclusion The total number of insect TRP family members is 13-14, approximately half that of mammalian TRP

  19. Molecular Biology of Insect Sodium Channels and Pyrethroid Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Most of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

  20. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO 4 . Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  1. Diversity and functions of protein glycosylation in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; De Schutter, Kristof; Van Damme, Els J M; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-04-01

    The majority of proteins is modified with carbohydrate structures. This modification, called glycosylation, was shown to be crucial for protein folding, stability and subcellular location, as well as protein-protein interactions, recognition and signaling. Protein glycosylation is involved in multiple physiological processes, including embryonic development, growth, circadian rhythms, cell attachment as well as maintenance of organ structure, immunity and fertility. Although the general principles of glycosylation are similar among eukaryotic organisms, insects synthesize a distinct repertoire of glycan structures compared to plants and vertebrates. Consequently, a number of unique insect glycans mediate functions specific to this class of invertebrates. For instance, the core α1,3-fucosylation of N-glycans is absent in vertebrates, while in insects this modification is crucial for the development of wings and the nervous system. At present, most of the data on insect glycobiology comes from research in Drosophila. Yet, progressively more information on the glycan structures and the importance of glycosylation in other insects like beetles, caterpillars, aphids and bees is becoming available. This review gives a summary of the current knowledge and recent progress related to glycan diversity and function(s) of protein glycosylation in insects. We focus on N- and O-glycosylation, their synthesis, physiological role(s), as well as the molecular and biochemical basis of these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Insects Develop Resistance to Insect Pathogenic Fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtseva, Olga N.; Greig, Carolyn; Kryukov, Vadim Y.; Grizanova, Ekaterina V.; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Glupov, Viktor V.; Butt, Tariq M.

    2013-01-01

    Microevolutionary adaptations and mechanisms of fungal pathogen resistance were explored in a melanic population of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Under constant selective pressure from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, 25th generation larvae exhibited significantly enhanced resistance, which was specific to this pathogen and not to another insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Defense and stress management strategies of selected (resistant) and non-selected (susceptible) insect lines were compared to uncover mechanisms underpinning resistance, and the possible cost of those survival strategies. We hypothesize that the insects developed a transgenerationally primed resistance to the fungus B. bassiana, a costly trait that was achieved not by compromising life-history traits but rather by prioritizing and re-allocating pathogen-species-specific augmentations to integumental front-line defenses that are most likely to be encountered by invading fungi. Specifically during B. bassiana infection, systemic immune defenses are suppressed in favour of a more limited but targeted repertoire of enhanced responses in the cuticle and epidermis of the integument (e.g. expression of the fungal enzyme inhibitor IMPI, and cuticular phenoloxidase activity). A range of putative stress-management factors (e.g. antioxidants) is also activated during the specific response of selected insects to B. bassiana but not M. anisopliae. This too occurs primarily in the integument, and probably contributes to antifungal defense and/or helps ameliorate the damage inflicted by the fungus or the host’s own immune responses. PMID:23560083

  3. Anatomy of adult Megaphragma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, one of the smallest insects, and new insight into insect miniaturization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Polilov

    Full Text Available The body size, especially in cases of extreme reduction, is an important characteristic that strongly determines the morphology, physiology, and biology of animals. Miniaturization is a widespread trend in animal evolution and one of the principal directions of evolution in insects. Miniaturization-related features of insect morphology have been subject to intensive studies during the last few years, but the structure of the smallest insects remains insufficiently known. It is especially important to study hymenopterans of the genus Megaphragma, which include the smallest flying insects and a species in which an almost anucleate nervous system was recently discovered. This article is the first detailed study of the external and internal morphology of adults of Megaphragma mymaripenne and M. amalphitanum using histological methods, 3D computer modeling and other techniques. It is shown that in spite of the extremely small size the organization of Megaphragma retains a considerkable level of structural complexity. On the other hand, miniaturization leads to re-organizations of several organ systems. Unique structural features related to miniaturization have been found in both species: lysis of cell bodies and nuclei of neurons at late stages of pupal development, absence of the heart, and considerable reductions in the set of muscles. Comparative analysis of structure in the smallest insects representing different taxa has revealed common features of the evolutionary process of miniaturization in insects.

  4. Topological and functional characterization of an insect gustatory receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Insect gustatory receptors are predicted to have a seven-transmembrane structure and are distantly related to insect olfactory receptors, which have an inverted topology compared with G-protein coupled receptors, including mammalian olfactory receptors. In contrast, the topology of insect gustatory receptors remains unknown. Except for a few examples from Drosophila, the specificity of individual insect gustatory receptors is also unknown. In this study, the total number of identified gustatory receptors in Bombyx mori was expanded from 65 to 69. BmGr8, a silkmoth gustatory receptor from the sugar receptor subfamily, was expressed in insect cells. Membrane topology studies on BmGr8 indicate that, like insect olfactory receptors, it has an inverted topology relative to G protein-coupled receptors. An orphan GR from the bitter receptor family, BmGr53, yielded similar results. We infer, from the finding that two distantly related BmGrs have an intracellular N-terminus and an odd number of transmembrane spans, that this is likely to be a general topology for all insect gustatory receptors. We also show that BmGr8 functions independently in Sf9 cells and responds in a concentration-dependent manner to the polyalcohols myo-inositol and epi-inositol but not to a range of mono- and di-saccharides. BmGr8 is the first chemoreceptor shown to respond specifically to inositol, an important or essential nutrient for some Lepidoptera. The selectivity of BmGr8 responses is consistent with the known responses of one of the gustatory receptor neurons in the lateral styloconic sensilla of B. mori, which responds to myo-inositol and epi-inositol but not to allo-inositol.

  5. Topological and functional characterization of an insect gustatory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Anderson, Alisha R; Trowell, Stephen C; Luo, A-Rong; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Xia, Qing-You

    2011-01-01

    Insect gustatory receptors are predicted to have a seven-transmembrane structure and are distantly related to insect olfactory receptors, which have an inverted topology compared with G-protein coupled receptors, including mammalian olfactory receptors. In contrast, the topology of insect gustatory receptors remains unknown. Except for a few examples from Drosophila, the specificity of individual insect gustatory receptors is also unknown. In this study, the total number of identified gustatory receptors in Bombyx mori was expanded from 65 to 69. BmGr8, a silkmoth gustatory receptor from the sugar receptor subfamily, was expressed in insect cells. Membrane topology studies on BmGr8 indicate that, like insect olfactory receptors, it has an inverted topology relative to G protein-coupled receptors. An orphan GR from the bitter receptor family, BmGr53, yielded similar results. We infer, from the finding that two distantly related BmGrs have an intracellular N-terminus and an odd number of transmembrane spans, that this is likely to be a general topology for all insect gustatory receptors. We also show that BmGr8 functions independently in Sf9 cells and responds in a concentration-dependent manner to the polyalcohols myo-inositol and epi-inositol but not to a range of mono- and di-saccharides. BmGr8 is the first chemoreceptor shown to respond specifically to inositol, an important or essential nutrient for some Lepidoptera. The selectivity of BmGr8 responses is consistent with the known responses of one of the gustatory receptor neurons in the lateral styloconic sensilla of B. mori, which responds to myo-inositol and epi-inositol but not to allo-inositol.

  6. Cell cycle arrest as a hallmark of insect diapause: Changes in gene transcription during diapause induction in the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Šimůnková, P.; Kobelková, Alena; Shimada, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2009), s. 875-883 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Drosophila * cell cycle arrest * diapause Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.117, year: 2009

  7. The multi-tasking gut epithelium of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Jing, Xiangfeng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-12-01

    The insect gut epithelium plays a vital role in multiple processes, including nutrition, immunity and osmoregulation. Recent research is revealing the molecular and biochemical basis of these functions. For example, the pattern of nutrient acquisition by the gut epithelium is integrated into the overall regulation of nutrient allocation, as illustrated by evidence for systemic controls over expression of key genes coding digestive enzymes and transporters in carbohydrate acquisition; and the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in the gut lumen is regulated by multiple molecular properties of the gut epithelial cells, including the synthesis of enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species and anti-microbial peptides. These traits are underpinned by the function of the gut epithelium as a selective barrier which mediates the controlled movement of water, ions, metabolites and macromolecules between the gut lumen and insect tissues. Breakdown of the gut epithelial barrier has been implicated in muscle paralysis of insects at low temperatures (chill coma) and in aging. The key challenge for future research is to understand how the multiple functions of the insect gut epithelium are integrated by signaling interactions among epithelial cells, the gut microbiota and other insect organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Overview and History of Glyco-Engineering in Insect Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Christoph; Mabashi-Asazuma, Hideaki; Jarvis, Donald L

    2015-01-01

    Insect systems, including the baculovirus-insect cell and Drosophila S2 cell systems are widely used as recombinant protein production platforms. Historically, however, no insect-based system has been able to produce glycoproteins with human-type glycans, which often influence the clinical efficacy of therapeutic glycoproteins and the overall structures and functions of other recombinant glycoprotein products. In addition, some insect cell systems produce N-glycans with immunogenic epitopes. Over the past 20 years, these problems have been addressed by efforts to glyco-engineer insect-based expression systems. These efforts have focused on introducing the capacity to produce complex-type, terminally sialylated N-glycans and eliminating the capacity to produce immunogenic N-glycans. Various glyco-engineering approaches have included genetically engineering insect cells, baculoviral vectors, and/or insects with heterologous genes encoding the enzymes required to produce various glycosyltransferases, sugars, nucleotide sugars, and nucleotide sugar transporters, as well as an enzyme that can deplete GDP-fucose. In this chapter, we present an overview and history of glyco-engineering in insect expression systems as a prelude to subsequent chapters, which will highlight various methods used for this purpose.

  9. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  10. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  11. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  12. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  13. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago [1] and [2] . The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage - the extant...... basidiomycete genus Termitomyces - whereas the ants are associated with a larger diversity of fungal lineages (all basidiomycetes). The ants and termites forage for plant material to provision their fungus gardens. Their crops convert this carbon-rich plant material into nitrogen-rich fungal biomass to provide...

  14. Bombyx mori DNA/RNA non-specific nuclease: expression of isoforms in insect culture cells, subcellular localization and functional assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jisheng; Swevers, Luc; Iatrou, Kostas; Huvenne, Hanneke; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-08-01

    A DNA/RNA non-specific alkaline nuclease (BmdsRNase) was isolated from the digestive juice of Bombyx mori. While originally reported to be produced by the midgut only, in this project it was found that the mRNA of this enzyme was also expressed in the epidermis, fat body, gut, thoracic muscles, Malpighian tubules, brain, and silk glands of 5th instar larvae, indicating additional functions to its reported role in nucleic acid digestion in the midgut. In order to study the functional properties of BmdsRNase, three pEA-BmdsRNase expression constructs were generated, characterized by presence or absence of a signal peptide and a propeptide, and used for expression in lepidopteran Hi5 tissue culture cells. Western blot indicated that these different forms of BmdsRNase protein were not secreted into the growth medium, while they were detected in the pellets and supernatants of Hi5 cell extracts. Nucleic acids cleavage experiments indicated that full-length BmdsRNase could digest dsRNA and that the processed form (absence of signal peptide and propeptide) of BmdsRNase could degrade both DNA and dsRNA in Hi5 cell culture. Using a reporter assay targeted by transfected homologous dsRNA, it was shown that the digestive property of the processed form could interfere with the RNAi response. Immunostaining of processed BmdsRNase protein showed asymmetric localization in the cellular cytoplasm and co-localization with Flag-tagged Dicer-2 was also observed. In conclusion, our in vitro studies indicated that intracellular protein isoforms of BmdsRNase can be functional and involved in the regulation of nucleic acid metabolism in the cytoplasm. In particular, because of its propensity to degrade dsRNA, the enzyme might be involved in the innate immune response against invading nucleic acids such as RNA viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A common multiple cloning site in a set of vectors for expression of eukaryotic genes in mammalian, insect and bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, N; Pedersen, FS; Birkelund, Svend

    1994-01-01

    a start Met codon was included in the same reading frame as in lambda gt11Sfi-Not to support expression of partial cDNA clones. Thus a cDNA insert of lambda gt11Sfi-Not could be shuttled among the new vectors for expression. The other set of vectors without a start codon were suitable for expression of c......DNA carrying their own start Met codon. By Western blot analysis and by transactivation of a reporter plasmid in co-transfections we show that cDNA is very efficiently expressed in NIH 3T3 cells under control of the elongation factor 1 alpha promoter....

  16. The biosynthetic products of chinese insect medicine, Aspongopus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Jiang, Hai-Long; Yang, Jun-Li; Crews, Phillip; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A new oxazole (1) was obtained from chinese insect medicine Aspongopus chinensis, along with three known N-acetyldopamine derivatives (2–4). Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. The possible biosynthetic pathways of the isolated compounds are discussed. Cytotoxicities of those compounds against 10 selected cancer cells were measured in vitro. PMID:22430116

  17. In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela; Alfonso, Victoria; Taboga, Oscar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vas, Mariana del, E-mail: mdelvas@cnia.inta.gov.ar [Instituto de Biotecnologia, CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IB-INTA), Las cabanas y Los Reseros s/n. Hurlingham Cp 1686, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-01

    The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1 viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.

  18. Using insect electroantennogram sensors on autonomous robots for olfactory searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Dominique; Arhidi, Lotfi; Demondion, Elodie; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2014-08-04

    Robots designed to track chemical leaks in hazardous industrial facilities or explosive traces in landmine fields face the same problem as insects foraging for food or searching for mates: the olfactory search is constrained by the physics of turbulent transport. The concentration landscape of wind borne odors is discontinuous and consists of sporadically located patches. A pre-requisite to olfactory search is that intermittent odor patches are detected. Because of its high speed and sensitivity, the olfactory organ of insects provides a unique opportunity for detection. Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e.g., volatile compounds emanating from cancer cells or toxic and illicit substances. We describe here a protocol for using insect antennae on autonomous robots and present a proof of concept for tracking odor plumes to their source. The global response of olfactory neurons is recorded in situ in the form of electroantennograms (EAGs). Our experimental design, based on a whole insect preparation, allows stable recordings within a working day. In comparison, EAGs on excised antennae have a lifetime of 2 hr. A custom hardware/software interface was developed between the EAG electrodes and a robot. The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical sensors. The efficiency of EAG sensors for olfactory searches is further demonstrated in driving the robot toward a source of pheromone. By using identical olfactory stimuli and sensors as in real animals, our robotic platform provides a direct means for testing biological hypotheses about olfactory coding and search strategies. It may also prove beneficial for detecting other odorants of interests by combining EAGs from different insect species in a bioelectronic nose configuration or using nanostructured gas sensors that mimic insect antennae.

  19. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  20. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Scott W.; Bidochka, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates. PMID:26462427

  1. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  2. Characterization of the Helicoverpa assulta nucleopolyhedrovirus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    The Baculoviridae are a diverse family of virus pathogens, which are infectious for arthropods, particularly insects of the order Lepidoptera. Baculovirus infections have been reported in over 600 insect species of the orders. Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, and Thysanura, as well as in the ...

  3. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Take the case of the black tipped hanging fly, so named because these predatory insects have black tipped wings and are found hanging upside down on the under surface of plant leaves. The ... suffer evolutionary death (i.e, they may be unable· to sire any offspring and thereby do not pass on their genes to the next.

  4. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  5. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  6. Insects and Diseases of Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Morris; T.H. Filer; J.D. Solomon; Francis I. McCracken; N.A. Overgaard; M.J. Weiss

    1975-01-01

    Insects and disease organisms are a continuing threat to cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), especially during the tree's first 5 years. The danger is intensified in large plantings of a single species and age because rapid buildup of damaging agents can occur. This booklet, will help forest nurserymen and plantation managers identify and...

  7. Insect Detectives-Forensic Entomology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 8. Insect Detectives - Forensic Entomology. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 51-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/08/0051-0058. Keywords.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of secondary sexual trait development in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Anupama; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-10-01

    Secondary sexual traits are those traits other than the primary gametes that distinguish the sexes of a species. The development of secondary sexual traits occurs when sexually dimorphic factors, that is, molecules differentially produced by primary sex determination systems in males and females, are integrated into the gene regulatory networks responsible for sexual trait development. In insects, these molecular asymmetric factors were always considered to originate inside the trait-building cells, but recent work points to external factors, such as hormones, as potential candidates mediating secondary sexual trait development. Here, we review examples of the different molecular mechanisms producing sexually dimorphic traits in insects, and suggest a need to revise our understanding of secondary sexual trait development within the insect lineage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  10. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  11. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a known severe allergy to a stinging or biting insect injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) was used the site ... Insect Repellents With DEET Safe for Kids? Bug Bites and Stings Can I Use Bug Killers and Repellents During ...

  12. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  13. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  14. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  15. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  16. High plasticity in epithelial morphogenesis during insect dorsal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Panfilio

    2013-09-01

    Insect embryos complete the outer form of the body via dorsal closure (DC of the epidermal flanks, replacing the transient extraembryonic (EE tissue. Cell shape changes and morphogenetic behavior are well characterized for DC in Drosophila, but these data represent a single species with a secondarily reduced EE component (the amnioserosa that is not representative across the insects. Here, we examine DC in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, providing the first detailed, functional analysis of DC in an insect with complete EE tissues (distinct amnion and serosa. Surprisingly, we find that differences between Drosophila and Tribolium DC are not restricted to the EE tissue, but also encompass the dorsal epidermis, which differs in cellular architecture and method of final closure (zippering. We then experimentally manipulated EE tissue complement via RNAi for Tc-zen1, allowing us to eliminate the serosa and still examine viable DC in a system with a single EE tissue (the amnion. We find that the EE domain is particularly plastic in morphogenetic behavior and tissue structure. In contrast, embryonic features and overall kinetics are robust to Tc-zen1RNAi manipulation in Tribolium and conserved with a more distantly related insect, but remain substantially different from Drosophila. Although correct DC is essential, plasticity and regulative, compensatory capacity have permitted DC to evolve within the insects. Thus, DC does not represent a strong developmental constraint on the nature of EE development, a property that may have contributed to the reduction of the EE component in the fly lineage.

  17. Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David

    2015-12-17

    Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the

  18. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  19. Beneficial interactions between insects and gut bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, R.

    2009-01-01

    Insects are amongst the most successful of animals, both in terms of diversity and in colonizing all ecological niches. Recent studies have highlighted the benefi ciary roles that bacteria play in the success and establishment of insects. By adopting techniques like 16S rRNA sequencing we are now in a position to understand the diversity of bacteria present in insect guts. It has been shown that some of these bacteria, like Wolbachia and Cardinium are involved in manipulating insect populatio...

  20. Reducing the maladaptive attractiveness of solar panels to polarotactic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Kriska, György; Seres, István; Robertson, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    Human-made objects (e.g., buildings with glass surfaces) can reflect horizontally polarized light so strongly that they appear to aquatic insects to be bodies of water. Insects that lay eggs in water are especially attracted to such structures because these insects use horizontal polarization of light off bodies of water to find egg-laying sites. Thus, these sources of polarized light can become ecological traps associated with reproductive failure and mortality in organisms that are attracted to them and by extension with rapid population declines or collapse. Solar panels are a new source of polarized light pollution. Using imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of different solar panels and in multiple-choice experiments in the field we tested their attractiveness to mayflies, caddis flies, dolichopodids, and tabanids. At the Brewster angle, solar panels polarized reflected light almost completely (degree of polarization d ≈ 100%) and substantially exceeded typical polarization values for water (d ≈ 30-70%). Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Trichoptera), dolichopodid dipterans, and tabanid flies (Tabanidae) were the most attracted to solar panels and exhibited oviposition behavior above solar panels more often than above surfaces with lower degrees of polarization (including water), but in general they avoided solar cells with nonpolarizing white borders and white grates. The highly and horizontally polarizing surfaces that had nonpolarizing, white cell borders were 10- to 26-fold less attractive to insects than the same panels without white partitions. Although solar panels can act as ecological traps, fragmenting their solar-active area does lessen their attractiveness to polarotactic insects. The design of solar panels and collectors and their placement relative to aquatic habitats will likely affect populations of aquatic insects that use polarized light as a behavioral cue. © 2010 Society for Conservation

  1. Pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide derived from insect, inhibits the translation process in the cell-free Escherichia coli protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Akihito; Kondo, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shun; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), killed sensitive species in a dose-dependent manner by specifically binding to DnaK. Here, on the basis of the finding that DnaK-deficient Escherichia coli strains are susceptible to PrAMPs, we used pyrrhocoricin to investigate internal targets other than DnaK. Using conventional antibiotics (bleomycin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin) that have known modes of action, first, we validated the availability of an assay using a cell-free rapid translation system (RTS), which is an in vitro protein synthesis system based on E. coli lysate, for evaluating inhibition of protein synthesis. We found that, similarly to bleomycin and streptomycin, pyrrhocoricin inhibited GFP synthesis in RTS in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, blockage of transcription and translation steps in RTS was individually estimated using RT-PCR after gene expression to determine mRNA products and using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the amounts of GFP expressed from purified mRNA, respectively. The results demonstrated that this inhibition of GFP synthesis by pyrrhocoricin did not occur at the transcription step but rather at the translation step, in a manner similar to that of GFP synthesis by streptomycin, an inhibitor of the translation step by causing misreading of tRNA. These results suggest that RTS is a powerful assay system for determining if antimicrobial peptides inhibit protein synthesis and its transcription and/or translation steps. This is the first study to have shown that pyrrhocoricin inhibited protein synthesis by specifically repressing the translation step. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The α1,6-fucosyltransferase gene (fut8) from the Sf9 lepidopteran insect cell line: insights into fut8 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliant, Sylvie; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Monjaret, François; Catieau, Béatrice; Violet, Marie-Luce; Cérutti, Pierre; Ozil, Annick; Duonor-Cérutti, Martine

    2014-01-01

    The core alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) catalyzes the transfer of a fucosyl moiety from GDP-fucose to the innermost asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue of glycoproteins. In mammals, this glycosylation has an important function in many fundamental biological processes and although no essential role has been demonstrated yet in all animals, FUT8 amino acid (aa) sequence and FUT8 activity are very well conserved throughout the animal kingdom. We have cloned the cDNA and the complete gene encoding the FUT8 in the Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) lepidopteran cell line. As in most animal genomes, fut8 is a single-copy gene organized in different exons. The open reading frame contains 12 exons, a characteristic that seems to be shared by all lepidopteran fut8 genes. We chose to study the gene structure as a way to characterize the evolutionary relationships of the fut8 genes in metazoans. Analysis of the intron-exon organization in 56 fut8 orthologs allowed us to propose a model for fut8 evolution in metazoans. The presence of a highly variable number of exons in metazoan fut8 genes suggests a complex evolutionary history with many intron gain and loss events, particularly in arthropods, but not in chordata. Moreover, despite the high conservation of lepidoptera FUT8 sequences also in vertebrates and hymenoptera, the exon-intron organization of hymenoptera fut8 genes is order-specific with no shared exons. This feature suggests that the observed intron losses and gains may be linked to evolutionary innovations, such as the appearance of new orders.

  3. The α1,6-fucosyltransferase gene (fut8 from the Sf9 lepidopteran insect cell line: insights into fut8 evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Juliant

    Full Text Available The core alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8 catalyzes the transfer of a fucosyl moiety from GDP-fucose to the innermost asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue of glycoproteins. In mammals, this glycosylation has an important function in many fundamental biological processes and although no essential role has been demonstrated yet in all animals, FUT8 amino acid (aa sequence and FUT8 activity are very well conserved throughout the animal kingdom. We have cloned the cDNA and the complete gene encoding the FUT8 in the Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda lepidopteran cell line. As in most animal genomes, fut8 is a single-copy gene organized in different exons. The open reading frame contains 12 exons, a characteristic that seems to be shared by all lepidopteran fut8 genes. We chose to study the gene structure as a way to characterize the evolutionary relationships of the fut8 genes in metazoans. Analysis of the intron-exon organization in 56 fut8 orthologs allowed us to propose a model for fut8 evolution in metazoans. The presence of a highly variable number of exons in metazoan fut8 genes suggests a complex evolutionary history with many intron gain and loss events, particularly in arthropods, but not in chordata. Moreover, despite the high conservation of lepidoptera FUT8 sequences also in vertebrates and hymenoptera, the exon-intron organization of hymenoptera fut8 genes is order-specific with no shared exons. This feature suggests that the observed intron losses and gains may be linked to evolutionary innovations, such as the appearance of new orders.

  4. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  5. How Insects Survive Winter in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how insects cope with cold temperatures can not only help entomologists more accurately forecast when and where insects are active, but it may also help us understand how climate change will influence insect pests. This newsletter article provides a comprehensive overview of how Midwes...

  6. Seed and Cone Insects of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1980-01-01

    Distribution maps are included for all insect species, providing at a glance each insect's expected southern distribution. Knowledge of some distributions is incomplete. Accordingly, the range maps should be used as general rather than absolute guides.Insect species and their pine hosts are tabulated for each of the three damage...

  7. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be maintained free of infestation by flies, mosquitoes, fleas, lice, and other insects known to be vectors in...

  8. Genetics of insect resistance to plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K.M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are chemically defended against insect herbivory in various ways. They produce a broad range of secondary metabolites that may be toxic or deterrent to insects. Specialist insects, however, are often capable of overcoming these defences. The yellow striped flea beetle

  9. Exposure of insect cells to ionising radiation in vivo induces persistent phosphorylation of a H2AX homologue (H2AvB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad S; Filomeni, Erika; François, Maxime; Collins, Samuel R; Cooper, Tamara; Glatz, Richard V; Taylor, Phillip W; Fenech, Michael; Leifert, Wayne R

    2013-09-01

    The response of eukaryotic cells to ionising radiation (IR)-induced double-strand DNA breaks is highly conserved and involves a DNA repair mechanism characterised by the early phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX (producing the active form γH2AX). Although the expression of an induced γH2AX variant has been detected in Drosophila melanogaster, the expression and radiation response of a γH2AX homologue has not been reported in economically important fruit flies. We use Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit fly or 'Q-fly') to investigate this response with a view to developing molecular assays to detect/quantify exposure of fruit flies to IR and consequent DNA damage. Deep sequencing confirmed the presence of a H2AX homologue that we have termed H2AvB (i.e. variant Bactrocera) and has an identical sequence to a histone reported from the human disease vector Glossina morsitans. A linear dose-response of γH2AvB (0-400 Gy IR) was observed in whole Q-fly pupal lysates 24h post-IR and was detected at doses as low as 20 Gy. γH2AvB signal peaked at ~20min after IR exposure and at 24h post-IR the signal remained elevated but declined significantly by 5 days. Persistent and dose-dependent γH2AvB signal could be detected and quantified either by western blot or by laser scanning cytometry up to 17 days post-IR exposure in histone extracts or isolated nuclei from adult Q-flies (irradiated as pupae). We conclude that IR exposure in Q-fly leads to persistent γH2AvB signals (over a period of days) that can easily be detected by western blot or quantitative immunofluorescence techniques. These approaches have potential as the basis for assays for detection and quantification of prior IR exposure in pest fruit flies.

  10. Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Gillet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis, we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain—dsRNA binding domain combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect. The RNP slows down nuclease activity, probably by masking the dsRNA. Furthermore, PTD-mediated internalization in insect gut cells is achieved within minutes after plasma membrane contact, limiting the exposure time of the RNPs to gut nucleases. Therefore, the RNP provides an approximately 2-fold increase in the efficiency of insect gene silencing upon oral delivery when compared to naked dsRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

  11. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psyc...

  12. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  13. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  14. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Odorant Receptor Desensitization in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects and other arthropods transmit devastating human diseases, and these vectors use chemical senses to target humans. Understanding how these animals detect, respond, and adapt to volatile odorants may lead to novel ways to disrupt host localization or mate recognition in these pests. The past decade has led to remarkable progress in understanding odorant detection in arthropods. Insects use odorant-gated ion channels, first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster , to detect volatile chemicals. In flies, 60 “tuning” receptor subunits combine with a common subunit, Orco ( o dorant r eceptor co receptor to form ligand-gated ion channels. The mechanisms underlying odorant receptor desensitization in insects are largely unknown. Recent work reveals that dephosphorylation of serine 289 on the shared Orco subunit is responsible for slow, odor-induced receptor desensitization. Dephosphorylation has no effect on the localization of the receptor protein, and activation of the olfactory neurons in the absence of odor is sufficient to induce dephosphorylation and desensitization. These findings reveal a major component of receptor modulation in this important group of disease vectors, and implicate a second messenger feedback mechanism in this process.

  16. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  17. Co-expression of human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) variants and human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in the baculovirus/insect cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D; Kisselev, P; Honeck, H; Cascorbi, I; Schunck, W H; Roots, I

    2001-06-01

    1. Three human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) variants, wild-type (CYP1A1.1), CYP1A1.2 (1462V) and CYP1A1.4 (T461N), were co-expressed with human NADPH-P450 reductase (OR) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells by baculovirus co-infection to elaborate a suitable system for studying the role of CYPA1 polymorphism in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous substrates. 2. A wide range of conditions was examined to optimize co-expression with regard to such parameters as relative multiplicity of infection (MOI), time of harvest, haem precursor supplementation and post-translational stabilization. tinder optimized conditions, almost identical expression levels and molar OR/CYP1A1 ratios (20:1) were attained for all CYP1A1 variants. 3. Microsomes isolated from co-infected cells demonstrated ethoxyresorufin deethlylase activities (nmol/min(-1) nmol(-1) CYP1A1) of 16.0 (CYP1A1.1), 20.5 (CYP1A1.2) and 22.5 (CYP1A1.4). Pentoxyresorufin was dealkylated approximately 10-20 times slower with all enzyme variants. 4. All three CYP1A1 variants were active in metabolizing the precarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), with wild-type enzyme showing the highest activity, followed by CYP1A1.4 (60%) and CYP1A1.2 (40%). Each variant produced all major metabolites including B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol, the precursor of the ultimate carcinogenic species. 5. These studies demonstrate that the baculovirus-mediated co-expression-by-co-infection approach all CYP1A1 variants yields functionally active enzyme systems with similar molar OR/CYP1A1 ratios, thus providing suitable preconditions to examine the metabolism of and environmental chemicals by the different CY1A1 variants.

  18. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives

  19. Emergent dynamics of laboratory insect swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Douglas H; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2013-01-01

    Collective animal behaviour occurs at nearly every biological size scale, from single-celled organisms to the largest animals on earth. It has long been known that models with simple interaction rules can reproduce qualitative features of this complex behaviour. But determining whether these models accurately capture the biology requires data from real animals, which has historically been difficult to obtain. Here, we report three-dimensional, time-resolved measurements of the positions, velocities, and accelerations of individual insects in laboratory swarms of the midge Chironomus riparius. Even though the swarms do not show an overall polarisation, we find statistical evidence for local clusters of correlated motion. We also show that the swarms display an effective large-scale potential that keeps individuals bound together, and we characterize the shape of this potential. Our results provide quantitative data against which the emergent characteristics of animal aggregation models can be benchmarked.

  20. Covert Infection of Insects by Baculoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Williams

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses (Baculoviridae are occluded DNA viruses that are lethal pathogens of the larval stages of some lepidopterans, mosquitoes, and sawflies (phytophagous Hymenoptera. These viruses have been developed as biological insecticides for control of insect pests and as expression vectors in biotechnological applications. Natural and laboratory populations frequently harbor covert infections by baculoviruses, often at a prevalence exceeding 50%. Covert infection can comprise either non-productive latency or sublethal infection involving low level production of virus progeny. Latency in cell culture systems involves the expression of a small subset of viral genes. In contrast, covert infection in lepidopterans is associated with differential infection of cell types, modulation of virus gene expression and avoidance of immune system clearance. The molecular basis for covert infection may reside in the regulation of host–virus interactions through the action of microRNAs (miRNA. Initial findings suggest that insect nudiviruses and vertebrate herpesviruses may provide useful analogous models for exploring the mechanisms of covert infection by baculoviruses. These pathogens adopt mixed-mode transmission strategies that depend on the relative fitness gains that accrue through vertical and horizontal transmission. This facilitates virus persistence when opportunities for horizontal transmission are limited and ensures virus dispersal in migratory host species. However, when host survival is threatened by environmental or physiological stressors, latent or persistent infections can be activated to produce lethal disease, followed by horizontal transmission. Covert infection has also been implicated in population level effects on host–pathogen dynamics due to the reduced reproductive capacity of infected females. We conclude that covert infections provide many opportunities to examine the complexity of insect–virus pathosystems at the organismal

  1. Effects of ionizing radiations on insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyffon, Max.

    1978-01-01

    The most traditional effects caused by irradiation are development and morphogenesis disorders since on the whole the sensitivity of the developing organism to ionizing radiations is all the greater as the growth rate is faster. During the development of higher insects two categories of cell divide: larval cells on the one hand, which differentiate immediately after segmentation and give rise to larval organisms, and embryonic cells on the other which divide actively to form various islets or imaginal discs destined, each to its own extent, to provide the organs of the adult. Two cell categories thus coexist in the larva, one undergoing differentiation and the other multiplication, the radiosensitivity of which will be quite different for this very reason and will account at least partly, where the lethal effect of ionizing radiations is concerned, for the results observed. Three chapters deal in turn with effects on longevity, on regeneration and restoration and on morphogenesis and development. Strong doses give rise beyond a certain threshold to the appearance of acute radiodermatitis; their clinical signs and different degrees of seriousness liken them to burns of a special type [fr

  2. Assembly of insect hormone enthusiasts at Nasu Highland, Japan: Report of the 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Ryusuke; Nishimura, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop (IIHW2017) was held in July 2017 at Nasu Highland, Japan. In the 40 years of the workshop's history, this was the first to be held in an Asian country. A total of 109 insect hormone researchers from 18 countries (62 overseas and 47 domestic participants) attended IIHW2017. During the workshop, all participants stayed on-site at the venue's hotel; this was ideal for fostering communication between participants, in particular, interactions between principal investigators and young scientists. The workshop featured one keynote, 64 oral, and 35 poster presentations spanning molecular biology, cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, chemical biology, physiology, and ecology of insect hormones, including ecdysteroids, juvenile hormones, and a variety of neuropeptides. The workshop provided an ideal platform for discussing insect hormone biology using not only the typical genetic model insect, the fruit fly Drosophila, but also a diversity of interesting insects, such as the silkworm, the red flour beetle, the cricket, the dragonfly, the social ant, the bloodsucking tick, and so on. The participants succeeded in sharing the latest knowledge in a wide range of insect hormone research fields and in joining active and constructive scientific discussions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Plant Virus–Insect Vector Interactions: Current and Potential Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Mann, Krin S.; Johnson, Karyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition and transmission by an insect vector is central to the infection cycle of the majority of plant pathogenic viruses. Plant viruses can interact with their insect host in a variety of ways including both non-persistent and circulative transmission; in some cases, the latter involves virus replication in cells of the insect host. Replicating viruses can also elicit both innate and specific defense responses in the insect host. A consistent feature is that the interaction of the virus with its insect host/vector requires specific molecular interactions between virus and host, commonly via proteins. Understanding the interactions between plant viruses and their insect host can underpin approaches to protect plants from infection by interfering with virus uptake and transmission. Here, we provide a perspective focused on identifying novel approaches and research directions to facilitate control of plant viruses by better understanding and targeting virus–insect molecular interactions. We also draw parallels with molecular interactions in insect vectors of animal viruses, and consider technical advances for their control that may be more broadly applicable to plant virus vectors. PMID:27834855

  4. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  5. The phytopathogenic mollicute-insect vector interface: a closer look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J; Wayadande, A; Melcher, U; Ye, F

    1998-12-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma citri, transmitted by phloem-feeding leafhoppers, moves from the gut lumen through the gut wall, hemolymph, and salivary glands and multiplies in insect tissues. Nontransmissible lines were deficient in their ability to cross these barriers. Molecular analysis revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements between the transmissible and nontransmissible spiroplasma lines including a large chromosomal inversion and deletions of about 10 kb at each inversion border. One open reading frame of the deleted region, cloned from the transmissible strain BR3-3X, encodes an integral membrane protein of 58 kDa that shares limited sequence similarity with major adhesin proteins of two zoopathogenic mycoplasmas. Adhesion of spiroplasmas to cultured leafhopper cells was inhibited by proteases, suggesting that adherence to host cells is mediated by spiroplasma membrane protein(s). A hypothetical model for insect transmission of phytopathogenic mollicutes is presented.

  6. Nigritoxin is a bacterial toxin for crustaceans and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labreuche, Yannick; Chenivesse, Sabine; Jeudy, Alexandra; Le Panse, Sophie; Boulo, Viviane; Ansquer, Dominique; Pagès, Sylvie; Givaudan, Alain; Czjzek, Mirjam; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2017-11-01

    The Tetraconata (Pancrustacea) concept proposes that insects are more closely related to aquatic crustaceans than to terrestrial centipedes or millipedes. The question therefore arises whether insects have kept crustacean-specific genetic traits that could be targeted by specific toxins. Here we show that a toxin (nigritoxin), originally identified in a bacterial pathogen of shrimp, is lethal for organisms within the Tetraconata and non-toxic to other animals. X-ray crystallography reveals that nigritoxin possesses a new protein fold of the α/β type. The nigritoxin N-terminal domain is essential for cellular translocation and likely encodes specificity for Tetraconata. Once internalized by eukaryotic cells, nigritoxin induces apoptotic cell death through structural features that are localized in the C-terminal domain of the protein. We propose that nigritoxin will be an effective means to identify a Tetraconata evolutionarily conserved pathway and speculate that nigritoxin holds promise as an insecticidal protein.

  7. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  8. Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Shuisong Ye; Yan Fang; Kai Li

    2013-01-01

    Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural–city center gradient (RCG), ...

  9. The Evolution of Agriculture in Insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Ulrich G.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture has evolved independently in three insect orders: once in ants, once in termites, and seven times in ambrosia beetles. Although these insect farmers are in some ways quite different from each other, in many more ways they are remarkably similar, suggesting convergent evolution. All...... domestication in the context of coevolving and codomesticated microbial consortia may explain the 50-million year old agricultural success of insect farmers....

  10. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Ovariole structure of the cochineal scale insect, Dactylophis coccus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Cruz, A; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Racotta, R

    2008-01-01

    The ovaries of the adult cochineal scale insect, Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) are made up of more than 400 short ovarioles of the telotrophic type. The ovarioles develop asynchronously. The ovarioles consist of a germarium with six or seven nurse cells, a vitellarium with an oocyte, and pedicel. A terminal filament is lacking. A maturing oocyte was attached to the trophic core by the trophic cord during previtellogenesis and most of vitellogenesis.

  12. Predicting the potential establishment of two insect species using the simulation environment INSIM (INsect SIMulation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerik, Lia; Nes, van Egbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Degree-day models have long been used to predict events in the life cycle of insects and therewith the timing of outbreaks of insect pests and their natural enemies. This approach assumes, however, that the effect of temperature is linear, whereas developmental rates of insects are non-linearly

  13. Innate immune system still works at diapause, a physiological state of dormancy in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Miyado, Kenji; Takezawa, Youki; Ohnami, Naoko; Sato, Masahiro; Ono, Chihiro; Harada, Yuichirou; Yoshida, Keiichi; Kawano, Natsuko; Kanai, Seiya; Miyado, Mami; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Two major types of cells are present in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a diapausing pupa. → Phagocytosis and encapsulation by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into a pupa. → Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 o C. → Innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state. -- Abstract: Diapause is most often observed in insects and is a physiologically dormant state different from other types of dormancy, such as hibernation. It allows insects to survive in harsh environments or extend longevity. In general, larval, pupal, or adult non-diapausing insects possess an innate immune system preventing the invasion of microorganisms into their bodies; however, it is unclear whether this system works under the dormant condition of diapause. We here report the occurrence of innate cellular reactions during diapause using pupae of a giant silkmoth, Samia cynthia pryeri. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrated the presence of two major types of cells in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a pupa. Phagocytosis and encapsulation, characteristics of innate cellular reactions, by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into the internal portion of a pupa. Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 o C. Our results indicate that innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state.

  14. Innate immune system still works at diapause, a physiological state of dormancy in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akihiro [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Miyado, Kenji, E-mail: kmiyado@nch.go.jp [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Takezawa, Youki; Ohnami, Naoko [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Sato, Masahiro [Section of Gene Expression Regulation, Frontier Science Research Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-20 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Ono, Chihiro; Harada, Yuichirou; Yoshida, Keiichi; Kawano, Natsuko; Kanai, Seiya; Miyado, Mami; Umezawa, Akihiro [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} Two major types of cells are present in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a diapausing pupa. {yields} Phagocytosis and encapsulation by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into a pupa. {yields} Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 {sup o}C. {yields} Innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state. -- Abstract: Diapause is most often observed in insects and is a physiologically dormant state different from other types of dormancy, such as hibernation. It allows insects to survive in harsh environments or extend longevity. In general, larval, pupal, or adult non-diapausing insects possess an innate immune system preventing the invasion of microorganisms into their bodies; however, it is unclear whether this system works under the dormant condition of diapause. We here report the occurrence of innate cellular reactions during diapause using pupae of a giant silkmoth, Samia cynthia pryeri. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrated the presence of two major types of cells in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a pupa. Phagocytosis and encapsulation, characteristics of innate cellular reactions, by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into the internal portion of a pupa. Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 {sup o}C. Our results indicate that innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state.

  15. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular

  16. Feeding studies of irradiated foods with insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  17. Social insect symbionts: evolution in homeostatic fortresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David P; Pierce, Naomi E; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    The massive environmentally buffered nests of some social insects can contain millions of individuals and a wide variety of parasites, commensals and mutualists. We suggest that the ways in which these homeostatic fortress environments affect the evolution of social insect symbionts are relevant ...

  18. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  19. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  20. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  1. Insect and Disease Pests of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. P. Abrahamson; F. I. McCracken

    1971-01-01

    Insects and diseases seldom kill southern hardwood trees in managed stands, but they cause major economic losses by lowering wood quality and reducing tree growth. In discussing the most important insects and diseases of southern hardwoods, let us consider first those that attack natural hardwood stands and then those associated with plantation culture.

  2. Diseases and insects of Giant Sequoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr. Parmeter

    1986-01-01

    Giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) are susceptible to a number of diseases and insects at each state of development from seeds to overmature trees. We presently have little more than a catalog of occurrences. The impacts and the management implications of disease and insect losses have scarcely been investigated or evaluated...

  3. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Polyphenism in insects and the juvenile hormone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    During the past four decades or so, there has been a growing realization that juvenile hormone (JH) is widely involved in the development of polyphenism in insects. Recently, a significant paper on an experimental study on polyphenism in an insect has been published (Suzuki and Nijhout. 2006), and it carried the thesis ...

  6. Comparative insect mitochondrial genomes: Differences despite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a comparative analysis of select insect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing four insect orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera and Coleoptera) consisting of 12 different species in an effort to study a common set of genes and to understand the evolution of mitochondrial genome. A functional analysis of ...

  7. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  8. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  9. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  10. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  11. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  12. Detection of a new insect flavivirus and isolation of Aedes flavivirus in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiz David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent years, numerous novel ‘insect flaviviruses’ have been discovered in natural mosquito populations. In a previous study we described the presence of flavivirus DNA sequences integrated in Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito populations from Northern Italy in 2007. Methods During 2008 we collected and tested Aedes females for flavivirus presence and developed phylogenetic analysis, virus isolation, electron microscopy studies and RNAse treatments. Results We detected a high prevalence of flavivirus in Ae. albopictus (77.5%. The phylogenetic analysis identified the insect flavivirus sequences as Aedes flavivirus (AEFV recently described in Japan, and that may have been introduced in Italy travelling with the tiger mosquito. Some of these pools grew in C6/36 cells, producing cytopathic effects, and the RNase treatment results showed the presence of the detected sequences in RNA forms. Furthermore, we detected a new insect flavivirus in one pool of Aedes cinereus/geminus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus shows that it forms a distinct cluster within the clade of insect flavivirus. Conclusions This is the first study to report a high prevalence, to describe the seasonal activity and an isolation of the insect flavivirus Aedes flavivirus in Europe. Moreover we describe the detection of a new insect flavivirus detected from Ae. cinereus mosquitoes from Italy. These flavivirus may be common, ubiquitous and diverse in nature and we discuss the implications of the insect flavivirus group in virus evolution and transmission.

  13. The earliest known holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, André; Roques, Patrick; Nel, Patricia; Prokin, Alexander A; Bourgoin, Thierry; Prokop, Jakub; Szwedo, Jacek; Azar, Dany; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Wappler, Torsten; Garrouste, Romain; Coty, David; Huang, Diying; Engel, Michael S; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G

    2013-11-14

    The Eumetabola (Endopterygota (also known as Holometabola) plus Paraneoptera) have the highest number of species of any clade, and greatly contribute to animal species biodiversity. The palaeoecological circumstances that favoured their emergence and success remain an intriguing question. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested a wide range of dates for the initial appearance of the Holometabola, from the Middle Devonian epoch (391 million years (Myr) ago) to the Late Pennsylvanian epoch (311 Myr ago), and Hemiptera (310 Myr ago). Palaeoenvironments greatly changed over these periods, with global cooling and increasing complexity of green forests. The Pennsylvanian-period crown-eumetabolan fossil record remains notably incomplete, particularly as several fossils have been erroneously considered to be stem Holometabola (Supplementary Information); the earliest definitive beetles are from the start of the Permian period. The emergence of the hymenopterids, sister group to other Holometabola, is dated between 350 and 309 Myr ago, incongruent with their current earliest record (Middle Triassic epoch). Here we describe five fossils--a Gzhelian-age stem coleopterid, a holometabolous larva of uncertain ordinal affinity, a stem hymenopterid, and early Hemiptera and Psocodea, all from the Moscovian age--and reveal a notable penecontemporaneous breadth of early eumetabolan insects. These discoveries are more congruent with current hypotheses of clade divergence. Eumetabola experienced episodes of diversification during the Bashkirian-Moscovian and the Kasimovian-Gzhelian ages. This cladogenetic activity is perhaps related to notable episodes of drying resulting from glaciations, leading to the eventual demise in Euramerica of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. These ancient species were of very small size, living in the shadow of Palaeozoic-era 'giant' insects. Although these discoveries reveal unexpected Pennsylvanian

  14. A call to insect scientists: Challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J.; Grundel, Ralph; Hoving, Chris; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas. Insect biology has a strong history of engagement in applied problems, and as the impacts of climate change increase, a reimagined ethic of entomology in service of broader society may emerge. We hope to motivate insect biologists to contribute time and effort toward solving the challenges of climate change.

  15. A call to insect scientists: challenges and opportunities of managing insect communities under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Grundel, Ralph; Hoving, Chris; Schuurman, Gregor W

    2016-10-01

    As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us to revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas. Insect biology has a strong history of engagement in applied problems, and as the impacts of climate change increase, a reimagined ethic of entomology in service of broader society may emerge. We hope to motivate insect biologists to contribute time and effort toward solving the challenges of climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of population size on virus evolution: a baculovirus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the population genetics of the baculovirus infection process and the consequences for virus evolution. Using Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and lepidopteran insect larvae as a model system, we attempt to characterize (1) elemental virus-host and

  17. Tubular structure induced by a plant virus facilitates viral spread in its vector insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available Rice dwarf virus (RDV replicates in and is transmitted by a leafhopper vector in a persistent-propagative manner. Previous cytopathologic and genetic data revealed that tubular structures, constructed by the nonstructural viral protein Pns10, contain viral particles and are directly involved in the intercellular spread of RDV among cultured leafhopper cells. Here, we demonstrated that RDV exploited these virus-containing tubules to move along actin-based microvilli of the epithelial cells and muscle fibers of visceral muscle tissues in the alimentary canal, facilitating the spread of virus in the body of its insect vector leafhoppers. In cultured leafhopper cells, the knockdown of Pns10 expression due to RNA interference (RNAi induced by synthesized dsRNA from Pns10 gene strongly inhibited tubule formation and prevented the spread of virus among insect vector cells. RNAi induced after ingestion of dsRNA from Pns10 gene strongly inhibited formation of tubules, preventing intercellular spread and transmission of the virus by the leafhopper. All these results, for the first time, show that a persistent-propagative virus exploits virus-containing tubules composed of a nonstructural viral protein to traffic along actin-based cellular protrusions, facilitating the intercellular spread of the virus in the vector insect. The RNAi strategy and the insect vector cell culture provide useful tools to investigate the molecular mechanisms enabling efficient transmission of persistent-propagative plant viruses by vector insects.

  18. Insect proteins as a potential source of antimicrobial peptides in livestock production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, A; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2017-01-01

    Together with the extraction of first insect antimicrobial protein (AMP) from the pupae of the giant silk moths Hyalophora cecropia the antibacterial activity of insects was observed for the first time in 1980. Practically, AMPs are small, cationic proteins that exhibit activity against bacteria......, fungi as well as certain parasites and viruses. It is known that in addition to their antimicrobial effect, they boost host specific innate immune responses and exert selective immunomodulatory effects involved in angiogenesis and wound healing. More than 1,500 proteins with antimicrobial activity have...... cells. These characteristics contribute to the potential use of these proteins in human and veterinary medicine and in animal nutrition. Depending on their mode of action, insect AMPs may be applied as single peptides, as a complex of different AMPs and as an active fraction of insect proteins...

  19. Diverse targets of phytoplasma effectors: from plant development to defense against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; MacLean, Allyson M; Kingdom, Heather N; Grieve, Victoria M; Manimekalai, R; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasma research begins to bloom (75). Indeed, this review shows that substantial progress has been made with the identification of phytoplasma effectors that alter flower development, induce witches' broom, affect leaf shape, and modify plant-insect interactions. Phytoplasmas have a unique life cycle among pathogens, as they invade organisms of two distinct kingdoms, namely plants (Plantae) and insects (Animalia), and replicate intracellularly in both. Phytoplasmas release effectors into host cells of plants and insects to target host molecules, and in plants these effectors unload from the phloem to access distal tissues and alter basic developmental processes. The effectors provide phytoplasmas with a fitness advantage by modulating their plant and insect hosts. We expect that further research on the functional characterization of phytoplasma effectors will generate new knowledge that is relevant to fundamental aspects of plant sciences and entomology, and for agriculture by improving yields of crops affected by phytoplasma diseases. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  20. How the insect pathogen bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus occupy their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina; Gaudriault, Sophie; Ramarao, Nalini; Lereclus, Didier; Givaudan, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Insects are the largest group of animals on earth. Like mammals, virus, fungi, bacteria and parasites infect them. Several tissue barriers and defense mechanisms are common for vertebrates and invertebrates. Therefore some insects, notably the fly Drosophila and the caterpillar Galleria mellonella, have been used as models to study host-pathogen interactions for several insect and mammal pathogens. They are excellent tools to identify pathogen determinants and host tissue cell responses. We focus here on the comparison of effectors used by two different groups of bacterial insect pathogens to accomplish the infection process in their lepidopteran larval host: Bacillus thuringiensis and the nematode-associated bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus. The comparison reveals similarities in function and expression profiles for some genes, which suggest that such factors are conserved during evolution in order to attack the tissue encountered during the infection process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Insect Prothoracic Gland as a Model for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxiang Ou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are ancient signaling molecules found in vertebrates and insects alike. Both taxa show intriguing parallels with respect to how steroids function and how their synthesis is regulated. As such, insects are excellent models for studying universal aspects of steroid physiology. Here, we present a comprehensive genomic and genetic analysis of the principal steroid hormone-producing organs in two popular insect models, Drosophila and Bombyx. We identified 173 genes with previously unknown specific expression in steroid-producing cells, 15 of which had critical roles in development. The insect neuropeptide PTTH and its vertebrate counterpart ACTH both regulate steroid production, but molecular targets of these pathways remain poorly characterized. Identification of PTTH-dependent gene sets identified the nuclear receptor HR4 as a highly conserved target in both Drosophila and Bombyx. We consider this study to be a critical step toward understanding how steroid hormone production and release are regulated in all animal models.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9 in insects: Applications, best practices and biosafety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taning, Clauvis Nji Tizi; Van Eynde, Benigna; Yu, Na; Ma, Sanyuan; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-04-01

    Discovered as a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated) is being developed as an attractive tool in genome editing. Due to its high specificity and applicability, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing has been employed in a multitude of organisms and cells, including insects, for not only fundamental research such as gene function studies, but also applied research such as modification of organisms of economic importance. Despite the rapid increase in the use of CRISPR in insect genome editing, results still differ from each study, principally due to existing differences in experimental parameters, such as the Cas9 and guide RNA form, the delivery method, the target gene and off-target effects. Here, we review current reports on the successes of CRISPR/Cas9 applications in diverse insects and insect cells. We furthermore summarize several best practices to give a useful checklist of CRISPR/Cas9 experimental setup in insects for beginners. Lastly, we discuss the biosafety concerns related to the release of CRISPR/Cas9-edited insects into the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yeast-insect associations: It takes guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene

    2018-01-23

    Insects interact with microorganisms in several situations, ranging from the accidental interaction to locate attractive food or the acquisition of essential nutrients missing in the main food source. Despite a wealth of studies recently focused on bacteria, the interactions between insects and yeasts have relevant implications for both of the parties involved. The insect intestine shows several structural and physiological differences among species, but it is generally a hostile environment for many microorganisms, selecting against the most sensitive and at the same time guaranteeing a less competitive environment to resistant ones. An intensive characterization of the interactions between yeasts and insects has highlighted their relevance not only for attraction to food but also for the insect's development and behaviour. Conversely, some yeasts have been shown to benefit from interactions with insects, in some cases by being carried among different environments. In addition, the insect intestine may provide a place to reside for prolonged periods and possibly mate or generate sexual forms able to mate once back in the external environments. YEA-May-17-0084.R3. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Insect prophenoloxidase: the view beyond immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anrui eLu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, βGRP and C-type lectins, serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins. Due to their complexity, PPO activation mechanisms vary among insect species. Activated phenoloxidase (PO oxidizes phenolic molecules to produce melanin around invading pathogens and wounds. The crystal structure of Manduca sexta PPO shows that a conserved amino acid, phenylalanine (F, can block the active site pocket. During activation, this blocker must be dislodged or even cleaved at the N-terminal sequence to expose the active site pockets and allow substrates to enter. Thanks to the crystal structure of M. sexta PPO, some domains and specific amino acids that affect PPO activities have been identified. Further studies of the relationship between PPO structure and enzyme activities will provide an opportunity to examine other type-3 copper proteins, and trace when and why their various physiological functions evolved. Recent researches show that insect PPO has a relationship with neuron activity, longevity, feces melanization (phytophagous insects and development, which suggests that it is time for us to look back on insect PPO beyond the view of immunity in this review.

  5. Modern Stored-Product Insect Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrum David William

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored-product entomologists have a variety of new monitoring, decision-making, biological, chemical, and physical pest management tools available to them. Two types of stored-product insect populations are of interest: insects of immediate economic importance infesting commodities, and insects that live in food residues in equipment and facilities. The sampling and control methods change as grain and grain products move from field to consumer. There are also some changes in the major insect pest species to take into consideration. In this review, we list the primary insect pests at each point of the marketing system, and indicate which sampling methods and control strategies are most appropriate. Economic thresholds for insect infestation levels developed for raw commodity storage, processing plants, and retail business allow sampling-based pest management to be done before insect infestations cause economic injury. Taking enough samples to have a representative sample (20-30 samples will generally provide enough information to classify a population as above or below an economic threshold.

  6. Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenhout, Saskia A; Oshima, Kenro; Ammar, El-Desouky; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Kingdom, Heather N; Namba, Shigetou

    2008-07-01

    Superkingdom Prokaryota; Kingdom Monera; Domain Bacteria; Phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C, Gram-positive eubacteria); Class Mollicutes; Candidatus (Ca.) genus Phytoplasma. Ca. Phytoplasma comprises approximately 30 distinct clades based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of approximately 200 phytoplasmas. Phytoplasmas are mostly dependent on insect transmission for their spread and survival. The phytoplasma life cycle involves replication in insects and plants. They infect the insect but are phloem-limited in plants. Members of Ca. Phytoplasma asteris (16SrI group phytoplasmas) are found in 80 monocot and dicot plant species in most parts of the world. Experimentally, they can be transmitted by approximately 30, frequently polyphagous insect species, to 200 diverse plant species. In plants, phytoplasmas induce symptoms that suggest interference with plant development. Typical symptoms include: witches' broom (clustering of branches) of developing tissues; phyllody (retrograde metamorphosis of the floral organs to the condition of leaves); virescence (green coloration of non-green flower parts); bolting (growth of elongated stalks); formation of bunchy fibrous secondary roots; reddening of leaves and stems; generalized yellowing, decline and stunting of plants; and phloem necrosis. Phytoplasmas can be pathogenic to some insect hosts, but generally do not negatively affect the fitness of their major insect vector(s). In fact, phytoplasmas can increase fecundity and survival of insect vectors, and may influence flight behaviour and plant host preference of their insect hosts. The most common practices are the spraying of various insecticides to control insect vectors, and removal of symptomatic plants. Phytoplasma-resistant cultivars are not available for the vast majority of affected crops.

  7. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  8. An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has

  9. Consuming insects:Are there health benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and ...

  10. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Ekaterina; Hansson, Christer; Janzen, Daniel H; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-11

    Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility of these patterns is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling. Taxon-specific color patterns are formed by uneven membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement. The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences. WIPs can be applied to map the micromorphology of wings through direct observation and are useful in several fields of biology. We demonstrate their usefulness as identification patterns to solve cases of cryptic species complexes in tiny parasitic wasps, and indicate their potentials for research on the genetic control of wing development through direct links between the transregulatory wing landscape and interference patterns we observe in Drosophila model species. Some species display sexually dimorphic WIPs, suggesting sexual selection as one of the driving forces for their evolution.

  11. Temperature, food quality and life history traits of herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clissold, Fiona J; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Population dynamics of herbivorous insects are strongly influenced by temperature and host plant quality; an interaction generally thought to be mediated via effects of temperature on metabolic rate and altered energy requirements. However, recent research suggests the relationship between nutrition, temperature, host plant quality and life history traits that influence insect fitness are more complex than appreciated to date. In the laboratory, rates of development are most strongly influenced by temperature, while growth, body composition, and reproductive output are greatly affected by nutrition, notably the uptake of protein and carbohydrate. However, individual outcomes and consequently population responses in the field are not readily predicted from data on ambient temperatures and host plant chemical composition. The relative amounts of protein and carbohydrate gained from a host plant depends on complex interactions between plant cell structure and leaf chemistry, combined with plasticity in feeding behaviour, microclimate selection, digestive and assimilative physiology. For example, grasshoppers can exploit the temperature dependence of host plant quality to maintain nutritional homeostasis. Consequently, understanding environmental interactions such as leaf defences and patterns of foraging, and predicting the effects of climate change on insect populations, will be complex. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Specialized Pathogen of a Social Insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna

    Entomopathogenic fungi from the order Entomophthorales are highly specialized, host-specific and obligatory pathogens, which infect, consume and eventually kill their host insect within a few days. Established infection can effectively wipe out the majority of a host population. Social insects......, on the other hand, are remarkably efficient at preventing disease, a trait which necessarily arose together with social organization. In the one known example of social insects, in this case wood ants of the genus Formica, being attacked by an entomophthoralean fungus – Pandora formicae, social behaviors......, various aspects of the interaction with a social insect host are studied. Like a number of other entomophthoralean fungi, P. formicae manipulates pre-death behavior of its host to secure favorable position for transmission of actively discharged conidia to new hosts. Before dying, infected ants climb...

  13. Most Costly Insects & Diseases of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Filer; J. D. Solomon

    1987-01-01

    Insect borers, especially carpenter worms and red oak borers, cause degrade in oaks, an average of $45 per thousand board feet, and an annual loss of $112 million in the 2.5 billion board feet of oaks cut annually.

  14. Learning in Insect Pollinators and Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia L; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between plants and insects is influenced by insects' behavioral decisions during foraging and oviposition. In mutualistic pollinators and antagonistic herbivores, past experience (learning) affects such decisions, which ultimately can impact plant fitness. The higher levels of dietary generalism in pollinators than in herbivores may be an explanation for the differences in learning seen between these two groups. Generalist pollinators experience a high level of environmental variation, which we suggest favors associative learning. Larval herbivores employ habituation and sensitization-strategies useful in their less variable environments. Exceptions to these patterns based on habitats, mobility, and life history provide critical tests of current theory. Relevant plant traits should be under selection to be easily learned and remembered in pollinators and difficult to learn in herbivores. Insect learning thereby has the potential to have an important, yet largely unexplored, role in plant-insect coevolution.

  15. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M

    2016-01-01

    of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  16. Principles of Insect Identification. MP-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Fred A.; Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document provides information for the complete classification of members of the phylum Arthropoda. Both major and minor insect orders are discussed relative to their anatomical characteristics and importance. (CS)

  17. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  18. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G K

    2001-11-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

  19. Genetic Diversity in Insect Metal Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. S. Merritt; Adam J. Bewick

    2017-01-01

    Insects encounter a variety of metals in their environment, many of which are required at some concentration for normal organismal homeostasis, but essentially all of which are toxic at higher concentrations. Insects have evolved a variety of genetic, and likely epigenetic, mechanisms to deal with metal stress. A recurring theme in all these systems is complexity and diversity; even simple, single gene, cases are complex. Of the known gene families, the metallothioneins are perhaps the best u...

  20. Why Does Insect RNA Look Degraded?

    OpenAIRE

    Winnebeck, Eva C.; Millar, Craig D.; Warman, Guy R.

    2010-01-01

    The integrity of extracted ribonucleic acid (RNA) is commonly assessed by gel electrophoresis and subsequent analysis of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bands. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), as an example, the electrophoretic rRNA profile of insects is explained. This profile differs significantly from the standard benchmark since the 28S rRNA of most insects contains an endogenous ?hidden break.? Upon denaturation, the masking hydrogen bonds are disrupted, releasing two ...

  1. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  2. Insect trypanosomatids: the need to know more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A Podlipaev

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Of ten recognized trypanosomatid genera, only two -- pathogenic Trypanosoma and Leishmania -- have been actively investigated for any length of time while the plant flagellates -- Phytomonas -- have recently begun to attract attention due to their role as agricultural parasites. The remaining genera that comprise parasites associated with insects have been largely neglected except for two or three containing popular isolates. This publication reviews current knowledge of trypanosomatids from insects.

  3. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Berasategui, A.; Shukla, S.; Salem, H.; Kaltenpoth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biote...

  4. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  5. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on...

  6. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  7. Insect Pathogenic Fungi as Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonjely, S; Barelli, L; Bidochka, M J

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore some of the evolutionary, ecological, molecular genetics, and applied aspects of a subset of insect pathogenic fungi that also have a lifestyle as endophytes and we term endophytic insect pathogenic fungi (EIPF). We focus particularly on Metarhizium spp. and Beauveria bassiana as EIPF. The discussion of the evolution of EIPF challenges a view that these fungi were first and foremost insect pathogens that eventually evolved to colonize plants. Phylogenetic evidence shows that the lineages of EIPF are most closely related to grass endophytes that diverged c. 100MYA. We discuss the relationship between genes involved in "insect pathogenesis" and those involved in "endophytism" and provide examples of genes with potential importance in lifestyle transitions toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been coopted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. The interactions of EIPF with their host plants are discussed in some detail. The genetic basis for rhizospheric competence, plant communication, and nutrient exchange is examined and we highlight, with examples, the benefits of EIPF to plants, and the potential reservoir of secondary metabolites hidden within these beneficial symbioses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ewen-Campen

    2013-04-01

    Primordial germ cell (PGC formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  9. Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E M; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2013-06-15

    Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this "germ plasm" acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

  10. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  11. Allergy to insect stings. IV. Diagnosis by radioallergosorbent test (R.A.S.T.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotka, A.K.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.; Valentine, M.D.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Radioallergosorbent tests (RAST(s)) have been developed and assessed for the diagnosis of insect hypersensitivity by using a purified allergen from honeybee venom, phospholipase A, and crude yellow jacket venom. Sera from 193 patients positive both by history and skin test to one of these insects were compared with various groups of control sera. Eighty percent of sera from skin test-positive patients were RAST positive; positive RAST were found in 16% of sera tested from skin test-negative patients. A highly positive RAST correlates well with a positive skin test and clinical sensitivity, but serum IgE is not measurable in many patients with mast cell or basophil bound antibody. Since biologically important reactions of antigen with IgE require that the antibody be cell bound, skin testing would be preferred to RAST if one were limited to a single test for the diagnosis of insect allergy

  12. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, B.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

  13. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  14. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  15. Neuropeptidergic regulation of reproduction in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Badisco, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-07-01

    Successful animal reproduction depends on multiple physiological and behavioral processes that take place in a timely and orderly manner in both mating partners. It is not only necessary that all relevant processes are well coordinated, they also need to be adjusted to external factors of abiotic and biotic nature (e.g. population density, mating partner availability). Therefore, it is not surprising that several hormonal factors play a crucial role in the regulation of animal reproductive physiology. In insects (the largest class of animals on planet Earth), lipophilic hormones, such as ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, as well as several neuropeptides take part in this complex regulation. While some peptides can affect reproduction via an indirect action (e.g. by influencing secretion of juvenile hormone), others exert their regulatory activity by directly targeting the reproductive system. In addition to insect peptides with proven activities, several others were suggested to also play a role in the regulation of reproductive physiology. Because of the long evolutionary history of many insect orders, it is not always clear to what extent functional data obtained in a given species can be extrapolated to other insect taxa. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge concerning the neuropeptidergic regulation of insect reproduction and situate it in a more general physiological context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insect-virus relationships: sifting by informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, D; Luque, T; O'Reilly, D

    2001-02-01

    Several groups of large DNA viruses successfully utilise the rich resource provided by insect hosts. Defining the mechanisms that enable these pathogens to optimise their relationships with their hosts is of considerable scientific and practical importance, but our understanding of the processes involved is, as yet, rudimentary. Here we describe an informatics-based approach that uses comparison of viral genomic sequences to identify candidate genes likely to be specifically involved in this process. We hypothesise that such genes should satisfy two essential criteria, namely, that they should be (i) present in those members of a virus family that infect insects, but absent from those that infect other hosts, and (ii) found in at least two unrelated taxa of insect viruses. These criteria currently identify six groups of viral genes, including one that encodes the fusolin/gp37 proteins. Demonstration that the fusolin/gp37 proteins can enhance oral infectivity of insect viruses provides a primary validation of this approach to the examination of insect-virus relationships.

  17. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.; Cockburn, Andrew F.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal

  18. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Moore, Allen J.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. PMID:28025279

  19. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Contact chemosensation of phytochemicals by insect herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Contact chemosensation, or tasting, is a complex process governed by nonvolatile phytochemicals that tell host-seeking insects whether they should accept or reject a plant. During this process, insect gustatory receptors (GRs) contribute to deciphering a host plant's metabolic code. GRs recognise many different classes of nonvolatile compounds; some GRs are likely to be narrowly tuned and others, broadly tuned. Although primary and/or secondary plant metabolites influence the insect's feeding choice, their decoding by GRs is challenging, because metabolites in planta occur in complex mixtures that have additive or inhibitory effects; in diverse forms composed of structurally unrelated molecules; and at different concentrations depending on the plant species, its tissue and developmental stage. Future studies of the mechanism of insect herbivore GRs will benefit from functional characterisation taking into account the spatio-temporal dynamics and diversity of the plant's metabolome. Metabolic information, in turn, will help to elucidate the impact of single ligands and complex natural mixtures on the insect's feeding choice. PMID:28485430

  1. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  2. Democratizing evolutionary biology, lessons from insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert R; Beasley, DeAnna E

    2016-12-01

    The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales. This review highlights how insect-based citizen science has led to the expansion of specimen collections and reframed research questions in light of new observations and unexpected discoveries. Given the rapid expansion of human-modified (and inhabited) environments, the degree to which the public can participate in insect-based citizen science will allow us to track and monitor evolutionary trends at a global scale. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Why does insect RNA look degraded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnebeck, Eva C; Millar, Craig D; Warman, Guy R

    2010-01-01

    The integrity of extracted ribonucleic acid (RNA) is commonly assessed by gel electrophoresis and subsequent analysis of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bands. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), as an example, the electrophoretic rRNA profile of insects is explained. This profile differs significantly from the standard benchmark since the 28S rRNA of most insects contains an endogenous "hidden break." Upon denaturation, the masking hydrogen bonds are disrupted, releasing two similar sized fragments that both migrate closely with 18S rRNA. The resulting rRNA profile thus reflects the endogenous composition of insect rRNA and should not be misinterpreted as degradation.

  4. Agricultural applications of insect ecological genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Coates, Brad S; Childers, Christopher P; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Evans, Jay D; Hackett, Kevin; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural entomology is poised to benefit from the application of ecological genomics, particularly the fields of biofuels generation and pest control. Metagenomic methods can characterize microbial communities of termites, wood-boring beetles and livestock pests, and transcriptomic approaches reveal molecular bases behind wood-digesting capabilities of these insects, leading to potential mechanisms for biofuel generation. Genome sequences are being exploited to develop new pest control methods, identify candidate antigens to vaccinate livestock, and discover RNAi target sequences and potential non-target effects in other insects. Gene content analyses of pest genome sequences and their endosymbionts suggest metabolic interdependencies between organisms, exposing potential gene targets for insect control. Finally, genome-wide association studies and genotyping by high-throughput sequencing promise to improve management of pesticide resistance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  6. Phylogenetic origin and diversification of RNAi pathway genes in insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Daniel; Pauli, Thomas; Donath, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    across 100 insect species, encompassing all currently recognized insect orders. We inferred the phylogenetic origin of insect-specific RNAi pathway genes and also identified several hitherto unrecorded gene expansions using whole-body transcriptome data from the international 1KITE (1000 Insect...... Transcriptome Evolution) project aswell asother resources such as i5K(5000InsectGenomeProject). Specifically,we traced the origin of the double stranded RNAbinding protein R2D2 to the lastcommon ancestor of winged insects (Pterygota), the loss of Sid-1/ Tag-130 orthologs in Antliophora (fleas, flies...

  7. Chemistry and biology of insect bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colepicolo Neto, P.; Bechara, E.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Basic aspects on the Chemistry and Biology of bioluminescence are reviewed, with emphasis on insects. Data from the investigation of Lampyridae (fireflies) are collected from literature. With regard to Elateridae (click beetles) and Phengodidae (rail road worms), the least explored families of luminescent insects, new data are presented on the following aspects: (i) 'in vivo' emission spectra, (ii) chemical nature of the luciferin, (iii) conection between bioluminescence and 'oxygen toxicity' as a result of molecular oxygen storage and (iv) the role of light emission by larvae and pupae. (Author) [pt

  8. A non-autonomous insect piggyBac trasposable element is mobile in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    The piggyBac transposable element, originally isolated from a virus in an insect cell line, is a valuable molecular tool for transgenesis and mutagenesis of invertebrates. For heterologous transgenesis in a variety of mammals, transfer of the piggyBac transposable element from an ectopic plasmid onl...

  9. Enhanced insecticidal activity of Chilo iridescent virus expressing an insect specific neurotoxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalcacioglu, Remziye; Muratoglu, Hacer; Yesilyurt, Aydın; Oers, van Monique M.; Vlak, Just M.; Demirbag, Zihni

    2016-01-01

    Previously we have generated a recombinant Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) by inserting the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) into the CIV 157L open reading frame (ORF) locus and showed that this recombinant (rCIV-Δ157L-gfp) was fully infectious both in cell culture as well as in insect larvae.

  10. Identification of pif-2, a third conserved baculovirus gene required for per os infection of insect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.; Pruijssers, A.; Vlak, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of cultured insect cells with Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) resulted in the generation of mutants with major genomic deletions. Some of the mutants lacked the ability to infect S. exigua larvae per os. The gene(s) responsible for this phenotype in SeMNPV was

  11. Shrinkage of body size of small insects: A possible link to global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2007-01-01

    The increase of global mean surface temperature leads to the increase of metabolic rate. This might lead to an unexpected threat from the small insect world. Global warming shrinks cell size, shorten lifespan, and accelerate evolution. The present note speculates on possible connections between allometry and E-infinity theory

  12. Shrinkage of body size of small insects: A possible link to global warming?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan [College of Science, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China)]. E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2007-11-15

    The increase of global mean surface temperature leads to the increase of metabolic rate. This might lead to an unexpected threat from the small insect world. Global warming shrinks cell size, shorten lifespan, and accelerate evolution. The present note speculates on possible connections between allometry and E-infinity theory.

  13. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  14. STUDYING IMMUNOBIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PREPARED WATER_SALT EXTRACTS OF INSECT ALLERGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Radikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the indirect degranulation of mast cells, anaphylaxis test, solid phase immune enzyme analysis, the researchers evaluated the immuno biological features of serum of 20 patients suffering from atopic mild and moderate bronchial asthma with domestic sensitization. All received water salt extracts of insects (cockroach, black beetle, American cock roach, ash gray cockroach, cricket, fly, moth, mealworm, weevil, billbug demonstrated specific activity. An immune enzyme analysis has revealed more intensive allergic features of substances extracted from black beetle, cockroach, fly and moth.Key words: insect allergens, allergen specific immunotherapy, immuno biological features of allergic extracts, Ige anti bodies.

  15. Insects of war, terror and torture

    Science.gov (United States)

    From plagues to malaria transmission, insects and other arthropods have been natural or intentional health and agricultural threats to military and civilian populations throughout human history. The success or failure of military operations frequently has been determined by correctly anticipating in...

  16. STATUS OF INSECT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    With a rapid surge in human population, there has been concomitant increase in anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, especially for ecologically-important groups such as insects. With the loss of about 79% of its forest cover, Nigeria ranked as the nation with the highest rate of forest loss in 2005. How these and other.

  17. Association mapping of plant resistance to insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, K.J.; Thoen, H.P.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Jongsma, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Association mapping is rapidly becoming an important method to explore the genetic architecture of complex traits in plants and offers unique opportunities for studying resistance to insect herbivores. Recent studies indicate that there is a trade-off between resistance against generalist and

  18. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  19. Pathogenesis induced by (recombinant) baculoviruses in insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Infection of insect larvae by a baculovirus leads to cessation of feeding and finally to the death of the larva. Under optimal conditions this process may take as little as five days during which the virus multiplies approximately a billion times and transforms 30% of the larval weight into

  20. 8 Aquatic Insect Fauna.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    aquatic. There are also groups that are relatively small taxonomical entities drawn. Aquatic Insect Fauna of Three River Systems in the Akyem. Abuakwa Traditional area of The Eastern Region of Ghana. 1. 2. R. Kyerematen and C. Gordon. 1 Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana, ...

  1. Forest insect conditions in the Northeast - 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. Waters

    1956-01-01

    The tremendous destructive capacity of forest insects in reducing our resources of usable timber is becoming increasingly apparent as the shoe of the forest economy pinches tighter. The U.S. Forest Service's recent TIMBER RESOURCE REVIEW, which presents the findings of the most comprehensive survey to date of the present and future timber supply of the United...

  2. How is sex determined in insects?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this species a novel way of transformer control in insect sex determination implies the action of maternal imprinting. In silkworm, attempts to dis- cover the top molecular signals have remained elusive. All lines of evidence point to the presence of a female-determining gene on the W chromosome. Initial results suggest that ...

  3. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgeorge

    Insect pests cause significant damage to crops world-wide. This is despite integrated pest management strategies combining such control measures as chemical control, use of resistant varieties and other measures. Other control measures such as use of genetically modified crops are being adopted. Transgenic crops ...

  4. Insect biodiversity of boreal peat bogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Danks, H. V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2006), s. 137-161 ISSN 0066-4170 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0077; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : peatlands * tyrphobiontic insect s * conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.714, year: 2006

  5. A new family of insect tyramine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klærke, Dan Arne; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2005-01-01

    in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The Drosophila tyramine...

  6. Genetic Diversity in Insect Metal Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. S. Merritt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a variety of metals in their environment, many of which are required at some concentration for normal organismal homeostasis, but essentially all of which are toxic at higher concentrations. Insects have evolved a variety of genetic, and likely epigenetic, mechanisms to deal with metal stress. A recurring theme in all these systems is complexity and diversity; even simple, single gene, cases are complex. Of the known gene families, the metallothioneins are perhaps the best understood and provide good examples of how diverse metal response is. Interestingly, there is considerable diversity across taxa in these metal-responsive systems, including duplications to form small gene families and complex expression of single loci. Strikingly, different species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with the same, or similar, stress suggesting both independent derivation of, and plasticity in, the pathways involved. It is likely that some metal-response systems evolved early in evolutionary time and have been conserved, while others have diverged, and still others evolved more recently and convergently. In addition to conventional genetics, insects likely respond to environmental metal through a variety of epigenetic systems, but direct tests are lacking. Ultimately, it is likely that classical genetic and epigenetic factors interact in regulating insect metal responses. In light of this diversity across species, future studies including a broad-based examination of gene expression in non-model species in complex environments will likely uncover additional genes and genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  7. Structure-activity relationships of insect defensins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehbach, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Insects make up the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth with several million species to exist in total. Considering the sheer number of insect species and the vast variety of ways they interact with their environment through chemistry, it is clear that they have significant potential as a source of new lead molecules. They have adapted to a range of ecological habitats and exhibit a symbiotic lifestyle with various microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Accordingly, numerous antimicrobial compounds have been identified including for example defensin peptides. Insect defensins were found to have broad-spectrum activity against various gram-positive/negative bacteria as well as fungi. They exhibit a unique structural topology involving the complex arrangement of three disulfide bonds as well as an alpha helix and beta sheets, which is known as cysteine-stabilized αβ motif. Their stability and amenability to peptide engineering make them promising candidates for the development of novel antibiotics lead molecules. This review highlights the current knowledge regarding the structure-activity relationships of insect defensin peptides and provides basis for future studies focusing on the rational design of novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides.

  8. Book review: Insect morphology and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Randolf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Beutel RG, Friedrich F, Ge S-Q, Yang X-K (2014 Insect Morphology and Phylogeny: A textbook for students of entomology. De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 516 pp., softcover. ISBN 978-3-11-026263-6.

  9. Eco-Evolutionary Theory and Insect Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, David J; Dukic, Vanja; Dushoff, Jonathan; Fleming-Davies, Arietta; Dwyer, Greg

    2017-06-01

    Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here. We therefore used field experiments with the gypsy moth baculovirus to test two key assumptions of eco-evolutionary models of host-pathogen population cycles: that reduced host infection risk is heritable and that it is costly. Our experiments confirm both assumptions, and inserting parameters estimated from our data into eco-evolutionary insect-outbreak models gives cycles closely resembling gypsy moth outbreak cycles in North America, whereas standard models predict unrealistic stable equilibria. Our work shows that eco-evolutionary models are useful for explaining outbreaks of forest insect defoliators, while widespread observations of intense selection on defoliators in nature and of heritable and costly resistance in defoliators in the lab together suggest that eco-evolutionary dynamics may play a general role in defoliator outbreaks.

  10. Protease inhibitor mediated resistance to insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outchkourov, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are among the defensive molecules that plants produce in order to defend themselves against herbivores. A major aim of this thesis is to develop novel insect resistance traits usingheterologous, non-plant PIs. Prerequisite for the success of the

  11. Genetic Diversity in Insect Metal Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Thomas J S; Bewick, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Insects encounter a variety of metals in their environment, many of which are required at some concentration for normal organismal homeostasis, but essentially all of which are toxic at higher concentrations. Insects have evolved a variety of genetic, and likely epigenetic, mechanisms to deal with metal stress. A recurring theme in all these systems is complexity and diversity; even simple, single gene, cases are complex. Of the known gene families, the metallothioneins are perhaps the best understood and provide good examples of how diverse metal response is. Interestingly, there is considerable diversity across taxa in these metal-responsive systems, including duplications to form small gene families and complex expression of single loci. Strikingly, different species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with the same, or similar, stress suggesting both independent derivation of, and plasticity in, the pathways involved. It is likely that some metal-response systems evolved early in evolutionary time and have been conserved, while others have diverged, and still others evolved more recently and convergently. In addition to conventional genetics, insects likely respond to environmental metal through a variety of epigenetic systems, but direct tests are lacking. Ultimately, it is likely that classical genetic and epigenetic factors interact in regulating insect metal responses. In light of this diversity across species, future studies including a broad-based examination of gene expression in non-model species in complex environments will likely uncover additional genes and genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  12. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/08/0748-0755. Keywords. Low-density lipoprotein receptor; lipophorin; lipophorin receptor; insects. Author Affiliations. G Ravikumar1 N B Vijayaprakash1. Seri-biotech Research Laboratory Central Silk Board Kodathi, Carmelaram Post Bangalore 560 035, India.

  13. Tolerance to insect defoliation: biocenotic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey A. Pleshanov; Victor I. Voronin; Elena S. Khlimankova; Valentina I. Epova

    1991-01-01

    Woody plant resistance to insect damage is of great importance in forest protection, and tree tolerance is an important element of this resistance. The compensating mechanisms responsible for tolerance are nonspecific as a rule and develop after damage has been caused by phytophagous animals or other unfavorable effects. Beyond that, plant tolerance depends on duration...

  14. Influence of microbial symbionts on insect pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2018-03-22

    Covering: up to 2018Pheromones serve as chemical signals between individuals of the same species and play important roles for mate localization and mate choice as well as other social interactions in insects. A growing body of literature indicates that microbial symbionts can modulate their hosts' chemical profiles, mate choice decisions and social behavior. This modulation can occur by the direct biosynthesis of pheromone components or the provisioning of precursors, or through general changes in the metabolite pool of the host and its resource allocation into pheromone production. Here we review and discuss the contexts in which microbial modulation of intraspecific communication in insects occurs and emphasize cases in which microbes are known to affect the involved chemistry. The described examples for a symbiotic influence on mate attraction and mate choice, aggregation, nestmate and kin recognition highlight the context-dependent costs and benefits of these symbiotic interactions and the potential for conflict and manipulation among the interacting partners. However, despite the increasing number of studies reporting on symbiont-mediated effects on insect chemical communication, experimentally validated connections between the presence of specific symbionts, changes in the host's chemistry, and behavioral effects thereof, remain limited to very few systems, highlighting the need for increased collaborative efforts between symbiosis researchers and chemical ecologists to gain more comprehensive insights into the influence of microbial symbionts on insect pheromones.

  15. Conflicts and alliances in insect families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, L.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2001-01-01

    Hamilton's principle of inclusive fitness implies that reproductive altruism can evolve, because individuals can pass on genes not only through their own offspring, but also through the offspring of their relatives. Social insects are spectacular examples of how some individuals may be selected t...

  16. Insect-Plant Relationships in Ecological Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, G. L. A.; Wratten, S. D.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the current theories concerning the evolution of insect-plant relationships. Offers several experiments based on recent publications in this field, concerning relationships between herbivore number and plants' successional status, geographical range, geological history, and stage of growth, and also experiments on the chemical basis of…

  17. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (left) G Ravikumar is a senior scientist in the Seri- biotech Research Labora- tory, Central Silk Board,. Bangalore. His research interests include cloning and characterization of novel genes, signal transduction, diagnostic methods in silkworms, use of silk proteins for biomedical applications and transgenic insects. He.

  18. Eicosanoid-mediated immunity in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicosanoid is a collective term for oxygenated metabolites of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As seen in mammals, eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes, including immune responses, in insects. Upon microbial pathogen infection, non-self recognition signals are ...

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Radar Returns from Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    When a number of flying insects is low enough to permit their resolution as individual radar targets, quantitative estimates of their aerial density are developed. Accurate measurements of heading distribution using a rotating polarization radar to enhance the wingbeat frequency method of identification are presented.

  20. Insects: Little Things That Run the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Insects are easily the most abundant and diverse group of animals, with over 24,000 species in the UK alone. They can be found in almost every habitat on Earth and are fundamentally important to ecology, conservation, food production, animal and human health, and biodiversity. They are a prominent feature of almost every food web in the UK and…

  1. Personal Insect Repellents and Minimum Risk Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exempt pesticide product may not bear claims to control rodent, insect or microbial pests in a way that links the pests with specific disease. We are considering a proposal to remove personal mosquito and tick repellents from the minimum risk exemption.

  2. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  3. Ecology of insects in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Force

    1990-01-01

    Studies stimulated by the International Biological Program showed total insect faunal biomass and diversity to be greatest in the spring of the year, which matches increased plant growth and flowering at this time. Ground-inhabiting beetle studies indicated the family Tenebrionidae to be overwhelmingly dominant in biomass, but the family Staphylinidae to be richest in...

  4. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  5. Short notes and reviews Insect history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.

    2003-01-01

    Review of: History of Insects, edited by A. P. Rasnitsyn and D. L. J. Quicke. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2002, 517 pp., ISBN 14 0200 026 X In the winter of 1977, I visited the Paleontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. I wanted to study the type specimens of

  6. Democratizing evolutionary biology, lessons from insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert Roberdeau; Beasley, DeAnna E.

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales...

  7. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adámek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manuscript describes the phases of edible insect culinary treatment and methods of distinguishing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor and giant mealworm (Zophobas morio using simple electronic nose. These species were measured in the live stage, after killing with boiling water, after drying and after inserting into the chocolate.The sensing device was based on the Arduino Mega platform with the ability to store the recorded data on the SD memory card, and with the possibility to communicate via internet. Data analysis shows that even a simple, cheap and portable electronic nose can distinguish between the different steps of culinary treatment (native samples, dried samples, samples enriched with chocolate for cooking and selected species. Another benefit of the electronic nose could be its future introduction into the control mechanisms of food security systems (e.g. HACCP.

  8. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    OpenAIRE

    Briers, R. A.; Gee, J. H. R.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive) phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a po...

  9. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Briers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a potentially strong impact on survival and success of adult stages through alteration of microclimate, habitat structure and potential food sources, in addition to effects carried over from larval stages. Here, current riparian management strategies are analysed in the light of available information on the ecology of adult stream insects. On the whole, management practices appear to favour adult stream insects, although an increase in tree cover in riparian areas could be beneficial, by providing more favourable microclimatic conditions for adults. This conclusion is drawn based on rather limited information, and the need for further research into the effects of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects is highlighted. Keywords: microclimate, plantation, life history, riparian vegetation

  10. How is sex determined in insects?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    autoregulatory loops have been shown to be operative in all insects from which functional tra genes have been characterized. The rapid divergence of molecular players at the top of the hierarchy is also evident in hymenopterans. In honeybee Apis mellifera, the allelic status of complementary sex determining (CSD) locus, ...

  11. Invasive pests—insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Duerr; Paul A. Mistretta

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsNonnative pest species have increasing impacts in the South regardless of climate change, patterns of land ownership, or changes in the composition of vegetation.“New” nonnative invasive insects and diseases will have serious impacts on southern forests over the next 50 years. Some species such as emerald ash borer...

  12. Some insects affecting Penstemon seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Beardtongue (Penstemon Schmidel [Scrophulariaceae)) seeds are often produced without apparent damage from pests, but several species of native insects can adversely impact seed production fields. Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot)) and western plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight [Hemiptera: Miridae]), penstemon weevil (Hesperobaris sp. Casey [Coleoptera:...

  13. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  14. Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  15. Polyphenism in insects and the juvenile hormone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    insect evolutionary history may be hypothesized. 4. Possible interaction of JH and ecdysteroids in polyphenism development. Though this review is mainly on the role of JH in the development of polyphenism, it would not be out of place to mention briefly here the role of another family of developmental hormones, the ...

  16. Insect transgenesis: current applications and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Malcolm J

    2012-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the genomes of many insects has become a practical reality over the past 15 years. This has been led by the identification of several useful transposon vector systems that have allowed the identification and development of generalized, species-specific, and tissue-specific promoter systems for controlled expression of gene products upon introduction into insect genomes. Armed with these capabilities, researchers have made significant strides in both fundamental and applied transgenics in key model systems such as Bombyx mori, Tribolium casteneum, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Limitations of transposon systems were identified, and alternative tools were developed, thus significantly increasing the potential for applied transgenics for control of both agricultural and medical insect pests. The next 10 years promise to be an exciting time of transitioning from the laboratory to the field, from basic research to applied control, during which the full potential of gene manipulation in insect systems will ultimately be realized. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  17. Acquisition of full-length viral helicase domains by insect retrotransposon-encoded polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina eLazareva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent metagenomic studies in insects identified many sequences unexpectedly closely related to plant virus genes. Here we describe a new example of this kind, insect R1 LINEs with an additional C-terminal domain in their open reading frame 2. This domain is similar to NTPase/helicase (SF1H domains, which are found in replicative proteins encoded by plant viruses of the genus Tobamovirus. We hypothesize that the SF1H domain could be acquired by LINEs, directly or indirectly, upon insect feeding on virus-infected plants. Possible functions of this domain in LINE transposition and involvement in LINEs counteraction the silencing-based cell defense against retrotransposons are discussed.

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation on insect pest of rice in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita Muhamad Awang; Noorma Osman.

    1987-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on insect pest of rice, stored for a period of 24 months, and packed in four different packaging materials. They were then exposed to gamma radiation using Gamma Cell 220, in a 60 Co source. Samples were randomly sampled at the initial storage period and there after at 3 months interval. At each sampling time the grain weight loss and insect count, both dead and alive, were determined. The increasing dosages of irradiation did not show any consistent effect on the insect population in all the four packaging materials which indicated that the rice was already infested even before it was irradiated. The range of percentage weight loss for all the dosages of irradiation in all of the four packaging materials is 0.99 to 2.02. (A.J.)

  19. Oxidative stress in entomopathogenic fungi grown on insect-like hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Juárez, M Patricia; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2015-08-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi mostly attack their insect hosts by penetration through the cuticle. The outermost insect surface is covered by a lipid-rich layer, usually composed of very long chain hydrocarbons. These fungi are apt to grow on straight chain hydrocarbons (alkanes) as the sole carbon source. Insect-like hydrocarbons are first hydroxylated by a microsomal P450 monooxygenase system, and then fully catabolized by peroxisomal β-oxidation reactions in Beauveria bassiana. In this review, we will discuss lipid metabolism adaptations in alkane-grown fungi, and how an oxidative stress scenario is established under these conditions. Fungi have to pay a high cost for hydrocarbon utilization; high levels of reactive oxygen species are produced and a concomitant antioxidant response is triggered in fungal cells to cope with this drawback.

  20. Tritrophic Interactions: Microbe-Mediated Plant Effects on Insect Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Ikkei; Rosa, Cristina; Tan, Ching-Wen; Felton, Gary W

    2017-08-04

    It is becoming abundantly clear that the microbes associated with plants and insects can profoundly influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on recent findings and propose directions for future research that involve microbe-induced changes to plant defenses and nutritive quality as well as the consequences of these changes for the behavior and fitness of insect herbivores. Insect (herbivore and parasitoid)-associated microbes can favor or improve insect fitness by suppressing plant defenses and detoxifying defensive phytochemicals. Phytopathogens can influence or manipulate insect behavior and fitness by altering plant quality and defense. Plant-beneficial microbes can promote plant growth and influence plant nutritional and phytochemical composition that can positively or negatively influence insect fitness. Lastly, we suggest that entomopathogens have the potential to influence plant defenses directly as endophytes or indirectly by altering insect physiology.

  1. Joint Statement on Insect Repellents by EPA and CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA and the CDC are recommending the public to use insect repellents and take other precautions to avoid biting insects that carry serious diseases. This statement discusses diseases of concern, government roles, and repellent selection and use.

  2. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  3. The sterile insect technique [videorecording]: An environment-friendly method of insect pest suppression and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Using graphic displays and clips of actual laboratory and field activities related to the sterile insect technique (SIT), the video covers various topics on the principles and applications of this technique

  4. Doomsday for insects? The alarming decline of insect populations around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Current rates of extinction exceed largely the standard background rate and all living species can be affected. Insects, the most successful group of eukaryotic organisms from their ancient origin almost 480 my ago are no exception. Despite their fundamental roles in all terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, insects are victims of the anthropogenic intereference (habitat destruction, overharvesting, pathogens, pesticides, pollution, urbanization, transport of invasive species, and greenhouse gases emissions that is causing the declination of their populations around the world. Although most insects are not charismatic as many vertebrates or plants, they deserve the same level of protection as other species with which humans are more concerned. It is a duty for all entomologists to study an implement conservation measures of insect species, and educate the general public about their inmense relevance for the Biosphere.

  5. Physiology of cold tolerance in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariassen, K E

    1985-10-01

    From the available experimental data a relatively clear picture can be established with regard to the physiological importance of some of the mechanisms involved in insect cold hardening. In freeze-avoiding insects, all potent ice-nucleating agents are removed or inactivated, leading to a depression of the supercooling points to about 20 degrees C. Accumulation of polyols causes a further depression with a magnitude of about twice the corresponding melting-point depression. Production of thermal hysteresis factors causes a stabilization of the supercooled state. In freeze-tolerant insects, potent ice-nucleating agents are produced in the extracellular body fluid, ensuring a protective extracellular freezing at a few degrees below zero. Accumulation of polyols causes a steep drop in the lethal temperature, due to a reduction of the amount of ice by a colligative mechanism. However, there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms by which ice-nucleating agents, polyols, and thermal hysteresis agents are acting. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the production and elimination of these components from the body fluid of the insects are not understood. Also, when it comes to the influence of environmental factors, like photoperiod and temperature, there is much to be learned. In addition to giving attention to these topics, future research should be focused on the possible role of other factors in cold hardening such as bound water, dehydration, low-molecular-weight solutes other than polyols, and the biochemical mechanisms forming the basis of the seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of insects.

  6. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (<0.03 mg/kg ww). Our results support the possibility to consume these insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Native Hawaiian Insect Microbiome Initiative: A Critical Perspective for Hawaiian Insect Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E. Poff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects associate with a diversity of microbes that can shape host ecology and diversity by providing essential biological and adaptive services. For most insect groups, the evolutionary implications of host–microbe interactions remain poorly understood. Geographically discrete areas with high biodiversity offer powerful, simplified model systems to better understand insect–microbe interactions. Hawaii boasts a diverse endemic insect fauna (~6000 species characterized by spectacular adaptive radiations. Despite this, little is known about the role of bacteria in shaping this diversity. To address this knowledge gap, we inaugurate the Native Hawaiian Insect Microbiome Initiative (NHIMI. The NHIMI is an effort intended to develop a framework for informing evolutionary and biological studies in Hawaii. To initiate this effort, we have sequenced the bacterial microbiomes of thirteen species representing iconic, endemic Hawaiian insect groups. Our results show that native Hawaiian insects associate with a diversity of bacteria that exhibit a wide phylogenetic breadth. Several groups show predictable associations with obligate microbes that permit diet specialization. Others exhibit unique ecological transitions that are correlated with shifts in their microbiomes (e.g., transition to carrion feeding from plant-feeding in Nysius wekiuicola. Finally, some groups, such as the Hawaiian Drosophila, have relatively diverse microbiomes with a conserved core of bacterial taxa across multiple species and islands.

  9. Influence of human activities on diversity and abundance of insects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among 30 families belonging to 15 orders were collected and identified and preserved in the insect boxes in the Museum. Within the fallow land, a total of 5,182 insects belonging to 46 families and 8 orders were encountered, while in the cocoa agroforest, 5,884 insects distributed among 50 families and 10 orders and ...

  10. Bacterial growth on stream insects: potential for use in bioassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1998-01-01

    Growth of filamentous bacteria (Sphaerotilus sp., Leptothrix sp.) on aquatic insects was evaluated for its usefulness as a bioindicator of detrimental nutrient levels in streams. Field measurements of insect abundance, nutrient concentrations, and incidence/ degree of bacterial growth on insects upstream and downstream of livestock pastures were made in 2 Virginia, USA...

  11. The insect cookbook : food for a sustainable planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Gurp, van H.; Dicke, M.

    2014-01-01

    In The Insect Cookbook, two entomologists and a chef make the case for insects as a sustainable source of protein for humans and a necessary part of our future diet. They provide consumers and chefs with the essential facts about insects for culinary use, with recipes simple enough to make at home

  12. Forest litter insect community succession in clearcuts of Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arturas Gedminas

    2003-01-01

    Insects are subjected to stress in fresh clearcuts due to changes in microclimate, vegetation, and trophic links. The objective of this study was to investigate succession in litter insect communities (most abundant by number of species and individuals of all clearcut insects).

  13. Forest Insect and Disease Tally System (FINDIT) user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2000-01-01

    FINDIT, the Forest Insect and Disease Tally System, is an easy-to-use tool for analyzing insect and disease population information taken during stand surveys. Incidence of insects, pathogens, and other biotic and abiotic influences on forest ecosystems are summarized using traditional mensurational measurements. Information is summarized by diameter class, tree species...

  14. 40 CFR 161.590 - Nontarget insect data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nontarget insect data requirements... § 161.590 Nontarget insect data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the nontarget insect data requirements and the substance to be tested...

  15. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin. ...

  16. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  17. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilenberg, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-LeRoux, C.; Capellozza, S.; Jensen, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, including problems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause disease in insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each

  18. insect diet of some afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    are highly efficient and cost effective insect pest control agents. (Dhindsa & Saini, 1994; Asokan et al., 2008). A good knowledge of the type of insects that bird feeds on in any reserve is .... hypotheses concerning population divergence, evolution of sexual ... conducted in Malaysia (Burton 1998), insects mostly ants, beetles.

  19. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    herbivorous insects [8] and was shown to have mosquito repellent properties at high concentrations [9]. In 2007, 2-U was incorporated in the insect...KJ, Vosshall LB (2005) Functional conservation of an insect odorant receptor gene across 250 million years of evolution . Curr Biol 15: R119–121. 27

  20. Status of insect diversity conservation in Nigeria: A review | Kehinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, like most of the countries in the tropics is a treasure trove of insect diversity; however, limited information is available on the taxonomy, ecology, genetics and biogeography of its insect fauna. This dearth of background scientific knowledge impedes successful insect conservation policy and practice. Even though a ...

  1. Proceedings: integrated management and dynamics of forest defoliating insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.M. Liebhold; M.L. McManus; I.S. Otvos; S.L.C Fosbroke

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains 18 research papers about the population ecology and management of forest insect defoliators. These papers were presented at a joint meeting of working parties s7.03.06, "Integrated Management of Forest Defoliating Insects," and S7.03.07, "Population Dynamics of Forest Insects," of the International Union of...

  2. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program as...

  3. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects. ...

  4. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects. ...

  5. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects. ...

  6. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The Secretary...

  7. Consumers' salient beliefs regarding foods from edible insects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumers' salient beliefs regarding foods from edible insects in Kenya: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour. ... Insects as food and consumption of foods from edible insects (FEI) are being promoted as one potential solution to the declining access to protein foods. However, one of the ...

  8. Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulate Insect Behavior-Steps Toward Addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wink

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (PSMs that serve as defense compounds against herbivores and microorganisms. In addition, some PSMs attract animals for pollination and seed dispersal. In case of pollinating insects, PSMs with colors or terpenoids with fragrant odors attract pollinators in the first place, but when they arrive at a flower, they are rewarded with nectar, so that the pollinators do not feed on flowers. In order to be effective as defense chemicals, PSMs evolved as bioactive substances, that can interfere with a large number of molecular targets in cells, tissues and organs of animals or of microbes. The known functions of PSMs are summarized in this review. A number of PSMs evolved as agonists or antagonists of neuronal signal transduction. Many of these PSMs are alkaloids. Several of them share structural similarities to neurotransmitters. Evidence for neuroactive and psychoactive PSMs in animals will be reviewed. Some of the neuroactive PSMs can cause addiction in humans and other vertrebrates. Why should a defense compound be addictive and thus attract more herbivores? Some insects are food specialists that can feed on plants that are normally toxic to other herbivores. These specialists can tolerate the toxins and many are stored in the insect body as acquired defense chemicals against predators. A special case are pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs that are neurotoxic and mutagenic in vertebrates. PAs are actively sequestered by moths of the family Arctiidae and a few other groups of arthropods. In arctiids, PAs are not only used for defense, but also serve as morphogens for the induction of male coremata and as precursors for male pheromones. Caterpillars even feed on filter paper impregnated with pure PAs (that modulate serotonin receptors in vertebrates and maybe even in insects and thus show of behavior with has similarities to addiction in vertebrates. Not only PA specialists, but also many monophagous

  9. Biotechnological Applications of an Insect-Specific Alphavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Jesse H; Weaver, Scott C

    2017-12-01

    The coupling of viral and arthropod host diversity, with evolving methods of virus discovery, has resulted in the identification and classification of a growing number of novel insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that appear to be evolutionarily related to many human pathogens but have either lost or have yet to gain the ability to replicate in vertebrates. The discovery of ISVs has raised many questions as to the origin and evolution of many human pathogenic viruses and points to the role that arthropods may play in this evolutionary process. Furthermore, the use of ISVs to control the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses has been proposed and demonstrated experimentally. Previously, our laboratory reported on the discovery and characterization of Eilat virus (EILV), an insect-specific alphavirus that phylogenetically groups within the mosquito-borne clade of medically relevant alphaviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), as well as chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Despite its evolutionary relationship to these human pathogens, EILV is unable to replicate in vertebrate cells due to blocks at attachment/entry and RNA replication. We recently demonstrated that, using a chimeric virus approach, EILV could be utilized as a platform for vaccine and diagnostic development, serving as a proof-of-concept for other ISVs. Due to the vast abundance of ISVs, there is an untapped resource for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for a variety of human pathogens and further work in this area is warranted.

  10. Insect aquaplaning: Nepenthes pitcher plants capture prey with the peristome, a fully wettable water-lubricated anisotropic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Holger F; Federle, Walter

    2004-09-28

    Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes have highly specialized leaves adapted to attract, capture, retain, and digest arthropod prey. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the capture of insects, ranging from slippery epicuticular wax crystals to downward-pointing lunate cells and alkaloid secretions that anesthetize insects. Here we report that perhaps the most important capture mechanism has thus far remained overlooked. It is based on special surface properties of the pitcher rim (peristome) and insect "aquaplaning." The peristome is characterized by a regular microstructure with radial ridges of smooth overlapping epidermal cells, which form a series of steps toward the pitcher inside. This surface is completely wettable by nectar secreted at the inner margin of the peristome and by rain water, so that homogenous liquid films cover the surface under humid weather conditions. Only when wet, the peristome surface is slippery for insects, so that most ant visitors become trapped. By measuring friction forces of weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) on the peristome surface of Nepenthes bicalcarata, we demonstrate that the two factors preventing insect attachment to the peristome, i.e., water lubrication and anisotropic surface topography, are effective against different attachment structures of the insect tarsus. Peristome water films disrupt attachment only for the soft adhesive pads but not for the claws, whereas surface topography leads to anisotropic friction only for the claws but not for the adhesive pads. Experiments on Nepenthes alata show that the trapping mechanism of the peristome is also essential in Nepenthes species with waxy inner pitcher walls.

  11. [Ultrastructure and morphology of the mitochondriome of cardiomyocytes from invertebrates. I. The mitochondriome of cardiomyocytes from insects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, T V; Shornikova, M V; Chentsov, Iu S

    2002-01-01

    The cardiomyocyte mitochondrial ultrastructure of two insect species (the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, and a dragonfly Aeschna sp.) has been studied. Mitochondria in cardiomyocytes of these insects are connected by intermitochondrial contacts, similar in morphology to vertebrate intermitochondrial contacts. The number of intermitochondrial contacts differs in cardiomyocytes of the studied insects, numbering 12 and 18 per 100 mitochondria in cardiomyocytes of the cockroach and dragonfly, respectively, which is due presumably to differences in activity of these insects. Cardiomyocytes of both species have several features in common. It was shown that cross-striated myofibrils oriented in different directions occupy 50-58% of the cytoplasmic volume, while mitochondria cover only 16-18%. The pattern of mitochondrial localization differs in cardiomyocytes of the two studied insects. In the cockroach, cardiomyocyte mitochondria are seen both in the center of the cell and on its periphery, in protrusions; whereas in the dragonfly, mitochondria of cardiomyocytes are confined to the protrusions of the abluminal cell side. Mitochondrial profiles are small, their packing is not dense. Mitochondria in cardiomyocytes of these insects have few plastic cristae and dense matrix.

  12. Photorhabdus luminescens genes induced upon insect infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kirsten

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus luminescens is a Gram-negative luminescent enterobacterium and a symbiote to soil nematodes belonging to the species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. P.luminescens is simultaneously highly pathogenic to insects. This bacterium exhibits a complex life cycle, including one symbiotic stage characterized by colonization of the upper nematode gut, and a pathogenic stage, characterized by release from the nematode into the hemocoel of insect larvae, resulting in rapid insect death caused by bacterial toxins. P. luminescens appears to sense and adapt to the novel host environment upon changing hosts, which facilitates the production of factors involved in survival within the host, host-killing, and -exploitation. Results A differential fluorescence induction (DFI approach was applied to identify genes that are up-regulated in the bacterium after infection of the insect host Galleria mellonella. For this purpose, a P. luminescens promoter-trap library utilizing the mCherry fluorophore as a reporter was constructed, and approximately 13,000 clones were screened for fluorescence induction in the presence of a G. mellonella larvae homogenate. Since P. luminescens has a variety of regulators that potentially sense chemical molecules, like hormones, the screen for up-regulated genes or operons was performed in vitro, excluding physicochemical signals like oxygen, temperature or osmolarity as variables. Clones (18 were obtained exhibiting at least 2.5-fold induced fluorescence and regarded as specific responders to insect homogenate. In combination with a bioinformatics approach, sequence motifs were identified in these DNA-fragments that are similar to 29 different promoters within the P. luminescens genome. By cloning each of the predicted promoters upstream of the reporter gene, induction was verified for 27 promoters in vitro, and for 24 promoters in viable G. mellonella larvae. Among the validated promoters are some known

  13. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Kiilerich; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the physiology of insects. One large family of insect neuropeptides are the adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which mobilize lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body. Other peptides are the corazonins that are...

  14. External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

  15. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.

    2015-01-01

    as examples to learn about emergence of new diseases in production insects. Results from a 2014 survey about insect diseases in current insect production systems are presented for the first time. Finally, we give some recommendations for the prevention and control of insect diseases. Key words: disease...... pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insect species for food and feed. Honeybee and silkworm are mostly produced for other reasons than as human food, yet we can still use them...

  16. Insects are crawling in my genital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Dhawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

  17. Management of insect pests using semiochemical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroffio, C. A.; Guibert, V.; Richoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of effective control measures, the strawberry blossom weevil (Anthonomus rubi) (SBW) and the raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) (RB) cause large (10 - >80%) losses in yield and quality in organically grown raspberry. Attractive lures for both pests were combined into a single....... The aim is to develop optimized lures and cost-effective trap designs for mass trapping and to determine the optimum density and spatial and temporal patterns of deployment of the traps for controlling these pests by mass trapping. The combination between an aggregation pheromone that attracts Anthonomus...... multitrap for the economical management of both of these pests at the same time. This is one of the first approaches to pest management of non-lepidopteran insect pests of horticultural crops using semiochemicals in the EU, and probably the first to target multiple species from different insect orders...

  18. Detection methods for irradiated mites and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the study on the following tests for separation of irradiated pests from untreated ones are reported: (a) test for identification of irradiated mites (Acaridae) based on lack of fecundity of treated females; (b) test for identification of irradiated beetles based on their locomotor activity; (c) test for identification of irradiated pests based on electron spin resonance (ESR) signal derived from treated insects; (d) test for identification of irradiated pests based on changes in the midgut induced by gamma radiation; and (e) test for identification of irradiated pests based on the alterations in total proteins of treated adults. Of these detection methods, only the test based on the pathological changes induced by irradiation in the insect midgut may identify consistently either irradiated larvae or adults. This test is simple and convenient when a rapid processing technique for dehydrating and embedding the midgut is used. (author)

  19. Interactions between parasites and insects vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and Plasmodium-infected Anopheles stephensi. In all cases, host vitellogenesis is disrupted by the parasite and, in the tapeworm/beetle model, interaction between the parasite and the endocrine control of the insect's reproductive physiology has been demonstrated.

  20. Genomic Analysis and Isolation of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Promoters from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Bleckmann

    Full Text Available The Baculoviral Expression Vector System (BEVS is the most commonly used method for high expression of recombinant protein in insect cells. Nevertheless, expression of some target proteins--especially those entering the secretory pathway--provides a severe challenge for the baculovirus infected insect cells, due to the reorganisation of intracellular compounds upon viral infection. Therefore, alternative strategies for recombinant protein production in insect cells like transient plasmid-based expression or stable expression cell lines are becoming more popular. However, the major bottleneck of these systems is the lack of strong endogenous polymerase II dependent promoters, as the strong baculoviral p10 and polH promoters used in BEVS are only functional in presence of the viral transcription machinery during the late phase of infection. In this work we present a draft genome and a transcriptome analysis of Sf21 cells for the identification of the first known endogenous Spodoptera frugiperda promoters. Therefore, putative promoter sequences were identified and selected because of high mRNA level or in analogy to other strong promoters in other eukaryotic organism. The chosen endogenous Sf21 promoters were compared to early viral promoters for their efficiency to trigger eGFP expression using transient plasmid based transfection in a BioLector Microfermentation system. Furthermore, promoter activity was not only shown in Sf21 cells but also in Hi5 cells. The novel endogenous Sf21 promoters were ranked according to their activity and expand the small pool of available promoters for stable insect cell line development and transient plasmid expression in insect cells. The best promoter was used to improve plasmid based transient transfection in insect cells substantially.

  1. Australian Consumers’ Awareness and Acceptance of Insects as Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Wilkinson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous ‘bush tucker’ diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and acceptance of insects as food. An online survey of 820 consumers found that 68% of participants had heard of entomophagy, but only 21% had previously eaten insects; witchetty grubs, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets were the most commonly tasted insects. Taste, appearance, safety, and quality were identified as the factors that were most likely to influence consumer willingness to try eating insects, but consumer attitudes towards entomophagy were underpinned by both food neophobia (i.e., reluctance to eat new or novel foods and prior consumption of insects. Neophobic consumers were far less accepting of entomophagy than neophilic consumers, while consumers who had previously eaten insects were most accepting of insects as food. Incorporating insects into familiar products (e.g., biscuits or cooked meals also improved their appeal. Collectively, these findings can be used by the food industry to devise production and/or marketing strategies that overcome barriers to insect consumption in Australia.

  2. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciel Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even...... in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine...... the quality and yield of the production process. Obtaining such knowledge is crucial for the success of insect-based product development. One of the issues that is likely to compromise the success of insect rearing is the outbreak of insect diseases. In particular, viral diseases can be devastating...

  3. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Muenke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the high...... efficiency at which they can convert feed into food. This article outlines the potential of insects as a food for humans as well as a feedstock for animals and fish. The majority of insects consumed in developing countries today are harvested in nature from wild populations. In Western countries, the disgust...... factor in considering insects as food, combined currently with their limited availability on the market, and a lack of regulations governing insects as food and feed, are major barriers for their further expansion. However, the biggest opportunity may well lie in the production of insect biomass...

  4. Characteristics of Cry1Ab Protein from Bioinsecticides and Insect Resistant GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmijewska Ewelina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological insecticides are an effective method used in plant protection. One of the most widely used active substances in biological insecticides is Cry1Ab protein, which is toxic for lepidopteran insects. This protein is produced during bacterial sporulation by Bacillus thuringiensis. Other sources of Cry1Ab protein are genetically modified plants (GM with expression of cry1Ab gene. Cry1Ab protein in both bioinsecticides and GM plants is present in the form of protoxin, which requires activation by enzymatic treatment in the gut of susceptible insects. So far, Cry1Ab mode of action is not fully understood, but there are 3 main concepts describing it. Two of them assume that a toxic protein after binding to receptors in the insect gut penetrates into the cells, causing pore formation in the gut, which leads to the death of the sensitive insect. In the third model Cry1Ab toxic action is a result of toxin-induced chemical processes initiating a cell death pathway. This work describes the structure and mode of action of Cry1Ab protein, present in biological insecticides and genetically modified plants.

  5. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter announces the development of a draft international standard to facilitate the transboundary shipment of sterile insects stands out. This was developed in response to requests from Member States and the private sector for regulation of the shipping of sterile insects. The draft standard will be considered, reviewed and hopefully endorsed over the next years by the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the governing body of the International Plant protection Convention (IPPC). Also of significance are the Fruit Fly Trapping Guidelines that have been developed to support the harmonization of monitoring procedures for these pest insects in view of the increasing fruit fly related transboundary interactions resulting from the rapidly growing trade in agricultural commodities, as well as travel, transport and tourism. An upcoming event also in the normative area is an FAO/IAEA Expert Meeting on 'Risk Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods' to be held at FAO, Rome from 8-12 April, 2002. The objective of the meeting are to a) assess current status of transgenesis in pest arthropods; b) to assess biosafety concerns for transgenic arthropod release; c) to provide guidance for future risk assessment protocols for case by case analysis; and d) to assess the possibility of establishing a working group under IPPC for setting guidelines for development and use of transgenic insect technology. An important event at the end of 2001 was the Resolution on the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) adopted by the FAO Conference held in Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (for the full text of the resolution see page 39).. The resolution acknowledges the severity of the trypanosomosis problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the potential benefits of tsetse elimination, and calls upon affected member nations to include tsetse eradication in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and for the FAO to support them in their efforts to

  6. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1...mosquito Culex pipiens quin- quefasciatus sensitive to oviposition attractants. PLoS ONE 5, e10090. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010090 Sato, K...Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 38, 770–780. Syed, Z., and Leal, W. S. (2007). Max- illary palps are broad spectrum odorant detectors in Culex quinque

  7. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter. No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This newsletter lists the FAO/IAEA meetings in the field of pest control held between September 1990 and February 1991 and provides very brief summaries of their contents. It also features a special report on the New World Screwworm in North Africa. An eradication programme, organized by the IAEA and the FAO and based on the sterile insect technique, was implemented, and as a result it is expected that the area will be declared free of the pest during autumn 1991

  8. Oxygen reperfusion damage in an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R B Lighton

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of anoxia followed by reperfusion with oxygen in higher animals including mammals are well known. A convenient and genetically well characterized small-animal model that exhibits reproducible, quantifiable oxygen reperfusion damage is currently lacking. Here we describe the dynamics of whole-organism metabolic recovery from anoxia in an insect, Drosophila melanogaster, and report that damage caused by oxygen reperfusion can be quantified in a novel but straightforward way. We monitored CO(2 emission (an index of mitochondrial activity and water vapor output (an index of neuromuscular control of the spiracles, which are valves between the outside air and the insect's tracheal system during entry into, and recovery from, rapid-onset anoxia exposure with durations ranging from 7.5 to 120 minutes. Anoxia caused a brief peak of CO(2 output followed by knock-out. Mitochondrial respiration ceased and the spiracle constrictor muscles relaxed, but then re-contracted, presumably powered by anaerobic processes. Reperfusion to sustained normoxia caused a bimodal re-activation of mitochondrial respiration, and in the case of the spiracle constrictor muscles, slow inactivation followed by re-activation. After long anoxia durations, both the bimodality of mitochondrial reactivation and the recovery of spiracular control were impaired. Repeated reperfusion followed by episodes of anoxia depressed mitochondrial respiratory flux rates and damaged the integrity of the spiracular control system in a dose-dependent fashion. This is the first time that physiological evidence of oxygen reperfusion damage has been described in an insect or any invertebrate. We suggest that some of the traditional approaches of insect respiratory biology, such as quantifying respiratory water loss, may facilitate using D. melanogaster as a convenient, well-characterized experimental model for studying the underlying biology and mechanisms of ischemia and

  9. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  10. Interactions between parasites and insects vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Hurd,Hilary

    1994-01-01

    This review stresses the importance of studies that will provide a basic understanding of the pathology of parasite-infected vector insects. This knowledge should be a vital component of the very focussed initiatives currently being funded in the areas of vector control. Vector fecundity reduction is discussed as an example of such pathology. Underlying mechanisms are being investigated in a model system, Hymenolepis diminuta-infected Tenebrio molitor and in Onchocerca-infected blackflies and...

  11. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Briers; R. A. Briers; J. H. R. Gee; J. H. R. Gee

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive) phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a potentially strong impact on survival and success of...

  12. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  13. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F 1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. Five novel Candida species in insect-associated yeast clades isolated from Neuroptera and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu H; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts are found commonly in the guts of basidioma-feeding beetles but little is known about their occurrence in the gut of other insects. In this study we isolated 95 yeasts from the gut of adult insects in five neuropteran families (Neuroptera: Corydalidae, Chrysopidae, Ascalaphidae, Mantispidae and Hemerobiidae) and a roach (Blattodea: Blattidae). Based on DNA sequence comparisons and other taxonomic characteristics, they were identified as more than 15 species of Saccharomycetes as well as occasional Cryptococcus-like basidiomycete yeasts. Yeast species such as Lachancea fermentati, Lachancea thermotolerans and Hanseniaspora vineae were isolated repeatedly from the gut of three species of corydalids, suggesting a close association of these species and their insect hosts. Among the yeasts isolated in this study 12 were identified as five novel Candida species that occurred in three phylogenetically distinct clades. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that Candida chauliodes sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27909T) and Candida corydali sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27910T) were sister taxa in the Candida albicans/ Lodderomyces elongisporus clade. Candida dosseyi sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27950T) and Candida blattae sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27698T) were sister taxa in the Candida intermedia clade. Candida ascalaphidarum sp. nov. (NRRL Y-27908T) fell on a basal branch in a clade containing Candida membranifaciens and many other insect-associated species. Descriptions of these novel yeast species are provided as well as discussion of their ecology in relation to their insect hosts.

  15. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  16. Raman microspectroscopic studies of amber resins with insect inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Farwell, Dennis W.; Villar, Susana E. Jorge

    2007-12-01

    Raman microscope spectra of specimens of Baltic and Mexican amber resins containing insect inclusions have been analysed using near-infrared excitation to assess the potential for discrimination between the keratotic remains of the insects and the terpenoid matrix. For the Mexican amber specimen the insect spectra exhibit evidence of significant protein degradation compared with the insect remains in the Baltic amber specimen. In both cases the Raman spectra of the insect remains are still distinguishable from the amber resins. Despite its better preservation, however, no spectra could be obtained from the inside of the larger insect preserved in the Baltic amber in agreement with the observation that most insect inclusions in amber are hollow. It is noted that the Mexican amber insect is located adjacent to a large gas bubble in the amber matrix, to which the observed degradation of the insect and its poor state of preservation are attributed. It is concluded that Raman spectra of insect inclusions can provide useful information about the chemical composition of the remains and that confocal microscopy is particularly advantageous in this respect.

  17. Glucosinolate breakdown products as insect fumigants and their effect on carbon dioxide emission of insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coats Joel R

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile, therefore good candidates for insect fumigants. However, although they are insecticidal, the mode of action of such natural products is not clear. We studied the insecticidal effect of these compounds as fumigants, and monitored the production of carbon dioxide by the insects as a probe to the understanding of their mode of action. Results The fumigation 24-h LC50 against the house fly (Musca domestica L. of allyl thiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate, allyl cyanide, and l-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene was 0.1, 0.13, 3.66, and 6.2 μg cm-3, respectively; they were 0.55, 1.57, 2.8, and > 19.60 μg cm-3, respectively, against the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius. The fumigation toxicity of some of the glucosinolate products was very close to or better than that of the commercial insect fumigants such as chloropicrin (LC50: 0.08 and 1.3 μg cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively and dichlorovos (LC50: -3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively in our laboratory tests. Significantly increased CO2 expiration was found in insects exposed to the vapor of allyl isothiocyanate, allyl thiocyanate and allyl isocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate was also found to increase the CO2 expiration of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.. Conclusions Glucosinolate breakdown products have potential as biodegradable and safe insect fumigants. They may act on the insect respiratory system in their mode of action.

  18. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  19. Response of native insect communities to invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezemer, T Martijn; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants can disrupt a range of trophic interactions in native communities. As a novel resource they can affect the performance of native insect herbivores and their natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, and this can lead to host shifts of these herbivores and natural enemies. Through the release of volatile compounds, and by changing the chemical complexity of the habitat, invasive plants can also affect the behavior of native insects such as herbivores, parasitoids, and pollinators. Studies that compare insects on related native and invasive plants in invaded habitats show that the abundance of insect herbivores is often lower on invasive plants, but that damage levels are similar. The impact of invasive plants on the population dynamics of resident insect species has been rarely examined, but invasive plants can influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of native insect (meta)populations and communities, ultimately leading to changes at the landscape level.

  20. Architectural diversity and galling insects on Caryocar brasiliense trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Veloso, Ronnie Von Dos Santos; Zanuncio, José Cola; Azevedo, Alcinei Mistico; Silva, Júlia Letícia; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga

    2017-11-30

    Galling insects are a highly sophisticated herbivore group on Caryocar brasiliense, a tree that represents the main income source for many communities. The effect of architectural diversity of C. brasiliense trees on galling insect community diversity and abundance was studied. The abundance of adult insects and galled leaves were seven and 1.6 times higher in trees with a greater height/width of canopy (RHW) ratio, respectively. Gall parasitoid richness was 1.8 times greater on trees with higher RHW. Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and ant numbers were 5.8 and 2.7 higher on trees with the largest and smallest RHW, respectively. More complex plant architectures favored species diversity for galling insects and their natural enemies. The competition among four galling insect species for space and feeding and the evidence of "prudence strategy" were, for the first time, observed for galling insects in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

  1. Nonlinear flight dynamics and stability of hovering model insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao

    2013-01-01

    Current analyses on insect dynamic flight stability are based on linear theory and limited to small disturbance motions. However, insects' aerial environment is filled with swirling eddies and wind gusts, and large disturbances are common. Here, we numerically solve the equations of motion coupled with the Navier–Stokes equations to simulate the large disturbance motions and analyse the nonlinear flight dynamics of hovering model insects. We consider two representative model insects, a model hawkmoth (large size, low wingbeat frequency) and a model dronefly (small size, high wingbeat frequency). For small and large initial disturbances, the disturbance motion grows with time, and the insects tumble and never return to the equilibrium state; the hovering flight is inherently (passively) unstable. The instability is caused by a pitch moment produced by forward/backward motion and/or a roll moment produced by side motion of the insect. PMID:23697714

  2. Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Bernhard; Liu, Shanlin; Meusemann, Karen; Peters, Ralph S; Donath, Alexander; Mayer, Christoph; Frandsen, Paul B; Ware, Jessica; Flouri, Tomáš; Beutel, Rolf G; Niehuis, Oliver; Petersen, Malte; Izquierdo-Carrasco, Fernando; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes; Aberer, Andre J; Aspöck, Ulrike; Aspöck, Horst; Bartel, Daniela; Blanke, Alexander; Berger, Simon; Böhm, Alexander; Buckley, Thomas R; Calcott, Brett; Chen, Junqing; Friedrich, Frank; Fukui, Makiko; Fujita, Mari; Greve, Carola; Grobe, Peter; Gu, Shengchang; Huang, Ying; Jermiin, Lars S; Kawahara, Akito Y; Krogmann, Lars; Kubiak, Martin; Lanfear, Robert; Letsch, Harald; Li, Yiyuan; Li, Zhenyu; Li, Jiguang; Lu, Haorong; Machida, Ryuichiro; Mashimo, Yuta; Kapli, Pashalia; McKenna, Duane D; Meng, Guanliang; Nakagaki, Yasutaka; Navarrete-Heredia, José Luis; Ott, Michael; Ou, Yanxiang; Pass, Günther; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Pohl, Hans; von Reumont, Björn M; Schütte, Kai; Sekiya, Kaoru; Shimizu, Shota; Slipinski, Adam; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Song, Wenhui; Su, Xu; Szucsich, Nikolaus U; Tan, Meihua; Tan, Xuemei; Tang, Min; Tang, Jingbo; Timelthaler, Gerald; Tomizuka, Shigekazu; Trautwein, Michelle; Tong, Xiaoli; Uchifune, Toshiki; Walzl, Manfred G; Wiegmann, Brian M; Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wong, Thomas K F; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Gengxiong; Xie, Yinlong; Yang, Shenzhou; Yang, Qing; Yeates, David K; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wenwei; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Chengran; Zhou, Lili; Ziesmann, Tanja; Zou, Shijie; Li, Yingrui; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Kjer, Karl M; Zhou, Xin

    2014-11-07

    Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Insect gut microbiome - An unexploited reserve for biotechnological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Muthukalingan; Bharathiraja, Chinnapandi; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2014-05-01

    Metagenomics research has been developed over the past decade to elucidate the genomes of the uncultured microorganisms with an aim of understanding microbial ecology. On the other hand, it has also been provoked by the increasing biotechnological demands for novel enzymes, antibiotic and signal mimics. The gut microbiota of insects plays crucial roles in the growth, development and environmental adaptation to the host insects. Very recently, the insect microbiota and their genomes (microbiome), isolated from insects were recognized as a major genetic resources for bio-processing industry. Consequently, the exploitation of insect gut microbiome using metagenomic approaches will enable us to find novel biocatalysts and to develop innovative strategies for identifying smart molecules for biotechnological applications. In this review, we discuss the critical footstep in extraction and purification of metagenomic DNA from insect gut, construction of metagenomic libraries and screening procedure for novel gene identification. Recent innovations and potential applications in bioprocess industries are highlighted.

  4. Horizontal transmission of the insect symbiont Rickettsia is plant-mediated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi-Fluger, Ayelet; Inbar, Moshe; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Belausov, Eduard; Hunter, Martha S.; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsia, best known as vertebrate pathogens vectored by blood-feeding arthropods, can also be found in phytophagous insects. The presence of closely related bacterial symbionts in evolutionarily distant arthropod hosts presupposes a means of horizontal transmission, but no mechanism for this transmission has been described. Using a combination of experiments with live insects, molecular analyses and microscopy, we found that Rickettsia were transferred from an insect host (the whitefly Bemisia tabaci) to a plant, moved inside the phloem, and could be acquired by other whiteflies. In one experiment, Rickettsia was transferred from the whitefly host to leaves of cotton, basil and black nightshade, where the bacteria were restricted to the phloem cells of the plant. In another experiment, Rickettsia-free adult whiteflies, physically segregated but sharing a cotton leaf with Rickettsia-plus individuals, acquired the Rickettsia at a high rate. Plants can serve as a reservoir for horizontal transmission of Rickettsia, a mechanism which may explain the occurrence of phylogenetically similar symbionts among unrelated phytophagous insect species. This plant-mediated transmission route may also exist in other insect–symbiont systems and, since symbionts may play a critical role in the ecology and evolution of their hosts, serve as an immediate and powerful tool for accelerated evolution. PMID:22113034

  5. Chemical ecology of insects and tritrophic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Aslam, M.; Razaq, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the chemical ecology of insects to explain the role of semiochemicals in plant-herbivore, herbivore-carnivore and plant-carnivore interactions. The semiochemical, mediating tritrophic interactions may be produced by plants, herbivores or their natural enemies (carnivores). Some semiochemicals attract the herbivores and carnivores and mediate interaction among them, while on the other hand some repel them. The semiochemicals are used by heribivores, parasites and predators as cues to locate food, host or prey. The same chemicals are also used for defensive purpose by some herbivores against their natural enemies as they are sequestered through their bodies. (author)

  6. Environment and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, P.; Peveling, R.

    2005-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the elimination of native species, or at least populations of native species, requires more detailed and complex assessments of ecological effects and consequences for biodiversity conservation. Eradication programmes provide opportunities to study these topics within the scope of both environmental impact assessments and operational monitoring programmes. (author)

  7. Laboratory and Modeling Studies of Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    sensory capabilities of the insects. Copies of all papers written with support from this award are included with this report. (a) Papers published in...Rev. Lett. 113, 238102 (2014). I. D. Couzin, J. Krause, R. James, G. D. Ruxton, and N. R. Franks, “Collective memory and spatial sorting in animal...A. Mayo, E. Sontag, and U. Alon, “Fold-change detection and scalar symmetry of sensory input fields,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 15995-16000 (2010).

  8. [Reactions to insect stings and bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Reaction to insect sting and bite may be local, such as erythema, edema and pruritus, or systemic, such as anaphylactic reaction. Diagnosis can be made by patient history, clinical picture, skin testing, total and specific IgE level, and provocation test. Local reactions are treated with cold compresses, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. Oral and intramuscular antihistamines and corticosteroids are used for the treatment of mild systemic reactions, and in severe reaction epinephrine injections are added. Hyposensitization is indicated in patients with severe systemic reaction, positive skin tests and high level of specific IgE antibodies.

  9. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  10. Diseases in insects produced for food and feed

    OpenAIRE

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Vlak, J.M.; Nielsen-Leroux, C.; Cappellozza, S.; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2015-01-01

    Increased production of insects on a large scale for food and feed will likely lead to many novel challenges, includingproblems with diseases. We provide an overview of important groups of insect pathogens, which can cause diseasein insects produced for food and feed. Main characteristics of each pathogen group (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protistsand nematodes) are described and illustrated, with a selection of examples from the most commonly produced insectspecies for food and feed. Honeybee ...

  11. Structure, function and evolution of insect flight muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Insects, the largest group of animals on the earth, owe their prosperity to their ability of flight and small body sizes. The ability of flight provided means for rapid translocation. The small body size allowed access to unutilized niches. By acquiring both features, however, insects faced a new problem: They were forced to beat their wings at enormous frequencies. Insects have overcome this problem by inventing asynchronous flight muscle, a highly specialized form of striated muscle capable...

  12. OMIGA: Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

    2014-08-01

    Insects are one of the largest classes of animals on Earth and constitute more than half of all living species. The i5k initiative has begun sequencing of more than 5,000 insect genomes, which should greatly help in exploring insect resource and pest control. Insect genome annotation remains challenging because many insects have high levels of heterozygosity. To improve the quality of insect genome annotation, we developed a pipeline, named Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation (OMIGA), to predict protein-coding genes from insect genomes. We first mapped RNA-Seq reads to genomic scaffolds to determine transcribed regions using Bowtie, and the putative transcripts were assembled using Cufflink. We then selected highly reliable transcripts with intact coding sequences to train de novo gene prediction software, including Augustus. The re-trained software was used to predict genes from insect genomes. Exonerate was used to refine gene structure and to determine near exact exon/intron boundary in the genome. Finally, we used the software Maker to integrate data from RNA-Seq, de novo gene prediction, and protein alignment to produce an official gene set. The OMIGA pipeline was used to annotate the draft genome of an important insect pest, Chilo suppressalis, yielding 12,548 genes. Different strategies were compared, which demonstrated that OMIGA had the best performance. In summary, we present a comprehensive pipeline for identifying genes in insect genomes that can be widely used to improve the annotation quality in insects. OMIGA is provided at http://ento.njau.edu.cn/omiga.html .

  13. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongquan; Li, Kai; Wang, Youqiong; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  14. Testing Two Methods that Relate Herbivorous Insects to Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    White, Peter J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Insect herbivores are integral to terrestrial ecosystems. They provide essential food for higher trophic levels and aid in nutrient cycling. In general, research tends to relate individual insect herbivore species to host plant identity, where a species will show preference for one host over another. In contrast, insect herbivore assemblages are often related to host plant richness where an area with a higher richness of hosts will also have a higher richness of herbivores. In this study, the...

  15. Anti-Insect Properties of Grass Fungal Endophytes for Plant Resistance to Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many temperate grass species host Epichloë and Neotyphodium endophytic fungi that produce alkaloids with anti-mammalian and anti-insect properties. Ergot and lolitrem alkaloid production by endophyte-infected (E+) grasses can have deleterious effects on grazing livestock, whereas insecticidal alkal...

  16. Ossification Vesicles with Calcium Phosphate in the Eyes of the Insect Copium teucrii (Hemiptera: Tingidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Guinea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod eyes are built of repeating units named ommatidia. Each single ommatidium unit contains a cluster of photoreceptor cells surrounded by support cells and pigment cells. The insect Copium eye ommatidia include additional calcium-phosphate deposits, not described in insects to date, which can be examined today using a combined set of modern microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Teucrium gnaphalodes L'Her plants, growing in central Spain, develop galls induced by Copium insects. A survey of C. teucrii adult specimens resulted in surprising environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM images, showing that their bright red eyes contain a calcium-phosphate mineralization. A complete survey of Copium eye specimens was performed by ESEM using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, backscattered electron detector and cathodoluminescence (CL probes, field emission scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy in order to learn ommatidia features, such as chemical composition, molecular structure, cell membrane, and internal ommatidium eye fluids and calcium-phosphate distribution deposits. The CL panchromatic images distinguish between the calcium-phosphate ommatidium and calcium-phosphate setae, which are more apatite rich. They show Raman bands attributable to bone tissue apatite biomaterials, such as bone, collagen, lipids, and blood, i.e., peptides, amide-S, amide-II, amide-III, and cytochrome P-450scc. The chemical composition of both galls and leaves of T. gnaphalodes was determined by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS of their extracts. The spectrometric and microscopic images reveal that the calcium-phosphate mineralization is formed and constrained to Copium ommatidia, which are both matrix vesicles generating mixtures of apatite collagen and operational compound eyes of the insect.

  17. The insect excretory system as a target for novel pest control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Esau; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The insect excretory system plays essential roles in osmoregulation, ionoregulation and toxin elimination. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid and ion transport by the epithelial cells of the excretory system provides a foundation for development of novel pest management strategies. In the present review, we focus on two such strategies: first, impairment of osmoregulation by manipulation of diuretic or antidiuretic signaling pathways and second, interference with toxin elimination by inhibition of toxin transport systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MMPs regulate both development and immunity in the Tribolium model insect

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr, E.; Schmidtberg, H.; Vilcinskas, A.; Altincicek, B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional effector molecules in development and homeostasis. In spite of previous, intensive investigation in vitro and in cell culture, their pleiotrophic functions in vivo are still not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the genetically amenable beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a feasible model organism to explore MMP functions in vivo. We silenced expression of three insect-t...

  19. Plant odour plumes as mediators of plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaert, Ivo; Hilker, Monika

    2014-02-01

    Insect olfactory orientation along odour plumes has been studied intensively with respect to pheromonal communication, whereas little knowledge is available on how plant odour plumes (POPs) affect olfactory searching by an insect for its host plants. The primary objective of this review is to examine the role of POPs in the attraction of insects. First, we consider parameters of an odour source and the environment which determine the size, shape and structure of an odour plume, and we apply that knowledge to POPs. Second, we compare characteristics of insect pheromonal plumes and POPs. We propose a 'POP concept' for the olfactory orientation of insects to plants. We suggest that: (i) an insect recognises a POP by means of plant volatile components that are encountered in concentrations higher than a threshold detection limit and that occur in a qualitative and quantitative blend indicating a resource; (ii) perception of the fine structure of a POP enables an insect to distinguish a POP from an unspecific odorous background and other interfering plumes; and (iii) an insect can follow several POPs to their sources, and may leave the track of one POP and switch to another one if this conveys a signal with higher reliability or indicates a more suitable resource. The POP concept proposed here may be a useful tool for research in olfactory-mediated plant-insect interactions. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota. Beetles, homopterans, and flies are important associates of fungi, and in turn the insects carry yeasts in pits, specialized external pouches, and modified gut pockets. Some yeasts undergo sexual reproduction within the insect gut, where the genetic diversity of the population is increased, while others, well suited to their stable environment, may never mate. The range of interactions extends from dispersal of yeasts on the surface of insects (e.g., cactus- Drosophila -yeast and ephemeral flower communities, ambrosia beetles, yeasts with holdfasts) to extremely specialized associations of organisms that can no longer exist independently, as in the case of yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. In a few cases yeast-like fungus-insect associations threaten butterflies and other species with extinction. Technical advances improve discovery and identification of the fungi but also inform our understanding of the evolution of yeast-insect symbioses, although there is much more to learn.