Full Text Available Objectives: Brimonidine tartrate is an alpha-2 agonist used for glaucoma treatment. It can lead to serious poisoning symptoms when misused by children. Case report: In this case report, 3 months-old male patient with severe central nervous system depression and respiratory arrest as a result of accidentally nasal instillation of 1 cc brimonidine tartrate that benefited from mechanic ventilation and naloxone treatment was presented. Conclusion: This case report suggested, that misuse of nasal brimonidine eye drop could result in serious respiratory distress and central nervous system depression. Mechanical ventilation and naloxone administration can be useful for these patients. Keywords: Brimonidine intoxication, Nasal ingestion, Children
Full Text Available The article deals with the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis in children. Attention is paid to unwarranted use of antibiotics, misuse of vasoconstrictor drops. It is emphasized that broad-spectrum antibiotics in accordance with the recommendations of EPOS 2012 should be administered after the 5th day of the disease or in the presence of severe symptoms. Saline irrigation has the highest level of evidence advisability for the administration from the first day of acute rhinosinusitis. The findings of the clinical study on therapeutic effect and tolerability of nasal drops Milt in combination with nasal spray Pshyk manufactured by Farmak сompany (Ukraine when treating children with acute rhinosinusitis are presented. It is shown that use of these drugs helps maintain and significantly improve the functional state of the nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance in children with acute rhinosinusitis as well as quickly and safely reduce the signs of inflammation in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. This makes it possible to avoid invasive treatments not only by reducing the symptoms, but also the provision of pathogenetic therapeutic effect.
Joshi, Rohan R; Maresh, Alison
The use of intranasal steroid drops for nasal obstruction in infants is common practice and can prevent more invasive surgical procedures; however, it is not without complication. We describe 2 cases of iatrogenic Cushing's secondary to nasal steroids in infants with nasal obstruction, discuss the etiology of this unusual complication, and review previous literature reports. While reporting in the literature is sparse, these cases highlight the risk of development of adrenal insufficiency with usage of nasal steroid drops in infants as well as the need for close monitoring of administration and tapering of the drops. Additionally, we suggest an approach to the infant with symptomatic nasal obstruction that addresses the usage of intranasal steroid drops and emphasizes the need for quick tapering and possible endocrine consultation when appropriate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nordt, Sean Patrick; Vivero, Lisa E; Cantrell, F Lee
Oxymetazoline is an over-the-counter nasal decongestant with potent alpha agonist properties. In overdoses as small as 1-2 mL, toxicity can be seen including bradycardia and respiratory depression. We demonstrated that inverting the container increased the volume delivered 20- to 30-fold compared with holding it upright in an in vitro model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Nasal Physiology Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Noam Cohen, MD, ... control the inflammation. CONCLUSION An understanding of the physiology of the nose is critical to understand nasal ...
... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...
Nasal congestion due to the common cold occurs because of dilation of the blood vessels, leading to swelling of the nasal mucosal epithelium. This narrows nasal passages, which are further blocked by increased mucus production. Nasal sprays and drops are often recommended for the treatment of rhinorrhoea and nasal ...
... at night. A saltwater nasal wash, or nasal irrigation, can help reduce this. A nasal wash: Cleans ... trouble cooperating with a nasal wash, and may need to be held and assisted. Ask your health ...
Hoving, Eelco W.
Nasal encephaloceles can be divided into frontoethmoidal and basal encephaloceles. Both conditions are very rare, but frontoethmoidal encephaloceles show a relatively high incidence (1:5,000) in Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of encephaloceles may be explained by a disturbance in separation of
... of the middle turbinate is oblique, connecting the vertical and horizontal parts, and is thus connected both the skull base in the front and the nasal sidewall in the back. The frontal sinus and anterior ethmoid sinus cells drain beneath the middle turbinate into the middle meatus. ...
Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...
Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It ... also used to relieve sinus congestion and pressure. Oxymetazoline nasal spray should not be used to treat ...
Jagade, Mohan V; Langade, Deepak G; Pophale, Rupesh R; Prabhu, Arun
To compare the efficacy and tolerability of Oxymetazoline 0.05 % plus Dexpanthanol 5% versus Xylometazoline 0.1 % nasal drops in patients with nasal congestion due to allergic rhinitis and following nasal surgery. An investigator-blind, randomized, controlled, phase IV clinical trial conducted in 100 patients with acute allergic rhinitis or patients post-nasal surgery. Patients received either Oxymetazoline 0.05% with Dexpanthanol 5% (OD) or Xylometazoline 0.1% (XO) nasal drops. Relief from nasal congestion was significantly better in the OD group then in the XO group (mean nasal scores 1.24 vs 1.86). Significantly more improvement in sneezing and decrease in nasal discharge was seen in the OD group than the XO group. Nasal irritation in the OD group was significantly less as compared to XO group (0.38 v/s 1.12 on second day and 0.10 vs 0.36 on the fourth day). The recovery time for OD group was 1.08 hours, which was significantly (46 min) lesser than that of the XO group. Rebound congestion was significantly less in OD as compared to XO group (6.25% vs 82.98%). 93.75% of the physicians in the OD group and 51.28% in XO group reported response to therapy as good to excellent. 95.83% patients in the OD group and only 52.91% patients in the XO group rated tolerability to therapy as good to excellent. Oxymetazoline and dexpanthenol combination has a better efficacy, shorter recovery time, causes lesser rebound congestion and has better tolerability than xylometazoline.
Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.
... is being done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to the neurological conditions that cause foot drop in its laboratories at the National ...
The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.
Beer, Helen; Southern, Kevin W; Swift, Andrew C
Nasal polyps frequently occur in people with cystic fibrosis. Sinus infections have been shown to be a factor in the development of serious chest complications in these people. Nasal polyps have been linked to a higher risk of lower respiratory tract infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Topical nasal steroids are of proven efficacy for treating nasal polyposis in the non-cystic fibrosis population. There is no clear current evidence for the efficacy of topical steroids for nasal polyps in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an updated version of a previously published review. To assess the effectiveness of topical nasal steroids for treating symptomatic nasal polyps in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Latest search: 10 June 2015. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled comparing the effects of topical nasal steroids to placebo in people with nasal polyps with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included trial and extracted data. One single-centred trial (46 participants) was identified comparing a topical steroid (betamethasone) given as nasal drops to placebo. Treatment was given twice daily for six weeks; 22 participants received the active drug.Subjective symptom scores, change in polyp size, and side effects were assessed. There was no difference in nasal symptom scores between the treatment and placebo groups. Betamethasone was effective in reducing the size of polyps, but was associated with increased reports of mild side effects, nasal bleeding and discomfort.Risk of bias was high since over 50% of people enrolled did not complete the study. Follow-up of participants was short (six weeks) also reducing the significance of the results for clinical practice. This review
Hamilton, Grant S
The external nasal valve is a complex entity comprised of multiple structures and tissue types. As such, there is no single operation that can address all problems of the external valve. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, pathologic conditions, and treatments for external nasal valve dysfunction, including a detailed review of the nasal muscles and their contribution to external nasal valve patency. Surgical and nonsurgical options for treatment and the evidence supporting the importance of proper external nasal valve function on quality-of-life measures are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khan, Jafar; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Murki, Srinivas; Bhatti, Anuj; Saini, Shiv Sajan; Kumar, Praveen
Nasal injuries with use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) range from blanching of nasal tip to septal necrosis and septal drop. This analysis was done in preterm neonates of nasal CPAP as primary support as part of a randomized trial comparing Jet device with Bubble device for delivery of CPAP, both through nasal prongs of different structure, make and fixation methods. Nasal injury was assessed using a validated nasal injury score. Out of 170 neonates enrolled, 103 (61%) had nasal injuries; moderate and severe injuries were observed in 18 (11%) and 8 (5%) infants, respectively. Septum was the most common site injured. The incidence and severity of nasal injury were significantly lesser in Jet group compared to Bubble group [RR 0.6 (95% C.I. 0.5-0.8); p CPAP device with its nasal interface had higher and more serious incidence of nasal injuries in comparison to Jet CPAP device. What is known: • Nasal injuries are becoming increasingly common with use of nasal CPAP low gestational age, low birth weight, longer use of CPAP and longer NICU stay are risk factors for such injuries • Validated nasal injury scores have been created for assessment of nasal trauma in neonates What is new: • Bubble device with its interface had higher and more serious incidence of nasal injuries in comparison to Jet device • Even though pain assessed by N-PASS was less with Jet device, prong displacements were more frequent with its system.
Bohman, Anton; Oscarsson, Martin; Holmberg, Kenneth; Johansson, Leif; Millqvist, Eva; Nasic, Salmir; Torinsson-Naluai, Åsa; Bende, Mats
Nasal polyps is a common disease but little is known about its` pathogenesis. Our hypothesis was that there are genetic factors involved in the development of this disease. The aim of this study was to examine close relatives of patients with nasal polyps and comparing them with a general population with regard to prevalence of polyps. Patients with nasal polyps who attended the clinic were recruited to the study and were asked whether they had any close adult relatives (siblings, parents or children). We intended to recruit two relatives per patient, one of each gender, for nasal endoscopy. The prevalence of nasal polyps in these relatives was compared with the prevalence of nasal polyps in a general population. During a 4-year period, 368 patients and 410 relatives were recruited to the study. Although we were unable to recruit two close relatives for every patient, we were able to calculate nasal polyp prevalence within families as being 19.2%. Compared with the prevalence of nasal polyps among individuals in a general Swedish population from the same geographical area, the relative risk for polyps among relatives was almost five times higher. This study strongly indicates that heredity is a factor of importance for development of nasal polyps.
Cook, Shannon E; Fedor, Katherine L; Chatburn, Robert L
Neonates with respiratory distress syndrome are often treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Nasal CPAP methods include electronic feedback control, underwater seal, flow opposition, and flow opposition with fluidic flow reversal on expiration. Few studies have compared those modes, and the results have been contradictory. We compared the effect of resistive load on simulated tidal volume (V(T)) with 5 neonatal nasal CPAP systems: Fisher and Paykel nasal CPAP tubing with Maquet Servo-i ventilator in NIV CPAP mode; Cardinal Health AirLife nasal CPAP system; Fisher and Paykel nasal CPAP tubing with water-seal pressure generator; AirLife infant nasal CPAP generator kit; and Hamilton Medical Arabella fluidic nasal CPAP generator. The lung simulator settings were: compliance 0.5 mL/cm H2O, resistance 125 H2O/L/s, sinusoidal patient-effort range 6.5-26 cm H2O, rise 25%, hold 0%, release 25%, respiratory rate 65 breaths/min. We compared the mean values from 10 breaths. The mean inspiratory pressure drop and V(T) difference (compared to the simulator alone, unloaded) increased with V(T), respectively, from 0.32 cm H2O to 1.73 cm H2O, and from -0.04 mL to -0.40 mL. Flow opposition had the smallest pressure drop (from 0.10 cm H2O to 0.64 cm H2O, P nasal CPAP's pressure drop was largest (P or = 9 mL the electronic nasal CPAP's pressure drop was largest (P nasal CPAP systems correlate with the differences in unassisted V(T) due to loading effects. The ventilator imposed the least load, and the AirLife nasal CPAP system imposed the most.
... to supply extra vitamin B12 to people who need unusually large amounts of this vitamin because they are pregnant or have certain diseases. ... Cyanocobalamin nasal gel will supply you with enough vitamin B12 only as ... it regularly. You may need to use cyanocobalamin nasal gel every week for ...
Pavia, J.; Garcia, A.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Franch, M.; Espana, R. de
A study has been carried out to assess the mucociliary function of nasal mucosa in 30 patients: 16 had undergone surgery due to larynx malignancy and the remaining 14 were divided in two groups. The first group was composed of seven patients suffering from larynx cancer but not operated, and the second group of seven had pathology not related to the airways (control group). The method used a sup(99m)technetium sulphur colloid drop deposited on the nasal mucosa of one nostril. To calculate the rate of transport, a new method of quantification has been introduced, based on the formation of a parametric image. The mean velocity in laryngectomees was 3.6 mm/min (range 1.1-6.4). It was compared with the group of 14 patients without tracheostomy (mean 5.3, range 3.3-8.2). An impaired student's-t-test gave a significant difference between both groups (P<0.005). The comparison between patients with nonoperated larynx cancer and normals have a nonsignificant difference. The 16 operated patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups as per the time elapsed from laryngectomy; seven were studied within the first 3 years of operation and seven other patients after this term. The comparison between them was not significant. (orig.)
Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA
Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and
Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An, S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittleman, Talia; Downing, Kerri; Stepp, Cara, E.
Purpose: This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method: Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and…
... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...
Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.
King, R.R.; Greiner, E.C.; Ackerman, N.; Woodard, J.C.
A five-year-old dog was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge. Nasal infection caused by Capillaria aerophila was diagnosed by identification of adult nematodes and eggs in the nasal flush sediment and by nasal biopsy samples and eggs in faecal flotations. Reinfection occurred following treatment with fenbendazole and ivermectin, probably because of a contaminated housing area
Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...
... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... stop using butorphanol nasal spray, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...
Pepper, Amber N; Ledford, Dennis K
Nasal and ocular challenges facilitate the evaluation of subjective and objective responses to defined allergen or irritant exposure. Nasal and ocular allergen challenges are the gold standard to diagnose allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, respectively, and aid in the evaluation of novel therapies in clinical trials. Additionally, nasal and ocular allergen challenges might help identify medically relevant allergens in clinical practice. Nonspecific or irritant challenges evaluate mucosal hyperreactivity. Direct mucosal challenges, which can be performed in an office or research setting, expose the participant to higher allergen doses than common in the natural environment. Park studies and environmental chambers, which are most practical in clinical trials, more closely simulate natural allergen exposure. International consensus guidelines for nasal and ocular challenges do not exist. Therefore the positivity criteria, methodologies, and extract or allergen preparations used in challenges vary in the literature. Regardless of these limitations, nasal and ocular challenges are helpful clinical and research tools for nasal and ocular diseases. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mugundhan, Vivek; Jian, Zhen; Yang, Fan; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur
Coalescence dynamics of a pendent drop sitting inside another drop, has been studied experimentally and in numerical simulations. Using an in-house fabricated composite micro-nozzle, a smaller salt-water drop is introduced inside a larger oil drop which is pendent in a tank containing the same liquid as the inner drop. On touching the surface of outer drop, the inner drop coalesces with the surrounding liquid forming a vortex ring, which grows in time to form a mushroom-like structure. The initial dynamics at the first bridge opening up is quantified using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), while matching the refractive index of the two liquids. The phenomenon is also numerically simulated using the open-source code Gerris. The problem is fully governed by two non-dimensional parameters: the Ohnesorge number and the diameter ratios of the two drops. The validated numerical model is used to better understand the dynamics of the phenomenon. In some cases a coalescence cascade is observed with liquid draining intermittently and the inner drop reducing in size.
Young, E; Dabrowski, M; Brelsford, K
To present a case of, and to review the literature concerning, osteoblastoma of the nasal cavity, and to demonstrate the importance of considering this rare entity when assessing patients presenting with a nasal septum lesion. Benign osteoblastoma is a rare tumour, constituting 1 per cent of all bone tumours. Most cases occur in the long bones. Osteoblastoma involving the nasal cavity is rare, with only 10 reported cases in the English-language literature. Most nasal cavity cases originate from the ethmoid sinus and spread to involve the nasal cavity. There are only four reported cases of osteoblastoma originating from the bones of the nasal cavity. We report a case of osteoblastoma originating from the bony nasal septum in a 45-year-old man with a history of recurrent, right-sided epistaxis and nasal obstruction. This is the second report in the English-language literature of osteoblastoma originating from the bony nasal septum.
Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.
1 The seed of Butyrospermum parkii yields shea butter which according to local traditional healers relieves inflammation of the nostrils. 2 Since there is as yet no absolutely satisfactory nasal decongestant in clinical use, it was decided to investigate the effects of shea butter in nasal congestion. The substance was prepared in the laboratory. 3 The human subjects used were those suffering from rhinitis with moderate to severe nasal congestion. They were divided into the test group which received shea butter, the control group which was treated with xylometazoline and the 'placebo' group which received white petroleum jelly B.P. 4 The results showed that nasal congestion was relieved more satisfactorily in the test group than in the other two groups. 5 It is concluded that shea butter may prove more efficacious in nasal congestion than conventional nasal drops.
Wandalsen, G F; Mendes, A I; Matsumoto, F; Solé, D
To standardize acoustic rhinometry (AR) in nasal provocation tests (NPTs) with histamine in children and adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional validation to compare AR with anterior active rhinomanometry (AAR) during histamine NPT in 20 children and adolescents with persistent allergic rhinitis and 20 controls. Changes in total nasal resistance (AAR) were compared with changes in nasal volume in the first 5 cm (V5). Compared with controls, patients with rhinitis had significantly higher mean total nasal resistance (0.34 Pa/cm3/s vs 0.21 Pa/cm3/s; P=.01) and lower mean V5 values (8.20 cm3 vs 9.24 cm3; P=.04) at baseline. The mean histamine concentration necessary to increase total nasal resistance by at least 100% was significantly lower in the rhinitis group than in the control group (0.72 mg/mL vs 2.4 mg/mL; P<.001). At the end of the NPT a mean increase of 126% in total nasal resistance and a mean decrease of 24.3% in V5 were observed in the rhinitis group. When compared with the AAR criteria, the highest sensitivity and specificity values were observed for a cutoff represented by a 19%-21% drop in V5. We found AR to be a feasible and sensitive tool for monitoring nasal response in children and adolescents undergoing histamine NPT. The best AR cutoff for ending the NPT was a 19%-21% drop in V5.
... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...
Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...
Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni
The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.
Pignatti, Patrizia; Pala, Gianni; Pisati, Marta; Perfetti, Luca; Banchieri, Gabriella; Moscato, Gianna
To investigate the usefulness of nasal blown secretion evaluation during specific nasal provocation test (sNPT) in diagnosing occupational rhinitis (OR). To validate the method, nasal blown secretions from 103 healthy subjects and 30 allergic rhinitis patients were analyzed. Furthermore, we analyzed nasal blown secretions, collected before and after sNPT, of 29 subjects with work-related rhinitis symptoms (WRRS) who underwent the diagnostic pathway for OR. Rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score were used to define a positive sNPT. A total of 89.6% WRRS subjects provided suitable nasal secretions. Eosinophils significantly increased after positive sNPTs compared to negative ones (P = 0.006). Four percent and/or 1 x 10(4) eosinophils/ml was the cut-off for a significant post-sNPT eosinophil increase. A total of 4/13 (33%) WRRS subjects with negative sNPT, assessed by rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score, presented a significant post-sNPT nasal eosinophil increase, and were identified as possible OR. Eosinophil evaluation in nasal blown secretions is an important tool in monitoring the response to occupational specific nasal challenges.
Alam, J.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Abbas, A.; Sami, M.; Ayub, Z.
To compare the benefits of ventilated nasal packing with traditional vaseline guaze nasal packing. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Multan, from Jun 2014 to Dec 2014. Material and Methods: In this study, sample size of 80 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Patients were divided in two groups using lottery method endotracheal tube and piece of surgical glove filled with ribbon guaze was utilized for fabricated ventilated nasal pack and compared with traditional nasal packs. Nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance were studied at eight hours and twenty-four hours following surgery using visual analog scale. Results: Mean nasal obstruction with ventilated nasal pack was 45.62 +- 6.17 and with Vaseline nasal pack was 77.67 +- 4.85 which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Mean sleep disturbance in both the groups was 46.32 +- 5.23 and 68.75 +- 2.70 respectively which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Patients with ventilated nasal packs were found to have better tolerance to nasal packs due to less nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance
Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan
Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.
The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec
Pons, S; Ortiz Medina, A
We presented a patient with a deforming and necrotizing syndrome of the nasal pyramid. The histopathology demonstrated a lymphoma. The original works of Weiss are related. The diseases is characterized by: ecotaxis of the nasal pyramid, localized persistency during a long time, malaise in advanced studies and sensibility to radiations. We proposed the name linfoma histiocitico maligno nasal de Weiss and consider it as a autonomous entity.
van der Veen, Roeland
In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study
Hayes, M. J.; McGregor, F. B.; Roberts, D. N.; Schroter, R. C.; Pride, N. B.
BACKGROUND--Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common condition. Treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), while effective and safe, causes nasal congestion and stuffiness in some patients. The hypothesis that this study aimed to test was that nasal CPAP with a mouth leak and subsequent unidirectional airflow across the nasal mucosa causes an increase in nasal mucosal blood flux and a fall in both nasal volume and minimal cross sectional area. A secondary aim was to study if...
Fokkens, Wytske J.; Hellings, Peter W.
When we discuss nasal dysfunction, we think primarily of nasal obstruction. However, other clinical signs like rhinorrheoa, sneezing, itching, burning and loss of smell, as well as perception of the form and aesthetics of the nose should not be neglected. During the last decades, we have
Guilmette, R.A.; Wolff, R.K.
The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)
Dittrich, William A. Toby
The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.
Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research ...
Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray in combination therapy of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and to investigate the effect of nasal inflammation on nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: Totally 279 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction were collected, who received lacrimal passage irrigation, CT angiography for lacrimal passage and nasal endoscope before treated by lacrimal laser forming and artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation combined with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray. In group A, 137 patients were treated with antibiotic eye drop and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after operations. In group B, 142 patients were treated with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray besides the same treatment for group A. RESULTS:In the 279 patients 217(77.8%, in which 105 cases(76.6%were in group A and 112 cases(78.9%were in group B, were suffered with nasal inflammation, including nasal mucosal hyperemia, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, middle turbinate hypertrophy. At 3mo after the ducts were drawn, efficacy of group B was 95.8%, which was significant better than that of group A(86.1%, PCONCLUSION: Nasal inflammation was an important factor in the incidence of nasolacrimal duct obstruction, which shoud pay more attention in the process of diagnosis and treatment. Combination therapy could improve the cure rate of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
Yamamoto, Seiji; Motoori, Ken; Ueda, Takuya; Osaka, Iwao [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Hospital, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba City, Chiba 260-8677 (Japan); Takano, Hideyuki [Department of Radiology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Nagata, Hiroshi [Department of Otolaryngology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)
The nasal septum is a particularly rare site of origin of chondrosarcoma. Cranial base invasion may be at hand, with such lesions making complete tumor removal difficult. MRI techniques allow precise definition of tumor extent. In the described case, CT and Dynamic MR imaging were performed in a case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum. Imaging clearly illustrated size and extent of the mass with central regions of internal calcification. Dynamic MRI was additionally performed, which helped to define the presumed origin of the lesion from the nasal septum. (orig.)
Ninuk Dian Kurniawati
Full Text Available Introduction: The provision of oxygen therapy is traditionally use a humidifier to moisten the oxygen and prevent irritation of the nasal mucosa. Recent research proves that the use of a maximum of 4 lpm nasal oxygen without using a humidifier (non humidifier up to 8 hours does not cause irritation of the nasal mucosa and prevent colonization of bacteria in the humidifier. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of nasal oxygen administration using a non-humidifier more than 8 hours in the prevention of irritation of the nasal mucosa. Method: This study employed an analytic survey with cross-sectional study design. As many as 20 patients at inpatient wards of Port Health Center Hospital Surabaya were recruited as sample by means of consecutive sampling. Inclusion criteria was patients must not suffer from upper respiratory tract infection and do not suffer from impaired immunity. Independent variables were oxygen flow and long of oxygen therapy. Dependent variable was irritation of the nasal mucosa. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and tested with spearman rho correlation test. Result: The results showed that the use of oxygen up to 140 hours with 4 LPM had no effect on the nasal mucosa such as signs of irritation and complaints of discomfort in the nose area. Discussion: It can be concluded that the use of non-humidifier for a maximum of 140 hours with flow maximum of 4 lpm is effective in preventing irritation of the nasal mucosa. Further research on the effectiveness of non humidi fi ers in the elderly population and children under five years of age is needed.
Marston, J. O.
We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.
Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun
The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.
Jordan M. Virbalas
Full Text Available Background. LCH is a benign vascular growth of the skin and mucous membranes commonly affecting the head and neck. Since it was first described in the nineteenth century, this entity has been variously known as “human botryomycosis” and “pyogenic granuloma.” The shifting nomenclature reflects an evolving understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. We review the histopathology of and current epidemiological data pertaining to LCH which suggests that the development of these lesions may involve a hyperactive inflammatory response influenced by endocrine factors. We report two new cases of pediatric lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH of the nasal cavity and review current theories regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of nasal LCH. Methods. Retrospective case series. Case Series. Two adolescent females presented with symptoms of recurrent epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. Both patients underwent computed tomography imaging and biopsy of their intranasal mass. The tumors were excised using image-guided transnasal endoscopic technique. Seven other cases of nasal LCH have been reported to date in the pediatric population. Conclusion. Nasal LCH is a rare cause of an intranasal mass and is associated with unilateral epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. We advocate for image-guided endoscopic excision of LCH in the adolescent population.
The thin film below the drop drains out slowly with time, finally creating a hole in the drop when it comes in contact with the interface at t=0.37 Tc, a small matrix drop, also called satellite drop, is seen to be trapped during the film rupture. Such an entrapment was observed by Thoroddsen et al (2008) and Chen et al (2006).
Figure shows formation of two secondary drops of unequal size and their merger. The process is same as the earlier process until t= 0.039 Tc with necking occurring at two places, one at the bottom of the column and the other at the middle. The necking at the middle of the liquid column is due to Raleigh instability.
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Notes: Figure shows formation of two secondary drops of unequal size and their merger. The process is same as the earlier process until t= 0.039 Tc with necking occurring at two places, one at the bottom of the column and the other at the middle. The necking at the ...
Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
the parameters that any of their callees might possibly need. Both lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping thus require one to compute a transitive closure over the call graph:• for lambda-lifting: to establish the Def/Use path of each free variable (these free variables are then added as parameters to each......Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all...... of the functions in the call path);• for lambda-dropping: to establish the Def/Use path of each parameter (parameters whose use occurs in the same scope as their definition do not need to be passed along in the call path).Without free variables, a program is scope-insensitive. Its blocks are then free...
Zilton A. Andrade
Full Text Available São apresentados os dados clínico-patológicos de dois casos de entomoftorose nasal, nova doença humana causada por um ficomiceto - Entomophthora coronata. Os pacientes, uma menina e um homem, com 8 e 44 anos de idade respectivamente, apresentaram doença localizada, com nódulos no nariz e região paranasal, edema e deformação da face. O parasito foi isolado do primeiro caso, mas todas as tentativas para isolá-lo no segundo caso resultaram negativas. Histologicamente, havia reação granulomatosa, fibrose e edema, em torno de hifas não septadas, as quais exibiam envólucro eosinófilo amorfo em torno. Foram demonstrados anticorpos circulantes contra, as hifas do E. coronata no soro de um dos pacientes. O material eosinófilo em torno das hifas continha fibrina e material auto-fluorescente sob luz ultra-violeta, provavelmente lipofuscina, mas não foram demonstrados anticorpos ou antígenos nesta área. A apresentação destes casos, os primeiros a serem descritos no Brasil, é acompanhado, de uma revisão geral do assunto, pois tal poderá vir a ser de interesse para aqueles que estudam os problemas da patologia tropical em nosso meio.
Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.
Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films. (author)
Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair
Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra
Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.
Cui, Dan-Mo; Han, De-Min; Nicolas, Busaba; Hu, Chang-Long; Wu, Jun; Su, Min-Min
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder and is characterized by airway collapse at multiple levels of upper airway. The effectiveness of nasal surgery has been discussed in several studies and shows a promising growing interest. In this study, we intended to evaluate the effects of nasal surgery on the upper airway dimensions in patients with OSA using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cone-beam computed tomography (CT). Twelve patients with moderate to severe OSA who underwent nasal surgery were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with OSA using polysomnography (PSG) in multi sleep health centers associated with Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and the Partners Health Care from May 31, 2011 to December 14, 2013. The effect of nasal surgery was evaluated by the examination of PSG, subjective complains, and 3D reconstructed CT scan. Cross-sectional area was measured in eleven coronal levels, and nasal cavity volume was evaluated from anterior nasal spine to posterior nasal spine. The thickness of soft tissue in oral pharynx region was also measured. Five out of the 12 patients were successfully treated by nasal surgery, with more than 50% drop of apnea-hypopnea index. All the 12 patients showed significant increase of cross-sectional area and volume postoperatively. The thickness of soft tissue in oral pharynx region revealed significant decrease postoperatively, which decreased from 19.14 ± 2.40 cm 2 and 6.11 ± 1.76 cm 2 to 17.13 ± 1.91 cm 2 and 5.22 ± 1.20 cm 2 . Nasal surgery improved OSA severity as measured by PSG, subjective complaints, and 3D reconstructed CT scan. 3D assessment of upper airway can play an important role in the evaluation of treatment outcome.
ter Haar, G.; Buiks, S.C.; Kirpensteijn, J.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report reconstruction of a defect of the nasal plane and the rostral dorsum of the nose in a dog using a nasal rotation flap with Burow's triangles. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical report. ANIMALS: Mixed-breed dog (1.5 years, 8.6 kg). METHODS: A nasal defect caused by chronic
Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Gentile, Pietro; Marcarelli, Marco; Balli, Martina; Ronzoni, Flavio Lorenzo; Benedetti, Laura; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella
Cartilage defects represent a serious problem due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Regarding the nose, nasal valve collapse is associated with nasal blockage and persistent airway obstruction associated with a significant drop in the quality of life for patients. In addition to surgical techniques, several cell-based tissue-engineering strategies are studied to improve cartilage support in the nasal wall, that is, to ameliorate wall insufficiency. Nevertheless, there are no...
Doorly, D; Taylor, D J; Franke, P; Schroter, R C
The airway geometry of the nasal cavity is manifestly complex, and the manner in which it controls the airflow to accomplish its various physiological functions is not fully understood. Since the complex morphology and inaccessibility of the nasal passageways precludes detailed in-vivo measurements, either computational simulation or in-vitro experiments are needed to determine how anatomical form and function are related. The fabrication of a replica model of the nasal cavity, of a high optical clarity and derived from in-vivo scan data is described here, together with characteristics of the flow field investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. Flow visualization is shown to be a capable and convenient technique for identifying key phenomena. Specifically the emergence of the jet from the internal nasal valve into the main cavity, how it impacts on the middle turbinate, and the large enhancement of dispersion that accompanies the initial appearance of flow instability are revealed as particularly significant features. The findings from the visualization experiments are complemented by PIV imaging, which provides quantitative detail on the variations in velocity in different regions of the nasal cavity. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the cavity geometry in partitioning the flow into high shear zones, which facilitate rapid heat transfer and humidification from the nasal mucosa, and slower zones affording greater residence times to facilitate olfactory sensing. The experimental results not only provide a basis for comparison with other computational modelling but also demonstrate an alternative and flexible means to investigate complex flows, relevant to studies in different parts of the respiratory or cardiovascular systems.
Al-Qahtani, Khalid; Islam, Tahera; AlOulah, Mohammad; Bafaqeeh, Sameer; Faqeeh, Yasser
Myxoma is a benign tumor that arises from mesenchymal tissue, and found in the soft tissue and less commonly in the bone. The majority of bony myxomas of the head and neck occur in the jaws and maxilla. We report an extremely rare case of nasal bone myxoma in a 52-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. Due to the aggressive nature of the lesion the nasal bone was eroded by the disease. The patient underwent resection of the mass with reconstruction of the defect by septal cartilage. The patient remains tumor free after 5 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Berg-Dammer, E.; Kuehne, D. [Alfred Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Metz, K.A. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Universitaetsklinikum der Universitaets-Gesamthochschule Essen (Germany)
Haemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare vascular tumours originating from a pericytes, a term coined by Zimmermann to refer to the main location of this cell line in the pericapillary connective tissue. HPC may arise in any part of the body. We report a 29-year-old man with a histologically proven nasal haemangiopericytoma-like tumour. The lesion was embolised through the ophthalmic artery before it was removed surgically. The main symptoms of nasal HPC are epistaxis and obstruction of the nose. Malignant and benign clinical courses have been described. Local recurrence and metastases may be observed years after initial diagnosis. (orig.)
Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy
Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index) in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width ...
Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kikuta, Shu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya
The posterior nasal nerve is the dominant source of the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory fibers that innervate the nasal respiratory mucosa. Therefore, a posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) is thought to induce denervation of the nasal mucosa and relieve the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic action of PNN remain unknown. To investigate the impact of PNN-induced denervation of the nasal mucosa on allergic rhinitis, we developed a rat model of PNN and examined the effects of PNN on allergic rhinitis in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. This rat model of PNN was characterized by the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides (eg, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y) in the nasal respiratory mucosa. These animals exhibited nasal gland and goblet cell hypertrophy in the septal mucosa and atrophy of the submucosal gland in the lateral nasal wall, as well as reduced nasal secretion due to deficient acetylcholine synthesis. In an ovalbumin-sensitized model of allergic rhinitis, PNN also induced the depletion of nerve fibers, choline acetyltransferase, and neuropeptides in the nasal mucosa and suppressed nasal secretion. However, PNN did not affect mucosal thickening, eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ mRNA expression, and allergic symptoms (ie, sneezing and nasal scratching). These results suggest that the peripheral nerves and corresponding neuropeptides regulate nasal secretion, but not hypersensitivity, in allergic rhinitis, and that allergic rhinitis-related mucosal reactions occur in a highly denervated mucosa after PNN. Posterior nasal neurectomy may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperrhinorrhea, but not allergic rhinitis hypersensitivity.
Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.
Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H
Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...
Bhandwalkar, Mandar J; Avachat, Amelia M
In order to improve the bioavailability of the antidepressant drug, venlafaxine hydrochloride, in situ mucoadhesive thermoreversible gel, was formulated using Lutrol F127 (18%) as a thermo gelling polymer. Mucoadhesion was modulated by trying carbopol 934, PVP K30, HPMC K4M, sodium alginate, tamarind seed gum, and carrageenan as mucoadhesive polymers. Results revealed that as the concentration of mucoadhesive polymer increased the mucoadhesive strength increased but gelation temperature decreased. Formulation was optimized on the basis of clarity, pH, gelation temperature, mucoadhesive strength, gel strength, viscosity, drug content, diffusion through sheep nasal mucosa, histopathological evaluation of mucosa, and pharmacodynamic study in rats. Final formulation T5 containing 18% Lutrol F127 and 0.3% PVP K30 was considered as an optimized formulation. T5 released 97.86±0.073% drug in 150 min with a flux of 0.1545 mg cm(-2) min(-1) and gelation temperature 31.17±0.30°C. Histopathological evaluation of nasal mucosa revealed that T5 formulation was safe for nasal administration as it caused no damage to nasal epithelium. From the results of pharmacodynamic study, mainly forced swim test (FST), it was concluded that venlafaxine hydrochloride was more effective as an antidepressant by nasal route as in situ gel nasal drops in comparison to oral administration of equivalent dose.
Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.
Daniel, M; Raghavan, U
Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted. Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (pepistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis). Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic. PMID:16244333
Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.
Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian
As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry.
Belagola D Sathyanarayana
Full Text Available Background: Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. Aims: We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. Results: One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80% predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%. Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39% and others included transverse nasal line (28%, strip (28%, ridge (4% and loop (1%. Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Conclusions: Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.
Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N
1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...
Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K
There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.
Famili, Amin; Palkar, Saurabh A.; Baldy, William J. Jr.
As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.
Wakayama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Masaaki; Tanuma, Tadashi
Objective Nasal obstruction is a common problem in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea and limits treatment compliance. The purpose of this study is to model the effects of nasal obstruction on airflow parameters under CPAP using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and to clarify quantitatively the relation between airflow velocity and pressure loss coefficient in subjects with and without nasal obstruction. Methods We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 16 Japanese adult subjects, of whom 9 had nasal obstruction and 7 did not (control group). Three-dimensional reconstructed models of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx with a CPAP mask fitted to the nostrils were created from each subject’s CT scans. The digital models were meshed with tetrahedral cells and stereolithography formats were created. CPAP airflow simulations were conducted using CFD software. Airflow streamlines and velocity contours in the nasal cavities and nasopharynx were compared between groups. Simulation models were confirmed to agree with actual measurements of nasal flow rate and with pressure and flow rate in the CPAP machine. Results Under 10 cmH2O CPAP, average maximum airflow velocity during inspiration was 17.6 ± 5.6 m/s in the nasal obstruction group but only 11.8 ± 1.4 m/s in the control group. The average pressure drop in the nasopharynx relative to inlet static pressure was 2.44 ± 1.41 cmH2O in the nasal obstruction group but only 1.17 ± 0.29 cmH2O in the control group. The nasal obstruction and control groups were clearly separated by a velocity threshold of 13.5 m/s, and pressure loss coefficient threshold of approximately 10.0. In contrast, there was no significant difference in expiratory pressure in the nasopharynx between the groups. Conclusion This is the first CFD analysis of the effect of nasal obstruction on CPAP treatment. A strong correlation between the inspiratory pressure loss coefficient and maximum airflow
Wakayama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Masaaki; Tanuma, Tadashi
Nasal obstruction is a common problem in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea and limits treatment compliance. The purpose of this study is to model the effects of nasal obstruction on airflow parameters under CPAP using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and to clarify quantitatively the relation between airflow velocity and pressure loss coefficient in subjects with and without nasal obstruction. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 16 Japanese adult subjects, of whom 9 had nasal obstruction and 7 did not (control group). Three-dimensional reconstructed models of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx with a CPAP mask fitted to the nostrils were created from each subject's CT scans. The digital models were meshed with tetrahedral cells and stereolithography formats were created. CPAP airflow simulations were conducted using CFD software. Airflow streamlines and velocity contours in the nasal cavities and nasopharynx were compared between groups. Simulation models were confirmed to agree with actual measurements of nasal flow rate and with pressure and flow rate in the CPAP machine. Under 10 cmH2O CPAP, average maximum airflow velocity during inspiration was 17.6 ± 5.6 m/s in the nasal obstruction group but only 11.8 ± 1.4 m/s in the control group. The average pressure drop in the nasopharynx relative to inlet static pressure was 2.44 ± 1.41 cmH2O in the nasal obstruction group but only 1.17 ± 0.29 cmH2O in the control group. The nasal obstruction and control groups were clearly separated by a velocity threshold of 13.5 m/s, and pressure loss coefficient threshold of approximately 10.0. In contrast, there was no significant difference in expiratory pressure in the nasopharynx between the groups. This is the first CFD analysis of the effect of nasal obstruction on CPAP treatment. A strong correlation between the inspiratory pressure loss coefficient and maximum airflow velocity was found.
Full Text Available Nasal obstruction is a common problem in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy for obstructive sleep apnea and limits treatment compliance. The purpose of this study is to model the effects of nasal obstruction on airflow parameters under CPAP using computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and to clarify quantitatively the relation between airflow velocity and pressure loss coefficient in subjects with and without nasal obstruction.We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 16 Japanese adult subjects, of whom 9 had nasal obstruction and 7 did not (control group. Three-dimensional reconstructed models of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx with a CPAP mask fitted to the nostrils were created from each subject's CT scans. The digital models were meshed with tetrahedral cells and stereolithography formats were created. CPAP airflow simulations were conducted using CFD software. Airflow streamlines and velocity contours in the nasal cavities and nasopharynx were compared between groups. Simulation models were confirmed to agree with actual measurements of nasal flow rate and with pressure and flow rate in the CPAP machine.Under 10 cmH2O CPAP, average maximum airflow velocity during inspiration was 17.6 ± 5.6 m/s in the nasal obstruction group but only 11.8 ± 1.4 m/s in the control group. The average pressure drop in the nasopharynx relative to inlet static pressure was 2.44 ± 1.41 cmH2O in the nasal obstruction group but only 1.17 ± 0.29 cmH2O in the control group. The nasal obstruction and control groups were clearly separated by a velocity threshold of 13.5 m/s, and pressure loss coefficient threshold of approximately 10.0. In contrast, there was no significant difference in expiratory pressure in the nasopharynx between the groups.This is the first CFD analysis of the effect of nasal obstruction on CPAP treatment. A strong correlation between the inspiratory pressure loss coefficient and maximum airflow velocity was found.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females, aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in the nasal parameters between male and female subjects. The nasal breadth was 34.72 mm in females, and in the male population it was 36.7 mm. The mean values of nasal height were 52.6 mm and 54.32 mm in females and males, respectively. The nasal index in females and males was 66.01 and 67.56, respectively, and the mean value of the nasal index of all respondents was 66.78. After conducting the research it was concluded that the dominant nasal type in the population of the central part of Serbia is leptorrhine. The present study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology. The data obtained in our study may be useful in anthropological and forensic research, as well as in cosmetic planning and reconstructive surgery.
Brancamp, Tami U; Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas
To assess the nasalance/nasality relationship and Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity when nasality ratings are obtained with both equal appearing interval (EAI) and direct magnitude estimation (DME) scaling procedures. To test the linearity of the relationship between nasality ratings obtained from different perceptual scales. STIMULI: Audio recordings of the Turtle Passage. Participants' nasalance scores and audio recordings were obtained simultaneously. A single judge rated the samples for nasality using both EAI and DME scaling procedures. Thirty-nine participants 3 to 17 years of age. Across participants, resonance ranged from normal to severely hypernasal. Nasalance scores and two nasality ratings. The magnitude of the correlation between nasalance scores and EAI ratings of nasality (r = .63) and between nasalance and DME ratings of nasality (r = .59) was not significantly different. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity for EAI-rated nasality were .71 and .73, respectively. For DME-rated nasality, sensitivity and specificity were .62 and .70, respectively. Regression of EAI nasality ratings on DME nasality ratings did not depart significantly from linearity. No difference was found in the relationship between nasalance and nasality when nasality was rated using EAI as opposed to DME procedures. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity were similar for EAI- and DME-rated nasality. A linear model accounted for the greatest proportion of explained variance in EAI and DME ratings. Consequently, clinicians should be able to obtain valid and reliable estimates of nasality using EAI or DME.
Full Text Available Primary nasal tuberculosis is a rare disease with nearly 40 cases reported. Our patient was a young male presented with left sided nasal obstruction, anosmia and occasional epistaxis for last 7 weeks after 6 months of blunt trauma nose. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the para nasal sinuses showed increased soft-tissue density with contrast enhancement in the left maxillary antrum with extension through left osteomeatal foramen to the left nasal cavity along with further extension through choana to nasopharynx resulting in partial obliteration of the nasopharyngeal airway. Nasal endoscopy revealed a sessile polypoidal pinkish mass arising from the left osteomeatal foramen. Histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of that area showed caseating granuloma. Our patient diagnosed as primary nasal tuberculosis following trauma and treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy.
Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal
Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…
Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)
This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.
Jovanović J.; Jeremić D.; Jovanović B.; Vulović Maja; Sazdanović P.; Sazdanović Maja; Ognjanović Neda; Stojadinović D.; Jeremić Katarina; Marković N.; Živanović-Mačužić Ivana
The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females), aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in ...
Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David
We show how a magnetic field can influence the motion of a paramagnetic drop made of liquid oxygen in a Leidenfrost state on solids at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the trajectory can be modified in both direction and velocity and that the results can be interpreted in terms of classical mechanics as long as the drop does not get too close to the magnet. We study the deviation and report that it can easily overcome 180∘ and even diverge under certain conditions, leading to situations where a drop gets captured. In the vicinity of the magnet, another type of trapping is observed, due to the deformation of the drop in this region, which leads to a strong energy dissipation. Conversely, drops can be accelerated by moving magnets (slingshot effect).
Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L
Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.
Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John
Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify nasal resistance and mucosal cooling. Patient-reported symptoms were measured by a visual analog scale and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Our results revealed that the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction correlated with both nasal resistance and heat loss, but the strongest correlation was between the NOSE score and the nasal surface area where heat flux exceeds 50 W /m2 . In conclusion, a significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery.
Conclusions: Preadministration of antihistamine eye drops suppressed the symptoms induced by the allergen, which suggests that this is an effective early therapy for Japanese cedar pollinosis, if it is started before the pollen season. However, self-protection by patients using a mask may not be effective enough to suppress nasal symptoms during the pollen season, requiring them to additionally wear glasses to avoid exposure to the allergen.
Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd
This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.
Kirtsreesakul, Virat; Khanuengkitkong, Thitiporn; Ruttanaphol, Suwalee
Although nasal steroids are the mainstay treatments in nasal polyposis, up to one-half of patients do not respond and need surgical treatment. This study aimed to evaluate whether oxymetazoline administration produces any additive effect on nasal steroid therapy and whether rebound congestion develops after oxymetazoline treatment. Sixty-eight patients with nasal polyposis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either oxymetazoline plus mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) or placebo plus MFNS, 2 sprays per nostril twice daily, with an interval of 5 minutes between each medication for 4 weeks. All the patients were then treated with MFNS, 2 sprays per nostril twice daily for 2 weeks. The nasal symptoms score, peak inspiratory flow index, nasal mucociliary clearance time (NMCCT), and total nasal polyps score were used to evaluate treatment outcomes. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed, and a worst case sensitivity analysis was applied to missing cases. Thirty-four patients were allocated to the oxymetazoline-MFNS group, and 34 to the placebo-MFNS group. One patient in each group was lost to last-visit follow-up. At 4 weeks after beginning treatment, the oxymetazoline-MFNS group showed significantly greater improvement in blocked nose, hyposmia, peak flow, NMCCT, and total nasal polyps score than the placebo-MFNS group. During the nasal steroid phase, both groups showed continuing improvement in all outcome variables. However, the oxymetazoline-MFNS group still showed significantly greater improvement in blocked nose, hyposmia, NMCCT, and total nasal polyps score, but not peak flow, than the placebo-MFNS group at the end of the study. The use of nasal steroids with oxymetazoline was more effective over 6 weeks than nasal steroids alone in improving blocked nose, hyposmia, nasal mucociliary clearance, and polyp size in treatment of nasal polyposis. There was no evidence of rebound congestion after 4 weeks of oxymetazoline treatment.
Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David
Drops placed on very hot solids levitate on a cushion of their own vapor, as discovered by Leidenfrost. This confers to these drops a remarkable mobility, which makes problematic their control and manipulation. Here we show how crenelated surfaces can be used to increase the friction of Leidenfrost drops by a factor on the order of 100, making them decelerate and be trapped on centimetric distances instead of the usual metric ones. We measure and characterize the friction force as a function of the design of the crenelations.
Popko, M; Verlinde-Schellekens, S A M W; Huizing, E H; Bleys, R L A W
The periosteum of the nasal bones, the periosteal-perichondrial nasal envelope, and the cartilaginous support of the bony vault were studied in serial coronal sections of four human cadaver noses. To differentiate between the various tissue components, the sections were stained according to Mallory-Cason and Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain. The results demonstrated: 1. the presence of clearly distinguishable layers of the periosteum covering the nasal bones; 2. the presence of a continuous periosteal-perichondrial covering of the bony and cartilaginous nasal vaults; 3. the way the cartilaginous support of the bony vault is constructed. The findings described in the present study may have clinical relevance in nasal surgery.
Poirier, Justin; George, Charles; Rotenberg, Brian
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard therapy for sleep apnea; however, compliance rates are historically poor. Among the most commonly cited reasons for nonadherence is nasal obstruction. Our study sought to examine if nasal surgery actually increases CPAP compliance. Prospective case series. Nasal CPAP-intolerant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, with documented nasal obstruction, underwent septoplasty plus inferior turbinoplasty. Preoperative and postoperative data were collected on CPAP usage per night and subjective nasal obstruction with the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) Scale questionnaire. Eighteen patients met inclusion criteria and underwent septoplasty. CPAP usage increased significantly from 0.5 hours per night preoperatively to 5 hours per night postoperatively (P nasal obstruction on the NOSE Scale decreased from 16.1 preoperatively to 5.4 following surgical intervention (P CPAP pressure decreased from 11.9 preoperatively to 9.2 after surgery, with a trend toward significance (P = .062). This study demonstrates improved CPAP compliance rates following septoplasty in OSA patients with nasal obstruction. Correction of nasal obstruction should be offered in nasal CPAP-intolerant individuals to improve CPAP compliance. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Venkatesha Belur Keshavamurthy
Full Text Available Introduction Nasal obstruction is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA. OSA is associated with mean heart rate (HR variations in wakefulness and in sleep. Early intervention has proven to reduce cardiovascular morbidity in OSA patients. In spite of various confounding factors HR measurement has been utilised as an independent predictor of mortality. The influence of severity of nasal obstruction on HR has not been studied in the literature. This study aims to clarify the influence of severity of nasal obstruction on HR. Materials and Methods We examined 55 patients aged less than 50 years with no previous cardiac complaints, who underwent overnight oxygen saturation and HR monitoring. The patients were divided into Mild, Moderate and Severe Nasal Obstruction group depending on NOSE scale grading. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the Mean HR, Min HR, Max HR, and Max-Min HR in mild, moderate or severe nasal obstruction groups. Discussion The role of nasal obstruction in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and the importance of HR as predictor of cardiovascular morbidity have been discussed. The studies on the heart rate in nasal obstruction and OSA were reviewed. Conclusion Nasal obstruction does not influence the heart rate.
Aly, Hany; Hammad, Tarek A; Ozen, Maide; Sandhu, Inderjeet; Taylor, Chita; Olaode, Adenike; Mohamed, Mohamed; Keiser, John
We examined the relationship between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and nasal colonization among low-birth-weight (LBW) infants. We prospectively cultured the nares of LBW infants on admission and weekly until hospital discharge. The modality of respiratory support during each culture was recorded. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the relationship between CPAP and nasal colonization. Analyses were repeated after stratifying infants into three birth-weight categories: 1500 to 2499 g, 1000 to 1499 g, and nasal cultures were obtained from 167 infants. Nasal colonization with gram-negative bacilli was increased with the use of CPAP in all birth-weight categories ( P Nasal colonization with any potential pathogen increased with the use of CPAP in all birth-weight categories ( P Nasal CPAP is associated with increased colonization with gram-negative bacilli. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Drop Tower is used to simulate and measure the impact shocks that are exerted on parachute loads when they hit the ground. It is also used for HSL static lift to...
Madhu, D N; Sudhakar, N R; Maurya, P S; Manjunathachar, H V; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A M
Oestrus ovis is a well-known parasite of the nasal cavities and adjoining sinuses in sheep and goats. A 3-year-old female Jamunapari goat was presented with a history of anorexia, weight loss, in-coordinated movements, nasal discharge since 10 days and two nasal bots expelled during sneezing 3 days back. Upon clinical examination the animal was dull, dysphonic, unsteady gait and having blocked nostrils with thick mucoid discharge along with an increased respiratory rate. Parasitiological examination revealed it as an O. ovis (nasal bots). The occurrence of nasal bots in a goat and its successful therapeutic management and public health significance have been reported and discussed in the present communication.
Surikov, E V; Ivanets, I V
A fracture of nasal bones is becoming a very common injury due to the increasingly greater number of car accidents and aggravated criminal situation. A total of 500 cases of nasal fracture associated with external deformities were included in the present study. The following kinds of deformities were identified: unilateral retraction, lateral displacement of the entire dorsum of the nose, and depressed comminuted fracture. Rhinoscopy revealed in addition such abnormalities associated with septal fracture as submucous hemorrhage, pathological mobility of the pyramid, deflection of the nasal septum at an acute angle. All in all, four types of nasal septum fractures were distinguished depending on the shape and localization of the fracture line. Two of them resulted in marked impairment of nasal breathing while two others required surgical intervention in the acute period after the injury.
Ehlinger, Quentin; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe
When a drop impacts a substrate, it can behave differently depending on the nature of the surface and of the liquid (spreading, bouncing, resting, splashing ...). Understanding these behaviors is crucial to predict the drop morphology during and after impact. Whereas surface wettability has extensively been studied, the effect of surface roughness remains hardly explored. In this work, we consider the impact of a drop in a pure non-wetting situation by using superheated substrates i.e. in the Leidenfrost regime. The surface texture consists of a well-controlled microscopic defect shaped with photolithography on a smooth silicon wafer. Different regimes are observed, depending on the distance between the defect and the impact point and the defect size. Comparing the lamella thickness versus the defect height proves relevant as the transition criteria between regimes. Others characteristics of the drop behavior (direction of satellite droplet ejection, lamella rupture) are also well captured by inertial/capillary models. Drop impacts on multiple defects are also investigated and drop shape well predicted considering the interactions between the local flow and the defects.
Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L
Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%. Copyright © 2013
Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasing as a means of respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome in many premature neonates across the United States. Nasal CPAP is less invasive and may be as effective as mechanical ventilation in premature infants, and has been shown to cause less lung damage in premature neonates. Because of the increased use of nasal CPAP in neonates, especially younger and more fragile neonates, the presence of nare and nasal septum breakdown may be seen as a complication. Currently, all nasal CPAP systems use a hat and prong or mask type of delivery system. This appears to be effective for many neonates, but for some, it is difficult to appropriately fit the hat and prongs. The result of an inappropriately fitted device can be mild to severe nare and nasal septum damage. This article will discuss the need for nasal CPAP and the mechanics of nasal CPAP, but more importantly, serve to guide caregivers in the appropriate physical assessment and care of a neonate on nasal CPAP with the goal of preventing skin breakdown and nasal damage.
Braun, Thomas; Rich, Maria; Berghaus, Alexander; Kramer, Matthias F
Long-term rhinoflowmetry assesses bilateral nasal flow over 24 hours. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a standard dose of oxymetazoline topical nasal spray, a widely used over-the-counter drug, on the nasal cycle, since the exact long-term effects, such as the duration of the decongestive effect, are not yet reported. Thirty healthy volunteers received a portable long-term rhinoflowmetry device and applied 22.5 μg oxymetazoline in each nostril. In 90 % of the probands, effects of the nasal spray application could be seen as changes in nasal flow. A decongestive effect could be seen after 18 minutes on average. We found a mean duration of the maximal decongestive effect of four hours. However, it took more than six hours on average until the nasal cycle resumed its normal condition. We did not find significant differences of the effect between probands with a 'classic,' 'in concert' or impaired nasal cycle. In contrast to a substantial interindividual variability, repeated measurements showed that intraindividual variability of the effect of decongestive nasal spray seems to be rather small. Long-term rhinoflowmetry, yielding reliable results, is a valuable tool in the assessment of the effects of nasal drugs on the nasal cycle.
Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.
Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous.......01; n = 94) and the arousal index (Spearman correlation, r = 0.21; p CPAP treatment, the AHI was significantly reduced from 27 ± 3 events · h(-1) to 4 ± 2 events · h(-1) (each n = 29; p
Segal, N; Gluk, O; Puterman, M
Chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps is an uncommon pathology in the pediatric population and may be associated with systemic disease. In this study we aimed to characterize children who underwent nasal surgery at our medical center due to nasal polyps and review the current literature related to pediatric nasal polyps. We retrospectively reviewed all medical records of patients younger than 18 years who had sinus surgery from 2000 to 2010. We collected demographic and clinical data including age, sex, laterality, revision operations, and comorbidities including asthma, allergy, and cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty-one patients age 8.8 to 18 years (mean 13.7) were treated surgically in our hospital. Thirteen had antrochoanal polyp, 16 had chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps, and 2 had mucocele. Among patients treated for nasal polyps, there were 6 boys and 10 girls, mean age was 14.2 years, and 14 (87.5%) had bilateral disease. Mean Lund McKay score was 15.8. Five (31.2%) had asthma, 15 (93.7%) had sleep breathing disorder, and none had known allergy. Three patients (18.7%) had more than one surgery, including one patient with CF. Nine healthy children were tested for CF; one was positive. Nasal polyps in children are more common in teenagers, are usually bilateral, and are commonly associated with bronchial asthma. There was no association with allergy. Meticulous anamnesis and a high index of suspicion are recommended to manage other comorbidities.
Yoon, Han Young; Han, Dong Gil
Nasal bone fractures are managed by closed reduction within the 2-week period, and are managed by secondary correction after this time. There is little literature on the delayed reduction for nasal bone fractures beyond the 2-week duration. We report our experience with nasal fractures, which were reduced beyond this period. A retrospective review was performed for all patients who had undergone closed reduction of isolated nasal bone fracture. Patients were included for having undergone reduction of nasal bone fractures at or more than 2 weeks after the injury. Medical records were reviewed for demographic information, injury mechanism, fracture type, delay in treatment, and cause for delay. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated using computed tomography images. The review identified 10 patients. The average reduction time was 22.1 days. Five of patients underwent reduction between days 15 and 20, and the remaining five patients underwent reduction between days 21 and 41. The postoperative outcomes were excellent in 8 patients and good in 2 patients. Outcomes were superior for nasal fractures with displaced end plates and multiple fracture segments. Our study results appears to support delayed reduction of isolated nasal fractures in the presence of factors that delay bony reunion.
Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A
Microfluidic devices can form emulsions in which the drops have an intricate, controlled structure; however, a challenge is that the droplets are produced slowly, typically only a few millilitres per hour. Here, we present a simple technique to increase the production rate. Using a large drop maker, we produce large drops at a fast volumetric rate; by splitting these drops several times in a splitting array, we create drops of the desired small size. The advantage of this over forming the small drops directly using a small drop maker is that the drops can be formed at much faster rates. This can be applied to the production of single and multiple emulsions.
Rosales, Rodolfo; Saenz, Pedro
Janus drops, named after the Ancient Roman two-faced god, are liquid drops formed from two immiscible fluids. Experimental observations indicate that a Janus drop may re-orientate in response to an applied external thermal gradient due to the Marangoni effect. Depending on the angle between the interior interface and the direction of the temperature gradient, disparities in the physical properties of the constituent liquids may lead to asymmetries in the thermocapillary flow. As a result, the drop will move along a curved path until a torque-free configuration is achieved, point after which it will continue on a straight trajectory. Here, we present the results of a theoretical investigation of this realignment phenomenon in the Stokes regime and in the limit of non-deformable interfaces. A 3D semi-analytical method in terms of polar spherical harmonics is developed to characterize and rationalize the hydrodynamic response (forces and torques), flow (velocity and temperature distribution) and trajectory of a Janus drop moving during the temperature-driven reorientation process. Furthermore, we discuss how this phenomenon may be exploited to develop dynamically reconfigurable micro-lenses. This work was partially supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants DMS-1614043 and DMS-1719637.
Full Text Available Introduction. During the past two decades, tuberculosis (TBC both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, has emerged to be a major health problem. Nasal tuberculosis is a specific inflammatory process which is, in most cases, joined by the inflammation of neck lymph nodes. Case report. Thirty-yearold man presented with shortness of breath through the nose and periodical headaches. Clinical examination showed signs of chronic rhinitis, with slight granular changes of nasal septal mucosa. Laboratory analyses were within the reference ranges. Nasal and throat swabs for bacteria and fungi were normal. Skin allergy testing to standard inhalatory allergens was positive. Computer rhinomanometry showed increased nasal resistance at medium difficulty level, on the right. Radiography of paranasal sinuses indicated chronic polysinusitis on the right. Anti-allergy therapy was prescribed. The patient came for checkup after a month with subjective deterioration and a neck tumefact on the right. Nasal endoscopy revealed the presence of dark red infiltrates with the 3 mm diameter on nasal septal mucosa, dominantly on the right, with small greyish nodules. This findings indicated a potential specific nasal inflammatory process. In the upper jugulodigastric area, on the left, painless tumefact 3 x 5 cm in size was palpated, it was mobile comparing to supra- and infrastructure, with unaltered skin above. The definite diagnosis was established on the basis of the results of nasal mucosa biopsy. After histopathological diagnosis was obtained, we started with antituberculosis therapy at once. Conclusion. Due to actual trends of TBC incidences, otolaryngologist should have in mind nasal TBC, when granulomatose lesions are found in nose.
Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.
Madhu, D. N.; Sudhakar, N. R.; Maurya, P. S.; Manjunathachar, H. V.; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A. M.
Oestrus ovis is a well-known parasite of the nasal cavities and adjoining sinuses in sheep and goats. A 3-year-old female Jamunapari goat was presented with a history of anorexia, weight loss, in-coordinated movements, nasal discharge since 10 days and two nasal bots expelled during sneezing 3 days back. Upon clinical examination the animal was dull, dysphonic, unsteady gait and having blocked nostrils with thick mucoid discharge along with an increased respiratory rate. Parasitiological exam...
Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Frati, F; Masieri, S
Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IgE, may be effective on nasal polyps, but its use is not currently authorized to treat that disease. We report the cases of three patients who were given omalizumab for asthma after undergoing nasal surgical polypectomy. Although such procedure is frequently followed by polyp recurrence, none of the three patients developed this complication, and in one subject the regression of initial polyp return was registered after starting omalizumab. Our data support the hypothesis that omalizumab may be useful to treat nasal polyposis.
Hox, V; Bobic, S; Callebaux, I; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P W
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their sinonasal symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and questionnaires (SNOT-22 and SF-36). Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement, Sniffinatm Sticks (SS) smell test, blood analysis for eosinophilia, total IgE and culture for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were performed. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated with the SNOT-22 and SF-36 scores, which was not observed for VAS of other symptoms. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated well with PNIF values as well as VAS scores for smell dysfunction and SS results (both psmell reduction (psmell reduction in NP disease. Nasal blockage is the only symptom that correlates well with NP size and SNOT-22 scores, whereas smell reduction correlates with blood eosinophilia.
Seppänen, Tiina M.; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio
Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870
Tiina M. Seppänen
Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects’ reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS.
Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W
Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.
Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar
We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.
Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T
Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.
Li, Qingwei; Sheng, Zunqi; Tang, Shengjian; Yang, Biaobing; Yu, Xiaohua
To evaluate the operative methods and therapeutic effects of nasal septum cartilage-silica gel complex for two-stage repair of nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip. From June 2001 to June 2007, 38 cases of secondary nasal deformity and septum deviation of cleft lip were treated with transplanting nasal septum cartilage-silica gel complex. Among of them, there were 21 males and 17 females, aging 14-23 years with an average of 17.6 years. All cases were with nasal deformities of unilateral cleft lip, including 21 cases of complete cleft lip and 17 cases of incomplete cleft lip. The locations were left side in 26 cases and right side in 12 cases. Nasal deformities were columella nasi deflexion, flattened nasal tip, pteleorrhine and alanasi collapse. The patients received 1-4 times operations, and the interval of two operations was 3-10 years (mean 5.5 years). According to nasal deformity, the nasal septum cartilage of 1.8 cm x 1.2 cm was cut, and transplanted into the nose point phantom surface forming "the shield" to extend nose column and to raise the tip of the nose. At the same time the nasal tip fat-connective tissue flap graft with fat knot was given. After fixation, the nasal alar cartilage and soft tissues were reduced to normal position. Primary healing of the incisions was achieved in all cases. The nasal deformity was corrected. The postoperative follow-up period was 12-18 months with an average of 15.6 months. All the patients of regional cartilage scars had no complication. The figure of nose was slinky, the height of apex of nose and the shape of nose was natural, the apex of nose, nasal ala, nostrils and nasal columella were satisfactory [(the results were satisfactory in 30 cases (78.9%), general in 8 cases (21.1%)]. The nose department overall esthetics shape was improved in all the patients, no complications of the phantom sliding, shifting and exposure, hemorrhage and infection occurred. The nasal septum cartilage-silica gel complex to repair
Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.
Günlemez, Ayla; Isken, Tonguç; Gökalp, Ayse S; Türker, Gülcan; Arisoy, Engin A
We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the silicon gel application on the nares in prevention of nasal injury in preterm infants ventilated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Patients (n=179) were randomized into two groups: Group 1 (n=87) had no silicon gel applied to nares, and in Group 2 (n=92), the silicon gel sheeting was used on the surface of nares during ventilation with NCPAP. Nasal injury developed in 13 (14.9%) neonates in Group 1 and 4 (4.3%) newborns in Group 2 (OR:3.43; 95% CI: 1.1-10.1; Pnasal injury in preterm infants on nasal CPAP.
Roldão, António; Vicente, Tiago; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M
Recombinant baculoviruses (rBac) are used for many different applications, ranging from bio-insecticides to the production of heterologous proteins, high-throughput screening of gene functions, drug delivery, in vitro assembly studies, design of antiviral drugs, bio-weapons, building blocks for electronics, biosensors and chemistry, and recently as a delivery system in gene therapy. Independent of the application, the quality, quantity and purity of rBac-based products are pre-requisites demanded by regulatory authorities for product licensing. To guarantee maximization utility, it is necessary to delineate optimized production schemes either using trial-and-error experimental setups ("brute force" approach) or rational design of experiments by aid of in silico mathematical models (Systems Biology approach). For that, one must define all of the main steps in the overall process, identify the main bioengineering issues affecting each individual step and implement, if required, accurate analytical methods for product characterization. In this review, current challenges for quality control (QC) technologies for up- and down-stream processing of rBac-based products are addressed. In addition, a collection of QC methods for monitoring/control of the production of rBac derived products are presented as well as innovative technologies for faster process optimization and more detailed product characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akinyemi Oluwole A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teratoma is a rare developmental neoplasm that arises from totipotential tumor stem cells. Head and neck teratomas constitute about 10% of all cases. Only two cases of mature teratoma of the nasal septum have previously been documented in the world literature. Case presentation We present a case of histologically confirmed mature teratoma arising from the nasal septum in an eighteen month old Nigerian female who presented with a history of noisy breathing associated with recurrent rhinorrhea since birth. Physical examination revealed obstruction of the right nasal cavity by a pale fleshy mass. She underwent a total surgical excision and to date, after thirty one months follow-up, she is free from recurrence. Conclusion The prognosis for benign teratoma of the nasal septum is good following total surgical excision.
Cederlund, Anna; And Others
A study of nasal mucociliary transport in 11 healthy subjects before and after they jogged 8-10 kilometers indicated that the transport time was significantly longer after jogging than before jogging. (Author/CB)
... sprays the correct way can take some practice. Path to improved health Prescription nasal sprays come in ... thumb at the bottom and your index and middle fingers on top. Insert the canister tip in ...
The adaptation of cetaceans to aquatic life habits is reflected, in their nasal region, in three marked changes from the original relations found in land mammals. These changes include (1) the loss of the sense of smell, (2) translocation of the nostrils from the tip of the rostrum to the vertex of the head, and (3) elongation of the anterior head to form a rostrum protruding far towards anterior. The morphogenetic processes taking place during embryogenesis of the nasal skull play a decisive part in the development of all these changes. The lateral parts of the embryonic nasal capsule, encompassing the nasal passages, change their position from horizontal to vertical. At the same time, the structures of the original nasal floor (the solum nasi) are shifted in front of the nasal passages towards the rostrum. The structures of the original nasal roof (the tectum nasi) and of the nasal side wall (the paries nasi) are translocated behind the nasal passages towards the neurocranium. The medial nasal septum (the septum nasi) mostly loses its connection to the nasal passages and is produced into a point protruding far towards anterior. The transformed embryonic nasal skull of the Cetacea can be divided into three sections: 1. The median structures. These include the cartilaginous structures, viz., the rostrum nasi, the septum interorbitale and the spina mesethmoidalis, which are accompanied by the dermal bones, the vomer and the praemaxillare. In adult cetaceans the rostrum nasi is mostly preserved as a robust cartilage of the skull, which may possibly serve as a sound transmitting structure of the sonar system, or it may be responsible for the sensing of water streams and vibrations. 2. The posterior side wall structures. These include the following cartilaginous structures that are mostly heavily reduced or mutually fused: the cupula nasi anterior, the tectum nasi, the lamina cribrosa, the paries nasi, the commissura orbitonasalis, the cupula nasi posterior, the
Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A
Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.
Full Text Available Abstract The possibility of producing local hyposensitization by administering allergens via mucosal routes was envisaged at the beginning of 1900, and local nasal immunotherapy has been extensively studied since the 1970s. Presently, there are 21 randomized controlled trials being conducted with the most common allergens, consistently showing the clinical efficacy of local nasal immunotherapy for rhinitis. Other advantages are that it has an optimal safety profile and can be self-administered at home by the patient. Moreover, there are several data from animal models and from humans that confirm the immunomodulatory effect of intranasally administered antigens. On the other hand, local nasal immunotherapy seems to be effective only on rhinitis symptoms and requires a particular technique of administration. For these reasons, its clinical use is progressively declining in favour of the sublingual route although nasal immunotherapy is validated in official documents and remains a viable alternative to injection.
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...
When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also
't Mannetje, Dieter
In this work, we study the behaviour of drops and contact lines under the influence of electric fields, and how these can answer fundamental and industrial questions. Our focus is on studying the varying balance of the electric field, hysteresis forces and inertia as the speed of a contact line
Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA
Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.
Park, Seong Kook; Heo, Kyung Wook; Hur, Dae Young; Yang, Young Il
Chitin is a recognition element for tissue infiltration by innate cells implicated in allergy and immunity. This process can be negatively regulated by vertebrate chitinases. Both acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (ChT) have chitinolytic activity. This study aimed to determine the activities of AMCase and ChT in nasal polyps (NPs), as well as their in situ localization in NP tissue. AMCase and ChT activities in NPs were compared with those in inferior turbinate tissue samples. Tissue samples were measured for AMCase and ChT activities at a range of pHs using the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-N,N',N''-triacetyl-chitotriose. Double immunofluorescent staining for the localization of both AMCase and ChT was performed using NP cryosections. Both AMCase and ChT displayed markedly increased chitinolytic activity in all NPs, compared with inferior turbinate tissues. Double immunofluorescent staining revealed that CD68 highlighted monocytes in the submucosa of NP and these cells disclosed coexpression of AMCase and ChT. CD31 detected capillary endothelial cells, but did not express any AMCase and ChT. The increased chitinolytic activities of AMCase and ChT in NPs may be important in NP pathogenesis, suggesting that inhibition of chitinolytic activity may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NPs.
Hassan, Z.U.; Majeed, A.
To compare medical versus surgical treatment of nasal polyps in terms of frequency of success and recurrence. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the department of ear nose throat (ENT), Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Peshawar over 2 years' period, from Jan 2000 to Dec 2002. Material and Methods: During this period, 80 patients were diagnosed of nasal polyps. These patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups. Patients in group-A received medical treatment in the form of intra-nasal steroids while patients in group-B received surgical treatment depending upon the extent of disease. Outcome variables were frequency of successful resolution of nasal polyps after 1 month of treatment and frequency of recurrence upon 1 year follow-up. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 years to 40 years with a mean of 26.13 +- 2.5 years. There were 49 (61.25%) male and 31 (38.75%) female patients in the study group giving a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. There was no significant difference between the two study groups in terms of gender (p=0.818) distribution. Bilateralintranasal polypectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (70.0%) followed by intranasal ethmoidectomy (12.5%), external ethmoidectomy (10.0%) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (7.5%). The frequency of successful treatment was significantly higher with surgery (100% vs. 52.50%; p<0.001) as compared to intra-nasal steroids at 1 month follow-up. However, over the long-term follow-up, the frequency of recurrence was significantly lower with intra-nasal steroids (4.8% vs. 30.0%; p=0.022) as compared to surgery. There was no complication in the patients treated with intra-nasal steroids. While crusting (15.0%) followed by infection (10.0%) were among the few complications observed in the surgical group-B. Conclusion: Though associated with significantly lower frequency of successful treatment, intranasal steroids
Lorenz, Kai J.
Full Text Available Midfacial degloving is a proven method for easily accessing the midface, the nasal pyramid, the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses, the orbits, as well as the anterior skull base. Indications for this method of access mainly include tumour resections in the area of the midface, the septum, the maxillary sinus, the paranasal to the sphenoidal sinus as well as the clivus. In addition, this method of access allows for the exposure of the bony structures of the midface in the event of extensive fractures.In general, this method of access combines an incision in the oral vestibule and circular incisions in the nasal vestibule area in order to release the nasal pyramid.After removing the facial wall of the maxillary sinus, extensive exposure of the surgical site is possible.One disadvantage of this method of access is the difficult reconstruction of the nasal valve area, which often leads to cicatricial stenoses and difficulties with breathing through the nose. Furthermore, wound healing problems and osteoradionecrosis in the area of the lateral margin of the anterior nasal aperture after replantation of the facial wall of the maxillary sinus have been described, because in this area sufficient soft tissue coverage cannot be ensured when a conventional technique is used.We describe a soft tissue flap pedicled in the cranial and caudal directions in the nasal valve area which makes both the reconstruction of the nasal vestibule and sufficient soft tissue coverage of the anterior nasal aperture possible.
Carlos Eduardo Nazareth Nigro
Full Text Available A porção anterior das cavidades nasais, da narina à válvula nasal (VN, é a região de maior resistência nasal ao fluxo aerífero, de suma importância para a fisiologia nasal. Na literatura existem terminologias diferentes para se referir às mesmas estruturas anatômicas e, ainda, o mesmo termo se referindo a estruturas anatômicas diferentes. OBJETIVO: Realizamos este trabalho com o objetivo de revisarmos o funcionamento da VN e definirmos com mais clareza estruturas anatômicas da porção anterior das cavidades nasais, principalmente a região da VN. CONCLUSÃO: Existe controvérsia na literatura quanto à nomenclatura das estruturas da VN. Neste trabalho definimos VN como uma estrutura tridimensional compreendida anteriormente pelo ostium internum e posteriormente pelo isthmus nasi.The anterior portion of the nasal cavities, from the nostril to the nasal valve (NV, is the place of highest nasal resistance to airflow, paramount to nasal physiology. There are different terminologies for the same anatomic structures in the literature. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the NV function and define clearly the structures of the anterior portion of the nasal cavities, mainly the region of the NV. CONCLUSION: Internum ostium is the anterior segment and isthmus nasi is the posterior segment of the NV region.
Bannister, C M; Kashab, M; Dagestani, H; Placzek, M
After a difficult nasal intubation a premature infant leaked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one nostril. After developing bacterial meningitis, the baby was referred for neurosurgical management of the CSF fistula. Transaxial computed tomograms demonstrated a nasal encephalocele, but coronal scans were needed to show the defect in the cribriform plate. Images PMID:8346963
Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Callebaux, I.; Jorissen, M.; Hellings, P. W.
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their
Yamada, Masao; Fukuda, Fumito; Nishikawa, Masana; Ishii, Takeshi.
Object: To provide a device for producing liquid drops in the form of liquefied gases indispensable to make deuterium and tritium ice pellets used as a fusion fuel in a tokamak type fusion reactor. Structure: First, pressure P 1 at the upper surface of liquefied gas in a container and outlet pressure P 2 of a nozzle disposed at the lower part of the container are adjusted into the state of P 1 >= P 2 , and it is preset so that even under such conditions, the liquefied gas from the nozzle is not naturally flown out. Next, a vibration plate disposed within the container is rapidly downwardly advanced toward the nozzle through a predetermined distance. As a result, pressure of the liquefied gas within a depression under the vibration plate rises instantaneously or in a pulse fashion to dissatisfy the aforesaid set condition whereby the liquefied gas may be flown out from the nozzle in the form of liquid drops. In accordance with the present device, it is possible to produce a suitable number of drops at a suitable point. (Yoshihara, H.)
Borcia, Rodica; Borcia, Ion Dan; Helbig, Markus; Meier, Martin; Egbers, Christoph; Bestehorn, Michael
We study the motion of a liquid drop on a solid plate simultaneously submitted to horizontal and vertical harmonic vibrations. The investigation is done via a phase field model earlier developed for describing static and dynamic contact angles. The density field is nearly constant in every bulk region (ρ = 1 in the liquid phase, ρ ≈ 0 in the vapor phase) and varies continuously from one phase to the other with a rapid but smooth variation across the interfaces. Complicated explicit boundary conditions along the interface are avoided and captured implicitly by gradient terms of ρ in the hydrodynamic basic equations. The contact angle θ is controlled through the density at the solid substrate ρ S , a free parameter varying between 0 and 1 [R. Borcia, I.D. Borcia, M. Bestehorn, Phys. Rev. E 78, 066307 (2008)]. We emphasize the swaying and the spreading modes, earlier theoretically identified by Benilov and Billingham via a shallow-water model for drops climbing uphill along an inclined plane oscillating vertically [E.S. Benilov, J. Billingham, J. Fluid Mech. 674, 93 (2011)]. The numerical phase field simulations will be completed by experiments. Some ways to prevent the release of the dancing drops along a hydrophobic surface into the gas atmosphere are also discussed in this paper.
Virkkula, Paula; Maasilta, Paula; Hytönen, Maija; Salmi, Tapani; Malmberg, Henrik
Nasal obstruction is considered to be a potential etiological factor in sleep-disordered breathing. However, a significant correlation between nasal measurements and obstructive sleep apnea has not been demonstrated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between nasal resistance, nasal volumes and selected sleep parameters using nasal measurements performed in both seated and supine positions. We also investigated whether snoring patients in our clinical sample showed increased positional or decongestive nasal mucosal changes. Forty-one snoring men on a waiting list for correction of nasal obstruction underwent polysomnography, anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. Nineteen non-snoring control subjects were also recruited. Nasal measurements were performed in a seated position, after lying down in a supine position and, after decongestion of nasal mucosa, in a seated position again. In the overall patient group, nasal volume at a distance 2-4 cm from the nares in the supine position correlated inversely with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = -0.32, p patients, total nasal resistance measured in a supine position correlated with AHI (r = 0.50, p position and sleep parameters. Postural or decongestive changes in nasal measurements were not increased in snoring patients compared with control subjects. The relationship found between nasal measurements and sleep parameters suggests that nasal obstruction does augment airway collapse.
Full Text Available Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping characteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1% Avicel to 3.5% Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.
Galas, Jean-Christophe; Studer, Vincent [Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, ESPCI-CNRS UMR 7637, 10 rue Vauquelin 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Bartolo, Denis [PMMH-ESPCI-CNRS UMR 7636-Universite Paris 6-Universite Paris 7, 10 rue Vauquelin 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com
We introduce a simple and versatile microfluidic drop-on-demand solution that enables independent and dynamical control of both the drop size and the drop production rate. To do so, we combine a standard microfluidic T-junction and a novel active switching component that connects the microfluidic channel to the macroscopic liquid reservoirs. Firstly, we explain how to make this simple but accurate drop-on-demand device. Secondly, we carefully characterize its dynamic response and its range of operations. Finally, we show how to generate complex two-dimensional drop patterns dynamically in single or multiple synchronized drop-on-demand devices.
Michels, Daniel de Sousa; Rodrigues, Amanda da Mota Silveira; Nakanishi, Márcio; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos
Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. PMID:25548569
Kim, Jisung; Jung, Hahn Jin; Shim, Woo Sub
Closed reduction is generally recommended for acute nasal bone fractures, and rhinoplasty is considered in cases with an unsatisfactory outcome. However, concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction might achieve better surgical outcomes. This study investigated the surgical techniques and outcomes in patients who underwent rhinoplasty and fracture reduction concomitantly, during the acute stage of nasal bone fracture. Forty-five patients who underwent concomitant rhinoplasty and fracture reduction were enrolled. Nasal bone fractures were classified into three major types (type I, simple fracture; type II, fracture line that mimics nasal osteotomy; and type III, comminuted fracture) based on computed tomography images and preoperative facial images. Two independent otolaryngology-head and neck surgeons evaluated the surgical outcomes and telephone based survey were made to evaluate patients satisfaction. Among 45 patients, there were 39 males and 6 females. Type I was the commonest type of fracture with 18 patients (40%), while the most frequently used surgical technique for corrective surgery was dorsal augmentation with 44 patients (97.8%). The mean visual analogue scale satisfaction score of the surgeons and patients were 7.62 and 8, respectively, with no significant differences between fracture types. Concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction can be performed for acute nasal bone fracture patients, and it might lead to better aesthetic outcomes.
Rosen, Evan B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M
A technique for making a provisional nasal prosthesis for interim use after the ablation of a midface tumor is described. The technique is especially useful for the re-creation of a nasal form in an expedient and cost-effective manner. A preoperative definitive cast, or moulage, of the patient that includes a nasal form is used to fabricate a vacuum form of the midface. The vacuum form is evaluated on the patient, the extension is adjusted, and an external adhesive knit liner is applied to give the appearance of a contoured nasal bandage. The provisional nasal prosthesis is attached with medical adhesive tape and removed daily by the patient. The prosthesis is easily replaced during the course of treatment and has been found to be functional and esthetically acceptable to those patients receiving care from the Dental Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.
Mohd Slim, Mohd Afiq; Dick, David; Trimble, Keith; McKee, Gary
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at increased risk of nasal polyps. We present the case of a 17-month-old Caucasian patient with CF who presented with hypertelorism causing cycloplegic astigmatism, right-sided mucoid discharge, snoring and noisy breathing. Imaging suggested bilateral mucoceles in the ethmoid sinuses. Intraoperatively, bilateral soft tissue masses were noted, and both posterior choanae were patent. Polypectomy and bilateral mega-antrostomies were performed. Histological examination revealed inflammatory nasal polyposis typical of CF. The role of early functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in children with CF nasal polyposis remains questionable as the recurrence rate is higher, and no improvement in pulmonary function has been shown. Our case, however, clearly demonstrates the beneficial upper airway symptom relief and normalisation of facial appearance following FESS in a child with this condition. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A
Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.
Jun Wook Lee
Full Text Available BackgroundPathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemic infectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome. However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasal bone fracture.MethodsThis was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasal carriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken from both the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.ResultsPathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding 10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second most identified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher than that in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effect on the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.ConclusionsThe prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rate of CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according to specific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on the potential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.
At emergency tracheostomy, examination under anaesthesia, meticulous nasal and nasopharyngeal tumour clearance was done. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed osteogenic chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSION: Though rare, osteogenic chondrosarcoma affects nasal bones. Clinically the tumour mimicks ...
The continuous emergence of new pathogens and growing drug resistance of microorganisms asks for innovative vaccination strategies. An alternative to conventional multiple injection vaccines is the nasal route of vaccine delivery. The immune response induced following nasal antigen delivery depends
James H. Yang
Full Text Available This paper presented phonetic evidence to resolve the transcription disagreement concerning the syllable-final nasal shift in the variety of Mandarin spoken in Taiwan. Although three judges agreed that the rhyme /iŋ/ underwent a sound change, they perceived the nasal coda shift differently. Two of them transcribed it as a modification from /iŋ/ to /in/, whereas the other asserted that the velar nasal disappears with its preceding vowel nasalized. In order to resolve this transcription conflict, this study analyzed the acoustic attributes of the speculative sound alterations in question, including /in/, /iŋ/, /i/ and /ĩ/. The phonetic analysis indicated that the Taiwanese participants did not nasalize the preceding vowel deleting the nasal coda but tended to pronounce the post-vocalic velar nasal as its dental counterpart. This study concluded by discussing the implications of the synchronic variation for the theories of the nasal coda shift in Chinese dialects.
Cashman, E C
The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.
Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab
The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.
Full Text Available Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature.
Carlos Giraldo M.; Catalina López V.; Jorge U. Carmona
Se describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ) del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada evidenció una...
Giraldo M, Carlos; López V, Catalina
RESUMENSe describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ) del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada eviden...
Bykova, V P; Bakhtin, A A; Polyakov, D P; Yunusov, A S; Daikhes, N A
The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues. The paper provides a brief overview of the discussed pathology.
Full Text Available Glomangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm characterized by a pattern of prominent perivascular growth. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and facial pain. A reddish tumor filling the left nasal cavity was observed on endoscopy and treated with endoscopic excision. Microscopically, closely packed cells interspersed with numerous thin-walled, branching staghorn vessels were seen. Glomangiopericytoma is categorized as a borderline low malignancy tumor by WHO classification. Long-term follow-up with systemic examination is necessary due to high risk of recurrence.
J.H. Soria; J.C. Pintos; C.G. Conde; R.J. Losardo
Las líneas de tensión que comprometen la estructura del cartílago del tabique nasal contribuyen a la recidiva en las desviaciones nasales, particularmente las desviaciones anteriores o cartilaginosas. Utilizamos la técnica de desvinculación ántero-posterior resecando una porción de tabique en forma de L, logrando evitar la recidiva de la desviación nasal. Indicamos una disección acotada del cartílago que se limita a la porción a seccionar, con el fin de disminuir las posibilidad de complicaci...
O'Donnell, Sinéad M
To determine if low-flow nasal prongs therapy with room air, compared with no treatment, facilitates weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500 g) infants.
Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Ru, de J.A.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.
It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid
Balsalobre, Leonardo; Pezato, Rogério; Gasparini, Hiran; Haddad, Fernanda; Gregório, Luis Carlos; Fujita, Reginaldo R
Continuous airflow in the upper airway can cause discomfort, leading to nasopharyngeal complaints. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the acute effects of continuous positive upper-airway pressure on nasal patency in awake normal subjects. Twenty-seven adults (17 men; 10 women; age range, 18 to 43 years) were exposed to continuous airway pressure (20 cmH 2 O) in the nasal cavity, delivered by a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device through a nasal mask for 2 hours. Visual analogue scale (VAS) of nasal obstruction, Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) modified scale, acoustic rhinometry (AR), and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PF) were measured before and after the use of CPAP. There was an increase in nasal obstruction scores both on the VAS (p nasal cavity volume on AR (p Nasal parameters were significantly worse in the rhinitis group, with higher nasal obstruction scores on the VAS (p = 0.001) and NOSE scale (p CPAP is associated with subjective and objective reductions in nasal patency. In individuals with allergic nasal symptoms, deterioration is even more severe than in patients without these symptoms. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...
Objective: To investigate a possible contribution of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) in the etiopathogenesis of simple nasal polyps. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial. Methods: Twenty five patients with simple nasal polyps underwent nasal polypectomy were studied. Helicobacter pylori DNA was investigated for ...
Patient presented with long standing history of nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis for three years. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and he was successfully treated by complete surgical excision. This was a very unusual cause of nasal masses in our setting. Nasal rhinosporidioss lesions ...
Brunet, P.; Eggers, J.; Deegan, R. D.
We report an experimental study of liquid drops moving against gravity, when placed on a vertically vibrating inclined plate, which is partially wetted by the drop. The frequency of vibrations ranges from 30 to 200 Hz, and, above a threshold in vibration acceleration, drops experience an upward motion. We attribute this surprising motion to the deformations of the drop, as a consequence of an up or down symmetry breaking induced by the presence of the substrate. We relate the direction of motion to contact angle measurements. This phenomenon can be used to move a drop along an arbitrary path in a plane, without special surface treatments or localized forcing.
Ahmadi Moghadam, Mohamad; Ahmadi Moghadam, Shokofeh
Nose is one of the most important aesthetic unit of the face.Management of nasal trauma plays a significant role in the practices of the majority of facial and reconstructive surgeons. Replantation, although technically very challenging, is undoubtedly the procedure of choice following traumatic nasal amputation. Here we present an illustrative case report of the traumatic amputation of a nasal tip that was treated successfully with a paramedian forehead flap and further nasal reconstructive surgery. Use of the forehead flap was performed five hours after the occurrence of trauma and was followed by surgical repair about three weeks later. This case presents evidence that a forehead flap as a full-thickness composite graft can survive with an acceptable clinical outcome. In this particular case, the final result was satisfactory.
Full Text Available Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS is a rare cause of nasal airway obstruction that clinically mimics choanal atresia in a neonate. The differentiation between the two is very important as the management of the two conditions is different. Timely recognition is important to prevent fatal outcome. CNPAS may present as an isolated condition or with associated craniofacial anomalies. Despite typical findings of CNPAS being present on cross-sectional imaging, this condition is commonly overlooked, probably because of a lack of familiarity with the normal morphological features of the nasal cavity in infants and also owing to a lack of awareness of this rare entity. Here we report a case of CNPAS with pre- and post-surgical CT images and the complication that occurred owing to nasal stenting.
Delhaes, L; Bourel, B; Pinatel, F; Cailliez, J C; Gosset, D; Camus, D; Dei-Cas, E
One case of human nasal myiasis caused by second and third instar larvae of Oestrus ovis was observed in Lille (North France). Oestrosis is a common myiasis of sheep and goats in Mediterranean and Tropical countries. The authors examine the oestrosis pathogenesis in the usual host (sheep) or in humans, and analyse the epidemiology, the symptomatology and the treatment of human oestrosis.
Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E
From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...... prognosticator of both disease specific and crude survival (p treatment and close follow up....
The most worrying complications of sinusitis in- volve the orbit and intracranial cavity". Complications and local extension of paranasal sinus infections most often involve the orbit and periorbital”. In conclusion the nasal polyposis has been found in this study to cause the radiological changes mainly in the mxillary sinus and ...
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...
Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common diseases in the otorhinolaryngology emergency room is the nasal bones fracture. The peak of incidence is between 15 and 25 years of age. Generally men are more affected. Objective: To analyze the age, gender and the most frequent causes of nasal fractures evaluated in the otorhinolaryngology service of a tertiary hospital. Method: Retrospective study of records of the patients with nasal fracture diagnosis treated between July 1st, 2003 and July 1st, 2007. Results: 167 patients with nasal bones fracture were included in the study, including 134 men and 33 women. Violence was the most frequent cause, with 55 cases (32.9%, followed by fall from their own height, with 33 cases (19.7%, and motorcycle accident, 14 cases (8.4%. The most common age was between 21 and 39 years (46.1%. Conclusion: Male, age between 21 and 39 years and violence are the most common characteristics found in our service. Motorcycle accidents also play an important role in this affection.
Lee, Hyo-Ki; Kim, Hojoong; Lee, Kyoung-Joung
This study presents a rule-based method for automated, real-time snoring detection using nasal pressure recordings during overnight sleep. Although nasal pressure recordings provide information regarding nocturnal breathing abnormalities in a polysomnography (PSG) study or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system, an objective assessment of snoring detection using these nasal pressure recordings has not yet been reported in the literature. Nasal pressure recordings were obtained from 55 patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The PSG data were also recorded simultaneously to evaluate the proposed method. This rule-based method for automatic, real-time snoring detection employed preprocessing, short-time energy and the central difference method. Using this methodology, a sensitivity of 85.4% and a positive predictive value of 92.0% were achieved in all patients. Therefore, we concluded that the proposed method is a simple, portable and cost-effective tool for real-time snoring detection in PSG and CPAP systems that does not require acoustic analysis using a microphone.
hepatic first pass metabolism, and make possible the release of active ingredient in a controlled manner. In this review, the benefits, limitations ... With regard to absorption, good penetration of lipophilic molecules and low molecular ..... be a useful tool for in vitro screening of nasal drug candidates . Excised and cultured ...
Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.
Galvez Chavez, Julio Cesar; Sanchez Wals, Lenia; Monzon Fernandez, Abel Nicolas; Morales Tirado, Roxana
Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors
Gelardi, Matteo; Carbonara, Giuseppe; Maffezzoni, Enrico; Marvisi, Maurizio; Quaranta, Nicola; Ferri, Raffaele
To analyze nasal inflammation in a group of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by means of nasal cytology and to describe the changes induced by continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) treatment. Thirty-two consecutive patients affected by OSAS (mean age 46.9 years) and 13 control subjects (mean age 49.1 years) were enrolled. Detailed clinical, laboratory, and polysomnographic studies were obtained in all participants and, in particular, nasal cytology was performed; inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes), bacteria, and spores were counted. A subgroup of 19 OSAS patients underwent regular nasal CPAP for eight weeks while the remaining 13 were noncompliant. Nasal cytology was repeated after eight weeks in all patients and controls. All patients with OSAS were affected by some form of rhinopathy, mostly subclinical, which was not found to influence compliance to CPAP. Regular CPAP treatment induced a significant reduction of cell infiltration (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and muciparous cells), which was not seen in nontreated patients. Nasal inflammation/infection is a very frequent finding in OSAS and can be reverted by the regular use of CPAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A
The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus......, their negative interactions depend on thresholds of absolute abundance. These findings demonstrate that nasal microbiota is not fixed by host genetics and opens the possibility that nasal microbiota may be manipulated to prevent or eliminate S. aureus colonization....
Sakamoto, Kikuo; Gondo, Kyujiro; Tomita, Kazuhide; Kasuya, Takao
Neurinoma grows in the modulated nerve with Schwann cells, and is observed for all positions of the body. It is comparatively rare for neurinoma to grow in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, however. We report a case of neurinoma of the nasal septum. A 24-year-old man seen for nasal obstruction was found in anterior rhinoscopy to have a tumor of the bilateral nasal cavity. Computed tomography (CT) showed a soft tissue density mass in the anterior part of the nasal cavity. Because we suspected neurinoma from biopsy, we resected the tumor by Denker's operation under general anesthesia. We found that it originated from the nasal septum. Histopathological findings of the tumor indicated an Antoni A type neurinoma. After surgery, cartilago costalis was transplanted the plastic surgery to correct the defect in the nasal septum. The post operative course was good and no signs of recurrence were seen. This is the 19th case found in the literature.
Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.
We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.
Cheng, Y.S.; Hansen, G.K.; Su, Y.F.; Yeh, H.C.; Morgan, K.T.
Determination of regional respiratory deposition of inhaled aerosols is critical for evaluation of the health effects of air pollutants. Information on deposition of larger particles (> 0.02 μm) in the nasal passages of laboratory animals is available; the deposition fraction increases with increasing particle size. Little information on ultrafine particles less than 0.2 μm is available. Molds (models) were prepared from replica casts of the nasal passages of F344/N rats, using clear casting plastic. Total deposition of ultrafine aerosols in these casts was then determined using a unidirectional flow system. Measured pressure drops in the casts were a function of flow rate to the power of 1.4-1.6, indicating that the flow through the nasal passage was not laminar. Deposition data were obtained from these casts, using monodisperse sodium chloride aerosols with particle size ranging from 0.2 to 0.005 μm, at inspiratory and expiratory flow rates of 200 to 600 cc/min. Similar deposition data were obtained for the three casts studied. The deposition efficiency was greatest for the smallest particles, and decreased with increasing particle size and flow rate, indicating that diffusion was the dominant mechanism for deposition. At an inspiratory flow rate of 400 cc/min, which is comparable to a respiratory minute volume of 200 cc/min for mature male F344/N rats, deposition efficiencies reached 40 and 70% for 0.01 and 0.005 μm particles, respectively. Turbulent diffusion was considered to be the dominant mechanism for deposition of ultrafine particles in the nasal passage. This information is important for understanding the toxicity and carcinogenicity of submicrometer particles, including diesel soot, radon progeny and vapors. (author)
Ma, Xiaolei; Liétor-Santos, Juan-José; Burton, Justin C.
We experimentally investigate the self-sustained, star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops. The drops levitate on a cushion of evaporated vapor over a heated, curved surface. We observe modes with n =2 -13 lobes around the drop periphery. We find that the wavelength of the oscillations depends only on the capillary length of the liquid and is independent of the drop radius and substrate temperature. However, the number of observed modes depends sensitively on the liquid viscosity. The dominant frequency of pressure variations in the vapor layer is approximately twice the drop oscillation frequency, consistent with a parametric forcing mechanism. Our results show that the star-shaped oscillations are driven by capillary waves of a characteristic wavelength beneath the drop and that the waves are generated by a large shear stress at the liquid-vapor interface.
Hussain, Sarwat E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
We report seven patients in whom five dropped surgical clips and two gallstones were visualized in the peritoneal cavity, on radiological studies. In two, subphrenic abscesses and empyemas developed as a result of dropped clips into the peritoneal cavity during or following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In one of these two, a clip was removed surgically from the site of an abscess. In two other patients dropped gallstones, and in three, dropped clips led to no complications. These were seen incidentally on studies done for other indications. Abdominal abscess secondary to dropped gallstones is a well-recognized complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We conclude that even though dropped surgical clips usually do not cause problems, they should be considered as a risk additional to other well-known causes of post-LC abdominal sepsis.
We report seven patients in whom five dropped surgical clips and two gallstones were visualized in the peritoneal cavity, on radiological studies. In two, subphrenic abscesses and empyemas developed as a result of dropped clips into the peritoneal cavity during or following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In one of these two, a clip was removed surgically from the site of an abscess. In two other patients dropped gallstones, and in three, dropped clips led to no complications. These were seen incidentally on studies done for other indications. Abdominal abscess secondary to dropped gallstones is a well-recognized complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We conclude that even though dropped surgical clips usually do not cause problems, they should be considered as a risk additional to other well-known causes of post-LC abdominal sepsis
Ghimire, Anand; Das, Balabhadra Prasad; Mishra, Subhash Chandra
This prospective randomized case controlled study was conducted to determine the efficacy of antihistamine (azelastine) nasal spray and compare it to steroid (beclomethasone) nasal spray on the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Seventy five symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis were included in this study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history and physical examination. The patients were divided into three groups randomly. Group A was treated with Azelastine nasal spray, Group B was treated with Beclomethasone nasal spray and Group C was control group and only treated with steam inhalation. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed in the terms of Total Rhinitis Symptom Complex (TSC) scores and individual symptom score which was calculated on the basis of Okuda's grading system. Base line total symptom complex (TSC) scores were reduced in group A and group B by 84.0% after 4 week treatment whereas in group C it was reduced by only 38.0%. Decrease in mean score for sneezing was 95.0% in group A and group B whereas it was only 28.3% in group C. Similarly decrease in mean score for rhinorrhoea in azelastine group was 94.4% and in beclomethasone group was 95.3% in comparison to steam inhalation group where it was 25.0%. Only the beclomethasone reduced nasal stuffiness score significantly by 95.0%. No significant adverse effects of the drugs were observed. The present study establishes the relative efficacy and tolerability ofazelastine nasal spray as compared to beclomethasone nasal spray in symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis.
Jun Wook Lee
Full Text Available Background Pathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemicinfectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome.However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasalbone fracture.Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasalcarriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken fromboth the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.Results Pathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second mostidentified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher thanthat in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effecton the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture inKorea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rateof CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according tospecific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on thepotential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.
Brutin, D.; Rigollet, F.; Niliot, C. Le
Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge on the convection cells which develop inside the drop under evaporation. The evaporation of sessile drop is more complicated than it appears due to the...
Mauren P. Rocha
Full Text Available As neoplasias nasais são bastante raras. Os tumores mais observados na cavidade nasal são papilomas epiteliais, angiomas, carcinoma de células transicionais, carcinoma pavimentoso e adenocarcinoma. O adenoma pleomórfico pertence ao grupo de tumores que aparecem com menor freqüência na fossa nasal, e é o tumor benigno glandular mais comum originado na cabeça e pescoço. A apresentação clínica típica dos pacientes com adenoma pleomórfico do septo nasal é de obstrução nasal unilateral, epistaxe e massa indolor na cavidade nasal. Em vista da raridade da apresentação clínica do adenoma pleomórfico nesta localização, os autores descrevem um caso de adenoma pleomórfico nasal em um paciente do sexo masculino, com 69 anos de idade, onde relatam os achados clínicos, critérios diagnósticos, tratamento, prognóstico e revisão da literatura.Nasal tumours are very rare. The neoplasms most frequently seen in the nasal cavity are epithelial papillomas, angiomas, transitional cells carcinoma, pavement carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The pleomorphic adenoma belongs to the group of tumours less commonly observed in the nasal cavity, and is the most common head and neck benign glandular tumour. The typical clinical presentation of the nasal pleomorphic adenoma is of unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and a painless mass in the nasal cavity. The authors reported an adenoma pleomorphic case that highlights itself by its unusual nasal presentation in the nasal septum of a 45-year-old male patient who was submitted to surgical treatment, and discuss the clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and literature review.
Full Text Available This open-label, prospective, multicentre, 4-week trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy and tolerability of twice daily levocabastine eye drops (0.5 mg/ml, with sodium cromoglycate nasal spray for the relief of concurrent nasal symptoms if required, in a total of 233 children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. No correlation between efficacy, tolerability and age was found. Investigator assessments revealed that the total severity of ocular symptoms decreased by 84 ± 34% in patients < 12 years and 85 ± 30% in those ≥ 12 years, with corresponding reductions in the total severity of ocular findings of 84% in both patient groups over the 4-week treatment period. Global assessments of therapeutic efficacy revealed the effect of therapy on ocular symptoms to be excellent or good in 81% of patients < 12 years and 82% of those ≥ 12 years after 2 weeks of treatment, with corresponding values at the end of the trial of 88% and 82% in the two groups, respectively. Treatment tolerability was considered to be excellent or good by 94% of patients overall. Application site reactions were the most common adverse event associated with ocular levocabastine, occurring in 13% of patients < 12 years and 9% of those ≥ 12 years. Twice daily levocabastine eye drops therefore appear to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in children.
Roloff, Jennifer Kathryn; The ATLAS collaboration
Calculations of jet substructure observables that are accurate beyond leading-logarithm accuracy have recently become available. Such observables are significant not only for probing the collinear regime of QCD that is largely unexplored at a hadron collider, but also for improving the understanding of jet substructure properties that are used in many studies at the Large Hadron Collider. This poster documents a measurement of the first jet substructure quantity at a hadron collider to be calculated at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithm accuracy. The normalized, differential cross-section is measured as a function of log( ρ^2), where ρ is the ratio of the soft-drop mass to the ungroomed jet transverse momentum. This quantity is measured in dijet events from 32.9 ifb of sqrt(s) = 13 TeV proton-proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector. The data are unfolded to correct for detector effects and compared to precise QCD calculations and leading-logarithm particle-level Monte Carlo simulations.
P Mahesh Shanmugam
Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.
Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896
Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian
The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Ricardo Reis Dinardi, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Abstract: Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. Keywords: external nasal dilator, nasal valve, nasal congestion, nasal resistance
This present study intended to provide nasal adhesive formulations for the topical treatment of dry nasal syndrome. Mucoadhesive films were prepared according to solvent evaporation method consisting of well-known polymers such as gellan and carboxymethyl cellulose. Mucoadhesive films (A-E) were evaluated in respect to their physicochemical properties, stability, disintegration behavior and tensile strength. Moreover, uptake capacity of adhesive films was investigated according to three assays vapor uptake/ permeability and water uptake. Mucoadhesive assessment was carried out on porcine nasal mucosa in terms of adhesion time, wash off resistance and spreadability. Obtained finings indicated 4.2 (B) > 2.55 (A) > 1.8 (D) > 1.3 (C) > 1(E) fold vapor uptake ranking. The bioadhesive results indicated a 60-fold (B) > 8.58-fold (C) > 7.42-fold (E) > 1.3-fold (D) improvement in comparison to formulation A. A variety of humectants such as urea, Aloe vera, allantoin and hyaluronic acid was incorporated in the formulations. Taken together, nasal adhesive films convinced with their proficiency of mucoadhesiveness and stability to be suitable in the management of dry nasal syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Van Thai; Lehes, Lagle; Truong, Thi Thuy Hang; Hoang, Thi Van Anh; Jagomägi, Triin
The Nasometer is increasingly being used to complement auditory perceptual assessment of nasality. Nasalance scores which are obtained from the Nasometer vary across languages. Normative nasalance scores have been established for many languages but not for the Vietnamese language. The objective of this study was to obtain the normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children. In this study, 102 healthy Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect aged from 7 to 9 years (45 boys, 57 girls; mean age = 7.5 years) at a primary school in Hue, Vietnam participated. Three speech stimuli, which were specific for the Vietnamese language, were designed: oral stimuli (19 words and 18 sentences), oro-nasal stimuli (eight sentences) and nasal stimuli (seven sentences). The children were asked to repeat these stimuli after the examiner. The Nasometer II (model 6450) was used to obtain the nasalance scores. The procedure took about 10 minutes for each child. The mean nasalance scores and the standard deviation of each stimulus were: 13.1 ± 5.8 (oral stimuli), 30.7 ± 6.6 (oro-nasal stimuli) and 56.9 ± 9.2 (nasal stimuli). No significant differences between the genders were found. The normative nasalance scores provide essential reference information for clinicians who deal with nasalance disorders, especially patients with cleft palate. The nasalance scores in this study were established for Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect and can be applied to both genders.
Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.
Carlos Giraldo M.
Full Text Available Se describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada evidenció una masa con densidad de tejido blando de 10 cm de longitud x 3.5 cm de diámetro y escasa captación de medio de contraste, que comprometía en su totalidad la cavidad nasal derecha y parte de la porción posterior de la coana izquierda. El análisis histopatológico reveló numerosas células redondas pleomórficas con poco citoplasma, rodeadas por trama escasa de tejido conectivo y bajo índice mitótico. En el examen IHQ la muestra fue negativa a los antígenos CD3 y CD20 para linfocitos T y B, respectivamente. Los hallazgos clínicos y de la tomografía computarizada, así como los resultados del análisis histopatológico del tejido tumoral, fueron compatibles con un plasmocitoma extramedular nasal de bajo grado de malignidad.
Faris, Callum; Vuyk, Hade D
Reconstruction of nasal tip and columella defects is demanding area with a range of reconstructive options, varying in complexity depending on requirements from simple skin grafting to multiple stage reconstruction with regional flaps. A framework is suggested to aid the reader in choice of reconstruction by classifying the defect based on size and the requirements of one to three layer (full thickness) reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uncertainty in PSHA could be reduced through better estimates of stress drop for possible future large earthquakes. Studies of small earthquakes find spatial variability in stress drop; if large earthquakes have similar spatial patterns, their stress drops may be better predicted using the stress drops of small local events. This regionalization implies the variance with respect to the local mean stress drop may be smaller than the variance with respect to the global mean. I test this idea using the Shearer et al. (2006) stress drop catalog for M1.5-3.1 events in southern California. I apply quality control (Hauksson, 2015) and remove near-field aftershocks (Wooddell & Abrahamson, 2014). The standard deviation of the distribution of the log10 stress drop is reduced from 0.45 (factor of 3) to 0.31 (factor of 2) by normalizing each event's stress drop by the local mean. I explore whether a similar variance reduction is possible when using the Shearer catalog to predict stress drops of larger southern California events. For catalogs of moderate-sized events (e.g. Kanamori, 1993; Mayeda & Walter, 1996; Boyd, 2017), normalizing by the Shearer catalog's local mean stress drop does not reduce the standard deviation compared to the unmodified stress drops. I compile stress drops of larger events from the literature, and identify 15 M5.5-7.5 earthquakes with at least three estimates. Because of the wide range of stress drop estimates for each event, and the different techniques and assumptions, it is difficult to assign a single stress drop value to each event. Instead, I compare the distributions of stress drop estimates for pairs of events, and test whether the means of the distributions are statistically significantly different. The events divide into 3 categories: low, medium, and high stress drop, with significant differences in mean stress drop between events in the low and the high stress drop categories. I test whether the spatial patterns of the Shearer catalog
Genther, Dane J; Papel, Ira D
Rhinoplasty often requires the use of grafting material, and the goal of the specific graft dictates the ideal characteristics of the material to be used. An ideal material would be biologically inert, resistant to infection, noncarcinogenic, nondegradable, widely available, cost-effective, readily modifiable, and easily removable, have compatible biomechanical characteristics, retain physical properties over time, and not migrate. Unfortunately, no material currently in existence meets all of these criteria. In modern rhinoplasty, autologous grafts are the gold standard against which all other nasal implants are measured and offer the safest long-term results for most patients. They are easily manipulated, have inherent stability and biomechanical characteristics similar to the native nasal framework, and confer minimal risk of complications. Modern homologous and alloplastic materials have gained considerable support in recent years because they are readily available in endless quantity, do not require a second surgical site for harvest, and are generally considered safe if most circumstances, but they confer additional risk and have biomechanical characteristics different from that of the native nasal framework. To address some of these issues, we provide a contemporary review of autologous, homologous, and alloplastic materials commonly used in rhinoplasty surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha
Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chaitanya S. Mudgal
greater knowledge, better skills and disseminate this knowledge through this journal to influence as many physicians and their patients as possible. They have taken the knowledge of their teachers, recognized their giants and are now poised to see further than ever before. My grandmother often used to quote to me a proverb from India, which when translated literally means “Many drops make a lake”. I cannot help but be amazed by the striking similarities between the words of Newton and this Indian saying. Therefore, while it may seem intuitive, I think it must be stated that it is vital for the betterment of all our patients that we recognize our own personal lakes to put our drops of knowledge into. More important is that we recognize that it is incumbent upon each and every one of us to contribute to our collective lakes of knowledge such as ABJS. And finally and perhaps most importantly we need to be utterly cognizant of never letting such lakes of knowledge run dry.... ever.
Webb, S M; Grillo, V L
An 8-year-old desexed male Burmese cat, which lived on a sheep-grazing property in central New South Wales, Australia, was presented following the sudden onset of dyspnoea, moist coughing and violent sneezing. The respiratory distress started several hours after the cat had made an outdoor excursion. Anterior rhinoscopy demonstrated small, white objects moving across oedematous and moderately inflamed nasal mucosa. These were retrieved via a series of vigorous nasal flushes and subsequently identified as larvae of the nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis. The cat was treated with ivermectin followed by selamectin 7 days later. It went on to make a complete recovery over 2-3 weeks. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.
Shappert, L.B.; Box, W.D.
In 1978, a virtually unyielding drop test impact pad was constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) for the testing of heavy shipping containers designed for transporting radioactive materials. Because of the facility's unique capability for drop-testing large, massive shipping packages, it has been identified as a facility which can be made available for non-DOE users
Kew Hong Chew
Full Text Available Pressure drop is an important consideration in Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI. This is due to the typically large distances between the different plants and the flow across plant elevations and equipment, including heat exchangers. Failure to consider pressure drop during utility targeting and heat exchanger network (HEN synthesis may, at best, lead to optimistic energy targets, and at worst, an inoperable system if the pumps or compressors cannot overcome the actual pressure drop. Most studies have addressed the pressure drop factor in terms of pumping cost, forbidden matches or allowable pressure drop constraints in the optimisation of HEN. This study looks at the implication of pressure drop in the context of a Total Site. The graphical Pinch-based TSHI methodology is extended to consider the pressure drop factor during the minimum energy requirement (MER targeting stage. The improved methodology provides a more realistic estimation of the MER targets and valuable insights for the implementation of the TSHI design. In the case study, when pressure drop in the steam distribution networks is considered, the heating and cooling duties increase by 14.5% and 4.5%.
Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil
The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…
Fernandez-Alvarez, Jose Ramon; Gandhi, Rashmi Shreyans; Amess, Philip; Mahoney, Liam; Watkins, Ryan; Rabe, Heike
Despite the paucity of evidence, the practice of weaning nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is widespread. However, the most clinically effective non-invasive ventilatory support strategy remains to be determined. We compared the outcome of very premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome treated with a combination of NCPAP and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) versus NCPAP and low-flow nasal cannula (LFNC). Between 2004 and 2008, patients ≤28 weeks of gestation and nasal bridge lesions compared to none on HHFNC. Respiratory and non-respiratory outcome was not significantly different otherwise. Combination of NCPAP and HHFNC reduced costs by 33 %. HHFNC shortens NCPAP time without increasing overall length of non-invasive respiratory support in very preterm infants. Unlike NCPAP, HHFNC does not seem to increase the risk of nasal trauma and appears to improve cost-effectiveness whilst producing otherwise equal respiratory and non-respiratory outcomes.
Chur, Victor; Small, Catherine B; Stryszak, Paul; Teper, Ariel
Mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) improves nasal symptoms and reduces polyp size in adults with nasal polyposis. This 4-month, multinational, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to assess the safety of MFNS in pediatric subjects aged 6-17 yr. Subjects aged 6-11 yr with bilateral nasal polyps received MFNS 100 μg once or twice daily or placebo; those aged 12-17 yr received MFNS 200 μg once or twice daily or placebo. End-points included change in 24-h urinary free cortisol (primary), change in 24-h urinary free cortisol corrected for creatinine (key secondary), and adverse events. Efficacy parameters included polyp size, nasal symptoms, and investigator-evaluated therapeutic response, although the study was not powered for statistical analysis of efficacy. Least squares baseline mean urinary free cortisol level (nmol/24 h) for both age groups combined (N = 127) was 49.5 in the MFNS once-daily group, 39.6 in the MFNS twice-daily group, and 49.8 in the placebo group. Change in 24-h urinary free cortisol did not significantly differ among MFNS- and placebo-treated subjects. Least squares mean 24-h urinary free cortisol levels corrected for creatinine also showed no significant differences among MFNS- and placebo-treated subjects. No safety issues emerged. Results of this study confirm the safety profile of MFNS in pediatric patients with bilateral nasal polyps over 4 months, even at double the recommended pediatric dosage for allergic rhinitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud
that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa.......Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine...... the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively...
Full Text Available The nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. Although it is rare in children, there may be also association with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. About 50% of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients develop situs inversus and it is known as Kartagener's syndrome. The Kartagener's sydrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus. Clinically, patients present to the otolaryngologist with nasal obstruction. We as pediatricians, should consider nasal polyposis as a rare cause of nasal obstruction in children. In the presence of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections accompanying nasal polyposis, Kartagener's syndrome must be kept in mind as a rare reason. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 942-945
Full Text Available The formation and detachment of Newtonian drops in viscous external liquids is investigated. A global analysis of two necking processes is presented in order to highlight the behavior of such thinning phenomena, when controlled either by inertia or by viscous effects. Moving detached droplets in an immiscible outer liquid were studied in terms of velocity and drop-travel distance. Theoretical predictions are proposed and compared with experimental data for the volume of the drop and for the subsequent dynamics that follow after detachment. Our investigations point out that the drop rapidly achieves constant velocity, the value of it being in a satisfactory agreement with the model. Both the influence of the flow rate and that of the material properties on drop volume are pursued.
Thievenaz, Virgile; Josserand, Christophe; Seon, Thomas
We investigate experimentally the solidification of a water drop during its impact on a sub-zero cooled metallic plate. As the drop impacts the substrate, a first thin layer of ice builds-up in the briefest moment. Afterwards, the competition between the liquid solidification and its retraction on this ice layer leads to a variety of frozen drop patterns. Typically, with a change of temperature the drop can freeze into a fried egg or a doughnut shape. These frozen motifs experience different sizes and can even disappear so only the thin pancake remains. These patterns have been explored through a range of parameters such as : plate temperature, thermal properties, drop size and impact velocity. Phase-diagrams show the range and the transition temperatures between the different patterns as a function of those parameters. The experimental results are discussed using a scaling law approach, allowing basic understanding of the underlying physics.
Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R
Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.
Espefält Westin, Ulrika
Nasal administration of analgesics for achieving rapid pain relief is currently a topic of great interest. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts access to the central nervous system (CNS) for several central-acting drugs, such as morphine and dihydroergotamine, which results in a substantial effect delay. Evidence for the olfactory transfer of drugs from the nasal cavity to the CNS after nasal administration, bypassing the BBB, is available for both animals and humans. The aims of this thes...
Soltan, Michelle; Kacker, Ashutosh
We describe the case of a 76-year-old man who presented with symptoms of chronic nasal obstruction and recurrent sinusitis of many years' duration. The patient's history and radiographic findings established a diagnosis of a complex odontoma of the nasal cavity. The mass was surgically excised, and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. The occurrence of an odontoma in the nasal cavity is extremely rare.
Tantinikorn, Weerachai; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Assanasen, Paraya
Nasal granuloma gravidarum is a rare condition associated with pregnancy and minor trauma. This condition presents with a nasal mass with varying degree of bleeding and obstruction. We report a patient with nasal granuloma gravidarum in the third trimester of pregnancy. Surgical excision is the definite treatment for this condition in order to stop the vicious cycle of recurrent massive bleeding. Possible etiology, clinical features and management are discussed.
Zhen, Hongtao; Gao, Qixue; Cui, Yonghua; Hua, Xiaoyang; Li, Huiqin; Feng, Jiane
To assess the value of oxymetazoline used in nasal endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The effect of oxymetazoline on 68 patients pulse, cilium mottom and rebound phenomenon during ESS were observed. Pulse and cilium motion are no significant difference after using oxymetazoline. Oxymetazoline reduces about 59% nasal mucosal blood flow and acts over 6 hours. Oxymetazoline used as nasal decongestant and anesthesia assistant is safe and effect in ESS as routine.
Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph
Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.
A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and pharyngeal beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriage in midwifery students in Kahramanmaras, Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey.
Na, Yang; Chung, Kang Soo; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Sung Kyun
Knowledge of airflow characteristics in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the physiologic and pathologic aspects of nasal breathing. Airflows inside post-surgery models were investigated both experimentally and numerically to simulate the inferior turbinectomy. The left cavities of all three models are normal and right cavity is modified by (1) excision of the head of the inferior turbinate, (2) resection of the lower fifth of the inferior turbinate, and (3) resection of almost the entire inferior turbinate. Thin-slice CT (computed tomography) data (0.6mm deep) and meticulous refinement of the model surface by over a decade-long collaboration between engineers and an experienced ENT doctor resulted in the creation of sophisticated nasal cavity models. After numerical experiments and validation by comparison with the PIV results, the CFD code using the Reynolds stress turbulent model and variable temperature boundary condition on the mucosal wall was chosen as the proper numerical framework. Both global quantities (pressure drop, flow rate ratio, total wall heat transfer) and local changes (velocity, temperature, humidity, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress) were numerically investigated. The turbinectomy obviously altered the main stream direction. The flow rate in the upper airway near the olfactory slit decreased in models (1) and (3). This may weaken the olfactory function of the nose. Fluid and thermal properties that are believed to be related with physiology and prognosis are dependent on turbinate resection volume, position, and manner. Widening of the inferior airway does not always result in decreased flow resistance or wall heat transfer. The gains and losses of inferior turbinectomy were considered by analysis of the post-surgery model results. Nasal resistance was increased in model (1) due to sudden airway expansion. Nasal resistance increased and the wall heat transfer decreased in model (3) due to sudden airway expansion and
Benitez, Hector Hugo Salas; Arvizu, Victor Manuel Almeida; Gutiérrez, Daniel Jijón; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Castellanos Olivares, Antonio; Vázquez Nava, Francisco; Velázquez, Héctor Chong; González Pérez, Maria del Carmen; Mora Nieto, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Eduardo Castro
To compare the efficacy of nasal budesonide plus oral zafirlukast against nasal budesonide plus oral loratadine/pseudoephedrine combination in the control of symptoms of rhinitis and asthma. A controlled, clinical, randomized, double blind and crossover study was made in 36 patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma following one of the next treatment regimes: group a) nasal budesonide plus oral zafirlukast twice a day or group b) nasal budesonide plus oral loratadine/pseudoephedrine twice a day, both of them during six weeks, and two weeks of washing and crossover of the treatments during six more weeks. Changes in the rhinitis and asthma symptoms, blood eosinophils, pulmonary function testing, and nasal cytology were evaluated before and after the treatment. 19 patients were assigned to group a, whereas 17 patients to group b. The age ranged between 16 to 45 years, and it predominated the female group, 70 and 89%, respectively (statistically no significant). During the first six weeks of the treatment, V0 to V3, both groups of patients got better nasal symptoms but group a was superior to group b. However, in bronchial symptoms, cough, wheezing and breathlessness, group a showed efficacy in comparison with group b, where no significant improvement was shown. Once the crossover was made, from V5 to V7, there was no difference between both groups. The other evaluated indicators, such as eosinophilia, VEF1 and nasal eosinophils, had a significant improvement before and at the end of the study. The association of a nasal steroid with a leukotriene modifier (zafirlukast) was more effective for controlling nasal symptoms and especially bronchial symptoms than the association of a nasal steroid with antihistamines (loratadine) with pseudoephedrine. Other inflammation indicators, such as eosinophilia and nasal eosinophilia, were diminished; the VEF1 increased significantly in both treatment groups. All the above may be due to the nasal steroid use associated to a
Drop impact is a canonical problem in fluid mechanics, with numerous applications in industrial as well as natural phenomena. The extremely simple initial configuration of the experiment can produce a very large variety of fast and complex dynamics. Scientific progress was made in parallel with major improvements in imaging and computational technologies. Most recently, high-speed imaging video cameras have opened the exploration of new phenomena occurring at the micro-second scale, and parallel computing allowed realistic direct numerical simulations of drop impacts. We combine these tools to bring a new understanding of two fundamental aspects of drop impacts: splashing and air entrapment. The early dynamics of a drop impacting on a liquid pool at high velocity produces an ejecta sheet, emerging horizontally in the neck between the drop and the pool. We show how the interaction of this thin liquid sheet with the air, the drop or the pool, can produce micro-droplets and bubble rings. Then we detail how the breakup of the air film stretched between the drop and the pool for lower impact velocities can produce a myriad of micro-bubbles.
Kieran, Emily A
To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.
Full Text Available In this prospective study, a quantitative determination of histamine and tryptase in nasal secretions after nasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS and allergen challenge was performed in 18 atopic patients who were compared with ten non-allergic healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to determine the normal and pathological concentrations of these important mediators in nasal secretions. The second objective was to test the relevance of these two mast cell secreted mediators after nasal challenge. Results showed that the concentrations of tryptase in almost all samples were under the minimal detection limit (< 0.5 μU/g and only a sigrtificant increase of tryptase (median, 28 μU/g occurred immediately after nasal allergen challenge in the patient group. Histamine concentration significantly increased after every nasal PBS challenge (median, 69 ng/g after first PBS challenge and 165 ng/g after second PBS challenge in the control group, as well as in the patient group after both PBS (median, 69 ng/g and allergen (median, 214 ng/g challenge. On the other hand, a rapid onset of sneezing and increase in nasal airway resistance was experienced only in the patient group after nasal allergen challenge, but did not occur after PBS challenge even though the histamine concentrations significantly increased in both groups. This study suggests that tryptase is a more preferable marker than histamine in quantitative monitoring of mast cell activation especially during the early phase nasal allergic reaction.
Chen, Longquan; Li, Chunli; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.; Auernhammer, Günter K.; Bonaccurso, Elmar
The early spreading of a liquid drop on a solid surface driven by inertial, capillary, and electrostatic forces is of fundamental interest, since most commonly used surfaces are (naturally) charged. We studied the effect of applying an electric potential between a drop and a surface on the early spreading of aqueous electrolyte drops. We found that spreading dynamics not only depended on the potential, but also on the electrolyte concentration. Based on molecular dynamics simulations of the ion distribution in spreading nanodrops under an applied potential, we propose a simple model to explain the relation between applied potential, electrolyte concentration, and early spreading dynamics.
Woods, Charmaine M; Tan, Sophia; Ullah, Shahid; Frauenfelder, Claire; Ooi, Eng H; Carney, A Simon
Saline-based irrigation solutions are evidence-based rhinological treatments; however, the formulation of these solutions could theoretically alter the function of innate antimicrobial peptides. The aim of this study was to determine if the antimicrobial activity of normal human nasal secretions in vivo is altered by commercially available large volume irrigation solutions. Minimally manipulated sinonasal secretions were collected from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS; n = 10) and normal healthy volunteers (n = 20). In a subset of control patients (n = 10) secretions were collected prior to, and at 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after nasal irrigation with 4 commercial irrigation solutions. Lysozyme and lactoferrin levels were analyzed and the antimicrobial activity of secretions determined using a radial diffusion assay. The antimicrobial activity of nasal secretions was reduced in CRS patients compared to healthy volunteers (p irrigation reduced lysozyme and lactoferrin levels, which returned to baseline levels by 6 hours; in addition to a sustained decrease in antimicrobial activity before returning to baseline at 24 hours. Low-salt solution stimulated peptide secretion by approximately 40% at 6 hours and 24 hours, but produced a transient decrease in antimicrobial activity, returning to baseline levels by 6 hours. Hypertonic solution initially decreased lysozyme and lactoferrin levels but maintained baseline levels of antimicrobial activity and increased peptide secretion by approximately 30% at 24 hours. The formulation of nasal irrigation solutions significantly affects the measured levels and functionality of sinonasal antimicrobial peptides. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Frendø, M; Håkansson, K; Schwer, S
were enrolled. Expiratory and nasal NO measurements and thorough pulmonary evaluation were performed. Pulmonary disease was diagnosed by a respiratory physician. RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent of CRSwNP patients with asthma showed elevated expiratory NO; the same was seen in 29% of non-asthmatic CRSw...
Full Text Available A total of 81 Tyraniidae birds were examined, 80 Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766 (Great kiscadee, and one Machetornis rixosa (Vieilot, 1819 (Cattle tyrant, for collection of nasal mites, which were identified as Ptilonyssus spinosus (Brooks & Strandtmann, 1960 and Sternostoma longisetosae (Hyland, 1961 (Rhinonyssidae. This finding characterises the first report of P. spinosus and S. longisetosae in P. sulphuratus, and the first record of P. spinosus in M. rixosa, and expands the geographic distribution of these species. It is the first occurrence of S. longisetosae in the Neotropics, and the first citation of P. spinosus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Full Text Available Out of 3000 consecutive subjects surveyed for the typical lesion of transverse nasal groove, 180 were found to have the characteristic lesions. In LU patients, the floor of the groove was studded with patulous hair follicles, greasy sale and black comedones. The age of the patients varied from 16 to 45 years, the majority belonged to the 20 to 30 age group. Family occurrence of the groove was noted ′in only 7.Seboffhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor and acne vulgaris were the commonly associated diseases.
Jain, Sumeet; Maru, Kavita; Shukla, Jyotsana
, often more effectively than by surgical reconstruction as the nose is relatively immobile structure. For successful results, lot of factors such as harmony, texture, color matching and blending of tissue interface with the prosthesis are important. The aim of the presented case report is to describe...... the non-surgical rehabilitation, with polymethyl meth-acrylate resin, nasal prosthesis for a patient who received partial rhinectomy as a result of squamous cell carcinoma of the nose. The prosthesis was made to restore the esthetic appearance of the patient with a mechanical retained design using...
Full Text Available A 22-year-old boy having two attacks of urticaria per day for the last 5 years and intermittent attacks of sneezing and rhinorrhoea, and without any clues to the causative agent in spite of a detailed history and follow up, showed almost complete relief on wearing an ordinary cloth mask for 3 days. He was subsequently trained to use the soft nasal filters and obtained almost 80% relief in urticaria and complete relief in rhinitis during the next 1 year. Wearing the mask for 2 days again led to complete relief and further training in the proper use of the filters was helpful.
Introduction : Exposer un cas de xanthomatose normolipidémique. Observation : il s'agit d'une adolescente de 18 ans qui a présenté une masse des cavités nasales dont le bilan paraclinique a plaidé en faveur d'un xanthogranulome juvénile. L'évolution à court terme a été satisfaisante après l'exérèse chirurgicale par une ...
Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP is characterized by both a chronic inflammation and tissue remodelling; as indicated by extracellular matrix protein deposition, basement membrane thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia and subepithelial edema, with reduced vessels and glands. Although remodelling is generally considered to be consequence of persistent inflammation, the chronological order and relationship between inflammation and remodelling in polyp development is still not clear. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the pathological features prevalent in the development of nasal polyps and to elucidate the chronological order and relationship between inflammation and remodelling, by comparing specific markers of inflammation and remodelling in early stage nasal polyps confined to the middle turbinate (refer to as middle turbinate CRSwNP obtained from 5 CRSwNP patients with bilateral polyposis, mature ethmoidal polyps from 6 CRSwNP patients, and normal nasal mucosal tissue from 6 control subjects. Middle turbinate CRSwNP demonstrated significantly more severe epithelial loss compared to mature ethmoidal polyps and normal nasal mucosa. The epithelial cell junction molecules E-cadherin, ZO-1 and occludin were also expressed in significantly lower amounts in mature ethmoidal polyps compared to healthy mucosa. Middle turbinate CRSwNP were further characterized by significantly increased numbers of subepithelial eosinophils and M2 type macrophages, with a distinct lack of collagen and deposition of fibronectin in polyp part. In contrast, the turbinate area of the middle turbinate CRSwNP was characterized by an increase in TGF-β activated myofibroblasts expressing α-SMA and vimentin, an increase in the number of pSmad2 positive cells, as well as increased deposition of collagen. These findings suggest a complex network of processes in the formation of CRSwNP; including gross epithelial damage and repair reactions
Proctor, Helen S; Carder, Gemma
Understanding how animals express positive emotions is an important area of focus for animal welfare science, yet it is widely neglected. Emotions can be either positive or negative in valence, depending on the rewarding or punishing nature of the stimulus, and they can vary in the degree of arousal or excitement. Previous literature has shown a strong connection between peripheral temperatures and high arousal, negative experiences. Stress, fear and frustration have all been found to cause a drop in peripheral temperature. Little is known however, about whether the experience of positive emotions affects peripheral temperatures. In this study we sought to identify whether the nasal temperature of cows was affected by emotions, and if nasal temperature could be reliably used as a measure of emotional state in cows. We induced a positive, low arousal emotional state by stroking cows in preferred regions, in a similar manner to allogrooming. We performed 350 full focal observations, each comprising three conditions; pre-stroking, stroking, and post-stroking. During each 15minute focal observation we remotely took the focal cow's nasal temperature six times, twice during each condition. We analysed the data using the one-way ANOVA repeated measures test and found a significant difference overall (F (2, 1.935)=9.372, p<0.01). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons indicated that the total mean nasal temperature decreased significantly during the stroking condition (25.91°C, SD=1.21), compared with both the pre-stroking (26.27°C, SD=1.01, p<0.01) and post-stroking conditions (26.44°C, SD=1.12, p<0.01). There was no significant difference between the pre-stroking and post-stroking conditions (p=0.14). We suggest that the cows were in a low state of arousal during the entire focal observation, as no other changes to the cows' environment had been made, and the cows were habituated to both the procedure and the researchers. Furthermore, the stroking stimulus is known to induce a
Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.
We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to observe directly the earliest onset of prompt splashing when a drop impacts onto a smooth solid surface. We capture the start of the ejecta sheet travelling along the solid substrate and show how it breaks up immediately upon emergence from the underneath the drop. The resulting micro-droplets are much smaller and faster than previously reported and may have gone unobserved owing to their very small size and rapid ejection velocities, which approach 100 m s-1, for typical impact conditions of large rain drops. We propose a phenomenological mechanism which predicts the velocity and size distribution of the resulting microdroplets. We also observe azimuthal undulations which may help promote the earliest breakup of the ejecta. This instability occurs in the cusp in the free surface where the drop surface meets the radially ejected liquid sheet. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Chen, Ruoyang; Zhang, Liyuan; Zang, Duyang; Shen, Wei
The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Weinle, M.E.; Johnston, B.S.
An experiment was designed to investigate the pressure drop for flashing flow across obstructions of different geometries at various flow rates. Tests were run using two different orifices to determine if the two-phase pressure drop could be characterized by the single phase loss coefficient and the general behavior of the two-phase multiplier. For the geometries studied, it was possible to correlate the multiplier in a geometry-independent fashion
Debora Petrungaro Migueis
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common disorder that can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as to metabolic, neurological, and behavioral consequences. It is currently believed that nasal obstruction compromises the quality of sleep when it results in breathing disorders and fragmentation of sleep. However, recent studies have failed to objectively associate sleep quality and nasal obstruction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the influence of nasal obstruction on OSAS and polysomnographic indices associated with respiratory events. METHODS: Eleven original articles published from 2003 to 2013 were selected, which addressed surgical and non-surgical treatment for nasal obstruction, performing polysomnography type 1 before and after the intervention. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: In most trials, nasal obstruction was not related to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, indicating no improvement in OSAS with reduction in nasal resistance. However, few researchers evaluated other polysomnography indices, such as the arousal index and rapid eye movement (REM sleep percentage. These could change with nasal obstruction, since it is possible that the nasal obstruction does not completely block the upper airways, but can increase negative intrathoracic pressure, leading to sleep fragmentation.
Background: Nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) is used widely in the collection of nasal specimens for respiratory virus diagnosis. The method has limitations in relation to technical expertise, patient anxiety, and apparatus dependence. Nasal washing (NW) offers an alternative approach. Objective: To identify the merits of ...
Inducible clindamycin resistance and nasal carriage rates of Staphylococcus aureus among healthcare workers and community members. ... Conclusion: MRSA nasal carriage among healthcare workers needs infection control practice in hospitals to prevent transmission of MRSA. The occurrence of ICR in S. aureus is of a ...
Jones, A S; Lancer, J M; Moir, A A; Stevens, J C
The effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow was investigated by rhinomanometry in 25 healthy subjects before and after ingestion of aspirin or vitamin C in a double blind crossover trial. Aspirin caused a significant increase in nasal resistance compared with vitamin C. The effect of aspirin may be due to its inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins.
The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the Chinese silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.
The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the chinese silver carp,. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (VaL). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.
Larsen, K. L.; Lange, B.; Darling, P.
Objectives: Nasal endoscopy is a cornerstone in diagnosing sinonasal disease, but different raters might generate different results using the technique. Our study aims to evaluate the agreement between multiple raters to assess the validity of nasal endoscopy. Design/Participants: Three independe...
Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Pacheco, Yvan D
Total nasal reconstruction is a challenging multistage procedure. Infections can destroy the cartilage framework and seriously compromise the result. The use of polymethyl methacrylate with antibiotics as a spacer has been described in the treatment of skeletal infections. Using this same principle, the use of a polymethyl methacrylate with antibiotics spacer for an infected nasal reconstruction is reported in a clinical case.
Risk factors analysis revealed that history of hospitalization, recent antibiotic intake and frequent contact with animals and livestock workers/veterinarians increase the risk of MRSA nasal carriage. Among MRSA nasal isolates, a high rate of multidrug resistance and particularly an intriguing resistance to gentamycin (20%) ...
A normal German shepherd dog underwent CT imaging with contiguous 10 mm thick images made of the nasal cavity from the caudal limit of the frontal sinuses to the rostral aspect of the nose. Normal structures were identified. This normal anatomic information will be of use in assessing CT images of dogs suspected of having nasal cavity disease
Aim: This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. Materials and Methods: The nasal samples of the in‑patients (431) and out‑patients (1857) in Kayseri Training and ...
Krzeski, A; Makowska, W
Solcoseryl is a biological agent, which accelerates the healing tissue procedure. This influence was studied during the nasal septum surgery. In 25 patients the postoperational nasal plug was inserted with the Solcoseryl and in 10 (control) with the paraffin. The cytologic verifications were performed before and after the surgery. In the solcoseryl group the mucosa regeneration procedure was accelerated and the inflammation reduced.
Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis ...
Background: Nasal polyps are benign mucosal protrusions into the nasal cavity of multifactorial origin and are characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation. They result from the prolapsed lining of the ethmoid sinuses and block the nose to a variable degree depending on their sizes. This study aims to evaluate the clinical ...
Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others
The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.
The nasal cavity microanatomy of farmed fingerlings of African catfish, Clarias gariepunus was investigated to fill existing knowledge gap on its histology from available literatures. This becomes very important as no gustatory cell was reported from previous researches on the fingerling digestive tract. A slice of nasal cavity of ...
Uysal, Ismail Önder; Misir, Mustafa; Polat, Kerem; Altuntaş, Emine Elif; Atalar, Mehmet Haydar; Tuncer, Ersin; Müderris, Suphi
Primary malignant melanoma of the nose and paranasal sinus mucosa is a rare disease and seen in less than 1% among all melanomas. Malignant melanomas have 2 origins: cutaneous and mucosal. The mucosal form has a worse prognosis because of its aggressiveness compared with that of the cutaneous form. Mucosal melanomas often occur at a rate of 2% to 3% among all melanomas and are typically found in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Generally, it is more common in males and in those older than 50 years. In this study, 4 patients were observed at the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine; 2 of them were a 64-year-old man and an 82-year-old woman who had a malignant melanoma originating from the nasal septal mucosa, 1 patient was a 72-year-old woman whose malignant melanoma originated from the inferior turbinate, and 1 patient was a 77-year-old woman with a sinonasally located melanoma. The conditions of these patients were discussed under the light of literature instructions.
Grammer, Leslie C
The study by Van Zele et al reports positive results for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used either 20 days of doxycycline (200 mg the first day, followed by 100 mg daily) or 20 days of a tapering schedule of methyl prednisolone (32 mg on days 1-5, 16 mg on days 6-10, and 8 mg on days 11-20) for the treatment of nasal polyps. The primary end point was reduction in nasal polyp score which was graded 0 to 4 on each side, resulting in a score range of 0 to 8; the score was determined at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. Entry criteria required that the patient either have recurrent polyps after surgery or massive polyps (grade 3 or 4); the total polyp score in each of the 3 groups averaged approximately 6. The patient population in this study was therefore at the severe end of the spectrum; results may not be generalizable to patients with milder disease. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Yung-Seng; Simpson, S.Q.; Cheng, Kuo-His; Swift, D.L.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Guilmette, R.A.
The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation
Babiker, Babiker Eltayeb
Forty patients with nasal polyposis were studied. This study included clinical, haematological and mycological aspects. There were 24 females (60% of patients) and 16 males (40%). We found that all patients presented with nasal obstruction and nasal tone and the majority of them had allergic nasal symptoms such as sneezing and watery discharge. Thirty five percent of the patients were recurrent cases, being operated before for nasal polyps. Radiological investigations showed high of sinusitis and that 10% of the patients had complicated disease with orbital or intracranial extensions. Mycological studies revealed the presence of fungal infection in 4 patient (10%) and it was caused by Aspergillus flavus. Histological studies identified the allergic nature of the polyps in all patients. Surgical treatment was carried out in all patients and operations varied from simple intranasal polypectomy, intranasal ethmiodectomy, external ethmoidectomy to Caldwell-Luc operation for patients with antrochanal polyps.(Author)
Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Lee, Mi Woo
The clinical features of localized nasal rosacea have not been described in detail. This study was designed to analyze the subtypes and severity of localized nasal rosacea. Our present study included 30 patients with localized nasal rosacea. The erythematotelangiectatic subtype (13/30, 43.3%) was the most common type, followed by the phymatous subtype (9/30, 30%). The duration of rosacea was shorter and the severity of localized nasal rosacea was lower in the erythematotelangiectatic subtype cases compared with the patients with mixed or phymatous subtypes. Almost all of the papulopustular eruptions or phymatous lesions were associated with erythematotelangiectatic lesions. These findings suggest that the erythematotelangiectatic subtype may be considered the initial phase of localized nasal rosacea. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens
Full Text Available Background: Nasal fracture is a common fracture due to trauma. Gold standard method in diagnosis of nasal fracture is clinical examination and radiography is used in legal situation. Recently, ultrasound is recommended as a noninvasive and simple method in diagnosis of nasal fracture. This study investigates the role of ultrasound in diagnosis of nasal fracture.Methods: 126 cases with suspected nasal fracture were evaluated using both ultrasound and nasal radiography in compare with clinical examination as a gold standard and the results were evaluated statistically. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value, negative likelihood ratio and positive likelihood ratio were calculated with confidence interval 95%. Accuracy of both methods was also evaluated.Results: In clinical examination 111 cases (88.1% out of 126 cases, were diagnosed fractured and 15cases (11.9% were unfractured. From these 111 fracture cases, 108 cases in ultrasound and 92 in radiography evaluation were also diagnosed fractured. Ultrasound sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of nasal fracture were; 96.4% (91.1-98.6, 93.3% (70.2-98.8 and 96% respectively. Radiography report showed sensitivity 81.1% (72.8-87.3%, specificity 86.7% (62.1-96.3% and accuracy of 82%. Most sensitivity of both methods was in diagnosis of nasal dorsum fracture (100% in ultrasound and 92.6% in radiography. Most specificity of ultrasound was in diagnosis of lateral wall (100% and in radiography was in diagnosis of nasal dorsum fractures (50%.Conclusion: According to this findings ultrasound can used as a noninvasive method with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnosis of nasal fracture.
Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research
Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.
The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a
Plümer, Lili; Schön, Gerhard; Klatt, Jan; Hanken, Henning; Schmelzle, Rainer; Pohlenz, Philipp
The aim of this retrospective investigation was to evaluate the position of the nasotracheal tube in the nose and to show its anatomical relationship with the maxillary sinus ostium. Fifty data sets from patients who had undergone endonasal intubation were analyzed for tube positioning. There was a drop-out of eight data sets due to missing information concerning tube size and mode. Tube positioning was determined at the maxillary sinus ostium in the intraoperatively generated three-dimensional X-ray data sets. The type of tube, the tube size, and the presence of maxillary sinusitis were analyzed 30 minutes after intubation. The tube was positioned in the middle nasal meatus in 35 (83.3%) patients and not in the middle nasal meatus in 7 (16.7%) patients. The difference in comparison with equal distribution was significant (P tubes are positioned in the middle nasal meatus. This result can be part of the answer to the question of the causal relationship between position of the breathing tube and the onset of maxillary sinusitis. The indications for prolonged nasotracheal intubation instead of orotracheal intubation or early tracheostomy should be considered carefully.
Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin
In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Huang, Y.; Beroza, G. C.; Ellsworth, W. L.
Stress drop, the difference between shear stress acting across a fault before and after an earthquake, is a fundamental parameter of the earthquake source process and the generation of strong ground motions. Higher stress drops usually lead to more high-frequency ground motions. Hough [2014 and 2015] observed low intensities in "Did You Feel It?" data for injection-induced earthquakes, and interpreted them to be a result of low stress drops. It is also possible that the low recorded intensities could be a result of propagation effects. Atkinson et al.  show that the shallow depth of injection-induced earthquakes can lead to a lack of high-frequency ground motion as well. We apply the spectral ratio method of Imanishi and Ellsworth  to analyze stress drops of injection-induced earthquakes, using smaller earthquakes with similar waveforms as empirical Green's functions (eGfs). Both the effects of path and linear site response should be cancelled out through the spectral ratio analysis. We apply this technique to the Guy-Greenbrier earthquake sequence in central Arkansas. The earthquakes migrated along the Guy-Greenbrier Fault while nearby injection wells were operating in 2010-2011. Huang and Beroza [GRL, 2015] improved the magnitude of completeness to about -1 using template matching and found that the earthquakes deviated from Gutenberg-Richter statistics during the operation of nearby injection wells. We identify 49 clusters of highly similar events in the Huang and Beroza  catalog and calculate stress drops using the source model described in Imanishi and Ellsworth . Our results suggest that stress drops of the Guy-Greenbrier sequence are similar to tectonic earthquakes at Parkfield, California (the attached figure). We will also present stress drop analysis of other suspected induced earthquake sequences using the same method.
Friling, Lisa; Nyman, Helena T; Johnson, Victoria
The nasal cycle is a physiological phenomenon that causes regular cyclical congestion and decongestion of the venous sinusoids lining the nasal mucosa. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) features of the normal nasal cycle in a group of dogs. Five dogs were recruited that met the following criteria: 8 to 15 months old, nonbrachiocephalic breed, no clinical signs or history of nasal disease, and undergoing anesthesia for problems unrelated to the nasal cavity. Nasal MRI (n = 5) and CT scans (pre- and postcontrast, n = 5) were acquired. Images were evaluated subjectively by two board-certified radiologists and objectively by a diagnostic imaging intern using regions of interest placed on each side of the nasal cavity. Findings were compared using Cohen's kappa coefficient and Students t-test on log-transformed data. All dogs showed diffuse unilateral mucosal thickening of the rostral part of the nasal cavity in both MRI and CT studies. This mucosal thickening shifted sides between examinations in three dogs. Changes appeared most marked on T2-weighted scans. No asymmetric mucosal changes were seen in the mucosa of the ethmoturbinates, vomer-nasal septum, hard palate or the frontal sinuses in any patient on MRI or CT. Computed tomographic contrast enhancement of the thickened mucosa was not statistically significant (P-value cycle may cause asymmetrical mucosal changes in the rostral part of the nasal cavity that mimic MRI and CT characteristics previously reported for inflammatory disease in dogs. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Deshpande, Sheetal; Joosten, Simon; Turton, Anthony; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane; Mansfield, Darren R; Hamilton, Garun S
Oronasal masks are frequently used for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to (1) determine if CPAP requirements are higher for oronasal masks compared to nasal mask interfaces and (2) assess whether polysomnography and patient characteristics differed among mask preference groups. Retrospective analysis of all CPAP implementation polysomnograms between July 2013 and June 2014. Prescribed CPAP level, polysomnography results and patient data were compared according to mask type (n = 358). Oronasal masks were used in 46%, nasal masks in 35% and nasal pillow masks in 19%. There was no difference according to mask type for baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI), waist or neck circumference. CPAP level was higher for oronasal masks, 12 (10-15.5) cm H2O compared to nasal pillow masks, 11 (8-12.5) cm H2O and nasal masks, 10 (8-12) cm H2O, p CPAP pressure (p CPAP ≥ 15 cm H2O, there was an odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI 2.5-8.0) for having an oronasal compared to a nasal or nasal pillow mask. Residual median AHI was higher for oronasal masks (11.3 events/h) than for nasal masks (6.4 events/h) and nasal pillows (6.7 events/h), p nasal mask types, oronasal masks are associated with higher CPAP pressures (particularly pressures ≥ 15 cm H2O) and a higher residual AHI. Further evaluation with a randomized control trial is required to definitively establish the effect of mask type on pressure requirements. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.
Snow, Spencer D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Morton, Dana K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
The objective of the work reported herein was to determine the ability of the Multi- Canister Overpack (MCO) canister design to maintain its containment boundary after an accidental drop event. Two test MCO canisters were assembled at Hanford, prepared for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), drop tested at Sandia National Laboratories, and evaluated back at the INEEL. In addition to the actual testing efforts, finite element plastic analysis techniques were used to make both pre-test and post-test predictions of the test MCOs structural deformations. The completed effort has demonstrated that the canister design is capable of maintaining a 50 psig pressure boundary after drop testing. Based on helium leak testing methods, one test MCO was determined to have a leakage rate not greater than 1x10-5 std cc/sec (prior internal helium presence prevented a more rigorous test) and the remaining test MCO had a measured leakage rate less than 1x10-7 std cc/sec (i.e., a leaktight containment) after the drop test. The effort has also demonstrated the capability of finite element methods using plastic analysis techniques to accurately predict the structural deformations of canisters subjected to an accidental drop event.
Kim, Seungho; Gruszewski, Hope; Gidley, Todd; Schmale, David G., III; Jung, Sunghwan
Rain drop impact can disperse micron-sized pathogenic particles over long distances. In this study, we aim to elucidate mechanisms for disease dispersal when a rain drop impacts a particle-laden solid surface. Three different dispersal types were observed depending on whether the dispersed glass particles were dry or wet. For a dry particle dispersal, the movement of contact line made the particles initially jump off the surface with relatively high velocity. Then, air vortex was formed due to the air current entrained along with the falling drop, and advected the particles with relatively low velocity. For a wet particle dispersal, the contact line of a spreading liquid became unstable due to the presence of the particles on the substrate. This caused splashing at the contact line and ejected liquid droplets carrying the particles. Finally, we released a drop onto wheat plants infected with the rust fungus, Puccinia triticina, and found that nearly all of the satellite droplets from a single drop contained at least one rust spore. Also, we visualized such novel dispersal dynamics with a high-speed camera and characterized their features by scaling models. This research was partially supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.
Chen, Simeng; Bertola, Volfango
The impact of water drops on spherical soft surfaces is investigated experimentally through high-speed imaging. The effect of a convex compliant surface on the dynamics of impacting drops is relevant to various applications, such as 3D ink-jet printing, where drops of fresh material impact on partially cured soft substrates with arbitrary shape. Several quantities which characterize the morphology of impacting drops are measured through image-processing, including the maximum and minimum spreading angles, length of the wetted curve, and dynamic contact angle. In particular, the dynamic contact angle is measured using a novel digital image-processing scheme based on a goniometric mask, which does not require edge fitting. It is shown that the surface with a higher curvature enhances the retraction of the spreading drop; this effect may be due to the difference of energy dissipation induced by the curvature of the surface. In addition, the impact parameters (elastic modulus, diameter ratio, and Weber number) are observed to significantly affect the dynamic contact angle during impact. A quantitative estimation of the deformation energy shows that it is significantly smaller than viscous dissipation.
Patel, Ds; Greenough, A
Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or early surfactant therapy with early extubation onto nCPAP rather than continued mechanical ventilation has been adopted by many centres, particularly in Scandinavia, as part of the treatment of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. It has been suggested that bronchopulmonary dysplasia is less of a problem in centres adopting such a policy. Results from randomized trials suggest prophylactic or early nCPAP may reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but further studies are required to determine the relative contributions of an early lung recruitment policy, early surfactant administration and nCPAP in reducing BPD. In addition, the optimum method of generating and delivering CPAP needs to be determined. The efficacy of nCPAP in improving long-term respiratory outcomes needs to be compared with the newer ventilator techniques with the optimum and timing of delivery of surfactant administration.
NOBLE, W C; WILLIAMS, R E; JEVONS, M P; SHOOTER, R A
The nasal carrier status of 3,736 patients was determined throughout their stay in hospital. The carrier rate on admission, which was highest in patients under 20 years of age, did not appear to vary with season.The carriage of strains resistant to penicillin increased with the patients' stay in hospital from 13.% on admission to 20.5% on discharge, and the acquisition of these strains was enhanced by the administration of antibiotics. Patients discharged from hospital carrying strains of staphylococci acquired in hospital lost them more readily than patients discharged carrying the strain which they had carried on admission, 31% of those discharged carrying strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline being readmitted carrying these strains compared with 69% of those discharged carrying strains sensitive to these antibiotics.
Wood, John W; Casiano, Roy R
Benign lesions of the nasal cavity represent a diverse group of pathologies. Furthermore, each of these disorders may present differently in any given patient as pain and discomfort, epistaxis, headaches, vision changes, or nasal obstruction. Although these nasal masses are benign, many of them have a significant capacity for local tissue destruction and symptomatology secondary to this destruction. Advances in office-based endoscopic nasendoscopy have equipped the otolaryngologist with a safe, inexpensive, and rapid means of directly visualizing lesions within the nasal cavity and the initiation of appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study is to review the diagnosis, management, and controversies of many of the most common benign lesions of the nasal cavity encountered by the primary care physician or otolaryngologist. This includes discussion of inverted papilloma (IP), juvenile angiofibroma, squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, schwannoma, benign fibro-osseous lesions, and other benign lesions of the nasal cavity, with particular emphasis on IP and juvenile angiofibroma. A diverse array of benign lesions occur within the nasal cavity and paranasal cavities. Despite their inability to metastasize, many of these lesions have significant capability for local tissue destruction and recurrence.
Dantas, Wagner Ranier Maciel; Silveira, Márcia Maria Fonseca da; Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito; Porto, Gabriela Granja
Patients with dentofacial deformities may benefit from orthognathic surgery in the maxilla. Maxillary osteotomy may include procedures in the bone, cartilaginous, and soft tissues of the nose, leading to shape alterations. To evaluate the anatomic alterations of the nasal region in patients undergoing a Le Fort I osteotomy for advancement or superior impaction. This is a clinical prospective study. Twenty-one patients were evaluated during the pre- and postoperative periods. The positioning of the nasal tip and the modification of the nasal base were evaluated. The results showed that the nasal tip was superiorly positioned in 85% of the cases, advanced in 80%, rotated in 80%, and there was a wide nasal base in 95%, resulting in esthetic improvement. Surgeries of maxillary advancement and superior reposition tend to cause elevation and advancement of the nasal tip, as well as enlargement of the nasal base. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Sambhaji Govind Chintale
Full Text Available Introduction Congenital midline nasal masses include nasal dermoids, gliomas, encephaloceles. Although rare, these disorders are clinically important because of their potential for connection to the central nervous system. Preoperative knowledge of an intracranial connection is a necessity to allow for neurosurgical consultation and possible planning for craniotomy. This study discusses the clinical presentation of congenital midline nasal mass and the role of imaging modalities like CT scan and MRI in diagnosis and the surgical management. Materials and Methods This prospective study is carried from March 2014 to March 2016, during which 4 cases presented to the Otorhinolaryngology department. Pre-operative evaluation of the patients included endoscopic evaluation along with haematological investigations, CT Scan and MRI. The masses were removed with nasal endoscopic sinus surgery or by external approaches and neurosurgical intervention. Result The age of the patients ranged from 3 years to 25 years. Three of them were male and one female. There was one case of nasoethmoidal encephalocele and the other three were dermoids (intranasal dermoid cyst, nasal dermoid cyst and nasal dermoid sinus cyst. Conclusion Congenital midline nasal masses are rare. These disorders are clinically important because of their intracranial connection which require proper evaluation with radiological imaging like CT scan and/or MRI before FNAC and any surgical intervention.
Isaiah, Anitha; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Kelley, Russ; Mundell, Paul; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S
Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9). To understand if the nasal and oral microbiota of detection canines were variable, sample collection was repeated after 7 weeks in a subset of dogs. DNA was extracted from the swabs and used for 454-pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes. Nasal samples had a significantly lower diversity than oral samples (Pdogs, and Sphingobacterium was higher in the P-NDD group. In the oral samples Enterococcus and Capnocytophaga were higher in the P-NDD group. Gemella and Aggregatibacter were higher in S-PE, and Pigmentiphaga, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides amongst others were higher within the VWD-E group. Our initial data also shows that there is a temporal variation in alpha diversity in nasal samples in detection canines.
Hong, Sung-Moon; Park, Il-Ho; Um, Ji-Young; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Heung-Man
Fibroblast migration is crucial for normal wound repair after sinonasal surgery. Histamine is known to be involved in wound healing by its effects on cell proliferation and migration. This study aimed to determine whether histamine affects the migration of nasal fibroblasts and to investigate the mechanism of action of histamine on nasal fibroblasts. Primary cultures of nasal fibroblasts were established from inferior turbinate samples. Fibroblast migration was evaluated with scratch assays. Cells were treated with histamine and/or histamine receptor-selective antagonists. U-73122 and pertussis toxin, which are selective inhibitors of the lower signaling pathway of H1R and H4R, were used to confirm the modulation of nasal fibroblast migration by histamine. Fibroblast cytoskeletal structures were visualized with immunocytochemistry. Histamine significantly stimulated the migration of nasal fibroblasts. Antagonists selective for HR1 and HR4 significantly reduced nasal fibroblast migration. In immunocytochemical staining, histamine treatment increased membrane ruffling and pyrilamine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, and JNJ7777120 decreased histamine-induced membrane ruffling. U-73122 and pertussis toxin also decreased histamine-induced migration of fibroblasts. Histamine maintains its stimulatory effects on fibroblast migration in the presence of mitomycin C, which blocks proliferation of cells. We showed that histamine stimulates fibroblast migration in nasal fibroblasts. This effect appeared to be mediated by HR1 and HR4. However, because fibroblast migration also can be involved in scaring and fibrosis, more research is necessary to determine the effects of antihistamine on wound healing after sinus surgery. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Aslam, S.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, A.; Asghar, A.; Aslam, S.
To analyze the efficacy of FESS in patients with recurrent nasal polyposis in terms of relief of nasal obstruction, improvement in sense of smell and to assess recurrence of disease. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Materials and Method: All patients who underwent FESS (Functional endoscopic sinus surgery) for recurrent nasal polyposis from June 2008 to June 2010 with an average follow up of 06 month were included. Clinical symptoms including nasal obstruction and olfactory disturbance were evaluated using VAS system pre and postoperatively. Preoperatively computed tomography scan was done in all cases to assess extent of disease and surgical anatomy. Results: Following FESS 96% of total patients demonstrated statistically significant improvement in relieving nasal obstruction after 6 months follow up, however improvement in sense of smell was seen in 44% of patients. Recurrence was seen in only 3 (6%) cases at 3rd and 6th month follow up. Conclusion: Functional endoscopy sinus surgery of recurrent nasal polyposis is an effective method of surgery with significant improvement of symptom of nasal obstruction and olfaction with minimal recurrence at 6 month in our centre. Our results were compatible with results attained internationally. (author)
Kamble, Payal; Saxena, Sonal; Kumar, Sunil
To evaluate the role of nasal bacterial colonization in cases of idiopathic epistaxis in children. A descriptive, hospital based, observational study in our hospital was conducted on total 112 pediatric patients in the age group 4-16 years. Group A (control): 56 patients with no epistaxis; Group B (epistaxis): 56 patients with idiopathic epistaxis. A swab for microbiological evaluation was taken from the anterior nasal cavity of each child. A highly significant association between nasal colonization with pathological Staphylococcus aureus and idiopathic epistaxis was found. The presence of pathological S. aureus colonization in the anterior nasal cavity was also associated with statistically significant number of crusting and presence of dilated blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum of children in epistaxis group. Nasal bacterial colonization with S. aureus leads to a sequence of pathological events i.e. low grade inflammation, crusting and new vessel formation. This leads to irritation in nasal cavity resulting in digital trauma and subsequently epistaxis and thus it plays an important role in causing idiopathic epistaxis in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.
Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes
No, Tae Youn; Baek, Ho Gil; Won, Jong Bu; Park, Sung Ho; Park, O Bong; Baik, Seung Kug; Shin, Mi Jung; Kim, Bong Ki; Choi, Han Yong [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
To describe the characteristics of CT findings in nasal lymphoma. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings and pathologic findings of eight patients (six males and two females) aged between 24 and 68 years with pathologically-proven nasal lymphoma. We analyzed mass location, laterality, size, margin, mass effect, adjacent bony change and contrast enhancement pattern. All eight cases were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, intermediate grade, diffuse large cell type. Seven cases were B-cell type and one was T-cell. In all cases, tumors were located in the medial wall of the inferior turbinate. In four cases, they were also found in the anterior ethmoidal sinus, and in one case, in the nasal septum. The mean size of the main mass was 3.3cm. In seven cases, tumors were unilateral (one on the right; six on the left), and in the remaining case, bilateral. In six cases tumor margin was smooth and in two cases focal nodularity was seen. In two cases there was no bony change, and in four, there was mucosal thickening along the nasal septum; in one of these four, minimal bony erosion was also found. In the other two cases, bony destruction was seen, and tumors were very large(7cm in diameter) or bilterally located. In three cases, the nasal septum was displaced by the mass. In all cases with bony change, the nasal septum was involved. All tumors were homogeneously well enhanced after IV contrast administration. The main CT findings of nasal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were smooth margin, unilateral location (mainly in the medial wall of the inferior turbinate and growing to the medial side without bony destruction) mucosal thickening along the nasal septum and clear homogeneous enhancement after IV contrast administration. These characteristics will help diagnosis, help deter-mine the appropriate region for radiation and other appropriate therapy, and facilitate prognosis in patients with nasal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)
Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.
Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B.; Roy, S. C.
Superheated drops are known to vaporise when exposed to energetic nuclear radiation since the discovery of bubble chamber. The application of superheated drops in neutron research especially in neutron dosimetry is a subject of intense research for quite sometime. As the degree of superheat increases in a given liquid, less and less energetic neutrons are required to cause nucleation. This property of superheated liquid makes it possible to use it as a neutron spectrometer. Neutron detection efficiency of superheated drops made of R12 exposed to Am-Be neutron source has been measured over a wide range of temperature -17-60°C and the results have been utilised to construct the energy spectrum of the neutron source. This paper demonstrates that a suitable neutron spectrometer may be constructed by using a single liquid and varying the temperature of the liquid suitably at a closer grid.
Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, B. E-mail: email@example.com; Roy, S.C
Superheated drops are known to vaporise when exposed to energetic nuclear radiation since the discovery of bubble chamber. The application of superheated drops in neutron research especially in neutron dosimetry is a subject of intense research for quite sometime. As the degree of superheat increases in a given liquid, less and less energetic neutrons are required to cause nucleation. This property of superheated liquid makes it possible to use it as a neutron spectrometer. Neutron detection efficiency of superheated drops made of R12 exposed to Am-Be neutron source has been measured over a wide range of temperature -17-60 deg. C and the results have been utilised to construct the energy spectrum of the neutron source. This paper demonstrates that a suitable neutron spectrometer may be constructed by using a single liquid and varying the temperature of the liquid suitably at a closer grid.
Bick, Alison; Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, Francois; Stone, Howard
Transport of liquid drops on a fibrous medium is common in engineering systems such as fog harvesting and textile cleaning. The control of the drop movement on fibrous media can make these engineering systems more efficient. We investigated how to move drops along a single inclined fiber by controlling fiber vibration. Drop motion: static, sliding or falling, depends on the fiber inclination angle, drop volume, and the distance of the drop from the vibrating source. Specifically, by vibrating the fiber the transition between the three drop motion states can be controlled. By defining the response of drop movement to vibration frequency, we can model the drop movement transition. This knowledge is directly useful for controlling drop movement on the fiber. In particular, we experimentally demonstrated that vibration frequency can be used to transport a drop along a fiber.
Slütter, Bernard Adam
Nasal vaccination has the potential to provide protection combined with more patient comfort and a higher safety profile than classical injectable vaccines. However, the nasal physiology and immunological aspects of the nasal epithelium hamper the efficacy of nasally administered vaccines. The aim
Devorah Marks Stowe
Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.
Milanesi, Jovana de Moura; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Schuch, Luiz Henrique; Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues
Nasal obstruction is a common symptom in childhood, related to rhinitis and pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy. In the presence of nasal obstruction, nasal patency may be reduced, and nasal breathing is replaced by mouth breathing. Orofacial and otorhinolaryngologic changes are related to this breathing mode. Objective evaluation of upper airways may be obtained through nasal patency measurement. To compare nasal patency and otorhinolaryngologic-orofacial features in children. One hundred and twenty three children, 6-12 year-old, and of both sexes underwent speech therapy evaluation, according to Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation protocol, clinical and endoscopic otorhinolaryngologic examination and nasal patency measurement, using the absolute and predicted (%) peak nasal inspiratory flow values. Lower values of absolute and estimated peak nasal inspiratory flow values were found in children with restless sleep (p=0.006 and p=0.002), nasal obstruction report (p=0.027 and p=0.023), runny nose (p=0.004 and p=0.012), unsystematic lip closure during mastication (p=0.040 and p=0.026), masticatory speed reduced (p=0.006 and p=0.008) and altered solid food swallowing (p=0.006 and p=0.001). Absolute peak nasal inspiratory flow was lower in children with pale inferior turbinate (p=0.040), reduced hard palate width (p=0.037) and altered speech (p=0.004). Higher absolute values were found in children with increased tongue width (p=0.027) and, higher absolute and predicted (%) in children with mild everted lip (p=0.008 and p=0.000). Nasal patency was lower in children with restless sleep, rhinitis signs and symptoms, hard palate width reduced and with changes in mastication, deglutition and speech functions. It is also emphasized that most of the children presented signs and symptom of allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hu, Ko-Hsin; Lee, Fei-Peng; Cheng, Ya-Jian; Huang, Hung-Meng
The aim of this study is to explore the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor within nasal polyps, and the implication of such expression as regards the development of nasal polyps amongst children. Sixty children suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis were enrolled in this study. Amongst them, 30 patients featured rhinosinusitis with associated nasal polyps. A biopsy specimen was taken from the stalk or the base of the nasal polyp for nasal-polyp sufferers, and the ethmoid sinus for study participants who featured no nasal polyps. The primary lesions biopsied were immunohistochemically stained with a specific endothelial-cell marker and also stained for the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. The specific level of vascular endothelial growth factor and the mean number of blood vessels present in a visual microscopic (biopsied-specimen) field were calculated under light microscopy (x400). The number of vascular endothelial growth factor-expressing cells for the nasal-polyp group and for the sinusitis group was, respectively, 20.8+/-4.0 and 11.5+/-3.4 per visual field. Correspondingly, the mean intra-polyp blood-vessel density for the nasal-polyp group and that for the control group was, respectively, 10.5+/-2.6 and 5.0+/-1.9 per visual field. The mean intra-polyp blood-vessel density and the number of vascular endothelial growth factor-expressing cells proved to be significantly greater amongst individuals from the nasal-polyp group than was the case for their analogs from the sinusitis group (Ppolyp tissue. In addition, the level of vascular endothelial growth-factor expression and the mean blood-vessel count per field correlated significantly for nasal-polyp tissue (Ppolyps correlated significantly with the number of (intra-polyp) vascular endothelial-cell growth factor-expressing cells and the mean blood-vessel density (Ppolyps than within corresponding sinusitis mucosa. Clinically, the expression of both of these parameters correlated well
Full Text Available Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a group of heterogeneous disorders and according to WHO classification, are categorized into nodal and extranodal forms. NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a subtype of extranodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma and commonly presents as a midfacial destructive lesion. This disorder is more prevalent in Asia and South America and has a strong association with Epstein Barr Virus infection. Invasion of vessel walls by lymphoid cells, which is known as angiocentricity, is characteristic of nasal type NK/T-cell lymphoma. The tumor cells express CD2 and CD56 antigens; but not CD3. The nasal cavity is the mostly frequently affected site. Other commonly affected sites include palate and upper airways. On cross sectional imaging, the nasal involvement is seen as a diffuse sheet-like mucosal thickening along the nasal turbinates and septum or as a destructive midline mass (Figs 1,2. The latter form was previously described as a lethal midline granuloma or polymorphic reticulosis. The mass frequently extends into subcutaneous tissues of nasal ala and buccinator space (Fig.3. Regional lymphadenopathy is usually not seen. The radiological differential diagnoses for a midline nasal cavity mass include squamous cell carcinoma, minor salivary gland tumor, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and fungal infections. The imaging appearances of NK/T-cell lymphoma are often indistinguishable from the above mentioned conditions. However, predilection to involve both sides of the nasal cavity and tendency to spread as a diffuse thin sheet-like soft tissue along the walls of the nasal cavity enveloping the nasal turbinates and nasal septum favour the diagnosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma. Contiguous extension into the nasopharynx, palate, upper airways, and subcutaneous tissues can also suggest the possibility of NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (Fig.4. T-cell lymphoma, compared to B-cell lymphoma, has an aggressive course and poor prognosis. The median
Fouad M. Ghareeb, FRCS, MD
Full Text Available Summary:. It is difficult to put forward a strategy for the treatment of nasal clefts due to the rarity and diversity of anatomical aberrations of these cases contrary to the common nasal affection in cleft lip and palate patients, which differ in severity rather than differing in the morbid anatomy. This simple strategy for correction of these nasal clefts will hopefully help surgeons to achieve better results. In the mean time I intended to describe the morbid anatomy of these cases by choosing examples of each morbid anatomy.
Fernando Javier Casanueva; Felipe Cardemi
Las complicaciones de un inadecuado manejo del dorso nasal son frecuentes, destacando entre estas la palpación de irregularidades, debido a que en el manejo de la giba nasal se utilizan técnicas resectivas. Se describe una técnica quirúrgica para el manejo del dorso nasal, con énfasis en evitar irregularidades. Los pasos claves para evitar la palpación de irregularidades son: el uso de raspa diamantada, autoespaciador y lámina de cartílago morcelizado como camuflaje. Posterior a la resección ...
Alpar, H O; Almeida, A J; Brown, M R
Uptake by nasal epithelial tissue of fluorescent polystyrene latex microparticles of diameter 0.8 micron was studied in rats after single intranasal dosing. At intervals following administration, particles were observed in the blood compartment. Peak concentration of particles occurred in normal animals at 10 min. At 24 h some particles were still present in these animals' circulation. Throughout the sampling, tracheotomised animals demonstrated a steady state presence of particles. These results show that the uptake and translocation of solid particles does also take place through the nasal epithelial lining as it does through gut epithelia, possibly through the nasal associated lymphatic tissue.
Full Text Available In a badminton ‘drop shot’, the shuttlecock is struck by a non-rotating racquet at low speed. In this investigation, a shuttlecock was hit by a badminton racquet in a linear collision, simulating a drop shot. The collision was recorded with high-speed video and the velocities of the racquet and shuttlecock determined. The relationship between the impact velocity of the racquet and the velocity of the shuttlecock as it leaves the badminton racquet after collision was found to be proportional over the range tested.
Špadijer Mirković, Cveta; Perić, Aleksandar; Vukomanović Đurđević, Biserka; Vojvodić, Danilo
Regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin-2 have been postulated to be responsible for eosinophilia in chronically inflamed nasal mucosa. This study evaluated mucosal production of RANTES and eotaxin-2 in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) and nonallergic and allergic form of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) before and after nasal corticosteroid treatment. Twenty patients with PAR, 20 nonallergic and 20 allergic CRSwNP patients, and 20 healthy controls were included. The RANTES and eotaxin-2 levels were measured in nasal secretion samples. The patients with chronic inflammation were treated with fluticasone furoate nasal spray for 2 weeks. Cytological examination and measurement of RANTES and eotaxin-2 in nasal fluid were performed before and after the treatment. The levels of RANTES were higher in patients with PAR ( P < .05) and nonallergic ( P < .01) and allergic CRSwNP patients ( P < .001) compared to controls. Eotaxin-2 levels were higher in all 3 inflammation groups compared to healthy subjects ( P < .001). After the treatment, we found a significant decrease of RANTES and eotaxin-2 concentrations ( P < .001) in all 3 groups of patients. The levels of RANTES and eotaxin-2 in nasal fluid could be reliable markers for assessing corticosteroid administration outcomes.
Madison, Stefani; Brown, Elizabeth Aubrey; Franklin, Rachel; Wickersham, Elizabeth A.; McCarthy, Laine H.
Clinical Question In pediatric populations, is nasal saline irrigation as effective as intranasal corticosteroids at relieving allergic rhinitis symptoms? Answer No. Intranasal steroids are more effective than nasal saline alone to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Combination therapy further improves symptom reduction. Level of Evidence for the Answer B Search Terms Allergic Rhinitis, Nasal Saline, Nasal corticosteroids, children younger than age 18. Date Search Was Conducted August and September 2014, October 2015. Inclusion Criteria Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohort studies, nasal spray, hypertonic saline solution, nasal lavage, rhinitis, intranasal administration, nasal saline, human, English language. Exclusion Criteria Antihistamines, Adults, Articles older than 2008 PMID:27328556
Madison, Stefani; Brown, Elizabeth Aubrey; Franklin, Rachel; Wickersham, Elizabeth A; McCarthy, Laine H
In pediatric populations, is nasal saline irrigation as effective as intranasal corticosteroids at relieving allergic rhinitis symptoms? No. Intranasal steroids are more effective than nasal saline alone to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Combination therapy further improves symptom reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE FOR THE ANSWER: B SEARCH TERMS: Allergic Rhinitis, Nasal Saline, Nasal corticosteroids, children younger than age 18. DATE SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED: August and September 2014, October 2015. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohort studies, nasal spray, hypertonic saline solution, nasal lavage, rhinitis, intranasal administration, nasal saline, human, English language. Antihistamines, Adults, Articles older than 2008.
J. Serracanta Domènech; D. Vázquez Fernández; D. López Munné; B. Gornés Benejam; X. Suñol Sala
Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 90 años de edad afecta de un carcinoma escamoso nasal. Cualquier defecto a nivel nasal debe ser analizado en términos de pérdida anatómica de tejido y como subunidades estéticas, empezando en el defecto interno y progresando hacía afuera, plano por plano. El caso en cuestión muestra el uso de un colgajo septal, injertos óseos obtenidos de olécranon para el dorso, e injertos de cartílago conchal para recrear las dos alas nasales. Se precisaron dos colgajo...
Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja
Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.
Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.
Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.
Dunin, S. Z.; Nagornov, O. V.
The exact solution of the problem on evaporation of the acetone sessile drop at solid substrate is derived. The solution allows us to analyze the temperature field behavior at various thermodynamic parameters. The Marangoni forces are calculated in explicit form. The solution can be used to check numerical approaches for similar problems.
This report discusses improvements possible with drop check valves. Up to the time of the report, the most important improvements had been: (1) lightening of the drop by hollowing it out, (2) reducing lift to reduce impact, (3) increasing clearance in the guide to minimize the danger of it getting stuck, (4) drilling of a safety hole which would indicate excessive wear of the housing by a leak. Other possibilities for the above improvements had produced the following conclusions: (1) a further lightening of the drop was found possible by milling out the halves with a milling cutter, by welding them together and thus eliminating the threaded portion, or by having the drop open on the bottom; (2) further reduction in lift was not found possible in most sizes, but for reduction of the impact effect by a cushion of oil or paste, the seating surface was widened as much as possible; (3) sticking of certain check valves caused by ferrous sulfide deposits could be solved by use of a certain bushing in the housing; (4) some plants favored and some disfavored the safety hole, but in general, plants were to service check valves and change them at such regular intervals as experience dictated; (5) the seat plate was no longer solid steel, but a welded piece.
van der Wal, R; Loonen, MJJE
Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,
In work-zone configurations where lane drops are present, merging of traffic at the taper presents an operational concern. In : addition, as flow through the work zone is reduced, the relative traffic safety of the work zone is also reduced. Improvin...
... of natural wood, Plywood boxes, Reconstituted wood boxes, Fiberboard boxes, Plastic boxes, Steel or... drums, Plastic drums and Jerricans, Composite packagings which are in the shape of a drum Six—(three for... Administrator. (c) Special preparation of test samples for the drop test. (1) Testing of plastic drums, plastic...
... Large Packaging design types and performed periodically as specified in § 178.955(e) of this subpart. (b... § 178.960(d). (d) Test method. (1) Samples of all Large Packaging design types must be dropped onto a... be restored to the upright position for observation. (2) Large Packaging design types with a capacity...
Anthony, Christopher; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman
Drop coalescence plays a key role in both industry and nature. Consequently, study of the phenomenon has been the focus of numerous experimental, computational and theoretical works to date. In coalescence, two drops come into contact and a liquid bridge forms between them. As time advances, this bridge grows from microscopic to macroscopic scales. Despite the large volume of work dedicated to this problem, currently experiment, theory, and computation are not in perfect agreement with respect to the earliest times following the initial contact of the drops. Experiments report an initial regime where the radius of the connecting bridge grows linearly in time before a transition to either a Stokes regime or an inertial regime where either viscous or inertial forces balance capillary force. In the initial linear regime, referred to as the inertially-limited viscous regime, all three forces are thought to be important. This is in contrast to theory which predicts that all coalescence events begin in the Stokes regime. We use high accuracy numerical simulation to show that the existing discrepancy in the literature can be resolved by paying careful attention to the initial conditions that set the shape and size of the bridge connecting the two drops.
The author considers the stability of certain liquid drops in a gravity field satisfying a mixed boundary condition. He also considers as special cases portions of cylinders that model either the zero gravity case or soap films with the same kind of boundary behavior.
Keyes, R. E.
A study was made to determine the flow rates and pressure drops for all primary system flow paths through the FTR. The main data and results are in tables, diagrams and curves. The results are intended to provide a common basis for evaluation of parametric changes in the system.
Bobbert, M. F.; Mackay, M.T.; Schinkelshoek, D.; Huijing, P. A.; van Ingen Schenau, G. J.
For 13 subjects the performance of drop jumps from a height of 40 cm (DJ) and of countermovement jumps (CMJ) was analysed and compared. From force plate and cine data biomechanical variables including forces, moments, power output and amount of work done were calculated for hip, knee and ankle
Castro-Hernandez, E; Gordillo, J M; Gundabala, V; Fernandez-Nieves, A
We perform extensive experiments with coflowing liquids in microfluidic devices and provide a closed expression for the drop size as a function of measurable parameters in the jetting regime that accounts for the experimental observations; this expression works irrespective of how the jets are produced, providing a powerful design tool for this type of experiments.
Castro-Hernandez, E; Gordillo, J M [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gundabala, V; Fernandez-Nieves, A [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
We perform extensive experiments with coflowing liquids in microfluidic devices and provide a closed expression for the drop size as a function of measurable parameters in the jetting regime that accounts for the experimental observations; this expression works irrespective of how the jets are produced, providing a powerful design tool for this type of experiments.
Camilo Padilla Peñuela
Full Text Available Nasal aspergillosis is a major chronic disease affecting the nostrils in dogs. Clinical sinology is typical in every chronic nasal disease. Epistaxis and occasional pain occurs. Rhinoscopic assessment of the area evidences findings associated with the pathology and allows collecting samples for cytology and culture. Systemic therapy with oral antifungals has had variable utility, but now it has been replaced by direct topical medication to the affected area. This article describes the case of a 4-years-old male dog, submitted to consultation by unilateral muco-bloody nasal discharge with a week of evolution. The patient was treated by another vet center with cyclonamine and vitamin K for a possible clotting disorder. After a series of tests that included rhinoscopy and fungal culture, nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed. Intranasal clotrimazole was applied twice and it allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.
Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz
Full Text Available Introduction: The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca. It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Objective: Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. Case Report: E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users.
Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C
The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.
Jae H Lim
Full Text Available Intranasal medications are used to treat various nasal disorders. However, their effects on olfaction remain unknown. Zicam (zinc gluconate; Matrixx Initiatives, Inc, a homeopathic substance marketed to alleviate cold symptoms, has been implicated in olfactory dysfunction. Here, we investigated Zicam and several common intranasal agents for their effects on olfactory function. Zicam was the only substance that showed significant cytotoxicity in both mouse and human nasal tissue. Specifically, Zicam-treated mice had disrupted sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to odorant stimulation and were unable to detect novel odorants in behavioral testing. These findings were long-term as no recovery of function was observed after two months. Finally, human nasal explants treated with Zicam displayed significantly elevated extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels compared to saline-treated controls, suggesting severe necrosis that was confirmed on histology. Our results demonstrate that Zicam use could irreversibly damage mouse and human nasal tissue and may lead to significant smell dysfunction.
) nasal colonization and inducible clin- damycin ... The most common mechanism of macrolide resistance is mediated by erm genes which encode enzymes that confer constitutive or inducible resistance to MLSB agents in the presence.
Varun V. Varadarajan, M.D.
Conclusion: Angioleiomyoma of the nasal septum is a rare and challenging clinical diagnosis that requires detailed histopathologic examination. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal derived tumors. Literature review suggests a female predilection with possible hormonal influence.
Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz; Felix, Felippe; Paes, Vania; de Azevedo, Julia Alves; Grangeiro, Eliza Raquel Negrão; Riccio, Jonatah Lucas N; Rito, Helen Cruz
The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca). It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users.
Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F
The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the
Pedro C. Cavadas, MD, PhD
Full Text Available Summary:. Total nasal reconstruction is a challenging multistage procedure. Infections can destroy the cartilage framework and seriously compromise the result. The use of polymethyl methacrylate with antibiotics as a spacer has been described in the treatment of skeletal infections. Using this same principle, the use of a polymethyl methacrylate with antibiotics spacer for an infected nasal reconstruction is reported in a clinical case.
De Schryver, Els; Derycke, Lara; Campo, Paloma; Gabriels, Eline; Joos, Guy F; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus; Hellings, Peter W; Gevaert, Philippe
An important percentage of subjects diagnosed with chronic upper airway disease report alcohol-induced worsening of their symptoms. The prevalence and characteristics of respiratory reactions provoked by alcohol-containing drinks have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol hyper-responsiveness in patients with chronic airway disease and healthy controls. Furthermore, nasal inflammation was evaluated in nasal polyp patients with and without hyper-responsiveness. We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-induced respiratory complaints in 1281 subjects. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients with and without NSAID exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD), chronic rhinosinusitis patients without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and healthy controls were approached by means of a questionnaire. Inflammatory markers (eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), IL-5, IgE, SAE-specific IgE, IL-17, TNFα and IFNγ) in tissue were then compared between alcohol hyper-responsive and non-hyper-responsive CRSwNP patients. The highest prevalence of nasal and bronchial alcohol hyper-responsiveness was observed in patients with NERD, followed by CRSwNP, and less frequent in CRSsNP, AR and healthy controls. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness is significantly more prevalent in CRSwNP patients suffering from recurrent disease and in patients with severe symptomatology. In nasal tissue of the hyper-responsive CRSwNP group, we observed significantly higher nasal levels of the eosinophilic biomarker ECP. Nasal hyper-responsiveness to alcohol is significantly more prevalent in severe eosinophilic upper airway disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.
Objectives This computational study aims to: (1) Use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery; (2) Quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning; (3) Quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity. Study Design Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built based on pre-surgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a 15 L/min steady-state inhalation rate. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2. Results In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2 either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. Conclusion TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow, but also impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. PMID:27165673
Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S; Garcia, Guilherme J M
This computational study aims to (1) use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery, (2) quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning, and (3) quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity. Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics. Academic tertiary medical center. Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built according to presurgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a steady-state inhalation rate of 15 L/min. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2). In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2) either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow but also impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
de Lima Ramos, Sueli; Hochman, Bernardo; Gomes, Heitor Carvalho; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Juliano, Yara; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
Nasal deviation is a common complaint in otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery. This condition not only causes impairment of nasal function but also affects quality of life, leading to psychological distress. The subjective assessment of quality of life, as an important aspect of outcomes research, has received increasing attention in recent decades. Quality of life is measured using standardized questionnaires that have been tested for reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and depression in patients with nasal deviation. Sixty patients were selected for the study. Patients with nasal deviation (n = 32) were assigned to the study group, and patients without nasal deviation (n = 28) were assigned to the control group. The diagnosis of nasal deviation was made by digital photogrammetry. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/Federal University of São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Scale; and the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire. There were significant differences between groups in the physical functioning and general health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p < 0.05). Depression was detected in 11 patients (34.4 percent) in the study group and in two patients in the control group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Nasal deviation is an aspect of rhinoplasty of which the surgeon should be aware so that proper psychological diagnosis can be made and suitable treatment can be planned because psychologically the patients with nasal deviation have significantly worse quality of life and are more prone to depression. Risk, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).
Clarke, Jonathan D; Eccles, Ronald
A paradoxical relationship between objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction exists in participants not exposed to any treatment. The sensation of nasal obstruction may be due to the amalgamation of many different nasal sensations. Improved methods for measuring nasal sensations are required to further investigate the relationship between objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction. In a recent study it was shown that the subjective sensation of nasal patency increased as the nasal passages became objectively more obstructed in patients who received a placebo compared to those who received an oral decongestant. This paradoxical response may be explained as a placebo effect, i.e. patients who received a placebo may have expected to feel less obstructed. The aim of the present study was to investigate this interesting paradox by determining objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction over time in participants not exposed to any treatment. A total of 60 healthy participants with common cold were recruited. Objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 2 h using posterior rhinomanometry and a visual analogue scale. Objective measures demonstrated an increase in nasal obstruction over time for both nasal passages considered together and for individual nasal passages. Subjective measures demonstrated a sensation of decreased nasal obstruction over time for both nasal passages considered together and for individual nasal passages.
Rojas, Clara; García-Sucre, Máximo; Urbina-Villalba, Germán
In a previous report [C. Rojas, G. Urbina-Villalba, and M. García-Sucre, Phys. Rev. E 81, 016302 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016302] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (ri<10μm) stabilized with β -casein behave as nondeformable particles, moving with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface. Here, a similar methodology is used to parametrize the potential of interaction of drops of soybean oil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10≤ri≤1000μm . It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10≤ri≤100μm) , and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.
Worsnop, C J; Miseski, S; Rochford, P D
Heated humidification can reduce nasal symptoms caused by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, but its routine use has not been studied over the medium term in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study is to determine if heated humidification would reduce nasal symptoms and improve adherence with CPAP treatment in all patients with sleep apnoea irrespective of whether they had nasal symptoms initially. A randomized, parallel group design. Patients were treated for 3 months with a Fisher & Paykel HC201 pump with built-in heated humidification, or with the heater disabled and without water. Adherence was measured with a timer built into the pumps. Nasal symptoms were measured with a 10-cm visual analogue scale. There were 25 in the humidification group and 29 in the non-humidification group. After 12 weeks mean (standard deviation) adherence with CPAP was 4.7 (2.4) and 4.5 (2.2) hours per night respectively. Nasal symptoms that were reduced were nose blocked* 6 (12), 18 (26); sneezing* 4 (8), 15 (25); dry nose* 8 (12), 24 (33); stuffy nose* 7 (14), 22(31); dry mouth* 13 (18), 33(36); and runny nose* 6 (17), 14 (29). Parameters marked with an asterisk '*' had P humidification with CPAP in all patients with sleep apnoea reduced nasal symptoms, but did not improve adherence. © 2010 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Peden, D.B.; Swiersz, M.; Ohkubo, K.; Hahn, B.; Emery, B.; Kaliner, M.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))
Uric acid, an important scavenger of ozone, has been identified as the major low molecular weight antioxidant in baseline and cholinergically induced nasal secretions. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific tissue source of uric acid in airway secretions. The secretion of uric acid is increased by cholinergic stimulation and correlates closely with the secretion of lactoferrin (a nasal glandular protein), suggesting that submucosal glands are involved. Indeed, nasal turbinate tissue was found to contain uric acid. However, careful analysis of nasal turbinate tissue failed to reveal the presence of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid synthesis. These data suggest that uric acid might be taken up secondarily by glands from plasma. This possibility was strengthened by the observation that lowering the plasma urate level with probenecid concomitantly lowered urate secretion. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that the principal source of uric acid in nasal secretions is plasma and that uric acid is taken up, concentrated, and secreted by nasal glands.
Full Text Available Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1 and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2 over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages.
Lung, M A; Phipps, R J; Wang, J C; Widdicombe, J G
Nasal vascular and airflow resistances have been measured in dogs, simultaneously on both sides separately. Vascular resistance was measured either by constant flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the maxillary artery (which supplies, via the sphenopalatine artery, the nasal septum, most of the turbinates and the nasal sinuses) or by measuring blood flow through this artery, maintained by the dog's own blood pressure. Airflow resistance was assessed by inserting balloon-tipped endotracheal catheters into the back of each nasal cavity via the nasopharynx, and measuring transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Preliminary experiments indicated that there was 5-10% collateral anastomosis between the two sides. Close-arterial injection of drugs showed different patterns of response. Adrenaline, phenylephrine, chlorpheniramine and low doses of prostaglandin F2 alpha increased vascular resistance and lowered airway resistance. Salbutamol, methacholine and histamine lowered vascular resistance and increased airway resistance. Dobutamine decreased airway resistance with a small increase in vascular resistance. Prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha (high dose) decreased both vascular and airway resistances. Substance P, eledoisin-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide lowered vascular resistance with little change in airway resistance. The results are interpreted in terms of possible drug actions on precapillary resistance vessels, sinusoids and venules, and arteriovenous anastomoses. It is concluded that nasal airway resistance cannot be correlated with vascular resistance or blood flow, since the latter has a complex and ill-defined relationship with nasal vascular blood volume. PMID:6204040
D'haeseleer, Evelien; Bettens, Kim; De Mets, Sarah; De Moor, Valerie; Van Lierde, Kristiane
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of dialect and gender and to obtain normative nasalance values for Flemish adults as measured with the Nasometer II. One hundred and sixty-four adult subjects from the five regions in Flanders corresponding to different dialects were included in the study. The group consisted of 71 adult men and 93 adult women with a mean age of 43 years and an age range between 20 and 82 years (SD 16). Nasalance scores of connected speech using an oral, an oronasal and a nasal text were measured with the Nasometer II model 6450. The nasalance scores for the oral, oronasal and nasal texts are provided in this study. No significant differences were found across the five dialects and between men and women. This study provides new Flemish normative data as measured with the Nasometer II model 6450. The results of this study are very important for clinical purposes and for future Flemish studies collecting nasalance scores of subjects with different dialects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
van Benten, I J; KleinJan, A; Neijens, H J; Osterhaus, A D; Fokkens, W J
Viral respiratory tract infections may cause both harmless common colds and severe asthma exacerbations; the differences in disease expression probably depend on the allergic status of the patient. To determine whether altered immunologic mechanisms underlie these differences, we investigated nasal inflammation during naturally acquired common cold. In a group of 16 patients (eight allergic), nasal brush samples were taken, and nasal symptoms were recorded during common cold, 2 weeks later (convalescence), and at baseline (>4 weeks without nasal symptoms). Nasal brush cells were stained immunohistochemically for Langerhans cells, T cells, monocytes, neutrophils, B cells, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, mast cells, eosinophils, eotaxin, and RANTES. Four rhinovirus, four coronavirus, three RSV, one Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and one influenza A/enterovirus double infection were confirmed. Increased numbers of T cells, monocytes, macrophages, NK cells, eosinophils, and RANTES- and eotaxin-positive cells, but not neutrophils, were observed during common cold in allergic and nonallergic patients, and increased numbers of mast cells in allergic patients. Compared to nonallergic patients, in allergic patients eosinophil influx persisted into convalescence. Prolonged nasal eosinophil influx was observed in allergic patients after common cold. What immunologic factors can induce prolonged eosinophil influx and whether this may increase the risk of subsequent allergen-induced hypersensitivity reactions must be studied further.
Kundi, N. A.; Raza, M.
Objective:To compare the efficacy of nasal packs for 12 and 24 hours in the management of epistaxis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Nowshera and Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, from October 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 60 patients presenting with epistaxis were selected and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Patients in both the groups were managed by nasal packs. In group-A packs were removed after 12 hours while in group-B after 24 hours. Symptoms of headache, lacrimation and recurrence of bleeding were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis and p-value less than 0.01 was considered significant. Results: There was significant difference for headache between removal of nasal packs after 12 hours and 24 hours (p < 0.001). There was significant difference for excessive lacrimation at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for recurrence of bleed when nasal packs were removed at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.317). Conclusion: Duration in removal of nasal packs after 12 or 24 hours made a difference in the management of epistaxis. Symptoms of headache and excessive lacrimation were significantly higher when nasal packs were removed after 24 hours. It is recommended that patient could be managed with lesser duration of packs after episode of epistaxis to avoid inconvenience. (author)
Lo, S; Rowe-Jones, J
The three-dimensional anatomy and conspicuous location of the nasal tip makes it one of the most challenging sites of facial plastic surgery. This article reviews literature on nasal tip sculpture using suture techniques, as well as the authors' own experience. A search was conducted using Pubmed, the Google internet search engine and the authors' files, using the keywords 'nasal tip', 'suture', 'rhinoplasty' and 'septorhinoplasty'. Common nasal tip suture techniques and suture algorithms are presented, along with a summary of the indications and side effects of each technique. Predictable long-term results are more likely to occur with minimal local tissue excision. Suture techniques remodel the shape of the nasal tip by altering the configuration of, and the relationship between, the tip cartilages and their supporting structures; they also preserve nasal tip anatomy and limit resection. Intra-operatively, the effects are immediately visible, and can be adjusted or reversed. Tip sutures should therefore be considered instead of tissue excision whenever possible.
Zhong, Zhenhua; Fan, Xihui; Lian, Zhuang; Cheng, Zexing; Zhuang, Yuanling
To evaluate the age, sex, etiology, diagnosis and treatment time of nasal bone fractures. Clinical data of 202 cases with nasal bone fractures treated in the hospital were retrospectively analysed. A total of 202 cases,163 men (80. 7%) and 39 women (19. 3%). Fifty-two patients had a relationship with alcohol consumption, and all of them were males. The most frequent reasons of the injury were fight 46. 5% (94 cases) followed by falling-down 21. 3% (43 cases), traffic accidents 19. 3% (39 cases), works related 6. 5% (13 cases), sport injuries 5. 9% (12 cases) and others 0. 5% (1 cases). Patients distribution in seasons were: spring 54 cases (26.7%), summer 42 cases (20.8%), autumn 58 cases (28.7%), winter 48 cases (23. 8%). Diagnosis of nasal bone fractures were made positively by x-ray films in 79. 7% of cases, but 100% by CT. Positive predictive value of CT was superior to that of X-ray films in the diagnosis of nasal bone fracture. High morbidity of nasal bone fracture was seen in the age group of 20-29 years, and predominantly in male. Fight was found to be the main etiologic factor. We think that CT is necessary for diagnosing nasal bone fracture.
Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.
The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the 133 Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated
Tarun, Alice S; Bryant, Bruce; Zhai, Wenwu; Solomon, Colin; Shusterman, Dennis
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is physiologically important in the reversible hydration reaction of CO(2); it is expressed in a number of isoforms (CA I-XIV) with varying degrees of enzymatic activity. In nasal chemesthesis, CA inhibition decreases the electrophysiologic response to CO(2), a common irritant test compound. CA enzymatic activity has been demonstrated in the human nasal mucosa using enzyme histochemical methods, but no systematic study of nasal mucosal CA isoenzyme gene expression has been published. We examined CA gene expression in superficial nasal mucosal scrapings from 15 subjects (6 females; 6 allergic rhinitics; age range, 21-56 years). Both non-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed using primers for each gene coding for the 11 catalytically active CA isoenzymes and the housekeeping gene GADPH. Amplification products of GADPH and 10 of the 11 CA genes were detected in the specimens (CA VA was not detected). Relative expression of the CA genes was quantified using real-time PCR. Averaged across subjects, the relative abundance of the CA isoenzyme transcripts is as follows: CA XII > CA II > CA VB > CA IV > CA IX > CA III > CA XIV > CA I > CA VI > CA VII. Limited qualitative validation of gene expression was obtained by immunohistochemistry for CA I, CA II and CA IV. We also observed inter-individual variability in the expression of CA isoenzymes in human nasal mucosa, potentially contributing to differences in nasal chemosensitivity to CO(2) between individuals
Fidan, Vural; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Kalkandelen, Sadettin; Cingi, Cemal
Extensive nasal polyposis is an inflammatory disease which effects 1%-4% of normal population. The mechanism of its formation and the circadian rhythm of cortisol and melatonin in ENP have not investigated. Salivary levels of melatonin and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay in 31 patients with extensive nasal polyposis and in 27 control subjects matched for age and gender. In both groups none of the subjects did not have obstructive sleep apnea. The baseline and the peak levels of salivary melatonin in the extensive nasal polyposis group were significantly lower than in the control group (pmelatonin between the study and control groups (p>0.05). The highest values of melatonin were recorded at 04:00 h in both the study and control groups. The amplitude and the 24 h mean levels of salivary cortisol in the extensive nasal polyposis group were significantly lower than in the control group (pmelatonin and cortisol were found to be disrupted in patients with extensive nasal polyposis. These results may be applicable as therapeutic tools in the future and melatonin drugs might be useful in the therapy of nasal polyposis like cortisol drugs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gao Dengfa; Wang Haijun; Zhang Ailian; Wang Yulin
Objective: To research the application value of direct digital radiograph (DDR ) in nasal bone imaging. Methods: One hundred cases were examined by DDR, 30 cases of them were examined by two methods both DDR and conventional radiography. All digital images were post-processed with 'MUSICA' (Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification), incision and largamente, analyzed and diagnosed by experienced two radiologists and two technicians. Results: One hundred cases of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose were showed excellent in DDR, and satisfactory cases were 95 and 92, respectively. Forty-six cases of nasal bone fractures were found. Thirty cases were examined by both DDR and conventional radiography, images of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose were showed, satisfactory cases were 28 in DDR; and satisfactory cases were 6 (χ 2 =20.05, P 2 =15.06, P 2 =5.14, P<0.05) in conventional and digital radiography, respectively. Conclusion: DDR images of nasal bone, soft tissue of nose was excellent, more fractures were discovered than conventional radiography. Image quality of DDR is better than conventional radiography in nasal bone imaging. (authors)
Renteria, Sandra S; Clemens, Courtney C; Croyle, Maria A
A nasal adenovirus-based vaccine is under development. To determine if aggregation occurs during vaccination, infectious titer (limiting dilution) and capsid integrity (dynamic light scattering) were assessed after extrusion of a model vector from two intranasal delivery devices. Preparations of 2.5x10(12) and 1.25x10(11) virus particles (vp)/ml were studied. Virus aggregated ( approximately 10%) in the multi-dose vessel. Virus titer dropped by one log. Virus in the unit-dose device aggregated ( approximately 1%). Titer remained unchanged. Aggregation was concentration dependent. Formulations prevented aggregation during actuation, freeze-thaw and long-term storage. The device, formulation and dose may significantly influence aggregation and potency of any nasal adenovirus 5-based vaccine. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Gabory, Ludovic; Reville, Nicolas; Baux, Yannick; Boisson, Nicolas; Bordenave, Laurence
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have greatly improved the understanding of nasal physiology. We postulate that simulating the entire and repeated respiratory nasal cycles, within the whole sinonasal cavities, is mandatory to gather more accurate observations and better understand airflow patterns. A 3-dimensional (3D) sinonasal model was constructed from a healthy adult computed tomography (CT) scan which discretized in 6.6 million cells (mean volume, 0.008 mm 3 ). CFD simulations were performed with ANSYS©FluentTMv16.0.0 software with transient and turbulent airflow (k-ω model). Two respiratory cycles (8 seconds) were simulated to assess pressure, velocity, wall shear stress, and particle residence time. The pressure gradients within the sinus cavities varied according to their place of connection to the main passage. Alternations in pressure gradients induced a slight pumping phenomenon close to the ostia but no movement of air was observed within the sinus cavities. Strong movements were observed within the inferior meatus during expiration contrary to the inspiration, as in the olfactory cleft at the same time. Particle residence time was longer during expiration than inspiration due to nasal valve resistance, as if the expiratory phase was preparing the next inspiratory phase. Throughout expiration, some particles remained in contact with the lower turbinates. The posterior part of the olfactory cleft was gradually filled with particles that did not leave the nose at the next respiratory cycle. This pattern increased as the respiratory cycle was repeated. CFD is more efficient and reliable when the entire respiratory cycle is simulated and repeated to avoid losing information. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
A. Torre Iturraspe
Full Text Available El linfoma nasal de células T/ natural killer (NK (LNT/NK, tras haber recibido múltiples denominaciones, ha sido definido y caracterizado en el año 2001 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, basándose en una clasificación previa de la Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification (REAL, de la manera en que se le conoce actualmente. Su incidencia en el mundo occidental es baja, mientras que en Asia supone el segundo grupo de linfomas más frecuente, tras los gastrointestinales. Se localiza preferentemente en las fosas nasales y senos maxilares, mostrando un curso clínico agresivo, definido por una destrucción de los tejidos circundantes. Su diagnóstico definitivo se realiza por medio de técnicas de hibridación in situ, llegando a la determinación de su inmunofenotipo. Se ha observado una frecuente asociación con el virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB. El pronóstico de esta enfermedad viene definido por el índice pronóstico internacional (IPI y por el volumen alcanzado por el tumor. A pesar de ser radiosensible, su pronóstico es infausto, aconteciendo la muerte del paciente poco tiempo después del diagnóstico, generalmente como consecuencia de las complicaciones del tratamiento.Nasal T-cell and Natural Killer cell lymphoma (NT/NKL, having been given many names, was defined and described in the year 2001 by the World Health Organization (WHO, on the basis of a previous classification by the Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification (REAL as it is known today. Its incidence in the western world is low, while in Asia it represents the second most frequent group of lymphomas, followed by the gastrointestinal [lymphoma]. It is typically located in the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses. It is associated with an aggressive clinical course, characterized by the destruction of surrounding tissue. The definitive diagnosis is made by means of in situ hybridization techniques, in order to determine the immunophenotype. Its
Pan, Hongguang; Li, Lan; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Zebin; Zhang, Delun
To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnostic and treatment principle of orbital cellulitis in children, and to improve the experience of antibiotic treatment in orbital cellulites. Twenty children were admitted to Shenzhen Children's Hospital with the diagnosis of nasal orbital cellulitis between January 2009 and December 2013. The children were severe enough to warrant hospital admission. There were 13(65%) males and 7 (35%) females. The median age was 3.5 years (2 months to 7.2 years). The relationship between the serum C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count and the hospitalization days were analyzed. The children were divided into 2 groups: Cefoperazone Sodium and Sulbactam Sodium for injection group and other antibiotic treatment group, the difference was compared. Statistical calculation was performed using SPSS 13.0 software. The serum CRP [(29.8 ± 22.0) mg/L] at the time of admission had a positive correlation with the time of hospitalization[ (6.3 ± 4.1) d, r = 0.46, P orbital cellulitis will be shorter and the orbital abscess can be prevented. Cefoperazone sulbactam and Sulbactam Sodium for injection is effective in treating pediatric orbital cellulitis.
Peuvrel, L; Barbarot, S; Gagey-Caron, V; Tessier, M-H; Cassagnau, E; Stalder, J-F
Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans (PPV) is a rare chronic disorder often associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We report an isolated case involving the oral, labial and nasal mucosa. A 28-year-old man, in good general condition, presented with a 2-year history of painless stomatitis. The physical examination revealed pustular and exophytic lesions of the jugal, gingival and palatine mucosa on an erythematous background, as well as some pustular and crusted lesions of the lower lip and nostrils. Histopathological analysis revealed epithelial hyperplasia and a suprabasal cleft with some signs of acantholysis and numerous neutrophils and eosinophils. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence assay was negative. There was no associated bowel disease. We concluded on a diagnosis of PPV of younger subjects. The lesions disappeared with oral corticosteroids but with steroid dependency. PPV is a rare dermatosis associated in more than 75% of cases with inflammatory bowel disease, usually ulcerative colitis. Lesions of the oral mucosa are a constant finding and are characterised by aseptic pustules on an erythematous background. Skin lesions are pustular and more or less exophytic. To our knowledge, there have been no reports to date of intranasal lesions of PPV.
Full Text Available Nasal irrigation (NI is an old practice of upper respiratory tract care that likely originated in the Ayurvedic medical tradition. It is used alone or in association with other therapies in several conditions—including chronic rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis—and to treat and prevent upper respiratory tract infections, especially in children. However, despite it being largely prescribed in everyday clinical practice, NI is not included or is only briefly mentioned by experts in the guidelines for treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases. In this review, present knowledge about NI and its relevance in clinical practice is discussed to assist physicians in understanding the available evidence and the potential use of this medical intervention. Analysis of the literature showed that NI seems to be effective in the treatment of several acute and chronic sinonasal conditions. However, although in recent years several new studies have been performed, most of the studies that have evaluated NI have relevant methodologic problems. Only multicenter studies enrolling a great number of subjects can solve the problem of the real relevance of NI, and these studies are urgently needed. Methods for performing NI have to be standardized to determine which solutions, devices and durations of treatment are adequate to obtain favorable results. This seems particularly important for children that suffer a great number of sinonasal problems and might benefit significantly from an inexpensive and simple preventive and therapeutic measure such as NI.
Geltzeiler, Mathew; Steele, Toby O
A case of nasal septal perforation secondary to systemic bevacizumab therapy for ovarian cancer is reported. Bevacizumab is a vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibitor that is becoming more widely utilized in the oncologic community. There is only one prior report of septal perforation secondary to bevacizumab in the Otolaryngology specific literature. The purpose of this report is: 1) to raise awareness and discuss the literature surrounding the sinonasal complications of bevacizumab and 2) provide workup and treatment recommendations based on the sum of the available literature. We review the clinical record of a 59year old patient who presented with an anterior septal perforation while taking bevacizumab therapy for ovarian cancer. She had mild symptoms. Her oncologist held bevacizumab and topical moisture therapy was started. After several weeks, the perforation remained stable and bevacizumab was restarted for her ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab is associated with both septal perforation and more widespread sinonasal toxicity. These lesions tend to produce only mild symptoms and can usually be managed conservatively. The decision to hold bevacizumab therapy should be made in conjunction with the patient and medical oncologist. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the toxicity from this increasingly common oncologic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (SPH is used here to model off-center collisions of equal-size liquid drops in a three-dimensional space. In this study the Weber number is calculated for several conditions of the droplets dynamics and the velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown. For the permanent coalescence the evolution of the kinetic and internal energy is shown and also the approaching to equilibrium of the resulting drop. Depending of the Weber number three possible outcomes for the collision of droplets is obtained: permanent coalescence, flocculation and fragmentation. The fragmentation phenomena are modeled and the formation of small satellite drops can be seen. The ligament that is formed follows the “end pinching” mechanism and it is transformed into a flat structure.
Since the first experimental observations of Michael Faraday in 1831 it is known that a vibrating liquid may show an instability of its flat free surface with respect to oscillating regular surface patterns. We study thin liquid films on a horizontal substrate in the long wave approximation. The films are parametrically excited by mechanical horizontal or inclined oscillations. Inertia effects are taken into account and the standard thin film formulation is extended by a second equation for the vertically averaged mass flux. The films can be additionally unstable by Van der Waals forces on a partially wetting substrate, leading to the formation of drops. These drops can be manipulated by the vibrations to move in a desired direction. Linear results based on a damped complex valued Mathieu equation as well as fully nonlinear results using a reduced model will be presented, for more details see.
Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Jung, Youn Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
A pressure drop model for the PWR grids with and without mixing device is proposed at single phase based on the fluid mechanistic approach. Total pressure loss is expressed in additive way for form and frictional losses. The general friction factor correlations and form drag coefficients available in the open literatures are used to the model. As the results, the model shows better predictions than the existing ones for the non-mixing grids, and reasonable agreements with the available experimental data for mixing grids. Therefore it is concluded that the proposed model for pressure drop can provide sufficiently good approximation for grid optimization and design calculation in advanced grid development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)
Gao, Nan; Geyer, Florian; Pilat, Dominik W.; Wooh, Sanghyuk; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Berger, Rüdiger
It has been known for more than 200 years that the maximum static friction force between two solid surfaces is usually greater than the kinetic friction force--the force that is required to maintain the relative motion of the surfaces once the static force has been overcome. But the forces that impede the lateral motion of a drop of liquid on a solid surface are not as well characterized, and there is a lack of understanding about liquid-solid friction in general. Here, we report that the lateral adhesion force between a liquid drop and a solid can also be divided into a static and a kinetic regime. This striking analogy with solid-solid friction is a generic phenomenon that holds for liquids of different polarities and surface tensions on smooth, rough and structured surfaces.
Sobac, Benjamin; Brutin, David; Gavillet, Jerome; Université de Provence Team; Cea Liten Team
Sessile drop evaporation is a phenomenon commonly came across in nature or in industry with cooling, paintings or DNA mapping. However, the evaporation of a drop deposited on a substrate is not completely understood due to the complexity of the problem. Here we investigate, with several nano-coating of the substrate (PTFE, SiOx, SiOc and CF), the influence of the dynamic of the triple line on the evaporation process. The experiment consists in analyzing simultaneously the motion of the triple line, the kinetics of evaporation, the internal thermal motion and the heat and mass transfer. Measurements of temperature, heat-flux and visualizations with visible and infrared cameras are performed. The dynamics of the evaporative heat flux appears clearly different depending of the motion of the triple line
Full Text Available Many applications show that semisupervised community detection is one of the important topics and has attracted considerable attention in the study of complex network. In this paper, based on notion of voltage drops and discrete potential theory, a simple and fast semisupervised community detection algorithm is proposed. The label propagation through discrete potential transmission is accomplished by using voltage drops. The complexity of the proposal is OV+E for the sparse network with V vertices and E edges. The obtained voltage value of a vertex can be reflected clearly in the relationship between the vertex and community. The experimental results on four real networks and three benchmarks indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective and flexible. Furthermore, this algorithm is easily applied to graph-based machine learning methods.
Nobari, M. R.; Jan, Y.-J.; Tryggvason, G.
The head-on collision of equal sized drops is studied by full numerical simulations. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for fluid motion both inside and outside the drops using a front tracking/finite difference technique. The drops are accelerated toward each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. When the drops collide, the fluid between them is pushed outward leaving a thin later bounded by the drop surface. This layer gets progressively thinner as the drops continue to deform and in several of the calculations this double layer is artificially removed once it is thin enough, thus modeling rupture. If no rupture takes place, the drops always rebound, but if the film is ruptured the drops may coalesce permanently or coalesce temporarily and then split again.
Koutsourelakis, I; Vagiakis, E; Perraki, E; Karatza, M; Magkou, C; Kopaka, M; Roussos, C; Zakynthinos, S
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can cause undesirable nasal symptoms, such as congestion to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, whose symptoms can be attenuated by the addition of heated humidification. However, neither the nature of nasal symptoms nor the effect of heated humidification on nasal pathophysiology and pathology are convincingly known. 20 patients with OSA on nasal CPAP who exhibited symptomatic nasal obstruction were randomised to receive either 3 weeks of CPAP treatment with heated humidification or 3 weeks of CPAP treatment with sham-heated humidification, followed by 3 weeks of the opposite treatment, respectively. Nasal symptom score, nasal resistance, nasal lavage interleukin-6, interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-α and nasal mucosa histopathology were assessed at baseline and after each treatment arm. Heated humidification in comparison with sham-heated humidification was associated with decrease in nasal symptomatology, resistance and lavage cytokines, and attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis of the nasal mucosa. In conclusion, nasal obstruction of OSA patients on CPAP treatment is inflammatory in origin and the addition of heated humidification decreases nasal resistance and mucosal inflammation.
Full Text Available A rostrocaudal (RCd nasal view was developed in large breed mesaticephalic dogs using a complete, subsequently sectioned, skull and cadaver specimens to optimise the radiographic technique and evaluate normal anatomic features. Gelatin was placed in one nasal passage of the cadaver specimens to mimic the effects of nasal pathology. The latter specimens and 18 clinical cases with suspected nasal disease were evaluated to determine the usefulness of the RCd view compared to standard nasal views. An optimal RCd view was obtained with the dog in dorsal recumbency and the head symmetrically positioned with the hard palate perpendicular to the table using a table top technique with 8 : 1 grid, collimating to the nasal region and centring the primary beam on the philtrum. The dorsolateral aspects of the maxillary bone, the nasal bones, septal sulcus of the vomer, mucosa lined nasal septum and conchae could be seen. A centrodorsal more radiolucent area representing the ethmoid bone region was also visible. Gelatin soft tissue opacification of the nasal passage could be seen more clearly in RCd nasal view than in occlusal dorsoventral view. In clinical cases the RCd view was useful to build up a 3-dimensional image of nasal passage pathology as well as to detect nasal septum and osseous nasal border pathology not visible in other views. This view is particularly useful in cases where cross-sectional imaging modalities are not available or where the nasal investigation is limited by cost considerations.
The work (the bachelor´s thesis) deals with a new way of web application management via the "drag and drop" technique in the HTML5 programming language. The work is divided into two parts. The first part consists of DND API description in HTML5. The support analysis within common web browsers is included as a part of this description. The second, practical part of the thesis focuses on a concept and the following realisation of a photogallery using DND API.
A. K. Mozumder; M. R. Ullah; A. Hossain; M. A. Islam
Problem statement: Quenching and cooling are important process in manufacturing industry for controlling the mechanical properties of materials, where evaporation is a vital mode of heat transfer. Approach: This study experimentally investigated the evaporation of sessile drop for four different heated surfaces of Aluminum, Brass, Copper and Mild steel with a combination of four different liquids as Methanol, Ethanol, Water and NaCl solution. The time of evaporation for the droplet on the hot...
Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B.; Roy, S. C.
Superheated drops are known to vaporise when exposed to energetic nuclear radiation since the discovery of bubble chamber. As the degree of superheat increases in a given liquid, less and less energetic neutrons are required to cause nucleation. This property of superheated liquids are being utilised to develope the neutron spectromer. A new principle of neutron spectrometry using Superheated liquid are developed and the developed principle has been tested by Am-Be neutron source.
Flapper valve remains open under normal flow conditions but closes upon sudden increases to high rate of flow and remains closed until reset. Valve is fluid/mechanical analog of electrical fuse or circuit breaker. Low-pressure-drop shutoff valve contains flapper machined from cylindrical surface. During normal flow conditions, flapper presents small cross section to flow. (Useful in stopping loss of fluid through leaks in cooling systems.)
of a droplet is then given, after which we set up a 2D computational Finite-Element Method (FEM) model for a neutrally buoyant drop immersed in another liquid. The model is validated by considering the volume loss over time. Subsequent to an introduction to the physics of wetting, the developed FEM model......-leap dynamics, exotic trajectories and the emergence of statistical behavior when the forcing is near the Faraday threshold....
Marzani, Simone; Schunk, Lais; Soyez, Gregory
We present a first-principle computation of the mass distribution of jets which have undergone the grooming procedure known as Soft Drop. This calculation includes the resummation of the large logarithms of the jet mass over its transverse momentum, up to next-to-logarithmic accuracy, matched to exact fixed-order results at next-to-leading order. We also include non-perturbative corrections obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations and discuss analytic expressions for hadronisation and Underlying Event effects.
A moderate size tumor of the nasal tip and dorsum is excised and the large defect is primarily reconstructed with local flaps without obliteration of natural convexities and concavities. This is achieved by judicious utilization of numerous techniques. The techniques utilized are a V to Y advancement that produce a partial mobilization of the nasal dorsal skin, a full reduction rhinoplasty that dropped the nasal bony roof allowing for further mobilization of the nasal dorsal skin and allowed for tip elevation. A third technique that was utilized was a Z plasty as applied to correction of raised webs. The excess dorsal skin was converted into the needed length to close the tip defect. The patient tolerated this procedure well. His postoperative course was without complications. Postoperative results were good, but there was some persistent tip elevation that perhaps gave him a too youthful appearance for his age (Fig. 2). A novel use of V to Y advancement, Z plasty, and reduction rhinoplasty is described when used concurrently to primarily close a defect of the nasal tip and dorsum.
William T. Keenan
Full Text Available Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs are an important tool for modulating and understanding neural circuits. Depending on the DREADD system used, DREADD-targeted neurons can be activated or repressed in vivo following a dose of the DREADD agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO. Because DREADD experiments often involve behavioral assays, the method of CNO delivery is important. Currently, the most common delivery method is intraperitoneal (IP injection. IP injection is both a fast and reliable technique, but it is painful and stressful particularly when many injections are required. We sought an alternative CNO delivery paradigm, which would retain the speed and reliability of IP injections without being as invasive. Here, we show that CNO can be effectively delivered topically via eye-drops. Eye-drops robustly activated DREADD-expressing neurons in the brain and peripheral tissues and does so at the same dosages as IP injection. Eye-drops provide an easier, less invasive and less stressful method for activating DREADDs in vivo.
Gas, Armelle; Keiser, Ludovic; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David
Trapping a thin liquid film in the roughness of a textured material creates a surface that is partially solid and partially liquid, referred to as a lubricant-impregnated surface. Those surfaces have recently raised a great interest for their promising industrial applications. Indeed, they proved to drastically reduce adhesion of a broad range of liquids, leading to enhanced mobility, and strong anti-biofouling, anti-icing and anti-fogging properties. In our talk we discuss the nature of the friction generated as a drop glides on a textured material infused by another liquid. Different regimes are observed, depending on the viscosities of both liquids. While a viscous drop is simply opposed by a Stokes-type friction, the force opposing a drop moving on a viscous substrate becomes non-linear in velocity. A liquid on an infused material is surrounded by a meniscus, and this specific feature is proposed to be responsible for the special observed frictions, on both adhesive and nonadhesive substrates.
Maquet, Laurent; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stéphane
We investigated the organization of micrometric hydrophilic beads (glass or basalt) immersed in Leidenfrost drops. Starting from a large volume of water compared to the volume of the beads, while the liquid evaporates, we observed that the grains are eventually trapped at the interface of the droplet and accumulate. At a moment, the grains entirely cover the droplet. We measured the surface area at this moment as a function of the total mass of particles inserted in the droplet. We concluded that the grains form a monolayer around the droplet assuming (i) that the packing of the beads at the surface is a random close packing and (ii) that the initial surface of the drop is larger than the maximum surface that the beads can cover. Regarding the evaporation dynamics, the beads are found to reduce the evaporation rate of the drop. The slowdown of the evaporation is interpreted as being the consequence of the dewetting of the particles located at the droplet interface which makes the effective surface of evaporation smaller. As a matter of fact, contact angles of the beads with the water deduced from the evaporation rates are consistent with contact angles of beads directly measured at a flat air-water interface of water in a container.
Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.
Apfel, R E; Lo, Y C
The Superheated Drop Detector (SDD) is a new kind of neutron detector based on the same principle as that of the bubble chamber, except the superheated material is in drop form suspended by a gel or polymer as first described by Apfel (U.S. Patent 4,143,274). Previously, we have developed a theoretical model for the prediction of the threshold neutron energy to nucleate bubbles in our superheated materials and a model for the calculation of the energy dependent response function of SDD. The results of the theoretical calculations agree with the experimental measurements reasonably well. We found the measured response curve of one of our SDDs follows the same trend as the ideal ICRP dose equivalent response curve within 40% for neutrons of energy above 100 keV and within a factor of 10 below 100 keV. Therefore, it is possible to make a rem-response Superheated Drop Detector. We have further calibrated our SDD with 252Cf neutron sources (both bare and D2O moderated). The results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical predictions, which proves that our model is valid not only for monoenergetic neutrons but also for neutrons from a radioactive source. The principles of operation of our detector, which can be used in neutron dosimetry, area monitoring, and neutron spectrometry, are discussed.
Langley, Kenneth R.
Over the last decade the rapid advances in high-speed video technology, have opened up to study many multi-phase fluid phenomena, which tend to occur most rapidly on the smallest length-scales. One of these is the entrapment of a small bubble under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. Here we have gone from simply observing the presence of the bubble to detailed imaging of the formation of a lubricating air-disc under the drop center and its subsequent contraction into the bubble. Imaging the full shape-evolution of the air-disc has required μm and sub-μs space and time resolutions. Time-resolved 200 ns interferometry with monochromatic light, has allowed us to follow individual fringes to obtain absolute air-layer thicknesses, based on the eventual contact with the solid. We can follow the evolution of the dimple shape as well as the compression of the gas. The improved imaging has also revealed new levels of detail, like the nature of the first contact which produces a ring of micro-bubbles, highlighting the influence of nanometric surface roughness. Finally, for impacts of ultra-viscous drops we see gliding on ~100 nm thick rarified gas layers, followed by extreme wetting at numerous random spots.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Allergic rhinitis is IgE-mediated nasal mucosal hypersensitivity reaction after exposure to the offending allergen. Treatment options for allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, immunotherapy, local/systemic antihistamines and steroids. Nasal saline irrigation is a possible potential treatment or adjunct to pharmacological treatment. It produces improvement in nasal symptoms, reduction in medicine consumption, by acceleration of mucociliary clearance time and thus improvement in quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our prospective study was performed with 52 patients in between the ages of 20-60 years who presented with recurrent (more than 1 year symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Isotonic saline nasal irrigation was added for a period of 8 weeks along with other measures of allergic rhinitis treatment such as allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy and quality of life was assessed by the severity of symptoms. RESULTS This study was designed to evaluate the reduction in symptom score with the use of isotonic saline nasal irrigation given twice daily for 8 weeks in seasonal allergic rhinitis along with the standard treatment i.e. antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroid spray. Total of 52 patients were studied. The usage of isotonic saline nasal irrigation improved the quality of life in terms of reduction in the severity, frequency and duration of symptoms compared to the relief he had in the previous years when he used only intranasal steroids. CONCLUSION Nasal irrigation with isotonic saline is a safe, inexpensive, easy to use and effective adjunctive therapy in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis to alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. It resulted in significant improvement in the quality of life.
Horváth, Tamás; Ambrus, Rita; Völgyi, Gergely; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Márki, Árpád; Sipos, Péter; Bartos, Csilla; Seres, Adrienn B; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Csányi, Erzsébet; Gáspár, Róbert; Szabó-Révész, Piroska
Besides the opioids the standard management of the World Health Organization suggests NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) alone or in combination to enhance analgesia in malignant and non-malignant pain therapy. The applicability of NSAIDs in a nasal formulation is a new approach in pharmaceutical technology. In order to enhance the nasal absorption of meloxicam (MX) as an NSAID, its salt form, meloxicam potassium monohydrate (MXP), registered by Egis Plc., was investigated in comparison with MX. The physico-chemical properties of the drugs (structural analysis, solubility and dissolution rate) and the mucoadhesivity of nasal formulations were controlled. In vitro and in vivo studies were carried out to determine the nasal applicability of MXP as a drug candidate in pain therapy. It can be concluded that MX and MXP demonstrated the same equilibrium solubility at the pH5.60 of the nasal mucosa (0.017mg/ml); nonetheless, MXP indicated faster dissolution and a higher permeability through the synthetic membrane. The animal studies justified the short T max value (15min) and the high AUC of MXP, which is important in acute pain therapy. It can be assumed that the low mucoadhesivity of MXP spray did not increase the residence time in the nasal cavity, and the elimination from the nasal mucosa was therefore faster than in the case of MX. Further experiments are necessary to prove the therapeutic relevance of this MXP-containing innovative intranasal formulation. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh
Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 μl; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 μg cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 μg through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 μg; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 μg; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Faria, Nuno A; Conceição, Teresa; Miragaia, Maria; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Westh, Henrik
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are believed to function as reservoirs, as well as possible sources of staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) to Staphylococcus aureus, but the frequency, preferred partners, and factors promoting SCCmec transfer are not known. Such postulated in vivo genetic transfer events are likely to occur at anatomical sites such as the normal nasal mucosa, which is known to be colonized by both CoNS and coagulase positive staphylococci. In this study, we characterized S. aureus and CoNS strains colonizing the anterior nares of 67 patients in Denmark. A total of 54 patients (80%) were colonized with staphylococci that included nine different species identified by internal transcribed spacer PCR (ITS-PCR) and 16S RNA sequencing. The highest rates of colonization were found for S. epidermidis (58%) and S. aureus (39%). Methicillin resistance was present in S. aureus (53%), S. epidermidis (53%), S. haemolyticus (33%), and S. hominis (62%). Genetic backgrounds were characterized by spa typing for S. aureus and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for CoNS. SCCmec typing showed that SCCmec type IV (2B) was the most common in the entire collection (65%). Carriage of multiple species was detected in 20 patients (30%), 16 of whom were colonized with both S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In two cases, simultaneous carriage of different methicillin resistant species was detected. However, the strains carried different SCCmec types. Additional studies in the same epidemiological settings are warranted to identify interspecific genetic events that involve the acquisition of SCCmec by S. aureus.
Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm
Theoretical drop shapes are calculated for three drop constellations: pendant drops, constrained sessile drops, and unconstrained sessile drops. Based on total Gaussian curvature, shape parameter and critical shape parameter are discussed as a function of different drop sizes and surface tensions. The shape parameter is linked to physical parameters for every drop constellation. The as yet unavailable detailed dimensional analysis for the unconstrained sessile drop is presented. Results show that the unconstrained sessile drop shape depends on a dimensionless volume term and the contact angle. Random perturbations are introduced and the accuracy of surface tension measurement is assessed for precise and perturbed profiles of the three drop constellations. It is concluded that pendant drops are the best method for accurate surface tension measurement, followed by constrained sessile drops. The unconstrained sessile drops come last because they tend to be more spherical at low and moderate contact angles. Of course, unconstrained sessile drops are the only option if contact angles are to be measured. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costa, Everardo Andrade da
Full Text Available Introduction: The measurement of the peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF is easily and swiftly obtained, but hardly spread in Brazil though. On the other hand, the visual analogue scale (VAS for nasal obstruction is a subjective measurement that can also be used. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between PNIF and VAS for nasal obstruction before and after occurring a change in the nasal patency caused by the topic vasoconstriction. Study outline: Non-randomized clinical and experimental study. Method: 60 volunteers, including patients, doctors, nurses and administrative assistants of the institution were submitted to PNIF and VAS examinations before and after the nasal vasoconstriction with oxymetazoline chloride at 0.05%. Results: The average value found for pre-vasoconstriction VAS was 4.1 and, for post-vasoconstriction, it was 2. This represented a 44% range between the measurements. With regard to PNIF values, the average found when measuring the vasoconstriction was 151 l/min and 178 l/min after vasoconstriction, showing a 20% increase. At the pre-vasoconstrictor moment, increasing a point in average VAS value corresponds to a 3.8% decrease in average PNIF value. In the post-vasoconstriction, each increase of a point in average VAS value corresponds to a 4.5% decrease in average PNIF value. Conclusion: There was an important correlation between the objective measurement of the nasal obstruction through PNIF and the subjective measurement provided by VAS before nasal vasoconstriction. A similar correlation could also be observed after using the decongestant.
Trastour, Sophie; Melchionna, Simone; Mishra, Shruti; Zwicker, David; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Brenner, Michael P.
Humans are exceptionally good at perceiving the flavor of food. Flavor includes sensory input from taste receptors but is dominated by olfactory (smell) receptors. To smell food while eating, odors must be transported to the nasal cavity during exhalation. Olfactory performance of this retronasal route depends, among other factors, on the position of the olfactory receptors and the shape of the nasal cavity. One biological hypothesis is that the derived configuration of the human nasal cavity has resulted in a greater capacity for retronasal smell, hence enhanced flavor perception. We here study the air flow and resulting odor deposition as a function of the nasal geometry and the parameters of exhalation. We perform computational fluid dynamics simulations in realistic geometries obtained from CT scans of humans. Using the resulting flow fields, we then study the deposition of tracer particles in the nasal cavity. Additionally, we derive scaling laws for the odor deposition rate as a function of flow parameters and geometry using boundary layer theory. These results allow us to assess which changes in the evolution of the human nose led to significant improvements of retronasal smell.
Uzun, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Fikri
The size, angle, shape and type of nose are a signature indicating race, age and sex. Describe and compare nasal angles, nose types, nostril models, and nasal profiles in young Turkish males and females. The study group consisted of university students, 56 males and 59 females. Nasal measurements were obtained from all subjects, using anthropometric methods. The nose types of females and males were 78% and 70% narrow nose, respectively. The means of females' nasofrontal, nasal tip, nasolabial, and alar slope angles were 133.16° ± 8.88°; 77.91° ± 9.80°; 98.91° ± 10.01°, and 80.89° ± 8.33°, respectively. The means of males' nasofrontal, nasal tip, nasolabial, and alar slope angles were 123.85° ± 13.23°; 82.16° ± 9.98°; 97.91° ± 8.78° and 85.98° ± 8.72°, respectively. The average values of the nose in this population may be used as a guide to plan corrective esthetic-cosmetic surgery and for burn scars of the nose. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nasal route had shown better systemic bioavailability due to its large surface area, porous endothelial membrane, high total blood flow, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Timolol maleate is a beta blocker used primarily in the treatment of hypertension. Drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism (80%. The drug has half-life of 4 hrs. Oral bioavailability of timolol maleate is 61%. The aim of the present study was to optimize controlled release in situ nasal delivery for timolol maleate. HPMC and Poloxamer 407 were selected as polymer in formulation of thermoreversible in situ nasal gel. Optimization was carried out using 32 factorial design. It was observed that formulations f1 and f4 revealed the highest % drug release, that is, 93.57% and 91.66%, respectively. Factorial design study indicated that the drug release and viscosity were most significant dependent factors. Ex vivo diffusion study through nasal mucosa indicated 67.26 ± 2.10% and 61.07 ± 2.49% drug release for f1 and f4 formulations. f1 was the optimized batch. This batch thus can act as a potential nasal delivery with enhanced bioavailability for the drug.
Ashimav Deb Sharma
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the role of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients suffering from chronic urticaria. Method: All total 82 patients were included for this study. Study group comprised 57 patients with chronic urticaria and the control group comprised 25 healthy volunteers. Nasal swab specimens were taken from all the 82 patients for bacterial culture and antimicrobial sensitivity. Patients with chronic urticaria who had positive growth for S. aureus were treated with sensitive antimicrobial agent. Nasal swab specimens were taken again from all the patients who received antimicrobial therapy to ensure complete eradication of S. aureus. All patients were followed up for a period of 6 weeks after the treatment. Urticarial activity was measured with the help of urticarial activity score. Results: S. aureus was detected in swab specimens from the nasal cavity in 32 patients in the study group and 7 patients in the control group. In the study group, after the antimicrobial treatment, 9 patients (28.12% had complete recovery from urticaria during the follow-up period; 4 patients (12.5% showed partial recovery from urticaria while the remaining patients (59.37% continued to suffer from urticaria. Conclusion: This study showed that nasal carriage of S. aureus can act as an etiological factor in chronic urticaria.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytological picture of nasal mucosa in children with atopic diseases and to determine the diagnostic value of the test for the diagnosis of atopic diseases. The study included 140 children from 4 months to 17 years old. Among children with a history of atopy, there were 30 children with atopic dermatitis, 30 children with asthma, and 46 children with allergic rhinitis. The control group consisted of 34 healthy children. The nasal scraping technique has been used to collect samples from the nasal cavity. The samples were evaluated under light microscope. Epithelial cells as well as infiltrating cells were assessed. The only statistically significant group of cells differentiating children with atopic disease and without atopy were eosinophils, which in children with atopy were significantly more common. Assuming a significant eosinophilia value of at least 5% of all cells in cytogram, the sensitivity of nasal cytology in allergic rhinitis was 52.2%, in asthma 33.3%, and in atopic dermatitis 13.3%. The specificity of the test in atopic diseases was 94.1%. It can be concluded that nasal cytology with eosinophilia assessment can be a useful tool for an early diagnosis of atopic disease in children.
Mitchell G. Spring
Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.
Ertugrul Cagri Bolek
Full Text Available Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis, some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine. Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium, it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:963–967
Reyes-Romero, Karen Eliana
Full Text Available Myiasis is the infection of animal or human tissues or organs by larvae of Diptera. It may affect individuals of any age, but is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Nasal myiasis, an infection of the nasal and paranasal cavities by such larvae, is a common disease in tropical and developing countries. Reported cases of nasal myiasis have been caused by several different species, such as Lucilia sericata in Korea and Iran, Estro ovis in Algeria and France, Lucilia cuprina and Phaenicia sericata in Malaysia, Cochliomyia hominivorax in French Guiana, Drosophila melanogaster in Turkey, Eristalis tenax in Iran and Oestrus ovis in Israel. Signs and symptoms are related to the presence and movement of the larvae, and include foreign body sensation, bloody or muco-purulent nasal discharge. Prevention may be done with insect repellent. Treatment is based on antiparasitic drugs and techniques for removal of larvae, but may include the use of prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics for possible secondary infections. We report a case of nasal and left maxillary sinus myiasis in an elderly woman, who responded favorably to treatment.
Sabrina Costa Lima
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Nasal instillation of saline solution has been used as part of the treatment of patients with upper respiratory tract diseases. Despite its use for a number of years, factors such as the amount of saline solution to be used, degree of salinity, method and frequency of application have yet to be fully explained. Objective: Review the reported outcomes of saline nasal irrigation in adults with allergic rhinitis, acute or chronic sinusitis and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS, and provide evidence to assist physiotherapists in decision making in clinical practice. Methods: A search was conducted of the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases between 2007 and 2014. A combination of the following descriptors was used as a search strategy: nasal irrigation, nasal lavage, rhinitis, sinusitis, saline, saline solution. Results: Eight clinical trials were included, analyzed according to participant diagnosis. Conclusion: The evidence found was heterogeneous, but contributed to elucidating uncertainties regarding the use of nasal lavage in the clinical practice of physical therapy, such as the protocols used.
Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Consolo, U.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Seidenari, S.
Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.
A. C. Salgarelli
Full Text Available Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.
Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; Keliris, Anastasios; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Zakynthinos, Spyros
Although it is anecdotally known that nasal obstruction is associated with snoring, it remains unknown whether the application of nasal steroids could decrease oral/oro-nasal breathing and increase nasal breathing, and subsequently decrease snoring indices. This study evaluated the effect of nasal budesonide on breathing route pattern and snoring. Twenty-four snorers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide compared with 1-week intervention with nasal placebo. At the start and end of each treatment period, patients underwent nasal resistance measurement and overnight polysomnography with concomitant measurement of breathing route pattern and snoring. Twelve patients were randomly assigned to a 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide, followed by 2-week washout period and a 1-week intervention with the nasal placebo; and 12 patients were randomly assigned to a 1-week intervention with nasal placebo, followed by 2-week washout period and a 1-week treatment with nasal budesonide. Nasal budesonide was associated with a decrease in oral/oro-nasal breathing epochs and concomitant increase in nasal breathing epochs, decrease of snoring frequency by [median (interquartile range)] 15.8% (11.2-18.8%), and an increase of rapid eye movement sleep; snoring intensity decreased only in patients with increased baseline nasal resistance by 10.6% (6.8-14.3%). The change in nasal breathing epochs was inversely related to the change in snoring frequency (Rs = 0.503; P snoring frequency and increase rapid eye movement sleep. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, F; Pauchard, L
The drying of complex fluids involves a large number of microscopic phenomena (transport and organization of non-volatile solutes) as well as hydrodynamic and mechanical instabilities. These phenomena can be captured in drying sessile drops where different domains can be identified: strong concentration gradients, formation of a glassy or porous envelope that withstands mechanical stress, and consolidation of a layer strongly adhering to the substrate at the drop edge. In colloidal systems, we quantify the evolution of the particle volume fraction at a nanometric scale and microscopic scale and identify the conditions for the envelope formation at the free surface by balancing the effect of diffusion and evaporation. When a solid envelope is formed at a drop surface, the mechanical instabilities induced by the drying result in different drop shapes. Finally, large drying stresses build up in the solid layer adhering on the substrate, and possibly cause crack formation. In particular, we study how crack patterns are affected by the contact angle of drops and the drying conditions. A particular interest of the review is devoted to drying pattern of solutes.
Dellweg, Dominic; Wenze, Markus; Hoehn, Ekkehard; Bourgund, Olaf; Haidl, Peter
Oxygen therapy is usually combined with a humidification device, to prevent mucosal dryness. Depending on the cannula design, oxygen can be administered pre- or intra-nasally (administration of oxygen in front of the nasal ostia vs cannula system inside the nasal vestibulum). The impact of cannula design on intra-nasal humidity, however, has not been investigated to date. First, to develop a system, that samples air from the nasal cavity and analyzes the humidity of these samples. Second, to investigate nasal humidity during pre-nasal and intra-nasal oxygen application, with and without humidification. We first developed and validated a sampling and analysis system to measure humidity from air samples. By means of this system we measured inspiratory air samples from 12 subjects who received nasal oxygen with an intra-nasal and pre-nasal cannula at different flows, with and without humidification. The sampling and analysis system showed good correlation to a standard hygrometer within the tested humidity range (r = 0.99, P humidification (P = .001, P humidification. With the addition of humidification we observed no significant change in humidity at any flow, and independent of pre- or intranasal oxygen administration. Pre-nasal administration of dry oxygen achieves levels of intranasal humidity similar to those achieved by intranasal administration in combination with a bubble through humidifier. Pre-nasal oxygen simplifies application and may reduce therapy cost.
Ali R. Vatankhah
Full Text Available Drops are used to effectively dissipate the surplus energy of the water flow. A closed conduit drop conveys water and stills it at its downstream. I-type pipe drop is one kind of the closed conduit drops which is used in irrigation networks as a typical hydraulic structure. Sump elevation is an important design parameter for I-type pipe drop. Similarly, in supercritical flow structures, such as open channel chutes, determination of stilling basin invert elevation is very important. At present, these key design parameters are determined by the momentum and energy equations using tedious trial-and-error procedure. In this study, square conduit drop, pipe drop, and rectangular stilling basin are considered, and three explicit equations have been developed by (multiple nonlinear regression technique to determine the sump and stilling basin invert elevations. Being very simple and accurate, these equations can be easily used to design the closed conduit drops and stilling basins by hydraulic engineers.
Zhang, F. H.
The coalescence of drops is a fundamental process in the coarsening of emulsions. However, counter-intuitively, this coalescence process can produce a satellite, approximately half the size of the original drop, which is detrimental to the overall coarsening. This also occurs during the coalescence of bubbles, while the resulting satellite is much smaller, approximately 10 %. To understand this difference, we have conducted a set of coalescence experiments using xenon bubbles inside a pressure chamber, where we can continuously raise the pressure from 1 up to 85 atm and thereby vary the density ratio between the inner and outer fluid, from 0.005 up to unity. Using high-speed video imaging, we observe a continuous increase in satellite size as the inner density is varied from the bubble to emulsion-droplet conditions, with the most rapid changes occurring as the bubble density grows up to 15 % of that of the surrounding liquid. We propose a model that successfully relates the satellite size to the capillary wave mode responsible for its pinch-off and the overall deformations from the drainage. The wavelength of the primary wave changes during its travel to the apex, with the instantaneous speed adjusting to the local wavelength. By estimating the travel time of this wave mode on the bubble surface, we also show that the model is consistent with the experiments. This wavenumber is determined by both the global drainage as well as the interface shapes during the rapid coalescence in the neck connecting the two drops or bubbles. The rate of drainage is shown to scale with the density of the inner fluid. Empirically, we find that the pinch-off occurs when 60 % of the bubble fluid has drained from it. Numerical simulations using the volume-of-fluid method with dynamic adaptive grid refinement can reproduce these dynamics, as well as show the associated vortical structure and stirring of the coalescing fluid masses. Enhanced stirring is observed for cases with second
Ribeiro, E C; Marchiori, S C; Silva, A M T
The purpose of this study was to evaluate sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) and trapezius (superior fibers) muscle activity patterns in mouth-breathing children, and to compare them with nasal-breathing children. Forty-six children, of both sexes, ranging from 8 to 12 years old, were evaluated through electromyography. The selected children were divided into two groups; Group I, was made up of 26 mouth-breathing children and Group II of 20 nasal-breathing children. Electromyographic recordings were obtained through surface electrodes in the SCM and trapezius muscles, bilaterally, during oral and nasal inspiration. Root-mean-square (RMS) data expressed in microvolts (microV), were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis statistical test. From the results obtained, we concluded that there was a significant difference in the muscle activity between the groups, with higher activity during nasal inspiration in the mouth-breathing group. During oral inspiration, there was no significant difference between groups. Within the groups, only the mouth-breathing group showed higher activity during nasal inspiration.
Hu Weihan; Xie Fangyun; Li Qun; Lai Yueyuan; Wu Yong; Chen Dezhu
Objective: To identify pertinent prognostic variables related to adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in the nasal cavity. Methods: A statistic analysis of the clinical results and prognosticators was performed on 38 cases with primary ACC in the nasal cavity. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and Log-rank test in comparison, Cox proportional hazard model in multivariate analysis. Results: The 5-, 10- year survival rates were 100% and 88.9% in patients whose lesions disappeared completely after their treatment, whereas 48.0% and 0% in patients with lesion which remained (P 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the therapeutic response and clinical stage were independent factors of prognosis. Conclusions: The authors recommend combined therapy for ACC in the nasal cavity. And clinical stage, treatment approach and short-term therapeutic response are identified as ACC predictors
Miwa, Masato; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Hirose, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yoko; Murakami, Atsushi; Matsunaga, Mayumi; Watanabe, Kensuke
Dry nose is a common complaint in the elderly. Age distribution of transepithelial water loss of human nasal mucosa (TEWL) value was evaluated in this study. Eighty-eight volunteers (50 men and 30 women) ranging from 10 to 75 years old were recruited for this study. Measurement of TEWL was performed on the inferior nasal turbinate. TEWL was measured with an evaporation meter applying Fick's law (Tewameter TM 300; Courage and Khazaka, Cologne, Germany). TEWL value tends to increase in order of age, indicating that the barrier function of epithelium may decline with age. The measurement of transepithelial water loss should be contributed to assess the efficiency of nasal mucosal barrier disorders in the elderly.
Kavurt, Sumru; Corapcioğu, Funda; Bay, Sema; Ustündağ, Emre; Akansel, Gür; Müezzinoğlu, Bahar
Benign osteoblastoma is an uncommon bone tumor, representing 1% of all benign tumors and 3% of all primary bone tumors. Intranasal or paranasal osteoblastoma is particularly rare. Osteoblastoma occurs more frequently in males, at a peak age between 10 and 20 years. We report an osteoblastoma of the nasal septum in an 11-year-old boy who presented with swelling of the nasal septum. The diagnosis and management of this unusual lesion, as well as the histopathology and imaging characteristics, are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid midline nasal mass originating from the septum with intense contrast enhancement. There was no evidence of osteoid or chondroid matrix mineralization on computed tomography (CT). Biopsy was performed. Histologically, the tumor contained abundant plump osteoblast-like cells, with eosinophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei that were frequently juxtaposed to the newly formed osteoid. Conservative excision was performed. The literature concerning occurrence of osteoblastoma in this unusual location is reviewed.
Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K
BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine...... the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...
N Bhaskar Prabhu
Full Text Available A total of 109 cases of pyoderma were studied bacteriologicaliy by culture. Folliculitis cox~stituted the largest clinical group followed by impetigo and eczematoid dermatitis. Coagulase positive staphylococci were found to be the predominant aetiological agents in pure form and also in association with other infecting agents. Coagulase negative staphylococci constituted the next common organism, followed by beta-haemolytic streptococci. Nasal and throat swabs from all the cases were subjected to bacteriologic study and the association of nasal and throat staphylococci with pyoderma lesions was studied. Majority (56.66% of staph-aureus strains were non typable; 56.66% of typable strains belonged to phage type III, 26.67% to phage type II and 16.67% to phage type I. The throat staphylococcal phage types were found to be associated more with pyoderma than nasal phage types.
Yoder, Bradley A; Stoddard, Ronald A; Li, Ma; King, Jerald; Dirnberger, Daniel R; Abbasi, Soraya
Heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) is commonly used as a noninvasive mode of respiratory support in the NICU. The safety and efficacy of HHHFNC have not been compared with other modes of noninvasive support in large randomized trials. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of HHHFNC compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for noninvasive respiratory support in the NICU. Randomized, controlled, unblinded noncrossover trial in 432 infants ranging from 28 to 42 weeks' gestational age with planned nCPAP support, as either primary therapy or postextubation. The primary outcome was defined as a need for intubation within 72 hours of applied noninvasive therapy. There was no difference in early failure for HHHFNC (23/212 [10.8%]) versus nCPAP (18/220 [8.2%]; P = .344), subsequent need for any intubation (32/212 [15.1%] vs 25/220 [11.4%]; P = .252), or in any of several adverse outcomes analyzed, including air leak. HHHFNC infants remained on the study mode significantly longer than nCPAP infants (median: 4 vs 2 days, respectively; P < .01), but there were no differences between study groups for days on supplemental oxygen (median: 10 vs 8 days), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (20% vs 16%), or discharge from the hospital on oxygen (19% vs 18%). Among infants ≥28 weeks' gestational age, HHHFNC appears to have similar efficacy and safety to nCPAP when applied immediately postextubation or early as initial noninvasive support for respiratory dysfunction.
Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL
Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.
Dupuis, Antoine; Tournier, Nicolas; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Venisse, Nicolas
The combined systemic and topical administration of voriconazole has successfully been used to treat keratomycosis. Because no voriconazole eye drop product is commercially available, we prepared a sterile eye drop solution (10 mg/ml). Voriconazole remains stable over 30 days, providing an eye drop solution suitable for use for the topical treatment of fungal keratitis.
This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project.
Adda-Bedia, M; Kumar, S; Lechenault, F; Moulinet, S; Schillaci, M; Vella, D
We explore the interaction between a liquid drop (initially at room temperature) and a bath of liquid nitrogen. In this scenario, heat transfer occurs through film-boiling: a nitrogen vapor layer develops that may cause the drop to levitate at the bath surface. We report the phenomenology of this inverse Leidenfrost effect, investigating the effect of the drop size and density by using an aqueous solution of a tungsten salt to vary the drop density. We find that (depending on its size and density) a drop either levitates or instantaneously sinks into the bulk nitrogen. We begin by measuring the duration of the levitation as a function of the radius R and density ρd of the liquid drop. We find that the levitation time increases roughly linearly with drop radius but depends weakly on the drop density. However, for sufficiently large drops, R ≥ Rc(ρd), the drop sinks instantaneously; levitation does not occur. This sinking of a (relatively) hot droplet induces film-boiling, releasing a stream of vapor bubbles for a well-defined length of time. We study the duration of this immersed-drop bubbling finding similar scalings (but with different prefactors) to the levitating drop case. With these observations, we study the physical factors limiting the levitation and immersed-film-boiling times, proposing a simple model that explains the scalings observed for the duration of these phenomena, as well as the boundary of (R,ρd) parameter space that separates them.
Caswell, Thomas A
In the Leidenfrost effect a small drop of fluid is levitated, above a sufficiently hot surface, on a persistent vapor layer generated by evaporation from the drop. The vapor layer thermally insulates the drop from the surface leading to extraordinarily long drop lifetimes. The top-view shape of the levitated drops can exhibit persistent starlike vibrations. I extend recent work [Burton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012)] to study the bottom surface of the drop using interference imaging. In this work I use a high-speed camera and automated image analysis to image, locate, and classify the interference fringes. From the interference fringes I reconstruct the shape and height profile of the rim where the drop is closest to the surface. I measure the drop-size dependence of the planar vibrational mode frequencies, which agree well with previous work. I observe a distinct breathing mode in the average radius of the drop, the frequency of which scales differently with drop size than the other modes. This breathing mode can be tightly coupled to a vertical motion of the drop. I further observe a qualitative difference in the structure and dynamics of the vertical profile of the rim between large and small drops.
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Oscillations of the drop and the change in airflow around drops are suggested to contribute to lowering of the ventilation coefficients for charged drops. Applicability of the results to a small fraction of highly charged raindrops falling through the sub-cloud layer below thunderstorm is discussed. The relaxation time required for ...
This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project
Tosa, Yasuyoshi (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)
The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).
Lozano, Natalia A; Saranz, Ricardo J; Lozano, Alejandro; Bovina Martijena, María Del Pilar; Ramirez, Maximiliano; Ponzio, Marina F; Berardi, Yanina V; Sosa, Ana G; Cóncari, Eugenia
Nasal cytology in a easy-to apply method to differentiate rhinitis phenotypes from a physiopathogenic and diagnostic perspective. There are controversies about the relationship between clinical severity of rhinitis and inflammatory patterns expressed in the nasal cytology. To study the characteristic of the eosinophil and neutrophil patterns in the nasal scraping for Allergic Rhinitis (AR) and Non Allergic Rhinitis (NAR) and its relationship with the clinical grades of rhinitis established by the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthama Guideline (ARIA) Methods: In a observational, cross-sectional study we included patients aged 5 to 18 years presenting symptoms of either allergic (AR) or non- allergic rinitis (NAR) without asthma. Cytology was performed by analyzing nasal scraping obtained from the mucosal surface of the inferior turbinate and samples were stained using thr hematoxylin and eosin stain procedure. Inflammatory patterns between AR and NAR and between clinical grades of rhinitis classified by ARIA guide were compared. A total of 231 patients were included. Patients with AR exhibited higher percentage of eosinophils in nasal cytology than those with NAR (p = 0.0012) but no differences were observed in neutrophil count (p = 0.4011). No differences in the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils between different grades of AR (p = 0.7342 and p = 0.0797 respectively) and NAR (p = 0.1010 and p = 0.1422 respectively) were observed. Eosinophil count in the nasal cytology was useful to differentiate rhinitis with a positive allergen skin test from rhinitis with negative skin test, but as neutrophils count, does not help to distinguish clinical grades of AR and NAR as classified by ARIA.
Full Text Available Nasality is a very important characteristic of several languages, European Portuguese being one of them. This paper addresses the challenge of nasality detection in surface electromyography (EMG based speech interfaces. We explore the existence of useful information about the velum movement and also assess if muscles deeper down in the face and neck region can be measured using surface electrodes, and the best electrode location to do so. The procedure we adopted uses Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RT-MRI, collected from a set of speakers, providing a method to interpret EMG data. By ensuring compatible data recording conditions, and proper time alignment between the EMG and the RT-MRI data, we are able to accurately estimate the time when the velum moves and the type of movement when a nasal vowel occurs. The combination of these two sources revealed interesting and distinct characteristics in the EMG signal when a nasal vowel is uttered, which motivated a classification experiment. Overall results of this experiment provide evidence that it is possible to detect velum movement using sensors positioned below the ear, between mastoid process and the mandible, in the upper neck region. In a frame-based classification scenario, error rates as low as 32.5% for all speakers and 23.4% for the best speaker have been achieved, for nasal vowel detection. This outcome stands as an encouraging result, fostering the grounds for deeper exploration of the proposed approach as a promising route to the development of an EMG-based speech interface for languages with strong nasal characteristics.
Foda, H M
To describe an alar cartilage-modifying technique aimed at decreasing nasal tip projection in cases with overdeveloped alar cartilages and to compare it with other deprojection techniques used to correct such deformity. Selected case series. University and private practice settings in Alexandria, Egypt. Twenty patients presenting for rhinoplasty who had overprojected nasal tips primarily due to overdeveloped alar cartilages. All cases were primary cases except for one patient, who had undergone 2 previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used to set back the alar cartilages by shortening their medial and lateral crura. The choice of performing a high or low setback depended on the preexisting lobule-to-columella ratio. Following the setback, the alar cartilages were reconstructed in a fashion that increased the strength and stability of the tip complex. Subjective evaluation included clinical examination, analysis of preoperative and postoperative photographs, and patient satisfaction. Objective evaluation of nasal tip projection, using the Goode ratio and the nasofacial angle, was performed preoperatively and repeated at least 6 months postoperatively. A low setback was performed in 16 cases (80%) and a high setback in 4 (20%). The mean follow-up period was 18 months (range, 6-36 months). The technique effectively deprojected the nasal tip as evidenced by the considerable postoperative decrease in values of the Goode ratio and the nasofacial angle. No complications were encountered and no revision surgical procedures were required. The alar setback technique has many advantages; it results in precise predictable amounts of deprojection, controls the degree of tip rotation, preserves the natural contour of the nasal tip, respects the tip support mechanisms, increases the strength and stability of nasal tip complex, preserves or restores the normal lobule-to-columella proportion, and does not lead to alar flaring. However, the technique requires
Stager, David R; Beauchamp, George R; Wright, Weldon W; Felius, Joost; Stager, David
When performing anterior transposition of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle, placement of the posterior suture close to the lateral border of insertion of the inferior rectus (IR) muscle decreases the incidence of antielevation syndrome (AES). We hypothesized that placement of the suture nasal to the IR muscle insertion will convert the IO muscle into an intorter and depressor. Here we present the first series of results obtained with a new procedure for the treatment of elevation in adduction with extorsion and abnormal head postures. Twenty patients with IO muscle overaction, superior oblique (SO) muscle palsy, absent SO muscles, AES, or Duane syndrome were studied. Before surgery, each patient showed at least one, but often more, of the following signs: elevation in adduction, exotropia (XT) in up gaze, abnormal head posture, and extorsion. Each underwent anterior and nasal transposition (ANT) of the IO muscle, with the new insertion typically 2 mm nasal and 2 mm posterior to the nasal border of the IR muscle insertion. Large improvements in ocular alignment, extorsion, and head posture were found in most patients. However, a poor result was noted in a patient with Y-pattern XT, who developed a mild amount of comitant XT after an extreme degree of ANT (4 mm nasal and 3 mm anterior to the nasal border of the IR muscle insertion). In Duane syndrome, ANT corrects upshoot, but downshoot may get worse. Mersilene permanent sutures, rather than dissolving suture materials, are recommended to avoid postoperative retraction of muscle fibers. ANT converts the IO muscle into an intorter and tonic depressor and can significantly improve elevation in adduction. This procedure seems particularly useful in patients with severe or recurrent congenital and acquired SO palsies, particularly as a secondary procedure. Extreme ANT may induce exotropia in the primary position.
Loewen, Andrea H S; Hudon, Mark E; Hill, Michael D
Oxymetazoline is a sympathomimetic amine found in over-the-counter nasal decongestants. We report a case of chronic use of nasal oxymetazoline associated with thunderclap headache due to reversible segmental intracranial vasoconstriction.
Loewen, Andrea H.S.; Hudon, Mark E.; Hill, Michael D.
OXYMETAZOLINE IS A SYMPATHOMIMETIC amine found in over-the-counter nasal decongestants. We report a case of chronic use of nasal oxymetazoline associated with thunderclap headache due to reversible segmental intracranial vasoconstriction.
Full Text Available Abstract Nasal polyps can make nasoendotracheal intubation difficult. We present a case of complete obstruction of a nasoendotracheal tube by a nasal polyp during a blind nasoendotracheal intubation in emergency oral surgery.
To identify the accuracy of a camera-enabled mobile phone in assessing patients with nasal bone injuries and to determine if treatment in the form of manipulation of the nasal bones and therefore outpatient attendance was necessary.
Wong, Clint Y. H.; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Vella, Dominic
We consider the flotation of deformable, non-wetting drops on a liquid interface. We consider the deflection of both the liquid interface and the droplet itself in response to the buoyancy forces, density difference and the various surface tensions within the system. Our results suggest new insight into a range of phenomena in which such drops occur, including Leidenfrost droplets and floating liquid marbles. In particular, we show that the floating state of liquid marbles is very sensitive to the tension of the particle-covered interface and suggest that this sensitivity may make such experiments a useful assay of the properties of these complex interfaces.
Roongrotwattanasiri, Kannika; Pawankar, Ruby; Kimura, Satoko; Mori, Sachiko; Nonaka, Manabu; Yagi, Toshiaki
The pathogenesis of nasal polyposis (NP) is unclear. Eosinophils and mast cells are considered to play important roles in this process. In addition, the levels of Th2-type cells are increased, irrespective of the atopic status of the patient with NP. In this context, we and others have shown high levels of thymus and activation-related chemokine/CCL17, macrophage-derived chemokine, eotaxin, and RANTES in patients with NP. Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) plays a key role in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell function and represents a specific marker for regulatory T cells (Tregs). Decreased expression of FOXP3 has been reported in allergic diseases. The present study was designed to evaluate the presence and potential roles of Tregs, defined by the expression of FOXP3 protein, in NP. Using immunohistochemistry, we estimated the numbers of FOXP3+ cells in the epithelium and lamina propria of the NPs of 17 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with NP and the nasal mucosa of 15 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). The number of FOXP3+ cells in NPs was compared with that in the nasal mucosa of patients with AR, and the numbers of FOXP3+ cells in atopic and non-atopic NP were also compared. The number of FOXP3+ cells in the lamina propria of patients with NP was significantly lower than that in the nasal mucosa of the AR patients (2.79 vs. 5.99, P=0.008). There was no statistically significant difference noted for the numbers of FOXP3+ cells between the epithelium of the NP and the nasal mucosa (3.60 vs. 2.39, P=0.180). Furthermore, the numbers of CD4+FOXP3+ cells were lower in NPs than in the allergic nasal mucosa. There was no difference in the number of FOXP3+ cells between the atopic and non-atopic NP patients. Fewer Tregs (i.e., decreased FOXP3 expression) are found in NPs than in the nasal mucosa of AR patients. As the severity of eosinophilic, Th2-type inflammation and the levels of inflammatory mediators are much higher in NPs than in the nasal mucosa of AR patients, an
Dahl, A.R.; Crews, M.L.
Toxicokinetics from earlier studies suggested that there Is high ferrocene hydroxylase activity in nasal tissue. We developed an assay using 59 Fe-labeled ferrocene to confirm that nasal tissue, in particular olfactory tissue, has ferrocene hydroxylase activity exceeding that of liver by about a factor of ten. Because metabolism of ferrocene potentially leads to iron-catalyzed peroxidation, it was predicted that the olfactory tissue would be especially sensitive to toxic effects from inhaled ferrocene. This was confirmed in an independent study. (author)
Acheson, E. D.; Cowdell, R. H.; Jolles, B.
A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources. The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear. Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry—one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54·6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41·7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed. There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory
Kitai, Ryuhei; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Kubota, Toshihiko; Sato, Kazufumi; Handa, Yuji; Kasahara, Kazuma [University of Fukui, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukui (Japan); Nakajima, Hirofumi [Tsuruga Municipal Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukui (Japan)
Chordoma is a rare cartilaginous tumor, for which bleeding presentation is unusual. We report a case of rare hemorrhaged clival chordoma, which was diagnosed correctly by magnetic resonance imaging. A 32-year-old man presented with nasal bleeding. The tumor was totally removed via a trans-sphenoidal approach, from which the surgical specimen confirmed chordoma. Epistaxis seemed to be caused by the spreading of the intratumoral hemorrhage into the sphenoid sinus. This case demonstrates the importance of an exact differential diagnostic evaluation, including chordoma, by use of modern imaging techniques for nasal bleeding. (orig.)
Kitai, Ryuhei; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Kubota, Toshihiko; Sato, Kazufumi; Handa, Yuji; Kasahara, Kazuma; Nakajima, Hirofumi
Chordoma is a rare cartilaginous tumor, for which bleeding presentation is unusual. We report a case of rare hemorrhaged clival chordoma, which was diagnosed correctly by magnetic resonance imaging. A 32-year-old man presented with nasal bleeding. The tumor was totally removed via a trans-sphenoidal approach, from which the surgical specimen confirmed chordoma. Epistaxis seemed to be caused by the spreading of the intratumoral hemorrhage into the sphenoid sinus. This case demonstrates the importance of an exact differential diagnostic evaluation, including chordoma, by use of modern imaging techniques for nasal bleeding. (orig.)
A computational model of an experimental procedure to measure vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops is developed to evaluate the uncertainty in the experimental results. Methanol, which is expected to have predominantly diffusive vapor transport, is chosen as a validation test for our model. The experimental process first uses a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the absorbance along lines passing through the vapor cloud. Since the measurement contains some errors, our model allows adding random noises to the computational integrated absorbance to mimic this. Then the resulting data are interpolated before passing through a computed tomography routine to generate the vapor distribution. Next, the gradients of the vapor distribution are computed along a given control volume surrounding the drop so that the diffusive flux can be evaluated as the net rate of diffusion out of the control volume. Our model of methanol evaporation shows that the accumulated errors of the whole experimental procedure affect the diffusive fluxes at different control volumes and are sensitive to how the noisy data of integrated absorbance are interpolated. This indicates the importance of investigating a variety of data fitting methods to choose which is best to present the data. Trinity University Mach Fellowship.
Full Text Available An auroral flux tube is modelled from the magnetospheric equator to the ionosphere using Vlasov simulations. Starting from an initial state, the evolution of the plasma on the flux tube is followed in time. It is found that when applying a voltage between the ends of the flux tube, about two thirds of the potential drop is concentrated in a thin double layer at approximately one Earth radius altitude. The remaining part is situated in an extended region 1–2 Earth radii above the double layer. Waves on the ion timescale develop above the double layer, and they move toward higher altitude at approximately the ion acoustic speed. These waves are seen both in the electric field and as perturbations of the ion and electron distributions, indicative of an instability. Electrons of magnetospheric origin become trapped between the magnetic mirror and the double layer during its formation. At low altitude, waves on electron timescales appear and are seen to be non-uniformly distributed in space. The temporal evolution of the potential profile and the total voltage affect the double layer altitude, which decreases with an increasing field aligned potential drop. A current–voltage relationship is found by running several simulations with different voltages over the system, and it agrees with the Knight relation reasonably well.
Celata, Gian Piero; Mariani, Andrea; Zummo, Giuseppe [ENEA, Institute of Thermal-Fluid Dynamics, S. Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Cumo, Maurizio [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)
The behaviour of one drop impinging on a hot surface by varying the surface temperature, the drop velocity and the position of the surface (horizontal and a inclined 45 ) both at a temperature below and above the Leidenfrost temperature has been experimentally evaluated, estimating the temperature at which the drop rebounds. A large influence on the drop velocity has been evidenced. The inclination of the surface decreases the critical value of the temperature above which the surface is not rewetted. (orig.)
Magomedov, M M; Dibirova, T A
Nasal hemorrhage remains a challenging clinical problem due to the high prevalence of this pathology that frequently recurs and leads to serious deterioration of the patient's condition. This paper deals with modern therapeutic modalities used to stop and control nasal bleeding. The authors proposed a device for arresting nasal bleeding and present its detailed description laying emphasis on its clinical efficacy and advantages over other methods for the management of recurrent nasal bleeding.
Zhu, Xueling; Wimms, Alison J; Benjafield, Adam V
Compliance with CPAP therapy remains an issue despite its effectiveness. Mask selection is likely to affect a patients experience with CPAP, and multiple mask options are currently available. Nasal pillows have less contact with the face compared to nasal masks and may benefit patients by minimizing side effects; however, they are infrequently used at high CPAP pressures. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of nasal pillows at pressures ≥ 12 cm H2O compared with nasal masks. Twenty-one subjects were recruited. Participants were randomized to Swift FX nasal pillows and their current nasal mask for 7 consecutive nights each in a prospective crossover trial. Objective device data and subjective feedback were collected. There were no differences in objective device data of nasal pillows vs. nasal masks: Daily Usage 7.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.2 ± 1.4 (h/night); 95(th)%ile Leak 28.6 ± 13.5 vs. 27.9 ± 17.9 (L/min); AHI 1.9 ± 1.3 vs. 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively (all p-values > 0.05). There were no differences between the nasal pillows and nasal masks for subjective ratings of comfort, seal, red marks, side effects such as jetting and dry nose/mouth, and overall performance (all p-values > 0.05). The nasal pillows were rated to be less obtrusive and claustrophobic (both p-values nasal pillows, 45% nasal masks; 5% found no difference. Nasal pillows are as efficacious as nasal masks at CPAP pressures ≥ 12 cm H2O and are a suitable option for patients requiring high CPAP pressures. NIH Clinical Trials Registry. http://clinicaltrials.gov. Nasal Pillows at High CPAP Pressure. Identifier: NCT01690923.
Silveira, Carmen Salum Thomé; Leonardi, Kamila Maia; Melo, Ana Paula Carvalho Freire; Zaia, José Eduardo; Brunherotti, Marisa Afonso Andrade
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in preterm infants is currently applied using intermittent positive pressure (2 positive-pressure levels) or in a conventional manner (one pressure level). However, there are no studies in the literature comparing the chances of failure of these NIV methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of failure of 2 noninvasive ventilatory support systems in preterm neonates over a period of 48 h. A randomized, prospective, clinical study was conducted on 80 newborns (gestational age Ventilatory support failure was observed in 25 (62.5%) newborns treated with nasal CPAP and in 12 (30%) newborns treated with NIPPV, indicating an association between NIV failure and the absence of intermittent positive pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, P newborns receiving nasal CPAP and 12.5% (OR 0.14) receiving NIPPV required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ventilatory support failure was significantly more frequent when nasal CPAP was used. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.
In this work we show that when a liquid drop impacts onto a fine-grained hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. In all cases, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we find that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a near-complete coverage of powder, which then freezes the drop oscillations during rebound. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Uosyte, Raimonda; Shaw, Darren J; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Fraga-Manteiga, Eduardo; Schwarz, Tobias
Turbinate destruction is an important diagnostic criterion in canine and feline nasal computed tomography (CT). However decreased turbinate visibility may also be caused by technical CT settings and nasal fluid. The purpose of this experimental, crossover study was to determine whether fluid reduces conspicuity of canine and feline nasal turbinates in CT and if so, whether CT settings can maximize conspicuity. Three canine and three feline cadaver heads were used. Nasal slabs were CT-scanned before and after submerging them in a water bath; using sequential, helical, and ultrahigh resolution modes; with images in low, medium, and high frequency image reconstruction kernels; and with application of additional posterior fossa optimization and high contrast enhancing filters. Visible turbinate length was measured by a single observer using manual tracing. Nasal density heterogeneity was measured using the standard deviation (SD) of mean nasal density from a region of interest in each nasal cavity. Linear mixed-effect models using the R package 'nlme', multivariable models and standard post hoc Tukey pair-wise comparisons were performed to investigate the effect of several variables (nasal content, scanning mode, image reconstruction kernel, application of post reconstruction filters) on measured visible total turbinate length and SD of mean nasal density. All canine and feline water-filled nasal slabs showed significantly decreased visibility of nasal turbinates (P water-filled nasal slabs. Scanning mode and filter application had no effect on turbinate visibility. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Farhad Hafezi, MD
Conclusions: In spite of contamination to the nasal lining and immune-compromising medications, nasal reconstruction is usually successful when considering these factors. Access to strong and abundant fifth or sixth rib cartilage presents an opportunity to reconstruct nasal destruction due to iatrogenic or autoimmune processes.
Raghoebar, GM; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A
Rhino-sinusitis may develop as a result of an altered airflow in the nasal cavity causing irritation of the nasal mucosa. A patient is presented who developed recurrent rhino-sinusitis complaints following placement of endosseous implants in the maxilla. Inspection of the nasal floor revealed that
Gaunsbaek, Maria Q; Kjeldsen, Anette D; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo
Aims: To investigate the presence of surfactant protein (SP) A, B, C and D in nasal airways and to determine whether the proteins exert their main functions in nasal secretions or in the deeper layers of the nasal mucosa. Methods: Volunteers were recruited from the Department of ENT Head and Neck...
Nathalie Tiemi Ota
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso e com indicação de ventilação não invasiva via pronga nasal, a incidência do aparecimento precoce de lesão nasal. MÉTODOS: Série de casos prospectiva de nascidos com idade gestacional <37 semanas, peso <1.500g e idade pós-natal <29 dias. Os pacientes foram avaliados desde a instalação da pronga nasal até o 3o dia de uso, três vezes ao dia. Foram analisadas as condições clínicas dos pacientes, características do dispositivo e de sua aplicação. A análise inicial foi descritiva, verificando-se a prevalência de lesão nasal bem como os fatores a ela associados. Os dados categóricos foram analisados por qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e os dados numéricos, por teste t ou Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Dezoito recém-nascidos foram incluídos, dos quais 12 (idade gestacional de 29,8±3,1 semanas, peso ao nascer de 1.070±194g e Score for Neonatal Acute Phisiology - Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE de 15,4±17,5 evoluíram com lesão nasal (Grupo Lesão e 6 (idade gestacional de 28,0±1,9 semanas, peso de 1.003±317g e SNAPPE de 26,2±7,5 não apresentaram lesão nasal (Grupo Sem Lesão. No Grupo Lesão, houve maior frequência do gênero masculino (75% versus 17%, a lesão apareceu em média após 18 horas e predominantemente no período notur no (75%. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de lesão nasal em prematuros submetidos à ventilação não invasiva via pronga nasal foi elevada, sendo possível planejar estudo dos fatores associados, com base neste piloto.
We demonstrate an integrated magneto-optic microfluidic device for drop detection and sorting. Optical detection of water drops formed in a continuous oil phase flow is performed using optical fibers which are integrated into the channels of the PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device. The size and the velocity of the drops can be determined by measuring the transmission intensity as a function of time. We also show that such a device can be used to detect fluorescent materials introduced in the drop itself. Moreover, introducing nano-scale magnetic particles into the water drops allows for drop sorting by means of a magnetic field gradient. This magnetic field is generated through thin film permalloy integrated into the device itself and tuned by an external coil. We show that the sorting depends on the magnetic field gradient, material composite and volume fraction of the magnetic material in the drops.
Chen, Simeng; Bertola, Volfango
When a droplet of water impacts a heated surface, the drop may be observed to bounce. Recently is has been found that small quantities (˜100 ppm) of polymer additives such as polyethylene oxide can significantly increase the maximum bouncing height of drops. This effect has been explained in terms of the reduction of energy dissipation caused by polymer additives during the drop retraction and rebound, resulting in higher mechanical energy available for bouncing. Here we demonstrate, by comparing three types of fluids (Newtonian, shear-thinning, and viscoelastic), that the total kinetic energy carried by low-viscosity Newtonian drops during retraction is partly transformed into rotational kinetic energy rather than dissipated when compared with high-viscosity or non-Newtonian drops. We also show that non-Newtonian effects play little role in the energy distribution during drop impact, while the main effect is due to the symmetry break observed during the retraction of low-viscosity drops.
Boynuegri, S; Ozer, S; Peksoy, I; Acikalin, A; Tuna, E Ü; Dursun, E; Eryilmaz, A
Mucociliary transport (MCT) is an important defense mechanism of the respiratory tract. One of the major factors determining MCT is the ciliary activity of the respiratory epithelium. Rhinoscintigraphy is the most commonly used method for the analysis of mucociliary activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of facial paralysis on the nasal mucociliary clearance. This study included 38 Bell's palsy patients as the study group and 10 subjects without any history of paranasal sinus disease or facial paralysis as the control group. A drop of technetium 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) was placed posterior to the head of the inferior turbinate and followed with a gamma camera. MCT rate was measured as the velocity of Tc-99m MAA drop. The mean MCT rate was 4.27 ± 0.76 millimeters per minute (mm/min) on 20 sides of 10 healthy controls, 4.11 ± 2.91 mm/min on the affected sides of the patients with Bell's palsy, and 6.03 ± 3.13 mm/min on the nonparalyzed sides of the patients. MCT rate was statistically significantly faster in the nonparalyzed side when compared to the paralyzed side in Bell's palsy patients (P = 0.001). MCT rates were not significantly different in the control group and paralyzed sides of the Bell's palsy patients (P = 0.810). The MCT rate was statistically significantly faster in the nonparalyzed sides of Bell's palsy patients when compared to the controls (P = 0.017). This study showed a faster MCT rate on the nonparalyzed side in Bell's palsy patients when compared to the paralyzed side and the control subjects. A compensatory mechanism could be the underlying reason for faster MCT on the nonparalyzed side. Further studies on larger patient groups are needed to investigate the effect of facial paralysis on the MCT and changes of facial nerve function on the opposite, nonparalyzed side of the face.
Marconi Teixeira Fonseca
Full Text Available A variação da permeabilidade nasal tem sido demonstrada usando-se várias técnicas de exame. As estruturas nasais geram uma resistência que representa cerca de 50% da resistência respiratória total. O exercício físico é um dos fatores que pode causar um efeito vasoconstritor sobre a mucosa nasal. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o grau de mudança do volume nasal após exercício físico e o tempo de retorno aos níveis basais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dezenove indivíduos foram submetidos à realização de teste físico em bicicleta ergométrica. O volume nasal foi obtido através da rinometria acústica, realizada em repouso, após o fim do exercício físico, e nos minutos décimo e vigésimo de seu final. RESULTADOS: Os resultados rinométricos mostram um aumento estatisticamente significativo do volume nasal (p The nasal permeability has been demonstrated using several exams. Nasal structures produces a resistance to the nasal air flux that represents over 50% of the total respiratory resistance. Physical exercises is a factor that brings a vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa. AINS: Evaluate the improvement degree of nasal volume after aerobic physical exercises and time to return to previous levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nineteen heathly subjects were submitted to aerobic exercise in ergometric bike. The nasal volume was obtained by Acoustic Rhinometry perfomed in rest, after aerobic exercise, 10o and 20o minutes after the aerobic exercise. RESULTS: Rhynometrics results shows a statically and significant increase of nasal volume (p<0,001. The nasal volume, in twenty minutes, returns nearby the rest levels. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercises, generally, increases the nasal volume. However, the increase of nasal volume was transitory, and occurs a major reduction of increase in the first ten minutes after the exercises ends, and perform a greater vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa, Twenty minutes after the physical
Full Text Available The problem of drop formation and pinch-off from a capillary tube under the influence of gravity has been extensively studied when the internal capillary pressure gradient is constant. This ensures a continuous time independent flow field inside the capillary tube typically of the Poiseuille flow type. Characteristic drop ejection behaviour includes: periodic drop ejection, drop ejection with associated satellite production, complex dripping, chaotic behaviour and jetting. It is well known that this characteristic behaviour is governed by the Weber (We and Ohnesorge (Oh numbers (for a given Bond number and may be delineated in a We verses Oh operability diagram. An in-depth physical understanding of drop ejection is also of great importance to industry where the tight control of drop size and ejection velocity are of critical importance in industrial processes such as sealants used in electronics assembly and inkjet printing. However, the use of such a continuous flow approach for drop ejection in industry is often impractical since such flows cannot be operator controlled. For this reason it is important to investigate so-called discrete pipe flows where the flow can be turned on and off at will. This means the flow inside the pipe is now time-dependent being controlled in a step-wise fashion. As a first stage in the investigation of drop pinch-off behaviour in discrete pipe flows this paper will study the critical pinch-off time required for drop ejection starting from a pendant drop. This is the discrete amount of time the pipe flow is turned on for in order for a drop to be ejected from the capillary. A Newtonian incompressible free-surface CFD flow code developed at the University of Leeds is used to investigate the critical pinch-off time for a range of internal pipe velocities (the central flow maximum in Poiseuille flow. It is found that the time required for drop ejection to occur decreases exponentially with internal pipe velocity
Latka, Andrzej; Boelens, Arnout M. P.; Nagel, Sidney R.; de Pablo, Juan J.
A liquid drop impacting a dry solid surface with sufficient kinetic energy will splash, breaking apart into numerous secondary droplets. This phenomenon shows many similarities to forced wetting, including the entrainment of air at the contact line. Because of these similarities and the fact that forced wetting has been shown to depend on the wetting properties of the surface, existing theories predict splashing to depend on wetting properties as well. However, using high-speed interference imaging, we observe that at high capillary numbers wetting properties have no effect on splashing for various liquid-surface combinations. Additionally, by fully resolving the Navier-Stokes equations at length and time scales inaccessible to experiments, we find that the shape and motion of the air-liquid interface at the contact line/edge of the droplet are independent of wettability. We use these findings to evaluate existing theories and to compare splashing with forced wetting.
Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook
Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.
© Copyright 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. A drop hitting a solid surface can deposit, bounce, or splash. Splashing arises from the breakup of a fine liquid sheet that is ejected radially along the substrate. Bouncing and deposition depend crucially on the wetting properties of the substrate. In this review, we focus on recent experimental and theoretical studies, which aim at unraveling the underlying physics, characterized by the delicate interplay of not only liquid inertia, viscosity, and surface tension, but also the surrounding gas. The gas cushions the initial contact; it is entrapped in a central microbubble on the substrate; and it promotes the so-called corona splash, by lifting the lamella away from the solid. Particular attention is paid to the influence of surface roughness, natural or engineered to enhance repellency, relevant in many applications.
Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.
The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.
Khismatullin, Damir B.; Nadim, Ali
Small-amplitude axisymmetric shape deformations of a viscoelastic liquid drop in microgravity are theoretically analyzed. Using the Jeffreys constitutive equation for linear viscoelasticity, the characteristic equation for the frequency and decay factor of the shape oscillations is derived. Asymptotic analysis of this equation is performed in the low- and high-viscosity limits and for the cases of small, moderate, and large elasticities. Elastic effects are shown to give rise to a type of shape oscillation that does not depend on the surface tension. The existence of such oscillations is confirmed by numerical solution of the characteristic equation in various regimes. A method for determining the viscoelastic properties of highly viscous liquids based upon experimental measurements of the frequency and damping rate of such shape oscillations is suggested
The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for that design only. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 11) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design
Furbish, Nina; Kühnel, Thomas S
The objective is to use anatomical determinations of nasal septum shape and surface area in adults as a design basis for silastic septal splints of universal size and fit and offering maximum possible surface coverage. The objective is also to devise a method of securing the septal splints, so that surface pressure on septal mucosa is distributed as evenly as possible while not interfering with capillary perfusion. Nasal septum area was determined in 21 Caucasian body donors, and nasal septum thickness was measured in 20 CT scans. Septal splints of universal size and shape were prepared from silastic sheeting. The holding force of various neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, and the surface pressure exerted by magnet-containing septal splints was calculated. These septal splints of novel design offer a satisfactory fit in routine clinical practice. The splints can be securely attached with built-in NdFeB magnets, and surface pressure can be distributed evenly across the nasal septum while not interfering with mucosal tissue perfusion. With their simple intranasal insertion, these magnet-containing septal splints of universal size and optimised shape offer maximum possible septum coverage following septoplasty/septorhinoplasty. The absence of interference with septal tissue perfusion means that they are likely to be associated with fewer postoperative complications and better outcomes.
The study into the nasal bacterial flora changes associated with common viral and bacterial complicated viral pneumonia in subsaharan goats and its implications in the treatment plans is scanty in literatures. This investigation was part of a larger study that involved fifty apparently healthy West Africa Dwarf goats (WAD) of ...
Esmaeilzedeh, Hossein; Esmaeilzadeh, Elmira; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Nabavi, Mohammad; Farhadi, Mohammad
A clear association between allergy and nasal polyposis (NP) is not determined and the role of food intolerance in patients with NP is not investigated by oral food challenge (OFC). To investigate the relation of salicylate food intolerance and atopy in patients with NP according to recurrence and aspirin sensitivity. A cross sectional multicenter study was done in two tertiary centers for allergy in Iran. Adult patients with NP were selected for the study that had been referred to allergy clinics. The oral aspirin challenge (OAC) test was performed to identify aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) and the OFC test was used to investigate food intolerance. Atopic evaluation was performed by skin-prick tests, nasal smear and blood eosinophil count as well as serum total IgE. One hundred and nineteen Iranian patients (female to male ratio 1.05) with NP were enrolled (mean age, 38 ± 11 years). Recurrence of nasal polyposis was 64.7%. OAC was performed in all cases; 43.79% cases had aspirin hypersensitivity. In addition, OFC tests determined that 69.9% of patients had salicylate food allergy. Salicylate food intolerance was significantly higher in NP cases with AERD than in aspirin tolerant patients (pfood intolerance was associated with AERD in nasal polyposis.
Bantu language scholars, have among other things, debated over the issue of whether nasal and consonant sequences (NC sequences) in various Bantu languages should be considered as clusters or single segments (prenasalised stops). This paper examines these sequences as they occur in Sukwa nouns. Sukwa is a ...
Samil, Kahraman Serif; Yasar, Cokkeser; Ercan, Akbay; Hanifi, Bayarogullari; Hilal, Kahraman
The aim of the authors was to discuss orbital complications of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus diseases. Patients with nasal and paranasal sinus diseases that affected orbit were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with primary orbital abnormality and those without radiologic orbital signs were excluded. Data regarding age and gender distribution, orbital and ocular findings, radiologic findings, and presence of an additional sinonasal disease were analyzed. Disorders affecting orbit were categorized into 6 categories. Mean age was 41.25 ± 22.14 (range: 6-88) years and male:female ratio was 23:18. Overall, there were 41 patients including 11 patients with mucocele, 9 patients with sinusitis, 7 patients with fibrous dysplasia, 4 patients with nasal polyp, 4 patients with paranasal osteoma, and 6 patients with neoplasm. Major clinical presentation was proptosis in these patients. Otolaryngologists should consider the possibility of sinonasal diseases to affect orbit because of vicinity of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses to orbit. Radiologic imaging is essential to determine the extent, extension, relation with surrounding structures, and initial diagnosis of the disease, and to plan multidisciplinary management.
Food handlers have been recognized to play a major role in the transmission of food borne diseases; contributing significantly to the global incidence and burden of the diseases. This study therefore, assesses the nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus among food handlers and restaurant workers in Ekpoma, Edo State, ...
Jackson, Michael L.; Nguyen, Matthew; Kirlin, Beth; Madziwa, Lawrence
We tested whether 135 patients reporting acute respiratory illness (ARI) could self-collect nasal swab specimens and ship them for laboratory testing. Most subjects (78.2%) collected and shipped their specimens without errors; 10.5% excluded ≥1 packing components; 12.9% made ≥1 packing errors. Self-swabbing at home is feasible for confirming ARI etiology. PMID:26613095
Fokkens, Wytske J; Lund, Valerie J; Mullol, Joachim; Bachert, Claus; Alobid, Isam; Baroody, Fuad; Cohen, Noam; Cervin, Anders; Douglas, Richard; Gevaert, Philippe; Georgalas, Christos; Goossens, Herman; Harvey, Richard; Hellings, Peter; Hopkins, Claire; Jones, Nick; Joos, Guy; Kalogjera, Livije; Kern, Bob; Kowalski, Marek; Price, David; Riechelmann, Herbert; Schlosser, Rodney; Senior, Brent; Thomas, Mike; Toskala, Elina; Voegels, Richard; Wang, De Yun; Wormald, Peter John
The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed.
Fokkens, Wytske J.; Lund, Valerie J.; Mullol, Joachim; Bachert, Claus; Alobid, Isam; Baroody, Fuad; Cohen, Noam; Cervin, Anders; Douglas, Richard; Gevaert, Philippe; Georgalas, Christos; Goossens, Herman; Harvey, Richard; Hellings, Peter; Hopkins, Claire; Jones, Nick; Joos, Guy; Kalogjera, Livije; Kern, Bob; Kowalski, Marek; Price, David; Riechelmann, Herbert; Schlosser, Rodney; Senior, Brent; Thomas, Mike; Toskala, Elina; Voegels, Richard; Wang, De Yun; Wormald, Peter John
The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of
Fokkens, Wytske; Lund, Valerie; Mullol, Joaquirn
Rhinosinusitis is a significant and increasing health problem which results in a large financial burden on society. This evidence based position paper describes what is known about rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, offers evidence based recommendations on diagnosis and treatment, and considers how we
may be presenting complaint of cystic fibrosis 7. In this study, most of the subjects (91%) with nasal polyps were between second and sixth decades of life with an average age of 34 years. Fifty –one percent were found to be between third and fourth decades of life A male predominance in this study is in consonance with ...
Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…
Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 25; Issue 2. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 1. The olfactory organ, with special reference to olfaction in geckos. Susan J Rehorek Bruce T Firth Mark N Hutchinson. Articles Volume 25 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 173-179 ...
Tycho Brahe’s loss of part of his nose in a duel has become an important part of his afterlife. The exact nature of his nasal prosthesis–of brass, gold, or silver–remains an enigma, not even solved at his exhumation in 2010. This essay discusses the materiality of Brahe’s new nose...
Nasal carriage of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced Vancomycin susceptibility (MRSA-RVS) by healthy adults in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from anterior nares of fifty healthy adults in Zaria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns determined. 72% of the ...
All MRSA isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole, and 74% were resistant to ≥5 classes of antibiotics; all retained susceptibility to vancomycin. Conclusions. A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant MRSA nasal carriage was found. Studies are needed to validate nosocomial acquisition and to evaluate the impact of MRSA ...
The incidence of HMD is related to the degree of prematurity of the lungs, and therefore the incidence increases as the gestational age (GA) decreases. The use of antenatal steroids given to mothers where a premature delivery is expected has ... [3,7] Adverse effects of NCPAP use, including 'CPAP belly syndrome', nasal ...
Hamartomas are tumorlike benign mass lesions due to excessive growth of tissues indigenous to the site of origin. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartomas are predominantly in young infants and their occurrence in children is especially rare and only a few cases have been described in literature. Patients may present ...
Inthavong, Kiao; Fung, Man Chiu; Tong, Xuwen; Yang, William; Tu, Jiyuan
Effective nasal drug delivery of new-generation systemic drugs requires efficient devices that can achieve targeted drug delivery. It has been established that droplet size, spray plume, and droplet velocity are major contributors to drug deposition. Continual effort is needed to better understand and characterise the physical mechanisms underpinning droplet formation from nasal spray devices. High speed laser photography combined with an in-house designed automated actuation system, and a highly precise traversing unit, measurements and images magnified in small field-of-view regions within the spray was performed. The qualitative results showed a swirling liquid sheet at the near-nozzle region as the liquid is discharged before ligaments of fluid are separated off the liquid sheet. Droplets are formed and continue to deform as they travel downstream at velocities of up to 20 m/s. Increase in actuation pressure produces more rapid atomization and discharge time where finer droplets are produced. The results suggest that device designs should consider reducing droplet inertia to penetrate the nasal valve region, but find a way to deposit in the main nasal passage and not escape through to the lungs.
Santana, S E; Lofgren, S E
In vertebrates, changes in cranial modularity can evolve rapidly in response to selection. However, mammals have apparently maintained their pattern of cranial integration throughout their evolutionary history and across tremendous morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we use phylogenetic, geometric morphometric and comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that the modularity of the mammalian skull has been remodelled in rhinolophid bats due to the novel and critical function of the nasal cavity in echolocation. We predicted that nasal echolocation has resulted in the evolution of a third cranial module, the 'nasal dome', in addition to the braincase and rostrum modules, which are conserved across mammals. We also test for similarities in the evolution of skull shape in relation to habitat across rhinolophids. We find that, despite broad variation in the shape of the nasal dome, the integration of the rhinolophid skull is highly consistent with conserved patterns of modularity found in other mammals. Across their broad geographical distribution, cranial shape in rhinolophids follows two major divisions that could reflect adaptations to dietary and environmental differences in African versus South Asian distributions. Our results highlight the potential of a relatively simple modular template to generate broad morphological and functional variation in mammals. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
The indications were simple nasal polyps 17(45%), mucocoele 10(26%), inverted paplloma 8(21%), invasive fungal sinusitis 2(5%) and ossifying fibroma 1(2%). Postoperatively, recurrence was 1/17(6%) caldwel-Luc surgery and 1/9 (11%) lateral rhinotomy for inverted papilloma. Facial scar was seen in 21/38(55%) but the ...
Rhinoscintigraphy is the most commonly used method for the analysis of mucociliary activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of facial paralysis on the nasal mucociliary clearance. Materials and Methods: This study included 38 Bell's palsy patients as the study group and 10 subjects without any history of ...
Zhang, Y Y; Lou, H F; Wang, C S; Zhang, L
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs in the nasal and sinus mucosa, which is a common disease in otorhinolaryngology. At present, CRSwNP can be effectively treated by glucocorticoids (GC). GC binds to GC receptors in the nasal mucosa, affects the expression of inflammatory genes, inhibits the activation and action of eosinophils, T cell-associated inflammatory responses in nasal polyps, as well as tissue remodeling. However, there are some patients fall reponse to GC, so called GC resistance. The study suggests that the possible mechanism of CRSwNP GC resistance is mainly related to GC receptor abnormal, the role of cytokines and transcription factors, such as Th cells and IL-8. In addition, MAPK-related kinases and histone deacetylase in the GC signaling pathway also play important roles in the GC resistance process. This paper reviews the mechanism of GC treatment of CRSwNP, the mechanism of GC resistance and alternative treatment of GC.
There are a many types of filler products that surgeons used for soft tissue augmentation. Soft Tissue Fillers, also known as injectable grafts, is a medical device implants. One of the materials used in soft tissue fillers is calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) that is commonly used for treating nasal deformities and nasal reshaping too. Calcium hydroxylapatite is a kind of mineral that can be found in human teeth and bones. It is considered long-lasting but nonpermanent filler and is biocompatible with human tissue. The aim of this study is to measure the alterations in sensibility and patient satisfaction following CaHA filler injection. In a prospective study, 30 patients who underwent CaHA filler injections from January to December 2016 at a Private Tertiary Care Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were included. Means and standard deviations were measured for pressure threshold values at each test area preprocedure 2 weeks after procedure (). Alterations between pre and postprocedure values were verified using the match-paired Student t test preprocedures. None of the patients had any subjective sensory symptoms. Majority of patients were extremely satisfied with the results.(Table is included in full-text article.) CONCLUSION:: With correct anatomic knowledge and precise technique in doing the CaHA gel injection procedure, nasal sensibility will not be altered. In addition, injection of CaHA gel can be valuable tool for plastic surgeons to consider for nasal reshaping.
sinonasal inflammation as assessed by coronal sinus computerized tomography .... Neutrophil cytology. 0.55. 0.004. CT score. 0.83. 0.000001. IgE. 0.41. 0.04. Table (5) Nasal cytology score, sinus CT score and IgE in relation to allergic rhinitis (AR). Variables .... on eosinophils whereas platelet activating factor. (PAF) and ...
Klimek, L.; Koennecke, M.; Mullol, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Wang, D. Y.; Fokkens, W.; Gevaert, P.; Wollenberg, B.
Since its discovery, the understanding of stem/progenitor cells raised dramatically in the last decade. Their regenerative potential is important to develop new therapeutic applications, but the identification advanced much faster than our understanding of stem/progenitor cells. In nasal polyposis,
Background: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is well established as a treatment for hyaline membrane disease (HMD) and other respiratory diagnoses in neonates. NCPAP is an affordable intervention that reduces the number of neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ventilation. At the ...
Mishra, A; Mishra, S C
We present 'Mishra's rhinoscope', a novel, cost-effective technique of zero-degree rigid nasoendoscopy with a modified otoscope, the results of which are comparable with the fibreoptic sinoscope. This is particularly suited for the developing world where financial constraints restrict the diagnosis of an occult nasal pathology.
Objective: To correlate subjective and objective clinical features with nasal smear cytology findings in non-infectious chronic rhinitis. Design: An analysis of prospectively collected data of consecutive patients with non-infectious seasonal and perennial rhinosinusitis seen at a tertiary health institution. Methodology: Clinical ...
The use of nasal continuous positive airways pressure. (NCPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS) reduces the need for mechanical ventilation (MV)1 and decreases mortality.2 MV in preterm infants is further reduced by early administration of porcine surfactant (Curosurf) followed by immediate ...
Yuan-Yuan, Zhao; Guo-Hong, Zhou; De-Rong, Ye
This paper describes a nasal surgical simulator that we have designed and implemented to run on the WWW using VRML and Java. In this paper we concentrate on implementation details such as collision detection and the usage of our simulator. At last, we discuss the advantage and disadvantave of the simulator.
. H e alth. Background. Children with nasal foreign bodies are commonly seen in everyday practice. The aim of this study was to document the pattern of foreign bodies in the nose, their treatment and outcome. Methods. This was a prospective ...
Objectives. To determine if the administration of porcine surfactant 100 mg/kg within 24 hours after birth, to infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving nasal continuous positive airways pressure (NCPAP) and inspired oxygen (FiO2) 0.3 - 0.4, decreased the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first ...
May 8, 1971 ... With careful inspection one can usually differ- entiate the papillary fronds at the nostril from a mass of nasal polypi. The colour is usually pale pink. Purulent rhinorrhoea may be present. Epistaxis occurred in one of our cases but is an unusual- symptom. Frog face, ocular pain, proptosis, facial swelling and ...
Říčařová, B.; Lebedová, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš
Roč. 64, suppl. 90 (2009), s. 210-210 ISSN 0105-4538. [EAACI Congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology /28./. 06.06.2009-10.06.2009, Warszawa] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : nasal patency * rhinometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Background: In the hospitals where hygienic conditions are not provided, nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/MSSA) colonization is seen in the hospital personnel and patients. Both the individuals' themselves being MRSA/MSSA carriers and also other people around them are under risk and ...
Blackwood, G W
A case is reported in which a lady suffered long-term personality change, a paranoid psychosis of several months duration, and an acute delirium, secondary to abuse of Vicks Sinex Nasal Spray and Vicks Vaporub. The problems were reversible on withdrawal of these well used products which have not previously been reported to cause psychological disturbance.
2. The anterior part of the lachrymal duct and its relationship with the palate and with the nasal and vomeronasal organs; Proc. Zool. Soc. London 120 269–310. Chieffi G, Chieffi-Baccari G, Di Matteo L, d'Istria M, Marmorino. C, Minucci S and ...
High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L\\/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nasal infectious pathogen which is becoming of significant importance year by year. Mortality, morbidity and treatment costs of MRSA infections have all increased. The most effective preventative tool is rapid confirmation of MRSA existence, followed by efficient ...
Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu
Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of −0.55
Schoendorf, J.; Jungehuelsing, M. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Koeln (Germany)
We report a 76-year-old man referred because of incessant epistaxis. During presurgical investigation a radiodense mass was detected in the left nasal cavity, which turned out to be an iodoform-soaked gauze pack put in by a general practitioner some weeks previously and simply forgotten. (orig.)